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Benjamin Gal-Or

Unfolding Dark Energy Hoax


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PREFACE Existence of super-fast, stellar-galactic winds that are being generated during the last 6 billion years, has been verified by astronomic observations. Such winds are flowing into all and each equally distributed intergalactic obsreved huge voids bordered by "filaments" composed of super clusters of galaxies, (FIGURE

1).

The winds enter each void from all directions. Subject to momentum conservation, like opposing rockets in space, the super-fast winds entering from all opposing sides of any void border [FIGURE. 1], thrust-push-away any and all voids away from each other, collectively providing extra expansion-thrusting-away against all other similarly expanding voids. This process is herein defined 2nd, simultaneous, accelerated expansion of the universe, which not only so compacts galaxies into superclusters and filaments, but reverses earlier gravity-induced decelerated expansion of the universe. (1) These newly defined dynamics generate energy-densities gradients (FIGURE 2), which, keep maintaining all stellar evolution by removing disposed energy from emitters to this 2nd-expansion, (2) This second simultaneous expansion constitutes largest energy sink in the universe,

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(3) without this dark, cold expanding cosmic sink no heavy elements, supernovae, planets and life, are possible, (FIGURE

2),

(4) Various claims and dictums are thus refuted by this newly defined world: (A) Wheeler-Feynman static-space-theory should be redefined for two simultaneous space expansions between emitters and absorbers, (B) dark energy claims (and associated attempts to change general relativity) should be replaced by these 2 simultaneous accelerated expansions of the universe, (C) some other fundamental dictums should be re-assessed.

2ND EXPANSION CAUSES COMPACTING of GALAXIES INTO "FILAMENTS" BETWEEN ALL EXPANDING VOIDS I.

A.

REVERSAL to acceleration by energy-density gradients from

emitters to largest absorber in the universe, is asserted to re-define 2nd law

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FIGURE 2 (Source: 1981 Reference 6)

FIG. 1: 2nd expansion causes compacting of galaxies into "FILAMENTS" BETWEEN all VOIDS, as PROVED BY this NASA RECORD.

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The four yellow arrows represent strong stellar-galactic winds entering all voids, each from all directions, thereby (a)

by so expanding each compact all

galaxies in between into superclusters-filaments surrounding each, thus thrusting all and each against each other, like opposing rockets, (b) earlier

Einstein-Hubble expansion

is

decelerating

reversed

by increased voids

expansion since the formation of strong winds and increasing number of active stars and galaxies, probably during the last 6 billion years ago, as 1998-observations.

The resulting energy density distribution (FIG. 2) removes energy from emitters thereby stellar evolution of heavy elements generation (and supernovae) is maintained.

Stellar and galactic winds (except some deviated to local black holes) are dissipating in each void but there is no transfer of energy from one void to another due to the uniform distribution of the intergalactic voids.

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II. How clusters are compacted to ''filaments'' by galactic winds entering-expanding voids/Space "1" to form secondary expansion to slowing EINSTEIN-HUBBLE-EXPANSION, ACCELERATING IT

FIG. 2: 1981-prediction by author's book

''Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy'': "CLUSTERS I" and II represent PRE-2ndexpansion of the universe, prior to being

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further compacted into superclusters and ''filaments'' shown in FIG. 1 "RADIATION

ENERGY

DENSITY"

vs.

"DISTANCE"

defines

"DIRECTION OF NET RADIATION FLOW" as "3rd COSMOLOGICAL ARROW", which generates energy-density gradients that lead to the "2nd COSMOLOGICAL ARROW", which represents "EXPANDIND SPACE "1" inside Einstein-Hubble expansion. SPACE "1" is defined (1) THE MASTER ARROW OF TIME, -- THE ROOTCAUSE of the SECOND LAW, (2) "largest, thermodynamic sink of disposed energy from all active emitters in the universe".

II. MODIFIED FUNDAMENTALS IN PHYSICS 1. Deterministic physics resorts to symmetric partial differential equations that are often published as 'proofs' of irreversibility in nature by integrating them only from

INITIAL CONDITIONS (to future evolution), while

rejecting

FINAL CONDITIONS

(to a symmetric past

evolution). 2.

Retarded solutions conform

with

observations,

in electromagnetism do the same to by

rejecting

ADVANCED

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SOLUTIONS tantamount to

(which do not conform with observations.). This is

SMUGGLING what one tries to prove by

not DECLARING THE CONTRABAND. It also applies to another fundamental domain in theoretical physics. 3.

Quantum-statistics/probabilities

are

symmetric

for

prediction AND retrodiction. Common self-fooling example: Predictions that conform with observations are accepted "proofs" or theorems or laws of physics, while hidding or rejcting retrodiction because it does not conform with observations. 4. Endless known linguistic terminologies exist that are aimed to by pass this symmetry breaking. Beyond being fundamentally wrong, some may prevent unification with deterministic Einsteinian Gravity Physics (general relativity). But this is not to be further treated herein.

III. CONCLUSIONS Simultaneous second expansion of the universe is caused by 1.

Existence of super-fast, strong, stellar-galactic winds that are being generated during at least the last 6 billion years by growing number of highly active emitters, has been verified and affirmed by astronomic observations. These super-fast winds are flowing into all and each about equally distributed intergalactic voids. They enter each and all from all directions. Subject to momentum conservation, like opposing rockets in space, super-fast winds on both sides of any void border or on both sides of any shared-supercluster filament [FIG. 1] thrust-push both voids away from each other, thereby,

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collectively, providing extra expansion-thrusting-away against all other similarly expanding voids. This process is herein defined 2nd, simultaneous, accelerated expansion of the universe. 2.

Like large number of opposing rockets in space, the result is gradual (cocompacting with gravity) of most galaxies first into clusters then into superclusters and filaments that are verified between all voids, (FIG. 1).

3.

Asserted resulting 2nd-expansion gradually reverses earlier, gravity-induced, deceleration of the universe, refuting claims linking this well-proved explanation of the 1998 (affirmed 2016) accelerated expansion of the universe without any need for dark energy claims to explain the same.

4.

FIG. 2 provides supplemental definitions about resulting energy-densities gradients that keep maintaining stellar evolution by removing disposed energy from emitters to be irreversibly disposed at this 2nd-expansion-generated largest energy sink in the universe. Wherefore, without the asserted 2nd simultaneous expansion, active emitters, heavy elements, supernovae, planets and life, are impossible.

5.

Wheeler-Feynman static-space-theory should thus be redefined for two simultaneous expansions.

6.

Neither 'dark-energy' nor any change to Einstein's gravity physics (general relativity) is needed within the context of this 2nd-expansion of the universe.

7.

Localized black holes at the center of galaxies and elsewhere should be accounted for, but their effects do not change this multiple assertions and facts.

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References 1.

J. T. Nielsen; A. Guffanti; S. Sarkar (21 October 2016). "Marginal evidence for cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae". Nature Scientific Reports. 6: 35596. arXiv:1506.01354  . Bibcode:2016NatSR...635596N. doi:10.1038/srep35596.

2.

Wiltshire, David L. (2007). "Exact Solution to the Averaging Problem in Cosmology". Physical Review Letters. 99 (25): 251101. arXiv:0709.0732  . Bibcode:2007PhRvL..99y1101W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.251101. PM ID 18233512.

3.

Mattsson, Teppo (2007). "Dark energy as a mirage". Gen. Rel. Grav. 42 (3): 567–599. arXiv:0711.4264  . Bibcode:2010GReGr..42..567M. doi:10.1007/s10714-009-0873-z.

4.

Tsagas, Christos G. (2011). "Peculiar motions, accelerated expansion, and the cosmological axis". Physical Review D. 84 (6): 063503. arXiv:1107.4045  . Bibcode:2011PhRvD..84f3503T. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.84.063503.

5.

Stuart Gillespie (21 October 2016). "The universe is expanding at an accelerating rate – or is it?". University of Oxford - News & Events Science Blog (WP:NEWSBLOG).

6.

Clifton, Timothy; Ferreira, Pedro (April 2009). "Does Dark Energy Really Exist?". Scientific American. 300(4): 48– 55. Bibcode:2009SciAm.300d..48C. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican040948. PMID 19363920. Retrieved April 30, 2009.

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7.

Wiltshire, D. (2008). "Cosmological equivalence principle and the weakfield limit". Physical Review D. 78(8): 084032. arXiv:0809.1183  . Bibcode:2008PhRvD..78h4032W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.78.084032.

8.

Gray, Stuart. "Dark questions remain over dark energy". ABC Science Australia. Retrieved 27 January2013.

AUTHOR, Benjamin Gal-Or: Gold-awarded by the New York Academy of Science for the development of the Einsteinian relativistic school of new astrophysical thermodynamics; Former professor at Johns Hopkins and Pittsburgh universities; Professor of aerospace and philosophy of science Technion Israel Institute of Technology. Founder and former head of the Jet Engine Laboratory and of the Institute of advanced studies there, Founder and Editor-in-Chief of the Int'l Journal of Turbo and Jet Engines; Email: galor1benjamin@gmail.com

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Unfolding Dark Energy Hoax  
Unfolding Dark Energy Hoax  
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