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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

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All Rights Reserved to Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or, 9th Edition

Introduction Cosmology, Physics Philosophy to

and

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All Rights Reserved to Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or, 9th Edition

D

I

ETECTED, NTERWOVEN,

TWO SIMULTANEOUS COSMIC EXPANSIONS

of gigantic, dark-cold, intergalactic-voids, Cause observed 'Walls-Filaments" around each to be compacted by dynamics lead to (1) 1998-Discovered acclelerated expansion of the Universe, (2) The Origin of the Astrophysical New, GoldAwarded, School of Thermodynamics

By Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or 1 Million+ Google citations

"We are all Galorians", Editor, Foundations of Physics, 9TH EDITION "Gal-Or launches a new spirit of inquiry by his excellent and thought provoking writings. I would recommend awarding a prize and would hope that this would serve to focus attention on a most important subject.�

Gold Award by N.Y. Academy of Sciences (Rival article by S. Hawking did not make it.) 3


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"Einstein's time-symmetric tensor was elevated by Gal-Or’s “New Astronomical School of Unified Thermodynamics” to the status of the source of “Master Asymmetry” controlling not only irreversible thermodynamics, but all physical and biological phenomena! Gal-Or calls “GRAVITISM” (his philosophy) that gravitation is the prime cause of structures, irreversibility, time, geo-chemical and biological evolution -- that the expansion of the universe is the cause of the second law of thermodynamics -- that microscopic physics, and thermodynamics in particular, cannot be understood without reference to cosmology. He ties “irreversibility” to the “expansion of space itself”, i.e. as far as space is expanding, the contribution of all kinds of radiation in space is weakened “irreversibly” due to the expansion phenomenon itself. Such loss, or “degradation” of energy in the depth of inter-cluster expanding space, may then be considered as a universal sink for all the radiation flowing out of the material bodies in the expanding universe.” Advancement of Physic

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: “Gal-Or's remarkable book sees and seizes the world whole. He emphasizes that all scientists operate under some set of philosophical prejudices, and that failure to acknowledge this is self-delusion. Furthermore, he argues that a failure to attend to the philosophical base of physics leads to an empty scientism. His work is challenging on many levels, constituting a review 'with derivations' of general relativity 'as applied to cosmology', thermodynamics, the current state of theoretical particle physics, astrophysics, as well as a summary history of western philosophy, 'especially the philosophies of time and mind' and critiques of western society, the intelligentsia and the relationship between academic science and government. One 'and perhaps the central' theme explored, is that of the interplay between symmetry and asymmetry. 4


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His primary interest is not in the recent progress in the unification of forces in gauge theory, although he finds support in it for his Einsteinian outlook, but is rather time, time's arrow, and the asymmetry between past and future. Around time are accumulated discussions, both mathematical and philosophical, of thermodynamic reversibility, time reversibility, the nature of causality, and the use of advanced and retarded solutions to wave equations. The second major theme is that of gravity and its overwhelming domination of the actual form of the universe, at all scales. The combination of these themes is not accidental; they are point and counterpoint to his thesis that the time asymmetries are connectable to and perhaps even determined by the master asymmetry given by the gravity of general relativity: the remorseless cosmological expansion. He argues that only the expansion can provide the unification of time asymmetries. The expansion provides, among other things, an unsaturable sink for radiation, which, in turn, permits the establishment of gradients in temperature and density, which provide the basis for the physical process that leads to life. He also criticizes the sloppy and improper use of the concepts of entropy 'and the related notions in information theory' and quantum indeterminism, especially as covers for an inadequate understanding of temporal asymmetries. Taking an Einsteinian position on the interpretation of quantum mechanics, he looks forward to revitalization of Einstein's quest for a deterministic interpretation of quantum events. The value of this book lies in the challenging combination of ideas which Gal-Or presents, which goes far beyond what can be sensibly described in a review. [This] work may be too large to digest as a text in these days of the decline of academic institutions "as Gal-Or describes them", but that will be the loss of both the faculty and the students.�

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS "This is a great book, and an exciting book; readable, worth reading and enlightening."

Sir Karl Popper, one of the Greatest Philosophers of Science

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"Gal-Or’s “beauty” has always been the object of science, which, he lyrically observes as “a most fundamental aesthetic frame of mind, a longing for the run-away horizons of truth and symmetry that we always try to reach.” Order Amidst Chaos, Enlightenment Aesthetics Recommended by Encyclopedia Britannica,

"Nature, Philosophy of" "This is one of the most beautiful books that I have read." Outstanding Books List "Tour de force. A magnificent and sustained piece of work! Gal-Or’s net is widely cast – it reaches as far as science policy and political philosophy."

A. Cottrell, V. Chancellor, Cambridge University "Appeals to scientists of all disciplines who are prepared to open their minds. Shines a welcome light in some dark corners of science. Sir Karl Popper, in a Foreword, correctly describes it “a great book”.

New Scientist Magazine

"Evokes a person heart !! Has generated a large number of responses from around the world, some declaring that it has turned them into “Gal-Orians”. Since the thought presented by this book is so rich, translators of our country should recommend this book with all their intellectual power."

Chinese Academy of Sciences

"A Master Piece. The well-known author bases his philosophy on a very sound knowledge of present-day scientific theories. "

Indian Journal of Physics 6


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"The works of scientists like Gal-Or, Bohm, and (Noble Prize-Winner) Prigogine provide important resources. Prigogine's formalisms do not really tell us how irreversible change emerges from reversible [mathematics]. (in this Gal-Or is superior)."

The Crisis of the Sciences "I do not know a better modern expression of science, philosophy and classical humanism than that of Gal-Or’s book."

HaAretz Daily “I have in the meantime studied your book, with great interest, and made pages of notes on it. I feel as if I had been on numerous walks and talks with you on the great questions, and know that would be great to go on with them! Who cannot be impressed by your love for the great men of all times and all countries, by your phrase “working back and forth between theory and fact”, by your belief that philosophy is too important to be left to the philosophers, by your concern for where thought and language lie in the scheme of things – and by so much more! I continue to reflect, again and again, on your central thesis that expansion is the origin of all asymmetry in time. What an ingenious phrase is your, “smuggle irreversibility in without declaring the contraband”! I regard your book as seeking to accomplish two tasks – and being two books – at the very least One is the exposition of your central thesis, with clarity, and careful mustering of every argument pro and con that can lead to testable consequences. I don’t see how it is possible to do proper justice to a thesis of such importance by mixing it in with the other great task. That is to give students an appreciation of the unity of philosophy and modern physics. You do both tasks far better than I could hope to. I give you my personal thanks for putting the two books into a pacackage that I personally have found most thought-provoking.” Prof. John Wheeler,

Inst. of Advanced Studies, Princeton University 7


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"Most astrophysicists, cosmologists and astronomers agree that the biblical account of cosmic evolution, in stressing `a beginning´ and the initial roles of `void,´ `light´ and a `structure-less´ state, may be uncannily close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us"

Professor Victor F. Weisskopf from MIT, quotes from CPP in a Scientific American article

“Lecture one [in Volume I] affirms that the stress placed by Genesis on ‘beginning’ and the initial roles of ‘void’, ‘light’ and a ‘structure-less’ state, “may be uncannily close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us.”

Christian Apologetics Journal “One of the best books on the totality of the sciences & the universe. It was one of the favorite books of Sir Karl Popper. It looks at physics and the universe as a totality of the mathematical philosophical understanding. It also combines the physical concept of time with human psychological perception and brain understanding of languages.”

Robin forumhub.com/expr/@202.54.92.222

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Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy Preface SIR KARL POPPER, Foreword ……………….………..……..… xx SIR ALAN COTTRELL, Foreword ………………….……......... xxi Preface ……………………………………..….……….…..….... xxii

Introduction 1.1 The Revival of Relativistic Cosmology vs. Modified Concepts and Order in Physics and Philosophy 1.1.1 Science Order: Cosmology to Quantum or in Reverse..... 3 1.1.2 How did all start v. Science teaching of that Order….......5 1.1.3 The first seven stages v. tradition ……….....…............... 7 1.1.4 The present matter-dominated era by Astronomy........... 11 2.1 The Einsteinian Methodology: A Preliminary Remark ..... 11 19, 2012

From Terrestrial Gravitational Structures to Black Holes and Neutrinos in Astrophysics 1.1 Gravitation, Asymmetry and Structure of Earth v. Cosmos ..80 A fallacy associated with current Education ...………...........80 1.1.2 Gravity-induced sedimentary structures …………............. 81 1.2 Stars and the Hertzsprung-Russel Central Diagram ……….. 88

1.3 Supernova, Gravitational Collapse, Neutron Stars, Pulsars …………………………………….......…92 1.4 X-Ray Astronomy, Binary X-Ray Systems, and... Gravitational Clocks ……………………………………......... . 100 1.5 Black Holes …………………….……………………….… 106 1.6 Gas, Dust and the Formation of Stars in Our Galaxy ............113 9


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1.7 How Are Cosmic Distances Measured? ……………….….. 116 1.8 Neutrino Astronomy and Astrophysics ………………….... 130 1.9 The Emergence of Gamma-Ray Astronomy ………….…... 132 1.10 Exploration of Extra-Solar Space by Unmanned Spacecraft ……………………….………..…… 134

From Old Physics to Particle Physics-I 2.1 Aim and Scope ……………………………………………. 138 2.2 Limitations of Theory ……………………………….….… 140 2.3 The General Macroscopic Equation ………………….….... 142 2.4 Continuity Equation (Total Mass Conservation) ………..... 146 2.5 Conservation of Linear Momentum and Gravity.…………. 147 2.6 The Navier-Stokes Equations and Gravity ……………….. 149 2.7 Kinetic-Energy Equation and Dissipation Function in Gravitational Fields ……………......... 152 2.8 First Law of Thermodynamics or Energy Conservation Equation ………………………………….......… 154 2.9 First Law and Enthalpy ………………………………….... 156 2.10 First Law In Terms of Temperature Field …………….…. 157 2.11 Entropy Balance Equation ……………………………….. 159 2.12 Beyond Classical Physics:...............…………………...…. 160 2.13 Neutrinos and the Powerful Role Conservation Equations Play in Subatomic Processes (Addendum) …...…… 163

General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology Should Rule Particle-Quantum Physics, Not the Other Way, Not by Quantum Axioms 3.1 Introduction …………………………………………………....... 167 3.1.1 Einstein’s field equations in general relativity ………..…….… 169 3.1.2 Confirmation of Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation …………..... 172 3.2 Principles and Formulations of General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology ………………...……….………………....... 191 3.3 Observations, The “Age” of the Universe. And “Equivalent Local Cells” …………………….……….….......... 200 3.4 Timekeeping, Accelerated Observers and the Principle of Equivalence ………………………….……………........ 204 10


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3.5 From General Relativity to Unified Field Theories ………….…. 205

From Physics to Philosophical Crossroads and Back The Arrows of Time 4.1 Time and The Arrow of Time: The Most Distorted of All Ideas? ..215 4.2 Asymmetry-Symmetry-Space-Time and The Unification of the Laws of Physics …………………….............. 216 4.3 Methodology, Aim and Scope ………………………………....... 217 4.4 Confusing Concepts of Time and Time Asymmetries ………...... 219 4.5 The Entropic Arrow of Time ……………………………….....… 222 4.6 Causality, Causation and Time Asymmetries ………………........ 226 4.7 Causation and Determinism in Relativistic Theories ……..............227 4.8 Cosmological Arrows of Time and Cosmic Time ……….…….... 230 4.9 A Few Remarks ……………………………………...………...... 232 4.10 Time-Reversal Invariance and Irreversibility …………….……. 236 4.10 Microscopic Time Asymmetries in “Elementary Particles” … .. 240 4.11 Death of Scale-Based Physics….......….………….……….......... 242 4.12 “Dual” Quantum-Geometrodynamical School and “Superspace” 243 4.13 Tachyons and Causal Violations …………………….………. ....246 4.14 Macrocausality and Microcausality in Quantum Mechanics …... 247 4.15 Fading Memory in Classical Physics …………………………... 247 4.16 Doubts as to the Universality of Entropy ……………………..... 249 4.17 Entropy-Free Thermodynamic Arrows of Time ………….…... . 250

Crisis in the Standard Quantum Model Gravitation & Cosmology unpredictable by Quantum Model 5.1 Preliminary Review …………………………………….……...... 255 5.1.1 The three main schools of thought ……………………............. 261 5.2 Einstein’s Objections to the Uncertainty Principle ………........... 262 5.3 The Heresy of a Few Skeptics ………………………….…......... 265 5.4 Mythologized Concepts of Quantum Physics …………...…....... 265 5.5 The Failure of Classical and Quantal Statistical Mechanics to Deduce Irreversibility and Time Asymmetries .............267 5.6 The Emergence of Quantum Chromodynamics and Super-Symmetry …………………………………….................. 272 5.6.1 Spatio-Temporal Approach to Quantum Physics ……….......... 272 11


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5.6.2 From Weinberg-Salam Theory to Quantum Chromodynamics ………………………............................ 273 5.6.2.1 Conservation laws as symmetry principles; and vice versa ... 273 5.6.2.2 Global, exact, approximate, isotopic and SU(3) symmetries 274 5.6.2.3 From SU(3) to renormalizable gauge theories ……............... 276 5.6.2.4 Quark confinement asymptotic freedom in gauge theories 276-1 5.6.2.5 QCD and the search for higher symmetry principles ……... 276-2 5.6.3 Quantum Field Theories, Super-Symmetry & Super-Gravity... 276-3 5.6.3.1 Limits of quantum gravity and ‘Unified Field Theories’ .......276-4

From Physics to Cosmological Crossroads and Back Cosmology Assessed by Physics and Philosophy 6.1 FIRST: Reduction of Thermodynamics to Gravitation ...,... 277 6.1.1 Intergalactic voids rule 2 Expansions of the Universe....,..277 6.1.2 Gravitation as super-structuring of matter and All Life.....279 6.2 The Earliest Observational Evidence. .…...………...........279 6.2.1 Which space expands and which does not? …...….......... 282 6.3 Gravitation-Asymmetry Principle of Equivalence …….......284 6.4 Can Inter-cluster Voids Be Saturated with Radiation? .........287 6.5 Derivation of the Master Asymmetry form our Gravitational School of Intergalactic Voids v. life........ 290 6.6 Irreversibility in the New Gravitational. Cosmological Thermodynamics ………………................. 293 6.7 Origin of Dissipation in Newtonian Fluids ……..….......… 297 6.8 Terrestrial Thermodynamics ……………………..……..... 299 6.9 Connections with Classical and Continuum Thermodynamics …………………………..…..…............. 301 6.10 Electromagnetic Irreversibility v. Master Asymmetry....... 303

The Cosmological Base of Time Arrow 7.1 Time: The All-Embracing Concept …………………................. 309 7.2 Cosmological Origin of Time ……………………….................. 310 7.3 Cosmological Interpretations of Newton’s Laws of Motion …... 314 7.4 Gravitational Origin of Structure and Evolution .……................ 316 7.5 Gravitation and the Outflow of Energy Into Un-Saturable Space 322 7.6 Stellar Evolution …………………………………….................. 324 7.7 Terrestrial Evolution …………………………..............……...... 325 12


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Black Holes v. Unattainable "Theory of Everything" 8.1 Introduction ………………………………………...… 330 8.2 Observational Evidence ………………………….….....331 8.3 Schwarzschild Solution and Black Holes …………...... 332 8.4 Black Holes Mechanics and Entropy ………………..... 340 8.5 Can Black Holes “Evaporate”? ……………………...... 341 8.6 Primordial Black Holes? …………………………........ 341 8.7 Back to the Melting Pot of Unification? …………........ 341

Beyond Present Knowledge 9.1 The Futile Quest for Final Answers …………………...... 349 9.2 An Example in Havaism ……………………..….........… 350 9.3 From Cosmology to Irreversible Structures and Memory 365 9.4 The Skeptic Outlook ……………………………..…...… 415

VOLUME II Introduction ……………………………………………................... 420 A Few Historical Remarks on Time, Mind and Symmetry ………... 437 The Philosophy of Time & Change: Some Historical Notions …………………….……………….…...... 455 Structuralism and the Divided American Thought: A Short Glossary of Terms ………………………………..……….. 467 Policy and Publicity: A Critique ………………………………….... 483 Thought-Provoking and Thought-Depressing Quotations ………..... 495 Critique of Western Methodology ………………………………. ... 530

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Einsteinian Herritage

A 1987 Painting by E. Katz, by permission.

“It is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science. It was the experience of mystery -- even if mixed with fear -- that engendered religion." "A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate, of the manifestations of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty, which are only accessible to our reason in their most 14


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elementary forms -- it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute the truly religious attitude;in this sense, and in this alone, I am a deeply religious man.” “I cannot conceive of a God who rewards and punishes his creatures, or has a will of the type of which we are conscious in ourselves. An individual who should survive his physical death is also beyond my comprehension, nor do I wish it otherwise; such notions are for the fears or absurd egoism of feeble souls.” “Enough for me the mystery of the eternity of life, and the inkling of the marvelous structure of reality, together with the single-hearted endeavor to comprehend a portion, be it never so tiny, of the reason that manifests itself in nature.” “I gang my own gait and have never belonged to my country, my home, my friends, or even my immediate family, with my whole heart; in the face of all these ties I have never lost an obstinate sense of detachment, which increases with age.”. “One is sharply conscious, yet without regret, of the limits to the possibility of mutual understanding and sympathy with one's fellow-creatures. Such a person no doubt loses something in the way of geniality and light-heartedness; on the other hand, he is largely independent of the opinions, habits, and judgments of his fellows.” In lieu of the aforementioned personal-life philosophy-faith, Einstein consistently selected to protect his privacy inside his room, in his house, working in maximized-freedom, undisturbed solitude; even sleeping naked in his room while his privacy has been strictly guarded by his devoted secretary Helen Dukas, who also screened his incoming mail, deleted nasty or anti-Semitic letters and politely blocking unwanted visitors. Einstein is also known for his subtle sarcasm.

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Theoretical Physics at its Highest Historical Level Sitting, from left: Sitting: I. Langmuir, M. Planck, Marie Curie, H.A. Lorentz, A. Einstein, P. Langevin, Ch.-E. Guye, C.T.R. Wilson, O.W. Richardson 2nd Sitting: P. Debye, M. Knudsen, W.L. Bragg, H.A. Kramers, P.A.M. Dirac, A.H. Compton, L. de Broglie, M. Born, N. Bohr; Standing: A. Piccard, E. Henriot, P. Ehrenfest, E. Herzen, Th. de Donder, E. Schrรถdinger, J.E. Verschaffelt, W. Pauli, W. Heisenberg, R.H. Fowler, L. Brillouin.

1927, Inst. Int'l de Physique Solvay

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This high level of physics was reached post (i) The creation of the 1915 Einsteinian Gravity Physics (General Relativity) that predicts a strange, socially unwanted, world expansion (or contraction), (ii) That unwanted theory was first confirmed in1918 in correctly predicting the bending of light by gravitation in curved space-time, (iii) Re-confirmed before 1927 by the American astronomer Hubble: We all live in an expanding world that had "beginning", as the Bible states In its first Chapter. _______________ Perfection of means and confusion of goals, seem – in my opinion – to characterize our age. ----- Albert Einstein Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.----- Albert Einstein

The pursuit of knowledge for its own sake, an almost fanatical love of justice, and the desire for personal independence--these are the features of Jewish tradition which make me thank my stars that I belong to it. ----- Albert Einstein Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds ----- Albert Einstein INFINITIES? -- the universe and human stupidity, and am not sure about the universe. (Einstein); Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new.----- Albert Einstein Do what you feel to be right, for you'll be criticized anyway -----

Eleanor Roosevelt Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. ------ Margaret Mead

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Nobel Laureate RICHARD FEYNMAN: “The first principle is that you must not fool yourself – and you are the easiest person to fool. So you have to be very careful about that. After you’ve not fooled yourself, it’s easy not to fool other scientists. You just have to be honest in a conventional way.” “You should not fool the layman when you’re talking as a scientist." Before Einstein left Hitler’s Germany to the United States, a professor in Berlin was extremely nasty in targeting him. One day Einstein was informed that Professor XXX just died. Einstein’s reaction: “Everyone does something good in his life, even Professor XXX; he died."

Einstein's "Anti-Pomposity"; Anti-"Politically Correct" As a younger man he used to play his beloved violin in the homes of some German women. One day, while he was playing there, they started knitting. Einstein stopped playing, packed his violin to leave, and apologized: “I would not even dream to disturb you from your knitting work.”On another occasion, as a celebrity living in his house near a lake outside Berlin, his wife urged him to 18


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change his simple, but comfortable home dress, to a formal one, for dignitaries are to arrive soon to visit him. His response: let them meet me as I am dressed and work in my house.

If they come to see my formal dress, please show them my closet. ___________

PREFACE to Volume III, 9

TH

EDITION, 2019

TWO, not one, 1998-verified, accelerated expansions of the universe, had been published 48 years ago, and again, in 1981, by Vol. without resorting to undetectable, DARK ENERGY speculations claimed today by armies of bored physists. The second, accelerating, expansion of intergalactic voids, Fig. 1, causes the observed galaxies-clustering into FILAMENTS around each intergalactic expanding voids, Fig. 1 and 2. It is a late simultaneous expansion of the universe. It has become significant in reversing the slowing down by gravity of the geneal relativistic world expansion but only when the observed "stellar and 19


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galactic radiation-winds-jets", Figs. 1 to 3, have been intensified, as explained below.

1969-predicted 2 Expansions of the Universe

FIG. 1: The four yellow arrows depicted should be inserted into each and all recorded dark voids recorded by NASA to prove that opposing, rocket-type-winds compact galaxies from opposing sides of each filament, thus accelerating the expansion of each and all collectively. TWO, not one, 1998-verified expansions of the universe AND WELL-VERIFIED compacting of galaxies into CLUSTERS-FILAMENTS FORM THE FIRST FACTUAL 20


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BASE OF THIS THEORY-FACTS, which had been published in April 1969 on the

basis of early detected intergalactic coldest voids (dark blue in Fig. 5) Fig. 2 was taken from 1981 Vol. I of CPP (reviewed in the first pages above). n (1) The winds-jets entering each void from all directions amplify their remnant expansion, Figs. 1-5. (2) Collectively expanding the voids compact galaxies into the observed clusters, Fig. 2, and further into "filaments", Fig. 1. (3) Strong winds-jets reverse gravity-induced, remnant inertia world expansion deceleration, (5) The results lead to revised & new cosmology-physics-philosophy as outlined in the first pages.

FIG. 2: Revised cosmology-physics-philosophy DICTIONNARY "CLUSTER I" and "II" represent mid-STAGE of the 2nd expansion. "RADIATION ENERGY DENSITY" vs. "DISTANCE" defines "DIRECTION OF NET RADIATION FLOW" as "3rd COSMOLOGICAL ARROW", generate energy-density gradients that lead 21


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to the "2nd COSMOLOGICAL ARROW", that represents "EXPANDING SPACE "1" CONFINED TO COLD-DARK, "VOIDS/SPACE "1" is thus the sole MASTER of world phenomena that lead to the emergence of life in non-expanding gravitational systems:The MASTER ARROW OF TIME

THE MASTER OF TIME ASYMMTEIES

THE ROOT CAUSE OF OUR 2ND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

THE SOLE ASYMMETRIC FUNDAMENTAL LAW IN THEORETICAL PHYSICS.

• The largest, expanding, un-saturable, thermodynamic sink of disposed energy from active emitters in the universe.

Fig. 3: SPACE-"2" wraps all non-expanding galaxies [Fig. 1], and non-expanding SPACE"3" where super-fast, interstellar winds flow out to SPACE-"2" and next irreversibly dissipate in SUPER-COLD, EXPANDING, FILAMENT-COMPACTING SPACE-"1" composed of coldest VOIDS located between all Super-Clusters-filaments of galaxies, [Figures 1, 2], including ''our VIRGO FILAMENT" [Fig.-1-center] inside which our local group of galaxies are located [Fig. 1]. All images from author's Volume-I or Wikipedia.

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How Voids have Increased since 700 ml years post the Big Bang? Fig. 4: (below} This figure does NOT show the verified chain of galaxies being first compacted by the winds into clusters (FIG. 2) then further compacted into super-clusters 'FILAMENTS' or what had been defined by Volume I an independently expanding SPACE-"1" by the inflowing winds (FIG 2). Part of the answer is provided by the next verified record.

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Fig. 5: The earliest detected intergalactic voids (dark blue) vs. early galaxies that radiate winds into the early cold voids which have been expanding with the big-bang expansion (Fig. 4). Gradually, as the number and intensities of emitters has increased, the thermodynamic wind-processes depicted by Figs. 1 to 3, have established an independent, second, uniform, simultaneous, extra-expansion of the universe outside the galaxies, 2nd expansion that has gradually reversed the slowing down of the big-bang inertia expansion into the currently observed, slightly accelerating expansion of the universe. Source: The cosmic background radiation verified since 1964. Fig. 6: (below) Zooming next into ''our'' cluster of non-expanding galaxies in ''our'' 'filament' and into a dark-cold expanding void (FIGURE 1) may help illustrate important 24


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DISTANCES involved the verified 2nd expansion of the universe. WHAT WE shall SEE NEXT ARE IMAGES INSIDE OUR own FILAMENT.

Zooming back to 1 Million ly reveals: Our SPACE-2 "Neighborhood”, which is home to thousands of galaxies. Even at this scale our entire solar system is less than a visible dot somewhere in the marked “Local Group”. Our home cluster is marked Virgo.

Fig. 7: Even at this scale our Solar System, which is located inside the Milky Way galaxy, is still less than a visible dot. 25


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The Andromeda galaxy is marked in yellow. Both galaxies are the largest in our Local Group, which is about 10,000,000 light-years in its largest spatial ‘diameter’. The "Local Group" includes M49, M58, M59, M60, M61, M84, M86, M87, M89 and M31 (Andromeda).It is 2,200,000 light-years away and is almost similar to our galaxy. It is also characterized by a spiral structure.

We see it today as it was when the earliest hominids left East Africa to arrive at the "promised land". Andromeda’s system consists of Cassiopeia Dwarf, Pegasus dSph, M32, M110, NGC 147, NGC195, AND I-V, etc. The Triangulum Galaxy, the 3rd largest galaxy in ‘our’ local group, also includes the Pisces Dwarf as a satellite. ‘Our’ satellite galaxies consist of the Large and Small Magellanic

Interim Concluding Remarks Super-fast stellar-galactic ''winds'' [FIG. 3] flow out (from the ''sides'') of the OBSERVED ''compacted 'filaments'' of super clusters of galaxies [FIG.1] to BORDERING colder voids [SPACE ''1'' in FIGS. 1 and 2], WHERE THEY IRREVERSIBLY dissipate WHILE ADDINING EXTRA OR 2ND EXPANSION TO THE REMNANT INERTIA COSMIC EXPANSION SINCE/BY THE BIG BANG, [FIG. 4]. Entering each SPACE ''1'' void from all 3D directions [FIG. 1] subject to momentum conservation, (which also controls opposing rockets or jet engines), the super-fast winds thrust-push all voids away from each other, thereby, collectively, providing extra expansion against all other similarly expanding voids. This process is herein defined 2nd expansion of the universe. Gradually, they cause REVERSAL of the earlier, decelerated expansion of the universe, into the observed, slightly accelerating expansion of the universe. 26


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Fig. 8: NEXT TO 10 MLY WE OBSERVE 'OUR' VIRGO PRIOR TO ALOCATING IT AT 100 MLY IN FIG. 1. 27


RECAP

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STELLAR EVOLUTION SUBJECT to 2 EXPANSIONS OF THE UNIVERSE Stars cannot completely evolve to produce the element of life without disposing its inner generated energy. That energy is irreversibly removed from their surfaces and being disposed it the depths of this 2nd-expansion-generated largest collective energy sink in the universe. WHEREFORE, without the 2nd simultaneous expansion of the universe, all heavy elements in the universe, including the elements essential to generate life, like oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, are impossible. Also impossible without the 2nd expansion are supernovae, that allow planets to formed and life to emerge by gravitation – a complicated process that is described next. Localized black holes at the center of galaxies and elsewhere should be accounted for, but their effects do not change these predictions, assertions and facts as detailed here and by Volume I. Existence of super-fast, stellar-galactic winds that are becoming strongest during the last 6 or so billion years, has been well-verified by all astronomic observations. Such winds are flowing into each equally distributed intergalactic voids. The voids themselves were present from earlier time, as proven by the 1964 confirmed black-body radiation. Fig. 5. The winds emerge inside the filaments that surround each void. The winds enter each void from all directions thus causing each and all to expand faster than the remnants of big-bang expansion. FIG. 1. Subject to momentum conservation, like in opposing rockets in space, the super-fast winds on both opposing sides of any filament or void border [FIG. 1] thrust-push-away 28


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border-sharing-voids from each other, collectively providing extra expansionthrusting-away against all other similarly expanding voids. This process is herein defined the second, simultaneous, accelerated expansion of the universe, which not only compacts galaxies into superclusters and filaments, but reverses earlier gravity-induced decelerated expansion of the universe. These newly defined dynamics generate energy-densities gradients (Fig. 2) that keep maintaining all stellar evolution by removing disposed energy from emitters to 2ndexpansion-generated largest energy sink in the universe, without which, no heavy elements, supernovae, planets and life, are possible. There is no transfer of energy from one expanding void to another due to the uniform distribution of the intergalactic voids. The ORIGIN of almost all dissipating stellar and galactic winds are essentially limited to the nearby LOCAL stars and galaxies that surround each void. Only a minor fraction of the winds proceeds across the universe to reach our telescopes, allowing NASA recording of Fig. 1. Various claims and dictums are also refuted by this newly defined world: Wheeler-Feynman static-space-theory should be redefined for two simultaneous space expansions between emitters and absorbers, Dark energy claims -- and associated attempts to change general relativity) -- should be replaced by the two proven simultaneous accelerated expansions of the universe. NOTES (1)

Deterministic physics may begin with TIME-symmetric partial differential equations. NEXT, TO CONFORM WITH observations, TIME-asymmetry is FUNDAMENTALLY wrongly enforced on the USED EQUATIONS but also in published 'proofs', that proceed only

(2)

from imposed INITIAL CONDITIONS (for future time evolution), while rejecting FINAL CONDITIONS (for symmetric past time evolution). 29


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(3)

SUCH enforced ''mathematical results'' are often claimed the origin of irreversibility of nature called Retarded solutions in electromagnetism.

(4)

FOOLING THEMSELVES AND OTHER SCIENTISTS AROUND THE WORLD NEXT HIDE ADVANCED SOLUTIONS (which do not conform with observations.).

(5)

IS THIS FOOLING tantamounts to SMUGGLING into "proofs" what one tries to prove by not DECLARING THE CONTRABAND?

History, Physics, Society

Why the TIME Magazine selects Einstein as Person of the Century? On page 551 of his remakable book "EINSTEIN, His Life and Universe", Walter Isaacson concludes: "He was a loner with an intimate bond to humanity, a rebel who was suffused with reverence. And thus it was that an imaginative, impertinent patent clerk became the mind reader of the creator of the cosmos, the locksmith of the mysteries of the atom and the universe." On page 215 Issaacson explains: "(During October-November 1915) Einstein was in the throes of one of the most concentrated frenzies of scientific creativity in history. He was working, he said, 'horrendously intensity'" (to complete and publish first his general relativity). "In the midst of this ordeal, he was also still dealing with the personal crisis within his family." "(Hilbert) was racing him to find the equations of general relativity." On page 214 Isaacson adds: "Every week, the fifty or so members of the Prussian Academy gathered in the grand hall of the Prussian State Library in the heart of Berlin to address each other." Since November 4 Einstein delivered there four lectures, the last one states: "I had discovered the only law of gravitation." Days later Hilbert responded (page 219): "Cordial congratulations" But on November 20 he submitted for publication to the Gotingen science journal his manuscript "proclaiming his own version of the equations for general relativity." titled "The Foundations of Physics". Einstein completed and published his Gravity Physics, known as General Relativity, in November 1915, post checking if it correctly predicts published, irregular, motions of planet Mercury. He found total agreement with said astronomical observations, agreement that no other theory had accomplished before. 30


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That was the first obsevational veification of his gravity physics. About three years later, in 1918-1919, Einstein's gravity field equations were independently confirmed valid the second time for correctly and excactly predicting gravity-induced, bending of light passing near a large mass, in this first, British organized sun-eclipse-based test in Australia, later affirmed by various observations around the globe. Instant world celebrations followed. But somehing else was at store under the curse of numbers, which always retards science

misleads some scientists and much of humanity. 1921: A talented Russian mathematician-cosmologists, professor Alexander Friedmann, proved that Einstein's Field Equations, when applied to the universe, Cannot make it stay stable, it must expand or contract. Organized religions around the world strongly protested that Einstein is profundly wrong. Expanding universe violates the "established and known fact" that earth is the center of the universe. According to experts, any observer, stationed on any galaxy, would report that all other galaxies are receding away from him, thus refuting the established truth that earth is the sole center of the entire universe. 31


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When and Why was Einstein realy Horified? Various hostile protests from around the globe have joined the Claim: EINSTEIN IS IMPOSTOR OF SCIENCE. EINSTEIN MADE A GREAT MATHEMATICAL MISTAKE. HIS JEWISHNESS ..... Horified Einstein knew that his GRAVITY PHYSICS equations are universally valid ANYWHERE, ANY TIME, that they UNEQUIVOCALLY SHINE LIGHT on some dark corners of CULTURE. BUT the terror AND INSULTS OF ABUSING OPINION words, the RACIAL ONES, THE hate, brutal AND hostile ones, some by CO-professors, HAVE defeated him to agree to force on his valid equations a simple number to stop these MAJORITY PROTESTS; THE curse-of-numbers-terror. Peace THEN returned to SUCH SCIENCE, but not to bona fide science, not to the great AMERICAN Hubble, who, by STRICT observations, HAS BEEN THE TO FIRST verifY that the universe indeed expands. TO CONCLUDE 1ST Axiom: Science IS NOT DECIDED BY THE UN, BY A DEMOCRACY, BY ANY MAJORITY, PROTEST, GOVERNMENT, LAWYERS, EDITORS, JUDGES, RELIGIOUS AUTHORITIES, CELEBRITIES, CONGRESS, PARTIES, OPINIONS, POLITICAL ''SCIENCE''. CORROLARY: BONA FIDE scientists MAY BE the deepest religious people on earth, especially when -- beyond adopting this 1st axiom -- avoid PRECISE DEFINITIONS AS CONTENDED NEXT. _________

Assertion A: Everything in science is connected with everything else, (Plato). FOR INSTANCE, NOTHING CAN BE ISOLATED FROM GRAVITY. Assertion B: Precise definitions or axioms may lead to unrepairable errors: Anything outside a strictly errected axiomatically erected fence-definition is a priori rejected and lost forever or block unification with Einsteinian deterministic Gravity Physics (general relativity), relativistic cosmology and our induced philosophy GRAVITISM. This assertion applies first to the highly respected "Standard Quantum Model", and to "symmetry breaking" dictums employed there. See TABLE OF CONTENTSOF VOLUME I. Assertion C: Errorless definitions-axioms begin with 'the whole universe', 32


All Rights Reserved to Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or, 9th Edition because there is neither any outside fense around its curved-spacetime-contents, nor to verified observations of its time asymmetries REDISCUSSED BELOW. Contention 1: WHEREFORE, precise definitions or axioms only encage, arrest or block ideas by errorgenerating ‘fences’ that should a priori be identified, deleted, ignored or comitted to the flames of history, even if have already been awarded a Nobel Prize. Contention 2: Until around the mid-Thirties of the previous century, Core Cultural-Curriculum Courses (in Europe!) were made as ‘scientific’ as possible, and science propped up its foundations by turning to philosophy. This attitude was in part motivated by the desire to appropriate the sciences with the great ‘prestige’ of philosophers, and for the philosopher the fast-growing ‘status’ of science.

Hence, European professors vied with one another in presenting science based on high philosophical grounds, and philosophy as a ‘science among sciences’, or even as the ‘sum of the other sciences’.

A ‘PhD’ was then a bona fide Philosophy Doctor, a person of advanced core knowledge and eloquence outside his specialism. Western academia has since withdrawn from the game.

Empty specialism has since gained the highest prestige; no longer do professors need borrow it from philosophy, nor to teach a bona fide CCCC. Indeed, contemporary professors today vie with one another in presenting fragmented lectures devoid of interconnected content, for they can no longer hope to achieve popularity by injecting updated core knowledge into what has gradually become an ever narrower, disciplinary professionalism. Assertion 1 This turn of events has resulted in overvaluation of technical professionalism, With hope of finding the grand empty academicism, absolutation of ever- outlook of a spacecraft, students narrower disciplines, and the common enter our universities. Entering inclination to reject bona fide core knowledge the temples of knowledge they settle for that of an eagle, but from the class. A pity. For these trends only what they find is that of a push the young into cynicism, nihilism and specialist gopher. feelings of emptiness in education and society at large. 33


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The current crisis in education is not subsiding. More than ever before it demands answers, re-assessments, a revised philosophy and acts: How to administer mutual interactions instead of linear causality; structured complexity instead of summation of events; structured historical buildup of facts, instead of summation of isolated events and narrow academic Departments.

Assertion 2 Although most academic teaching and research must be distributed amongst various Schools and Departments of a university, there is an objective need to regenerate an old tradition that cannot be associated with any specialism, because the ideas with which it deals are common to all studies, or not involved in any.

Assertion 3 Without a guiding-structuring-unifying methodology aimed at gaining an allembracing, interconnected knowledge that crosses frozen disciplines, any Core Curriculum Cultural Course [CCCC] is nothing but a pity encyclopedia displayed by a specialist nominated by “Organizers” as the “CCCC-Coordinator” who remains helpless in teaching the alluring beauty of mathematics, physics, astronomy, history, the life sciences, and comparative religions, but fails to perceive their profound educational implications as a whole.

Modern skepticism is usually the negation of a core, interconnected, educational methodology. Not so with Einsteinian skepticism. Einstein advocated the removal of imposed borders between traditional disciplines and university departments and faculty; stating that knowledge is one; its division is human weakness.

Assertion 4 Structuring an all-embracing Core-Outlook is a matter entailing far more ambiguity than the technicalities of the application of any disciplinary course and its “Academic Credit Regulations”.

34


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The Western crisis, today more than ever before, may be repaired by resorting to Einsteinian vision, in high-schools and constantly upgraded and updated for underSuch a .

Literary intellectuals at one pole – at the other scientists, and as the most representative, the physical scientists. Between the two a gulf of mutual incomprehension – sometimes (particularly among the young) hostility and dislike, but most of all lack of understanding.

C. P. Snow, The Two Cultures Cambridge University Press

Assertion 5 Students are often discouraged by their professors and mentors from asking fundamental, interdisciplinary questions in class, as a result of which inconsistent, or outright incorrect premises, are given a better chance of perpetuating themselves.

Literary intellectuals, the people of the arts, and most educators, are currently

ignorant

of

modern

advances in the ‘exact sciences’, of their

mathematical

experimental,

formulations,

observational

and

verification methods. They are likely to resort to a priori or superficial 35


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answers to complex problems whose

detailed implications are beyond them. Similarly, faculty, ‘experts’ and professionals in the “exact sciences”, via their past, ever-narrowing, disciplinary education, are currently ignorant of the wide-span knowledge, literature, arts and history that are needed to share their thinking and aspirations with other thinking persons. The resulting gap can hardly be bridged despite the fact that our globe is currently an interconnected village, internationally linked by what might be expected to bridge old gaps between traditional cultures, languages, religions, political systems and a unified educational philosophy of humanity. Yet, the facts are that deep divisions keep deepening and deserts of narrow specialism keep spreading more than ever before. What was a two-semester half-life of a textbook is today one day or less. Sources of studies are millions of online blogs with uneven quality and little or no reliable references. A-million-a-day posts confuse the young; generating one-line thinkers; a tsunami of Tower-of-Babel Kalthure; a kalthure where scholars secure same weight as one-line thinkers; Eulogies are heard over the smoking ruins of the classical temples of knowledge – new layers of ruins on top of the destroyed Academy-Library of Alexandria.

Limitations of Theories and Definitions There may be something provisional about all current verified scientific theories They must be re-confirmed by fresh verified information from any sub-field of science, hence, are subject to constant revision and even replacement; -- in this, each succeeding generation takes a measurable step beyond the position of its predecessors. Closely related to the unrestricted content of modern science is its unrestricted questioning of all earlier convictions in light of verifiable evidence that refutes extant axioms, definitions, assertions, outlooks and theories. 36


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Thus, every item of carefully recorded experimental or observational information is a proper object for analysis. A drive towards novelty and discovery impels inquiry to explore all corners of the universe. These tenets are the central pillars of Gravitism. But there is more to it. The outlook includes constant re-assessments of the theory -- of any theory -- and analysis of the errors involved as one updates and improves it.

Tarski's Indefinability Theorem According to this theorem no sufficiently powerful language is strongly-semantically-selfrepresentational. For instance, any arithmetical truth cannot be defined by arithmetics. According to Smullyan [42], Tarski's Indefinability Theorem is somewhat superior to the famous Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems, which are more related to mathematics and less to philosophical, scientific, and linguistic issues. Tarski's theorem is not directly about mathematics but about the inherent limitation of any formal language that is strongly-semantically-self-representational when it contains predicates and function symbols defining the semantic concepts specific to that language.

Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem Gödel [34-43] has demonstrated that conventional mathematics, which we tend to consider as our supremely logical and consistent system, involves paradoxical, self-referential statements about itself, i.e., a conventional mathematical system, say, the mathematics of flat space in the Euclidian geometry - an ‘absolute stage’ upon which Newtonian gravity and physics stands, can be incomplete because one has not discovered all its necessary axioms. In other words, no matter how many physicomathematical issues theoretical physicists solve, there always will be other issues that cannot be solved by any known laws of physics; and since these laws constitute a finite set of rules, and are based on mathematics, Gödel's theorem restricts them. Even in computer science one cannot create a complete and consistent finite list of axioms, or an infinite list. Each time one adds a statement as an axiom; there are other correct statements that cannot be proved, even with the new axiom. 37


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Moreover, if the system can prove that it is consistent, it is not. As might have been expected, this idea has been much debated by mathematical philosophers:

v How can a theory be both correct and unprovable? v Is mathematics a loop of our mind? v Is the mind a self referential loop? Gödel's first incompleteness theorem shows that any system that allows one to define the natural numbers is necessarily incomplete: it contains statements that are neither provable correct, nor provably false. Some scholars therefore argue that this refutes the logicism of Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell, who had aimed to reduce/define the natural numbers in terms of logic. Not all axiom systems satisfy these hypotheses, even when these systems have models that include natural numbers as a subset. For example, there are axiomatizations of ‘flat’ space that do not meet the hypotheses of Gödel's theorems. Another limitation applies only to systems that are used as their own proof systems. Gödel's theorem has another interpretation in the language of computer science. Theorems are computably enumerable: one can write a computer program that will eventually generate any valid proof. One can then ask if it has the stronger property of being recursive: Can one write a computer program to definitively determine if a statement is true or false? Gödel's theorem says that you cannot. His theorems, however, are confined to sufficiently strong axiomatic systems, i.e., that a theory contains enough arithmetic to carry out the proof of the incompleteness theorem. Some scholars claim that Gödel's incompleteness theorems have provided a deadly blow to David Hilbert’s program towards a universal mathematical formalism. Nevertheless, the essence of these issues is much more complicated, as indicated below. Undecidable Statements: A statement is neither provable nor refutable. Hence, some scholars resort to the concept "independent". However, that concept is also ambiguous. Meta-Language: A sufficiently developed language cannot represent its own semantics. Any metalanguage includes primitive notions, axioms, and rules absent from an object language. Theorems provable in a meta-language are not provable in the object language. “Truth”: Some of the aforementioned theorems may presuppose that mathematical "truth" and "falsehood" are well-defined in an absolute sense, rather than relative. If an axiomatic system can be proven to be consistent and complete from within itself, then it is inconsistent. 38


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Minds and Machines: Gödel's incompleteness theorems may also reflect on human intelligence. While Gödel's theorems cannot be applied to humans, since they make mistakes and are, therefore, inconsistent, it may be applied to the domain of science. Sets of expressions are considered as coded as sets of numbers. For various syntactic properties (such as a formula, a sentence, etc.), these sets are computable. And any computable set of numbers can be defined by some arithmetic formula. There are various additional theorems and sub-theorems 34-49. I do not intend to expand on them in these pages, for these pages are mainly written for the general reader, without resorting to any mathematics. We therefore move next to elaborate on some more practical domains in the mined fields of verifiable scientific theories and proofs. “Pure Mathematics” is human attempt to stay aloof and beyond emotions, traditions and ambitions. It may protect one from making mistakes, prior to and aft writing down any mathematical equation.

How mathematics -- combined with verifiable observations -- help protect the human mind from falling into unverifiable traditional dictums of ‘intuitively’ generating mistakes? This may be best demonstrated by the most dramatic event in the history of science; when Einstein lost trust in the most verified gravity field equations of general relativity3.3, the most accepted theory of the universe, which harbors no mistake. To correct sociallly accused ‘mistake’, he had to force on this reality, ‘correction number’, wrongly termed a "cosmological constant". For good reasons stated above Einstein's tensorial gravity field equations were flawless, despite the fact that a cult has evolved to demand adding this factor to fit its ulterior wishes to operate under some set of philosophical prejudices. Most important, the failure to acknowledge this is not only self-delusion, but a failure to attend to the philosophical base of physics, a failure that leads to empty scientism.

Space-Time vs. Symmetry-Asymmetry The essence and fundamental meaning of curved space-time, symmetry-asymmetry, statistics and probabilities are understood only by a portion of scientists. A much smaller portion, or, in fact, a splendid minority, maintains that probabilities, statistics and quantum postulates provide them with no ‘free will’. [Volume I]. 39


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Differential Equations vs. Observations Time-symmetry, reversibility and the symmetrical laws of physics serve us as key tools to better understand nature, despite the limitations mentioned above. And it is only by combining (conceptual, reversible, analytic) time-symmetry with (factual, aggregated, observational) time-asymmetry, or by combining reversible equations with a priori known, factual, initial and boundary conditions, that one may,

mathematically,

arrive

at

a

reliable

world

outlook

in

agreement

with

observations/experimentations. While symbols and analytical concepts may be symmetric, words and sentences (in order, syntax, phoneme, form, sound modulation or other modes), or ‘useful’ physico-mathematical equations, are basically asymmetric. Mathematics, gravitation, symmetry-asymmetry, aggregation, time and meaningful sentences are coupled. While some minor reservations are justifiable, there is an overwhelming "word of evidence", derived from physics, the languages and the studies of linguistics, cybernetics, information and mathematics that fortifies this contention.

A theory may be a “set of statements”, some of which are taken as valid without proof (axioms), and others, the theorems, are taken as valid because they are implied by the axioms. A complete and consistent set of axioms for all mathematics is impossible. "Provable by a theory" means "derivable from the axioms and primitive notions of the theory, using logic.”

The Popperian Falsification Principle Sir Karl Popper, has introduced the Falsification Principle about the ability of mankind to establish what is science and what is nonscience, in addition to what might be ‘true’ within the domain of a given theory, or a set of ‘facts’, axioms or definitions. [Lecture 4] Applied mathematics is often used as unverifiable covers to advance subjectivistic claims, ‘proofs’ and ‘theories’. Lectures 3 and 4, and this one, illustrate how -- by a priori selecting only the time-asymmetric 40


All Rights Reserved to Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or, 9th Edition mathematics, or time-asymmetric mathematical solution that fits with their desired ‘proof’ – scientists easily fool themselves, and others. Applied mathematics is the key tool of the ‘exact sciences’. It constitutes a special kind of 'intelligent thinking’ that is integrated with its ‘universal grammar' -- a sort of critical thinking which has been partially developed to safeguard our minds from prejudices and inconsistencies. Yet, consistency, by itself, is a two-sided issue. ‘Pure mathematics’ is often developed for its own sake, without a priori harboring intentional applications, although they may be ‘un-covered’ According to Einstein, when we predict the behavior of a specific or confined set of natural phenomena, we usually mean that we have found a ‘constructive theory’ covering this set. When we find that other sets of phenomena are incompatible with that theory, we tend to either generalize or modify it, or failing that, seek an alternative one.

To this ‘constructive’ category Einstein opposes the so-called “theories of principles” (exemplified, according to Einstein, by thermodynamics and the general theory of relativity), whose point of departure and foundation are not hypothetical constituent, but empirically observed general properties from which mathematical formulae are deduced so as to apply to every case of observation which presents itself. Thus, according to Einstein, the merit of “constructive theories” lies in their comprehensiveness, adaptability, and clarity for a given set of phenomena, while that of the “theories of principles” -- in their logical ‘perfection’ and universality and in the vast observational spectrum of their formulation at any scale and time. Yet, Einstein did not trust some semi-hidden aspects of his own general theory of relativity2.5. Two such events are described next: The failure of statistical mechanics (both classical and quantum) to deduce and explain the origin of irreversibility, time-asymmetries, cosmic and local structuring, generation of order and what is called “entropy growth” -- as well as its philosophical and applicative limitations and lack of large-scale universality -- has been explained in footnotes 2.5, 3.4 and 3.5 as well as in Volume I. (See Table of Contents,). Einstein had not suspected that his general theory of relativity already incorporates another ‘theory of principle’: Thermodynamics, especially the so-called Second Law of Thermodynamic. Namely, the foundations of thermodynamics should NOT be a separate, stand-alone, theory of science; it should 41


All Rights Reserved to Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or, 9th Edition NOT be fragmented from the rest of physics. It constitutes an integral part of gravity-induced, interconnected, unified physico-philosophical knowledge.

DO armies of gate guards defile our temple of knowledge? NON-APPEALABLE, COMPUTER DICTUMS BY ARMIES OF NON-SCIENTISTS, INDUCE NEW SCIENCE, PARTLY CORRUPTED? Einstein's general relativity and Hilbert spaces may have been lost to humanity by today's red tape that defiles our temple of theoretical physics? WHAT kind of science is so smuggled into present and future knowledge?

The reason why men enter into society is the preservation of their property. John Locke

Why gravity is the most fundamental integrator of all studies? Volume I demonstrates this fact within the studies of physics, astrophysics, astronomy, cosmology and philosophy, while Lecture 5 extends it to the origin of the sun, earth, life, hominids, writing and civilization. We next extend it to gravity- induced sociology and the philosophy of natural selection: The fight for property-domains-resources, the socio-rules of time-grammar, gravity-induced territorial wars, city and village structures, transportation systems, aspirations, religions, theology and the arts.

‘Gravity-Induced ‘Natural Selection’ Gravity-induced changes develop territoriality in a given spatial region or in a given assembly of individuals, especially when key resources are not sufficiently abundant and stable through long periods of historical times. We observe this phenomenon in both the animal and human domains of socio- biology. When a limited terrestrial space is divided into lots in a community, it carries economic and social “standing”, or "lebensraums", involving "well-defined territories" and "Gravity-induced Natural Selection"; from animals' mating systems to animals' monopolies on water resources; from natural food administration to the control of key strategic ridges; from controlling fossil fuel resources to 42


All Rights Reserved to Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or, 9th Edition disputes over territories. One species, or one sex, or one race, may control a larger quantity of resources, say, scarce water ponds, than the other, until a small percentage of the population monopolizes key resources. Gravity-induced hills and mountains control castle and village structures and especially tall structures may become worship temples of the super- natural. RECAP: Domain-Property and Envy drive competition, company ads, venture capital, TV and academic rating, political candidates, religious rivalry and key human traits, sometimes stronger than death. As history testifies, gravity-induced territoriality is often developed into nationality, imperialism and territorial conquest wars. Many aspects of animals’ social organization and evolution can be predicted on the basis of gravityinduced environmental variables. Since biogeochemical evolution causes key natural resources to be distributed non-uniformly in the spatial and temporal coordinates of the biosphere, resource monopolization develops in all levels of socio-biological systems. RECAP from previous Lectures: The first local "aggregates" of matter in the solar system have already contained gas, supernovae debris, dust, rocks. It was gravity that stratified these compounds in ‘horizontal’ layers according to their “specific gravity”, a term to used below in modified “natural selection”. The atmosphere and geological strata are ordered-selected by specific gravity of their chemical components. It was gravity that put the early components of living systems at one and the same strata for life to begin. Gravity is therefore the universal builder of structures, including all chemistry in the cores of gravitationally pressed-heated stars [Fusion in Lecture 1, CPP], geological strata, earth morphology the entire evolution of life, village/city structures, transportation systems, linguistic hierarchy, recorded symbols, letters, grammar vs. time, structure of sentences, pages, books.

Why 'Gravity Selection' is “Natural selection”? The origin of temporal behavior in animals can be traced out to gravity- induced forces. Even “innate patterns" are wrongly dissociated from simple movements in the field of gravitation, i.e., as "up-ward-downward" balancing of the biological body vis-à-vis the gravity pointers in each biological cell. Gravity periodicities around the sun emerge as prime sources of order via time and the arrow of time 43


[Lecture 1].

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Gravity-Induced Orientation and Order Using gravity pointers we say ‘up’, ‘down’, ‘left’, ‘right’ and generate symbols, codes, signs, numbers and letters for a later use and for other to read. Animals are also 'conscious' of the commonly-shared "up- down" surroundings, and about "weight" and acceleration. Plants also harbor innate sensors that guide them in which direction to grow even on a mountain slope. Additional examples range from gyroscope inertial changes, balancing machines, heading indicators and gravity-induced changes involving the fluid in the vertebrate inner ear to a crystallizing suspension of organic spheres in water.

Gravity-induced Plant Growth and Animal Behavior The sensing devices which plants and animals use for "gravity perception" ("gravity receptors", "g perception", "bio- accelerometers", "gravity- induced biological clocks", etc.) are not yet well understood, even though a voluminous literature has been published on this subject. But what we already know justifies the central role we claim gravity plays in living systems and society. Plants ‘know’ to grow vertically upward when, undisturbed, they start growing in total darkness as seeds inserted deep into the ground; -- even when they grow on a steep mountain slope. 44


All Rights Reserved to Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or, 9th Edition As most high-growing trees they align their growth under the control of the gravity vector. If a growing higher plant is displaced with respect to the "upright" position, some tens of minutes later it will adapt its growth in such a way as to restore its original orientation in coincidence with the gravity vector. (If it is displaced only briefly and then restored to its original orientation well before the growth response can set in, it still responds to that displacement.) Gravity-induced orientation-adaptation of an organism may occur when an organism orients itself by a gravity-induced gradient of density differences or hydrostatic pressure.

Small organisms (including all bacteria) may have no means for sensing gravity, but they are affected by it. Animals low on the evolutionary scale characteristically exhibit innate patterns that depend little on learning, and have a lesser adaptability to changes in the environment. Consequently, their dependence on heredity-geophysical-gravitational origins is ‘high’ in proportion to animals that are ‘high’ on the evolutionary scale. While the latter show some signs of innate patterns, they harbor a greater capacity to produce a much more flexible mechanism to respond to a variety of other external changes that stimulate them. The evolutionary origin of the so-called "innate ideas" may, therefore, be external rather than internal. Even the computer page is ordered by up, bottom, left, right margins and footnotes. And it takes time to read them and to comprehend them; the time that always advances from past to future; the time that we term Linguistic Arrow of Time. Similarly, gravity-induced ordering of shelves, files, documents and books in a library introduces order into our life.

Gravity- Chained Law, Seconds, Minutes, Days, Years Whole civilizations religions constructed on gravity-induced orientability, concepts, spirituality, art, music, home structure, wells, canals, trade roads, agriculture, and even law enforcement by hanging. Such gravity-induced cultural phenomena may proceed beyond grammar and social order into the spiritual and hierarchical cultures, and have been domains: High priest, low deck, high commissioner, and highness, heaven, lofty, go to the bottom of the subject, etc. [see below].

Biological Clocks The origin of temporal behavior in animals can be traced back in time and out to external physical influences. Gravity and geophysical periodicities thus emerge as prime sources of order and information in all non-living and living systems. Animals low on the evolutionary scale depend little on learning, and have a lesser adaptability to changes in the environment. Consequently, their dependence on heredity-geophysical-gravitational origins is high in proportion to animals high on the evolutionary scale.

Vertigo, Loss of Coordination-Balancing 45


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& Gravity Chains

Biological structures in the inner ear include semicircular canals and a fluid that moves by gravity force, and activates a system that transmits linear and rotational motions vis-à-vis the gravity vector to the vestibular nerve, which carries these signals through the brainstem to our brain cerebellum, which, in turn, uses them to control our balancing, orientation, coordination and movement. The vestibular system in our ears comprises two semi-circular ‘canals’, which are used to indicate our rotational movements, and otoliths, which indicate linear translations.

Vertigo is a loss of coordination, balancing and orientation vis-à-vis space and the gravityinduced horizon. The vestibular system sends signals primarily to the neural structures that control our eye movements, and to the Cerebellum-muscles system that keeps us upright and helps maintain clear visionorientation vs. the gravity vector.

Biological Cells, Reproduction, Immunity System & Gravity Gravity causes changes in cell division,

metabolism and the immunity system. Reproduction is also impaired and the immune cells cannot differentiate into mature cells in low or zero gravity conditions attainable in space craft. The size of a biological cell depends on the local gravity vector – its size increases in larger local gravitational field-force values. Bone cells must attach themselves to something and will die if they cannot. Without the gravity force- field they float around and perish. When animals evolve on land, outside the oceans, they develop stronger skeletons to cope with larger gravity forces vis-à- vis the reduced one due to buoyancy in the waters. Earlier life forms in the oceans were smaller and had a jellyfish-like configuration. Thus, without strong skeletons, land animals cannot evolve.

Animals and Gravity-Induced Effects

Gravimorphism, gravitropism and tropism are directional movements of a plant with respect to a directional stimulus. One such tropism is gravimorphism -- the growth or movement of a plant with respect to gravity. Plant roots grow in the direction of gravity while shoots and stems grow against it

RECAP: Gravity generates structures and controls all geological layers and global phenomena ranging from mountain crests, gravity-induced tectonic folds, valleys, beaches, oceans and lagoons, to springs, wells, swamps, glaciers and rivers, and the bio-systems connected with them. Without gravity-induced orientation-order and grammar we are lost in any given written language. Gravity-induced grammar prevents us from vertical reversals. Similarly, horizontal reversals prevent us, 46


All Rights Reserved to Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or, 9th Edition say, from reversals of W to M. There are more complicated gravity-induced grammar rules. They range from preventing reversal of past into future, and vice versa, to use gravity-induced structures as reference: A mountain crest, valley, beach line, river bed, sky, earth, ocean, etc.

Gravity-sensing cells function as detectors of the direction of gravity. The fluid-particles systems inside cells initiate inner convective currents that cease under zero gravity. Thus, the absence of gravity affects the contacts of cells via their membrane potential and their cytoskeletons

Gravity-Induced Village and Structures

City

Gravity generates structures, controls all geological layers and global phenomena ranging from mountain crests, tectonic folds, geological uplifts, valleys, village & city structures, transportation systems, oceans and lagoons, to springs, wells, swamps, glaciers, rivers, and related ecological-systems.

Gravity v. Global Warming v. Health The evolution and everyday functioning of our bones, legs, hips, joints, cartilages, ligaments, femurs, tibia, pelvis and muscles, has been "in response" to the force and direction of gravity. Gravity plays a key factor in hygiene and in heart failure associated with swollen legs, in flooded lungs, walking, sleeping needs, etc.

Nevertheless, the cardinal role gravity plays in the treatment of gravity-induced disorders in biological systems, human perception, health and longevity, has been largely overlooked by health providers and researchers, partly because the key role of gravity as the universal generator of all socio-gravity-dynamics, has not yet been well understood and investigated.

The Crisis inside the Sciences A note: Chairing the 1969 International Conference on Classical and Relativistic Thermodynamics, I invited Prigoigine to preset his much published thermodynamic theory about what he has claimed to 47


All Rights Reserved to Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or, 9th Edition

be the universal origin of irreversibility in nature – namely, on the origin of the 2nd law of thermodynamics. But in his FORMULATIONS I discovered a fundamentaL MISTAKE THAT HE IS Intentionally HIDING. Thus we had an uneasy talk there about the validity of his worldwide acclaimed thermo, so much that I had to prevent him to present a misleading theory and formulation there. The issue was raised again in 1974 at the State University of New York in Buffalo, post his invited lecture there. While Prigogine could not object my proofs of his mistake in his thermo, he was awarded the NOBEL PRIZE FOR WRONG AAND MISLEADING THERMODYNAMICS, TIME ARROW AND THE ASYMMETRY OF NATURE:

Conservation and voids expansion cause asymmetry – v. his wrong mathematics which provides no proof of the origing of nautre asymmetry for he starts his "theory" with symmetric mathematics that never can correctly be changed to a asymmetrical mathematics (unless one smuggles-in the results without declaring the contraband.) In fact, if he claims that he discovered a great proof of science, this very fact is the proof that his proof is not a proof, to say the least. Same with asymmtery.

Prediction is fundamentally symmetric with retrodiction

If a priori one selects only prediction, and rejects retrodiction, one fools himeself that a proof has been made. If one sales such a proof to fellow scientists, the proof does not even rise to the level of being scientifically wrong. Initial conditions are also symmetric with final conditions. If one a priori selects only initial conditions, one fools himself that a proof was made, and again, the conclusion is as stated above. YET THE NOBEL AWARD MEMBER DID NOT EVEN OPEN TO READ MY 3 DECADES OBJECTIONS.

VARIOUS CLAIMS RESORT TO Linguistics foolings EXAMPLE: "the particles were "un-correlated" BEFORE AND "correlated" AFT, therefore …., or other linguistic manipulations that had been well-reviewed and published as articles of top science proofs. 48


All Rights Reserved to Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or, 9th Edition

This includes the semi-sacrosact

"Boltzman Theorem", and endless statistical and

quantum theories thar are claimed "proofs".

Some 'SYMMETRY BREAKING' crown string and similar attempts to unify the standard quantum model with Einsten's deerministic gravity physics..

To conclude: Prigogine was indeed a great impostor in hiding his stealthy smuggling of asymmetry into his equations aimed to sale his 'proofs' to empty-head periodical editors, to the public, to endless awards-people and tto their friends. H This way he got the Nobel.

REFERENCES and Notes Isaacson Walter, "Einstein, His Life and Universe", SIMON & SCHUSTER PAPERBACKS, 2007, pages 214221, 551 are important sourccess FFORR THE TIMEE MAAGAZINE TO declare EINSTEIN IS THE

Person of the Century: Why We Chose Einstein, January 3, 2000. Post the first Relativistic Thermodynamics Conference, in Pittsburgh, Pa, and a few publications [4-6] -- Einstein's memorial supporters in the U.S. approached the author, proposing to fund handling, editing & publishing of Einstein's Life and scientific Records [3]. But due to research-teaching loads the thankful and grateful response included a respectful proposal to transfer this great memorial and historical task to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, as done.

Main Publication list by and on Albert Einstein: Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen (Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity), Ann. Phys. 4: 513 (1901); A. Einstein, On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light, ibid, 17: 132 (1905); A. Einstein, new determination of molecular dimensions, PhD thesis (April 30, 1905); A. Einstein, On the Motion Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid, (Brownian Motion), ibid., 17: 549– 560 (1905); A. Einstein, On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, (on Special Relativity) Ibid, 17: 891 (1905); A. Einstein, Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?, (on Mass-Energy equivalence), Ibid, 19: 639 (1905); A. Einstein, On the Influence of Gravity on the Propagation of Light, ibid, 35: 898 (1911); A. Einstein, ibid. 10, 195 (1909); ibid. 10, 323 (1909); W. Ritz, (Wrongly Attacking Einstein’s Origin of Electromagnetic Irreversibility), Phys. Z. 9, 903 (1908); A. Einstein, Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation), Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: 844 (1915); A. Einstein, Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie (Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity), Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften (1917); A. Einstein, Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung (On 49


All Rights Reserved to Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or, 9th Edition the Quantum Mechanics of Radiation)", Physikalische Zeitschrift 19: 121 (1917); A. Einstein, Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901–1921, Amsterdam: Elsevier (1923); A. Einstein, Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases (Quantum theory of monatomic ideal gases) Sitzungsberichte der Preussichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Physikalisch—Mathematische Klasse: 261 (1924); A. Einstein, Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flussläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes (On meanders in the courses of rivers) Die Naturwissenschaften 14: 223 (1926); A. Einstein, B. Podolsky and N. Rosen, Nathan, Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?", (The EPR Paradox) Physical Review, 47 (10): 777 (1935); A. Einstein, Lens-Like Action of a Star by the Deviation of Light in the Gravitational Field, Science 84, 506 (1936) (Gravitational Lens, Einstein Rings); A. Einstein, On Science and Religion, Nature 146: 605 (1940); A. Einstein, et al. To the editors, New York Times (4 December 1948); On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation, Scientific American (4): 13 (1950); E. Hubble, A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae, Proc., Nat. Acad. of Sciences (U.S.), Vol. 15, Iss. 3, (1929); A. Einstein and L. Infeld,, The World As I See It (1934); A. Einstein, The Evolution of Physics, (1938); Out of My Later Years (1950); A. Einstein, The Meaning of Relativity, Princeton University Press (1956); A. Friedman, A: Über die Krümmung des Raumes, Z. Phys. 10 377 (1922), (English translation: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, 1991 (1999); A. Alain, D., Jean and R., Gérard, Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers, Phys. Rev. Letters, 49 (25) (1982): Nobel Foundation, Albert Einstein — Biography; D. Howard and J. Stachel, Einstein: The Formative Years, 1979-1909, Springer (2000); P. A. Schilpp (Ed.), Albert Einstein — Autobiographical Notes, Open Court Publishing (1979); P. A. Schilpp, (Ed.), Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, Harper Torchbook (1951); R. Clark, Einstein: The Life and Times, Harper-Collins (1984); F. Golden, Person of the Century: Albert Einstein, Time (Jan 3, 2000); About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930); Why War? (1933, with Sigmund Freud); P. Galison, Einstein's Clocks: The Question of Time; A. Pais, Subtle is the Lord. The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein, Oxford University Press (1982); J. Crelinsten, Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity, Princeton University Press (2006); H. Kant, Albert Einstein and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin; J. Renn, (Ed), Albert Einstein — Chief Engineer of the Universe: One Hundred Authors for Einstein, Wiley-VCH. (2005); J. Schmidhuber, Albert Einstein (1979–1955) and the 'Greatest Scientific Discovery Ever' (2006); Einstein archive at the Instituut-Lorentz, NL; G., Goettling, Einstein's refrigerator, Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine (1998); U.S. Patent 1,781,541 , Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd (refrigerator), November 11, 1930; Brian, Dennis Einstein: A Life, New York: John Wiley & Sons (1996); Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman (eds) Albert Einstein, The Human Side, Princeton University Press (1981); A. Einstein, The World as I See It. New York: Philosophical Library Albert (1949); Zionism and Israel Information Center, Albert Einstein and Zionism; American Museum of Natural History (2002), Einstein's Revolution; Rowe, David E.; Schulmann, Robert, Einstein on Politics: His Private Thoughts and Public Stands on Nationalism, Zionism, War, Peace, and the Bomb, Princeton University Press (2007); Einstein Archives, History of the Estate of Albert Einstein, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (2007); Princeton Online 50


All Rights Reserved to Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or, 9th Edition Einstein in Princeton: Scientist, Humanitarian, Cultural Icon, Historical Society of Princeton;J. Stachel, et al, (Eds.) The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vols. 1–10, Princeton University Press; The Atomic Heritage Foundation, Einstein’s Famous Letter to the U.S. President about the need to survive by developing the atomic bomb before the Germans would do it; 1. Person of the Century: Why We Chose Einstein, Time, (3 January 2000). 2. Gal-Or Benjamin, Entropy, Fallacy, and the Origin of Irreversibility: An Essay on the Einsteinian New Astrophysical Revolutionary School of Thermodynamics; Annal. N.Y. Acad. Acad. Sci., 196 (A6) 305 (1972) Awarded the Gold Medal, while allegedly a rival article by S. Hawking did not make it. 3. Gal-Or Benjamin, on cosmological origin of thermodynamics, Nature 230, 1971); 234, 217 (1971); 4. Gal-Or Benjamin, On The Origin of Irreversibility, Science, 176, 11 (1972); 178, 119 (1972); 5. Gal-Or Benjamin, Found. Phys. 6, 407 (1976); 6, 623 (1976); 7, 50 (1977); 6. Gal-Or Benjamin, Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy (CPP), Volumes I and II, Springer Verlag, New York, 1981, 1983, 1987, Volumes I and 2 in 522-page, Hard-Cover worldwide acclaimed book, based on Refers. 5 to 10; "Gravitism", "Havayism", '"The New Astrophysical School" , still in high demand nowdays. 7. Gamov's book on the expanding universe. As undergraduate student I read there about Einstein's background, his field equations and apparently Gomov's predictions about 270 degrees below zero C cosmic voids between all galaxies receding away from each other – expanding voids that rule intergalactic dark cold spaces between all galaxies and the OLBERSE PARADOX RE WHY THE NIGHT SKY IS SO DRK AND COLD? And the affrmation of the expanding voids by Hubble – extensive reading tht had caused a serch for physical links between the voids-expansion aand non-expanding stars and gaalaxies, Gravity Physics and the asymmetric 2nd law of thermodynamics. References 5 to 10. Associted facts: With that conviction I refuted Mr. S. Zeidman's final "Thermo Exam", claiming the 2nd law of Thermodynamics is based on dissipating radiated energy from stars & galaxies into expanding, cold dark space, a claim that he considered a bad joke, and failed me, only to cause a scandal at the Technion, claiming a Dr. Degree should not be granted due to said FAILURE TO PASS HIS "THERO EXAM" in 1957. At that time, in 1963/4, the cosmic background radiation was discovered, proving not only the prediction, but overthrowing the steady-state theory of Fred Hoyle, Herman Bondi and Tommy Gold. My contested thermo was thus presented before a committee headed by Professors William "Bill" Resnick and Reuel Shinaar. Dr. Degree was next granted with "Flying Colors". 11. Gal-Or Benjamin, "Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability and Robot Aircraft, Springer Verlag, 1989, 1990, still in high demand.

THE BRAVE HYPATIA OF ALEXANDRIA

11.

A. Fitzgerald, Letter of Synesius of Cyrene to Hypathia, London, (1926); Grand Commentaire, de Théon d'Alexandrie aux 'Tables faciles' de Ptolémée, Livre II, III, Vatican City, 1985, 1991; Commentaries de Pappus et de Théon d'Alexandrie sur l'Almageste Tome III. Théon d'Alexandrie, Rome, 19; The calculation of an eclipse of the sun according to Theon of Alexandria, in Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians, 1, 209-219, (1950), Providence, 1952; Marinus de Naplouse - un commentaire au 'Petit commentaire' de Théon, Janus 63 (1-3), 167-194, 1976; Théon d'Alexandrie et les 'Tables faciles' de Ptolémée, Arch. Internat. Hist. Sci. 35 (114-115, 106-123) 1985; 'Commentaire à l'Almageste' de Théon d'Alexandrie, Antiquité Classique, 56, 201-219, 1987; O. Neugebauer, A history 51


All Rights Reserved to Prof.-Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or, 9th Edition of ancient mathematical astronomy, New York, (1975); A. Khan, Hypatia; Authorhouse, (2001); K. Chares, Hypatia: New Foes with an Old Face, Kessinger Publishing, (1997); A. Margaret, Hypatia’s Heritage: A history of Women in Science from Antiquity Through the Ninetheenth Century; I. Mueller, L.S. Grinstein & P. J. Campbell Women of Mathematics: A Biobibliographic Sourcebook. New York: Greenwood Press, (1987); M. M. Mangasarian,. The Martyrdom of Hypatia, (1915); J. Bregman, Synesius of Cyrene: Philosopher-bishop. Berkley: University of California Press (1982); M. B. Ogilvie, Women in science: Antiquity through the nineteenth century. MIT Press, (1986); Hypatia - Physics, culture and sense of duty, Spanish university (2006); T L. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics, Oxford, (1921); W. Müller, Das isoperimetrische Problem im Altertum mit einer übersetzung der Abhandlung des Zenodoros nach Theon von Alexandrien, Sudhoffs Arch. 37 (1953), 39-71, (1953); P. Pingree, An illustrated Greek astronomical manuscript: Commentary of Theon of Alexandria on the 'Handy tables' and scholia and other writings of Ptolemy concerning them, J. Warburg, Courtauld Inst., 45, 195 (1982); Reports by the Department of Mathematics, St. Andrews University in Scotland; Carl Sagan, Cosmos; Maria Dzielska, Hypatia of Alexandria; Hypathia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy; Wessel, Susan. Cyril of Alexandria and the Nestorian Controversy: The Making of a Saint and a Heretic. Oxford, 2004.

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