By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved
D A Politcal "Science" Fools All R K E
All Rights Reserved to Benjamin Gal-Or, POLITICAL "SCIENCE" FOOLS ALL, e.g. Dark Energy Hoax by Journalists
(a) PART A was published on Tweeter on Sept 21, 2019. Someone deleted it. (b) It provided reasons why contemporary POLITICAL "SCIENCE" and (c) associated "JOURNALISM" sould be ousted from bona fide Academia and reputed universities. Like with diarrihea a scientist cannot argu or reason with I. But it exists. The only medicine that can stop it is science culture. BUT THEY HAVE ALREADY ISOLATED IT FROM THEIR MODERN CULTURE.
JOURNALISM and POLITICAL "SCIENCE"
SHOULD be Ousted from Academia A. GENERAL 1. SCIENTISTS, even in high-quality universities, are replaced today by 2. self nominated, "journalists", or by 3. misleading reporters paid to publish political "science", or "analysis". 4. Together such journalists form a growing army of knowledge-filters 5. or media gate-keepers on what is scientificall verified facts. BUT RATING 6. ALLOWS CHIMERA CULTURE TO RULE THE MEDIA TODAY, 7. ALL IN THE NAME OF SCIENCE, ALL VIOLATING THE FIRST RULE OF SCIENCE WHEN QUOTING SCIENTISTS OR PSUEDO-SCIENTISTS.
Nobel Laureate RICHARD FEYNMAN “The first principle is that you must not fool yourself – and you are the easiest person to fool. So you have to be very careful about that. After you’ve not fooled yourself, it’s easy not to fool other scientists. You just have to be honest in a conventional way.” “You should not fool the layman when you’re talking as a scientist." 2
All Rights Reserved to Benjamin Gal-Or, POLITICAL "SCIENCE" FOOLS ALL, e.g. Dark Energy Hoax by Journalists
B. Are Mass Media Owners Accountable for the Corruption of the Future? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Or are the media-users accountable? Are self-crowned "reporters", "senior writers", "long contributers" Sponsored by politicians lead the corruption? In the case presented below it is the journalists who support Any psuedo-scientist who declares that "EINSTAIN WAS WRONG", That THEIR unverified "formulations" or "simulation" PROVES that "EINSTEIN did not correct his "blunder", but they did?
C. Are Our Children the victims? 1. 2. 3. 4.
TOWER-OF-BAVEL JOURNALISM risks our children future, CONFUSES YOUNG MINDS of at least two generations. DAMAGING THE HARD-WON HIGH-LEVELS OF SCIENCE-BASED CIVILIZATION. CAUSING DOMESTIC and GLOBAL Law and Order decline, divisions, conflicts.
Three Decades Earlier A best seller book "COSMOLOGY, PHYSICS and PHiLOSOPHY" had provided similar reasons and the conclusions that
(i) Science goes from Cosmology to Subatomic Particles, (not in reverse), (ii) PROVIDING AN EXAMPLE: The verified coldest intergalactic voids [270 C below zero] cause most stellar-galactic radiation-winds to enter each void from all directions, classh in each, and under momentum conservation, expand each void beyond the slowing down by gravity expansion of the universe since the big bang, thus reversing it to a slightly accelerated expansion of the detected in 1998, and, most important, compacting nearby galaxies first into nonexpanding CLUSTERS, then further into super clusters of galaxies, structured as "FILAMENTS" or inter-Voids Walls, (iii) causing gradient from each filament to voids centers, gradients the allow the evolution of stars, 3
All Rights Reserved to Benjamin Gal-Or, POLITICAL "SCIENCE" FOOLS ALL, e.g. Dark Energy Hoax by Journalists
supernovea explosions that spread into interstelarspace the elements of life [C, H, O, N etc.] that by their own gravitation form planets orbiting an active star. And that is science (d) But that science has disclosed something else, as explained later.
Einsteinian Herritage A 1987 Painting by E. Katz, by permission.
EINSTEIN: â€œIt is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science. It was the experience of mystery -- even if mixed with fear -- that engendered religion. 4
A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate, of the manifestations of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty, which are only accessible to our reason in their most elementary forms -- it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute the truly religious attitude; in this sense, and in this alone, I am a deeply religious man.” “I cannot conceive of a God who rewards and punishes his creatures, or has a will of the type of which we are conscious in ourselves. An individual who should survive his physical death is also beyond my comprehension, nor do I wish it otherwise; such notions are for the fears or absurd egoism of feeble souls.” “Enough for me the mystery of the eternity of life, and the inkling of the marvelous structure of reality, together with the single-hearted endeavor to comprehend a portion, be it never so tiny, of the reason that manifests itself in nature.” “I gang my own gait and have never belonged to my country, my home, my friends, or even my immediate family, with my whole heart; in the face of all these ties I have never lost an obstinate sense of detachment, which increases with age.”. “One is sharply conscious, yet without regret, of the limits to the possibility of mutual understanding and sympathy with one's fellow-creatures. Such a person no doubt loses something in the way of geniality and light-heartedness; on the other hand, he is largely independent of the opinions, habits, and judgments of his fellows.” In lieu of the aforementioned personal-life and philosophy-faith, Einstein consistently selected to protect his privacy inside his room, in his house, working in maximized-freedom, undisturbed solitude; even sleeping naked in his room while his privacy has been strictly guarded by his devoted secretary Helen Dukas, who also screened his incoming mail, deleted nasty or anti-Semitic letters and politely blocking unwanted visitors. Einstein is also known for his subtle sarcasm. Before Einstein left Hitler’s Germany to the United States, a professor in Berlin was extremely nasty in targeting him. One day Einstein was informed that Professor XXX just died. Einstein’s reaction: “Everyone does something good in his life, even Professor XXX; he died.
Einstein's "Anti-Pomposity"; Anti-"Politically Correct"" As a younger man he used to play his beloved violin in the homes of some German women. One day, while he was playing there, they started knitting. Einstein stopped playing, packed his violin to leave, and apologized: “I would not even dream to disturb you from your knitting work. 5
â€?On another occasion, as a celebrity living in his house near a lake outside Berlin, his wife urged him to change his simple, but comfortable home dress, to a formal one, for dignitaries are to arrive soon to visit him. His response: let them meet me as I am dressed and work in my house. If they come to see my formal dress please show them my closet.
Theoretical Physics at its Highest Historical Level
The higheest level of physics was reached post (i) The creation of the 1915 Einsteinian Gravity Physics (General Relativity) that predicts a strange, socially unwanted, world expansion (or contraction), (ii) That unwanted theory was first confirmed in1918 in correctly predicting the bending of light by gravitation in curved space-time, (iii) Re-confirmed before 1927 by the American astronomer Hubble: We all live in an expanding world that had "beginning", as the Bible states In its first Chapter. See more below.
Sitting, from left: I. Langmuir, M. Planck, Marie Curie, H.A. Lorentz, A. Einstein, P. Langevin, Ch.-E. Guye, C.T.R. Wilson, O.W. Richardson 2nd Sitting: P. Debye, M. Knudsen, W.L. Bragg, H.A. Kramers, P.A.M. Dirac, A.H. Compton, L. de Broglie, M. Born, N. Bohr; Standing: A. Piccard, E. Henriot, P. Ehrenfest, E. Herzen, Th. de Donder, E. SchrĂśdinger, J.E. Verschaffelt, W. Pauli, W. Heisenberg, R.H. Fowler, L. Brillouin.
Perfection of means and confusion of goals, seem â€“ in my opinion â€“ to characterize our age. ----- Albert Einstein Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.----- Albert Einstein The pursuit of knowledge for its own sake, an almost fanatical love of justice, and the desire for personal independence--these are the features of Jewish tradition which make me thank my stars that I belong to it. ----- Albert Einstein Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds ----- Albert Einstein
INFINITIES? -- the universe and human stupidity, and am not sure
about the universe. (Einstein); Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new.----- Albert Einstein Do what you feel to be right, for you'll be criticized anyway ----- Eleanor Roosevelt Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. ------ Margaret Mead 7
ARMIES OF JOURNALISTS GET RATINGS FOR FOOLING LAYMEN and funding governments
Figure 1: DARK COSMIC VOIDS shown are the coldest known in the entire universe. EXPANDING between SHOWN, NO-EXPANDING galaxies they compact them into filaments around each. These gigantic cosmic voids take-in almost all interstellar radiation "winds" (Fig. 3), namely, these galactic energy outputs are mostly irreversibly dissipated in the voids and by their opposing radiation pressures in each and all voids, CAUSE THE 1958-DISCOVERED 2ND, "late", EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE. 8
The earliest EXPANSION of the universe [since the big bang] has been SLOWED BY GRAVITATION until stellar and galactic winds have become strong enough to support compacting first in to clusters, FIG. (FIG. 4).
Entering each void from all directions [YELLOW arrows] these super-fast winds, (Fig. 3) thrust and push back all voids away from each other, thereby, collectively, reversing the slowing down of the first expansion into a slightly accelerated expansion as verified since 1998. REFUTING FAKE DARK ENERGY ADVOCATED BY FAKE SCIENTISTS 1. Mystic Dark-Energy-CHIMERA should thus be ousted from academia. 2. "STUDIES" and Funding of this NON SCIENCE, should count corruption. 3. REVOLUTION?: The observed "dark-voids/dissipating-winds" not only cause reversing of the first expansion and compact galaxies into what is verifiably recorded by FIG. 1, BUT THEY GENERATE GRADIENTS THAT LEAD TO LIFE, FIG. 2, leading to new cosmology-physics-philosophy revolution, FIG. 2.
Figure 2: "CLUSTER I" and "CLUSTER II" had been compacted into the observed filaments (FIG. 1) be stellar and galactic winds entering each intergalactic void from all 3dimensional directions (yellow arrows in Fig. 1). "RADIATION ENERGY DENSITY" vs. "DISTANCE" defines "DIRECTION OF NET RADIATION FLOW" as "3rd COSMOLOGICAL ARROW", generate energy-density gradients that lead to the "2nd COSMOLOGICAL ARROW", that represents "EXPANDIND SPACE "1" CONFINED TO COLD-DARK, INTERGALACTIC VOIDS and NOT involving spaces "2" and "3" inside the filaments, inside galaxies, inside stellar systems, inside planetary systems.
• "VOIDS/SPACE "1" is thus the sole MASTER of world phenomena that lead to the emergence of life in non-expanding gravitational systems: • EXPLAING THE ROOT-CAUSE OF TH MASTER ARROW OF TIME & TIME ASYMMTEIES • EXPLAING THE ROOT CAUSE OF 2ND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. • LET US EXAMINE THE PRO AND CONS OF THIS REVOLUTION. • FIRST VERIFIED FACTS, GLOSSARY AND DEFINITIONS.
VERIFIED FACTS, GLOSSARY AND DEFINITIONS OF THE REVOLUTION
Figure 3: SPACE-"2" wraps all non-expanding galaxies [Fig. 1], and non-expanding
where super-fast, interstellar radiation "winds" flow out to SPACE"2" and next irreversibly dissipate in COLDEST, EXPANDING VOIDS THAT THUS COMPACT, galaxies into
"FILAMENTS" (Fig. 1). SPACE-"1" is composed of all coldest VOIDS located between Super-Clustersfilaments of galaxies, [Figs. 1, 2], including ''our VIRGO FILAMENT" [Fig.-1-center] inside which our "Local Group" of galaxies is located [Fig. All images from author's Volume-I or Wikipedia.
How Voids have Increased since 700 m years after the Big Bang? Fig. 4: (below} This figure does NOT show the verified chain of galaxies being first compacted by the winds into clusters (FIG. 2) then further compacted into super-clusters 'FILAMENTS' or what had been defined by Volume I an independently expanding SPACE-"1" by the inflowing winds (FIG 2). Part of the answer is provided by the next verified record.
Figure 5: The earliest detected intergalactic voids (dark blue) vs. early galaxies that radiate winds into the early voids which had been expanding with the big-bang expansion (Fig. 4). Gradually, as the number and intensities of the emitters has increased the thermodynamic wind-processes depicted by Figs. 1 to 3, have established an independent, second, uniform, second, simultaneous, extra-expansion of the universe outside the galaxies, that has gradually reversed the slowing down of the big-bang inertia expansion into the currently observed, slightly accelerating expansion of the universe. Source: The cosmic background radiation verified since 1964.
Figure 6: Zooming next into ''our'' cluster of non-expanding galaxies in ''our'' 'filament' and into a dark-cold expanding void (FIGURE 1) may help illustrate 13
important DISTANCES involved the verified 2nd expansion of the universe. WHAT WE shall SEE NEXT ARE IMAGES INSIDE OUR own FILAMENT. Zooming next to 1 Million ly reveals Our SPACE-2 "Neighborhood”, which is home to thousands of galaxies. Even at this scale our entire solar system is less than a visible dot somewhere in the marked “Local Group”. Our home cluster is marked Virgo.
Figure 7: Even at this scale our Solar System, which is located inside the Milky
Way galaxy, is still less than a visible dot. The Andromeda galaxy is marked in 14
yellow. It is 2,200,000 light-years away and is almost similar to our galaxy. It is also characterized by a spiral structure. We see it today as it was when the earliest hominids left East Africa to arrive at the "promised land". Both galaxies are the largest in our Local Group, which is about 10,000,000 lightyears in its largest spatial ‘diameter’. The "Local Group" includes M49, M58, M59, M60, M61, M84, M86, M87, M89 and M31 (Andromeda). Andromeda’s system consists of Cassiopeia Dwarf, Pegasus dSph, M32, M110, NGC 147, NGC195, AND I-V, etc. The Triangulum Galaxy, the 3rd largest galaxy in ‘our’ local group, also includes the Pisces Dwarf as a satellite. ‘Our’ satellite galaxies consist of the Large and Small Magellanic.
THE REVOLUTION NOW TURNS TO PARTICLE PHYSICS Theoretical Physicist Prof. Matt Strassler Explains Why: Why the Higgs Field Matters
(v. MASS, EINSTEIN GRAVITY PHYSICS, 2ND EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE.) July 2, 2012, https://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/the-higgs-particle/why-the-higgs-particle-matters/
2. 3. 4.
Most of us learned in school, or from books, that all the materials around us — everything we eat, drink and breathe, all living creatures, and the very earth itself — are made from atoms. These come in about 100 types, called “the chemical elements”, and are typically found arranged into molecules, as letters can be arranged into words. Such facts about the world we take almost for granted, but they were still hotly debated late into the 19th century. Only around 1900, when the actual size of atoms could finally be inferred from multiple lines of reasoning, and the electron, the subatomic particle that inhabits the outskirts of atoms, was discovered, did the atomic picture of the world come into focus. But even today, some lines in this picture are still fuzzy. Puzzles dating back a century still remain unresolved. 15
6. 7. 8.
12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.
And the “Higgs boson” hullabaloo that you’ve been hearing about has everything to do with these deep questions at the heart of our own existence. Some of these blurry areas may soon become clearer, revealing details about the world that we cannot yet discern. We learned in school that the mass of an atom comes mostly from its tiny nucleus; the electrons that form a broad cloud around the nucleus contribute less than a thousandth of an atom’s mass. But what most of us didn’t learn, unless we took a college class in physics, is that an atom’s size — the distance across it — depends mainly on the electron’s mass. If you managed somehow to decrease the mass of the electron, you’d find atoms would grow larger, and much more fragile. Reduce the electron’s mass by more than a factor of a thousand or so, and atoms would be so delicate that even the leftover heat from the Big Bang that launched our universe could break them apart. And so the very structure and survival of ordinary materials is tied to a seemingly esoteric question: why does the electron have a mass at all? The mass of the electron, and its origin, has puzzled and troubled physicists since it was first measured. Complicating and enriching the puzzle are the many discoveries, over the past century, of other apparently elementary particles. First it was learned that light is made from particles too, called photons, that have no mass at all; then it was learned that atomic nuclei are made from particles, called quarks, that do have mass; and recently we found strong indications that neutrinos, elusive particles that stream from the sun in droves, have masses too, albeit very small ones. And so the question about the electron became subsumed in larger questions: Why do particles like electrons, quarks and neutrinos have mass, while photons do not? In the middle of the last century, physicists learned how to write equations that predicted and described how electrons behaved. Even though they didn’t know where the electron’s mass came from, they found it easy to put the mass, by hand, into their equations, figuring that a full explanation of its origin would turn up later. 16
21. But as they began to learn more about the weak nuclear force, one of the four known forces of nature, a serious problem emerged. 22. The physicists already knew that electric forces are related to photons, and then they realized further that the weak nuclear force is related, similarly, to so-called “W” and “Z” particles. 23. However, the W and Z differ from the photon, in that they do have a mass — they are as massive as an atom of tin, over a hundred thousand times heavier than are electrons. 24. Unfortunately, the physicists found they could not put masses for the W and Z particles by hand into their equations; the resulting equations gave nonsensical predictions. 25. And when they looked at how the weak nuclear force affected electrons and quarks and neutrinos, they discovered that the old way of putting in the electron mass by hand wouldn’t work anymore; it too would break the equations. To explain how the known elementary particles could possibly have mass at all required fresh ideas 1. This conundrum emerged gradually in the late 1950s and early 1960s. 2. Already in the early 1960s a possible solution emerged — and here we meet Peter Higgs, and the others (Brout, Englert, Guralnik, Hagen and Kibble.) 3. They suggested what we now call the “Higgs mechanism.” 4. Suppose, they said, there is an as yet unknown field of nature — like all fields, a sort of substance present everywhere in space — that is not zero, and uniform across all of space and time. 5. If this field — now called the Higgs field — were of the right type, its presence would then cause the W and Z particles to develop masses, and also would allow physicists to put the electron mass back into their equations — still 6. putting off the question of why the electron’s mass is what it is, but at least allowing equations to be written down in which the electron’s mass isn’t zero! 7. Over the ensuing decades the idea of the Higgs mechanism was tested in many different ways. 8. We know, today, through exhaustive studies of the W and Z particles, among other things, that something like this is the right solution to the conundrum posed by the weak nuclear force. 9. But the details? We don’t know them at all. 17
What is the Higgs field, and how should we conceive of it? 1. It is as invisible to us, and as unnoticed by us, as air is to a child, or water to a fish; in fact even more so, because although we learn, as we grow up, to become conscious of the flow of air over our bodies, as detected by our sense of touch, none of our senses provide us with any access to the Higgs field. 2. Not only do we lack a means to detect it with our senses, it proves impossible to detect directly with scientific instruments. 3. So how can we hope to tell for sure that it is there? And how can we hope to learn anything about it? 4. There is one additional way in which the analogy between air and the Higgs field works well: if you disturb either of them, they will vibrate, forming waves. 5. In the case of air, it’s easy to make these waves — just shout, or clap your hands — and our ears can easily detect these waves, in the form of sound. 6. In the case of the Higgs field, it’s harder to create the waves, and harder to observe them. 7. To make them requires a giant particle accelerator, called the Large Hadron Collider or LHC, at the CERN laboratory outside Geneva, Switzerland; and to detect them demands the use of building-sized scientific instruments, which go by the names of ATLAS and CMS. How is it Done? 1. Clapping your hands will reliably make loud sound waves. 2. Smashing two very energetic protons together, using the LHC, can make very quiet Higgs waves, and very unreliably — only about one in every ten billion collisions will do this. 3. The wave that emerges is the quietest possible wave in the Higgs field (technically, a single “quantum” of this type of wave.) 4. We call this quietest possible wave a “Higgs particle”, or “Higgs boson”. 5. Sometimes you will see the media call this the “God particle”. This term was invented by a publisher to sell a book, and thus has its origin in advertising, not in science or religion. 18
Scientists do Not use the term, [but armies of journalists do] 1. Making a Higgs particle is the relatively easy half of the process; 2. detecting the Higgs particle is the hard part. 3. While a sound wave will travel freely from your clapping hands across a room to someone else’s ear, a Higgs particle disintegrates into other particles faster than you can say “Higgs boson”… in fact, in less time than it takes for light to travel across an atom. 4. All that ATLAS and CMS can do is measure the debris from the exploding Higgs particle as carefully as possible, and try to work backwards, like detectives using clues to solve a crime, to determine whether a Higgs particle could have been the source of that debris. 5. It’s even harder than this. It’s not enough to make one Higgs particle, because its debris isn’t sufficiently distinctive; often a collision of two protons will in some other way create debris that resembles what might emerge from a fragmenting Higgs particle. So how can we hope to determine that Higgs particles have been formed? 1. The key is that Higgs particles are rare but their debris is relatively regular in appearance, while the other processes are common but more random; and just as your ear can gradually pick out the singing tone of a human voice even above heavy static on a radio, so experimenters can pick out the regular ringing of the Higgs field amid the random cacophony created by the other similar-looking processes. 2. Carrying this out is extremely complex and difficult. 3. But in a triumph of collective human ingenuity, it has been done. Why was this Herculean task Even attempted? 1. Because the profound importance of the Higgs field for our very existence is matched by our profound ignorance of its origin and properties. 2. We do not even know that there is only one such field; there may be several. 19
3. The Higgs field may itself be a complicated thing, built somehow out of other fields. 4. We do not know why it is not zero, and we do not know why it interacts differently with different particles, giving the electron a very different mass from, say, the type of quark we call the “top quark”. 5. Given the importance of mass not only in determining the size of atoms but in a whole host of other properties of nature, our understanding of our universe and ourselves cannot be complete and satisfactory while the Higgs field remains so mysterious. 6. Studying the Higgs particle — the waves in the Higgs field — will give us our first profound insights into the nature of this field, just as one can learn about air from its sound waves, about rock by studying earthquakes, and about the sea by watching waves upon the beach. 7. Some of you will inevitably (and fairly) ask: This may be inspirational, but what good is all this to society, in a practical sense? 8. You may not like the answer, but you should. 9. History shows that the societal benefits of research into fundamental questions often do not emerge for decades, even a century. 10. I suspect you used a computer today; I doubt that, when Thompsondiscovered the electron in 1897, anyone around him could have guessed at the huge change in society that electronics would bring about. 11. We cannot hope to imagine the technology of the next century, or to envision how seemingly esoteric knowledge gained today may impact the distant future. 12. An investment into fundamental research is always a bit of an educated gamble. 13. But at worst, we are very likely to learn something about nature that is deep, and has many unforeseen implications. 14. Such knowledge, though without clear monetary value, is (in both senses) priceless. 15. In the interest of brevity, I have oversimplified; things needn’t have turned out quite this way. 16. It was possible that the waves in the Higgs field wouldn’t have been discoverable, much as an attempt to make waves in a lake of asphalt or thick 20
syrup will end in failure, for the waves will die away before they ever really form. But we know enough about the particles of nature to know this could only have happened if there were other particles and forces as yet undiscovered, and some of these would have been accessible to the LHC. Alternatively, even though the Higgs particle (or particles) existed, they might have been somewhat harder to produce than expected, or might have typically disintegrated in somewhat unexpected ways. In all of these cases, it might have been several more years before the Higgs field began to reveal its secrets. So we were prepared to be patient, though hoping we wouldn’t have to explain these complexities to the media. But we needn’t have worried.
The discovery of the Higgs particle represents a historic turning point — a triumph for those who proposed the Higgs mechanism, and for those who operate the LHC and the ATLAS and CMS detectors. • Yet it does not represent the end to our puzzles about the masses of the known particles, only the beginning of our hope of solving them. • As the energy and collision rate at the LHC increase over the coming years, ATLAS and CMS will be pursuing exhaustive and systematic studies of the Higgs particle. • What they learn may allow us to resolve the mysteries of this mass-giving ocean in which we swim, and will propel us forward on our epic journey begun over a century ago, whose end may yet lie decades, perhaps centuries, beyond our current horizon. 21
RESPONSES TO “WHY THE HIGGS PARTICLE MATTERS” Pingback: Excitement at Fever Pitch | Of Particular Significance
1. amarashiki | July 2, 2012 at 3:35 PM | Reply Higgs field is a contemporary and likely real version of the old-fashioned ether…Not like it, however, in the sense the Higgs field is in some sense “relativistic” and “quantum”… 2. Pingback: Live-Blog zu den Higgs-igen Enthüllungen im Juli « Skyweek Zwei Punkt Null
3. Jay carlson | July 2, 2012 at 8:01 PM | Reply Matt, Jay Carlson here, simon’s rocker and ex husband of Caitlin. Hey, congratulations on the discovery I am reading about today. I know that this is a huge deal in your field, and I believe that you have done some work relating to CERN during your own career. Anyway, I thought of you when I read the articles, and I thought I would reach out and say well done.
4. Joey | July 2, 2012 at 11:39 PM | Reply “The key is that Higgs particles are rare but their debris is relatively regular in appearance, while the other processes are common but more random; and just as your ear can gradually pick out the singing tone of a human voice even above heavy static on a radio, so experimenters can pick out the regular ringing of the Higgs field amid the random cacophony created by the other similar-looking processes.” Phenomenal metaphor btw. Thanks for all the hard work you do to help us explain this process to our laymen friends and family-members. 5. Pingback: Higgs: What’s In A Name? | Whiskey…Tango…Foxtrot?
6. Bob Anderson (@doubledodge) | July 3, 2012 at 11:17 AM | Reply In “Putting the Higgs Boson in its place” http://gu.com/p/2zftz/tw John Butterworth quoted Ian Sample that “the Higgs is only responsible for about 1% of the mass of everyday stuff. The rest comes from the binding energy of the strong nuclear force. So there”. On the same subject (although not directly commenting on that particular statement) you told Tim Preece in a reply to your Higgs FAQ on January 12, 2012 that ” … in fact there is an important quantum mechanical effect that this leaves out. And if you account for it, the Higgs field contributes almost all of the mass (of a basketball)”. Assuming there is nothing special fundamental physics-wise about basketballs, I would love to get you and John together for a panel discussion on the subject. Have I missed anything more recent in your blogs about this important quantum mechanical effect or is this an explanation challenge you have yet to tackle 22
Giovanni | July 3, 2012 at 1:11 PM | Reply Matt, this effect you quoted. Did you mean the ’empowerment’ of the strong nuclear force by the Higgs Field? If not, what is it? o
Bob Anderson (@doubledodge) | July 6, 2012 at 8:59 AM | Reply Hi Matt, Thanks for the on-line response on the Nature live Q&A this week. For the record I am putting our discourse in-line here. Hopefully to be expanded upon later? Me: Prof. John Butterworth (ATLAS and UCL) said “the Higgs is only responsible for about 1% of the mass of everyday stuff” true or false? Matt Strassler: This is a great question — because the answer is true and false! Butterworth is absolutely right that in an ordinary atom, only the electrons get their mass completely from the Higgs; the proton’s mass comes from effects of the strong nuclear force (long story). BUT — if you really think about it carefully, the Higgs gives mass to many particles, and indirectly, if you were to turn off the Higgs field (it’s the field, not the particle, that provides the mass, by the way) it would change the strength of the strong nuclear force — and would indirectly change the proton mass. o
Matt Strassler | July 9, 2012 at 2:06 AM | Reply Definitely will write a post on this someday. But I have to explain it a how particle masses can indirectly affect the strength of the strong nuclear force, which is not a short article and requires some real thought. §
7. DR | July 3, 2012 at 8:14 PM | Reply A small comment: using the word ‘massive’, which has a specific technical meaning for physicists–non-zero mass–is not helpful in a colloquial essay such as this, as it can be very easily misconstrued in the sense ‘enormous’. As such, phrases like “massive particles called quarks” look like they mean ‘really big particles called quarks, when in fact they are ‘very small’ (though heavy) – speaking loosely here.
8. Dan | July 3, 2012 at 10:39 PM | Reply Nice piece. Certainly something I’d expect to read in Wired or Discover. 9. Pingback: The Day of the Higgs? | Of Particular Significance 10. Pingback: Finding the Higgs « The Seventh Colour 23
11. Mike | July 4, 2012 at 10:10 AM | Reply It seems to me that ‘mass’ is a measure of the effect of gravity. If we wish to understand mass, I think we need to fully understand gravity. My reading suggests that we know hardly more about the force of gravity than we do about the Higgs boson. To me, gravity is the big mystery.
pauljaylucas | July 4, 2012 at 11:31 AM | Reply “Mass” isn’t a measure of gravity: it’s a measure of inertia. The more massive an object is, the “harder” gravity has to pull to accelerate said object, or the harder you have to work to lift said object off the ground. Conversely, gravity is a measure of mass because the more massive an object is, the more it warps space-time, i.e., what we colloquially call “gravity.” o
Allan Douglas | July 4, 2012 at 1:30 PM | Reply You need to consider that mass is also related to inertia, the inertial mass, which is seems to be the same as the gravitational mass. So you don’t necessarily need gravity to understand mass. o
12. Alex | July 4, 2012 at 10:50 AM | Reply Is there a non-zero energy density or momentum associated with the Higgs field? If there is what are implications for gravity? If there isn’t- why not? Do the equations allow for it? Another question – is the mechanism of an electron acquiring mass in the Higgs field in any way similar to how an electron gets an effective mass in a semiconductor? I.e. getting “dressed” in excitations of the field caused by electron-field coupling? Thank you! Cannot express how much I appreciate your postsx
13. fred backer | July 4, 2012 at 11:17 AM | Reply Mike, if gravity doesn’t exist without mass, then you can state that mass is THE causative effect of gravity, correct? So by studying mass you are studying gravity by default since the one does not exist without the other. I’ll bet my 8th grade education on it! Please feel free to correct me as I realize the limits of my educational upbringing. Anyone?… Bueller?
fred backer | July 4, 2012 at 11:21 AM | Reply 24
As a layperson, I really enjoyed this article. My love for Science brought me here. Tomorrow it’s back to Waly-Mart where I’m living the dream…
15. Pooja | July 4, 2012 at 11:36 AM | Reply I am not familiar with this field except what little I learned years ago in school. This might be a basic question but I’m going to ask anyway: why is “why does an electron have mass at all” a question? I don’t understand why an electron having mass is so difficult to reconcile with. Also, how does one modify the mass of an electron so that the atom grows larger? If this isn’t practically possible then the issue does not exist at all. I hope to get some understanding here of concepts that have changed since I went to school. This probably isn’t a forum for curious laypeople but no one I know in real life can answer my questions. I have more questions but i’ve started with the first one that occurred me while reading this article. Thanks!!
Matt Strassler | July 6, 2012 at 8:34 AM | Reply This is most definitely a forum for curious laypeople! The issue is this: It is **impossible** to write equations that both give the electron a mass AND allow it to behave as it does when affected by the weak nuclear force… unless there is a Higgs field, or something like it, added to the equations. In short, what cannot be reconciled is two facts about nature obtained from data: (a) an electron having mass, and (b) electrons and neutrinos interacting as they do with the weak nuclear force — unless a third fact is true — that (c) something like a Higgs field (and possibly a Higgs particle, too) exists. 16. Pingback: trovata la particella di Dio o
17. Mike | July 4, 2012 at 5:04 PM | Reply I believe this one is pretty easy. I’ll be the first to admit I have the mathematical prowess of a broken sliderule, but E=mc^2 is what this is all about. As you add (copious quantities of) energy to an electron (which by some theories is just a convergence of various undulating fields – consonant resonance), its mass increases ever so slightly. If you go back to the equation, C is a constant, so if you increase E(energy), m(mass) must also increase. There are some really good texts written by folks like the guy who writes this blog. May I suggest reading Michio Kaku, John Gribbin, Lawrence Krauss, everything ever written by Richard Feynman (RIP), and of course, Stephen Hawking.
David Schaich | July 7, 2012 at 12:38 AM | Reply Allow me to refer you to o
from which I quote (emphasis in the original): this relation E=mc2 does not mean that energy is always equal to mass times c2; only for an object that is not moving (and therefore has zero momentum) is this true.
18. judiwth | July 4, 2012 at 5:21 PM | Reply This is the best scientific article I have ever read. Some of the questions and responses make my head spin. But the article, so clearly written and filled with humility and humanity, is a work of art.
pegaman | July 5, 2012 at 7:18 AM | Reply Was just about to write exactly that. Not too often you get goosebumps when reading texts about science. o
Matt Strassler | July 5, 2012 at 2:58 PM | Reply thank you both for these kind words! 19. Pingback: Higgs article roundup | Scrub Physics §
20. judiwth | July 5, 2012 at 9:46 AM | Reply I have read it three times, and got goosebumps every time. The content is thrilling, and the execution is flawless.
21. judiwth | July 5, 2012 at 3:32 PM | Reply Kind? Hardly. Just the simple truth. Thank you.
22. Mathematician | July 6, 2012 at 8:10 AM | Reply Thanks so much for the wonderful blog. It’s the best place on the internet to read this material. Crystal clear exposition and a great pleasure every time. Compelling, understandable and inspiring. A dramatic improvement on the dry and boring majority of articles that I just can’t get through.
Matt Strassler | July 6, 2012 at 8:11 AM | Reply thanks, Lisa — glad to know you’re a reader! Please pass the article along to your friends… o
Mathematician | July 7, 2012 at 4:19 AM | Reply 26
Will do Matt! Hope to hear you give some talks and looking forward to your book! 23. Pingback: The Scienceblogging Weekly (July 6th, 2012) | Prutic Networks 24. Pingback: The Lion's View - The Scienceblogging Weekly (July 6th, 2012) 25. Pingback: The Scienceblogging Weekly (July 6th, 2012) | Stock Market News - Business & Tech News 26. Pingback: Links 7/7/12 | Mike the Mad Biologist 27. Pingback: Lego Turing Machine « Physicalism 28. Pingback: The Scienceblogging Weekly (July 6th, 2012) - Blogs Web | Blogs Web 29. Pingback: Higgs Link Dump | Whiskey…Tango…Foxtrot? 30. Pingback: Not-Friday links « Conidial Coleopticide 31. Pingback: The Scienceblogging Weekly (July 6th, 2012) - News Article Templates 32. Pingback: Eddins Steps In It Again | Schoenblog.com
33. Jo | July 10, 2012 at 11:55 AM | Reply Very clear and concise explanation. Thanks very much!
34. Sammy | July 10, 2012 at 1:07 PM | Reply Absent the Higgs, the gauge theory of radioactive decay is all wet. Do you have smoke detectors at home ? Have you had a PET scan or a SPECT scan? 35. Pingback: A Higgs boson Q&A – Ars Technica | The Time of Press 36. Pingback: Fuentes de información confiables del Higgs « saltos convergentes 37. Pingback: HOT NEWS & ENTERTAINMENT » A Higgs boson Q&A 38. Pingback: Miscellany « When Gravity Falls 39. Pingback: Bosone di Higgs: una particella molto umana « COMITATO ANTIEVOLUZIONISTA 40. Pingback: Science Wins Again | Team KAndy 41. Pingback: The Scienceblogging Weekly (July 6th, 2012) - Newspaper Templates & Design
42. Particle matters | July 16, 2012 at 1:13 PM | Reply Thanks – well explained on a difficult subject – Matty (Particle Matters) 43. Pingback: Thank the Higher Powers for PBS - Doberman Forum : Doberman Breed Dog Forums 44. Pingback: Heading Home | Of Particular Significance 45. Pingback: Some Personal Reflections on the Discovery of a Higgs-Like Particle | Of Particular Significance
46. Leo Vuyk | August 2, 2012 at 7:00 AM | Reply Could it be that “the massgiving ocean in which we swim” has a Higgs system based on the opposite oscillations of TWIN ( massless but energetic) Higgs particles making the ocean not massive for motion, but giving mass to Fermions by the relativistic production rate of gravitons? 27
47. John Ko | August 20, 2012 at 1:41 AM | Reply Thank you for this article! This is the best explanation of the Higgs Field/Particle I’ve read so far! I try to stay informed on science developments but I find that I have to do a lot of work reading from multiple sources and translating everything into layman terms that my brain can get a handle on. Good visuals & metaphors are always useful, and your metaphor of homing in on a singer’s voice over background noise is highly instructive & elegant. 48. Pingback: TTahko.net | The Philosophical Significance of the Higgs ‘Discovery’ 49. Pingback: LBNL Open House | West Coast Science 50. Pingback: TIME for a Little Soul-Searching | Of Particular Significance
51. zooz | January 7, 2013 at 9:19 AM | Reply thanks very much … I want to understand more about higgs fields when the mass is zero and non-zero please … kindly help me more ….
Matt Strassler | January 7, 2013 at 9:21 AM | Reply the mass of which type of particle? Also, knowing how much math and physics you have learned in the past will help me guide you to the correct articles… 52. Pingback: Wednesday: Sean Carroll & I Interviewed by Alan Boyle | Of Particular Significance 53. Pingback: Why, Professor Kaku? Why? | Of Particular Significance o
54. Marvin Purser | March 21, 2013 at 6:42 AM | Reply One might eventually want to know what is the gene map of the Higgs particle. One day most people will understand that the universe is not one, but eternal. It has neither a beginning, nor an end. Imagine everything were the size of a tennis ball. Now imagine the ball. It cannot be done. Because if you did imagine the ball, it would be inside of something else and that could not be if the ball were everything or the universe. Uni means one and verse from the Greek Logos means Word. So it is One Word and in religion The Word of God. Hence, the opening statement of the Gospel of John. In the beginning was The Word and The Word was God. Notice ‘in the beginning” is not “at the beginning. That particular gospel was written for the Greeks while the Gospel of Mark witj a vocabulary of around 2,000 or less was written for simple fishermen and other town folk . 55. Pingback: Cosmic Conflation: The Higgs, The Inflaton, and Spin | Of Particular Significance 56. Pingback: Courses, Forces, and (w)Einstein | Of Particular Significance 28
57. get him to fall in love | June 4, 2013 at 1:42 PM | Reply I am in fact grateful to the owner of this web site who has shared this great post at at this time.
58. Veronica | June 22, 2013 at 1:28 PM | Reply Bravo! Thank you so much for taking the time to write this article in a clear and simple way. This article will change the way I look at the world. I’m sure it has done the same for many.
59. Tony Rotz | July 3, 2013 at 9:07 PM | Reply I thought it was a very good explanation, however, I did not get goose bumps. Is something wrong with me? So, the Higgs is a little like molasses increased force is met with increased resistance? Is it like fish swimming up steam in a river, small fish meet with less resistance and large fish more. What is it about the particles themselves, why do some interact with the Higgs more than others and some not at all?
Matt Strassler | July 4, 2013 at 12:06 PM | Reply
No, nothing’s wrong with you. Aside from the fact that different people get goosebumps about different things, I do think you’ve identified that one problem with my article is that it doesn’t let you see where the goosebumps really come from for scientists like me. They don’t come from the Higgs field anyway — the Higgs field is really, really important, but it isn’t the thing that drives me. The goosebumps come from the larger context in which the Higgs field arises, and that I didn’t have time to explain in such a short article. Maybe I should think about revising it so that this becomes clearer. I was aiming at a good explanation, not so much at a goosebump generator But I think I did a better job of bringing out the “goosebumps” aspects of nature in my recent class and in my recent one-hour-long public talk. If you do have the time, give it a shot.https://profmattstrassler.com/2013/07/03/my-public-talk-on-the-higgs-nowonline/ The Higgs field is not like molasses, however, and not like fish swimming upstream. Those analogies are just wrong; if they were right, the Higgs field wouldn’t affect anything that is standing still, whereas in fact the electron has its mass no matter what it is doing. The right way to think about the Higgs field is not familiar from everyday life, but not that complicated either. And I did explain in my public talk, so you might find that useful. As to why some particles interact more strongly with the Higgs field than others — we have no idea. Or more accurately, we have dozens of ideas, and no clue as to which 29
idea is right, or whether we’ve thought of the right idea yet. Talk about goosebumps — that’s one of the most important unsolved mysteries in particle physics. We’re hoping the LHC will help us figure this out, though we also know that it may not do so. So finding the Higgs particle isn’t the end of this story; it’s maybe the “end of the beginning”, at best.
60. Tony Rotz | July 5, 2013 at 10:33 AM | Reply Thanks, I’m trying to get a grasp of, somewhat anyways, of what this universe entails as well as trying to learn a little of the Magyar language my parents often used when they didn’t want us to know what they were talking about, neither of which is an easy task. Köszönöm 61. Pingback: A First Stab at Explaining “Naturalness” | Of Particular Significance 62. Pingback: Light-Hearted Higgs Questions From a High School Teacher | Of Particular Significance 63. Pingback: The Twists and Turns of Hi(gg)story | Of Particular Significance 64. Pingback: Wednesday: Sean Carroll & I Interviewed Again by Alan Boyle | Of Particular Significance
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---------- Published Reviews on PART A: Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy, CPP
"We are all Gal-Orians ! " Editor, Foundations of Physics
"I do not know a better modern expression of science, philosophy and classical humanism than that of Gal-Or’s book." HaAretz Daily
"This is a great book, and an exciting book; readable, worth reading and enlightening." Sir Karl Popper,
one of the Greatest Philosophers of Science "Gal-Or’s Beauty: "has always been the object of science, which, he lyrically observes as “a most fundamental aesthetic frame of mind, a longing for the runaway horizons of truth and symmetry that we always try to reach.” Order Amidst Chaos, Enlightenment Aesthetics 32
"This is one of the most beautiful books that I have read." Outstanding Books List
"Tour de force. A magnificent and sustained piece of work! Gal-Or’s net is widely cast – it reaches as far as science policy and political philosophy." A. Cottrell, Vice Chancellor, Cambridge University
"Appeals to scientists of all disciplines who are prepared to open their minds. Shines a welcome light in some dark corners of science. Sir Karl Popper, in a Foreword, correctly describes it “a great book”. New Scientist Magazine
"Evokes a person heart. Has generated a large number of responses from around the world, some declaring that it has turned them into “Gal-Orians”. Since the thought presented by this book is so rich, translators of our country should recommend this book with all their intellectual power." Chinese Academy of Science "A Master Piece. The well-known author bases his philosophy on a very sound knowledge of present-day scientific theories. " Indian Journal of Physics
"The works of scientists like Gal-Or, Bohm, and (Noble Prize-Winner) Prigogine provide important resources. Prigogine's formalisms do not really tell us how irreversible change emerges from reversible [mathematics]. (in this Gal-Or is superior)." The Crisis of the Sciences "Gal-Or launches a new spirit of inquiry by his excellent and thought provoking writings. I would recommend awarding a prize and would hope that this would serve to focus attention on a most important subject.”
Award by N.Y. Academy of Science Gold (a rival article by S. Hawking did not make it.)
"Einstein's time-symmetric tensor was elevated by Gal-Or’s “New Astronomical School of Unified Thermodynamics” to the status of the source of “Master Asymmetry” controlling not only irreversible thermodynamics, but all physical and biological phenomena! 33
Gal-Or calls “GRAVITISM” (his philosophy) that gravitation is the prime cause of structures, irreversibility, time, geo-chemical and biological evolution -- that the expansion of the universe is the cause of the second law of thermodynamics -- that microscopic physics, and thermodynamics in particular, cannot be understood without reference to cosmology. He ties “irreversibility” to the “expansion of space itself”, i.e. as far as space is expanding, the contribution of all kinds of radiation in space is weakened “irreversibly” due to the expansion phenomenon itself. Such loss, or “degradation” of energy in the depth of inter-cluster expanding space, may then be considered as a universal sink for all the radiation flowing out of the material bodies in the expanding universe.” Advancement of Physics “Gal-Or's remarkable book sees and seizes the world whole.He emphasizes that all scientists operate under some set of philosophical prejudices, and that failure to acknowledge this is self-delusion. Furthermore, he argues that a failure to attend to the philosophical base of physics leads to an empty scientism. His work is challenging on many levels, constituting a review 'with derivations' of general relativity 'as applied to cosmology', thermodynamics, the current state of theoretical particle physics, astrophysics, as well as a summary history of western philosophy, 'especially the philosophies of time and mind' and critiques of western society, the intelligentsia and the relationship between academic science and government. One 'and perhaps the central' theme explored, is that of the interplay between symmetry and asymmetry. His primary interest is not in the recent progress in the unification of forces in gauge theory, although he finds support in it for his Einsteinian outlook, but is rather time, time's arrow, and the asymmetry between past and future. Around time are accumulated discussions, both mathematical and philosophical, of thermodynamic reversibility, time reversibility, the nature of causality, and the use of advanced and retarded solutions to wave equations. The second major theme is that of gravity and its overwhelming domination of the actual form of the universe, at all scales. 34
The combination of these themes is not accidental; they are point and counterpoint to his thesis that the time asymmetries are connectable to and perhaps even determined by the master asymmetry given by the gravity of general relativity: the remorseless cosmological expansion. He argues that only the expansion can provide the unification of time asymmetries. The expansion provides, among other things, an unsaturable sink for radiation, which, in turn, permits the establishment of gradients in temperature and density, which provide the basis for the physical process that leads to life. He also criticizes the sloppy and improper use of the concepts of entropy 'and the related notions in information theory' and quantum indeterminism, especially as covers for an inadequate understanding of temporal asymmetries. Taking an Einsteinian position on the interpretation of quantum mechanics, he looks forward to revitalization of Einstein's quest for a deterministic interpretation of quantum events. The value of this book lies in the challenging combination of ideas which Gal-Or presents, which goes far beyond what can be sensibly described in a review. [This] work may be too large to digest as a text in these days of the decline of academic institutions "as Gal-Or describes them", but that will be the loss of both the faculty and the students.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS “I have in the meantime studied your book, with great interest, and made pages of notes on it. I feel as if I had been on numerous walks and talks with you on the great questions, and know that would be great to go on with them! Who cannot be impressed by your love for the great men of all times and all countries, by your phrase “working back and forth between theory and fact”, by your belief that philosophy is too important to be left to the philosophers, by your concern for where thought and language lie in the scheme of things – and by so much more! I continue to reflect, again and again, on your central thesis that expansion is the origin of all asymmetry in time. What an ingenious phrase is your “smuggle irreversibility in without declaring the contraband”! 35
I regard your book as seeking to accomplish two tasks – and being two books – at the very least One is the exposition of your central thesis, with clarity, and careful mustering of every argument pro and con that can lead to testable consequences. I don’t see how it is possible to do proper justice to a thesis of such importance by mixing it in with the other great task. That is to give students an appreciation of the unity of philosophy and modern physics. You do both tasks far better than I could hope to. I give you my personal thanks for putting the two books into a pacackage that I personally have found most thought-provoking.” Prof. John Wheeler, Inst. of Advanced Studies, Princeton University
“One of the best books on the totality of the sciences & the universe. It was one of the favorite books of Sir Karl Popper. It looks at physics and the universe as a totality of the mathematical philosophical understanding. It also combines the physical concept of time with human psychological perception and brain understanding of languages.” Robin firstname.lastname@example.org Recommended by Encyclopedia Britannica, "Nature, Philosophy of" In Genesis the ancient HEBREW COSMOLOGY has been approved today RE: ‘In the beginning’ [of our universe as verified by Einstein Verified Gravity Physics [General Relativity], and all astronomial observations], ‘voids’, ‘light’ and ‘structure-less’ state, "are uncannily close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us.” Christian Apologetics Journal
"Most astrophysicists, cosmologists and astronomers agree: The biblical account of cosmic evolution, in stressing `a beginning´ and the initial roles of `void,´ `light´ and a `structureless´ state, may be uncannily close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us" Professor Weisskopf, MIT, quotes CPP in Scientific American
PART A: CPP Contents Preface SIR KARL POPPER, Foreword ……………….………..……..… xx SIR ALAN COTTRELL, Foreword ………………….……......... xxi Preface ……………………………………..….……….…..….... xxii
Introduction 1.1 The Revival of Relativistic Cosmology vs. Modified Concepts and Order in Physics and Philosophy 1.1.1 Science Order: Cosmology to Quantum or in Reverse?... 3 1.1.2 How did all start? v. Science teaching of that Order….....5 1.1.3 The first seven stages v. tradition ……….....…............... 7 1.1.4 The present matter-dominated era by Astronomy........... 11 2.1 The Einsteinian Methodology: A Preliminary Remark ..... 11 19, 2012
From Terrestrial Gravitational Structures to Black Holes and Neutrinos in Astrophysics 1.1 Gravitation, Asymmetry and Structure of Earth v. Cosmos ..80 A fallacy associated with current Education ...………...........80 1.1.2 Gravity-induced sedimentary structures …………............. 81 1.2 Stars and the Hertzsprung-Russel Central Diagram ……….. 88 1.3 Supernova, Gravitational Collapse, Neutron Stars, Pulsars …………………………………….......…92 1.4 X-Ray Astronomy, Binary X-Ray Systems, and... Gravitational Clocks ……………………………………......... . 100 1.5 Black Holes …………………….…………………….….… 106 1.6 Gas, Dust and the Formation of Stars in Our Galaxy ............113 1.7 How Are Cosmic Distances Measured? ……………….….. 116 1.8 Neutrino Astronomy and Astrophysics ………………….... 130 1.9 The Emergence of Gamma-Ray Astronomy ………….…... 132 1.10 Exploration of Extra-Solar Space by Unmanned Spacecraft ……………………….………..…… 134 37
From Old Physics to Particle Physics-I 2.1 Aim and Scope ……………………………………………. 138 2.2 Limitations of Theory ……………………………….….… 140 2.3 The General Macroscopic Equation ………………….….... 142 2.4 Continuity Equation (Total Mass Conservation) ………..... 146 2.5 Conservation of Linear Momentum and Gravity.…………. 147 2.6 The Navier-Stokes Equations and Gravity ……………….. 149 2.7 Kinetic-Energy Equation and Dissipation Function in Gravitational Fields ……………......... 152 2.8 First Law of Thermodynamics or Energy Conservation Equation ………………………………….......… 154 2.9 First Law and Enthalpy ………………………………….... 156 2.10 First Law In Terms of Temperature Field …………….…. 157 2.11 Entropy Balance Equation ……………………………….. 159 2.12 Beyond Classical Physics:...............…………………...…. 160 2.13 Neutrinos and the Powerful Role Conservation Equations Play in Subatomic Processes (Addendum) …...…… 163
General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology Should Rule Particle-Quantum Physics, Not the Other Way, Not by Quantum Axioms 3.1 Introduction …………………………………………………....... 167 3.1.1 Einstein’s field equations in general relativity ………..…….… 169 3.1.2 Confirmation of Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation …………..... 172 3.2 Principles and Formulations of General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology ………………...……….………………....... 191 3.3 Observations, The “Age” of the Universe. And “Equivalent Local Cells” …………………….……….….......... 200 3.4 Timekeeping, Accelerated Observers and the Principle of Equivalence ………………………….……………........ 204 3.5 From General Relativity to Unified Field Theories ………….…. 205
From Physics to Philosophical Crossroads and Back The Arrows of Time 4.1 Time and The Arrow of Time: The Most Distorted of All Ideas? ..215 4.2 Asymmetry-Symmetry-Space-Time and 38
The Unification of the Laws of Physics …………………….............. 216 4.3 Methodology, Aim and Scope ………………………………....... 217 4.4 Confusing Concepts of Time and Time Asymmetries ………...... 219 4.5 The Entropic Arrow of Time ……………………………….....… 222 4.6 Causality, Causation and Time Asymmetries ………………........ 226 4.7 Causation and Determinism in Relativistic Theories ……..............227 4.8 Cosmological Arrows of Time and Cosmic Time ……….…….... 230 4.9 A Few Concluding Remarks ………………….……...………...... 232 4.10 Time-Reversal Invariance and Irreversibility …………….……. 236 4.10 Microscopic Time Asymmetries in “Elementary Particles” … .. 240 4.11 Death of Scale-Based Physics….......….………….……….......... 242 4.12 “Dual” Quantum-Geometrodynamical School and “Superspace” 243 4.13 Tachyons and Causal Violations …………………….………. ....246 4.14 Macrocausality and Microcausality in Quantum Mechanics …... 247 4.15 Fading Memory in Classical Physics …………………………... 247 4.16 Doubts as to the Universality of Entropy ……………………..... 249 4.17 Entropy-Free Thermodynamic Arrows of Time ………….…... . 250
Crisis in the Standard Quantum Model Gravitation & Cosmology v. Quantum Model 5.1 Preliminary Review …………………………………….……...... 255 5.1.1 The three main schools of thought ……………………............. 261 5.2 Einstein’s Objections to the Uncertainty Principle ………........... 262 5.3 The Heresy of a Few Skeptics ………………………….…......... 265 5.4 Mythologized Concepts of Quantum Physics …………...…....... 265 5.5 The Failure of Classical and Quantal Statistical Mechanics to Deduce Irreversibility and Time Asymmetries .............267 5.6 The Emergence of Quantum Chromodynamics and Super-Symmetry …………………………………….................. 272 5.6.1 Spatio-Temporal Approach to Quantum Physics ……….......... 272 5.6.2 From Weinberg-Salam Theory to Quantum Chromodynamics ………………………............................ 273 188.8.131.52 Conservation laws as symmetry principles; and vice versa ... 273 184.108.40.206 Global, exact, approximate, isotopic and SU(3) symmetries 274 220.127.116.11 From SU(3) to renormalizable gauge theories ……............... 276 18.104.22.168 Quark confinement asymptotic freedom in gauge theories 276-1 22.214.171.124 QCD and the search for higher symmetry principles ……... 276-2 5.6.3 Quantum Field Theories, Super-Symmetry & Super-Gravity... 276-3 126.96.36.199 Limits of quantum gravity and ‘Unified Field Theories’ .......276-4
From Physics to Cosmological Crossroads and Back Assessed by Physics and Philosophy 6.1 FIRST: Reduction of Thermodynamics to Gravitation ...,... 277 6.1.1 Intergalactic voids rule 2 Expansions of the Universe....,..277 6.1.2 Gravitation as super-structuring of matter and All Life.....279 6.2 The Earliest Observational Evidence. .…...………...........279 6.2.1 Which space expands and which does not? …...….......... 282 6.3 Gravitation-Asymmetry Principle of Equivalence …….......284 6.4 Can Inter-cluster Voids Be Saturated with Radiation? .........287 6.5 Derivation of the Master Asymmetry from our Gravitational School of Intergalactic Voids v. life........ 290 6.6 Irreversibility in the New Gravitational. Cosmological Thermodynamics ………………................. 293 6.7 Origin of Dissipation in Newtonian Fluids ……..….......… 297 6.8 Terrestrial Thermodynamics ……………………..……..... 299 6.9 Connections with Classical and Continuum Thermodynamics …………………………..…..…........... 301 6.10 Electromagnetic Irreversibility v. Master Asymmetry..... 303
The Cosmological Base of Time Arrow 7.1 Time: The All-Embracing Concept …………………................. 309 7.2 Cosmological Origin of Time ……………………….................. 310 7.3 Cosmological Interpretations of Newton’s Laws of Motion …... 314 7.4 Gravitational Origin of Structure and Evolution .……................ 316 7.5 Gravitation and the Outflow of Energy Into Un-Saturable Space 322 7.6 Stellar Evolution …………………………………….................. 324 7.7 Terrestrial Evolution …………………………..............……...... 325
Black Holes v. Unattainable Theory of Everything 8.1 Introduction ………………………………………...… 330 8.2 Observational Evidence ………………………….….....331 8.3 Schwarzschild Solution and Black Holes …………...... 332 8.4 Black Holes Mechanics and Entropy ………………..... 340 8.5 Can Black Holes “Evaporate”? ……………………...... 341 8.6 Primordial Black Holes? …………………………........ 341 8.7 Back to the Melting Pot of Unification? …………........ 341 40
Beyond Present Knowledge 9.1 The Futile Quest for Final Answers …………………...... 349 9.2 An Example in Havaism ……………………..….........… 350 9.3 From Cosmology to Irreversible Structures and Memory 365 9.4 The Skeptic Outlook ……………………………..…...… 415
VOLUME II Introduction ……………………………………………................... 420 A Few Historical Remarks on Time, Mind and Symmetry ………... 437 The Philosophy of Time & Change: Some Historical Notions …………………….……………….…...... 455 Structuralism and the Divided American Thought: A Short Glossary of Terms ………………………………..……….. 467 Policy and Publicity: A Critique ………………………………….... 483 Thought-Provoking and Thought-Depressing Quotations ………..... 495 Critique of Western Methodology ………………………………. ... 530
Figure 8: At this mid-scale, 10 MLY, we observe 'OUR' VIRGO CLUSTER. It is also visible at 100 MLY SCALE is shown, FIG. 1 and note the size and shape distributions of intergalactic voids:
Some are closed, other are open. Note also that galaxies rotate and move and their shapes cause their radiation "winds" (Fig. to be asymmetric.)
TELLAR EVOLUTION V.
EXPANSIONS OF THE UNIVERSE
Stars cannot completely evolve to produce the element of life without disposing its inner generated energy. That energy is irreversibly removed from their surfaces and being disposed it the depths of this 2nd-expansion-generated largest collective energy sink in the universe. WHEREFORE, without the 2nd simultaneous expansion of the universe, all heavy elements in the universe, including the elements essential to generate life, like oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, are impossible. Also impossible without the 2nd expansion are supernovae, that allow planets to formed and life to emerge by gravitation â€“ a complicated process that is described next. Localized black holes at the center of galaxies and elsewhere should be accounted for, but their effects do not change these predictions, assertions and facts as detailed here and by Volume I. Existence of super-fast, stellar-galactic winds that are becoming strongest during the last 6 or so billion years, has been well-verified by all astronomic observations. Such winds are flowing into each equally distributed intergalactic voids. The voids themselves were present from earlier time, as proven by the 1964 confirmed black-body radiation. Fig. 5. The winds emerge inside the filaments that surround each void. The winds enter each void from all directions thus causing each and all to expand faster than the remnants of big-bang expansion. FIG. 1. Subject to momentum conservation, like in opposing rockets in space, the super-fast winds on both opposing sides of any filament or void border [FIG. 1] thrust-push-away both bordersharing-voids from each other, collectively providing extra expansion-thrusting-away against all other similarly expanding voids. 43
This process is herein defined the second, simultaneous, accelerated expansion of the universe, which not only compacts galaxies into superclusters and filaments, but reverses earlier gravityinduced decelerated expansion of the universe. These newly defined dynamics generate energy-densities gradients (Fig. 2) that keep maintaining all stellar evolution by removing disposed energy from emitters to 2nd-expansion-generated largest energy sink in the universe, without which, no heavy elements, supernovae, planets and life, are possible. There is no transfer of energy from one expanding void to another due to the uniform distribution of the intergalactic voids. The ORIGIN of almost all dissipating stellar and galactic winds are essentially limited to the nearby LOCAL stars and galaxies that surround each void. Only a minor fraction of the winds proceeds across the universe to reach our telescopes, allowing NASA recording of Fig. 1. Various claims and dictums are also refuted by this newly defined world: Wheeler-Feynman static-space-theory should be redefined for two simultaneous space expansions between emitters and absorbers,
Dark energy claims -- and associated attempts to change general relativity) -- should be replaced by the two proven simultaneous accelerated expansions of the universe.
Deterministic physics may begin with TIME-symmetric partial differential equations. NEXT, TO CONFORM WITH observations, TIME-asymmetry is FUNDAMENTALLY wrongly enforced on the USED EQUATIONS but also in published 'proofs', that proceed only from imposed INITIAL CONDITIONS (for future time evolution), while rejecting FINAL CONDITIONS (for symmetric past time evolution).
SUCH enforced ''mathematical results'' are often claimed the origin of irreversibility of nature called Retarded solutions in electromagnetism.
FOOLING THEMSELVES AND OTHER SCIENTISTS AROUND THE WORLD NEXT HIDE ADVANCED SOLUTIONS (which do not conform with observations.).
IS THIS FOOLING tantamounts to SMUGGLING into "proofs" what one tries to prove by not DECLARING THE CONTRABAND?
History, Physics, Society Why the TIME Magazine selects Einstein as Person of the Century? On page 551 of his remakable book "EINSTEIN, His Life and Universe", Walter Isaacson concludes: "He was a loner with an intimate bond to humanity, a rebel who was suffused with reverence. And thus it was that an imaginative, impertinent patent clerk became the mind reader of the creator of the cosmos, the locksmith of the mysteries of the atom and the universe." On page 215 Issaacson explains: "(During October-November 1915) Einstein was in the throes of one of the most concentrated frenzies of scientific creativity in history. He was working, he said, 'horrendously intensity'" (to complete and publish first his general relativity). "In the midst of this ordeal, he was also still dealing with the personal crisis within his family." "(Hilbert) was racing him to find the equations of general relativity." On page 214 Isaacson adds: "Every week, the fifty or so members of the Prussian Academy gathered in the grand hall of the Prussian State Library in the heart of Berlin to address each other." Since November 4 Einstein delivered there four lectures, the last one states: "I had discovered the only law of gravitation." Days later Hilbert responded (page 219): "Cordial congratulations" But on November 20 he submitted for publication to the Gotingen science journal his manuscript "proclaiming his own version of the equations for general relativity." titled "The Foundations of Physics". Einstein completed and published his Gravity Physics, known as General Relativity, in November 1915, post checking if it correctly predicts published, irregular, motions of planet Mercury. He found total agreement with said astronomical observations, agreement that no other theory had accomplished before. That was the first obsevational veification of his gravity physics. About three years later, in 1918-1919, Einstein's gravity field equations were independently confirmed valid the second time for correctly and excactly predicting gravity-induced, bending of light passing near a large mass, in this first, British organized sun-eclipse-based test in Australia, later affirmed by various observations around the globe. Instant world celebrations followed. But somehing else was at store under the curse of numbers, which always retards science misleads some scientists and much of humanity. 45
1921: A talented Russian mathematician-cosmologists, professor Alexander Friedmann, proved that Einstein's Field Equations, when applied to the universe, Cannot make it stay stable, it must expand or contract. Organized religions around the world strongly protested that Einstein is profundly wrong. Expanding universe violates the "established and known fact" that earth is the center of the universe.
Any observer, stationed on any galaxy, would report that all other galaxies are receding away from him, thus refuting the established truth that earth is the sole center of the entire universe.
Einstein was indeed Horified Various hostile protests from around the globe have joined the Claim: ยง EINSTEIN IS IMPOSTOR OF SCIENCE. ยง INSTEIN MADE A GREAT MATHEMATICAL MISTAKE. ยง HIS JEWISHNESS ..... 46
Horified Einstein knew that his GRAVITY PHYSICS equations are universally valid ANYWHERE, ANY TIME, that they UNEQUIVOCALLY SHINE LIGHT on some dark corners of CULTURE. BUT the terror AND INSULTS OF ABUSING OPINION words, the RACIAL ONES, THE hate,
brutal AND hostile ones, some by CO-professors, HAVE defeated him to agree to force on his valid equations a simple number to stop these MAJORITY PROTESTS; THE curse-of-numbers-terror. Peace THEN returned to SUCH SCIENCE, but not to bona fide science, not to the great AMERICAN Hubble, who, by STRICT observations, HAS BEEN THE TO FIRST verifY that the universe indeed expands. TO CONCLUDE: 1ST Axiom: Science IS NOT DECIDED BY THE UN, BY A DEMOCRACY, BY ANY MAJORITY, PROTEST, GOVERNMENT, LAWYERS, EDITORS, JUDGES, RELIGIOUS AUTHORITIES, CELEBRITIES, CONGRESS, PARTIES, OPINIONS, POLITICAL ''SCIENCE''. CORROLARY: BONA FIDE scientists MAY BE the deepest religious people on earth, especially when -- beyond adopting this 1st axiom -- avoid PRECISE DEFINITIONS AS CONTENDED NEXT. _________
Assertion A: Everything in science is connected with everything else, (Plato). FOR INSTANCE, NOTHING CAN BE ISOLATED FROM GRAVITY. Assertion B: Precise definitions or axioms may lead to unrepairable errors: Anything outside a strictly errected axiomatically erected fence-definition is a priori rejected and lost forever or block unification with Einsteinian deterministic Gravity Physics (general relativity), relativistic cosmology and our induced philosophy GRAVITISM. This assertion applies first to the highly respected "Standard Quantum Model", and to "symmetry breaking" dictums employed there. See TABLE OF CONTENTSOF VOLUME I. 47
Assertion C: Errorless definitions-axioms begin with 'the whole universe', because there is neither any outside fense around its curved-spacetime-contents, nor to verified observations of its time asymmetries REDISCUSSED BELOW. Contention 1: WHEREFORE, precise definitions or axioms only encage, arrest or block ideas by error-generating ‘fences’ that should a priori be identified, deleted, ignored or comitted to the flames of history, even if have already been awarded a Nobel Prize. Contention 2: Until around the mid-Thirties of the previous century, Core CulturalCurriculum Courses (in Europe!) were made as ‘scientific’ as possible, and science propped up its foundations by turning to philosophy. This attitude was in part motivated by the desire to appropriate the sciences with the great ‘prestige’ of philosophers, and for the philosopher the fast-growing ‘status’ of science. Hence, European professors vied with one another in presenting science based on high philosophical grounds, and philosophy as a ‘science among sciences’, or even as the ‘sum of the other sciences’. A ‘PhD’ was then a bona fide Philosophy Doctor, a person of advanced core knowledge and eloquence outside his specialism. Western academia has since withdrawn from the game. Empty specialism has since gained the highest prestige; no longer do professors need borrow it from philosophy, nor to teach a bona fide CCCC. Indeed, contemporary professors today vie with one another in presenting fragmented lectures devoid of interconnected content, for they can no longer hope to achieve popularity by injecting updated core knowledge into what has gradually become an ever narrower, disciplinary professionalism. This turn of events has resulted in overvaluation of technical professionalism, empty academicism, absolutation of ever-narrower disciplines, and the common inclination to reject bona fide core knowledge from the class. A pity. For these trends only push the young into cynicism, nihilism and feelings of emptiness in education and society at large. 48
The current crisis in education is not subsiding. More Assertion A than ever before it demands answers, re-assessments, a revised philosophy and acts: How to administer With hope of finding the grand outlook of a spacecraft, students enter our mutual interactions instead of linear causality; structured complexity instead of summation of universities. Entering the temples of knowledge they settle for that of an events; structured historical buildup of facts, instead eagle, but what they find is that of a of summation of isolated events and specialist gopher. narrow academic Departments. Assertion B Although most academic teaching and research must be distributed amongst various Schools and Departments of a university, there is an objective need to regenerate an old tradition that cannot be associated with any specialism, because the ideas with which it deals are common to all studies, or not involved in any.
Assertion C Without a guiding-structuring-unifying methodology aimed at gaining an all-embracing, interconnected knowledge that crosses frozen disciplines, any Core Curriculum Cultural Course [CCCC] is nothing but a pity encyclopedia displayed by a specialist nominated by “Organizers” as the “CCCC-Coordinator” who remains helpless in teaching the alluring beauty of mathematics, physics, astronomy, history, the life sciences, and comparative religions, but fails to perceive their profound educational implications as a whole. Modern skepticism is usually the negation of a core, interconnected, educational methodology. Not so with Einsteinian skepticism. Einstein advocated the removal of imposed borders between traditional disciplines and university departments and faculty; stating that knowledge is one; its division is human weakness.
Assertion D Structuring an all-embracing Core-Outlook is a matter entailing far more ambiguity than the technicalities of the application of any disciplinary course and its “Academic Credit Regulations”.
The Western crisis, today more than ever before, may be repaired by resorting to Einsteinian vision, in high-schools and constantly upgraded and updated for underSuch a 49
Literary intellectuals at one pole – at the other scientists, and as the most representative, the physical scientists. Between the two a gulf of mutual incomprehension – sometimes (particularly among the young) hostility and dislike, but most of all lack of understanding. C. P. Snow, The Two Cultures Cambridge University Press
Students are often discouraged by their professors and mentors from asking fundamental, interdisciplinary questions in class, as a result of which inconsistent, or outright incorrect premises, are given a better chance of perpetuating themselves.
Literary intellectuals, the people of the arts, and most educators, are currently ignorant of modern advances in the ‘exact sciences’, of their mathematical formulations, experimental, observational and verification methods. They are likely to resort to a priori or superficial answers to complex problems whose detailed implications are beyond them. Similarly, faculty, ‘experts’ and professionals in the “exact sciences”, via their past, ever-narrowing, disciplinary education, are currently ignorant of the wide-span knowledge, literature, arts and history that are needed to share their thinking and aspirations with other thinking persons.
The resulting gap can hardly be bridged despite the fact that our globe is currently an interconnected village, internationally linked by what might be expected to bridge old gaps between traditional cultures, languages, religions, political systems and a unified educational philosophy of humanity. Yet, the facts are that deep divisions keep deepening and deserts of narrow specialism keep spreading more than ever before.
What was a two-semester half-life of a textbook is today one day or less. Sources of studies are millions of online blogs with uneven quality and little or no reliable references. A-million-a-day posts confuse the young; generating one-line thinkers; a tsunami of Tower-of-Babel Kalthure;
a kalthure where scholars secure same weight as one-line thinkers; Eulogies are heard over the smoking ruins of the classical temples of knowledge â€“ new layers of ruins on top of the destroyed Academy-Library of Alexandria.
Limitations of Theories and Definitions There may be something provisional about all current verified scientific theories They must be re-confirmed by fresh verified information from any sub-field of science, hence, are subject to constant revision and even replacement; -- in this, each succeeding generation takes a measurable step beyond the position of its predecessors.
Closely related to the unrestricted content of modern science is its unrestricted questioning of all earlier convictions in light of verifiable evidence that refutes extant axioms, definitions, assertions, outlooks and theories. 51
Thus, every item of carefully recorded experimental or observational information is a proper object for analysis. A drive towards novelty and discovery impels inquiry to explore
all corners of the universe. These tenets are the central pillars of Gravitism. But there is more to it. The outlook includes constant re-assessments of the theory -- of any theory -- and analysis of the errors involved as one updates and improves it.
Tarski's Indefinability Theorem According to this theorem no sufficiently powerful language is strongly-semantically-selfrepresentational. For instance, any arithmetical truth cannot be defined by arithmetics. According to Smullyan , Tarski's Indefinability Theorem is somewhat superior to the famous Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems, which are more related to mathematics and less to philosophical, scientific, and linguistic issues. Tarski's theorem is not directly about mathematics but about the inherent limitation of any formal language that is strongly-semantically-selfrepresentational when it contains predicates and function symbols defining the semantic concepts specific to that language.
Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem Gödel [34-43] has demonstrated that conventional mathematics, which we tend to consider as our supremely logical and consistent system, involves paradoxical, self-referential statements about itself, i.e., a conventional mathematical system, say, the mathematics of flat space in the Euclidian geometry -- an ‘absolute stage’ upon which Newtonian gravity and physics stands, can be incomplete because one has not discovered all its necessary axioms. In other words, no matter how many physico-mathematical issues theoretical physicists solve, there always will be other issues that cannot be solved by any known laws of physics; and since these laws constitute a finite set of rules, and are based on mathematics, Gödel's theorem restricts them. Even in computer science one cannot create a complete and consistent finite list of axioms, or an infinite list. Each time one adds a statement as an axiom; there are other correct statements that cannot be proved, even with the new axiom. 52
Moreover, if the system can prove that it is consistent, it is not. As might have been expected, this idea has been much debated by mathematical philosophers: v How can a theory be both correct and unprovable? v Is mathematics a loop of our mind? v Is the mind a self referential loop? Gödel's first incompleteness theorem shows that any system that allows one to define the natural numbers is necessarily incomplete: it contains statements that are neither provable correct, nor provably false. Some scholars therefore argue that this refutes the logicism of Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell, who had aimed to reduce/define the natural numbers in terms of logic. Not all axiom systems satisfy these hypotheses, even when these systems have models that include natural numbers as a subset. For example, there are axiomatizations of ‘flat’ space that do not meet the hypotheses of Gödel's theorems. Another limitation applies only to systems that are used as their own proof systems. Gödel's theorem has another interpretation in the language of computer science. Theorems are computably enumerable: one can write a computer program that will eventually generate any valid proof. One can then ask if it has the stronger property of being recursive: Can one write a computer program to definitively determine if a statement is true or false? Gödel's theorem says that you cannot. His theorems, however, are confined to sufficiently strong axiomatic systems, i.e., that a theory contains enough arithmetic to carry out the proof of the incompleteness theorem. Some scholars claim that Gödel's incompleteness theorems have provided a deadly blow to David Hilbert’s program towards a universal mathematical formalism. Nevertheless, the essence of these issues is much more complicated, as indicated below. Undecidable Statements: A statement is neither provable nor refutable. Hence, some scholars resort to the concept "independent". However, that concept is also ambiguous. Meta-Language: A sufficiently developed language cannot represent its own semantics. Any meta-language includes primitive notions, axioms, and rules absent from an object language. Theorems provable in a meta-language are not provable in the object language. “Truth”: Some of the aforementioned theorems may presuppose that mathematical "truth" and "falsehood" are well-defined in an absolute sense, rather than relative. If an axiomatic system can be proven to be consistent and complete from within itself, then it is inconsistent. 53
Minds and Machines: Gödel's incompleteness theorems may also reflect on human intelligence. While Gödel's theorems cannot be applied to humans, since they make mistakes and are, therefore, inconsistent, it may be applied to the domain of science. Sets of expressions are considered as coded as sets of numbers. For various syntactic properties (such as a formula, a sentence, etc.), these sets are computable. And any computable set of numbers can be defined by some arithmetic formula. There are various additional theorems and sub-theorems 34-49. I do not intend to expand on them in these pages, for these pages are mainly written for the general reader, without resorting to any mathematics. We therefore move next to elaborate on some more practical domains in the mined fields of verifiable scientific theories and proofs. “Pure Mathematics” is human attempt to stay aloof and beyond emotions, traditions and ambitions. It may protect one from making mistakes, prior to and aft writing down any mathematical equation. How mathematics -- combined with verifiable observations -- help protect the human mind from falling into unverifiable traditional dictums of ‘intuitively’ generating mistakes? This may be best demonstrated by the most dramatic event in the history of science; when Einstein lost trust in the most verified gravity field equations of general relativity3.3, the most accepted theory of the universe, which harbors no mistake. To correct sociallly accused ‘mistake’, he had to force on this reality, ‘correction number’, wrongly termed a "cosmological constant". For good reasons stated above Einstein's tensorial gravity field equations were flawless, despite the fact that a cult has evolved to demand adding this factor to fit its ulterior wishes to operate under some set of philosophical prejudices. Most important, the failure to acknowledge this is not only self-delusion, but a failure to attend to the philosophical base of physics, a failure that leads to empty scientism. 54
Space-Time vs. Symmetry-Asymmetry The essence and fundamental meaning of curved space-time, symmetry-asymmetry, statistics and probabilities are understood only by a portion of scientists. A much smaller portion, or, in fact, a splendid minority, maintains that probabilities, statistics and quantum postulates provide them with no ‘free will’. [Volume I].
Differential Equations vs. Observations Time-symmetry, reversibility and the symmetrical laws of physics serve us as key tools to better understand nature, despite the limitations mentioned above. And it is only by combining (conceptual, reversible, analytic) time-symmetry with (factual, aggregated, observational) timeasymmetry, or by combining reversible equations with a priori known, factual, initial and boundary conditions, that one may, mathematically, arrive at a reliable world outlook in agreement with observations/experimentations. While symbols and analytical concepts may be symmetric, words and sentences (in order, syntax, phoneme, form, sound modulation or other modes), or ‘useful’ physico-mathematical equations, are basically asymmetric. Mathematics, gravitation, symmetry-asymmetry, aggregation, time and meaningful sentences are coupled. While some minor reservations are justifiable, there is an overwhelming "word of evidence", derived from physics, the languages and the studies of linguistics, cybernetics, information and mathematics that fortifies this contention. A theory may be a “set of statements”, some of which are taken as valid without proof (axioms), and others, the theorems, are taken as valid because they are implied by the axioms. A complete and consistent set of axioms for all mathematics is impossible. "Provable by a theory" means "derivable from 55
the axioms and primitive notions of the theory, using logic.” The Popperian Falsification Principle Sir Karl Popper, has introduced the Falsification Principle about the ability of mankind to establish what is science and what is non-science, in addition to what might be ‘true’ within the domain of a given theory, or a set of ‘facts’, axioms or definitions. [Lecture 4] Applied mathematics is often used as unverifiable covers to advance subjectivistic claims, ‘proofs’ and ‘theories’. Lectures 3 and 4, and this one, illustrate how -- by a priori selecting only the timeasymmetric mathematics, or time-asymmetric mathematical solution that fits with their desired ‘proof’ – scientists easily fool themselves, and others. Applied mathematics is the key tool of the ‘exact sciences’. It constitutes a special kind of 'intelligent thinking’ that is integrated with its ‘universal grammar' -- a sort of critical thinking which has been partially developed to safeguard our minds from prejudices and inconsistencies. Yet, consistency, by itself, is a two-sided issue. ‘Pure mathematics’ is often developed for its own sake, without a priori harboring intentional applications, although they may be ‘un-covered’ According to Einstein, when we predict the behavior of a specific or confined set of natural phenomena, we usually mean that we have found a ‘constructive theory’ covering this set. When we find that other sets of phenomena are incompatible with that theory, we tend to either generalize or modify it, or failing that, seek an alternative one.
To this ‘constructive’ category Einstein opposes the so-called “theories of principles” (exemplified, according to Einstein, by thermodynamics and the general theory of relativity), whose point of departure and foundation are not hypothetical constituent, but empirically observed general properties from which mathematical formulae are deduced so as to apply to every case of observation which presents itself. Thus, according to Einstein, the merit of “constructive theories” lies in their comprehensiveness, adaptability, and clarity for a given set of phenomena, while that of the “theories of principles” -- in their logical ‘perfection’ and universality and in the vast observational spectrum of their formulation at any scale and time. Yet, Einstein did not trust some semi-hidden aspects of his own general theory of relativity2.5. Two such events are described next:
The failure of statistical mechanics (both classical and quantum) to deduce and explain the origin of irreversibility, time-asymmetries, cosmic and local structuring, generation of order and what is called “entropy growth” -- as well as its philosophical and applicative limitations and lack of largescale universality -- has been explained in footnotes 2.5, 3.4 and 3.5 as well as in Volume I. (See Table of Contents,). Einstein had not suspected that his general theory of relativity already incorporates another ‘theory of principle’: Thermodynamics, especially the so-called Second Law of Thermodynamic. Namely, the foundations of thermodynamics should NOT be a separate, stand-alone, theory of science; it should NOT be fragmented from the rest of physics. It constitutes an integral part of gravity-induced, interconnected, unified physico-philosophical knowledge.
DO armies of KNOWLEDGE-Gate-Guards Defile our Temple of Knowledge? NON-APPEALABLE "VERDICTS" GIGANTIC ARMIES OF NON-SCIENTISTS, INDUCE THE KIND OF NEW SCIENCE, WHICH AS EXPLAIND ABOVE BY VERIFIABLE FACTS, IS GRADUALLY CORRUPTED. Einstein's general relativity and Hilbert spaces may have been lost to humanity by today's red tape-non-scientists that defile our temple of theoretical physics? WHAT kind of science is so smuggled into present and future knowledge? The reason why men enter into society is the preservation of their property. John Locke
Why gravity is the most fundamental integrator of all studies? Volume I demonstrate this fact within the studies of physics, astrophysics, astronomy, cosmology and philosophy, while Lecture 5 extends it to the origin of the sun, earth, life, hominids, writing and civilization. 57
We next extend it to gravity- induced sociology and the philosophy of natural selection: The fight for property-domains-resources, the socio-rules of time-grammar, gravity-induced territorial wars, city and village structures, transportation systems, aspirations, religions, theology and the arts.
‘Gravity-Induced ‘Natural Selection’ Gravity-induced changes develop territoriality in a given spatial region or in a given assembly of individuals, especially when key resources are not sufficiently abundant and stable through long periods of historical times. We observe this phenomenon in both the animal and human domains of socio- biology. When a limited terrestrial space is divided into lots in a community, it carries economic and social “standing”, or "lebensraums", involving "well-defined territories" and "Gravity-induced Natural Selection"; from animals' mating systems to animals' monopolies on water resources; from natural food administration to the control of key strategic ridges; from controlling fossil fuel resources to disputes over territories. One species, or one sex, or one race, may control a larger quantity of resources, say, scarce water ponds, than the other, until a small percentage of the population monopolizes key resources. Gravity-induced hills and mountains control castle and village structures and especially tall structures may become worship temples of the super- natural. RECAP: Domain-Property and Envy drive competition, company ads, venture capital, TV and academic rating, political candidates, religious rivalry and key human traits, sometimes stronger than death. As history testifies, gravity-induced territoriality is often developed into nationality, imperialism and territorial conquest wars. Many aspects of animals’ social organization and evolution can be predicted on the basis of gravity-induced environmental variables. Since biogeochemical evolution causes key natural resources to be distributed non-uniformly in the spatial and temporal coordinates of the biosphere, resource monopolization develops in all levels of socio-biological systems. RECAP from previous Lectures: The first local "aggregates" of matter in the solar system have already contained gas, supernovae debris, dust, rocks. It was gravity that stratified these compounds in ‘horizontal’ layers according to their “specific gravity”, a term to used below in modified “natural selection”. The atmosphere and geological strata are ordered-selected by specific gravity of their chemical components. It was gravity that put the early components of living systems at one and the same strata for life to begin. 58
Gravity is therefore the universal builder of structures, including all chemistry in the cores of gravitationally pressed-heated stars [Fusion in Lecture 1, CPP], geological strata, earth morphology the entire evolution of life, village/city structures, transportation systems, linguistic hierarchy, recorded symbols, letters, grammar vs. time, structure of sentences, pages, books.
Gravity Selection is in fact “Natural selection” The origin of temporal behavior in animals can be traced out to gravity- induced forces. Even “innate patterns" are wrongly dissociated from simple movements in the field of gravitation, i.e., as "up-ward-downward" balancing of the biological body vis-à-vis the gravity pointers in each biological cell. Gravity periodicities around the sun emerge as prime sources of order via time and the arrow of time [Lecture 1].
Gravity-Induced Orientation and Order Using gravity pointers we say ‘up’, ‘down’, ‘left’, ‘right’ and generate symbols, codes, signs, numbers and letters for a later use and for other to read. Animals are also 'conscious' of the commonly-shared "up- down" surroundings, and about "weight" and acceleration. Plants also harbor innate sensors that guide them in which direction to grow even on a mountain slope.
Additional examples range from gyroscope inertial changes, balancing machines, heading indicators and gravity-induced changes involving the fluid in the vertebrate inner ear to a 59
crystallizing suspension of organic spheres in water.
Gravity-induced Plant Growth and Animal Behavior The sensing devices which plants and animals use for "gravity perception" ("gravity receptors", "g- perception", "bio- accelerometers", "gravity- induced biological clocks", etc.) are not yet well understood, even though a voluminous literature has been published on this subject. But what we already know justifies the central role we claim gravity plays in living systems and society. Plants ‘know’ to grow vertically upward when, undisturbed, they start growing in total darkness as seeds inserted deep into the ground; -- even when they grow on a steep mountain slope. As most high-growing trees they align their growth under the control of the gravity vector. If a growing higher plant is displaced with respect to the "upright" position, some tens of minutes later it will adapt its growth in such a way as to restore its original orientation in coincidence with the gravity vector. (If it is displaced only briefly and then restored to its original orientation well before the growth response can set in, it still responds to that displacement.) Gravity-induced orientation-adaptation of an organism may occur when an organism orients itself by a gravity-induced gradient of density differences or hydrostatic pressure. Small organisms (including all bacteria) may have no means for sensing gravity, but they are affected by it. Animals low on the evolutionary scale characteristically exhibit innate patterns that depend little on learning, and have a lesser adaptability to changes in the environment. Consequently, their dependence on heredity-geophysical-gravitational origins is ‘high’ in proportion to animals that are ‘high’ on the evolutionary scale. While the latter show some signs of innate patterns, they harbor a greater capacity to produce a much more flexible mechanism to respond to a variety of other external changes that stimulate them. The evolutionary origin of the so-called "innate ideas" may, therefore, be external rather than internal. Even the computer page is ordered by up, bottom, left, right margins and footnotes. And it takes time to read them and to comprehend them; the time that always advances from past to future; the time that we term Linguistic Arrow of Time. Similarly, gravity-induced ordering of shelves, files, documents and books in a library introduces order into our life.
Gravity- Chained Law, Seconds, Minutes, Days, Years Whole civilizations religions constructed on gravity-induced orientability, concepts, spirituality, art, music, home structure, wells, canals, trade roads, agriculture, and even law enforcement by hanging. Such gravity-induced cultural phenomena may proceed beyond grammar and social order into the spiritual and hierarchical cultures, and have been domains: High priest, low deck, high commissioner, and highness, heaven, lofty, go to the bottom of the subject, etc. [see below]. 60
Biological Clocks The origin of temporal behavior in animals can be traced back in time and out to external physical influences. Gravity and geophysical periodicities thus emerge as prime sources of order and information in all non-living and living systems. Animals low on the evolutionary scale depend little on learning, and have a lesser adaptability to changes in the environment. Consequently, their dependence on heredity-geophysicalgravitational origins is high in proportion to animals high on the evolutionary scale.
Vertigo, Loss of Coordination-Balancing & Gravity Chains Biological structures in the inner ear include semicircular canals and a fluid that moves by gravity force, and activates a system that transmits linear and rotational motions vis-à-vis the gravity vector to the vestibular nerve, which carries these signals through the brainstem to our brain cerebellum, which, in turn, uses them to control our balancing, orientation, coordination and movement. The vestibular system in our ears comprises two semi-circular ‘canals’, which are used to indicate our rotational movements, and otoliths, which indicate linear translations. Vertigo is a loss of coordination, balancing and orientation vis-à-vis space and the gravity-induced horizon. The vestibular system sends signals primarily to the neural structures that control our eye movements, and to the Cerebellum-muscles system that keeps us upright and helps maintain clear vision-orientation vs. the gravity vector.
Biological Cells, Reproduction, Immunity System & Gravity Gravity causes changes in cell division, metabolism and the immunity system. Reproduction is also impaired and the immune cells cannot differentiate into mature cells in low or zero gravity conditions attainable in space craft. The size of a biological cell depends on the local gravity vector – its size increases in larger local gravitational field-force values. Bone cells must attach themselves to something and will die if they cannot. Without the gravity force- field they float around and perish. When animals evolve on land, outside the oceans, they develop stronger skeletons to cope with larger gravity forces vis-à- vis the reduced one due to buoyancy in the waters. Earlier life forms in the oceans were smaller and had a jellyfish-like configuration. Thus, without strong skeletons, land animals cannot evolve.
Animals and Gravity-Induced Effects Gravimorphism, gravitropism and tropism are directional movements of a plant with respect to a directional stimulus. One such tropism is gravimorphism -- the growth or movement of a plant 61
with respect to gravity. Plant roots grow in the direction of gravity while shoots and stems grow against it RECAP: Gravity generates structures and controls all geological layers and global phenomena ranging from mountain crests, gravity-induced tectonic folds, valleys, beaches, oceans and lagoons, to springs, wells, swamps, glaciers and rivers, and the bio-systems connected with them. Without gravity-induced orientation-order and grammar we are lost in any given written language. Gravity-induced grammar prevents us from vertical reversals. Similarly, horizontal reversals prevent us, say, from reversals of W to M. There are more complicated gravity-induced grammar rules. They range from preventing reversal of past into future, and vice versa, to use gravity-induced structures as reference: A mountain crest, valley, beach line, river bed, sky, earth, ocean, etc. Gravity-sensing cells function as detectors of the direction of gravity. The fluid-particles systems inside cells initiate inner convective currents that cease under zero gravity. Thus, the absence of gravity affects the contacts of cells via their membrane potential and their cytoskeletons
Gravity-Induced Village and City Structures Gravity generates structures, controls all geological layers and global phenomena ranging from mountain crests, tectonic folds, geological uplifts, valleys, village & city structures, transportation systems, oceans and lagoons, to springs, wells, swamps, glaciers, rivers, and related ecological-systems.
Gravity v. Global Warming v. Health The evolution and everyday functioning of our bones, legs, hips, joints, cartilages, ligaments, femurs, tibia, pelvis and muscles, has been "in response" to the force and direction of gravity. Gravity plays a key factor in hygiene and in heart failure associated with swollen legs, in flooded lungs, walking, sleeping needs, etc. Nevertheless, the cardinal role gravity plays in the treatment of gravity-induced disorders in biological systems, human perception, health and longevity, has been largely overlooked by health providers and researchers, partly because the key role of gravity as the universal generator of all socio-gravity-dynamics, has not yet been well understood and investigated. 62
DID HE FOOL THE Nobel-Prize Committee Members? "The works of scientists like Gal-Or, Bohm, and (Noble Prize-Winner) Prigogine provide important resources. Prigogine's formalisms do not really tell us how irreversible change emerges from reversible [mathematics]. (in this Gal-Or is superior)." The Crisis of the Sciences.
PERSONAL EXPERIENCES As chair of the 1969 International Conference on Classical and Relativistic Thermodynamics, Refrences, I invited Prigoigine to preset his much published and globally lectured thermodynamic theory about what he claimed to be the universal origin of irreversibility in nature â€“ namely, on the origin of the 2nd law of thermodynamics,, in his FORMULATIONS I discovered a fundamentaL MISTAKE THAT HE IS Intentionally HIDING. Thus we had uneasy talk there about the validity of his worldwide acclaimed, and I prevened him to present a misleading theory and formulation there. That issue was raised again in 1974 at the State University of New York in Buffalo, post his invited lecture there. While Prigogine did not object my following his proposed dictums, he has not correctd the erorrs. These are:
Conservation of symmetry -- If one starts a theory with symmetric mathematics it can never be changed to a asymmetrical results, unless one smuggles-in the results without declaring the contraband. In fact, without going into mathamitacl details, if one claims that by so breaking symmetry he discovered a great proof of science, this ver fact is a proof that the proof is not a proof, to say the least Same with asymmtery. Prediction is also symmetric with retrodiction. If one a priori selects only prediction one fools himeself that a proof was made. If one seels his proof to fellow scientists, the proof does not even rise to the level of being scientifically wrong. Initial conditions are also symmetric with final conditions. If one a priori selects only initial conditions, one fools himself that a proof was made, and again the conclusion is as stated above.
Linguistics foolings are also ve common: E.g., "the particles were "un-correlated" and then "correlated", therefore â€Ś., or other linguistic manipulations that had been well-reviewed and published as articles of top science proofs. This includes the semi-sacrosact Boltzman Theorem, and endless statistical and quantum theories claimed "proofs". 63
Some 'SYMMETRY BREAKING' GHOSTS crowning string and similar attempts to unify the standard quantum modeld with Einsten's deerministic gravity physics may thus prevent unification.Prigogine was indeed a great impostor in hiding his stealthy smuggling of asymmetry into his equations aimed to marke his 'proofs' to editors, to the public, to endless awards-people and their friends, that, indeed, he had found the final, greatest universal proof vis-a-vis all previously failed attempts before. And he got the Nobel for that.
REFERENCES and Notes 1. Isaacson Walter, "Einstein, His Life and Universe", SIMON & SCHUSTER PAPERBACKS, 2007, pages 214-221, 551. TIME: Person of the Century: Why We Chose Einstein, January 3, 2000. Post the first Relativistic Thermodynamics Conference, in Pittsburgh, Pa, and a few publications [4-6] -- Einstein's memorial supporters in the U.S. approached the author, proposing to fund handling, editing & publishing of Einstein's Life and scientific Records . But due to researchteaching loads the thankful and grateful response included a respectful proposal to transfer this great memorial and historical task to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, as done. Main Publication list by and on Albert Einstein: Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen (Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity), Ann. Phys. 4: 513 (1901); A. Einstein, On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light, ibid, 17: 132 (1905); A. Einstein, new determination of molecular dimensions, PhD thesis (April 30, 1905); A. Einstein, On the Motion Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid, (Brownian Motion), ibid., 17: 549–560 (1905); A. Einstein, On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, (on Special Relativity) Ibid, 17: 891 (1905); A. Einstein, Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?, (on Mass-Energy equivalence), Ibid, 19: 639 (1905); A. Einstein, On the Influence of Gravity on the Propagation of Light, ibid, 35: 898 (1911); A. Einstein, ibid. 10, 195 (1909); ibid. 10, 323 (1909); W. Ritz, (Wrongly Attacking Einstein’s Origin of Electromagnetic Irreversibility), Phys. Z. 9, 903 (1908); A. Einstein, Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation), Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: 844 (1915); A. Einstein, Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie (Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity), Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften (1917); A. Einstein, Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung (On the Quantum Mechanics of Radiation)", Physikalische Zeitschrift 19: 121 (1917); A. Einstein, Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901–1921, Amsterdam: Elsevier (1923); A. Einstein, Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases (Quantum theory of monatomic ideal gases) Sitzungsberichte der Preussichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Physikalisch—Mathematische Klasse: 261 (1924); A. Einstein, Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flussläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes (On meanders in the courses of rivers) Die Naturwissenschaften 14: 223 (1926); A. Einstein, B. Podolsky and N. Rosen, Nathan, Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?", (The EPR Paradox) Physical Review, 47 (10): 777 (1935); A. Einstein, Lens-Like Action of a Star by the Deviation of Light in the Gravitational Field, Science 84, 506 (1936) (Gravitational Lens, Einstein Rings); A. Einstein, On Science and Religion, Nature 146: 64
605 (1940); A. Einstein, et al. To the editors, New York Times (4 December 1948); On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation, Scientific American (4): 13 (1950); E. Hubble, A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae, Proc., Nat. Acad. of Sciences (U.S.), Vol. 15, Iss. 3, (1929); A. Einstein and L. Infeld,, The World As I See It (1934); A. Einstein, The Evolution of Physics, (1938); Out of My Later Years (1950); A. Einstein, The Meaning of Relativity, Princeton University Press (1956); A. Friedman, A: Über die Krümmung des Raumes, Z. Phys. 10 377 (1922), (English translation: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, 1991 (1999); A. Alain, D., Jean and R., Gérard, Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers, Phys. Rev. Letters, 49 (25) (1982): Nobel Foundation, Albert Einstein — Biography; D. Howard and J. Stachel, Einstein: The Formative Years, 1979-1909, Springer (2000); P. A. Schilpp (Ed.), Albert Einstein — Autobiographical Notes, Open Court Publishing (1979); P. A. Schilpp, (Ed.), Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, Harper Torchbook (1951); R. Clark, Einstein: The Life and Times, HarperCollins (1984); F. Golden, Person of the Century: Albert Einstein, Time (Jan 3, 2000); About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930); Why War? (1933, with Sigmund Freud); P. Galison, Einstein's Clocks: The Question of Time; A. Pais, Subtle is the Lord. The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein, Oxford University Press (1982); J. Crelinsten, Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity, Princeton University Press (2006); H. Kant, Albert Einstein and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin; J. Renn, (Ed), Albert Einstein — Chief Engineer of the Universe: One Hundred Authors for Einstein, Wiley-VCH. (2005); J. Schmidhuber, Albert Einstein (1979–1955) and the 'Greatest Scientific Discovery Ever' (2006); Einstein archive at the InstituutLorentz, NL; G., Goettling, Einstein's refrigerator, Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine (1998); U.S. Patent 1,781,541 , Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd (refrigerator), November 11, 1930; Brian, Dennis Einstein: A Life, New York: John Wiley & Sons (1996); Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman (eds) Albert Einstein, The Human Side, Princeton University Press (1981); A. Einstein, The World as I See It. New York: Philosophical Library Albert (1949); Zionism and Israel Information Center, Albert Einstein and Zionism; American Museum of Natural History (2002), Einstein's Revolution; Rowe, David E.; Schulmann, Robert, Einstein on Politics: His Private Thoughts and Public Stands on Nationalism, Zionism, War, Peace, and the Bomb, Princeton University Press (2007); Einstein Archives, History of the Estate of Albert Einstein, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (2007); Princeton Online Einstein in Princeton: Scientist, Humanitarian, Cultural Icon, Historical Society of Princeton;J. Stachel, et al, (Eds.) The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vols. 1–10, Princeton University Press; The Atomic Heritage Foundation, Einstein’s Famous Letter to the U.S. President about the need to survive by developing the atomic bomb before the Germans would do it; 1. Person of the Century: Why We Chose Einstein, Time, (3 January 2000). 2. Gal-Or Benjamin, Entropy, Fallacy, and the Origin of Irreversibility: An Essay on the Einsteinian New Astrophysical Revolutionary School of Thermodynamics; Annal. N.Y. Acad. Acad. Sci., 196 (A6) 305 (1972) Awarded the Gold Medal, while allegedly a rival article by S. Hawking did not make it. 3. Gal-Or Benjamin, on cosmological origin of thermodynamics, Nature 230, 65
1971); 234, 217 (1971); 4. Gal-Or Benjamin, On The Origin of Irreversibility, Science, 176, 11 (1972); 178, 119 (1972); 5. Gal-Or Benjamin, Found. Phys. 6, 407 (1976); 6, 623 (1976); 7, 50 (1977); 6. Gal-Or Benjamin, Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy (CPP), Volumes I and II, Springer Verlag, New York, 1981, 1983, 1987, Volumes I and 2 in 522-page, Hard-Cover worldwide acclaimed book, based on Refers. 5 to 10; "Gravitism", "Havayism", '"The New Astrophysical School" , still in high demand nowdays. 7. Gamov's book on the expanding universe. As undergraduate student I read there about Einstein's background, his field equations and apparently Gomov's predictions about 270 degrees below zero C cosmic voids between all galaxies receding away from each other – expanding voids that rule intergalactic dark cold spaces between all galaxies and the OLBERSE PARADOX RE WHY THE NIGHT SKY IS SO DRK AND COLD? And the affrmation of the expanding voids by Hubble – extensive reading tht had caused a serch for physical links between the voids-expansion aand non-expanding stars and gaalaxies, Gravity Physics and the asymmetric 2nd law of thermodynamics. References 5 to 10. Associted facts: With that conviction I refuted Mr. S. Zeidman's final "Thermo Exam", claiming the 2nd law of Thermodynamics is based on dissipating radiated energy from stars & galaxies into expanding, cold dark space, a claim that he considered a bad joke, and failed me, only to cause a scandal at the Technion, claiming a Dr. Degree should not be granted due to said FAILURE TO PASS HIS "THERO EXAM" in 1957. At that time, in 1963/4, the cosmic background radiation was discovered, proving not only the prediction, but overthrowing the steady-state theory of Fred Hoyle, Herman Bondi and Tommy Gold. My contested thermo was thus presented before a committee headed by Professors William "Bill" Resnick and Reuel Shinaar. Dr. Degree was next granted with "Flying Colors". 11. Gal-Or Benjamin, "Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability and Robot Aircraft, Springer Verlag, 1989, 1990, still in high demand. 11. On HYPATIA: A. Fitzgerald, Letter of Synesius of Cyrene to Hypathia, London, (1926); Grand Commentaire, de Théon d'Alexandrie aux 'Tables faciles' de Ptolémée, Livre II, III, Vatican City, 1985, 1991; Commentaries de Pappus et de Théon d'Alexandrie sur l'Almageste Tome III. Théon d'Alexandrie, Rome, 19; The calculation of an eclipse of the sun according to Theon of Alexandria, in Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians, 1, 209-219, (1950), Providence, 1952; Marinus de Naplouse - un commentaire au 'Petit commentaire' de Théon, Janus 63 (1-3), 167-194, 1976; Théon d'Alexandrie et les 'Tables faciles' de Ptolémée, Arch. Internat. Hist. Sci. 35 (114-115, 106-123) 1985; 'Commentaire à l'Almageste' de Théon d'Alexandrie, Antiquité Classique, 56, 201-219, 1987; O. Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy, New York, (1975); A. Khan, Hypatia; Authorhouse, (2001); K. Chares, Hypatia: New Foes with an Old Face, Kessinger Publishing, (1997); A. Margaret, Hypatia’s Heritage: A history of Women in Science from Antiquity Through the Ninetheenth Century; I. Mueller, L.S. Grinstein & P. J. Campbell Women of Mathematics: A Biobibliographic Sourcebook. New York: Greenwood Press, (1987); M. M. Mangasarian,. The Martyrdom of Hypatia, (1915); J. Bregman, Synesius of Cyrene: Philosopher-bishop. Berkley: University of California Press (1982); M. B. Ogilvie, Women in science: Antiquity through the nineteenth century. MIT Press, (1986); Hypatia - Physics, culture and sense of duty, Spanish university (2006); T L. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics, Oxford, 66
(1921); W. MĂźller, Das isoperimetrische Problem im Altertum mit einer Ăźbersetzung der Abhandlung des Zenodoros nach Theon von Alexandrien, Sudhoffs Arch. 37 (1953), 39-71, (1953); P. Pingree, An illustrated Greek astronomical manuscript: Commentary of Theon of Alexandria on the 'Handy tables' and scholia and other writings of Ptolemy concerning them, J. Warburg, Courtauld Inst., 45, 195 (1982); Reports by the Department of Mathematics, St. Andrews University in Scotland; Carl Sagan, Cosmos; Maria Dzielska, Hypatia of Alexandria; Hypathia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy; Wessel, Susan. Cyril of Alexandria and the Nestorian Controversy: The Making of a Saint and a Heretic. Oxford, 2004. ISBN 0-19-926846-0.
IS THE GREAT PAST THEORETICAL PHYSICS GONE?