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Petition  of    a     Hen     Scientist      

 

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ROYAL ENTRY   ANNOUNCER:   His   Excellency   Mr.   Han   !!                                                   President  of  Nobel  Prize  Physics  Committee  Members                                Enters  Mr.  Han  and  being  chaired  in  Mid  Table.     HAN:          Are  all  members  present?                                O'  I  see,  here  you  are  all.                                  Today  we  hear  petitions.                                Huuummm,  Who  is  first?                                                                  Mr.  HEN,  Your  Excellency,  the  Royal  Annoumcer.                                                                  Enters  Mr.  Hen,                                                                    a  two-­‐meter-­‐high-­‐Chicken     HAN:              O'  Mr.  Hen.  How  a  refreshing  name.                                    Are  we  related?     HEN:                Sorry  your  Excellency.                                    As  far  as  I  know,                                      That  is  as  far  as  science  testifies,                                    only  by  ancient  DNA  links.                                    Then  we  parted,  you  to  the  Swedish  Royal  House,                                    Me  to  the  Chicken  Low  House.     HAN:            Why  being  dressed  like  a  chicken?     HEN:            Sir  it's  me,  a  real  bona  fide  Chicken.     HAN:          Crystal  clear  Mr.  Hen                                Now  as  to  your  petition,    

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                         Please  be  notified  that                              we  are  the  gate  keepers  of  Royal  Nobel  Prize.     HEN:       Yes   Sir,   and   that   is   exactly   why   here   I   come   for   our     collective  petition.     HAN:        Look  Mr.  Chicken,  Sorry  Mr.  Hen.                                  we  are  free,  not  arrested  in  Chicken  houses,                                    like  you.     HEN:        Sir,  we  contend  that  you  are  more  arrested  than  we  are.     HAN:      That  indeed  is  refreshing,  a  chicken  science  in  reverse.     HEN:       Sir,   when   you   were   born,   have   you   been   arrested   with       citizenship,  with  a  name,  with  religion?     HAN:     As   proud   pure   Arian   Christian   Swedish   citizen   we   maintain   other   names   for   what   you   define   as   being   arrested.        HEN:     Our   petition   starts   by   asserting   that   we   are   absolutely     free,  while  you  are  arrested  for  life.  We  are  not  arrested     by   a   name,   by   a   limited   border   and   rights   citizenship   or   by  duties  to  any  religion,  unlike  Your  Royal  excellency.     HAN:        Consulting  the  members  around  the  table.      

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HAN:    we    concluded  that  you  may  have  a  point  here,  indeed,  but   are   you   a   scientist?   Which   is   a   precondition   to   have   a   standing   before   us,   for   otherwise   we   must   deny   your   petition.     HEN:       Well   like   you,   we   know   Newtonian   and   Einsteinian   gravity.   Like   you,   we   do   not   reside   on   the   ceiling,   only   some  times  on  the  roofs.     HAN:        Consulting  the  members  around  the  table.     HAN:         we   conclude   that   again   you   may   have   a   point   here.   So   what  is  your  petition  in  physics?     HEN:       Is   not   it   clear   sir?   Why   did   your   honorable   members   discriminate  against  chicken  scientists?  Why  there  are  no   Nobel  Prizes  to  hen  scientists?     HAN:          Indeed  Mr.  Chicken,  sorry  Mr.  Hen                              In   our   journey   from   dust   to   dust,   we   are   superior   over   trees    and  animals,  so  that's  why.     HEN:          No  Sir,  first  the  trees  neither    hate  nor  launch  wars  like   the  Swedes  did,  nor  we  use  weapons  or  gas  each  other,   and   that   is   why   I   submit   to   your   committee   my   thesis   for   a  long  due  Nobel  Prize.      

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HAN  :        Consulting  the  members  around  the  table     HAN:       We   all   agree,   Mr.   HEN,   bring   it   on   ...     Huummm,   your   refreshing  chicken  physics.    

Chicken Physics  

Two simultaneous Expansions of the Universe Revise Physics, Cosmology and Philosophy Caused by super-fast stellar-galactic winds dissipating in all intergalactic voids compact galaxies into superclusters-filaments, reverse earlier, remnant deceleration to acceleration, void dark energy claims and refute or old fundamental dictums in cosmology and philosophy Benjamin Gal-Or

Gold-awarded by the New York Academy of Science for the development of this Einsteinian relativistic school of new astrophysical thermodynamics, professor of aerospace, founder and former head of the Jet Engine Laboratory and the Institute of advanced studies, Technion Israel Institute of Technology. Former professor at Johns Hopkins and Pittsburgh universities; Founder and Editor-in-Chief of the Int'l Journal of Turbo and Jet Engines; Residing in the US, Israel and the Philippines, Email: galor1benjamin@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Existence of   super-­‐fast,   stellar-­‐galactic   winds   that   are   being   generated   during   the   last   6   billion   years,   has   been   verified   by   astronomic   observations.   Such   winds   are   flowing   into   all   and   each   equally   distributed   intergalactic   obsreved   huge   voids   bordered   by   "filaments"   composed  of  super  clusters  of  galaxies,  (FIGURE  1).    

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           The  winds  enter  each  void  from  all  directions.  Subject  to  momentum   conservation,   like   opposing   rockets   in   space,   the   super-­‐fast   winds   entering  from  all  opposing  sides  of  any  void  border  [FIGURE.  1],  thrust-­‐ push-­‐away  any  and  all  voids  away  from  each  other,  collectively  providing   extra   expansion-­‐thrusting-­‐away   against   all   other   similarly   expanding   voids.                This   process   is   herein   defined   2nd,   simultaneous,   accelerated   expansion   of   the   universe,   which   not   only   so   compacts   galaxies   into   superclusters   and   filaments,   but   reverses   earlier   gravity-­‐induced   decelerated  expansion  of  the  universe.                  Most   important:   (1)   These   newly   defined   dynamics   generate   energy-­‐densities  gradients  (FIGURE  2),  which,  keep  maintaining  all  stellar   evolution   by   removing   disposed   energy   from   emitters   to   this   2nd-­‐ expansion,                (2)   This   second   simultaneous     expansion   constitutes   largest   energy   sink  in  the  universe,                (3)  without  this  dark,  cold  expanding  cosmic  sink  no  heavy  elements,   supernovae,  planets  and  life,  are  possible,  (FIG.URE2),                  (4)  Various  claims  and  dictums  are  thus  refuted  by  this  newly  defined   world:                (A)   Wheeler-­‐Feynman   static-­‐space-­‐theory   should   be   redefined   for   two  simultaneous  space  expansions  between  emitters  and  absorbers,                (B)   dark   energy   claims   (and   associated   attempts   to   change   general   relativity)   should   be   replaced   by   these   2   simultaneous   accelerated   expansions  of  the  universe,                      (C)  some  other  fundamental  dictums  should  be  re-­‐assessed.  

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I.      2ND  EXPANSION  CAUSES  COMPACTING  of  BILLIONS  GALAXIES   INTO  SUPERCLUSTERS-­‐FILAMENTS  BETWEEN  EXPANDING  VOIDS   A.      REVERSAL  to  acceleration  by  energy-­‐density  gradients  from   emitters  to  largest  absorber  in  the  universe,  is  asserted  to  re-­‐ defining  2nd  law  concepts     1.      2  expansions,  one  as  energy  sink  keep  maintaining  stellar   evolution,  heavy  elements  generation,  supernovae,  planets,  life;   refute  dark  energy  claims  

 

FIGURE  2  (Source:  1981  Reference  6)  

   

FIG. 1: Asserted 2nd simultaneous expansion causes compacting of billion galaxies into SUPERCLUSTERS-FILAMENTS shown BETWEEN EXPANDING VOIDS. Four yellow arrows represent strong stellar-galactic winds entering all and each void from all directions, thereby causing (a) gradual, 6 billion year expanding-compacting of most galaxies into superclusters-filaments surrounding each expanding-compacting void, thus thrusting all and each against the other like opposing rockets, (b) earlier

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decelerated Einstein-Hubble expansion is reversed by gradually increased void expansion rate since the formation of strong winds by increasing number of active stars and galaxies, since at least 6 billion years ago. The resulting energy density distribution (FIG. 2) removes energy from emitters thereby stellar evolution of heavy elements generation (and supernovae) is maintained. Stellar and galactic winds (except some deviated to local black holes) are dissipating in each void but there is no transfer of energy from one void to another due to the uniform distribution of the intergalactic voids. \ ______________ For internal, editors and reviewers use only: (1) Currently address: C/O Monica C. Fernandez, Baldosa Str., Phase 3, Block 10, Lot 11, La Residencia, Bulacan, Philippines 3003, Tel +63-949-564-9788,+63-950629-9279. (2) On December 27, 2017, this work was first submitted for publication to the GATE KEEPERS of a dozen Physical Review outlets, who repeatedly refused to pass it on to editors unless style changed, only one outlet specified and resubmitted another way. Cancelled on Jan. 01, 2018 because their system links have multiple times failed to accept this manuscript. Yet they keep this work since Dec. 27, 2017. All rights reserved/defined above/below. ____________________

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II. EMITTERS-TO-VOIDS-ABSORBER ENERGY TRANSFER DEFINED B. EMITTER to sink gradients provide 2nd law modified definitions

FIG. 2: SUPPLEMENTAL DEFINITIONS: "CLUSTER I" and II represent mid-term effect of this asserted 2nd expansion of the universe, prior to being further compacted into superclusters and filaments (FIG. 1). "RADIATION ENERGY DENSITY" vs. "DISTANCE" defines "DIRECTION OF NET RADIATION FLOW" as "3rd COSMOLOGICAL ARROW", which generates energy-density gradients that lead to the "2nd

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COSMOLOGICAL ARROW", which represents "EXPANDIND SPACE "1" inside Einstein-Hubble expansion. SPACE "1" is defined (1) THE MASTER ARROW OF TIME, -- THE ROOT-CAUSE of the SECOND LAW, (2) "largest, thermodynamic sink of disposed energy from all active emitters in the universe".

II. DEDUCED MODIFIED FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS C.

EVEN some established theorems may need to be disposed

3.

SOME fundamental mathematical 'proofs' in physics are disproved

1. It is well known that deterministic physics and engineering resort to basic symmetric partial differential equations that are often been forced in presented or published 'proofs', to proceed only under imposed INITIAL CONDITIONS (for future evolution), while rejecting FINAL CONDITIONS (for symmetric past evolution). 2. Enforced results are often adopeted as final 'proofs' that conform with observations. Common example: Retarded solutions in electromagnetism that conform with observations, while wrongly hidding or rejecting ADVANCED SOLUTIONS (which do not conform with observations.). If known in advance, tantamount to SMUGGLING what one tries to prove by not DECLARING THE CONTRABAND. It also applies to another fundamental domain in theoretical physics. 3. Quantum-statistics/probabilities are symmetric for prediction AND retrodiction. Common self-fooling example: Predictions that conform with observations are accepted "proofs" or theorems or laws of physics,

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while hidding or rejcting retrodiction because it does not conform with observations. 4. Endless known linguistic terminologies exist that are aimed to by pass this symmetry breaking. Beyond being fundamentally wrong, some may prevent unification with deterministic Einsteinian Gravity Physics (general relativity). But this is not to be further treated herein. III. CONCLUSIONS Simultaneous second expansion of the universe is claimed caused by 1.

Existence of super-fast, strong, stellar-galactic winds that are being generated during at least the last 6 billion years by growing number of highly active emitters, has been verified and affirmed by astronomic observations. These super-fast winds are flowing into all and each about equally distributed intergalactic voids. They enter each and all from all directions. Subject to momentum conservation, like opposing rockets in space, super-fast winds on both sides of any void border or on both sides of any shared-supercluster filament [FIG. 1] thrust-push both voids away from each other, thereby, collectively, providing extra expansion-thrusting-away against all other similarly expanding voids. This process is herein defined 2nd, simultaneous, accelerated expansion of the universe.

2.

Like large number of opposing rockets in space, the result is gradual (co-compacting with gravity) of most galaxies first into clusters then into superclusters and filaments that are verified between all voids, (FIG. 1).

3.

Asserted resulting 2nd-expansion gradually reverses earlier, gravityinduced, deceleration of the universe, refuting claims linking this wellproved explanation of the 1998 (affirmed 2016) accelerated expansion of the universe without any need for dark energy claims to explain the same.

4.

FIG. 2 provides supplemental definitions about resulting energydensities gradients that keep maintaining stellar evolution by removing

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disposed energy from emitters to be irreversibly disposed at this 2ndexpansion-generated largest energy sink in the universe. Wherefore, without the asserted 2nd simultaneous expansion, active emitters, heavy elements, supernovae, planets and life, are impossible. 5.

Wheeler-Feynman static-space-theory should thus be redefined for two simultaneous expansions.

6.

Neither 'dark-energy' nor any change to Einstein's gravity physics (general relativity) is needed within the context of this 2nd-expansion of the universe.

7.

Localized black holes at the center of galaxies and elsewhere should be accounted for, but their effects do not change this multiple assertions and facts.

References 1. J. T. Nielsen; A. Guffanti; S. Sarkar (21 October 2016). "Marginal evidence for cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae". Nature Scientific Reports. 6: 35596. arXiv:1506.01354   . Bibcode:2016NatSR...635596N. doi:10.1038/srep35596. 2. Wiltshire, David L. (2007). "Exact Solution to the Averaging Problem in Cosmology". Physical Review Letters. 99 (25): 251101. arXiv:0709.0732   . Bibcode:2007PhRvL..99y1101W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.2511 01. PMID 18233512. 3. Mattsson, Teppo (2007). "Dark energy as a mirage". Gen. Rel. Grav. 42 (3): 567–599. arXiv:0711.4264   . Bibcode:2010GReGr..42..567M. doi:10.1007/s10714-009-0873-z. 4. Tsagas, Christos G. (2011). "Peculiar motions, accelerated expansion, and the cosmological axis". Physical Review D. 84 (6): 063503. arXiv:1107.4045   . Bibcode:2011PhRvD..84f3503T. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.84.063503.

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5. Stuart Gillespie (21 October 2016). "The universe is expanding at an accelerating rate – or is it?". University of Oxford - News & Events Science Blog (WP:NEWSBLOG). 6. Clifton, Timothy; Ferreira, Pedro (April 2009). "Does Dark Energy Really Exist?". Scientific American. 300(4): 48– 55. Bibcode:2009SciAm.300d..48C. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican04 09-48. PMID 19363920. Retrieved April 30, 2009. 7. Wiltshire, D. (2008). "Cosmological equivalence principle and the weak-field limit". Physical Review D. 78(8): 084032. arXiv:0809.1183   . Bibcode:2008PhRvD..78h4032W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.78.084032 . 8. Gray, Stuart. "Dark questions remain over dark energy". ABC Science Australia. Retrieved 27 January2013. NOTES TO EDITORS AND REVIEWERS Oviously the author refrains from sharing skepticism about the very observational evidence that supports the discovery that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. These reservations relate to: (1) claims for more refined theories that may refute acceleration, (2) mistakes or illusions associated with reported measurements, (3) improper selection of supernovae sample size. Consequently, this paper is restricted to asserted 2ndexpansion/compacting expanding-void-dynamics that reverse initial decelerating expansion of the universe into the currently accelerating one, while opposing any and all claims that dark energy (a) exists, (b) is characterized by unverfiable properties claimed, (c) is ruling or affecting current philosophy, cosmology, astronomy, astrophysics and theoretical physics, (d) it determines past, present and future dynamics of the universe, and life. Wherefore, the authors of Refernces 1 to 8 are proposed as highly knowledgable and mastering this domain of physics, apparently as neutral reviewers.

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Popular Chicken Lectures: Adult Education          

"Scientist   Animals",  by     Spokesman     Telling     The  truth  on     "civilized       sciences"     "arts"       "Peace".  

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PREFACE       Ethics  in  Academia  

In  "The  Best  Teacher  I  Never  Had",  composed  by  one  of   the  greatest  innovators  and  independent  thinkers  of   all  times,  Bill  Gates,  reference  is  made  to  Nobel  prize   winner  in  Physics  -­‐-­‐         Richard  Feynman  (right),  as  a  great  honest  teacher,   who  had  inspired  him,  partly  by  his  book     "WHAT   DO   YOU   CARE   WHAT   OTHER   PEOPLE   THINK".       As   the   sole   thinking   animal   &   spokesman   for   TREES   and   ANIMALS,   I   tell   the   truth   we   know   about   "civilized   humans"   &   their   "sciences",   "arts",   "politics",   "social   Media",   "Justice",   "Freedom   of   speech"   and   "elections".     HEREIN   we   re-­‐disclose   how   even   the   scientists   often   smuggle   into   their   "theories"   the   results   they   wish   to   prove   without   declaring   the   contraband  –   one  reason  why  they  may  hate  me.  

FREEDOM v.  Ethics      

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Our ELDERS,   the   TREES,   neither   envy,   jealous   or   lie,   nor   hate,   murder,  kill  and  terrorize,  like  many  humans,  past  and  present,   have,  and  are  often  decorated  and  praised  for  that,       Our   original   DNA   had   matured   and   flourished   first   in   world   history,     Neither   they   enforce   nor   preach   their   ideology,   agenda,   prejudice,   preferred   tribe,   nation,   religion,   nor   any   economy,   "culture",  entertainment,  worship,  wedding  and  divorce  graves,   and  prizes.     Do  scientists  today  read  Feynman's  protection  of  civilization?                                            

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  Painting      by      Ev.    Katz,      

The Einstienian  Heritage  

1987,     by  Permission                                    

                             

            On  Einstein’s  Deep,  Scientifically-­‐Based,  Religiosity  

 

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“It is  the  fundamental  emotion  which  stands  at  the  cradle  of  true  art   and  true  science.  It  was  the  experience  of  mystery  -­‐-­‐  even  if  mixed   with  fear  -­‐-­‐  that  engendered  religion.     A  knowledge  of  the  existence  of  something  we  cannot  penetrate,  of   the  manifestations  of  the  profoundest  reason  and  the  most  radiant   beauty,  which  are  only  accessible  to  our  reason  in  their  most   elementary  forms  -­‐-­‐  it  is  this  knowledge  and  this  emotion  that   constitute  the  truly  religious  attitude;    

in this  sense,  and  in  this  alone,  I  am  a  deeply  religious  man.”    

“I cannot  conceive  of  a  God  who  rewards  and  punishes  his   creatures,  or  has  a  will  of  the  type  of  which  we  are  conscious   in  ourselves.  An  individual  who  should  survive  his  physical   death  is  also  beyond  my  comprehension,  nor  do  I  wish  it   otherwise;  such  notions  are  for  the  fears  or  absurd  egoism   of  feeble  souls.”    

“Enough for  me  the  mystery  of  the  eternity  of  life,  and  the   inkling  of  the  marvelous  structure  of  reality,  together  with   the  single-­‐hearted  endeavor  to  comprehend  a  portion,  be  it   never  so  tiny,  of  the  reason  that  manifests  itself  in  nature.”     “I  gang  my  own  gait  and  have  never  belonged  to  my   country,  my  home,  my  friends,  or  even  my  immediate  family,   with  my  whole  heart;  in  the  face  of  all  these  ties  I  have  never   lost  an  obstinate  sense  of  detachment,  which  increases  with   age.”.       “One  is  sharply  conscious,  yet  without  regret,  of  the  limits  to   the  possibility  of  mutual  understanding  and  sympathy  with   one's  fellow-­‐creatures.  Such  a  person  no  doubt  loses   something  in  the  way  of  geniality  and  light-­‐heartedness;  on   the  other  hand,  he  is  largely  independent  of  the  opinions,   habits,  and  judgments  of  his  fellows.”    

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In lieu   of   the   aforementioned   personal-­‐life   philosophy-­‐faith,   Einstein   consistently   selected   to   protect   his   privacy   inside   his   room,   in   his   house,   working   in   maximized-­‐freedom,   undisturbed   solitude;   even   sleeping   naked   in   his   room   while   his   privacy   has   been   strictly   guarded   by   his   devoted   secretary   Helen   Dukas,   who   also   screened   his   incoming   mail,   deleted   nasty   or   anti-­‐Semitic   letters   and   politely   blocking   unwanted   visitors.   Einstein   is   also   known  for  his  subtle  sarcasm.         Before   Einstein   left   Hitler’s   Germany   to   the   United   States,   a   professor  in  Berlin  was  extremely  nasty  in  targeting  him.  One  day   Einstein   was   informed   that   Professor   XXX   just   died.   Einstein’s   reaction:      

“Everyone does  something  good  in  his  life,  even  Professor   XXX;  he  died.”      

Einstein's  "Anti  pomposity"       Anti-­‐"Politically  Correct"  

As  a  younger  man  he  used  to  play  his  beloved  violin  in  the  homes  of  some   German   women.   One   day,   while   he   was   playing   there,   they   started   knitting.   Einstein   stopped   playing,   packed   his   violin   to   leave,   and   apologized:         “I  would  not  even  dream  to  disturb  you  from  your  knitting  work.”    

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On  another  occasion,  as  a  celebrity  living  in  his  house  near  a  lake  outside   Berlin,   his   wife   urged   him   to   change   his   simple,   but   comfortable   home   dress,  to  a  formal  one,  for  dignitaries  are  to  arrive  soon  to  visit  him.  His   response:     If  they  come  to  visit  me,   let  them  meet  me  as  I  am  dressed  and  work  in  my  house.   If  they  come  to  see  my  formal  dress   please  show  them  my  closet.      

   

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Chicken Lecture  I  

 

Theoretical Physics  at  its  Historical  Highest  Level  

That historical high level was reached post (i) The creation of the 1915 Einsteinian Gravity Physics (General Relativity) that predicts a strange, socially unwanted, world expansion (or contraction), (ii) That unwanted theory was first confirmed in1918 in correctly predicting the bending of light by gravitation in curved space-time, (iii) Re-confirmed before 1927 by the American astronomer Hubble: We all live in an  

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expanding world that had "beginning", as the Bible states In its first Chapter. See more below. Sitting, from left: I. Langmuir, M. Planck, Marie Curie, H.A. Lorentz, A. Einstein, P. Langevin, Ch.-E. Guye, C.T.R. Wilson, O.W. Richardson 2nd Sitting: P. Debye, M. Knudsen, W.L. Bragg, H.A. Kramers, P.A.M. Dirac, A.H. Compton, L. de Broglie, M. Born, N. Bohr; Standing: A. Piccard, E. Henriot, P. Ehrenfest, E. Herzen, Th. de Donder, E. Schrödinger, J.E. Verschaffelt, W. Pauli, W. Heisenberg, R.H. Fowler, L. Brillouin.

1927, Inst.  Int'l    de  Physique  Solvay                    

                   

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Chicken Lecture II Einstein's  Induced  Imagination  Gravity  Art  Heritage   GRAVITY-­‐FORMED  Great-­‐Monuments,  ear  of  the  unknown  and     pleading  to  manmade  Gods  and  divine-­‐claimed  Kings  

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Chicken Lecture III

Gravity-­‐induced "high"  structures  lead  to  fear  of  a  God  in  the  Sahara,   Sinai,  etc.

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Chicken Lecture IV Gravitism:  A  Gravity-­‐induced  Galactic  Art                                             Both  Einsteinian  and  Newtonian  Physics  control  galaxies  colliding  and   merging  or  forming  clusters  or  super-­‐clusters,  (Vol.  1).  The  Recorded  'Fog':   is  composed  of  billions  of  stars  like  "our"  Sun,  or  more  massive  ones.        

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Chicken Lecture V Gravitism: Gravity-­‐induced  Cave  Art    

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Chicken  Lecture  VI    

Gravitism: Gravity-­‐induced  Foggy  Galactic  art  

"FOG" "painted"   recorded   is   composed   of   billions   stars,   each   like   our   sun   or   more   massive.   Some   harbor   planets   with   water   and   "atmospheres".   SPACE-­‐3   (see  below)   wraps   around   all   in   any   galaxy.   Outside   each   galaxy   SPACE-­‐2     (see  below)   includes   a   mix   of   galactic   and   stellar   "winds"   proceeding   only   one-­‐way:   To   the   nearest   coldest,   270   degrees   C   below   zero,   interconnected   void   within   SPACE-­‐1,  to   be  dissipated  there   forever.   These   facts   form  the   root-­‐ cause  of  the   2nd   Law   of   Thermodynamics  and   much   of  

Deep-­‐Space, observational  Physics.  

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Chicken Lecture  VII    

Gravitism:  Gravity-­‐induced  dunes  vs.  past  life  art  

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Chicken Lecture  VIII  

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Chicken Lecture  IX    

Gravitism: Gravity-­‐induced    

formative art   Survival  of  the  Fittest    

 

     

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Chicken Lecture  XI  Gravity-­‐induced  "abstract"    

art in  the  sand    

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Chicken Lecture  XII  Gravity-­‐induced  Abstract   Art  on  Sandy  MARS  

Mars'   winds   blow   sand   tha   may   form   these   formative   "art".   Moving   dunes  on  earth,  also  follow  the  physics  of  (i)  local  gravity  value,  (ii)   "air   or   "wind"   composition,   density,   temperature,   viscosity   and     size  distribution  of  these  "sand  particles."     Mars'  mass  is  only  11%  of  Earth.  It  is  about  50%  farther  from  the   sun  vs.  earth.  Its  colder  climate  harbors  some  similarities  to  earth,   for   instance,   polar   "ice"   caps,   seasonal   changes,   sand   dunes   and   sand  dust  storms.    

   

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Chicken Lecture  XIII  

"Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds." Albert Einstein

"Imagination is  more  

important than  knowledge.   Knowledge  is  limited.  Imagination   encircles  the  world."         Albert  Einstein    

"Perfection of  means  and  confusion  of  goals,  seem  –  in  my   opinion  –  to  characterize  our  age."             Albert  Einstein    

"Great spirits  

have always   encountered   violent   opposition  from  mediocre  minds."    Albert  Einstein                                      

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Chicken Lecture  XIV  

Has gravity  physics  already  replaced                                          quantum  physics  in  new   attempts?    

N

either a  fundamental  or  embedded  "beginning"  of  the  universe,  nor  

the verified  original  source  of  time  asymmetries  in  nature,  or  the  origin   of   irreversibility   in   all   real   processes   are   to   be   found   at   or   by   the   probabilistic   standard   quantum   model,   an   established   fact   that   caused   armies   of   quantum   theorists   to   seek,   so   far   in   vain,   correcting   their   standard   quantum   model   by   resorting   to   Einstein's   gravity   physics   or,   failing   that,   to   replace   Einsteinian   gravity   with   string   mathematical   attempts,  reviewed  below.    

Should Quantum  Physics  Start  ScienceTeaching?  

Einstein's Herritage          

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Chicken Lecture  XV  

Precise  definitions,  especially  in  fundamental,   probabilistic  quantum-­‐associated  activities,  often  erect   devastating  virtual  walls  or  fences  that,  in  stealth,  deny  any   deterministic  Einstein's  Gravity  Physics  (General  Relativity),  to  be   properly  directing  any  future  unified  theory.  Why  Einsteinian   gravity?     (i)            in  1915  it  had  defined  (and  predicted)  the  multi-­‐verified   expanding  universe,       (ii)      is  based  on  deterministic,  curved  space-­‐time  fields  valid  for  any   observer,       (iii)        unlike  the  quantum  standard  model,  is  neither  scale-­‐arrested,   nor  a  model.    

Wherefore, science  does  NOT  start  with  the    non-­‐complete   Standard  Quantum  Model.    

Wherefore, science  starts  by  multi-­‐verified  Fact:    Our  universe   expands.     This  central  fact  IS  NOT  a  priori  incorporated  in  the  fundamental   definitions,  axioms  and  assertions  of  probabilistic  quantum-­‐ associated  activities  in  theoretical  physics.  

Quantum associated  models  fail  to  predict   the  world  expansion,  thus  failing  to  start   science  teaching  at  any  Level  

Einstein's Herritage    

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"WORLD EXPANSION"  stands  for  multi-­‐verified,   deterministic,  gravitationally-­‐induced  curved-­‐space-­‐time   asymmetries,     (i)        THE  ORIGIN  OF  IRREVERSIBILITY  IN  NATURE,       (ii)      The  root  cause  of  the  2nd  Law  of  THERMODYNAMICS,       (iii)    The  most  basic  tenets  of  philosophy  of  physics  and  philosophy   of  science,       (iv)      Chemical  elements  gravity-­‐origin  inside  hot  active  stars  cores   leads  to  life,       (v)         The   root-­‐cause   of   Mathematical   Physics   and   Geometry,   e.g.   Riemaninan.     SINCE  

CONFIRMED

BY

HUBBLE, the   world   expansion   also   means   that   there   was   a   "beginning"   a   "zero   physical   time",  

"a

confirmation

of

Biblical Genesis"   vs.   the   "Big-­‐ Bang",  

whose

inertial

expansion and   cooling   has   been   going   on   for   about   17.8   billion   years,   down   to   3   degrees  K  inside  the  expanding  VOIDS  in  SPACE-­‐1  defined  below.      

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Is  Riemannian  Mathematics  Discovered,  or  Created?    

R

iemannian symmetric   spaces  are  important  in  both  mathematics  

and physics.  Were  they  created  or  discovered?     Riemannian   Geometry   plays   the   central   role   in   Einstein's   Gravity   Physics,  EGP,  (General  Relativity).     In   a   complete,   simply   connected   Riemannian   manifold   symmetric   space  is  valid  when  its  curvature   tensor   is   invariant   under   parallel   transport.   Lorentzian   symmetric   spaces   become   important   in   Einstein's   physics   and   cosmology,   i.e.   as   (i)   Minkovsky   Space   and   (ii)   De   Sitter   Space.   Geodesic   symmetries  may  next  be  defined  as  affine  diffeomorphisms  in  Riemannian   and  pseudo-­‐Riemannian  situations.   De   Sitter   universe    is   one   of   various   cosmological    solutions   to   EFE   (Einstein's   Field   equations)     a   flat,   spatially   un-­‐curved   universe   containing  low  space-­‐densities  of  matter.          

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Chicken Lecture  XVI  

Did Theoretical  Physics  Die?    

T

he   first   to   add   a   fifth   spatial   dimension   to   Einstein's   general  

relativity were   Theodor   Kaluza   (in   1919)   and   Oskar   Klein   (in   1926).   These   attempts   attracted   Einstein’s   attention   in   his   attempts  to  develop  a  unified  field  theory.  But  Einstein  died  prior   to  being  successful  in  this  domain.    

The current  proponents  of  string  theories  claim,  inter   alia,  that  on  very   small   sub-­‐atomic   scales,   all   fundamental   field-­‐forces   consist   of   vibrating  strings  or  membranes  of  energy.       The   spectrum,   or   zoo,   of   subatomic   particles   then   emerges   (mathematically)  as  small   vibrating  strings  that  by  altering  their  mode   of  vibration  transform,  say,  an  electron  into  a  neutrino,  a  quark,  or  other   particles,  while  causing  space-­‐time  to  curve  around  these  entities  so  as   to  give  rise  to  Einsteinian  relativistic  gravity.     Despite   three   decades   of   intensive   attempts   to   provide   experimental   proof   of   string   theories,   as   conducted   by   armies   of   physicists,   there   is   not  a  single,  direct  verification  test  that  the  theory  is  correct.  And  none   is  expected.    

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While the   various   equations   of   string   theories   have   survived   mathematical   challenges,   each   solution   represents   an   entire   set   of   unverifiable   predictions;   a   mysticism   of   scientists,   which,   when   combined   with   the   fundamental   issue   of   a   priori   smuggling   into   these   theories   what   is   to   be   proved,   makes   them   what   they   are.   Einstein’s   anti-­‐probabilistic   views   remain   un-­‐falsified.   Similarly,   the   much   acclaimed  “Theory  of  Everything”  is  misleading.    

Some of  the  string  theories  proponents  claim  that  prior  to  Genesis  a  pre-­‐ Genesis   world   contraction   had   turned   into   a   black   hole   that,   at   the   moment   of   Genesis,   had   created   many   WHITE   HOLES,   namely,   our   world   is   just   one   of   them   –   indeed   a   beautiful   mathematical   music   play.  

   Bohm's Hidden  Variables     H

idden variable   are   postulated   in   string   theories   as   extra   [beyond   3  

space and   one   time   dimensions]   6,   7   or   higher   spatial   dimensions.  

Postulated by  David  Bohm,  these  ideas  are  now  driving  string  theories.  

These, inter  alia,  by-­‐pass  the  embarrassing  point-­‐like  feathers  of  ‘particles’   in   quantum   theories     Such   variables   also   allow   theorists   to   get   closer   to  

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Einstein’s dream   of   a   deterministic   world   outlook   of   general   relativity3.3   that  is  unified  with  quantum  physics.   Investigating  how  a  string  theory  may  include  fermions  led  to  the  concept   of   supersymmetry   a   mathematical   collection   of   ideas   relating   bosons   and   fermions   (every   particle   has   superpartner   that   is   not   observable.   Superpartners  are  called  squarks,  selectrons  and  gluinos.      

M-­‐Model

O

ne group   of   string   game-­‐plays   postulates   ‘Landscapes-­‐Inside-­‐

landscapes’ in   10,   11   or   26   space   dimensions   so   as   to   harbor   a   large   number   of   hidden   variables,   different   vacua   and   endless   other   universes.     The   theoretical   limit   of   the   M-­‐theory   infers   that   protons,   electrons,   neutrons  and  their  antimatter  counterparts,  may  be  converted  to  photons   and   then   converted   to   other   particles,   i.e.,   to   particles   such   as   protons   that   may   be   changed   to   other   particles,   such   as   electrons.     It   is   not   yet   a   fully   understood  theory.     D-­‐Branes   are   membranes   of   different   spatial   dimensionality.   The   membranes   are   postulated   to   be   gravitational   sources,   so   that   one   may   end-­‐up  with  a  modified  gravitational  model  within  the  framework  of  string   and  quantum  standard  models  (See  below  on  their  real  standing  in  science   today).      

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They may   emit   and   absorb   closed   strings   and   are   postulated   to   emit   gravitons  and  also  to  emit  charge  since  they  emit  closed  strings,  which  are   gauge  bosons.     Pre-­‐supposed   tiny   entities   are   postulated   to   contract   to   minimize   their   potential   energy.   But   conservation   of   energy   prevents   them   from   disappearing.  Instead  they  are  postulated  to  oscillate-­‐vibrate.     By   pre-­‐assuming   the   "reality   of   vibrating   strings",   one   may   deduce   different   vibrational   modes   that   are   further   postulated   to   represent   different   sub-­‐atomic   particles.     Such   postulated   strings   may   split   and   combine,   which   may   resemble   particles   emitting   and   absorbing   other   particles,   as   in   standard   quantum   model   interactions   between   sub-­‐atomic   particles.    

Closed or  Open  Strings?  

Q

uantum strings  models  are  postulated  to  harbor  tension,  like  regular  

strings of  a  violin;  a  tension  that  is  related  to  their  size  and  shape.     A   closed   loop   string,   left   to   move   without   external   forces,   will   contract   into   a   smaller   loop.   But   it   is   further   postulated   that   it   would  not   shrink   to   a  zero-­‐sized  point.     Open  strings  have  two  distinct  end-­‐points,  while  closed  strings  are  joined   to   make   a   complete   loop.   The   two   types   may   allow   speculations   about    

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two different   spectra   of   ‘elementary-­‐particle’.   For   example,   one   of   the   closed   string   modes   is   the   graviton,   and   in   the   open   string   mode   it   is   a   photon.  

Landscapes-­‐Inside-­‐Landscapes T

hese worlds-­‐inside-­‐worlds  are  claimed  to  run  the  world  in  10,  11  or  26  

space dimensions.   In   these   mathematical   games   they   may   harbor   a   large   number   of   hidden   variables,   different   vacua   and   endless   other   universes.     Such  models,  which  are  misleadingly  called  theories  by  their  proponents,   are  also  being  postulated  to  be  the  theoretical  limit  of  the  M-­‐MODEL.   RECAP:  Proponents  of  string  models  or  theories  claim,  inter  alia,  that  on   very   small   sub-­‐atomic   scales,   all   fundamental   field-­‐forces   consist   of   vibrating  strings  or  membranes  of  energy.       The   spectrum,   or   zoo,   of   subatomic   particles   then   emerges   (mathematically)  as  small   vibrating  strings  that  by  altering  their  mode   of  vibration  transform,  say,  an  electron  into  a  neutrino,  a  quark,  or  other   particles,  while  causing  space-­‐time  to  curve  around  these  entities  so  as   to  give  rise  to  Einsteinian  relativistic  gravity.    

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Despite three   decades   of   intensive   attempts   to   provide   experimental   proof   of   string   theories,   as   conducted   by   armies   of   physicists,   there   is   not  a  single,  direct  verification  test  that  the  theory  is  correct.  And  none   is  expected.      

While the   various   equations   of   string   theories   have   survived   mathematical   challenges,   each   solution   represents   an   entire   set   of   unverifiable   predictions;   a   mysticism   of   scientists,   which,   when   combined   with   the   fundamental   issue   of   a   priori   smuggling   into   these   theories   what   is   to   be   proved,   makes   them   what   they   are.   Einstein’s   anti-­‐probabilistic   views   remain   un-­‐falsified.   Similarly,   the   much   acclaimed  “Theory  of  Everything”  is  misleading.    

Some of  the  string  theories  proponents  claim  that  prior  to  Genesis  a  pre-­‐ Genesis   world   contraction   had   turned   into   a   black   hole   that,   at   the   moment   of   Genesis,   had   created   many   WHITE   HOLES,   namely,   our   world   is   just   one   of   them   –   indeed   a   beautiful   mathematical   music   play.    

Symmetry-­‐Asymmetry  

A

ll laws   of   physics,   except   in   thermodynamics,   are   space   and   time  

symmetric, namely,   there   is   no   distinction   between   any   direction   in   space  and  in  time.    

43


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However,   the   2nd   law   of   thermodynamics,   in   its   fundamental   form,   states  that  in  using  the  time  coordinate  in  reality,  one  can  only  proceed   from  past  to  future  and  never  in  reverse.       Accordingly,  

some

theorists

claim,

in

contradiction

with

thermodynamics, that   if   the   universe   is   eternal   into   the   future,   it   must   be   eternal   into   the   past.     Hence,   they   also   claim,   that   prior   to   the   “big-­‐ bang”,   there   was   a   symmetrical   world   contraction   into   an   all-­‐containing   black  holes.     As   the   density   “had”   increased   during   that   pre-­‐creation   contraction,   gigantic   black   holes   had   been   formed,   and,   at   the   instant   of   maximum   contraction,  they  all  switched  to  expnasion,  the  interior  of  one  of  them   has  become  “our  universe”.      

String Mathematical Games  Face   Endless  Criticism  

D

espite the   aforestated   known   set   backs   to   evr   verifiy   these  

mathematical games-­‐models,   the   proponents   of   these   claims   still   hope   that   some   upcoming   observations,   say,   by   the   Planck   Sattelite   and   by   the   ground-­‐based   LIGO   and   VIRGO   observatories,   may   reveal   slight   variations   in   gravitational   radiation   that   might   be   detected   by   their    

44


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effect on   the  polarization   of   the   cosmic   black   body   radiation;   perhaps   conferring  some  supportive  evidence.  But  that  remains  to  be  proven,  if   at  all.  

Chicken Lecture  XVII  

Do Dark-­‐Energy  Proponents  Fool  Themselves,   Other  Scientists,  Media  Editors  and  the  Laymen?  

                       

Chicken Lecture  XVII  

Historical events  associated  with  the       UNVERIFIABLE  DARK-­‐ENEGY  HOAX    

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No proof   was   ever   established   that   the   historical   "Hail-­‐Cannons"   had   accomplished   anything   but   raise   loud   noise,   fool   media   editors,   the   public,   donors   and   governments   to   fund   their   unverifiable   claims,   somewhat   similar   to   the   unverifiable   string   mathematical  games  discussed  above.    

How DARK-­‐ENERGY  is  smuggled  into  science?

Claims made   today   to   Extract   Donors   and   Government   Funding   by   about   400   theorists  

at

Fermilab,

Universities of   Chicago,   Pennsylvania,   Ohio   State,   UCL   &   Argonne   National   Lab,   DOE,   NSF,   IEEC,   IFAE,   OzDEZ,   NOAD,   NCSA,   SLAC,   CTIO,   LMU   in   Germany,   UK   Consortium,   universities   in   London,  and  supported  by  SCIENCE-­‐AAAS,  are  voided  by     (a)          applying  simple  momentum  conservation  which  unequivocally   proves  that  "dark  energy"  is  nothing  but  Chimera  (right),     (b)          resorting  to  Chimerian  base  &  immeasurable  "dark  energy",  to   claim  that  Einstein  Gravity  Physics  is  wrong,     (c)          maintaining  (a)  &  (b)  results  in  the  greatest  mistake  in  science,   generated  by  theorists  and  supported  by  SCIENCE-­‐AAAS.    

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E

arly dark  energy  proponents  may  have  attracted  popular  media  and  

public support   by   throwing  up  alleged  "Dark-­‐Hail",  which   instead  of   falling  back  by  gravity,  is  speeding  up  to  the  sky,       Thereby  fooling  main  media  editors,  the  public,  donors    and  international   governments,   to   raise   astronomical   funds   for   spacecraft   &   instrumentation   aimed   to   measure   the   immeasurable   "dark   hail",     or  exploit  the  1998-­‐discovery  that  the   universe  is  NOT  slowing  down   its  expansion  by  gravity,  but,  by  "dark  hail",  is  accelerating,  or  help   sell   computer-­‐simulations   as   "tests"   of   claimed   Chimera   properties   that  dictate  to  "correct"  Einstein  Gravity  Physics.                                                                                          

Has a  version  of  ESOTERICISM  invaded   Academia?     In   ESOTERICISM,   for   instance,   AGARTHA   is   a  great   city   claimed   to   be   located   inside   an  earth's   hole.   Probably   invented   by   the   European   A.   Saint-­‐Yves   D'Alveydre,   who   had   claimed   his   writing   are   "reliable"   and   mean   that   all   wisdom   and   wealth   "will   be   accessible   for   all   mankind,   when  Christianity  lives  up  to  the  Hebrew  10  commandments  "drafted  by   Moses   and   God"   and   absolutely,   applicable   "When   the   Anarchy   which   exists   in   our   world   is   replaced   by   the   SYNARCHY".   Some   other   followers   claim  that  Agartha  is  located  in  the  high  Tibet-­‐Himalayas,  with  "pictorial   evidence".  

 

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Chicken Lecture  XVIII

B

ased on   Einstein-­‐Feynman-­‐Popper   methodologies-­‐theories   and  

confirmed by   recent   observations   in   astronomy,   biophysics,   geophysics   and   archeology,   this   new   philosophy;   Gravitism,   concludes   that   theoretical   physics   has   already   died   by   its   own   proponents.    

WHEREFORE, the   aim   and   scope   of   Gravitism   remains   positive   and  constructive.  These    include       (i)          a  fresh  new  outlook  at  nature,     (ii)        a  new  philosophy  of  physics,     (iii)      a  modified  educational  methodology  based  on:     (A)             Multi-­‐verified   expansion   of   the   Cosmos   as   first   predicted   by   Einsteinian   Gravity   Physics   since   1915   vs.   the   current   debates   summarized   by   Gravitism,   which   inter   alia   claims   that   science   starts   with   astronomy   and   not   by   a   probabilistic,   size-­‐arrested,   standard   quantum   model,   that   it   starts   with   deterministic   curved   space   time,   not   by   a   priori   erecting   virtual   wrong   fire-­‐walls   and   conceptual   fences   by   "Precise  Definitions"   that   introduce   mistakes   outside   their   limited   model   domains.           (B)                Updating    our    "Cosmology,    Physics    and    Philosophy"  worldwide     acclaimed    book  with  well-­‐confirmed  observations   on   the   coldest   world    

48


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sink of  galactic  and  stellar  radiation-­‐winds  (270  degrees  C  below  zero  in   SPACE-­‐1)   caused   and   controlled   by   multi-­‐verified   expanding-­‐cooling   VOIDS  located  between  all  super-­‐clusters  of  galaxies.  (See  below).     (C)                 With   gravity,   the   expanding-­‐VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1   identified   below,   control   all   stellar   evolution   that   generates   new   particles   and   atoms,   which,   eventually,   build   the   chemical   elements   that   lead   to   (a)   Amino-­‐ acids,   RNA   and   DNA   on   this   gravity-­‐structured   planet,   (b)   Gravity-­‐ Natural-­‐Selection   of   the   fittest   bio-­‐atmosphere,   bio-­‐structures,   gravity-­‐ induced   skeletons,   gravity-­‐based   written   symbols,   languages,   gravity-­‐ induced   organized   religions   village   and   city   structures,   transportation   systems,  geo-­‐technologies,  arts  and  sciences  as  presented  below.    

Chicken Lecture  XIX

C

arefully assessed   pro   and   cones   reasons   of   most   fundamental   and  

traditional concepts  also  lead  to  our  revolution  in  education  via  this  CCC,   which  had  been  prepared  and  is  presented  for  (i)  the  young,  aged  9  and   above,   (ii)   the   self-­‐educating   adults,   and     (iii)   scientists   who   often   fool   themselves,   other   scientists,   media   editors   and   the   laymen   as   stated   above,  or  associated  with:     (1)          Quantum-­‐based  "String  Theories"  that  start  with  unverifiable  definitions,   (2)     "Dark   energy"   claims   advocated   by   armies   of   fooling   themselves   proponents,    

49


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(3)     Claims   that   Einsteinian   Gravity   Physics   ought   to   be   replaced   with   theirs,   (4)          Claims  that  mathematics  is  invented  by  mortals,  not  discovered,   (5)        Claims  that  the  1998  verified  accelerated  expansion  of  the  universe   affirms  their  unverifiable    "dark  energy"  hoax,     (6)       Speculations   about   from   the   origin   of   the   first   amino   acids,   RNA,   DNA,   (7)            Did  DNA  originate  from  the  ashes  of  a  dead-­‐mother  –  a  supernova?                            When?  Where?  

Gravitism.    Painting  by  Monica  C.  Fernandez,  2012  

   

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Chicken Lecture  XX                                     What  Expands  vs.  What   Does  Not      

2

                 Cold  SPACE-­‐  wraps   all  galaxies.  It  includes  all   galactic  winds.  

SPACE-­‐3  

wraps all stars and planets and includes all stellar winds. Stellar winds are enhanced by shocks as explored by VOYAGERS 1 and 2 (their paths are marked). Most stellar winds,

cosmic rays, by-pass the stars, including our solar system, and "flow" to SPACE-2. Eventually these winds are irreversibly including

dissipated in the coldest (270 degrees C below zero), expanding, dark cosmological

SPACE-1,

which is composed of almost empty

EXPANDING, INTERGALACTIC

VOIDS

located between all super-clusters of galaxies. NASA records are provided next below. All images are taken from the author's advances in COSMOLOGY, PHYSICS and PHILOSOPHY [1-5] or from Wikipedia.

“ly”  marks  the  distance  light  travels  in  almost  empty  SPACES  1,  2  and  3  during  one   year:  300,000  km/sec  times  3600  sec/hr  times  24  hrs/day  times  365  days/year.    

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How  Intergalactic  Jet-­‐Winds   (yellow)  enter  into  all  Voids     and  cause  each  to  expand?    

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Cluster I                

         Cluster  II                

SPACE -­‐2              

 

The  Low  energy  density  expanding  VOIDS  absorb  galactic-­‐stellar  winds   entering  them  from  all  directions  as  marked  in  images  above  and  located   inside  expanding  SPACE-­‐1.   PHYSICS-­‐I:  Momentum  Conservation  explain  the  recently  confirmed   accelerated  inertia  expansion  of  the  universe  as  a  whole.  Note  the   galactic  clusters  and  stars  do  not  expand  with  the  expanding  universe,   only  the  voids  do,  as  marked  

T

he marked   "3rd  Cosmological  ARROW  OF  TIME"  represents   stellar   and  

galactic winds   that   non-­‐stop-­‐enter-­‐all-­‐expanding   cold   VOIDS   from   all   direction  and  forever  dissipate  and  irreversibly  stay  there.    

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All opposing  winds  clash  at  each  void  centers  (virtual  adiabatic  surfaces,   see   below)   thus   causing   each   void   to   accelerate   the   left-­‐over   inertia-­‐ expansion  of  the  universe  since  the  Big-­‐Bang  Explosion,     RECAP:   "filaments"   of   non-­‐expanding   galactic   bodies   around   each   void   are   non-­‐stop   being   reaction-­‐forced-­‐out   by   the   galactic-­‐stellar   jets-­‐winds   entering   each   void   from   all   directions   and   thus   contribute   to   the   world   expansion.   PHYSICS-­‐II:   Why   the   marked   VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1   function   as   the   ULTIMATE   and   LARGEST   DARK-­‐COLD   "THERMODYNAMIC   SINK"   in   the   entire   visible   universe  

E

ach of  the  gigantic  expanding  voids  act  as  part  of  the  largest  cosmological  sink  of  

radiations removed  away  from  all  active  stars  to  allow  them  to  evolve.  The  removal  of   energy  produced  in  the  cores  of  all  active  stars  allows  each  to  generate  new  chemical   elements  in  their  cores.  (details  below).   The  most  massive  stars,  due  to  higher  internal  gravitational  pressures,  and  thus  high   core   temperatures,   consume   their   "Fuel"   (See   below)   faster   than   the   less   massive   stars,  like  our  sun,  do.   Once   out   of   "fuel",   gravitationally   collapse   ends   their   lives,   some   undergoing   a   gigantic  explosion  termed  supernova.     The   dust,   debris   and   gas   spread   by   this   explosion   in   SPACE-­‐3   may   end   up   forming   planets   in   orbit   around   stars   like   our   sun   and   gradually,   by   gravitational   "natural  

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selection" eject   gases   from   their   interiors   to   form   atmospheres   and   generate   geophysical  processes  that  lead  to  life.  

The Origin  of  Thermodynamics

T

he origin  of  irreversibility  in  nature,  namely,  the  origin  of  the  physics  of  

thermodynamics is  observationally  supported  by  three  cosmic  processes:                    (a)     The   irreversible   cooling   of   the   expanding   universe   during   the   radiation  dominated  era  whereby  the  structure-­‐less  medium  density  and   temperature   is   reduced,   the   1st   Cosmological-­‐Thermodynamic   Arrow  of  Time.  (Diagram  above).                  (b)     The   earliest   formation   of   stars   and   galaxies   that   had   generated   expanding   cold   VOIDS,   ,   the   2nd   Cosmological-­‐Thermodynamic   Arrow  of  Time.  (Diagram).                    (c)     The   earliest   formation   of   "filaments"   (or   sort   of   cosmic   walls)   composed  of  SUPER-­‐CLUSTERS  OF  GALAXIES  AROUND  EACH  VOD,  leading   to   the   3rd   Cosmological-­‐Thermodynamic   Arrow   of   Time.   (Diagram   and  list  at  book  end).   THERMODYNAMIC  CONCLUSIONS:  The  expanding  VOIDS  in  SPACE-­‐1  constitute    (i)  the   root-­‐cause   of   the   Second   Law   of   Thermodynamics,   (ii)   lead   to   human   perceptions   of   time-­‐asymmetries,  (iii)  lead  to  unified  world  order  and  structuring  by  gravitation,  (iv)   lead  to  the  origin  of  life.  HOW?      

     

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Zooming In  

Z

ooming-­‐into a  single  dark-­‐cold  expanding  void  illustrates  the  non-­‐stop,  

entering from   all   directions,   super-­‐fast,   highly   energized   Galactic-­‐Stellar   Winds-­‐Jets.   This   process   causes   simultaneous   expansion   of   each   and   all   voids   under   momentum   conservation-­‐reaction   on   all   "filaments-­‐Walls"   around   each   void  

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Thought-­‐Experiment in  Gravitism   A   single   super-­‐cold   2.7K   cold   void   is   next   assessed   within   a   thought   experiment   published   first   by   the   News   York   ACADEMY   OF   SCIENCES   GOLD-­‐AWARDED   article   on   the   New   Astrophysical   School   of  

Thermodynamics. Imagine  a  room  made  of  flexible  walls,  floors  and  ceiling  into  which  high-­‐ speed,   galactic-­‐stellar-­‐winds,   as   jets-­‐of-­‐radiation,   pour   in   from   all   directions,  non-­‐stop.   By   propulsion   force   ("thrust   of   rockets   and   fighter   aircraft   by   jet-­‐ engine")  in  the  opposite  direction,  these  "jets"  expand  the  volume   of   the   room   in   analogy   to   the   detected   increased   volume   of   Voids/SPACE-­‐1,   causing   the   flexible   walls,   floors   and   ceiling   to   recede  away.    

The Hubble  Space  Telescope     Since   2016,   the   Hubble   Space   Telescope   has   confirmed   the  1998   discovery   of  the  accelerated  expansion  of  the  Universe.  The  confirmed  mechanism   thus  involves  two  simultaneous  processes:   PROCESS   A:   Regions   of   space   populated   with   denser   galaxies   increasingly   attract   matter   into   them   by   the   force   of   gravity,   which,   in   turn,   further   empties  the  less  dense  regions  that  includes  large  expanding  voids  between   all  super-­‐clusters  of  galaxies.  with  ever  larger  voids  in  between.     PROCESS  B:     The  large  expanding  voids  between  all  super-­‐clusters  of  galaxies  are   acting   as   the   greatest   sinks   of   all   radiation   emerging   from   all   active   galaxies   and   stars.  

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Further Zooming  In   Zooming  in  further  to  the  resolution  indicated  by  1  Million  ly  reveals  Our     SPACE-­‐2    "Neighborhood”,  which    is  home  to  thousands  of  galaxies.     Even   at   this   scale   our   entire   solar   system   is   less   than   a   visible   dot   somewhere  in  the  marked  “Local  Group”.  Our  home  cluster  is  marked  in   Astronomy  Virgo.  

Our   Solar   System   is   still   less   than   a   visible   dot   in   this   Record      

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The Andromeda  galaxy  is  marked  in  yellow.     It  is  2,200,000  light-­‐years  away  and  is  almost  similar  to  our  galaxy.     It  is  also  characterized  by  a  spiral  structure.     We  see  it  today  as  it  was  when  the  earliest  hominids  left  East  Africa  to  arrive  at  the   "promised  land".   Both   galaxies   are   the   largest   in   our   Local  Group,   which   is   about   10,000,000   light-­‐ years  in  its  largest  spatial  ‘diameter’.            

The  "Local  Group"    includes  M49,  M58,  M59,  M60,                                                                M61,  M84,  M86,  M87,  M89  and  M31   (Andromeda).  

A

ndromeda’s system   consists   of   Cassiopeia   Dwarf,   Pegasus   dSph,  

M32, M110,  NGC  147,  NGC195,  AND  I-­‐V,   etc.   The   Triangulum  Galaxy,   the   3rd   largest   galaxy   in   ‘our’   local   group,   also   includes   the  Pisces  Dwarf   as   a   satellite.     ‘Our’   satellite   galaxies   consist   of   the   Large   and   Small   Magellanic   Clouds,   Ursa   Minor   Dwarf,   Darco   Dwarf,   Sculptor   Dwarf,   Canis   Major   Dwarf,  Fornax  Dwarf,  Carina  Dwarf,  Sextans  Dwarf,  Tucana  Dwarf,  Leo  I,   Leo  II,  Leo  A,  Sag  DEG,  etc.  

 

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"Fog" in  

Galactic Images     “Fog”  visible  inside  galactic  records     are  actually  records  of  billions  of     stars  like  our  sun,  or  more  massive.    

Our Solar   System   extends   far   beyond  the  farthest  planets,  asteroid  belt,  Kuiper  belt,  comets,  rocks  and   dust   in   ‘our’   community.   It   is   located   inside   non-­‐expanding   SPACE-­‐   2   that   wraps   our   entire   galaxy   and   is   spatially   interconnected   with   expanding   VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1.   Gravitational   structures   of   clusters   and   superclusters   of   galaxies   vary   considerably   -­‐-­‐   from   that   of   Virgo,   Leo,   Ursa,   Coma   and   Hercules  to  long  ‘filaments’.                        

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 The  Key  Tools  of  Astronomy  

How Red  Shifts  help  prove  that  the  Voids  in  SPACE-­‐1  Expand?   Red  Shifts  in  astronomy  serve  as  key  tools  in  making     scientific  discoveries.     These  are  based  on  wavelength  change  of  photons     propagating  through  the  expanding  VOIDS  in  SPACE-­‐1. There  is,  however,  a  distinction  between  various  red  shifts.   The  color  spectrum  on  the  right  illustrates  a  redshift  –    light  waves  marked  as  horizontal  black  lines  are  "shifted  up”     (white  arrows)  in  the  direction  of  the  red  region.  It  is     caused  when  objects  exhibit  a  simple  local  Doppler-­‐Effect    redshift  (Image  above)  or  a  space  expansion.    Rather     than  resulting  from  relative  velocities  vis-­‐à-­‐vis  earth,     the  photons  undergoing  increase  in  wavelength  because    of  the  expansion  of  a  medium  through  which  they  are    traveling.  

Hubble Cosmic  Expansion  Law:  Uo  =  Hor     where  “r”  is  distance  from  earth  to  “CLUSTER  I”  (image),     which  represents  super-­‐clusters  of  galaxies,  Ho  the  Hubble     Constant  and  Uo  the  recession  velocity  calculated,  namely,  the  recession  velocity  of   super-­‐clusters  as  they  move-­‐away  from  an  observer  on  earth,  and/or  from  each  other.  

   

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Why  Hubble  was   refused  to  be   awarded  the   Nobel?

H

ubble’s

astronomical

observations in   the   1920s   have   revolutionized   not   only   physics,   but   the   traditional   perceptions   of   billion   around  the  world.     Yet  he  was  refused  to  be  awarded  what  he  so     MUCH  DESERVED:  A  NOBEL,  allegedly  for  similar  non-­‐ethical  reasons  that  Einstein  had   also  been     refused   the   Nobel   for   his   Spacial  relativity   and   General  Relativity,   both   of   which   have     revolutionaized   not   only   physics,   but   the   traditional   perceptions   of   scientists   and   billions  around  the  globe.  

FACTUAL BACKGROUND:  Post  Einstein's  forcing     a  stupid  number  to  stop  the  socially  unwanted  expansion  of  our  world,  aspredicted  by   his   Gravity   Physics   Equations,   allegedly   most   of   the   NOBEL   committee   members  

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wrongly assumed   that   Einstein   had   been   finished   by   a   non-­‐scientific   addition   of   a   stupid  number  to  his  equations.     In   fact,   Einstein   later   stated   that   adding   that   stupid   number   to   his   equations  

because of  what  other  think,  was  the  "worse  mistake  of  my   life".   That  was  stated  only  after  Hubble  has  unequivocally  proved  that,  in  fact,  he,   Einstein's,   by   his   1915   gravity   physics,   had   already   predicted   what   he,   HUBBLE,   has   empirically   discovered   and   proved   a   few   years   later,   a   grand   cosmological   discovery   that  has  made  both,   the   most   celebrated   world   heros   of   science   against   all  

mediocre minds  and  ulterior  stealthy  haters.    

HUBBLE

(right)   if   fact,   has   unequivocally  proved   that   (in   fact   clusters)   of  

galaxies are  moving  away  from  each  other.  Hence,  the  universe  had  a  very   hot   and   dense   "beginning"   at   the   very   start   of   the   world   expansion   –   a   beginning  that  is  called  Big-­‐Bang,  but  should  be  historically  and  ethically   termed  

"EINSTEIN-­‐HUBBLE GENESIS"   (or     -­‐   BANG").       We   later  

return to  these  issues.                            

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 Local  vs.  Cosmological  Einsteinian  

Physics  

(1)          Special   relativity   effects  are  valid  locally  in  small  regions  of  space-­‐ time  that  are  approximately  ‘flat’,  i.e.,  are  under  low  gravity  values,  like  on   Earth.     (2)             The  universe   is   not   expanding   "into"   anything   outside   itself.   (we   return  to  this).   (3)            Galaxies    move  and  rotate  individually  in  SPACE-­‐2,  but  do  not  expand.   (4)            ONLY  the  Coldest  Dark  VOIDS  in  SPACE-­‐1  Expand.   The   explosive   expansion   of   the   entire   universe   since   its   beginning   had   started   about   13.8   billion   years   ago.   It   is   detected   today   by   astronomical   methods   (see   below)   as   left   over   inertia   expansion   from   the   initial   EINSTEIN-­‐HUBBLE  GENESIS    "explosion".    

   How  We  Rotate  in  SPACES  2  and  3

 

VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1 expansion   is   independently  

confirmed-­‐

cosmic microwave  blackbody    Radiation.     verified  

by

the

   

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A few  simultaneous  motions  are  involved:  

(i)  Earth  rotates  and  travels  around  the  sun,     (ii)  the  sun  travels  around  the  galactic  center,     (iii)  our  galaxy  rotates  about  250  km/hr  at  our  Orion  Arm.     These  motions  should  not  be  confused  with  the  recession  speed  of   clusters  and  super-­‐clusters  of  galaxies  away  from  each  other.     [R(t)   [main   diagram].   This   motion   is   also   termed   ”the   Hubble   Expansion”.   Our   galaxy  is   deviating   from   this   uniform   expansion   motion   by  about  600  km/sec.  

Einsteinian Gravity  Physics                                                                      

E

instein’s

General Relativity   (EGR,   or   Gravity  

Physics] is   formulated   in   the   same   form   for   all   "observers"   –   accelerating,   linearly   moving,   rotating,   standing   on   a   minor   astronomical   body,   like   earth,   or   on   a   massive   star.   For   that   aim   one   needs   ‘translators’   from   one   observer-­‐coordinate-­‐system   to   another.      

These ‘translators’   are   energy-­‐momentum   metric   tensors   that   include   first   and   second   mathematical   derivatives   in   three   space   coordinates   and   in   one   time   coordinate   of   any   local   physical   properties:  mass,  energy  and  momentum.      

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Changes in  the  gravitational  force   are   accounted   for   by   changes  in   the   curvature   of   space-­‐time,   on   one   hand,   and   by   changes   in   local   mass-­‐energy   and   momentum   on   the   other   side   of   Einstein’s   Field   Equations,  EFE.    Acceleration  is  equivalent  to  gravity.    

EGR includes   Einstein’s   Special   Relativity   and   conservation   equations  of  mass,  energy  and  momentum.     In   low   gravitational   fields,   like   on   earth,   Einsteinian   Gravity   is   approximated  by  NEWTONIAN  GRAVITY.      

             

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Einstein’s Gravity    Lens                                                                             Gravitational   Lens   were   predicted   by   Einstein   in   1936.   [Image   above].  They  help  reveal  early  (far-­‐away)  gravitating  objects.  HOW?      

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The brown-­‐orange   arrows   show   the   magnified   source,   while   the   gray-­‐white   arrows   show   the   actual   path   of   light   from   the   hidden   source.     Einstein   calculated   such   effect   for   future   astronomy.   And   today   the   “lens”   become   very   useful   when   the   gravity   of   a   massive   cosmic   object   curves   space-­‐time   between   the   observer   and   a   hidden,   far-­‐ away  galaxy,  that  by  Einstein's  Lens  can  be  discovered.                   The   key   point   is   that   this   effect   magnifies   early   galaxies   and   it   is   important   in   astronomical   efforts   to   study   the   "Early   Age   of   the   Universe”,  which  had  started  about  200,000  to  350,000  years  after   the  “Big  Bang”.    

“Expansion   of   the   universe”

or   “expansion  of  space  itself”  may  be  defined  as  the  expansion  of  the  cold-­‐ dark  voids  shown  above.  This  issue  has  confused  many  theorists.       Most   important   is   the   solid   evidence   that   has   been   accumulated   by   NASA’s   Hubble   Space   Telescope   and   by   two   Voyager   Space-­‐Probes   (identified   in   #24)   as   well   as   by   ground-­‐based   LIGO   and   VIRGO   observatories,  and  by  others.  

                 

In Conclusion:   The   use   of   Einstein  Lens,   new   infrared,   radio,   X-­‐ray   and   other   techniques,   has   increased   the   reliability   of   recorded   information   about   phenomena   and   processes   in   the   most   remote   regions  of  curved  space-­‐time.      

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Cosmic Chemistry   by  Nuclear   Fusion  

The  most  important   “chemical”  processes  in   the  universe  are  caused   by  GRAVITY.    

Gravity causes   extremely   high   pressures  in  the  inner  cores  of   active   stars.   Inside   these   hot   cores   all   chemical   elements   beyond   hydrogen,   are   generated   by   transforming   (fusing)  hydrogen  plasma,  [H],   into   heavier   elements   like   Helium   [He],   carbon   [C],   oxygen   [O],   nitrogen   [N],   phosphor  [P]]  of  active  stars.         A   typical   sun-­‐Like   star   is   a   “factory”   for   producing   new   chemical   elements   like   the   ones  marked  on  the  right,  all  the  way  heavy  one,  IRON,  at  its  very  hottest  core.    

 

 

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STELLAR WINDS   are   Energy-­‐material   streams   in   the   sun   interior   shown   above   include   convection   currents   from   the   very   hot,   thermo-­‐nuclear   reacting   core,   "up"   to   the   colder   sun   surface,   including  various  types  of  radiations  and  particles  pouring  out  into   non-­‐expanding,   colder   SPACE-­‐3   as   INTERSTELLAR   WINDS   (First   image,   Part   A).   These   are   mixed   in   Space-­‐2   with   similar   winds   to   form   Intergalactic   Winds   that   eventually   dissipate   irreversibly   in   the  coldest  spaces  in  the  universe:  VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1.     (A)       According   to   both   Einsteinian   and   Newtonian   physics,   the   bigger   the   mass   of   a   star,   the   higher   are   its   core   pressures   and   temperatures   and   faster   are   the   nuclear   fusion   processes  in  its  interior,       (B)       All   active   stars   (billions   detected   in   each   of   the   detected   billion   galaxies   in   the   visible   universe)   generate   in   their     interiors   the   basic   chemical   elements   beyond   hydrogen   and   helium;       (C)        All  basic  elements  of  life  had  been  generated  in  the  cores  of  a   now   dead   Mother   that   had   died   in   a   violent   explosion   termed   Supernova.                                        

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How do  we  know  all  that?    

O

n both  fusion  and  fission  scientists  know  much  today.    

Fusion is   the   reaction   in   hydrogen-­‐bomb   explosions,   while   fission   is  the  reaction  in  atomic  reactors  and  in  ‘regular’  atomic  weapons.       When   a   certain   amount   of   iron   is   formed   in   the   interiors   of   any   active   star,   endothermic   reaction   replaces   the   exothermic   one.   (The  exothermic  reaction  generates  energy,  while  the  endothermic   consumes  it.)    

Natural Selection”  is,  in  Fact,   "Gravity    Natural  Selection”   "

All galaxies,  stars  and  supernovas  are  primary  structures  in  our   expanding  world  are  gravity-­‐generated.     Secondary  generated  gravity   structures,  include  planetary   systems  around  stars,  stellar   winds,  galactic  winds,  black   holes,  SPACES  1,  2,  3.     Third  generated  gravity   structures  include  gravity-­‐ induced  atmospheres,   biological  evolution,  geo-­‐ structures,  time  systems,  

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village, city  and  transportation  systems,  up-­‐down/gravity-­‐oriented   symbols,  written  languages,  lines,  books,  mind  perception  of  time-­‐ space,     sky-­‐earth,  high-­‐rise  buildings,  high  priests,  tall  minarets  and     church  towers,  "High"  cultural  elite  vs.  "Low  social  circles",     archeology  and  history  main  events.    

 

The 2nd   generated   gravity   structures   include   supernova   explosions   which   throw   into   SPACE-­‐3   Hot   debris,   rocks   and   gas.   Floating   in   Space-­‐3,   post   the   explosion,   the   debris,   dust   and   gas   where  located  near  the  path  of  our  sun.  Captured  into  orbit  around   it,   gravity   next   further   dictated   the   evolution   of   life.   Gravity   compressed  some  debris  to  form  the  observed  spherical  planets  in   the  Solar  system.  Life  followed  as  detailed  below.      Is  a  dead  star-­‐supernova  our  mother?    

How To  Start  Science   Teaching?     Should  science  start  by  Einsteinian  deterministic  curved  space-­‐time     or  by  a  probabilistic,  size-­‐arrested,  standard  quantum  model  or     by  associated  string,  dark-­‐energy  or  "Theories-­‐of-­‐Everything"?     Neither  a  fundamental  or  embedded  "beginning"  of  the  universe,   nor  time  asymmetries  and  the  origin  of  irreversibility  in  nature  is   found  at  the  fundamental  basis  of  the  probabilistic  standard   quantum  model,  unless  an  a  priori  contraband  is  smuggled  in   without  a  due  declaration  to  fit  the  verified  observations  of  

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Einsteinian Gravity  Physics  in  various  addendum  attempts  to   improve     the  standing  and  reliability  of  armies  of  theoretical  physicists.    

Revisiting "Precise  Definition"  

P

recise definitions   erect   external   VIRTUAL   FENCES,   or   a   sort   of   a   FIRE-­‐

WALL that   CAUSEs   MISTAKES   OUTSIDE   THE   AXIOMS   DOMAINS   defined   and  forced  by  their  proponents  if  they  add  corrections  that  fit  with  what   facts   they   wish   to   smuggle   into   their   activity   domain   without   declaring   the  contraband.  

Einsteinian General  Relativistic  Universe  does  NOT  erect  external   virtual   fences   or   any   sort   of   "fire-­‐walls"   outside   its   domain,   because  there  is  no  "outside"  to  its  domain,  for  it  does  not  expand   into  any  other  extant  space  that  may  be  a  priori  rejected  by  wrong   precise   definitions   or   axioms   or   the   various   postulates   of   the   standard  quantum  model  or  associated  theories  that  preserve  it  in   their  fundamental  base.        

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Petition of a hen scientist  

Gold-Awarded by NY Academy of Sciences: Einsteinian Astrophysical school that predicted (1) 2 Expansions of the universe that compact galaxi...

Petition of a hen scientist  

Gold-Awarded by NY Academy of Sciences: Einsteinian Astrophysical school that predicted (1) 2 Expansions of the universe that compact galaxi...

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