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Individual Behaviour and Learning in Organizations 1


Customer Service at Reno Depot Reno Depot, Quebec’s leading hardware retailer, recruits applicants with technical knowledge and customer service skills. A. McInnis. Montreal Gazette

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Model of Individual Behaviour Role Perceptions Motivation

Individual Behaviour and Performance

Ability Situational Contingencies

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Types of Work-Related Behaviour Joining the Organization Exhibiting Organizational Citizenship

Types of Work-Related Behaviour

Performing Required Tasks

Remaining with the Organization

Maintaining Work Attendance

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Definition of Learning A relatively permanent change in behaviour (or behaviour tendency) that occurs as a result of a person’s interaction with the environment.

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Behaviour Modification • We “operate” on the environment – alter behaviour to maximize positive and minimize adverse consequences.

• Operant versus respondent behaviours • Law of effect – likelihood that an operant behaviour will be repeated depends on its consequences

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A-B-Cs of OB Modification Antecedents

Behaviour

Consequences

What happens before behaviour

What person says or does

What happens After behaviour

Employee attends scheduled work

Employee receives attendance bonus

Example Attendance bonus system is announced

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Contingencies of Reinforcement Consequence is Introduced Behaviour Increases/ Maintained

Positive reinforcement

Behaviour Decreases

Punishment

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No Consequence

Consequence is Removed Negative reinforcement

Extinction

Punishment


Schedules of Reinforcement Behaviours 1

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3

4

5

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7

8

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Continuous Fixed ratio Variable ratio Time (Days) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Fixed interval Variable interval

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Behaviour Mod at Nova Chemicals Nova Chemicals’ million dollar “recruitment and retention program” cut absenteeism rates by 25 percent and improved long-term employment at its Joffre, Alberta construction site. Courtesy of Nova Chemicals

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OB Modification Limitations • Can’t reinforce nonobservable behaviour • Reinforcer tends to wear off • Variable ratio schedule is a form of gambling • Ethical concerns about perceived manipulation

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Learning through Feedback • Any information about consequences of our behaviour • Clarifies role perceptions • Corrective feedback improves ability • Positive feedback motivates future behaviour

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Multi-Source (360 Degree) Feedback Supervisor Customer

Co-worker

Evaluated Employee

Subordinate

Project leader

Co-worker

Subordinate Subordinate

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Giving Feedback Effectively Specific Relevant

Effective Feedback

Credible

Frequent

Timely

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Social Learning Theory • Behavioural modelling – Observing and modelling behaviour of others

• Learning behaviour consequences – Observing consequences that others experience

• Self-reinforcement – Reinforcing our own behaviour with consequences within our control 15


Experiential Learning at Interfor At International Forest Products Ltd. (Interfor), employees receive hands-on, just-in-time learning from coworkers on the job site, not just in the classroom. Courtesy of International Forest Products Ltd.

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Learning Through Experience • Benefits of experiential learning – Helps acquire tacit knowledge/skills – Allows implicit learning

• Practicing experiential learning – Reward experimentation – Recognize mistakes as part of learning – Action learning -- investigating a real problem

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Individual Behaviour and Learning in Organizations  
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