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INTERGALACTIC

Probability Physics May Fool Itself & The Public


Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or

PART 1

"EXTERNAL WORLD INDEPENDENT OF THE PERCEIVING SUBJECT IS THE BASIS OF ALL NATURAL SCIENCE" EINSTEIN DICTUM AGAINST HEISENBERG PROBABILIY-UNCERTAINTY OF THE "PERCEIVING SUBJECT" THAT STILL RULES OVER THE

"QUANTUM STANDARD MODEL", "On the evolution of physical reality", 1931

BOX

E.G., post his neglected " ": "Einstein's thught experiment involved a box with a shutter that could open and shut so rapidly that it would allow only one photon to escape at a time. The shutter is controlled by a precise clock. The box is weighed exactly. Then, at a certain specified moment, the shutter opens and a photon escapes. The box is now weighed again. The relationship between energy and mass (remember, E=mc2) permitted a precise determination of the energy of the particle. And we know, from the clock, its exact time of departing the system." " ALTER ISAACSON, "EINSTEIN, His Life and Universe", SIMON & SCHUSTER PAPERBACKS, MAY 2008, at 348, 349, 612.

"LIFE IS LIKE RIDING a BYCYCLE, TO KEEP YOUR BALANCE YOU MUST KEEP MOVING" EINSTEIN TO HIS SON, FEBRUARY 5, 1930, Id. at ix.

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Einsteinian Heritage

ARMIES OF FAKE SCIENTISTS TRY IN VAIN TO REPLACE IT WITH THEIR DARK-MATTERENERGY HOAX or CHIMERA, to be Awarded $-Billions & False Fame

1987 Painting by E. Katz, By permission

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EINSTEIN: “It is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science. It was the experience of mystery -- even if mixed with fear -- that engendered religion. A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate, of the manifestations of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty, which are only accessible to our reason in their most elementary forms -- it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute the truly religious attitude; in this sense, and in this alone, I am a deeply religious man.” “I cannot conceive of a God who rewards and punishes his creatures, or has a will of the type of which we are conscious in ourselves. An individual who should survive his physical death is also beyond my comprehension, nor do I wish it otherwise; such notions are for the fears or absurd egoism of feeble souls.” “Enough for me the mystery of the eternity of life, and the inkling of the marvelous structure of reality, together with the single-hearted endeavor to comprehend a portion, be it never so tiny, of the reason that manifests itself in nature.” “I gang my own gait and have never belonged to my country, my home, my friends, or even my immediate family, with my whole heart; in the face of all these ties I have never lost an obstinate sense of detachment, which increases with age.”. “One is sharply conscious, yet without regret, of the limits to the possibility of mutual understanding and sympathy with one's fellow-creatures. Such a person no doubt loses something in the way of geniality and lightheartedness; on the other hand, he is largely independent of the opinions, habits, and judgments of his fellows.”

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or In lieu of the aforementioned personal-life and philosophy-faith, Einstein consistently selected to protect his privacy inside his room, in his house, working in maximized-freedom, undisturbed solitude; even sleeping naked in his room while his privacy has been strictly guarded by his devoted secretary Helen Dukas, who also screened his incoming mail, deleted nasty or anti-Semitic letters and politely blocking unwanted visitors. Einstein is also known for his subtle sarcasm. Before Einstein left Hitler’s Germany to the United States, a professor in Berlin was extremely nasty in targeting him. One day Einstein was informed that Professor XXX just died. Einstein’s reaction: “Everyone does something good in his life, even Professor XXX; he died.

Einstein's "Anti-Pomposity"; Anti-"Politically Correct" As a younger man he used to play his beloved violin in the homes of some German women. One day, while he was playing there, they started knitting. Einstein stopped playing, packed his violin to leave, and apologized: “I would not even dream to disturb you from your knitting work. ”On another occasion, as a celebrity living in his house near a lake outside Berlin, his wife urged him to change his simple, but comfortable home dress, to a formal one, for dignitaries are to arrive soon to visit him. His response: let them meet me as I am dressed and work in my house. If they come to see my formal dress please show them my closet.

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Theoretical Physics at its Highest Historical Level

The highest level of physics was reached post (i) The creation of the 1915 Einsteinian Gravity Physics (General Relativity) that predicts a strange, socially unwanted, world expansion (or contraction), (ii) That unwanted theory was first confirmed in 1918 by correctly predicting the bending of light by gravitation in curved space-time, (iii) Reconfirmed, before 1927, by the American astronomer Hubble: We live in an expanding world that had "beginning", as the Bible states In its first Chapter. Sitting, from left: I. Langmuir, M. Planck, Marie Curie, H.A. Lorentz, A. Einstein, P. Langevin, Ch.E. Guye, C.T.R. Wilson, O.W. Richardson 2nd Sitting: P. Debye, M. Knudsen, W.L. Bragg, H.A. Kramers, P.A.M. Dirac, A.H. Compton, L. de Broglie, M. Born, N. Bohr; Standing: A. Piccard, E. Henriot, P. Ehrenfest, E. Herzen, Th. de Donder, E. Schrรถdinger, J.E. Verschaffelt, W. Pauli, W. Heisenberg, R.H. Fowler, L. Brillouin.

NONE OF CONTEMORARY PHYSICISTS, INCLUDING the GREAT CONTRIBUTORS to physics, and NOBEL LAURATES, have reached the historic standing of most of these creative scientists.

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or Perfection of means and confusion of goals, seem – in my opinion – to characterize our age. ----- Albert Einstein Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.----- Albert Einstein The pursuit of knowledge for its own sake, an almost fanatical love of justice, and the desire for personal independence--these are the features of Jewish tradition which make me thank my stars that I belong to it. ----- Albert Einstein Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds ----- Albert Einstein INFINITIES? -- the universe and human stupidity, and am not sure about the universe. (Einstein); Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new.----- Albert Einstein Do what you feel to be right, for you'll be criticized anyway ----- Eleanor Roosevelt Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. ------ Margaret Mead

Nobel Laureate RICHARD FEYNMAN “The first principle is that you must not fool yourself – and you are the easiest person to fool. So you have to be very careful about that. After you’ve not fooled yourself, it’s easy not to fool other scientists. You just have to be honest in a conventional way.”

“You should not fool the layman when you’re talking as a scientist."

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PART 2

GRAVITISM TABLE OF CPP CONTENTS

Preface SIR KARL POPPER, Foreword ……………….………..……..… xx SIR ALAN COTTRELL, Foreword ………………….……......... xxi Preface ……………………………………..….……….…..….... xxii

Introduction 1.1 The Revival of Relativistic Cosmology vs. Modified Concepts and Order in Physics and Philosophy 1.1.1 Science Order: Cosmology to Quantum or in Reverse?... 3 1.1.2 How did all start? v. Science teaching of that Order….....5 1.1.3 The first seven stages v. tradition ……….....…............... 7 1.1.4 The present matter-dominated era by Astronomy........... 11 2.1 The Einsteinian Methodology: A Preliminary Remark ..... 11

From Terrestrial Gravitational Structures to Black Holes and Neutrinos in Astrophysics 1.1 Gravitation, Asymmetry and Structure of Earth v. Cosmos ...80 A fallacy associated with current Education ...………...........80 1.1.2 Gravity-induced sedimentary structures …………............. 81 1.2 Stars and the Hertzsprung-Russel Central Diagram ……….. 88 1.3 Supernova, Gravitational Collapse, Neutron Stars, Pulsars …………………………………….......…92 1.4 X-Ray Astronomy, Binary X-Ray Systems, and... Gravitational Clocks ……………………………………......... . 100

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or 1.5 Black Holes …………………….…………………….….… 106 1.6 Gas, Dust and the Formation of Stars in Our Galaxy ............113 1.7 How Are Cosmic Distances Measured? ……………….….. 116 1.8 Neutrino Astronomy and Astrophysics ………………….... 130 1.9 The Emergence of Gamma-Ray Astronomy ………….…... 132 1.10 Exploration of Extra-Solar Space by Unmanned Spacecraft ……………………….………..…… 134

From Old Physics to Particle Physics-I 2.1 Aim and Scope ……………………………………………. 138 2.2 Limitations of Theory ……………………………….….… 140 2.3 The General Macroscopic Equation ………………….….... 142 2.4 Continuity Equation (Total Mass Conservation) ………..... 146 2.5 Conservation of Linear Momentum and Gravity.…………. 147 2.6 The Navier-Stokes Equations and Gravity ……………….. 149 2.7 Kinetic-Energy Equation and Dissipation Function in Gravitational Fields ……………......... 152 2.8 First Law of Thermodynamics or Energy Conservation Equation ………………………………….......… 154 2.9 First Law and Enthalpy ………………………………….... 156 2.10 First Law In Terms of Temperature Field …………….…. 157 2.11 Entropy Balance Equation ……………………………….. 159 2.12 Beyond Classical Physics:...............…………………...…. 160 2.13 Neutrinos and the Powerful Role Conservation Equations Play in Subatomic Processes (Addendum) …...…… 163

General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology Should Rule Particle-Quantum Physics, Not the Other Way, Not by Quantum Axioms 3.1 Introduction …………………………………………………....... 167 3.1.1 Einstein’s field equations in general relativity ………..…….… 169 3.1.2 Confirmation of Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation …………..... 172 3.2 Principles and Formulations of General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology ………………...……….………………....... 191 3.3 Observations, The “Age” of the Universe. And “Equivalent Local Cells” …………………….……….….......... 200 3.4 Timekeeping, Accelerated Observers and the

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or Principle of Equivalence ………………………….……………........ 204 3.5 From General Relativity to Unified Field Theories ………….…. 205

From Physics to Philosophical Crossroads and Back The Arrows of Time 4.1 Time and The Arrow of Time: The Most Distorted of All Ideas? ..215 4.2 Asymmetry-Symmetry-Space-Time and The Unification of the Laws of Physics …………………….............. 216 4.3 Methodology, Aim and Scope ………………………………....... 217 4.4 Confusing Concepts of Time and Time Asymmetries ………...... 219 4.5 The Entropic Arrow of Time ……………………………….....… 222 4.6 Causality, Causation and Time Asymmetries ………………........ 226 4.7 Causation and Determinism in Relativistic Theories ……..............227 4.8 Cosmological Arrows of Time and Cosmic Time ……….…….... 230 4.9 A Few Concluding Remarks ………………….……...………...... 232 4.10 Time-Reversal Invariance and Irreversibility …………….……. 236 4.10 Microscopic Time Asymmetries in “Elementary Particles” … .. 240 4.11 Death of Scale-Based Physics….......….………….……….......... 242 4.12 “Dual” Quantum-Geometrodynamical School and “Superspace” 243 4.13 Tachyons and Causal Violations …………………….………. ....246 4.14 Macrocausality and Microcausality in Quantum Mechanics …... 247 4.15 Fading Memory in Classical Physics …………………………... 247 4.16 Doubts as to the Universality of Entropy ……………………..... 249 4.17 Entropy-Free Thermodynamic Arrows of Time ………….…... . 250

Crisis in the Standard Quantum Model Gravitation & Cosmology v. Quantum Model 5.1 Preliminary Review …………………………………….……...... 255 5.1.1 The three main schools of thought ……………………............. 261 5.2 Einstein’s Objections to the Uncertainty Principle ………........... 262 5.3 The Heresy of a Few Skeptics ………………………….…......... 265 5.4 Mythologized Concepts of Quantum Physics …………...…....... 265 5.5 The Failure of Classical and Quantal Statistical Mechanics to Deduce Irreversibility and Time Asymmetries .............267 5.6 The Emergence of Quantum Chromodynamics and Super-Symmetry …………………………………….................. 272 5.6.1 Spatio-Temporal Approach to Quantum Physics ……….......... 272 5.6.2 From Weinberg-Salam Theory to

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or Quantum Chromodynamics ………………………............................ 273 5.6.2.1 Conservation laws as symmetry principles; and vice versa ... 273 5.6.2.2 Global, exact, approximate, isotopic and SU(3) symmetries 274 5.6.2.3 From SU(3) to renormalizable gauge theories ……............... 276 5.6.2.4 Quark confinement asymptotic freedom in gauge theories 276-1 5.6.2.5 QCD and the search for higher symmetry principles ……... 276-2 5.6.3 Quantum Field Theories, Super-Symmetry & Super-Gravity... 276-3 5.6.3.1 Limits of quantum gravity and ‘Unified Field Theories’ .......276-4

From Physics to Cosmological Crossroads and Back Assessed by Physics and Philosophy 6.1 FIRST: Reduction of Thermodynamics to Gravitation ...,... 277 6.1.1 Intergalactic voids rule 2 Expansions of the Universe....,..277 6.1.2 Gravitation as super-structuring of matter and All Life.....279 6.2 The Earliest Observational Evidence. .…...………...........279 6.2.1 Which space expands and which does not? …...….......... 282 6.3 Gravitation-Asymmetry Principle of Equivalence …….......284 6.4 Can Inter-cluster Voids Be Saturated with Radiation? .........287 6.5 Derivation of the Master Asymmetry from our Gravitational School of Intergalactic Voids v. life........ 290 6.6 Irreversibility in the New Gravitational. Cosmological Thermodynamics ………………................. 293 6.7 Origin of Dissipation in Newtonian Fluids ……..….......… 297 6.8 Terrestrial Thermodynamics ……………………..……..... 299 6.9 Connections with Classical and Continuum Thermodynamics …………………………..…..…........... 301 6.10 Electromagnetic Irreversibility v. Master Asymmetry..... 303

The Cosmological Base of Time Arrow 7.1 Time: The All-Embracing Concept …………………................. 309 7.2 Cosmological Origin of Time ……………………….................. 310 7.3 Cosmological Interpretations of Newton’s Laws of Motion …... 314 7.4 Gravitational Origin of Structure and Evolution .……................ 316 7.5 Gravitation and the Outflow of Energy Into Un-Saturable Space 322 7.6 Stellar Evolution …………………………………….................. 324 7.7 Terrestrial Evolution …………………………..............……...... 325

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or Black Holes v. Unattainable Theory of Everything 8.1 Introduction ………………………………………...… 330 8.2 Observational Evidence ………………………….….....331 8.3 Schwarzschild Solution and Black Holes …………...... 332 8.4 Black Holes Mechanics and Entropy ………………..... 340 8.5 Can Black Holes “Evaporate”? ……………………...... 341 8.6 Primordial Black Holes? …………………………........ 341 8.7 Back to the Melting Pot of Unification? …………........ 341

Beyond Present Knowledge 9.1 The Futile Quest for Final Answers …………………...... 349 9.2 An Example in Havaism ……………………..….........… 350 9.3 From Cosmology to Irreversible Structures and Memory 365 9.4 The Skeptic Outlook ……………………………..…...… 415

VOLUME II Introduction ……………………………………………................... 420 A Few Historical Remarks on Time, Mind and Symmetry ………... 437 The Philosophy of Time & Change: Some Historical Notions …………………….……………….…...... 455 Structuralism and the Divided American Thought: A Short Glossary of Terms ………………………………..……….. 467 Policy and Publicity: A Critique ………………………………….... 483 Thought-Provoking and Thought-Depressing Quotations ………..... 495 Critique of Western Methodology ……………………………….

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Published Reviews CPP of

"A Master Piece. The well-known author bases his philosophy on a very sound knowledge of present-day scientific theories. " Indian Journal of Physics [56] "Evokes a person heart ! Has generated a large number of responses from around the world, some declaring that it has turned them into “Gal-Orians”. Since the thought presented by this book is so rich, translators of our country should recommend this book with all their intellectual power." Chinese Academy of Sciences "Tour de force. A magnificent and sustained piece of work! Gal-Or’s net is widely cast – it reaches as far as science policy and political philosophy." A. Cottrell, V. Chancellor, Cambridge University "Appeals to scientists of all disciplines who are prepared to open their minds. Shines a welcome light in some dark corners of science. New Scientist (Magazine) "Gal-Or launches a new spirit of inquiry by his excellent and thought provoking writings. I would recommend awarding a prize and would hope that this would serve to focus attention on a most important subject.” Gold Award by N.Y. Academy of Sciences "This is a great book, and an exciting book; readable, worth reading and enlightening." Sir Karl Popper, one of the Greatest Philosophers of Science, "I do not know a better modern expression of science, philosophy and classical humanism than that of Gal-Or’s book." HaAretz Daily "We are all Gal-Orians ! Editor, Foundations of Physics "Gal-Or’s “beauty” has always been the object of science, which, he lyrically observes as “a most fundamental aesthetic frame of mind, a longing for the run-away horizons of truth and symmetry that we always try to reach.” Order Amidst Chaos, Enlightenment Aesthetics

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Recommended by Encyclopedia Britannica, "Nature, Philosophy of" "This is one of the most beautiful books that I have read." Outstanding Books List "The works of scientists like Gal-Or, Bohm, and (Noble Prize-Winner) Prigogine provide important resources. Prigogine's formalisms do not really tell us how irreversible change emerges from reversible [mathematics]. (in this Gal-Or is superior)." The Crisis of the Sciences "Einstein's time-symmetric tensor was elevated by Gal-Or’s “New Astronomical School of Unified Thermodynamics” to the status of the source of “Master Asymmetry” controlling not only irreversible thermodynamics, but all physical and biological phenomena! Gal-Or calls “GRAVITISM” (his philosophy) that gravitation is the prime cause of structures, irreversibility, time, geo-chemical and biological evolution -- that the expansion of the universe is the cause of the second law of thermodynamics -- that microscopic physics, and thermodynamics in particular, cannot be understood without reference to cosmology. He ties “irreversibility” to the “expansion of space itself”, i.e. as far as space is expanding, the contribution of all kinds of radiation in space is weakened “irreversibly” due to the expansion phenomenon itself. Such loss, or “degradation” of energy in the depth of inter-cluster expanding space, may then be considered as a universal sink for all the radiation flowing out of the material bodies in the expanding universe.” Advancement of Physics

“I have in the meantime studied your (unclassified, theoretical-philosophical) book, with great interest, and made pages of notes on it. I feel as if I had been on numerous walks and talks with you on the great questions, and know that would be great to go on with them! Who cannot be impressed by your love for the great men of all times and all countries, by your phrase “working back and forth between theory and fact”, by your belief that philosophy is too important to be left to the philosophers, by your concern for where thought and language lie in the scheme of things – and by so much more! I continue to reflect, again and again, on your central thesis that expansion is the origin of all asymmetry in time. What an ingenious phrase is your, “smuggle irreversibility in without declaring the contraband”! I regard your book as seeking to accomplish two tasks – and being two books – at the very least One is the exposition of your central thesis, with clarity, and careful mustering of every argument pro and con that can lead to testable consequences. I don’t see how it is possible to do proper justice to a thesis of such importance by mixing it in with the other great task. That is to give students an appreciation of the unity of philosophy and modern physics. You do both tasks far better than I could hope to. I give you my personal thanks for putting the two books into a package that I personally have found most thought-provoking.”

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or Prof. John

Wheeler Inst. of Advanced Studies Princeton University

“Gal-Or's remarkable book sees and seizes the world whole. He emphasizes that all scientists (and technologists) operate under some set of philosophical prejudices, and that failure to acknowledge this is self-delusion. Furthermore, he argues that a failure to attend to the philosophical base of physics leads to an empty scientism. His work is challenging on many levels, constituting a review 'with derivations' of general relativity 'as applied to cosmology', thermodynamics, the current state of theoretical particle physics, astrophysics, as well as a summary history of western philosophy, 'especially the philosophies of time and mind' and critiques of western society, the intelligentsia and the relationship between academic science and government. One 'and perhaps the central' theme explored, is that of the interplay between symmetry and asymmetry (in science and defense). His primary interest is not in the recent progress in the unification of forces in gauge theory, although he finds support in it for his Einsteinian outlook, but is rather time, time's arrow, and the asymmetry between past and future. Around time are accumulated discussions, both mathematical and philosophical, of thermodynamic reversibility, time reversibility, the nature of causality, and the use of advanced and retarded solutions to wave equations. The second major theme is that of gravity and its overwhelming domination of the actual form of the universe, at all scales. The combination of these themes is not accidental; they are point and counterpoint to his thesis that the time asymmetries are connectable to and perhaps even determined by the master asymmetry given by the gravity of general relativity: the remorseless cosmological expansion. He argues that only the expansion can provide the unification of time asymmetries. The expansion provides, among other things, an UNSATURABLE SINK for radiation, which, in turn, permits the establishment of gradients in temperature and density, which provide the basis for the physical process that leads to life. THE BOOK "criticizes the sloppy and improper use of the concepts of entropy 'and the related notions in 'information theory' and quantum indeterminism, especially as covers for an inadequate understanding of temporal asymmetries. Taking an Einsteinian position on the interpretation of quantum mechanics, he looks forward to revitalization of Einstein's quest for a deterministic interpretation of quantum events. "The value of this book lies in the challenging combination of ideas which Gal-Or presents, which goes far beyond what can be sensibly described in a review. [This] work may be too large to digest as a text in these days of the decline of academic institutions 'as Gal-Or describes them', but that will be the loss of both the faculty and the students.� " AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS

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AUTHOR AT HOME IN PALM BEACH, FLORIDA, U.S., 2003.

REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Gal-Or Benjamin, editor, Proceeding of 1969 CONFERENCE on classical and relativistic Thermodynamics, Pittsburgh. Gal-Or Benjamin, Entropy, Fallacy, and the Origin of Irreversibility: An Essay on the Einsteinian New Astrophysical Revolutionary School of Thermodynamics; Annal. N.Y. Acad. Acad. Sci., 196 (A6) 305 (1972) Awarded the Gold Medal. Gal-Or Benjamin, Cosmological origin of thermodynamics, Nature 230, 1971); 234, 217 (1971); Gal-Or Benjamin, The Origin of Irreversibility, Science, 176, 11 (1972); 178, 119 (1972); Gal-Or Benjamin, Found. Phys. 6, 407 (1976); 6, 623 (1976); 7, 50 (1977); Gal-Or Benjamin, Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy (CPP), Volumes I and II, Springer Verlag, New York, 1981, 1983, 1987 , Gal-Or Benjamin, 2008-PRESENT ONLINE NEXT CPP VOLUMES.

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PART 3

Why dark energy is not even wrong

Figure 1: YELLOW ARROWS: GALACTIC WINDS DISSIPATING IN EACH VOID CLASH, THRUST (PUSH-BACK) COMPACTING GALAXIES INTO CLUSTERING FILAMENTS & ACCELERATE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE.

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or Marked on this NASA MAP OF THE VISIBLE UNIVERSE: 100-MILLION-LIGHT-YEARS-SACLE and VIRGO FILAMENT, WHERE WE ARE. The NASA map Identifies the size of coldest (270 C below zero), expanding VOIDS, some marked in pink, some closed, some open. Super-clusters of galaxies around each void, in

the form of NON-EXPANDING RADIATING "FILAMENTS", INSIDE ONE OF WHICH WE LIVE MARKED VIRGO. Figure 2: TWO COMPACTED, NON-EXPANDING, CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES REPRESENT THE ONES RECORDED IN FIG. 1. IN BETWEEN THE TWO CLUSTER AN EXPANGIN VOID REPRESENT THE ONES RECORDED IN FIG. 1. It is marked "EXPANDING", (UNSATURABLE), "SPACE 1".

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Figure 3: SPACE-2 wraps all non-expanding galaxies [Fig. 2] and all non-expanding SPACE3, where super-fast, interstellar winds, flow out to SPACE-2 and next, irreversibly dissipate in cold, EXPANDING-VOIDS/SPACE-1, composed of expanding VOIDS located between all Super-Clusters of galaxies. [Figures 1 & 2]. Images from author's book Ref. 5 & Wikipedia.

Thought experiment: Tomorrow the voids expansion stops. The temperatures in SPACES 3 to 1 gradually rise to those in the center of stars or galactic centers. Eventually, thermal equilbrium is reached by which all processes stop. The expanding-voids-causedgradients, Figure 2, cause all outflowing radiation (interstellar winds, or jets, Fig. 3] emerging from all active stars and galaxies. In a thermal equilibrium to be caused if all voids stop expanding, all stellars winds, Figure 3, are not being dissipated in EXPANDING-VOIDS/SPACE-1 via the gradients shown in Fig. 2. Cosmic black-body radiation. This is the 1964-

discovered, remnant left-over radiation glow that has expanded with SPACE-1 and had first cooled down to about 4,000-3,000 K. Its discovery and current studies provide one of the direct proofs that SPACE-1 has expanded during 13.7 billion sun-earth years. It is almost isotropic [the same in all directions]. Yet, slight variations in it are being measured to increase our knowledge on the beginning of gravity-induced structures, etc.

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or A note on Black holes: These are local "sinks" whose all combined energy dissipating capacities are far less than that provided by the universal sink EXPANDING-VOIDS/SPACE-1.

Concluding Remarks The central role in theoretical physics provided by EXPANDING-VOIDS/SPACE-1 is updated by this note on the origin of irreversibility in nature, of the cosmological origin of the second law of thermodynamics [1] and time asymmetries [2-6], as reviewed by worldwide acclaims provided in Appendix A.. Claimed advanced by this school also prove that no stellar evolution, planets and life, can emerge without the 1998-re-verified EXPANDING-VOIDS/SPACE-1. The new discoveries from 1998 to 2016 promote updating of the "Astrophysical School of Classical and Relativistic Thermodynamics."

S T c i e n c e

wo fundamental mistakes are claimed to rule theoretical physics and astrophysics:

(i) Increasing numbers of claimed roles of "Dark Energy" to explain the 1998-discovered acceleration of the universe, including demands to correct the well-verified, Einstein Field Equations, EFE, that predicted the expansion of the universe by not accepting stable cosmological solutions and have since been the sole verification of the observed, unusual motion of Mercury, the 1918 verified bending of light by massive gravitational objects in like the sun, and the 1929 HUBBLE observations that all clusters of galaxies recede away from each other by the expansion of the universe that does not include expansion of matter objects inside the galaxies.

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(ii) New and century-old published failures to explain the origin of irreversibility in nature, in time-asymmetric thermodynamics and in various theories about the origin of time asymmetries, mainly by resorting to various statistical-probability and linguistic models that had been proven misleading and wrong by 1971 articles in Nature and Science [1,2], first upgraded in 1972 by the N.Y. Academy of Sciences gold awarded work and the "New Astrophysical school of cosmological-gravitational thermodynamics" [3, and Appendix C}, which, has been updated by new observations in 1981, 1987, 2008 and 2016 by COSMOLOGY, PHYSICS and PHILOSOPHY Editions. [4, 5, 6].

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or For extensive summaries of said common mistakes see ref 5 at 267-283: "THE FALURE OF CLASSICAL AND QUANTAL STATISTICAL MECHANICS TO DEDUCE IRREVERSIBILITY AND TIME ASYMMETRIES". Examples: (i) Common use of prediction while rejecting retrodiction to get the desired "proofs", even by the famous Boltzmann Theorem or more recently by Nobel Prize Winner I. Prigogine, Appendix C], (ii) resorting to retarded solutions of the wave equations in static vs. expanding world. [Cf. John Wheeler's in Appendix C], (iii) or using only initial conditions vs. rejected final conditions when one resorts to symmetric mathematics to provide the sought-after "proof" in asymmetric mathematics, (iv) All such misleading proofs are shown in Ref. 5 as amounting to smuggling irreversibility into symmetric mathematics without declaring the contraband.

Marked also are intergalactic SPACE-2, which wraps all non-expanding clusters and super-clusters of galaxies, and interstellar SPACE-3 inside any non-expanding galaxy. Figure 3. This Astrophysical School claims that each void encounters fast incoming "RADIATION FLOWS/JETS" [Fig. 1, yellow arrows], which clash about midway in all expanding voids. Next, by rocket-type reaction physics, the radiation jets enter the expanding voids, which are uniformly distributed, as shown in Figure 1, from all directions, thereby thrusting-pushing out the material "walls" of all non-expanding, super-clusters of galaxies around each, causing acceleration of the left-over EINSTEIN-HUBBLE expansion inertia. CONCLUSION-I: Various Dark-Energy proponents in universities and government institutions, mainly in the U.S. and UK, not only fool themselves, fellow scientists, media editors, the public, but fool governments to finance their grand, 18-years-hoax-chimera, partly because they fail to account for their inability to read proofs that they are absolutely wrong, say, by (i) evidence provided in this note vis-Ă -vis their speculations that a mysterious "Dark Energy" fills the entire universe, and that

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or (ii) it causes the 1998-detected acceleration of the expansion of the universe, and that (iii) it resurrects a wrong historical artificial number added to Einstein Field Equations, EFE, and that (iv) well-verified EFE Einstein are wrong, and that (v) to correct the well-verified Einstein gravity Physics, and EFE, scientists must next resort to their Dark-Energy-based new formulations, some of which are based on other wrongs briefed in PART B, and that (vi) the governments further finance their hoax by huge budgets in space-crafts, space research , academic education to verify their Chimera.

CONCLUSION II: Such empty claims and expensive, misleading activities, only bring a sad end to theoretical physics. Thus, universities and governments should next stop budgeting these superexpensive Chimerian-tests, and all active DEC members fired. CONCLUSION III: "Adiabatic walls" marked in Figure 2 are virtual surfaces that encage each expanding void and thus prevent net energy flow from one expanding void to another due to their uniform distribution in space. Energy still flows through this surface in opposing directions, but the net value is zero. Therefore the study of one expanding void is unequivocally equivalent to the study of all, namely, all root-causes of all processes in the universe, have emerged during the expansion-cooling of these voids from about 4,000 degrees at the end of the radiation-dominated era of the expanding universe, down to 2.7 degrees K that currently rules all expanding-cooling voids.

"The frequent occurrence of these [COLD, DARK, EXPANDING VOIDS HARBORING ALMOST NO GALAXIES vis-Ă -vis NON-EXPANDING, COMPACTED CLUSTERS OF SUPER-STRUCTURES OF GALAXIES IN THE FORM OF FILAMENTS AROUND EACH VOID]

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or is one of several serious challenges to our current understanding of the origin and evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe."

SCIENCE, AAA PMID: 17812575 DOI: 10.1126/science.246.4932.897; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17812575

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or

PART 4

Problems in String Mathrmatical Music Current experimental techniques in science cannot provide direct verification below about 10-19 meter, which is more than 15 orders of magnitude above any direct verification scale of string theories, or of any theory. Moreover, all string theories have failed to converge into a single acceptable formulation, and no string theory version has made any prediction that differs from those made by other theories. Whatever the future holds for string theories, they have become an active branch of theoretical physics, that, in part, had originated from Einstein’s search for a unified field theory of gravity and quantum physics. The first to add a fifth spatial dimension to Einstein's general relativity were Theodor Kaluza (in 1919) and Oskar Klein (in 1926). These attempts attracted Einstein’s attention in his attempts to develop a unified field theory. But Einstein died prior to being successful in this domain. The current proponents of string theories claim, inter alia, that on very small sub-atomic scales, all fundamental field-forces consist of vibrating strings or membranes of energy. See below. The spectrum, or zoo, of subatomic particles3.2 then emerges (mathematically) as small vibrating strings that by altering their mode of vibration transform, say, an electron into a

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or neutrino, a quark, or other particles, while causing space-time to curve around these entities so as to give rise to Einsteinian relativistic gravity. Despite three decades of intensive attempts to provide experimental proof of string theories, as conducted by armies of physicists, there is not a single, direct verification test that the theory is correct. And none is expected. While the various equations of string theories have survived mathematical challenges, each solution represents an entire set of unverifiable predictions; a mysticism of scientists, which, when combined with the fundamental issue of a priori smuggling into these theories what is to be proved, makes them what they are. Einstein’s anti-probabilistic views remain unfalsified. Similarly, the much acclaimed “Theory of Everything” is misleading. Some of the string theories proponents claim that prior to Genesis a pre-Genesis world contraction had turned into a black hole that, at the moment of Genesis, had created many WHITE HOLES, namely, our observable universe is just one of them – indeed a mystic science but a beautiful mathematical music to the brain-mind. Hidden variables are postulated in string theories as extra [beyond 3 space and one time dimensions] 6, 7 or higher spatial dimensions. Postulated by David Bohm, these ideas are now driving string theories. They, inter alia, by-pass the embarrassing point-like feathers of ‘particles’ in quantum theories Such variables also allow theorists to get closer to Einstein’s dream of a deterministic world outlook of general relativity3.3 that is unified with quantum physics. Investigating how a string theory may include fermions led to the concept of supersymmetry a mathematical collection of ideas relating bosons and fermions (every particle has superpartner that is not observable. Superpartners are called squarks, selectrons and gluinos. M-Theory is one group of string theories that postulates ‘Landscapes-Inside-landscapes’ in 10, 11 or 26 space dimensions so as to harbor a large number of hidden variables, different vacua and endless other universes. The theoretical limit of the M-theory infers that protons, electrons, neutrons and their antimatter counterparts, may be converted to photons and

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or then converted to other particles, i.e., to particles such as protons that may be changed to other particles, such as electrons. It is not yet a fully understood theory. D-branes are membranes of different spatial dimensionality. The membranes are postulated to be gravitational sources, so that one may end-up with a modified gravitational theory within the framework of string and quantum theories. They may emit and absorb closed strings and are postulated to emit gravitons and also to emit charge since they emit closed strings, which are gauge bosons. The pre-supposed (hidden variables tiny entities are postulated to contract to minimize their potential energy. But conservation of energy prevents them from disappearing. Instead they are postulated to oscillate-vibrate. By pre-assuming the reality of vibrating strings, one may deduce different vibrational modes that are further postulated to represent different subatomic particles. Such postulated strings may split and combine, which may resemble particles emitting and absorbing other particles, as in quantum interactions between subatomic particles. Quantum strings are also postulated to harbor tension, like regular strings of a violin; a tension that is related to their size and shape. A closed loop string, left to move without external forces, will contract into a smaller loop. But it is further postulated that it would not shrink to a zero-sized point. Open strings have two distinct end-points, while closed strings are joined to make a complete loop. The two types may allow speculations about two different spectra of ‘elementary-particle’. For example, one of the closed string modes is the graviton, and in the open string mode it is a photon3.1 ‘Landscapes-Inside-landscapes’, (worlds-inside-worlds) in 10, 11 or 26 space dimensions are postulated in string theories4.6-4.11 to harbor a large number of hidden variables, different vacua and endless other universes. Such theories are also being postulated to be the theoretical limit of the M-theory.

Symmetry-Asymmetry: All laws of physics, except those of thermodynamics, are space and time symmetric, namely, there is no distinction between any direction in space and in time. However, the 2nd law of thermodynamics, in its fundamental form, states that in using the time coordinate one can only proceed from past to future and never in reverse. Accordingly, some theorists claim, in contradiction with thermodynamics, that if the universe is eternal

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Support Einstein Neglected-Abused Key Dictums Prof.-Dr. Benjamin. Gal-Or into the future, it must be eternal into the past. Hence, they claim, prior to creation [the “big-bang”] there was a symmetrical world contraction into an all-containing black hole. As the density “had” increased during that pre-creation contraction, gigantic black holes had been formed, and, at the instant of maximum contraction, they all switched to expnasion, the interior of one of them has become “our universe”. Such claims encounter endless debates. Yet, their proponents hope that upcoming observations by the Planck Sattelite and the ground-based LIGO and VIRGO observatories, may reveal slight variations in gravitational radiation that might be detected by their effect on the polarization of the cosmic black body radiation4.12; perhaps a supportive evidence.

References 1. Benjamin Gal-Or, Cosmological Origin of Thermodynamics, Nature 230, 1971); 234, 217 (1971); 2. Benjamin Gal-Or, On The Origin of Irreversibility, Science, 176, 11 (1972); 178, 119 (1972); Partly based on Benjamin Gal-Or, editor of the "Critical Review of the Foundations of Relativistic and Classical Thermodynamics", Pittsburgh, Pa. April 7-8, (1969), Mono Book, (1970). 3. Benjamin Gal-Or, Entropy, Fallacy, and the Origin of Irreversibility: An Essay on the New Astrophysical Revolutionary School of Thermodynamics; Annal. N.Y. Acad. Acad. Sci., 196 (A6) 305 (1972) (Gold Medal Award). 4. Benjamin Gal-Or, on the New Astrophysical Revolutionary School of Thermodynamics, Found. Phys. 6, 407 (1976); 6, 623 (1976); 7, 50 (1977). 5. Benjamin Gal-Or, Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy (CPP), Volumes I and II, Springer Verlag, New York, 1981, 1983, 1987, Volumes I and 2 in 522-page, Hard-Cover worldwide acclaimed book, Expanding and updating Refers. 1 to 4 and adding "Einsteinian-InducedPhysics and philosophy of Physics" and 'Gravitism' to "The New Astrophysical School" 6. Benjamin Gal-Or, Claimed corrected mistakes advanced since 1998 Re "Dark Energy" also prove that no stellar evolution, planets and life, can emerge without the 1998-reverified EXPANDING-VOIDS/SPACE-1. The new discoveries from 1998 to 2016 promote updating of the "New Astrophysical School of Classical and Relativistic Thermodynamics." [1-5].

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Profile for Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or

<<<>>> SUPPORT EINSTEIN'S NEGLECTED AND INDUCED VERIFIED PHYSICAL REALITY <<<>>>  

DARK ENERGY AS CAUSE OF ACCELERATED EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE IS NOT EVEN WRONG

<<<>>> SUPPORT EINSTEIN'S NEGLECTED AND INDUCED VERIFIED PHYSICAL REALITY <<<>>>  

DARK ENERGY AS CAUSE OF ACCELERATED EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE IS NOT EVEN WRONG

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