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The Power of The SELF - Psychoanalysis BASE ON FREUD theories: Inner felling, Internal forces , Unconsciousness, Desires, wants, Self Image, Ego, Dangerous irrational desires and fears forces, Sexual forces, Sense of Happiness, individual satisfaction. In the 20’s Bernays created the vision for a society where business should be the center of the society, the free market, response to people desires and wants. But this vision was a experimental lab to create the need and desires on individuals that where ruled and control by a elite that promotes the ideas of the self, from basic felling of safety and fear to feeling of self express and individualism satisfaction. Both ways, have been run in cycles, according to economics periods, but both of them serves to create ideal consumers and ideal space for business focus society. So we become Servants on their hands. Marketing is the appeal to the unconscious selfs…..but Politics should not be About That. Hope, fears, desires, … The satisfaction of individuals feelings and desires are the higher of priorities – The rise of the self was promoted by business trough the use of Freud theories to develop desires on the consumer and them give them products to fulfil them Response: FREUD BASED - Control, Manipulate, Dealing with the Masses, Educate to a certain form and rules, Create enemies to bring the security basic need and defend, Project a Way of life and behaviour, EGO control the inner forces, The agent that controls inner life (family, rules, goals, rational) CONTRA MOVEMENT – Society turns and represses you to the evil forces, Its good to express yourselves, Individuality is good, individual satisfaction, 20’ 30’ – Mass creation of markets – Rule the consumer induce needs and desire – push products, create the needs - BERNAYS 40’ –Contra movement – Involve the people on decisions – Dealing with the masses – New Deal - Human Rational – Explain and listen to ideas – GALLUP & ROPER – What the people think - Pooling 50’ Control society and the inner forces – Way of living – control de selfs – ANA FREUD

60’ 70’ – Contra movement MARCURE – Liberation RICH – individualism - express selfs – Libido RUBIN - MASLOW 70’80’ – VALS – adjust lifestyles marketing – segmentation – Let people decide - together COMUM – SOCIAL, POLITICS; ECONOMY - politics, Business, Social Behaviour, Growing cycles, wars, etc… SOME SPOT – Human Mind the Inner Self approach – war between control the evil forces, sexual forces.


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FREUD - BERNAY– Public Relations

In the Spring of 2002 BBC2 broadcast a remarkable four part series called Century of the Self, the subject of which was the influence of Sigmund Freud's ideas on the capitalist societies of the West. The first programme outlined the career of Edward Bernays, Freud's American nephew. Bernays was a press officer for Woodrow Wilson at the peace conferences in Europe following World War I, his job being to present Wilson in the most favourable light possible in order to boost his popularity with the American public. By this time the word propaganda was already gaining a sinister implication in the West due to its association with communism, and Bernays coined the term Public Relations as a positive alternative. Back in America Bernays set to work for major corporations, with one of his most spectacular successes being to help break the taboo against women smoking. He paraded a group of attractive young ladies through New York smoking and bearing the slogan 'March for Freedom'. Anyone criticising the idea of women smoking would now appear to be against freedom, and the numbers of women taking up the habit shot through the roof. After this success Lehman Brothers and other big New York banks financed the development of department stores, confident that they could use the techniques pioneered by Bernays to persuade people to purchase a range of products that left to themselves they may very well not have bothered with. This period also saw the introduction of the techniques of product placement and psuedo-scientific product endorsement so familiar to us today. All of this dubious activity in the capitalist economy was one of the main factors leading to the bubble which ended in the Wall Street crash of 1929, which was in turn followed by the statist New Deal. But how does this relate to Freud's ideas? Bernays was familiar with his uncles theories regarding the unconscious, believing that people were motivated more by irrational sexual and violent urges than by rational thoughts, and therefore democracy was not a matter of allowing people to choose for themselves between a range of different policies, rather they had to be guided towards the 'correct' choice by an elite composed of people in command of the theory. People just like Edward Bernays. According to Century of the Self Joseph Goebbels, an admirer of Roosevelt's New Deal, had read Bernays' book on Public Relations and agreed with its principles. The Western elites saw the rise of the totalitarian ideologies as evidence of the breaking through of the barbarism which lay beneath the surface of the masses. More evidence of this was thought to come from the American troops returned from Europe and the Far East, amongst whom was detected a very high rate of mental illness. These factors, along with

a determined promotional effort by Sigmund's daughter Anna, led to a renewed interest in the political and social and economic application of Freudian ideas, leading to the establishment of the Institute for Motivational Research founded by Ernest Dichter to provide Big Business with data regarding the motives and desires of consumers. It was here that the focus group was first used as a means of eliciting 'deeper' levels of information by getting people to discuss their personal feelings and desires rather than their rational thoughts. The resulting information was then fed into the marketing campaigns organised by the corporations, and similar campaigns organised by political organisations. Bernays himself took part in the propaganda aspect of the Cold War, particularly in the case of Guatamala, where the CIA and the US power elites in general had taken offence to a government that wanted to put the interests of its own people before those of the American corporations. Bernays manipulated the press in order to smear the Guatamalan government as communist and to build up an initially non-existent opposition. In due course the government was replaced by one more amenable to US interests. The parallels with the fate of Allende's government in Chile in the late 60s (and perhaps with recent events in Venezuala) are obvious. It is also a mark of how highly regarded these techniques were that the CIA funded various projects in the Psychology departments of US Universities. Psychoanalysis was however begining to be seriously challenged. Vance Packard's famous book The Hidden Persuaders was first published in the 1950s, and the Marxist theorist Herbert Marcuse developed his own distinctive criticism of psychoanalysis, arguing that whilst it was predicated on the view that a persons problems were the result of maladjustment to external social reality, it may in fact be the case that the root of the problem lies in the nature of a corrupt and alienating society. The psychoanalytical theories of Wilhelm Reich also fed into this stream, despite his being a convicted fraudster with some very strange beliefs. Reich argued that the release of orgasmic sexual energy was neccessary for the mental health of the individual and society. After the defeat of the New Left in the political conflicts of the late 1960s and early 70s, Reich's theories gained a mass influence as many former activists turned in on themselves. The thinking now was that perhaps you didn't need to go on demos., hand out leaflets etc., what was required was to change oneself, though not neccessarily in the traditional, transcendental sense. A myriad groups emerged, all promising that they had the correct technique for the re-discovery and re-moulding of the Self. Groups such as the Esalen Institute attempted to change peoples perception of themselves and others through the use of encounter groups. The example used in the series was of an encounter between a group of white liberals and a group of black militants. It didn't quite go to plan, the whites being harangued and abused by the angry and alienated blacks. Market researchers quickly

picked up on the new individualism, with former leftists like the Yippie Jerry Rubin adopting the new cult of the Self. In the UK Matthew Freud, another descendant of Sigmund, took the use of Public Relations to a new level of ruthlessness in the service of the corporations, and in the promotion of the new religion of celebrity. Political researchers further discovered that many similar types, people who had been on the left in the 60s and early 70s, were by this time likely to support a style of politics which appealed to their sense of individual identity and promised to get the state/government off their backs and to redirect subsidies towards the genuinely needy alone. Politicians like Thatcher and Reagan adapted their message to appeal to this group with spectacular success. The Democratic and Labour parties later adopted the focus group , encouraging the participants to discuss their feelings about various issues, but not to say whay they thought about spacific policies. This approach gave birth to an emphasis on the wants of swing voters, many of whom were believed to belong to the strata of new individualists. This is the consumer democracy where voters are treated like potential customers for a new soap powder; the business manipulates peoples desires for profit, the politician for votes. The overwhelming preponderance of Jews in the psychoanalytical movement was not explicitly referred to, but was nevertheless clear enough to all but the least observent viewer. The conclusion to be drawn from this series is clearly that Freud's ideas have been used as a weapon of psychological, political and social control by the Big Business and political elites that rule the West. This can only intensify as Western societies continue to disintegrate. The only answer is eternal vigilance and the constant exposure of the means, methods and personnel of manipulation.


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ANA FREUD – Control The inner Forces - Irrational Self D Freud’s Dotter ANA and Ernie Barney– Public Relations Ways to control the minds of American people To make democracy work Mental breakdowns – mental problems – Psychoanalysis VIDEO techniques Pay attention to feeling and anxiety of american people Travelling in the little towns – Know by observation and emersion Sense of importance – love – belonging Breakdowns – children memories, repressed Primitive irrationals forces Rational / Irrational – favour of irrational – Suffering is bigger Irrationals drivers Easy forces can breakthrough Human beings can behaviour irrational – in groups Human Nature – Internally democratic values – how change the intern structure – Vital free supporter of democracy Techniques – Source Freud and Ana – psychoanalytic movement Freud - Allow people to understander their under forces Ana – Educating people trough psychoanalysis By changing the environment – Influence their real world – Change People Theory how to control inner drivers – conform to the rules of society Moral guidance – by following the rules growing the ego control – big ego controls the internal forces Template – Berlin children's experience was template for bigger one – American mental guidance. Truman Millions of American – deal with emotional unstable – national problem Objectives – Increase found about mental wellness Possible freud’s ideas in a big scale – teach how to control unconscious's drivers – change the mind functions – enlarging their understanding – better society by changing people – large projects If emotional controls your actions is bad – better personality, understanding, regulated, rational, right emotions – Road to happiness – adapt to the reality, never questioning Fit with politics Arrive to power – move to big business – Psychology to americans corporations how to control consumers Invent techniques to reach minds of consumer – motivation research Why people behave, buy and respond to advertising as they do Understand the self image of the consumer – how to stimulate the consumers to buy Real reasons – unconscious desires – sexual, sociological, could verbalise, interview people not direct questions, let them talk freely

Therapy about products – wants and needs – trying products Observe, watch, comment, join in comments, movie projector real to advertising – FOCUS GROUP Tested first we food – people didn’t buy them – unconscious guilt about using it (to easy) – gif the housewife sense of participation – ADD something to the prepare food. Know the needs – explore the consumer, is it wrong, by remove their defences? All advertising agencies – people hidden desires – marketing of barbie doll children's focus group Strategy of desire - Products have the power to fill their desires – control society Gratification – buying products have therapeutic value, improving their self image, more secure person, confidence, do what you want securely , 60 – Deep on american life – politicians and writers seek the roots of human behaviour, elite emerge in business – Link on every elite was the believe that mass where irrational and that the they have to use psychoanalysis to control citizens (pilots social planners business). THE kids that done the Berlin test started to Fail (divorce, breakdowns) Grown – politics – BERNAY advise the government about the cold war Pubic information films to calm the citizens of american, Bernie's PR Man, convince that is possible to connect to unconscious minds, to manipulate masses, to guided them. BANANA REPUBLIC – to change the perception of people on the elected responsible, BERNAY turn them guatemala as enemy to EUA form URSS friends, convince the journalists on that, use media to promote the treat Reshaping public opinion to change the lider – Communist destroy by the “people” – the only reason was the banana business…. Manipulate american people because he believe on defending the business “the American way of Life” – he felt the people was stupid CIA – Psychological control “BrainWashing” – Vulnerability to manipulate persons to be want they wanted. How to alter and control the inner felling of a person What was good for the people – Psychologist Clean to erase memories – CAMERON Use everything to create new people – erase the past, record new ways of behaviour – de pattern – Feed material to reprogram in a positive way – FAIL They known how to control de inner forces HOLLYWOOD – Projected the family life how it should be to control the inner forces Interest of controlling order Business to control people – Accuse psychoanalysis of control desires to gain business masses Prosperity leads to schizophrenic reality

MARCUSE – the idea control was wrong, people have inner forces, but they where not evil, its was society the turn them by repressing them, Ana Freud increase them Evil form Inner forces to Society (that created them) Maladjusted – Never intend to adjust myself to some points of society, as racism…(Luther King)


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CONTRA MOVEMENT TO FREUD THEORIES - Liberation Not settle by anything else that all you could be Opponents about human nature – they don’t need to be control but they should express themselves But the power controls the Self not be repressing but by feeding they infinite desires Liberation of feelings – not just memories let it out (after repression) Encourage the patients to express themselves Freud where afraid of feelings – LIDER RICH – discipline of freud but challenges Argument – the unconscious minds inside the human mind where good, the society distorted them (they are the results of society) LIBIDO – sexual energy – release human beings will Flourish – Orgasm Convince that found the source of libido energy Treated as a mad men, he dead in prison RICH Ideas in capitalist worlds – The consumer is KING Consumers motives – early 60 accuse the american business in turning in ideal consumers – What to wear, to use, to be somebody else's “tool” – I want to be ME” Accuse american corporations – Techniques to keep the world in control and “Happy” – MARCUSE – accuse of control of conscious and unconscious, they all “brain wash” . Change in tactics – new idea, go inside on minds and change the controls implemented there. To produce the new self techniques on RICH ideas – allow individuals to change controls implemented. Group Workshops to liberated themselves in front of others – The Hot Seat Giving autonomy, release the monster, express the inner selfs, to free them of controls Self express – develop of the self – for love. For experience, free to be want we want to be – Not behaviours as consumers specially the insurances Conventional that the behaviour add to do with politics, no the important was the self express. Want they wanted was products that express themselves Emotional Meaning – individually was new – new cars, new clothes, new ways to spend the money to express to the world what you are. Agencies prepare the groups – Listen to the newer’s Before No focus group – Agencies depend on themselves, creating variety (not mass production) Change the process of production

Seminars for group expression – no fix self – human potential movement – break the social constructed selfs – recognition is all meaningless and empty – enormous freedom – from nothing to create – Create themselves Only the individual meters – its not bad – 70’s The original vision vanish – political Emerging was the idea that people could be happy individualy – RUBIN S training – Lifestyle, desire to buy deeper in the self – yuppy – self developed on is on – Freedom by letting people to create themselves Some movement in advertising / consumerism inner self 70’s How do you be Self express – Business gain money to do so Spend money to study how to enter their minds – Stanford institute Read, measure and fulfil the desires – measures desires, values – the studies tell manufactures to segmentation – Maslow Pyramid the top it’s the liberation Out of society – Segmentation by inner values not classes. What they feet inside. Whats their life about? Fitted MASLOW pyramid – Inner directors – Choices they do themselves Lifestyles – VALS – Group personal satisfaction is more important than money – Searching for new values, experimenters, Socially conscious, 30 Key questions – fitted in the new groups - companies just look at what group their products fits best. 80’s - lifestyle marketing - underlying values – having labels Products express group values – also politicians Let the people make their decisions – let the people rule Reagan. Reagan and Tatcher – Inner directives – self-actualisation New Social groups – come from any part of life, some values is the group Inner directives – Motors for the new economy VALS And LIFESTYLES – Powerful going beyond consumers defences NEW FOCUS GROUPS – explore the inner felling of lifestyles groups, Help consumers to be themselves Products to help you to express selfs – your Values, coolness, Trendy… I Wear a Statement – fitted with changes com manufactures – Able to produce small quantities From a market limited needs to a market unlimited needs – Varieties CONSUMER BOOM – generated American business, corporate encourage people to feel they are unique persons, to rebellion against conformity, created a new opportunities for business – personal satisfaction –


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NEW POLITICS - The Greedy Desires of the new self Satisfaction of individual felling and desires run the society How left parties regain power trough this techniques, they believe they where creating a better life t liberate the people, but the techniques where created to control the mass democracy not to create a better one 20’s Bernays – Public relations – Uncle Freud Theory – Plans to large corporations – Sell more products trough the deep emotional drivers – make you fell happiness, success, recognise. 80’s – Reading the inner desires of consumers – by focus groups – use information to create new products to their desires Bernays – Father of Marketing Conquer UK in the 80’s – The masses – until then the focus where more the elites The studies where direct questions The idea of asking what they desire was not view – we need what they need – In the 70’s pay attention to inner motives of consumer – Psychological studies – from America – focus groups Reveal the inner emotions of individuals Tatcher – Every human being is equally important – to Own, to buy, freed economy Wants and Desires – Advertising flourish – focus group – felling about brands and products – brand personality – By drawing their feeling on brands – Marketeers “new individualism” - they wanted to express themselves Not the some as everybody else – Set standards – Business Catch this movement – Products to express – inner psychological needs Journalism – PR – it’s a glamours business – Mathew Freud – Contracts with media to promote brands Robert Murdock – Ads and Media – PR in Journalism – The desires to the centre of society – fulfil the needs of the people same needs – combat fear Collective Awareness – not the individualism – Create a better World 80’s 90’s – Labour approach to individualism – Modernisers – technique from advertising –Focus Group – New relationships to politics (people see themselves as individuals not member of groups) – empowered – new aspirational classes – Marketing and advertising in Politics – focus groups, inner feelings Bill Clinton – Adviser, focus groups, Clinton made the politics to fit individual needs not for the masses –


CONTRA MOVEMENT – Society turns and represses you to the evil forces, Its good to express yourselves, Individuality is good, individual sati...