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All Rights Reserved to Benjamin Gal-Or, 2011

Worldwide Never BeforeAcclaimed We

"COSMOLOGY, PHYSICS and PHILIOSOPHY"

Were Free The Kingdom of Darkness Illuminates Some Dark Corners of Science, Politics, Government and Organized Religions

2012

Benjamin Gal-Or


The KINGDOM OF DARKNESS RUNS OUR LIFE More than Our DNA Preface Never before we were free. 

Arrested at birth by name, nationality, religion, language, enforced education, dictated duties to family and society, and often to spend life under domestic regime rules, none was free over all history of mankind.

But said slavery was broken almost overnight by SMF: the fast evolving Social Media Freedom that has given billions a real place of their own to express themselves, to affect politics, to reduce corruption, to spread knowledge from Washington to Manila, from New Delhi to Moscow.

That unprecedented freedom is destined to change the Main Media at least in the Western countries, help curb corruption power, organized control of religion groups, low-quality academia, barbaric terror, military power balances, the way science is sold to the public, health care, big banking control, etc.

That new freedom dramatically raises and revolutionizes People's Aspirations & Politics vs. extant, fast declining, controversial leadership in jurnalism, politics, obsolete educational methods, entertainment, selfeducation,

human

relationships,

people

outlooks

and

personal

philosophies. 

HOWEVER, this freedom encounters limits, mainly in the domains of Big Government & Companies Control of SMF, arms-secrecy races, 2


counter-terror efforts and invasions of the sick & barbarians who gain similar, or even higher status vs. those on the other side of knowledge.

Worldwide Acclaims

"I do not know a better modern expression of science, philosophy and classical humanism than that of Gal-Or’s book.” Haaretz “A Master Piece. The well-known author bases his philosophy on a very sound knowledge of present-day scientific theories. “ Indian Journal of Physics

“Evokes a person heart !! Has generated a large number of responses from around the world, some declaring that it has turned them into “Gal-Orians”. Since the thought presented by this book is so rich, translators of our country should recommend this book with all their intellectual power. “ Chinese Academy of Sciences “An extraordinary book, linking separate parts of cosmology and physics with modern results to provide the basis for a contemporary version of natural philosophy.” Mathematical Association of America “Gal-Or launches a new spirit of inquiry by his excellent and thought provoking writings. I would recommend awarding a prize and would hope that this would serve to focus attention on a most important subject.” Thomas Gold, Cornell University, in explaining the Gold Medal Award from the N.Y. Academy of Sciences and the Arts “The works of scientists like Gal-Or, Bohm, and (Noble PrizeWinner) Prigogine provide important resources. Prigogine's formalisms do not really tell us how irreversible change emerges from reversible [mathematics]. (in this Gal-Or is superior).” The Crisis of the Sciences

“Tour de force. A magnificent and sustained piece of work! Gal-Or’s net is widely cast – it reaches as far as science policy and political

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philosophy.” Sir Alan Cottrell, Vice-Chancellor, Cambridge University

“This is a great book, and an exciting book; readable, worth reading and enlightening. Sir Karl Popper

Recommended by Encyclopedia Britannica, "Nature, Philosophy of" “We are all Gal-Orians!” The Editor, Foundations of Physics “This is one of the most beautiful books that I have read.” Outstanding Books List “A comprehensive explication of a large area of science which the reader may study in many subjects. ” Contemporary Philosophy “Interesting to read, integrating much of scientific material.” Deutsche Literaturzeitung “This book has a wide-ranging scope. Professor Gal-Or develops a philosophy of science, which he calls Havayism.” Space Science Reviews, Smithsonian-NASA Astrophysics Data Systems “Appeals to scientists of all disciplines who are prepared to open their minds. Shines a welcome light in some dark corners of science.” New Scientist “One of the best books on the totality of the sciences & the universe. It was one of the favorite books of Sir Karl Popper. It looks at physics and the universe as a totality of the mathematical philosophical understanding. It also combines the physical concept of time with human psychological perception and brain understanding of languages.” Robin (forumhub.com/expr/@202.54.92.222 “Gal-Or’s “beauty” has always been the object of science, which, he lyrically observes as

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“A most fundamental aesthetic frame of mind, a longing for the run-away horizons of truth and symmetry that we always try to reach.”” Order amidst Chaos, Enlightment Aesthetics

Advancement of Physics: “Einstein's time-symmetric tensor was elevated by Gal-Or’s “New Astronomical School of Unified Thermodynamics” to the status of the source of “Master Asymmetry” controlling not only irreversible thermodynamics, but all physical and biological phenomena! Gal-Or calls “GRAVITISM” (his philosophy) that gravitation is the prime cause of structures, irreversibility, time, geo-chemical and biological evolution -- that the expansion of the universe is the cause of the second law of thermodynamics – that microscopic physics, and thermodynamics in particular, cannot be understood without reference to cosmology. He ties “irreversibility” to the “expansion of space itself”, i.e. as far as space is expanding, the contribution of all kinds of radiation in space is weakened “irreversibly” due to the expansion phenomenon itself. Such loss, or “degradation” of energy in the depth of inter-cluster expanding space, may then be considered as a universal sink for all the radiation flowing out of the material bodies in the expanding universe.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: “Gal-Or's remarkable book sees and seizes the world whole. He emphasizes that all scientists operate under some set of philosophical prejudices, and that failure to acknowledge this is self-delusion. Furthermore, he argues that a failure to attend to the philosophical base of physics leads to an empty scientism. His work is challenging on many levels, constituting a review 'with derivations' of general relativity 'as applied to cosmology', thermodynamics, the current state of theoretical particle physics, astrophysics, as well as a summary history of western philosophy, 'especially the philosophies of time and mind' and critiques of western society, the intelligentsia and the relationship between academic science and government. One 'and perhaps the central' theme explored, is that of the interplay between symmetry and asymmetry.

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His primary interest is not in the recent progress in the unification of forces in gauge theory, although he finds support in it for his Einsteinian outlook, but is rather time, time's arrow, and the asymmetry between past and future. Around time are accumulated discussions, both mathematical and philosophical, of thermodynamic reversibility, time reversibility, the nature of causality, and the use of advanced and retarded solutions to wave equations. The second major theme is that of gravity and its overwhelming domination of the actual form of the universe, at all scales. The combination of these themes is not accidental; they are point and counterpoint to his thesis that the time asymmetries are connectable to and perhaps even determined by the master asymmetry given by the gravity of general relativity: the remorseless cosmological expansion. He argues that only the expansion can provide the unification of time asymmetries. The expansion provides, among other things, an unsaturable sink for radiation, which, in turn, permits the establishment of gradients in temperature and density, which provide the basis for the physical process that leads to life. He also criticizes the sloppy and improper use of the concepts of entropy 'and the related notions in information theory' and quantum indeterminism, especially as covers for an inadequate understanding of temporal asymmetries. Taking an Einsteinian position on the interpretation of quantum mechanics, he looks forward to revitalization of Einstein's quest for a deterministic interpretation of quantum events. The value of this book lays in the challenging combination of ideas which Gal-Or presents, which goes far beyond what can be sensibly described in a review. [This] work may be too large to digest as a text in these days of the decline of academic institutions "as Gal-Or describes them", but that will be the loss of both the faculty and the students.�

John A. Wheeler, Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton: “I have in the meantime studied your book, with great interest, and made pages of notes on it.

I feel as if I had been on numerous walks and talks with you on the great questions, and know that would be great to go on with them!

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Who cannot be impressed by your love for the great men of all times and all countries, by your phrase “working back and forth between theory and fact”, by your belief that philosophy is too important to be left to the philosophers, by your concern for where thought and language lie in the scheme of things – and by so much more! I continue to reflect, again and again, on your central thesis that expansion is the origin of all asymmetry in time.

What an ingenious phrase is your, “smuggle irreversibility in without declaring the contraband”! I regard your book as seeking to accomplish two tasks – and being two books – at the very least. One is the exposition of your central thesis, with clarity, and careful mustering of every argument pro and con that can lead to testable consequences. I don’t see how it is possible to do proper justice to a thesis of such importance by mixing it in with the other great task. That is to give students an appreciation of the unity of philosophy and modern physics. You do both tasks far better than I could hope to. I give you my personal thanks for putting the two books into a package that I personally have found most thought-provoking.”

"The Judeo-Christian Tradition” in Scientific American; Victor F. Weisskopf, MIT, quotes from Volume I: "Most astrophysicists, cosmologists and astronomers agree that the biblical account of cosmic evolution, in stressing `a beginning´ and the initial roles of `void,´ `light´ and a `structure-less´ state, may be uncannily close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us"

Christian Apologetics, Journal: “Lecture one [in Volume I] affirms that the stress placed by Genesis on ‘beginning’ and the initial roles of ‘void’, ‘light’ and a ‘structure-less’ state, “may be uncannily

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close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us.”

Table of Content Volume I SIR KARL POPPER, Foreword ……………….……………..…… xx SIR ALAN COTTRELL, Foreword ………………….………........ xxi Preface ……………………………………..….……….…..…….... xxii

Introduction 1.1 The Revival of Relativistic Cosmology vs. Modified Concepts in Physics and Philosophy …………………...…… 1.1.1 The problem of ordering ……………………...…… 1.1.2 How did it all start? ………………………………… 1.1.3 The first seven stages …………………………....... 1.1.4 The present matter-dominated era ………………….... 2.1 The Einsteinian Methodology: A Preliminary Remark …..........

8

2 3 5 7 11 11


2.2 The Withdrawal of Philosophy From Physics (and of Physics From Philosophy) ……………………………...… 2.3 The Greatest Ambition of Physics …………………..…....... 2.3.1 Unification of initial-boundary conditions first? Unification of fields second? ………………..…....... 2.3.2 Should unification begin with differential equations? …………………..………....... 2.4 The Great Physico-Philosophical Gains from Cosmological Discoveries ………………………………….

13 16 16 17 19

PART I

From Gravitational Waves & Structures to Black Holes and Neutrinos in Astrophysics

1.

1.1 Gravitation, Asymmetry and Structure ……………….……. 80 A fallacy associated with current theories …………….......... 80

2. From Classical to Particle Physics 2.1 2.2

3.

Aim and Scope ……………………………………………. 138 Limitations of Theory ………………………………….… 140

From Relativistic Cosmology to Quantum Theories

3.1 Introduction …………………………………………………....... 3.1.1 Einstein’s field equations in general relativity ……….…….… 3.1.2 Confirmation of Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation …………... 3.2 Principles and Formulations of General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology ………………...……….……………… 9

167 169 172 191


PART II

From Physics to Philosophical Crossroads and Back

4.

The Arrows of Time

4.1

Time and The Arrow of Time: The Most Distorted of All Ideas? …………………………… 215 4.2 Asymmetry-Symmetry-Space-Time and The Unification of the Laws of Physics …………………… 216 4.3 Methodology, Aim and Scope ……………………………… 217 4.4 Confusing Concepts of Time and Time Asymmetries ……… 219 4.5 The Entropic Arrow of Time ………………………………… 222 4.6 Causality, Causation and Time Asymmetries ……………….. 226 4.7 Causation and Determinism in Relativistic Theories ………………………………………….. 227 4.8 Cosmological Arrows of Time and Cosmic Time ……….…… 230 4.9 A Few Remarks ……………………………………...……….. 232 4.10 Time-Reversal Invariance and Irreversibility …………….…… 236 4.10 Entropy-Free Thermodynamic v. Arrows of Time …………… 250

5. The Crisis in Quantum Physics 5.1 Preliminary Review …………………………………….…… 255 The effect of gravitation and the outside world on quantum physics: 5.1.1 The three main schools of thought …………………… 261 5.2 Einstein’s Objections to the Uncertainty Principle ……….... 262 5.3 The Heresy of a Few Skeptics ………………………….….. 265 5.4 Mythologized Concepts of Quantum Physics …………...…. 265 5.5 The Failure of Classical and Quantal Statistical Mechanics to Deduce Irreversibility and Time Asymmetries ……………………………………………..…. 267 10


PART III

From Physics to Cosmological Crossroads and Back 6. Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy 6.1 Reduction of Thermodynamics to Gravitation ……...… 6.1.1 Methodology …………………………………….. Dialectical Gravitism: Definition of the first problems ……………………………………... 6.1.3 Gravitation as super-asymmetry ………………… 6.2 The Earliest and Most Universal Asymmetry: Observational Evidence …………………..………......... 6.2.1 Which space expands and which does not? …...…. 6.3 Gravitation-Asymmetry Principle of Equivalence ……. . 6.4 Can Intercluster Space Be Saturated With Radiation? … 6.5 Derivation of the Master Asymmetry from Gravitation Theories ………………………...… 6.6 Irreversibility in the New Gravitational Cosmological Thermodynamics ………………...…….

277 277 278 279 279 282 284 287 290 293

7. Cosmological Origin of Time 7.1 Time: The All-Embracing Concept ………………….. 7.2 Cosmological Origin of Time ………………………... 7.3 Cosmological Interpretations of Newton’s Laws of Motion …………………………………..….... 7.4 Gravitational Origin of Structure and Evolution .……. 7.5 Gravitation and the Outflow of Energy Into Un-Saturable Space ………………………………….. 11

309 310 314 316 322


PART IV

Beyond Present Knowledge 8. The Science of The Whole 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4

The Futile Quest for Final Answers ………………….. An Example in Havayism ……………………..…....… From Cosmology to Irreversible Structures and Memory ……………………………………..….… The Skeptic Outlook ……………………………..……

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349 350 365 415


VOLUME II Introduction ……………………………………………...................

420

A Few Historical Remarks on Time, Mind and Symmetry ………..

437

The Philosophy of Time & Change: Some Historical Notions …………………….…………………...

455

Structuralism and the Divided American Thought: A Short Glossary of Terms ………………………………..………

467

Policy and Publicity: A Critique …………………………………..

483

Thought-Provoking and Thought-Depressing Quotations ………..

495

Critique of Western Methodology ………………………………. ...

530

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Introduction The ‘beginning’ and the ‘end’ of the world’: What do we really know? According to the Bible: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was without form and void …Genesis 1 According to this 1981 book:

Most astrophysicists, cosmologists and astronomers agree today that the biblical account of the beginning of cosmic evolution, in stressing "a beginning" and the initial roles of "void" and a structure-less, earliest chaotic state, may be uncannily close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us.

Repeated verifiable evidence for such a claim? In the beginning, according to modern astronomy and empirical relativistic cosmology, the highly curved space-time of the early universe is analogous to a "white hole" in which radiation-dominated (structure-less) pre-atomic medium [Lecture 5], had expanded away from extremely high density and temperature, to end up in the present, gravity-dominated era in which the initial structureless medium has gradually developed into the present hierarchy of gravitationally-bounded galaxies, stars and other structures, including the late arrival of mortals. 14


Well-Verified, Repeated Observations We start with the verified ‘beginning’:

Image 00.001:

Just look first on the blue dots.

This well-recorded

Cosmic Microwave Blackbody Radiation goes far back to the "beginning", the 'Big-Babg". It is the earliest direct record of our universe, showing the beginning of our gravity-dominated cosmos, a cosmos directly present here-now in all structures and time asymmetries; indeed, this far-away space-time is much more important and interesting, much beyond the recently verified gravitational waves, than all galaxies and stars put together.

Unlike most studies we first focus on these “Little Blue cold Voids. WHY?

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DOES The KINGDOM OF DARKNESS RUNS OUR LIFE More Than Our DNA? 

These shy blue voids, during the rest of the 'age' of our universe, have dramatically expanded to become the “Big Voids” shown below.

So what? one may say.

FIRST we the "BIG VOIDS" "SPACE-1 Expanding Voids", or THE KINGDOM OF DARKNESS,

SECONDLY we claim that these voids, or SPACE-1, are more important and more interesting than all the shining galaxies, stars and planets put together, and, in addition, more important than our DNA. WHY?

THIRDLY we claim that these BIG DARK COLD VOIDS, or EXPANDING SPACE-1, is the root-cause of creating our DNA. Any proof?

Well, as one may adequately comprehend what is brought as repeatedly verified observational proof, SPACE-1 expansion has not only caused each of us in all historical times to see and feel the

cold, dark, night-

sky, which is the direct effect of the expansion of said neglected cold dark voids. Got it? 

Well, that is just one proof of what is provided below.

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Image 00.1: One must first note the 100 million light years ruler depicted at the top of this imagerecord. We are less than a visible dot somewhere here . What do we realy know about the process that has transformed the early “Little Blue Voids” to the “Big Dark Voids” shown here? And why do you claim that this is so central, important and interesting? The detailed answers provided below may not only difficult to follow, even by established, skeptical, professional astronomers, astrophysicists and cosmologists.

Next we also claim, since 1958, that in three-dimensional space the “Big Dark Voids” wrap around all visible filaments of superclusters of galaxies shown in this large ‘portrait of the universe’. 17


Namely, all these dark cold expanding voids are interconnected in what we had termed "EXPANDING SPACE-1".

The dynamics and thermodynamics involved in this expansion during the last 13 billion year, and the resulting effects on us ‘here-now’, are detailed in Lecture 1 and summarized in Lectures 1 and 7 herein.

To comprehend these dynamics, or ‘Updated World History’ [Lecture 5], one must use the results of General Relativity [Gravity Physics] and our New Astrophysical School of Thermodynamics. [Refs. 13, Volume I and Lectures 2 to 4 herein].

But here one may need to carefully examine and comprehend the diagram provided below.

Image 00.2(above): Gravity-induced Evolving Order and Structures of the Universe.

Fig. 1.2:

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HOW THIS KINGDOM of DARKNESS, this EXPANDING, COLD, "SPACE-1", CONTROL OUR ENTIRE HISTORY? THE ENTIRE EVOLUTION OF STARS, PLANETS, DNA, LIFE and beyond?

WHAT ARE THE well-verified, SCIENTIFIC PROOFS PROVIDED BY STUDYING the dynamics and thermodynamics of this expanding "SPACE-1"?

Are your claims grounded on Einsteinian gravitation, on the physics of general relativity? On sound physics?

Additional terminology is provided next below, in Thought experiments and in 13 long footnotes.

But before proceeding one may proceed by comparing the gigantic space scales of our visible universe, and smaller portions of it, as illustrated next:

SPACE-3: Interstellar Medium

Bow Shock 19


Term ination Shock Heliopause

Solar System

Voyager I [marked] had recently crossed the termination shock [on December 16, 2004] to

"SPACE-3", providing us with data on the local interstellar

medium. 

Note that our

Solar System extends far beyond the farthest planets, asteroid

belt, Kuiper belt, comets, rocks and dust in ‘our’ community. We and it are well located inside

non-expanding

"Space 3" that wraps around our entire

galaxy and is spatially interconnected with much

further

away

with

non-expanding "Space 2" and,

EXPANDING, DARK, COLD

SPACE- 1, which is our central theme, and is NOT shown in this diagram. 

Note also that "SPACE-3" includes the so-called local interstellar medium, which begins where the Solar System ends. 

Thought Experiment I:

Imagine that your home

bath-tub is transformed today into an elastic rubber one that is being continuously inflated when you pour water into it, in analogy to the fact that SPACE-1 is expanding faster than it is filled up with radiation energy flowing into it from the shining sources around it. [Fig. 1.2]. In case you select to start inflating the bath-tub from, say, a midway water-level mark, that level would only go down with fast enough inflation rate of the bathtub, thereby you cannot fill it up, again, in analogy to the observed SPACE-1expansion. So your ‘expanding bath-tub’ represents the cause of the dark-cold night sky that you observe by stepping out of your home on a non-cloudy night.

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Since SPACE-1-expansion causes the cosmos to be UNSATURABLE with respect to the radiation energy emitted from all galaxies and active stars, the radiation energy flowing into it from the shining sources cannot fill-it-up -- as far as it keeps expanding “fast enough”. The measured 2.7 absolute degree Kelvin temperature of the cosmic background blackbody radiation and the dark-cold night sky play a key role in Gravitism. SPACE-1-expansion causes electromagnetic radiation irreversibility [retarded waves] that we term the electromagnetic arrow of time. [Volume I] In contrast, if you stop the inflation of your home bath-tub, the water level would start rising and the bath-tub will now be filled up gradually. (In analogy, the night sky would become hotter and hotter until, eventually, it reaches the maximum fusion temperature1.4 in the interiors of stellar objects like the sun, or galactic centers.1.6).

Thought Experiment II:

One may next bake a

raisin cake, and, in analogy to superclusters of galaxies in our observed expanding universe, each raisin there represents a supercluster as the cake expands. If the raisins are spread about evenly throughout the cake dough, they represent the receding away superclusters as they run away from each other due to the expansion. You may next imagine a tiny “educated observer” located on each non-expanding raisin. Inquiring what he sees, he tells you that all other raisins are moving away from him, and that the density of cake-matter between him and nearby raisins decreases. Next, if you move him to another raisin, he observes the same. ‘After’ the ‘Big Bang’ there is no clock other than the increasing “size” of the universe, or the decrease in energy-matter density or temperature. Our sun-earth time-scale is irrelevant prior to the formation of the solar system. Thus, an alternative clock was introduced in Volume I.

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Thought Experiment III:

On the surface of an

inflating balloon you may next paint small images of superclusters of galaxies, as in Figs. 1.1 and 1.2. Next imagine a tiny “two-dimensional educated observer” located on each image, but this time one who is only capable of perception of a surface, namely, only the two-dimensional, curved surface of his inflating-expanding balloon. The conclusion of this wise creature is similar to the one in Experiment II: All superclusters of galaxies are receding away “from me”, no matter where I stand on the balloon surface. Note also, that according to EGR, the balloon-universe harbors no ‘edge’. It is finite in surface area, but boundless. And, for this two-dimensional creature, it is not expanding "into" any extant space outside the balloon. For this creature just the surface of the whole balloon is ‘the whole universe’; namely, there is no ‘outside’ three-dimensional space. Similarly, within our familiar three-dimensional universe, there is no ‘outside’ into which the actual universe is expanding.

Conclusions drawn from these thought experiments remain about the same even if one introduces local black holes, galactic motions, rotations, star explosions, or implosions, dust, gas and local thermo-geometrical changes.

Lecture

22

1


Physics at Largeset Verified-Recorded Scales Fig.

1.1:

The “100 million ly”

scale

depicted at the top provides the

right

idea of the size of our visible universe. Here “ly” [“light Year”] is the distance light, travels at 300,000 km/sec during one year.  We are less than a visible dot somewhere in the VIRGO SUPERCLUSTER.  In our studies we focus on the expanding dark voids that wrap around the superclusters of galaxies. [A few are marked in purple]. These dark-cold voids expand at accelerated rate, thereby giving rise to the term the ‘expanding-accelerating universe’.

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 The expansion of these voids makes them not only the largest, unsaturable sink of all radiation energy pouring out of the superclusters shown, but the primary cause of the second law of thermodynamics and the cosmological arrow of time. [Fig. 1.2].  Due to the limited speed of light, which causes the Event Horizon, humans can never see the entire universe. In fact, part of what we see now in Fig. 1.1 will be lost later forever to humanity due to red-shifted radiation beyond the visibility horizon caused by said expansion and the receding away of the superclusters.

RECAP  SPACE-1 stands for the observed, interconnected, expanding, cold-dark voids recorded by NASA and others. Fig. 1.1.  The radiation emerging from all galaxies and active stars is irreversibly absorbed forever in the depths of expanding SPACE-1.  SPACE-1 contains the isotropic and homogeneous faint ‘glow’, called the Cosmic Microwave Black-Body Radiation. It is the left over radiation from the end of the 1st genesis, the radiation dominated era. [Lecture 5].  The gigantic amount of radiation energy pouring out from all shining galaxies is isotropically proceeding in all space directions.

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 It first proceeds from Space-3 to Space-2 and then irreversibly dissipated forever deep inside VOIDS-SPACE-1.  Once in expanding dark SPACE-1 it is not reflected back.  It proceeds there to the lowest radiation energy density/pressure levels [zero gradients] located on adiabatic surfaced midway between the filaments, where radiation pressure difference vanishes. SPACE-1 is therefore the sole, largest, coldest, UNSATURABLE SINK in the entire universe, simply because it is fast expanding forever 1.2 at a slightly accelerated pace that would lead to cold death of the universe. And the radiation pressure gradients push the filaments away from each other.

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Fig. 1.3: “Our little neighborhood” is home to thousands of galaxies, each wrapped around by SPACE-3. [Defined by Fig. 1.2]. But even in this zoomed-in image the solar system is less than a visible dot somewhere in the Local Group. From SPACE-3 the radiation emerging from the galaxies travels to SPACE 2, which wraps around all clusters of galaxies. [Figs. 1.2 and 1.3] and is an extension of SPACE-3.

Only a small portion of the stellar-galactic radiation is irreversibly dissipated in galactic centers that harbor massive black holes, while most of it escapes the limited frame-space of Fig. 1.3 to be irreversibly dissipated in the depth of expanding SPACE-1, which wraps around all superclusters of galaxies.

We are located in the “Local Group” of about 30 galaxies [center of Fig. 1.3], inside the VIRGO SUPERCLUSTER recorded in the center of Figs. 1.1. Our Solar System and our entire galaxy are less than a visible point in these figures.

The cosmic voids that are the furthest from us absorb energy from parts of the universe that we cannot see.

Most shining galaxies contain a super massive black hole at their center 1.6

1.1,

. Each center acts like a gigantic galactic sink of matter-energy in the

‘immediate neighborhood’ of such a black hole.

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In comparison with radiation-unsaturable, expanding, VOIDS-SPACE-1, black holes are neither universal nor the largest thermodynamic “sinks”.

Most important, without the observed Voids/Space-1 expansion – the so called HUBBLE EXPANSION -- the density of radiation energy (Fig. 1.2) in all space would increase with time, eventually reaching the highest temperatures that are maintained by nuclear fusion1.4 in the cores of all active stellar cores, causing not only our roasting on earth and disintegrations of all structures in the entire universe, but an eventual equilibrium throughout all space, namely gradually approaching the same temperatures in all Spaces 3, 2 and 1. This would result in the gradually vanishing of the ’hills-Valleys’ gradients depicted in Fig. 1.2.

Conclusion: Voids-Space-1 expansion is not only the cause of the 2

nd

law of

thermodynamics; its expansion is the Master Arrow of Time and the origin of asymmetries in Nature [13]. Unlike most scientists, who claim that the entropy and disorder of the universe increases with time, we claim the opposite: Gravity everlasting transformation of chaos into structures in the entire universe.

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Fig. 1.4: The Earliest Visible World; Earliest separation of “light” from “night sky”. The ever-expanding, dark-blue spots measured, are the earliest VoidsSPACE-1 ever formed. Their visible differentiation from the material energy emitters --- the yellow-green-red hot sources --- is the earliest recorded by science [Lecture 5]. The small size of these voids is to be increased during the next 17 billion years of the world expansion to end up with the gigantic voids recorded in Fig. 1.1. Fig. 1.5: The “Fog” visible around this galaxy is composed of millions of stars like our sun – a reminder of the scales we observe and discuss. The earliest expanding voids (SPACE-1) recorded in Fig. 1.4 wrap around the yellow-green-red hot sources. These voids irreversibly absorb all the radiation poured into them from the gravitationally-condensing, and, therefore, heated material emitters. (Fig. 1.2). Most important, this differentiation-aggregation is isotropic and homogeneous. The recorded early dark cosmological voids are not only the first-ever macro-differentiation in the world, they constitute the central tools of Cosmological Gravitism.

The shapes of superclusters vary considerably; from that of Virgo, Coma and Hercules to long ‘filaments’. [Figs. 1.1 and 1.3]. 1.9; 1.1

Skeptic Notes

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How such remote dynamics can affect us “here-now” ? To start with, we resort to additional, verified evidence that relates to this legitimate question. There is undisputed evidence about the Cosmic Blackbody Microwave Background Radiation [CMBR] of the early expanding universe [Fig. 1.4]. It was discovered in 1941-1964 and is the remnant of radiation in early SPACE-1, which has since expanded and cooled by the expansion of the voids during about 13.72 (less about 350,000) billion years, until these early voids reach the forms depicted in Fig. 1.1. This radiation has been cooled down from about 4,000-3,000 K at the end of the radiation dominated era [Lecture 5], and it always engulfs us ‘here-now”. It thus constitutes a direct link to the “external world” and one of the many proofs that SPACE-1 has been expanding and is isotropic [the same in all directions] and homogeneous. It is undisputed today that the cosmic dark voids not only expand, but their expansion is accelerated. There is however, a debate on the cause of that acceleration. [1-5, 7, 9, 10, 20-52, 55, 74-115]. This expansion, we assert and discuss below, not only causes the 2nd Law of thermodynamics, but according to Gravitism, has generated all chemistry, and irreversible processes that eventually lead to life. [Lecture 5 and Ref. 13].  The pillar of modern astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology is the empirical HUBBLE LAW. It is based on verified observations since first discovered by Hubble in the 1920’s. [1-4, 7, 9, 52, 53, 55, 74-115]1.2.

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Hubble Cosmic Expansion Law is marked in Fig. 1.2 as Uo=Hor, where “r” is the distance from earth to “CLUSTER I”. Here “r” represents superclusters or a cluster of galaxies recorded in Fig. 1.1, Ho the Hubble Constant and Uo the recession velocity, namely, SPACE-1 expansion. Employing next Figures 1 to 5, we assert: SPACE -1 wraps all superclusters of galaxies.1.3 It thus contains all expanding dark voids recorded in both Figs. 1.1 and 1.4. But it does not include the non expanding superclusters. SPACE 2 wraps around, but does not include the non-expanding clusters of galaxies. [Fig. 1.3]. SPACE-3 wraps around but does not include the non-expanding galaxies, stars, planets, moons, etc. [Figs. 1.3 and 1.5]. Preliminary Conclusion: All superclusters are receding away ‘from us’ -- and from each other [Footnote 1, Thought Experiments] -- at great speeds -- the further away they are, the greater is the observed receding speed. Our Milky-Way Galaxy [images and Footnote 8] contains billions of gravitycompacted stars, planets and other entities.

Side view of our galaxy

Most “young” stars are formed in the dilute regions of the rotating inter-stellar medium within SPACE-3.

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Our galaxy is almost 100,000 light-years in diameter at its disk-like longest spiral arms. It is in the form of an almost flat spiral disk [image below] with an average thickness of about 1,000 light-years. Non-expanding SPACES 3, 2 and expanding forever voids [SPACE-1] contain, inter alia, the cosmic microwave black-body radiation, photons, neutrinos, antineutrinos, gas, dust, etc., much of which first recorded with the Hubble Telescope. [Images on the right and below] Intra-galactic gas may also emit X-rays and other types of radiation. [The undetected, speculative, dark matter and dark energy are neither necessary ingredients of Gravitism, nor unacceptable. These are discussed by references 74 to 115.]. To deny today the central role these verified facts play in science, philosophy and theology, is to deny the very methodology of science, and to a priori reject a large portion of its empirical evidence, on the basis of false personal, fixed, presuppositions.

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We are linked here-now to what is going on far out there by resorting to a thought experiment: SPACE-1 stops expanding ‘now’, thereby the stellar radiation energy density marked in Fig. 1.2 gradually rises all over spaces 3, 2 and 1, eventually causing the entire universe to reach equilibrium [uniform temperature/energy-density], whereby all processes in the universe stop, including life on earth.

Since we do not see, and cannot study the entire universe (explanation below), the dynamics of a single adiabatic envelope that wraps around a typical emitter -- as defined and analyzed in Footnote 1.7 -- is strictly equivalent to the study and analysis of the entire universe. Why? The well-verified isotropic and homogeneous distribution of the observed cosmic dark voids vis-à-vis the shining emitters -- as illustrated by both Figs. 1.1 and 1.4, when combined with the physico-chemical dynamics of nuclear fusion (Footnote 1.4) and supernova (Footnote 1.5), unequivocally mean that about the same max temperature characterizes all superclusters recorded in Fig. 1.1. It should be noted that these qualities have been approximately preserved as the universe has expanded from what is recorded in Fig. 1.4 to what is recorded in Fig. 1.1. Therefore, the dynamics and thermodynamics inside each such a randomly chosen single virtual “cell”, do represent those of the entire universe. This conclusion is important because less and less of the observed universe [Fig. 1.1] will be seen with the progress of the accelerated expansion. In short, we harbor no option but to use “cells” for we cannot see and study the entire universe. Assertion: The maximum speed of light is not violated by Hubble expansion. When sectors of the universe expand away from us at speeds higher than the speed of light, that law is not violated. 32


The expansion of the universe generates a large-scale event horizon – an observational and theoretical limit for us to see the entire universe; namely, the light from such far away receding emitters is gradually being redshifted until the most remote sources totally disappear from our sights, forever. Consequently, there is no option but to study adiabatic cosmological cells of the universe, like the one defined in Fig. 1.2 vis-à-vis Figs. 1.1, 1.3 and 1.4. RECAP: The portion of the universe recorded in Fig. 1.1 is shrinking in time, but a ‘nearby’ selected at random adiabatic cell remains in sight. Thus, much of what we observe in Fig. 1.1 would be unobservable in the future; it would, forever, be a lost case for science.

Relevance of Einstein’s General Relativity in Gravitism Einstein’s General Relativity (“EGR”) [Footnote 1 and Lecture 3] is expressed by his field equations [13 and Lecture 3 herein]. Without the so-called cosmological constant [74-115] EGR accepts no plausible static cosmological solutions. Thus, according to Einstein, the 1916 EGR had predicted the expansion of the universe before Hubble detected it in the mid 1920’s. From this point of view our new astrophysical school of systems dynamics and thermodynamics it is the agreement with EGR and said Einsteinian outlook, that our outlook is deeply rooted in EGR.

Dark Matter? Dark Energy? If one retains the cosmological constant in EGR, which Einstein had rejected due to the Hubble discovery in the mid 1920’s, it may explain the role of the currently speculated dark energy and dark matter that are claimed by many theorists without any strict observational evidence, to fill the universe and support their claims for causing the observed accelerated expansion [74-115].

From Large to Small-Scale Systems-Dynamics, and Back 33


Clustering differences begin on the largest and earliest scales of the visible universe, as demonstrated by Figs. 1.1 and 1.4. We next focus on group dynamics of shining emitters vis-à-vis the dark-cold cosmological Voids, as defined by Fig. 1.2. Up-scaling 1: Since Space-1 is expanding -- and its expansion rate has been observationally proved as being accelerated -- the universe is unidirectionally cooling down forever. The corollary is that, eventually, all energy density gradients depicted in Fig, 1.2 – and in the solar system1.8 -- would vanish, and all processes here and there would stop in what is called the final cold death. Downscaling 1: Said expansion generates the observed large-scale energy-density gradients [Fig. 1.2], which, in turn, generate small-scale stellar and planetary temperature gradients – the ones that allow life to emerge and be sustained. [13]. Downscaling 2: Einsteinian gravity is well-approximated by Newtonian Physics as one goes down the scales of size-masses. Accordingly, above a certain size-mass, all is structured by specific gravity, the heaviest components down in the core; the lightest up, at the ‘top’. We term this phenomenon gravitationally-induced survival of the “fittest”. [Lecture 7.]. Downscaling 3: Adiabatic envelopes7 in the observed homogeneous and isotropic universe are always located between any pair of superclusters or clusters of galaxies. [Fig. 1.2].

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Collecting all said spots forms Space-1 “cells� (adiabatic surfaces-envelopes around superclusters or clusters7), each of which evolves as representative of the entire universe that we cannot observe due to the event horizon/Space-1-expansion.

See Fig. 1.7 in Footnote 2 below.

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FOOTNOTES for Lecture 1 While some of the footnotes in these lectures are long, they do not constitute “Introductions” to the subjects. If one is interested in physico-mathematics, the derivations are available in Volume I.

1. “Expansion of the Universe”, General Relativistic Cosmology, Thought Experiments, Redshifts, Einstein’s Lens Gravitational lens were predicted by Einstein in 1936. [Image]. The orange arrows show the magnified source, while the white arrows show the actual path of light from the hidden source. Einstein calculated such cosmic effect for future astronomy. These “lens” become useful when the gravity of a massive cosmic object curves space-time between the observer and a hidden, far-away object.

Fig. 1.6: Einstein’s Gravity Lens helps reveal hidden early cosmic objects

It is a well-verified phenomenon, which causes bending of the path of radiation, say, light, from an otherwise hidden source. The key point is that this effect magnifies early sources and is especially interesting and important in recent studies of the early “Dark Age” [Image 00.1], which started about 200,000 to 350,000 years after the “Big Bang”. “Expansion of the universe” or “expansion of space” is actually expansion of the voids recorded in Figs. 1.1 and 1.4. This fact has confused many theorists. [For a review see 120-123]. Some claim that the expansion-cooling of homogeneous hot gas in the standard cosmological model means violation of energy conservation. Other claim continuous creation of vacuum, which leads them to conceptual problems associated with quantum-physics presupposions. [Lectures 2 and 4]. 36


Most important is the solid evidence that has been accumulated recently by many astronomers. Part of the many pioneering works and discoveries are due to the NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, Voyager probes [Footnote 1.8] and the ground-based LIGO and VIRGO observatories. The use of Einstein lens and new infrared, radio, infrared, X-ray and other techniques has substantially increased the reliability of information about phenomena and processes in the most remote regions of curved space-time. Einstein’s General Relativity (EGR or Gravity Physics) is reviewed in Volume I with the mathematics and tests involved. Lecture 3 herein is restricted to footnotes on EGR and to Quantum Physics Standard Model. The physico-mathematical derivation of EGR is provided in Volume 1 in terms of Einstein’s Field Equations (EFE). EFE are formulated in the same form for all observers – accelerating, linearly moving, rotating, standing on a minor astronomical body, like earth, or on a massive star. This provides the basis for using ‘translators’ from one observer coordinate system to another. These ‘translators’ are energy-momentum metric tensors [Vol. 1 and Lecture 2]. They include first and second mathematical derivatives in three space coordinates and in one time coordinate of the physical properties mass, energy and momentum. Changes in the gravitational field are accounted for by changes in the curvature of space-time, on one hand, and by changes in local mass-energy and momentum on the other side of EFE [13]. EGR includes Einstein’s Special Relativity [ESR] and the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum Distances in cosmological models based on EGR are determined locally between two infinitesimally close points in curved space-time. It is, therefore, an issue to determine them within the framework of each model. Said issue should not be confused with the fact that the size of SPACE-1 increases with time. Yet, in debating the validity of each proposed model, one must specify its space-time-curvature -- the curve-path-of-light that connects two such cosmicapart points. 37


2. The Expanding Universe The universe is not expanding "into" anything outside itself. [Thought Experiment III in Footnote 1.1 above]. Metric expansion is a key feature of theoretical relativistic cosmology. It is modeled mathematically with the FLRW metric [Volume I], which is valid at the scale of superclusters of the galaxies shown in Fig. 1.1. At smaller scales, galaxies, stars, planets, etc. do not individually expand. The expansion of the VOIDS-SPACE-1 [Figs. 1.1 to 1.4] is partly due to inertia, going back to the Big-Bang explosion, and partly to gradually accumulated repulsive force of the radiation pressure in SPACE-1 [Introduction]. Hubble’s astronomical observations prove that superclusters of galaxies [Fig. 1.1] are moving away from each other with speeds that are proportional to their distance from each other [Fig. 1.2]. Hence the universe had a beginning. This expansion-based beginning is independently supported by observations: First and foremost, the 1941-1964 discovered cosmic microwave blackbody radiation. Fig. 1.4 proves that it is not the expansion E. Hubble of galaxies and stars, but of the VOIDS-SPACE-1, and is the same in all directions (isotropic and almost homogeneous). Isotropic distribution across the sky of distant gamma-ray bursts and of supernova explosions [see below] also support this conclusion. Our net motion in Space. The direction of the earth’s net motion lies in the same plane as its orbit around the sun and at angle of 61 degrees tilted upward [northward] from the plane of the disk-like Milky Way. We rotate and travel around the sun, while the sun travels around the galactic center. These speeds should not be confused with the recession speed of clusters and superclusters of galaxies away from each other. [R(t) Fig. 1.2]. This is the Hubble 38


expansion. Our galaxy is deviating from this uniform expansion motion by about 600 km/sec. Cosmological models may be open or closed, bounded but unlimited in curved space-time, as explained in Ref. 13. Unlike quantum physics, EGR is scale-free and deterministic. We return to these important issues in Lectures 2, 3 and 4. Note: Commoving Distance Cosmological Model cannot fix distances. In practice, the distance of distant objects are best measured by their luminosity -- which is reduced by the square power of the distance to the radiation source [13], and by redshifts of their incoming electromagnetic radiation. Redshifts: Wavelengths of photons propagating through expanding VOIDS-SPACE-1 are stretched. We term it VOIDS-SPACE-1 [VSR].

Redshift

There is a distinction between VSR and that caused when nearby objects exhibit a local Doppler-effect redshift (upper right). Rather than VSR resulting from relative velocities visà-vis earth, the photons undergoing VSR increase in wavelength because of the expansion of the medium through which they are traveling. The color spectrum on the right of the image on the right illustrates a redshift. It is compared in the image with that of a ‘local’, ‘static’ one [left spectrum, no shift.], like that of radiation arriving from the sun. Using Hubble law redshifts of incoming radiation are used to calculate distances of objects far away from earth. According to general relativity, special relativity is locally valid in small regions of space-time that are approximately ‘flat’ [low gravity values, like in our Solar System]. 39


Light [photons, Lecture 3] traveling in VOIDS-SPACE-1 do not pass through conventional ‘space-distances’, because of the expansion of the VOIDSSPACE-1.

2. Our “Local Group” of Galaxies

Fig. 1.7: Even at this zoomed-in scale our Solar System (Footnote 1.8) is less than a visible dot somewhere here. Andromeda (M31 ) is a respectable member of our Local Group of galaxies. [Fig. 1.3 and the image above show “our Local Group” when zoomed in.]. Andromeda is characterized by a spiral structure similar to our galaxy,, and is “nearby”, just about 2,200,000 light-years away. Both are the largest 40


in our Local Group, which is about 10,000,000 light-years in its largest spatial ‘diameter’, namely, the ‘size’ of our local group is about 100 times the size of our galaxy. [Image]. Our local group includes M49, M58, M59, M60, M61, M84, M86, M87, M89 and M31 (Andromeda). Andromeda’s system consists of Cassiopeia Dwarf, Pegasus dSph, M32, M110, NGC 147, NGC195, AND I-V, etc. The Triangulum Galaxy, the 3rd largest galaxy in ‘our’ local group, also includes the Pisces Dwarf as a satellite. ‘Our’ satellite galaxies consist of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Darco Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Canis Major Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, Carina Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Tucana Dwarf, Leo I, Leo II, Leo A, Sag DEG, etc.

4.

Nuclear Fusion

is the most important “chemical” process in the universe. It is caused by extremely high forcespressures of gravity in/on the inner cores of active stars [picture]. It generates most chemical elements by transforming (fusing) hydrogen plasma, [H], into heavier elements like Helium [He], carbon [C], oxygen [O], nitrogen, phosphor, and iron [Fe] at star center. A Typical Sun-Like Star is shown on the right. Note the energy flows: Convection currents from the very hot, thermo-nuclear reacting core to the colder surface and the various types of radiation and particles pouring out into non-expanding, colder SPACE-3. All active stars generate in their interiors all the basic chemical elements beyond hydrogen and helium; namely, all the heavier basic elements of matter that we observe on earth and in our body and brain. 41


According to both Einsteinian and Newtonian physics, the bigger the mass of a star, the higher are its core pressures and temperatures and faster are the nuclear fusion processes in its interior [13].

How do we know all that? On both fusion and fission scientists know much [Footnote 1.4]. Fusion is also the driver of hydrogen-bomb explosions, (not fission as in atomic reactors and in ‘regular’ atomic weapons). When a certain amount of iron is formed in the interiors of active stars, endothermic reaction replaces the exothermic one. (The exothermic reaction generates energy, while the endothermic consumes it.) All active stars produce energy through such nuclear fusion.

5. Supernova, Maximum Temperatures, Redshifts & Measuring Astronomical Distances Supernovas are gravity-induced phenomena that astronomers observe in galaxies when a massive star ends its life by internal collapse-implosion. The collapse begins when the fusion process1.4 that produces energy, ends. Why this relatively massive star had ended its life in a gigantic explosion? Is this common cosmic phenomenon important?

The explosion throws out into SPACE-3 hot debris and gases. Such remnants of at least one supernova in our galaxy were captured into orbit 42


around the sun. Gravity then guided and compressed some to form the observed spherical planets and moons in the Solar system. Life followed.

Why supernovas explode? The sole sin of such innocent stars is being too fat and big, thereby converting their huge mass, (initially only hydrogen and helium), by nuclear the well-known fusion metabolism, to heavier chemical elements [oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphor, etc.], more quickly than do smaller stars, like our sun.1.8 All active (shining) stars generate the heavier chemical elements at the high temperatures-pressures that gravity induces in their interiors. But the massive stars arrive to that ‘End-of-life Stage’ earlier than smaller stars do. That ‘End-of-life Stage’ may, however, be the ‘Beginning-of-life-Process’ in case the supernova debris (‘ashes’) gradually form orbiting planets around stars, as is the case that we assert was the beginning of our solar system. It is always gravitation that plays the central role in the "selection" of the structures to be produced: First in controlling the structures galaxies and clusters in SPACE-1, then in forcing chemical evolution through a succession of specific reactions in which evolution means the development of complex elements from simple ones. [Hydrogen and helium make up about 99% of all observable matter in the universe. Hence, we and the planets in the solar system constitute just little ‘impure grains’ in the vast ‘clean’ universe.] In short, gravity is the only 'suitable’ or ‘fittest' force -- in human concepts, that can build all the elements in the chemical periodic table by successively adding, in the hot interiors of all active stars, small increments of mass and electric charge in selected combinations that are completely controlled by the value of the attractive gravity force-pressure-temperature. Supernova unusual bright glow has been studied since 1054, starting from the Crab Nebula. [Image]. At its center there is a neutron star spewing energy and ‘elementary particles’ into SPACE-3. Said radiation net flow then proceed to SPACE-2 and, eventually, to SPACE-1. [Fig. 1.2] Supernovas are not only the originators of all chemistry beyond hydrogen and helium [by nuclear fusion .], but 43


serve in astronomy as reliable ‘distance yardsticks’ [“candles”] on which much of astronomy rests. The reason for this selection is explained below. Certain types of supernovas serve in astronomy as the max-cosmic temperature standard for calibrating distances to far-away galaxies via the absolute luminosity (brightness) method discussed in Volume I. That end [see below] is reached when a threshold amount of iron is formed in the interior of a massive star [Volume I]. At this stage all net energy generation inside the star stops and the process reverses into an endothermic one during which energy is consumed. STELLAR COLLAPSE: At this final stage the core pressure falls and the doomed star cannot support the gravity-induced ‘weight’ of its upper layers. This leads to a gigantic collapse-implosion of the entire star structure. A few general-relativistic ‘deterministic options’ then emerge, depending on the mass and details of the doomed massive star: 1. If the mass of the star is about 1.4 times that of the sun, the star slowly decays into a white dwarf. 2. If its mass is larger, the formation of an extremely packed neutron star [image] or a black hole [Footnote 1.6] is the end result, in which case no atomic nuclei structure survives. 3. A gigantic supernova explosion follows the collapse-implosion by bouncing back from a central dense body [neutron star]. Type Ia supernovas harbor consistent brightness (absolute luminosity) because their progenitor is accreting mass from a nearby star, always imploding into the central neutron star at exactly the same mass -- the Chandrasekhar Mass Limit. [Volume I]. 44


The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Supernova Program is designed to measure several hundred high-redshifted supernovas. Massive stars: Due to their high, gravity-induced, inner-core pressurestemperatures, massive stars are much faster than smaller stars, like the sun, to exhaust their ‘hydrogen-helium fuel’ by nuclear fusion.1.4 The resulting higher pressures-temperatures in massive stars cause faster releases of fusion energy in the interiors of these stars. From there the energy reaches the outer layers of the star and eventually leaves the star and spreads out in non-expanding Spaces 3, 2 and, eventually, being dissipated forever inside expanding VOIDSSPACE-1.

6. Black holes

are astronomical local objects that are spread throughout galaxies and superclusters of galaxies that are wrapped around by non-expanding SPACE-3, or may exist within Spaces 2 and 1. Black holes come into being by gravity and the expansion of unsaturable SPACE-1 [the Master Black Sink]. They act as additional unsaturable sinks to that caused by the expansion of SPACE-1. Like stars and galaxies, black holes cannot be formed without SPACE-1-expansion. Astrophysicists indirectly detect the presence of black holes, which may range from roughly the mass of a few suns to ten billion times greater. Such super-massive ones are, by indirect gravitational evidence, postulated to be in the center of some extremely bright galaxies, including the ‘Milky Way’ and quasars. Black holes are general relativistic cosmological sinks for all matter-energy arriving and falling into them from nearby stars and any radiation. They are postulated to be highly concentrated, local gravity-sinks where the gravity field is so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape from them. [There is an unconfirmed speculation that black holes ‘evaporate’. Whether or not this is verified by future science, the outcome would not change the foundations of Gravitism.]. General relativistic cosmology predicts that black holes are one-way sinks in spacetime. Some are assumed to be in the center of some galaxies. They may be associated with what is observed and termed quasars. Within a black hole all atomic and sub-atomic structures had already been crushed to become only geometricallycurved space-time. This is due to the extremely strong gravitational field within the black hole. The cause of that total ‘break down’ of all structures is only gravity. 45


Quasars are assumed to be super massive forms of black holes . Hundreds have been detected by NASA's Spitzer space telescope, which measures infrared light, and by Chandra, which measures X-ray emissions. These quasars are in young (faraway) galaxies that are surrounded by relatively high-density gas that emits X-rays as it is being sucked into and accelerated towards a one-way sink of a massive black hole. Dust-gas cloud being destroyed by black hole near our galactic center: The magazine Nature, on December 14, 2011, reported that by using the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope in Chile, a team from the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, has been following a cloud of dustgas that is accelerating in the direction of the black hole in our galactic center: In 2004 the cloud was moving closer to the black hole at 1200 kilometers per second, and by 2011 at 2350 km/sec. Thus, during the next 10 years, the cloud will be gradually falling into our galactic black hole. The black hole would start destroying the cloud in 2013, heating it first by viscosity friction and gravity to millions of degrees C resulting in visible energy outputs. (Our galactic black hole is about 4 million times more massive than the sun and is 27,000 light-years away.). [See footnote 9].

7. Adiabatic Envelopes An adiabatic “wall”, or “surface”, is a physical wall or an imaginary surface through which no NET energy flow takes place. In Fig. 1.2 we mark only three points on such imaginary surfaces, namely, where there is ‘No net energy flow’ across them. These surfaces wrap around superclusters of galaxies in 3 dimensions. No net energy flow means that radiation [and matter particles] somewhat similar to the ones detected within our solar wind – do not cross such adiabatic surfaces.

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The maximum temperature attainable in each galaxy is about the same. It is roughly the same as that generated initially by a supernova and is attributed to: (1) the maximum temperature in stellar cores during fusion in all active stars, (2) The maximum temperature during supernovas explosions. (3) The maximum detectable temperatures attainable by at the external surfaces of quasars or galactic centers that harbor gigantic black holes.

8. The Solar System is composed of our sun [picture], the orbiting planets, moons, asteroids, comets, rocks, gases and dust, all bounded together by the COMBINED attractive gravitational field of the sun, ‘our’ galaxy, ‘our’ local group of galaxies, ‘our’ superclusters of galaxies [Fig. 1.3] and the gravitational field of all the masses in the rest of the universe. The sun, like all active stars, is a selfgravitating massive sphere of sub-atomic particles in a state of hot plasma that is pressed-heated by the attractive force of gravity. It accounts for about 99% of the solar system total mass. Its diameter is about 1.392 million km and is slightly larger than of an average star in ‘our’ Milky Way galaxy. About 74% of the sun’s mass is hydrogen, with about 25% helium. Gravity-captured debris [asteroids] from previous generations of earlier gas or stars/supernovas, had started to condense and fall into or orbit the sun, gradually structuring the currently observed solar planets. During more than half of its present age, the universe did not harbor our solar system.

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SPACE-3: Interstellar Medium

Bow Shock Term ination Shock Heliopause

Solar System

Voyager I [marked] crossed the termination shock on December 16, 2004 to SPACE-3 providing data on the local interstellar medium. The Solar System extends far beyond the farthest planets, asteroid belt, Kuiper belt, comets, rocks and dust in ‘our’ community. It is located inside non-expanding Space 3 that wraps our entire galaxy and is spatially interconnected with Spaces 2 and 1. SPACE-3 includes the so-called local interstellar medium, which begins where the Solar System ends.

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Our atmosphere comprises the following gravity-induced layers: Hemispheres from sea level to 80km (Troposphere up to about 13km; Ozone layer about 13-43km; Stratosphere 1350km; Mesosphere 50-80km); Thermosphere 80-175 km (dilute Nitrogen 80-15km, Oxygen 105-128km, Helium 128-150km, Hydrogen 150175km)]. Climate scientists claim that global temperatures will raise a few degrees Fahrenheit in the next hundred years. Samples from ice cores from Greenland show that 11,500 years ago the average temperatures in Greenland increased by about 15 degrees Fahrenheit, over the course of 10 years, a change partially attributed to melting polar ice, which altered ocean circulation and weather patterns. And indeed, as today’s climate warms, ice is again melting near Earth’s poles. The monotonic increase in (automatically) measured global temperatures does not show the 11-YEARS SOLAR CYCLE [depicted above] during which the sun luminosity changes. The sun’s cycles are the results of complicated sun-interior convection currents [image above], magnetic field lines between changing sunspot pairs, huge solar flares, etc. Conclusion: Such ‘short-time’ cycles may also correspond to the ‘Little Ice Age” that chilled Northern Europe during the late 17th century, suggesting a causal link between solar total luminosity activity and climate change on earth.

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There have been 17 or 19 ‘ice ages’: From about 3,000,000 years ago until the last one, which gradually ended from about 12,000 to 8000 years ago. [Lecture 5]. These ages have strongly affected ecological systems on earth, and each lasted about 50,000 to 100,000 years and each had lowered the surface of the oceans, resulting in climate-induced changes in life and all ecological systems. No Net Sun’s Energy Remains in Earth or in the planets: This fact is verified in studies of the complicated thermal cycles in our atmosphere and on earth’s surface. The incoming sun energy [“Solar Wind”] is partially reflected [and scattered] from the upper layers of our atmosphere [about 30%] back to non-expanding Space-3, and, eventually, to expanding SPACE-1. Most incoming short-wave energy [about 64%] is reflected back to Spaces 3, 2 and eventually absorbed in the ever expanding VOIDS/SPACE-1 as long-wave radiation that results from the sun’s energy undergoing complex processes in the earth’s atmosphere and on the earth surface. Thus, all incoming sun’s energy (plus about 6% of heat from the earth’s interior], is proceeding further into the depths of Spaces 3, 2 and 1. RECAP: On its way to SPACE-1, the ‘solar wind’ engulfs earth and the other solar planets. No equivalent amount of this incoming radiation energy remains with earth and the other planets, as many wrongly assume. Part of it is reflected immediately by our upper atmosphere to outer, cold-dark spaces 3, 2 and, eventually, to Space-1. The rest of the ‘solar wind’ enters our atmosphere, and following complicated thermal-ecological-hydrological cycles it dissipates irreversibly in outer cold-dark Space 1. The outgoing energy includes additional, small amount of energy from the earth’s interior. Together with similar ‘solar winds’ generated by billions of stars in our galaxy, this radiation reaches SPACE 1 -- the unsaturable, limitless, universal sink of all radiation energies pouring into it from all stellar and galactic sources [12-18].

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9.

Galactic Centers and Black Holes

The center of our galaxy is called Sagittarius A. It is a source of radio waves that originate from matter heated by viscosity friction and gravity to millions of degrees K as it accelerates and “falls” into super-massive black hole at our galactic center. [Footnote 6].

a

Other galactic centers harbor super massive black holes in the range of hundreds of thousands to tens of billions of the mass of the sun. [Footnote 8]. Nearby Systems, somewhat similar to our solar system, are created by supernovas. They are located inside a “Local Bubble” [image] -- a cosmic region within the arm of our galaxy called “Orion-Cygnus”. Nearest stars include Alpha Centauri, Sirius and Procyon. There are about 50 solar-system-likes there.

10.

Symmetry-Asymmetry & Super symmetries

These subjects are treated in Lecture 2. They are further treated in Volume I. At this point we only refer to a claim favored by the main media [Cf. Feynman’s Fooling Assertion in Lecture 2]. It states: If the universe is eternal into the future ‘it must be’ eternal into the past’, or ‘prior to creation’ [the “big-bang”], there must have been a ‘symmetric’ contraction into an ‘all-containing’ black hole.. As the density “had” increased during that ‘precreation’ contraction, gigantic black holes are claimed to be formed, and, at the 51


instant of maximum contraction, they had switched to expansion, and only one of them has turned into “our expanding universe”. Upcoming tests at CERN [Lecture 3], the Planck Satellite and the ground-based LIGO and VIRGO observatories, may reveal slight variations in gravitational radiation that is claimed to be associated with such postulated effects, say, on the polarization of the cosmic black body radiation.

11. MergingColliding Galaxies Billions of sun-like stars collide when two galaxies ‘merge’. The rate of galactic collisions was much higher in the past, mainly because the galaxies were closer to each other. Our galaxy is predicted by some models to collide with the Andromeda galaxy in about 5 billion years;

12. Life on Other Planets NASA's Kepler Space Craft found more than 1,000 new planet candidates for harboring life. [Announced on Dec. 5, 2011]. One candidate orbits a star like the sun.

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13. Star-Forming Regions in Our Galaxy The record on the right was made in 2011 by NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage Team. It shows a dark ring of dust and gas circling a star (dark bands, center) in a star-forming region in our galaxy, about 2000 light-years away from us.

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Lecture 2

Limitations of Theories and Universities Assertion 2.001

Professors who claim that they operate without reliance on philosophical presuppostions are self deluded. Scientific theories and academic studies always advance, stagnate or decline under the domination of a philosophy, whether declared or undeclared. Assertion 2.002

1.1

Obsolete Universities Now Dominate the Media

Until around the mid-Thirties of the previous century, Core Cultural-Curriculum Courses (in Europe!) were made as ‘scientific’ as possible, and science propped up its foundations by turning to philosophy. This attitude was in part motivated by the desire to appropriate the sciences with the great ‘prestige’ of philosophers, and for the philosopher the fast-growing ‘status’ of science. Hence, European professors vied with one another in presenting science based on high philosophical grounds, and philosophy as a ‘science among sciences’, or even as the ‘sum of the other sciences’. A ‘PhD’ was then a bona fide Philosophy Doctor, a person of advanced core knowledge and eloquence outside his specialism. Western academia has since withdrawn from the game.

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Empty specialism has since gained the highest prestige; no longer do professors need borrow it from philosophy, nor to teach a bona fide CCCC. Indeed, contemporary professors today vie with one another in presenting fragmented lectures devoid of interconnected content, for they can no longer hope to achieve popularity by injecting updated core knowledge into what has gradually become an ever narrower, disciplinary professionalism. This turn of events has resulted in overvaluation of technical professionalism, empty academicism, absolutation of ever-narrower disciplines, and the common inclination to reject bona fide core knowledge from the class. A pity. For these trends only push the young into cynicism, nihilism and feelings of emptiness in education and society at large. The Current Crisis in Education is not subsiding. More than ever before it demands answers, re-assessments, a revised philosophy and acts: How to administer mutual interactions instead of linear causality; structured complexity instead of summation of events; structured historical buildup of facts, instead of summation of isolated events and narrow academic Departments.

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Assertion 2.1 With hope of finding the grand outlook of a spacecraft, students enter our universities. Entering the temples of knowledge they settle for that of an eagle, but what they find is that of a specialist gopher.


Assertion 2.2

Although most academic teaching and research must be distributed amongst various Schools and Departments of a university, there is an objective need to regenerate an old tradition that cannot be associated with any specialism, because the ideas with which it deals are common to all studies, or not involved in any. A Core Curriculum Cultural Course (CCCC) is included in these volumes: The selection of interconnected kernels of updated knowledge to be included in CCCC is based on what I consider a much needed CCCC education at all levels, starting from high schools. It must be delivered to all students, each semester, not only by top faculty, but also by university officialdom and cultural leadership. Otherwise a university president, or a provost, is at best acting more like a CEO of a cooperation aimed at maximizing profit and less at best education and research.

Assertion 2.3 Without a guiding-structuring-unifying methodology aimed at gaining an allembracing, interconnected knowledge that crosses frozen disciplines, any Core Curriculum Cultural Course [CCCC] is nothing but a pity encyclopedia displayed by a specialist nominated by “Organizers” as the “CCCCCoordinator” who remains helpless in teaching the alluring beauty of mathematics, physics, astronomy, history, the life sciences, and comparative religions, but fails to perceive their profound educational implications as a whole. Modern skepticism is usually the negation of a core, interconnected, educational methodology. Not so with Einsteinian skepticism. Einstein advocated the removal of imposed borders between traditional disciplines and university departments and faculty; stating that knowledge is one; its division is human weakness.

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Assertion 2.4 Structuring an all-embracing CCCC-Outlook is a matter entailing far morecrisis, ambiguity than the technicalities of the application of any he Western apparent intellectuals at one pole – disciplinary course and itsLiterary “Academic Credit Regulations”. at the other scientists, today more than ever before, may be mitigated or repaired and as the most representative, by resorting to the Einsteinian the physical scientists. vision, starting from a 2012 updated and widely accredited Between the two a gulf of mutual CCCC that is provided to incomprehension – high-schools and constantly sometimes (particularly among the upgraded and updated for young) hostility and dislike, but undergraduate and graduate most of all lack of understanding. schools.

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Such a methodology leads to C. P. Snow, The Two Cultures interconnected fertilization Cambridge University Press between the most promising kernels of fundamental knowledge, and, thus, to the potential to rejuvenate the “system”.

The Temples of Knowledge Today

Assertion 2.5 Students are often discouraged by their professors and mentors from asking fundamental, interdisciplinary questions in class, as a result of which inconsistent, or outright incorrect premises, are given a better chance of perpetuating themselves.

Literary intellectuals, the people of the arts, and most educators, are currently ignorant of modern advances in the ‘exact sciences’, of their mathematical formulations, experimental, observational and verification methods. They are likely to resort to a priori or superficial answers to complex problems whose detailed implications are beyond them. Similarly, faculty, ‘experts’ and professionals in the “exact sciences”, via their past, ever-narrowing, disciplinary education, are currently ignorant of the wide-span knowledge, literature, arts and history that are needed to share their thinking and aspirations with other thinking persons. 57


The resulting gap can hardly be bridged despite the fact that our globe is currently an interconnected village, internationally linked by what might be expected to bridge old gaps between traditional cultures, languages, religions, political systems and a unified educational philosophy of humanity. Yet, the facts are that deep divisions keep deepening and deserts of narrow specialism keep spreading more than ever before.

2.2

The One-Line Empty Politicians

What was a two-semester half-life of a textbook is today one day or less. Sources of studies are millions of online blogs with uneven quality and little or no reliable references. Amillion-a-day posts confuse the young; generating one-line thinkers; a tsunami of Tower-of-Babel Kalthure; a kalthure where scholars secure same weight as one-line thinkers; Eulogies are heard over the smoking ruins of the classical temples of knowledge – new layers of ruins on top of the destroyed Academy-Library of Alexandria. [Lecture 6]. We, the last generation of hard working-tradition, under the impact of internet decentralizing forces, observe the rapid change in personal/family/working life; a ‘modern life’ that promotes meaningless games, instant gratification, laziness and ONE-LINER-THINKING, while we harbor no choice but to struggle for freedom of thought under these kulthures and cultures.

2.3 Limitations of Theories and Definitions 58


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here is something provisional about all scientific theories. They must be re-

confirmed by fresh verified information from any sub-field of science, hence, are subject to constant revision and even replacement; -- in this, each succeeding generation takes a measurable step beyond the position of its predecessors. Closely related to the unrestricted content of modern science is its unrestricted questioning of all earlier convictions in light of verifiable evidence that refutes extant axioms, definitions, assertions, outlooks and theories. Thus, every item of carefully recorded experimental or observational information is a proper object for analysis. A drive towards novelty and discovery impels inquiry to explore all corners of the universe. These tenets are the central pillars of Gravitism. But there is more to it. The outlook includes constant re-assessments of the theory -- of any theory -- and analysis of the errors involved as one updates and improves it.

How Errors Are Introduced by Precise Definitions

According to Plato, everything is connected with everything else. Therefore, any definition must include 'the whole universe', its contents, dynamics and history. This means that the very act of defining a word, a symbol or an axiom erects a ‘fence’ around it. Anything outside that fence is, a priori, rejected and lost forever. Indeed, without paying much attention to fundamental consequences, we often resort to such definitions as we find them in dictionaries, textbooks and everyday life.

ASSERTION 2.3.1 The use of precise definitions, contrary to intent, introduces error. 59


Tarski's Indefinability Theorem According to this theorem no sufficiently powerful language is stronglysemantically-self-representational. For instance, any arithmetical truth cannot be defined by arithmetics. According to Smullyan [42], Tarski's Indefinability Theorem is somewhat superior to the famous Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems [Refrs. 34-43], which are more related to mathematics and less to philosophical, scientific, and linguistic issues. Tarski's theorem is not directly about mathematics but about the inherent limitation of any formal language that is strongly-semantically-self-representational when it contains predicates and function symbols defining the semantic concepts specific to that language. Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem Gödel [34-43] has demonstrated that conventional mathematics, which we tend to consider as our supremely logical and consistent system, involves paradoxical, selfreferential statements about itself, i.e., a conventional mathematical system, say, the mathematics of flat space in the Euclidian geometry -- an ‘absolute stage’ upon which Newtonian gravity and physics stands, can be incomplete because one has not discovered all its necessary axioms. In other words, no matter how many physico-mathematical issues theoretical physicists solve, there always will be other issues that cannot be solved by any known laws of physics; and since these laws constitute a finite set of rules, and are based on mathematics, Gödel's theorem restricts them. Even in computer science one cannot create a complete and consistent finite list of axioms, or an infinite list. Each time one adds a statement as an axiom; there are other correct statements that cannot be proved, even with the new axiom. Moreover, if the system can prove that it is consistent, it is not. As might have been expected, this idea has been much debated by mathematical philosophers: How can a theory be both correct and unprovable? Is mathematics a loop of our mind? Is the mind a self referential loop?

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Gödel's first incompleteness theorem shows that any system that allows one to define the natural numbers is necessarily incomplete: it contains statements that are neither provable correct, nor provably false. Some scholars therefore argue that this refutes the logicism of Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell, who had aimed to reduce/define the natural numbers in terms of logic.

Not all axiom systems satisfy these hypotheses, even when these systems have models that include natural numbers as a subset. For example, there are axiomatizations of ‘flat’ space that do not meet the hypotheses of Gödel's theorems.

Another limitation applies only to systems that are used as their own proof systems. Gödel's theorem has another interpretation in the language of computer science. Theorems are computably enumerable: one can write a computer program that will eventually generate any valid proof. One can then ask if it has the stronger property of being recursive: Can one write a computer program to definitively determine if a statement is true or false? Gödel's theorem says that you cannot. His theorems, however, are confined to sufficiently strong axiomatic systems, i.e., that a theory contains enough arithmetic to carry out the proof of the incompleteness theorem. Some scholars claim that Gödel's incompleteness theorems have provided a deadly blow to David Hilbert’s program towards a universal mathematical formalism. Nevertheless, the essence of these issues is much more complicated, as indicated below. Undecidable Statements: A statement is neither provable nor refutable. Hence, some scholars resort to the concept "independent". However, that concept is also ambiguous. Meta-Language: A sufficiently developed language cannot represent its own semantics. Any meta-language includes primitive notions, axioms, and rules absent 61


from an object language. Theorems provable in a meta-language are not provable in the object language. “Truth”: Some of the aforementioned theorems may presuppose that mathematical "truth" and "falsehood" are well-defined in an absolute sense, rather than relative. If an axiomatic system can be proven to be consistent and complete from within itself, then it is inconsistent. Minds and Machines: Gödel's incompleteness theorems may also reflect on human intelligence. While Gödel's theorems cannot be applied to humans, since they make mistakes and are, therefore, inconsistent, it may be applied to the domain of science. Sets of expressions are considered as coded as sets of numbers. For various syntactic properties (such as a formula, a sentence, etc.), these sets are computable. And any computable set of numbers can be defined by some arithmetic formula. There are various additional theorems and sub-theorems 34-49. I do not intend to expand on them in these pages, for these pages are mainly written for the general reader, without resorting to any mathematics. We therefore move next to elaborate on some more practical domains in the mined fields of verifiable scientific theories and proofs. “Pure Mathematics” is human attempt to stay aloof and beyond emotions, traditions and ambitions. It may protect one from making mistakes, prior to and aft writing down any mathematical equation. How mathematics -- combined with verifiable observations -- help protect the human mind from falling into unverifiable traditional dictums or ‘intuitively’ generating mistakes is demonstrated by the following dramatic event in the history of science; when Einstein had concluded that his [tensorial based 2.1-2.3] field equations of general relativity3.3, our most universally verified theory of acceleration and gravity, harbors a mistake. To correct that ‘mistake’, he forced on these equations a ‘correction number’, called the cosmological constant. Luckily his tensorial field equations were flawless, despite the fact that a cult of believers in its unverifiable interpretations has evolved during the last 90 years or so, hinting about their needs to leave that artificial constant in Einstein’s field Equations. [See ‘cosmological constant’, ‘dark matter’, ‘dark energy’, Refs. 74 to 114 and Lecture 4.]. 62


Space-Time and Symmetry-Asymmetry The deep essence and the fundamental meaning of curved space-time, symmetryasymmetry, statistics and probabilities are understood only by a portion of scientists. A much smaller portion, or, in fact, a splendid minority, maintains that probabilities, statistics and quantum postulates provide them with no ‘free will’. [Volume I]. Differential Equations vs. Observations It is in what is claimed to be the “domain” of mathematics that time-symmetry, reversibility and the symmetrical laws of physics serve us as key tools to better understand nature, despite the limitations mentioned above. And it is only by combining (conceptual, reversible, analytic) time-symmetry with (factual, aggregated, observational) time-asymmetry, or by combining reversible equations with a priori known, factual, initial and boundary conditions, that one may, mathematically, arrive at a reliable world outlook in agreement with observations/experimentations. For more information see Refs. 7, 8. While symbols and analytical concepts may be symmetric, words and sentences (in order, syntax, phoneme, form, sound modulation or other modes), or ‘useful’ physico-mathematical equations, are basically asymmetric. Mathematics, gravitation, symmetry-asymmetry, aggregation, time and meaningful sentences are coupled. While some minor reservations are justifiable, there is an overwhelming "word of evidence", derived from physics, the languages and the studies of linguistics, cybernetics, information and mathematics that fortifies this contention. A theory may be a “set of statements”, some of which are taken as valid without proof (axioms), and others, the theorems, are taken as valid because they are implied by the axioms. A complete and consistent set of axioms for all mathematics is impossible. "Provable by a theory" means "derivable from the axioms and primitive notions of the theory, using logic.”

The Popperian Falsification Principle 63


Sir Karl Popper, has introduced the Falsification Principle about the ability of mankind to establish what is science and what is non-science, in addition to what might be ‘true’ within the domain of a given theory, or a set of ‘facts’, axioms or definitions. [Lecture 4] Applied mathematics is often used as unverifiable covers to advance subjectivistic claims, ‘proofs’ and ‘theories’. Lectures 3 and 4, and this one, illustrate how -- by a priori selecting only the time-asymmetric mathematics, or time-asymmetric mathematical solution that fits with their desired ‘proof’ – scientists easily fool themselves, and others.

The Fooling Assertion by Nobel Laureate Feynman “The first principle is that you must not fool yourself – and you are the easiest person to fool. So you have to be very careful about that. After you’ve not fooled yourself, it’s easy not to fool other scientists. You just have to be honest in a conventional way.”

“You should not fool the layman when you’re talking as a scientist. I am not trying to tell you what to do about cheating on your wife, or fooling your girlfriend, or something like that, when you’re not trying to be a scientist, but just trying to be an ordinary human being. … I’m talking about a specific, extra type of integrity that is not lying, but bending over backwards to show how you are maybe wrong, that you ought to have when acting as a scientist. And this is our responsibility as scientists, certainly to other scientists, and I think to laymen.”

Applied mathematics is the key tool of the ‘exact sciences’. It constitutes a special kind of 'intelligent thinking’ that is integrated with its ‘universal grammar' -- a sort of critical thinking which has been partially developed to safeguard our minds from prejudices and inconsistencies. Yet, consistency, by itself, is a two-sided issue. 64


‘Pure mathematics’ is often developed for its own sake, without a priori harboring intentional applications, although they may be ‘un-covered’ According to Einstein, when we predict the behavior of a specific or confined set of natural phenomena, we usually mean that we have found a ‘constructive theory’ covering this set. When we find that other sets of phenomena are incompatible with that theory, we tend to either generalize or modify it, or failing that, seek an alternative one. To this ‘constructive’ category Einstein opposes the so-called “theories of principles” (exemplified, according to Einstein, by thermodynamics and the general theory of relativity), whose point of departure and foundation are not hypothetical constituent, but empirically observed general properties from which mathematical formulae are deduced so as to apply to every case of observation which presents itself. Thus, according to Einstein, the merit of “constructive theories” lies in their comprehensiveness, adaptability, and clarity for a given set of phenomena, while that of the “theories of principles” -- in their logical ‘perfection’ and universality and in the vast observational spectrum of their formulation at any scale and time. Yet, Einstein did not trust some semi-hidden aspects of his own general theory of relativity2.5. Two such events are described next: The failure of statistical mechanics (both classical and quantum) to deduce and explain the origin of irreversibility, time-asymmetries, cosmic and local structuring, generation of order and what is called “entropy growth” -- as well as its philosophical and applicative limitations and lack of large-scale universality -- has been explained in footnotes 2.5, 3.4 and 3.5 as well as in Volume I. (See Table of Contents,). Einstein had not suspected that his general theory of relativity already incorporates another ‘theory of principle’: Thermodynamics, especially the so-called Second Law of Thermodynamic. Namely, the foundations of thermodynamics should NOT be a separate, stand-alone, theory of science; it should NOT be fragmented from the rest of physics. It constitutes an integral part of gravity-induced, interconnected, unified physico-philosophical knowledge. In ancient mythology [Appendix III] chaos was the nothingness out of which the first objects of existence appeared. The Biblical Genesis refers to earliest existence 65


as “without form, and void”; modern science dubs it the structureless hot-dense “Radiation Era”, and produces evidence from its close. [Image 00.001].

Lecture 3 Physics: What next? PART I The right to search for truth implies also a duty. One must not conceal any part of what one has recognized to be true. Albert Einstein

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Within a 2010 Conference in N.Y., Noble-Prize winner David Gross, called multiuniverses assertions in physics speculative and added that such talk of other universes "does bear some resemblance to talking about angels." (Reported in 2010 by Scientific American.) Hawking’s festival with the media and the masses intimidates many shy-awayfrom-the-media scientists, mainly by his relentless pushing the image of science far into mysticism and a misleading populism that exploit the layperson ignorance of what is verifiable science.

Assertion 3.1 HONEST RELOOK: No theory is too sacrosanct to prevent periodic re-assessments of its soundness on any scale of observation. A serious attitude in science premises willingness to submit any theory to unequivocal, verifiable test. And if that is impossible, the so-called theory may be a mathematical music , faith or a dogma subject to Feynman Fooling Assertion [Lecture 2]; This honest relook is the first and foremost duty of a theorist to himself, to his fellow scientists, and to the media and the next generation.

But the root problem in theoretical physics today is not Hawking but the many opportunistic scientists that support and exploit such abuses of verifiable science. Without their support the media would have failed to make an icon out of this false prophet; would at least resort to the audacity of truth: The entire Hawking festival does not even rise to the level of being wrong in the domain of verifiable science. An unknown personal fact is added next: The journal Nature was among the first to publish a review on Volume I, which, inter alia, contains strong criticism of Stephen Hawking’s theories as lacking any possible future verification and some are not his but of J. D. Beckenstein. That review was written by Hawking, who hinted there that instead of my noteasy-to-understand book [incorporating, inter alia, hundreds of general relativity 67


and classical physics mathematical equations], he would write one for the masses, which he did next while adopting much of the book’s general approach and omitting all mathematical equations, but adding mysticism. [NOTES: As far as I know some key Hawking's claims were first ridiculed by Yuval Neeman. These preliminary notes were first published on Nov. 12, 2010 by the “NOT EVEN WRONG” website maintained by P. Woit, following his famous book “Not Even Wrong: The failure of string theory”. New York: Basic Books (2006).]. Einstein’s Field Equations accept no static large-scale solutions. This conclusion is widely accepted and well proven. And it means that EFE provide scale-free, verified, and most reliable framework to prove the single origin of “symmetry breaking”, the asymmetric nature of time and anti-symmetry curved space-time in the actual world. Hence, our claim is deeply rooted in General Relativity [Footnote 1.1, Lectures 3 and 4]. Why? Starting from symmetric EFE energy-momentum tensor, with symmetric conservation equations we introduce the standard symmetric cosmological metric of curved space-time we provide the mathematical proof of how fundamental dynamics and thermodynamics are deduced from EFE [Vol. I, Lecture VI]. The new Thermo is thus entropy-free. While entropy can remain a useful modelvariable in steam maps and air conditioning, it is not required in theoretical physics and the philosophy of science. Accordingly, science does not fundamentally require the popular use of the anthropomorphic concept “entropy” partly because it is neither physically-sound mass-energy-momentum, nor an integral component of deterministic gravity physics. To proceed we connect the dots. The failures of probabilistic quantum physics and Prigogine-type macro-dynamics and thermodynamics are linked. Secondly, we claim that all asymmetries observed in Nature have been caused by a single observed cosmological fact detailed in Ref. 13 and revisited herein. We therefore maintain that all asymmetries must be united under a single MASTER ASYMMETRY of Nature, before one attempts to unify symmetric equations f proposed Grand Unified Theories [GUT], string theories and the so-called “Theory of Everything”. [Lecture 4]. 68


Assessing this situation, we maintain that some enthusiastic physicists of GUT and TOE have been fooling themselves for decades with various circular games of smuggling asymmetry; partly in line with the Feynman’s Fooling Assertion [Lecture 2]. For some reasons, and despite initial acclaims [Reviews], the new theory and outlook did not catch up with main stream physics. But with the crisis in the domains of string theories, GUT, TOE, the standard model, dark matter and dark energy, the probability of reassessment has increased. A Glossary of the main terms, records, maps and diagrams used in that theory and philosophy of physics and mathematics has been introduced in the Introduction and Lectures 1 and 2. This Lecture is essentially composed of footnotes and a few notes blow. Our Empirical Base is well measured astronomical entities ranging from superclusters of galaxies to the solar system, their locations, dynamics and chemical composition, especially those involving large-scale energy-dissipation in expanding voids between superclusters of galaxies [Figs. 1.1 to 1.5, Lecture 1], represent what we claim is the cause of the 2nd Law of thermodynamics. [13]. Despite many claims for success, none has yet succeeded to derive and prove the origin of irreversibility in nature – or the Master Time Asymmetry from symmetric mathematical equations of statistics and probabilities, where retrodiction is precisely symmetric to prediction – or by starting from symmetric partial differential equations, say of electromagnetism3.1 (Cf. the Einstein-Ritz controversy [1]) and integro-differential equations-solutions that are ‘man-forced’ to evolve only in the positive time direction. Without paying much thought we often use “INITIAL CONDITIONS” in theoretical physics, engineering and computer modeling. The error so introduced is that we a priori reject the symmetric FINAL CONDITIONS, thereby we end ‘up’ with, say, retarded solutions in electromagnetism, because we with the results to agree with observations of emitter vs. absorber while rejecting, or intentionally ignoring the ADVANCED SOLUTIONS -- which do not agree with observations. That is fooling ourselves if we do not declare that this act is NOT a proof.

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Assertion: To smuggle irreversibility into symmetric-reversible equations of physics, without declaring the contraband, is not even wrong. But there are other important aspect to that debate: Prigogine’s Lectures and publications on socio-dynamics should be re-assessed. We return to this critical issue in Lecture 7.

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n unknown source that may be referred to as ‘logical’, ‘aesthetic’, ‘inner wish’,

or ‘religious’, is driving human will to unify all fundamental forces of nature and fuse them into a single verifiable outlook, or ‘unified field equations’ that are based on the minimal possible number of axioms while explaining the maximum number of verified facts. The rest of this lecture contains only references to footnotes, which are designed to help comprehending the key foundations of Gravitism. There is nothing new in the footnotes, except, perhaps, some within footnotes 3.4 and 3.5. A few words of introduction are nevertheless used next. Gravitation reigns superb and controls all macro systems in nature. It is best explained by General Relativity and Einstein’s Field Equations. (Footnotes 1.1 and 3.3). Gravitation is manifested by a relatively small force value on earth, in comparison with the other three fundamental interactions of nature. But it may be contended to increase with decreasing distances in subatomic scales of nature, namely, as one gets closer to the Planck distance, which is about 15 orders of magnitude below all current and expected abilities of science to test it. Evidence is gradually mounting that at hyper high energies and very small subatomic distances, the fundamental forces-interactions are unified. Said forces are referred to as field interactions and are four in number and three with the unification of the electromagnetic-weak interaction, viz. the: The Electromagnetic-Weak force-field-interaction is at the base of all chemistry, electronics, astronomy, radioactive decay, etc. It binds atoms together to form 70


molecules3.1. At low energies the electromagnetic force-field-interaction ‘separates’ from the weak, thereby physics end-up with four fundamental forces-interactions of nature. The Strong Force is at the base of subatomic, quantum physics. [Lecture 3].3.2

FOOTNOTES AND GLOSSARY OF TERMS for Lecture 3

3.1 Electromagnetic-Weak Force-Field-Interaction. Note: While this is a long footnote, it is not an Introduction to the subject. Beyond it one may consult Footnotes 3.2 to 3.5 and Volume I. The electromagnetic force binds atoms together to form molecules. It is about hundred times weaker than the strong force.3.2 Field-Force-Interactions are postulated to emit and absorb massless, point-like, field particles like the photons of light and some other field particles3.2 Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979 for developing the electroweak theory that unifies the electromagnetic and week interactions. Inter alia it predicted the existence of the W and Z BOSONS at very high energies: About 82 Gev/c 2 for W [verified later at 80.4 Gev/c2 ] and about 93 Gev/c2 for Z [verified later at 91.2 Gev/c2 ]. According to their theory both interactions have about the same strength at very high energies. The combination of the electroweak theory with Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] for the strong interactions is termed THE STANDARD MODEL, which, however, does not include the gravitational field-force 3.3 and it has not explained, say, why the point-like photon has no mass, while the W and Z bosons do. RECAP: Without “spontaneous symmetry breaking”, the STANDARD MODEL, contrary to fact, predicts that the W and Z bosons would harbor no mass -- a major failure of the theory. Yet, various alternatives have been proposed, but without experimental supporting evidence. 71


This general subject also involves (at high energies) the long-range electromagnetic field-force-interactions with the Weak Force, as a short-range force-field-interaction that harbors some radioactive decay processes. At low energies it constitutes the fourth fundamental force-field in modern physics. Gluons3.2 are postulated to mediate the strong force3.2, while specific bosons ‘mediate’ the weak force. [Gravitons have also been proposed by theorists to ‘mediate’ the gravitational force-field3.3.]

3.2 The Strong Force-Field-Interaction. Note: While this is a long footnote, it is not an Introduction to the subject. Beyond it one may consult Footnotes 3.1 and 3.3 to 3.5 and Volume I, especially for some hot debates and specific disputations in physics.

The strong force is an attractive force between sub-atomic nucleons. It is a very short-range force-field-interaction. Its magnitude is negligible in ranges greater than about 10-15 meter. (About the size of the atomic nucleus). It increases in sub-atomic separation distances and is ‘mediated’ by massless field-particles called Gluons. Gluons ‘mediate’ the strong force that binds/confines quarks (see below) inside protons and neutrons. I.e., each quark in a proton or neutron is continuously emitting and absorbing gluons. The energy of a gluon can generate quark-antiquark pairs, like the creation of electron-positron pairs. When a quark emits or absorbs a gluon, the quark’s color charge (see below) may change. Hadrons are sub-atomic entities that are not massless field particles, like the photon and the gluon. These sub-atomic particles interact through the strong force. A hadron is a complex particle that has size and structure, namely, it is a composite system of sub-atomic particles. Hadrons are, therefore, ‘nonelementary-particles’. They are composed of Fermions (quarks) [see below] and antiquarks. Hadrons are of two types: Baryons [Fermions], that have masses equal to or larger than that of the proton, and Mesons [Bosons] [having 0 or 1 spin]. They interact via all forces. Hadrons have quantum numbers: Spin, parity and mass. In addition they carry “flavor” quantum numbers such as isospin (or G-parity) and a ‘property’ called strangeness. Hadrons are single excitations in QCD, which predicts that quarks and gluons interact weakly. This ‘property’, which is called ‘asymptotic freedom’, has been experimentally confirmed at large energy levels. 72


Leptons have no inner structure, or size; namely, they are point-like fieldparticles of quantum physics -- a lacuna that some hope to be resolved by string theories4.6-4.11 All leptons have spin ½ and do not interact through the strong force. The following types are considered in quantum physics: Electrons, muons, taus and three types of neutrinos. Messons are: Kaon, Pion, Eta; Baryons are: Proton, Neutron, Omega, Lambda, Sigma, and Delta Xi. The Kaon, lambda and sigma particles exhibit unusual ‘properties’, e.g. they are produced in pairs when created or decayed slowly, hence are called ‘strange particles’. The Quark Model. Strong interaction that binds subatomic particles together is described by QCD. Quark gluons are gauge bosons in QCD. According to it quarks have a ‘property’ called color charge and the force between quarks is the strong force or the color charge, which may be due to gluon exchanges between hadrons. Quarks are dividable into six flavors: up, down, strange, charm, bottom and top, and their antiquarks. Quarks harbor fractional electric charge and are NOT found free in nature. The up, charmed, and top quarks have electric charges of +2/3 that of the proton. The down, strange and bottom quarks have charges of –1/3 that of the proton. Protons consist of 2 up and 1 down quarks, whereas neutrons consist of 2 down and 1up quarks. Quarks are also identified by three ‘colors’: red, green, and blue. The masses of the heavy charm and bottom quarks are obtained from the masses of hadrons containing a single heavy quark and 1 light antiquark, or 2 light quarks. Particles with the same color charge repel, while the ones with opposite color charge attract. A collection of, say, red, blue and green quarks attract each other to form baryons. Every baryon contains three quarks. A residual force between them is the force that binds protons and neutrons to form the atomic nuclei. Quarks and gluons are assumed to be combined to form baryons such as protons and neutrons, when the universe was dominated by photons (with a minor contribution from neutrinos).

3.3

The Gravitational Field-Force-Interaction

Note: While this is a long footnote, it is not an Introduction to the subject. Beyond it, one may consult Footnotes 1.1, 3.1 to 3.5, and Volume I.

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Einstein’s General Relativity [EGR] is based on the principle of equivalence between gravity and acceleration, and on the axiom that all laws of nature are exactly the same for any observer. The fundamental laws may therefore be expressed as metric tensors [see below] and remain invariant [symmetric 3.4] for, say, observers at rest, rotating, accelerating and standing on a small or a massive star. It is indisputable today that Einstein’s Field Equations [EFE] constitute the scalefree EGR. EFE are based on the stress tensor and the Riemannian geometry of curved space-time. [Volume I] and consists of a set of 10 non-linear differential equations. Mathematical solutions of EFE are the components of the metric tensor that describes geometry of curved space-time at any point. Gravitation is a force-field-interaction that penetrates all and controls macro phenomena in the entire cosmos, at any time, location and scale. Gravity and SPACE-1-expansion generate thermodynamics [Lecture 1] and control all galaxies, stars, supernova explosions, planets, moons, black holes, and quasars. [Lecture 1, Footnotes]. It is expressed by the deterministic, Einsteinian, tensorial, field equations, known also as Gravity Physics. Gravity is a long-range force that penetrates everything. It is produced by any mass-energy aggregation that curves space-time. Gravity thus bends the path of light near massive astronomical entities -- the greater the mass-energy, the greater is the degree of light [space-time] bending. This bending is the manifestation of curved space-time. The greater the mass of a star, the greater is the local curvature of space-time. Therefore, magnifying gravitational lens [Footnote 1.1] is used in astronomy when the incoming radiation to the telescope has, on its way to earth, passed ‘near’ a collection [cluster] of massive galaxies and/or massive stars. Such gravitational lens is used to observe the “dark age” in astronomy, namely, when the age of the universe was about 300,000 to 500,000 sun-earth years. This is an important cosmic age during which the universe had become transparent for the first time and gravityinduced structures had first been generated.

74


Gravity keeps earth and planets in orbit around the sun; causing tides; generating fluid flow under a temperature gradient and is heating the interiors of stars and planets under its compressive attractive force, until, at sufficiently high temperature, it ignites thermo-nuclear fusion [Lecture 1]. Time, as treated by general relativistic cosmology, is slowed down ‘near’ and by large galaxies and massive stars. This effect is in addition to time effects treated by special relativity [1]. Once EGR-outlook is adopted, the gate is opened to many interconnections: First, the whole world, or any part of it, at very high energies and very small distances, may be treated as a unified system composed of nothing but dynamically curved space-time. [Vol. I at p. 41] Secondly, the order and connection of fundamental ideas often follows the order of and connection to things; from large cosmological structures to small, macro-ones, like humans. Thirdly, all reality, unlike what is sensed by the human mind, is nothing but EGRinduced, deterministic, symmetry-asymmetry space-time at four or higher dimensions. [Lecture 4]. Special relativity rules superb not only in any (non-accelerating) system, but also in probabilistic, quantum micro-physics. The theory is limited to non-gravitating systems [Ref. 1]. Unlike quantum microphysics, both special and general relativity are strictly deterministic. When first applied to cosmology, around 1919, EGR predicted the expansion [or contraction] of the universe, a phenomenon that was later confirmed by observation in the 20s by the American astronomer E. Hubble. What Hubble measured is an increase in all distances between clusters and superclusters of galaxies (Fig. 1.2; Figs. 1.1 and 1.2).

75


The further the observed cluster, or super-clusters of galaxies, the greater is its speed of recession from us, or from any location in the cosmos. [Cf. the three thought experiments in Lecture 1.]. Newtonian gravity is included in EGR as an approximation for relatively weak gravitational fields, like that on earth. It rules superb in controlling tides, geological strata, generation of mountains, valleys, rivers, lakes, ponds, oceans, city and village structures, transportation systems, the solar system, and many human concepts. [Lecture 7.]. It also explains how gravity controls the solar system1.1 and the structures of planets, moons and smaller objects. Isaac Newton Mathematical derivations of both special and general relativity are provided in Volume I, which also describes the key measurement methods of astronomical distances.

3.4

Asymmetry-Symmetry Revisited

There is a great confusion in physics concerning fundamental vs. primitive symmetries, gauge symmetry, supersymmetry and the master time asymmetry. [Lecture 1]. We first note the importance of symmetry in the formulations of verified fundamental forces-fields-interactions3.1; 3.2; 3.3, where one can find theories expressed by Lagrangians that remain invariant under certain symmetry operations. When such physico-mathematical operations are invariant under a transformation that is performed at any point in space, they are referred to as harboring a global symmetry, which becomes a local symmetry when fixed in space-time as a generalization of the equivalence principle of EGR3.3; 3.5. Supersymmetry in Supersymmetry theories is that for every particle a Super-Partner exists; i.e., quark v. squark. [Lecture 4]. 76


The importance of gauge symmetries may be illustrated by relativistic quantum mechanics of the electrons. In quantum physics3.2, symmetry is often referred to as a transformation between states that preserve the expectation values of all observables. String theories [Lecture 4], and some attempts to re-formulate EGR [References], may be expressed as gauge theories [Volume I]. Gauge theories involve renormalizable operations3.5 in which symmetry transformations can be conducted locally as well as globally. A key notion of Gravitism states that all fundamental laws of physics, except the 2 nd law of thermodynamics, are space and time symmetric. Namely, there is no distinction between any direction in space and in time. Gravitism means that the 2nd law of thermodynamics [Lecture 1] rules the observed asymmetric time coordinate, allowing it to be extended only from past to future, and never in reverse. This Rule is thus termed ‘Time Asymmetry’. Indeed, false past claims of the 2nd law of thermodynamics proclaim, inter alia: ‘Entropy of the universe only increases’, a fallacy proved in Volume I and by endless observations of gravityinduced structuring and ‘order’ in the universe. [Lectures 6 and 8]. All ‘exact’ sciences can be reduced to Physics, and all physics to the fundamental fields-forces-interactions [at high energies/short distances] electroweak3.1, strong3.2 and gravitational3.3. In turn, these are expressed in terms of the mathematics of curved space-time in which there is no distinction between any direction (a plus or a minus coordinate) in space and in time, namely, all basic equations of physics (except the 2 nd law of thermodynamics), are strictly symmetric in time and space or in curved space-time coordinates. In the observed (macro) world, there is a clash between the aforementioned theoretical symmetry and the actual time asymmetries found in nature. This result is based on the fact that all processes in nature are irreversible and pointing from past to future, and never in reverse. 77


That ‘arrow of time’ is an optional fundamental expression of the 2nd law of thermodynamics. In turn, any solution of the three symmetric fundamental forces, say, as integro-differential equations that can and ARE to be compared with verifiable observations, is subject to the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics (in the macro world). Finally, to conclude this footnote, and proceed to footnote 3.5, we stress again that there are different time asymmetries, e.g.: • • • • •

The cosmological, thermodynamic, electromagnetic, linguistic Other gravity-induced asymmetries (or arrows of time).

The central issue raised by Gravitism is therefore: Which one generates and controls the others? What is the origin of the aforementioned confusion in physics?

3.2

Unification Failures

Beyond the unifying the weak and electromagnetic fields-forces-interactions 3.1, other attempts to unify the fundamental forces-fields-interactions in physics 3.1, .3.2, 3.3 have failed. [Lecture 4].

We assert that the key reasons for said failures are attempts to unify fields-forcesinteractions first by inconsistently mixing mathematically symmetric with asymmetric equations, instead of first consistently unifying time asymmetries based on verified facts. [Volume I]. It may be noted that Einstein was isolated in his attempts to develop unified physics via relativistic unified field theories that are based on deterministic gravitation. Part of that was due to his consistent claim that quantum theories are incomplete and would, in due time, be replaced by an ultimate, deterministic, unified theory of physics. 78


It is indisputable today that Einstein’s Field Equations constitute the single, best, scale-free, universal and verified theory of gravitation that physics has ever provided. Following Einstein’s publication (1915) and later verifications of EFA by astronomical observations, Einstein had focused first on unification of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields-forces-interactions3.1; 3.3. However, it has turned out that ordinary Riemannian theory cannot exhibit the electromagnetic field-force-interaction as a purely geometric phenomenon [Ref 1]. During Einstein’s life time the strong field-force-interaction3.2 was not yet formulated as it currently stands. Many theorists focus today on a reversed effort: Develop a quantum theory of gravitation, or quantum gravity, etc. But so far these efforts have failed. [Lecture 4].Some reputed past theorists, including Erwin Schrödinger, Arthur Eddington, Theodor Kaluza and Herman Weyl, have tried, in vain, during Einstein’s life time, to unify the fundamental forces. For instance, Erwin Schrödinger investigated pure-affine formulations of generalized gravitational theory, assuming, initially, a symmetric affine connection. But he later changed his efforts to a nonsymmetrical mathematics. Nonetheless, skepticism from Einstein discouraged him, and his work has been largely ignored. Einstein continued to work, in vain, until his death, on unified field theories of gravity and electromagnetism. However, he became isolated for his efforts ignored the quantum theories of his time. Nonetheless, many contemporary theorists have changed their mind about Einstein’s reserved attitude towards quantum theories, at least by admitting that quantum theories are not complete for they do not incorporate the field of gravitation and also harbor serious fundamental problems. This change of mind has led, since Einstein’s death, to numerous efforts to verify a single, reliable, verifiable string theory, all in vain. [Lecture4]. In the past, to incorporate electromagnetism in general relativity, Weyl generalized the Riemannian geometry by adding degrees of freedom between two points in locally sized measures along a path, in terms of a gauge and vector fields, thereby unifying electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Weyl corresponded with Einstein about his theory, which, eventually, has turned out to be non-physical. Nevertheless, his gauge invariance was later applied in quantum filed theory. [Volume I]. Kaluza's approach to unification was to resort to a single time and four 79


space dimensions. Riemannian geometry was maintained and the extra dimension allowed incorporating the electromagnetic field vector into modified EFE. But, again, his theory did not meet verifiable science criteria. Nevertheless, it influenced Einstein's later work [Ref. 1] and was further developed later by Klein in an attempt to unify relativity with quantum theory, again in vain. Another approach that has not succeeded is termed the Lancelot Law Whyte's unitary field theory. Affine connection is the basis of Eddington’s approach that resorts to parallel transport of vectors from one space-time point to another; assuming it to be symmetric in its covariant form. Since the simplest cosmological model emerging from Eddington’s equations is symmetric, Eddington’s theory has failed in the face of evolving cosmological-astronomical evidence. These attempts have eventually centered on treating both the metric tensor and the affine connection as fundamental fields. In general relativity, these are symmetric, but since actual electromagnetism harbors asymmetry, the mixing issue arises again. In such field theories sub-atomic particles -- the domain of quantum theories -- appear as regions in curved space-time in which energy density is very high. Einstein and coworker Leopold Infeld had demonstrated that, in the unified field, singularities may harbor ‘point particles’3.2. However, singularities are points where the equations may not be valid. The Standard Model [70]3.2 unifies the description of electromagnetism, weak interactions and strong interactions in the language of gauge theory. Quantum Chromo Dynamics [Volume I] is a gauge theory with action of SU(3) on the color triplet of quarks3.2. Non-abelian gauge theories involve asymptotic freedom in strong interactions3.2. The importance of gauge theories is in allowing unification of quantum filed theories of electromagnetism 3.1 with the weak and the strong forces in the Standard Model, which accurately predicts experimental observations regarding three of the four fundamental forces of nature. For more information see Refs. 53 and 60.

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Lecture 4 Physics; What next? PART II

81


W

hat it means for physics, science, philosophy of science and education – The

BIG FOUR -- if the Higgs sub-atomic particle is confirmed or not? The answer is grounded on at least 11 arrows of scale vs. returned meaning, as described below: 1.

Superclusters of galaxies [Lecture 1]

2.

Galaxies [Lecture 1 and Volume I]

3.

Stars [Lecture 1 and Volume I]

4.

Solar system [Lecture 1 and Volume I]

5.

Earth [Lecture 1 and Volume I]

6.

Molecules, biological cells and crystals [Volume I]

7.

Atoms [Lecture 3 and Volume I]

8.

Sub-atomic layer #1 [Lecture 3 and Volume I]

9.

Subatomic layer # 2 [Lecture 3 and Volume I]

10.

Subatomic layer # 3 [Lectures 3 and 4]

11.

Subatomic layer at the Planck Scale [Lecture 4].

The December 13, 2011 CERN Announcement about the Higgs sub-atomic particle raises ‘scale vs. meaning’ issues regarding scale-levels 9 to 11. But since sub-atomic layer 11 is 15 orders of magnitude below the detecting ability of CERN [Lecture 4], it may be sub-scaled into 14 additional subatomic scale layers, down to the speculated strings and membranes of the various string theories and “Theories of Everything”. And perhaps there would be no end to downscaling with ever-diminishing returns for the BIG FOUR. It is a noble hope of unification of all interactions, but of no symmetrical weight in comparison with larger scales 1 to 9. But there is more to it. No theory is too sacrosanct to prevent testing and periodic re-assessments of its soundness on any scale. A serious attitude in science premises willingness to submit any theory to unequivocal, verifiable test. And if that is impossible, as at 82


one point it would for smaller-scale, sub-atomic layers, the so-called theory may be a mathematical music, faith or dogma subject to Feynman Fooling Assertion [Lecture 2 and Assertion 3.1]; This honest relook is the first and foremost duty of a theorist to himself, to his fellow scientists, and to the media and the next generation.

D

espite decades of intensive attempts to provide experimental proof of the

variously proposed string theories, as conducted by many able theorists around the world, there is not a single verification test that the proposed string theories can be unequivocally confirmed by test or observation, or by predicting new entities and thus unifying physics, as claimed by its proponents. In fact, no string theory version has yet made a prediction that differs from those made by other theories. While different formulations of string theories have survived mathematical challenges, each solution represents an entire set of unverifiable predictions [53]. Accordingly, the proclaimed “Theory of Everything” is misleading and is not considered scientific, as claimed by Ref. 53. In addition, the proponents of string theories often smuggle into their formulations what they wish to prove.3.4

We therefore conclude that whatever the future holds for string theories, they have become interesting mathematical exercises within a very active branch of theoretical physics [59], a branch that, in part, had originated from Einstein’s quest for a unified field theory of gravity3.5 and quantum physics.3.2 The first to add a fifth dimension to Einstein's Field equations [EFE] were Theodor Kaluza (in 1919) and Oskar Klein (in 1926)3.5. These attempts attracted Einstein’s attention in his work to develop a unified field theory. But Einstein died prior to being successful in this domain. “Hidden Variables” play key roles in extra 6, 7 or higher dimensions that are postulated by various string theories [Lecture 3], namely, beyond the familiar four space-time dimensions of relativity3.3. 83


Postulated by Einstein [Ref 1] and David Bohm, the general idea of ‘hidden variables’ is still driving string theorists in their noble attempts to by-pass the highly disputed point-like feathers of ‘particles’ in current, yet still evolving, quantum physics3.2. Such attempts may allow theorists to get closer to Einstein’s famous hope: “It is only in the quantum theory that Newton’s differential method becomes inadequate, and indeed strict causality fails us. But the last word has not yet been said. May the spirit of Newton’s method give the power to restore unison between physical reality and the profoundest characteristics of Newton’s teaching-strict causality.” Albert Einstein Indeed, up to the end of his life, Einstein consistently explained that probabilistic quantum theories are incomplete, a fact indirectly acknowledged by string-theories proponents who seek to remedy that dispute in physics3.2, 3.5. For more disciplinary information one may consult References 11, 26, 48, 51, 53, 58-110.

Skeptic Notes Recap: Any reasonably expected experimental technique of science cannot provide verification of anything at about 15 orders of magnitude below its current capability – as the needed small scale to verify string theories, and perhaps with no ending down the scale of small-size physics. This fact confronts the proponents of string theories, who claim, inter alia, that, at extremely small, sub-sub-sub-atomic scales, 15 orders of magnitude below direct testability, all fundamental field-forces-interactions3.1, 3.2, 3..3 consist of vibrating strings, closed or open, or membranes. Indeed, the spectrum, or ‘zoo’, of such ‘entities’ may (mathematically) be represented by tiny vibrating strings that, by altering their mode of vibration, 84


transform, say, an electron into a neutrino, a quark, or other particles 3.2, while causing space-time to curve around these entities so as to give rise to Einsteinian relativistic gravity 3.3. Some string-theories proponents also claim that prior to verified physical Genesis [the so-called Big Bang], a Pre-Genesis-World had turned into a very massive black hole, that, at the very instant of the Big bang, became a white hole that has since generated endless other ‘universes’, while ours is just one of them – indeed, a beautiful mathematical-configurational music. M-Theory [Lecture 3] harbors an almost infinite number of versions, which "predict" an almost infinite number of possible universes. Critics call this the "Alice's restaurant problem" a reference to the folk song: "You can get anything you want at Alice's restaurant." And conclude that a theory that predicts everything, like the ‘Theory of Everything’ that S. Hawking is advocating, does in fact predicts nothing, and is therefore not a theory at all. M-Theory postulates ‘Landscapes-Inside-landscapes’ in 10, 11 or 26 dimensions that harbor a large number of hidden variables, different vacua and endless other universes.

Investigating how a string theory may include fermions3.2 has led to the concept of supersymmetry, a collection of postulates relating bosons and fermions 3.2 (every particle has superpartner that is not observable). Such superpartners may be called squarks, selectrons and gluinos. The theoretical limit of the M-theory infers that protons, electrons, neutrons and their antimatter counterparts, may be converted to photons and then converted to other particles, i.e., to particles such as protons that may be changed to other particles, such as electrons. For more information one may consult References 11, 26, 48, 51, 53 and 58-69. D-Branes in String Theories are membranes (in short ‘branes’) of different dimensionalities. These unobservable membranes are postulated as optional gravitational sources so that one may end-up with a modified gravitational theory within the framework of quantum gravity3.5. The concept supersymmetry [Volume I] may then apply between forces and matter for closed or open strings. 85


These postulated strings emit and absorb closed strings and are further postulated to emit gravitons3.3 and charge3.2, since they emit closed strings, which are gauge bosons.3.2 The imaginary strings are also postulated to contract to minimize their potential energy. But conservation of energy prevents them from disappearing. Instead they are further postulated to oscillate-vibrate. By pre-assuming vibrating strings, one may next speculate about different vibrational modes that are even further postulated to represent different sub-atomic particles. Such strings are claimed to split and combine, which may resemble particles emitting and absorbing other particles, as in quantum interactions between subatomic particles.3.2 Such quantum strings are also postulated to harbor tension, like the familiar strings of a violin; a tension that is related to their size and shape.

Open strings have two distinct end-points, while closed strings are joined to make a complete loop. The two types may allow wild speculations about two different spectra of ‘elementary-particles’. For instance, one of the closed string modes is speculated to be the graviton, and in the open string mode it is may be a photon.3.1 Brane Cosmology includes speculative models in which Genesis is claimed to be periodical collisions between branes. See also Hinduism. Other proposals include ‘multiverses’ and dark matter and dark energy. [Refs. 51, 53, 58-115]. ‘Landscapes-Inside-Landscapes’ are speculated in some string theories as hidden worlds-inside-worlds in 10, 11 or 26 space dimensions. They may harbor a large number of hidden variables, different vacua and endless other universes. Such theories are also being postulated to be the theoretical limit of the M-theory. 86


Symmetry-Asymmetry & Supersymmetries Many types and branches of ‘supersymmetries’, are postulated in string theories. For instance, some theorists claim that as the density “had” increased during said ‘pre-creation’ contraction, gigantic black holes are formed, and, at the instant of maximum contraction, they had all switched to expansion, namely, reverting to a White Hole and only one of them has turned into “our universe”. At best such claims are not acceptable in verifiable science. Indeed, such claims have encountered hot exchanges that may hardly be qualified as debates. But the proponents hope that upcoming observations at CERN, or those expected from the Planck Satellite and the ground-based LIGO and VIRGO observatories, etc., may reveal slight variations in gravitational radiation that might be associated with such postulated phenomena, say, on the polarization of the cosmic black body radiation. [Lecture 1].

Lecture 5 WORLD HISTORY Time is the ruler of all human concepts; it comprises the deepest foundation of all knowledge, including world history, science, philosophy and religions. [Lectures VII in Volume I, Chapter 1 in Volume II, Lectures 5 and 9 in Volume III.].

87


OUR STANDARD TIME MODEL IN SECONDS is misleading; it is grounded on a daynight rotation of earth around the sun; both of which had not existed during more than half the ‘age’ of the universe. [Lecture 5, Volume III.]. The seed of human time is the ‘visible’ universe itself; it is the only clock, the sole measurable ‘time’, or more precisely, the measurable expansion-acceleration of its Kingdom of Darkness – the expansion-acceleration of the well-recorded, dark-cold voids around all stars and galaxies. [VOIDS/SPACE-1, Image 00.001, Fig. 1.1.]. This measurable, scientific time is the non-stop increase in the ‘size’ of typical cosmic voids that keep expanding even without our galaxy and sun, even when you are asleep. But if you are awake, just go outside and watch the dark night sky and ask yourself, whereto all the star radiation energy has gone? Why the dark night sky is not as bright as the sun? Time, prior to and during the rule of gravity, is the decrease in temperature in the Radiation Era [Image 00.2, and Lectures 1 and 5, Volume III.]. Time is thus the well-recorded decrease in energy density/temperatue of the universe as it expands to its cold-dark death, ‘billion years’ post our fall into the sun. [Figs. 1.2 and 5.1]. Voids/SPACE-1 expansion is termed here The Master Arrow of Time, the origin of all observed irreversibilities in Nature. It is also the most universal clock known.

PART I

O

ur sun-based time-clock-calendar is neither universal nor relevant during the

first 9 billion years of the world history, namely, prior to the formation of our solar system. This fact favors the use of other, more scientific time scales, as marked in Fig. 5.1.

88


Fig. 5.1: On the left side of this diagram we mark the early world history in seconds, as derived from earth-sun-based years. On the right we mark the same history by temperature, in degrees Kelvin. On the inside we mark our Astrophysical Stages-Days.

‘Day’

DAY

1

Assumed ‘Radiation Era’ Events, Fig. 5.1 above and Image 00.2, Introduction. About 13 billion years ago the totality of our universe was structureless and extremely dense and hot. This marks the beginning of the biblical Genesis or the common term ‘Big Bang’. From this hot-dense beginning, the universe has been expanding and cooling forever. Neither any macro structure has yet evolved [Lecture1], nor any micro-structure [Lectures 3 and 4]. Everything was at complete equilibrium’. [Lecture1].

spatial

‘thermal

Einstein’s General Relativity, combined with what we know today about the frozen-until-now neutronproton ratio [‘Day 5’], the hydrogen bomb, thermonuclear fusion [footnote 1.4] processes and the remnant, cosmic black-body radiation [Image 00.001, Introduction], provide us with reasonable ASSUMPTIONS about pre-atomic processes that 89

Temp. Deg. K >>1011K


had been undergoing during the first six ‘StagesDays’. Direct verification of the first six ‘Days’ of the world history is, nevertheless, banned by the fact that during the earliest epoch it had been totally opaque, while any curved space-time point in it has been in a state of uniform thermal equilibrium (in space). All fundamental forces-fields of nature are unified during this very hot-dense beginning. Out of this high-energy, structure-less, field-forceinteraction, the electroweak and the strong forcefield-interactions would split in the next key stage of the world history, namely, when the universe had cooled below about 1028K [10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 degrees Celsius or Kelvin], thereby terminating the original, ‘unified’, single force-field-interaction of nature. Above a certain value, the gravitational-energy density at the ‘beginning’ is somewhat comparable to the assumed density inside a black hole1.6 – namely, where all sub-atomic structures had been completely destroyed by the extremely high, inner ‘force’ of gravity. When the extremely small and hot-dense early universe had expanded and cooled, the first-ever subatomic structures start to be formed out of the original, ‘unified’ field: Quarks, leptons and their antiparticles, etc. [Lecture 3]. Their ‘creation’ marks the emergence of the firstever ‘particles’ to be ruled by the three [later four] fundamental forces of nature: The gravitational, electroweak and the strong. During the next ‘stage-day’ the newly emerging Quarks combine with strong field-interactions and, ‘later’ fuse to form, for the first time in world history, the nuclei of the light chemical elements that we know today: Hydrogen, helium and lithium. 90


As the temperature dropped below about 1015K, (but was still above 1011K), the strong and electroweak fields parted from each other, thereby resulting in the four fundamental fields-forces-interactions of nature as we know them today at relatively low energies. The Seed of Time: The only clock -- the sole measurable time coordinate in general relativistic cosmology, is marked in Fig. 5.1, by said unfolding irreversible processes. So the seed of time is the universe itself ! The seed of all time is the increased ‘size’ of the universe, or the decrease in its spatially uniform-isotropic temperature, or its decrease in the spatially-uniform energy density. [Fig.1.2] Neither other clocks, nor any other measurable time yardsick has existed during the first six ‘stages-days’ of the expanding, structure-less, opaque universe. This clock releases anyone from the prison of the common anthropomorphic seconds and years. The more scientific definition of the seed of time and of the arrow of time are provided in Lecture VI, Volume I. DAY

2

‘Elementary particles’ pairs are ‘generated’ out of the intense ‘unified’ field, while the cosmic temperatures are further lowered, yet are still above 1011K.

>1011K

This ‘2nd Stage’ in the world history may be termed ‘PARTICLE-CREATION DAY’. DAY

3 DAY

4

The ‘3rd Stage’ may be termed ‘THE DAY OF ISOTROPISATION’. It is characterized by the roles played by strongly interacting ‘elementary particles’, such as photons, neutrinos, leptons, mesons, nucleons, and their antiparticles. During this ‘4th Stage-Day’ the cosmic temperature drops to about 100,000,000,000 degrees Kelvin. The cosmos now contain photons, neutrinos, antineutrinos, muons, anti-muons, electrons and positrons. 91

>1011K

1011 K


DAY

5

As the temperature drops further, the neutrinos and antineutrinos ‘decouple’ from other ‘elementary particles’ -- a duration that may be termed ‘NEUTRINO DECOUPLING’. Electron-positron pairs began to annihilate each other and the cooling of the neutrinos and anti-neutrinos froze the neutron-proton ratio at the value that has since been preserved and is verified by all observations.

1011K to 109K

This epoch may be termed ‘HELIUM FORMATION DAY’.

DAY

6

At lower temperatures photons stop the disintegration of the newly formed atomic ‘plasma’; mainly that of hydrogen and helium. Neutrons start to fuse with protons to form their relative abundances as we observe them today. This duration may be termed ‘DEUTERIUM FORMATION DAY’. On this ‘Friday Night’, the world temperature has already dropped down by the expansion of the universe as a whole to 4,000-3,000 K, and the 7th ‘Day’ enters the world history.

109 K to 3000 K

Photons are now released to travel into the interconnected, newly-formed voids [Image 00.001, Introduction). Some may travel 13 billion years to arrive our instruments and provide us with the earliest record of the universe from the end of this ‘Radiation Era’. Image 00.2, Introduction.

PART II

YRS AGO

Verified, Gravity-Induced Era, which lasts to the present, Image 00.2, Introduction.

92


13 billion years ago

Gravity-induced structures begin to form about 300,000500,000 sun-earth year after the so-called ‘Big Bang’. Terminology: This era may be termed The Grand Separation Era, during which matter [‘earth’] and voids [‘night sky’] are formed and continue to be separated from each other even today [Lecture 1]. Another terminology may refer to this matter-dominated era as a 2nd genesis or as the present Gravity-Induced Era. Two interwoven worlds are caused by gravity: (1) Creation of billions of non-expanding stars, galaxies, etc. [Lecture 1] (2) Creation of VOIDS-SPACE-1. (Figs. 1.1 to 1.4). SPACES ‘2’ and ‘3’ are simultaneously created. (Figs. 1.1 to 1.4). The separation era had come into being when the Radiation Energy Density [Fig. 1.2] drops below the (rest-mass) density of matter (mainly hydrogen and helium) and the cosmic temperatures drop below about 3000-4000 degree Kelvin.

150 to 800 Ml. years post the first genesis

What had been first measured in 1941 by Andrew McKellar, explained-predicted in 1948 by George Gammow and rediscovered in 1964, is dubbed “Cosmic Microwave, black-body Radiation”. It is the detected remnant radiation from the end of the 1st Genesis. [Fig. 1.4]. The first stars were mainly born out of hydrogen “fog”. Condensed-heated by gravity they gradually started to G. Gammow

shine due to the most important chemical process in the universe: Thermo-nuclear fusion [Lecture 1], which has since generated all the building blocks of life: Carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphor. [Cf. Supernova in Lecture 1] It is mainly by intense radiation that atoms split into protons and electrons, thereby clearing the hydrogen “fog” and producing plasma that is still detectable between closely neighboring stars. This era has lasted from around 150 million to about 800 93


million year after the so-called ‘Big Bang’. Notes: (1) The faster a galaxy is moving away from an observer, the more its light is skewed towards longer, redder wavelengths by the intervening expansion of the universe – namely the expansion of the voids between superclusters of galaxies as shown in Figs. 1.1 to 1.3. This phenomenon is known as cosmic redshifts: The greater the redshift detected the more distant the source of radiation is. (2) Cosmic entity from the 2nd Genesis: UDFy-38135539 [Fig. 00.1], is the most distant and oldest object detected so far. It records our cosmic history when the earliest stars were just beginning to emerge from the cosmic “fog”. The image recorded reveals about a billion stars. But this remote shining entity is only one tenth of the diameter of our own galaxy and is harboring only about 1% of its mass, while forming about the same number of stars per year as are in our galaxy. The radiation emerging from this galaxy has a redshift 8.55. Light from this galaxy was emitted 13 billion years ago, namely, about 600 million year after the First Genesis, when the universe was only 4% of its current age. The radiation that we now observe from this galaxy was emitted during a time when the universe was filled with hydrogen plasma fog and not yet fully transparent. Computer simulations suggest the first galaxies could have formed as early as 200 million years after the “Big Bang”. During this epoch clusters and superclusters of galaxies form thereby generating the voids/SPACE-1 that we observe in Fig. 1.1 Only “SPACE-1” keeps expanding while the materials structures [stars] contract and are heated until fusion starts.1.4 Without SPACE-1 expansion any galactic-star evolution, planet and life is impossible. SPACE-1 expansion is also the basis of our Second Law of Entropy-Free Thermodynamics [The Astrophysical Thermodynamic School]. It is also the sole recorded clock of the universe, the master arrow of time. 94


150 to 800 year Ml. post the first genesis

Unlike most scientists, who claim that the entropy and disorder of the universe increases with time, we claim the opposite: Gravity everlasting transformation of chaos into structures in the entire universe. RECAP: The early opaque universe was chaotic and structureless. It became clear for the passage of radiation only during this Second Genesis, due to gravity-induced aggregations of matter. Therefore, the Second Genesis is the beginning of all structuring-building processes in the universe; -- irreversibly physical process that leads to life starting from about 8.8 billion year later.

4.567 billion

Our Sun and its planets are gravity-constructed out of supernovas ashes [Lecture 1]. These are debris that has been floating in SPACE-3 prior to the creation of the solar system. They had been formed from earlier explosions of very massive star in our arm of our galaxy, the Milky Way. [Lecture 1]. Eventually, this ashesdebris has condensed by their own gravitational field to form the sun and the planets. The remaining ashes-debris are still not condensed. See the Asteroid and Kuiper Belts in Lecture 1, Footnote 8. Such debris are composed of rocks, meteorites, clouds of dust and gas, that are orbiting the sun, or had fallen into it, or on earth, moons and the other planets of the solar system. The fate of the sun is fixed by gravity-induced FUSION. [Footnote 4 in Lecture 1]. Fate of a star depends on its mass and nearby objects.

4.55 to 4.40 billion

The Age and Fate 95


of Earth: Isotopes exist on earth since 4.54 billion year ago. Crystals of zircon from Australia provide 4.55 billion year as earth age. A compromise between astronomers and paleontologists, which includes the “radiometric age dating” of meteorite material and lunar samples, fix the age of earth at 4.404 billion year. The solar wind and Earth. [Lecture 1]. This ‘wind’ hits the planets and moons. On earth it is partially reflected back to cold Spaces 3, 2 and 1. This reflection is from the upper atmosphere. The rest of it is undergoing complex energy transformations/cycles in the air, clouds and upper ground surface, being eventually reflected back, at longer wavelengths, to Space-3, and, eventually, further and deeper into colder Spaces 2 and 1. A huge shock wave is formed at the solar system edge [Lecture 1, Footnote 8], where the solar wind clashes with other stellar winds that spread out from nearby stars. 4.5 to 0.543 billion

Earth Precambrian Era is fragmented into: Hadean [4.5 to 3.8 million YR AGO]; Achaean [3.8 to 0.543 million YR AGO]; further fragmented into Paleoproterozoic [2.5 to 1.6 billion YR AGO]; Proterozoic [2.5 to 0.543 million YR AGO]; Mesoproterozoic [1.6 to 0.9 billion YR AGO]; Neoproterozoic [0.900 to 0.543 million YR AGO], Vendian [0.650 to 0.543 billion YR AGO.

The origin of life on earth begins with natural amino acids being ‘organized’ into proteins and nucleic acids (e.g., guanine & ribose depicted on the right -- the building molecules of Ribonucleic Acid [RNA], which can reproduce on its own and had predated Deoxyribonucleic Acid [DNA]. Three key facts emerge: (1) about 3.8 billion years ago fossil bio96


objects existed as simple cells, (2) life was widespread on earth about 3 billion year ago as evidenced by fossils [pictures] photosynthesis, (3) multicellular life emerges about 1 billion yr ago.

During the early stages of earth the current continents were close to each other as depicted. Gradually they have drifted apart to where they are today. See below for more details. 650 to 543 mil.

The first animal-like organisms were not motile. The earliest fossils that may represent animals appear towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian around 610 million yr ago. Ancestors of insects emerge 570 million yr ago. Fish emerge 500 million yrs ago. Reptiles emerge 300 million yr ago. These are known as venedian biota. They did not have any type of digestive system and lived on deep-sea grounds, just

97


increasing their surface area to maximize energy intake. They were replaced during the Cambrian Era by motile animals that have gradually developed digestive systems in which energy intake is enhanced by millions of inner residing bacteria. Reproduction was originated by irreversible First these processes had involved only organisms, but later two different organisms DNA heredity code for reproduction of a organism have emerged.

processes 1.1. single-cell exchanging newly-born

Some of the newly-born organisms lacked the capability to reproduce and vanish from the history of life. [Vol. I]. Female and male entities have gradually evolved to reproduce by combining DNA of the two parents. Different types, locations and orientations of legs, wings, eyes, hair, digestive systems, mouth and reproductive organs evolve under the influence of and in response to gravity1.1. Biological clocks associated with fertility are gravitationally linked to the annual changing sun-earth gravity cycles and the moon-gravity-induced tides. The head-legs superstructure-orientation of the embryo is formed by gravityinduced orientation. [Lecture 7]. Nearly all animals undergo some form of sexual reproduction. They have a few specialized reproductive cells needed to re-produce. Many animals are also capable of non-sexual reproduction in which fertile eggs are produced without mating, or via fragmentation. Fish become the first creatures on land, moving with sideextended legs, backbones and eyes on the top of their heads rather than on the side. Unlike other fish, such land types could move their head independently of its shoulders, like current land animals. Overlapping ribs that could support the body against gravity evolve. Motility was increased by evolving legs directly under the body, like most current land animals (instead of on 98


the sides). 543 to 248 million

Paleozioc Era [543 to 248 million YR AGO], fragmented into: Cambrian [543 to 490 million YR AGO]; Ordovician [490 to 443 million YR AGO]; Silurian [443 to 417 million YRS AGO]; Devonian [417 to 354 million YR AGO]; Carboniferous [354 to 290 million YR AGO]; Permian [290 to 248 million YR AGO]. Most known

animal appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the so-called Cambrian Explosion era. 248 to 55 million

Mesozoic Era is fragmented into: Triassic [248 to 206 million YRS AGO]; Jurassic [206 to 144 million YRS AGO]; Cretaceous [144 to 65 million YRS AGO]. Extinction events have caused the

“survival of the fittest”. Flowers emerge about 130 million yr ago. 50 to 45 million

Gravitationally-pushed glaciers advancing South, forced mammoths to what is now the state of South Dakota.

50 to 45 million

Mounted skeletons of Tyrannosaurus (left) and Apatosaurus (right) at the American Museum of Natural History;

Various types of dinosaurs live around the globe. They vanished around 65 million yr ago. Together with most species they became extinct by gravityinduced climatic phenomena --- a large meteor impact and/or huge volcanic eruptions resulting in climate change. The resulting dust/ash blocked sunlight causing lack of sufficient water, grass, etc. Smaller species and some ‘DinoBirds’ had survived and have further evolved into various familiar birds and other species. TECTONICS and MOUNTAINS 99


The images below show the maps of gravityinduced tectonic phenomena that have given rise to mountains, valleys, continental drifts and global climate changes, which, together with gravity-induced volcanism and meteoric impacts on earth have eventually resulted in the landscapes and life as we know them today. Himalayan tectonics and mountains are 50 to 45 million year old. Similar landscapes have been generated around the globe by uplift of plates. [Pictures & arrows in the two diagrams below]. NOTE: Like the footnotes, the text and images below are not “introduction� to the subject. They aim at starting a study in case one is interested in gaining more information. Mount Everest in the Himalaya. What happened to the land that is India is shown in the map below.

100


Current views of the Himalaya (above) and of the Rockies in Canada. (below).

101


65 to 1.8 million

14 to 8 million

8 to 6 million

Mammoths, mastodons, and elephants emerge. The first mammoths emerged in Africa. They later reached Europe and Siberia. One branch reached North America about 1,700,000 YR AGO. Experience with gravity-induced factors, grew in hominids into primitive but intelligent thinking. [Cf. “Lucy”, “Ardi” & “Ubeidiya” below] Several hominids may be our ancestors: Sahelanthropous techadensis, Orrorin tugenesis and Ardipithecus kadabba. Australopithecus afarensis is shown on the left. It is closely related to the human genus Homo, and may be ancestral to it. Its family is Hominidae. [Cf. “Lucy”, “Ardi” & “Ubeidiya” below] Gravity-induced changes in the environment, e.g., when a volcano erupts, cause changes in feeding behavior of hominids, and thus changes in teeth, jaws, legs, backbone, etc. Skeleton structure adapts to enhance motility. Loss of estrus by the female hominid. This sexual rhythm differentiated them from all other animals. New modes of mating improve the selection of a 102


partner lead to prolonged infant dependency, stable and more enduring family units. Both human (Ardipithecus, Australopithecus and Homo) and Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus) lineages further diverged from a common ancestor about 5 to 6 million year ago 4.4 to 1.8 million

Hominids “Lucy” and “Ardi” [Refs. 60-62] lived in Afar, Ethiopia, about 4.4 [“Ardi”] or 3.2 [“Lucy”] million year ago. The structure of both “Ardi” and “Lucy” knee, pelvis and hip indicates that they could walk upright on two legs. [Lecture 7]. However, chimpanzees also occasionally walk upright for short periods of time. Genetic studies show that both shared a common ancestor about 8,000,000 YR AGO. Other sites date from 2,000,000 to 1,400,000 YR AGO and include Turkana, Kanapoi, Olduvaland and Ubeidiya. Some 17 or 19 gravity-induced ice ages’ since 3,000,000 YR AGO have strongly affected ecological systems on earth. Each lasted about 50,000 to 100,000 year and each had lowered the surface of the oceans, resulting in climateinduced changes in life and ecological systems, e.g., Ushaped valleys in North America and Canada. Ice melting lead to destruction of creatures which had adapted to colder climates.

3 million

UBEIDIA, Israel, is the site where hominids evolved, improved and then spread to all corners of the world.

2.0 to 1.4

The Jordan Valley formed a low-level, hot, bio-geographic, gravity-induced tectonic corridor connecting hominid habitats in East Africa with the Gravity-induced Jordan River Valley. Between 2 million and 3 million year ago Afro hominids and animals migrated to the Jordan Valley under the same climatic conditions as in their source. The earliest evidence for a human presence in the Jordan valley comes from the site of ‘Ubeidiya, just south of Lake of Galilee, Israel. There, stone tools and the fossils of large mammals occur together in remnants of a muddy shoreline about 1.6 to 1.4 million year ago. Human-like ‘settlement’ of hominids in Ubeidiya, Israel, 3km South of present lake of Galilee. [Arrow on map]. It 103


million

is where the Jordan River, meets a small (mostly dry) river flowing down from the Porria Valley. This world unique site is still not open to tourists. It consists of 'living floors' that include hand axes, picks, bifaces, and pebble-core tools. Bones found at the site include extinct species of hippopotamus, deer, and mollusks. The Ubeidiya site contains distinct layers composed of alternating ‘living’ floors which contain animal-bones vs. lake-fish-bones, in mud, not on ‘living’ floors. The layers with floors are composed of ‘ordered’ river-rounded-stones that include the tools mentioned above. The alternating layers correspond to repeated expansions and contractions of the ancient Lake of Galilee.

1.4mil lion to 12k Yr ago

When the lake was contracting, the animals and hominids that had migrated from East Africa via the gravity-induced Red and Dead Seas found here a unique feeding site that has allowed them to gradually surpass the ‘technology’ of the Neanderthals in Europe. It is in Ubeidiya where hominids improved their physical and mental capabilities, living and hunting technologies and organization of settlements; it is from Ubeidiya that our early ancestors have gradually spread to all corners of the world. [Ref. 62]. Ubeidiya is therefore the earliest Academy of mankind. Their earliest migration waves to cold lands have not survived (Cf. Neanderthals below), but later migrations -- of more advanced hominids -- did. Recent mtDNA studies of ‘Graduated’ hominids from Ubeidiya, Israel, prove migrations to: South Asia, about 50,000 Years Ago; to Europe about 40,000 Year Ago; to East Asia about 30,000 Year Ago; to North America about 30,000 or about 14-11,000 Year Ago; to Australia about 30,000 or 40,000 Year Ago;

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Ubeidiya is not younger than 2 Million Year. It may be older than any record of Early Acheulian artifacts or Homo Erectus in Africa [Refs. 60, 61, 62]. 780k to 80k yr ago

Stone hand axes, fashioned according to African techniques and found at a site just north of Lake of Galilee, indicate additional emigration waves out of Africa about 780,000 year ago. Remains discovered west of Lake of Galilee at Skhul Cave and Qafzeh Cave in Israel indicate that early modern humans-probably either descendants or near relatives of the recently discovered, 160,000-year-old H. sapiens fossils from Herto, Ethiopia--were present in the gravity-induced Jordan River tectonic Valley between 130,000 and 80,000 yr ago.

0.8 million to 25k yr ago

Various mtDNA analyses show that Neanderthals shared a common ancestor with Homo sapiens, probably living in North-East Africa, Ubeidiya or the Carmel Caves. mtDNA based dating of that split ranges from 800,000, 516,000 or 500,000 yr ago while fossil records indicate 400,000 yr ago. Neanderthal fossil finds spread from Israel to Germany and from Spain, Portugal, Italy and England to Uzbekistan.

500k to 40k

Neanderthals made their last stand in Gibraltar about 25,000 yr ago. Like apes, they lacked a bony chin. Yet, they had a larger and broader face than ours. Their skull has a receding forehead and low braincase, but their brain is larger than those of our ancestors. Moreover, they used fire and introduced burial sites, as did our ancestors. Carmel Caves are occupied by migrants from Ubeidiya. The Tabun Cave has the longest sequence of occupation, almost half a million years. The dwellers used improved hand axes of flint or limestone for killing animals (gazelle, hippopotamus, rhinoceros and wild cattle) and for digging out plant roots. Hand axes became smaller and better shaped and scrapers, made of thick flakes chipped off flint cores, were used for 105


scraping meat off bones and for processing animal skins. Upper levels in the Tabun Cave consist mainly of clay and silt, indicating that a colder, more humid climate prevailed when glaciers formed once more; this caused the Mediterranean Sea level to drop about 100m to its present level. It also produced a wider coastal strip, covered by dense forests and swamps. Trash is gold to the archaeologist. Its gravity-induced layers reveal at least the diet of the dwellers. It consisted of fruit, seeds, roots and leaves with meat supplements. The Quaternary Era is fragmented into the Pleistocene [1.8 1,800 million to 10k YR AGO] and Holocene [10k to present] k to prst 120k

100k to 13k

67k to 10k

Burial tradition spreads. Skeleton of a female buried inside a stone niche just outside a Carmel Cave is one of the most ancient human skeletal remains. Migration from Ubeidiya to the Indian subcontinent. Carmel graves show a cult and rituals related to death and spiritual realm. [Migrations from Ubeidiya to the rest of the world are proved by studies of complete Mitochondrial DNA sequence.] In Ubeidiya, during 1.4 million yr, hominids have ‘self-educated’ themselves to graduate as ‘modern humans’. They have later survived with relatively advanced technology in other climates. At least 14 skeletons uncovered portray Homo sapiens, who are closely related to modern humans in physical appearance with delicate facial features, a protruding chin and a straight forehead. These appearances have been developed in the Carmel Caves and the Jordan River Valley. Early migrations from Ubeidiya to China. Improved inventions in fishing and in fire making emerge. 40k YR AGO, further migrations from Ubeidiya to Europe. 35k YR AGO, the earliest clothed body discovered in Russia. 30k YR AGO: Beginning of the last North-American ice age. MitochondrialDNA [mtDNA] studies provide evidence for 106


migration from the Baikal Lake area in Southern Siberia, across the Bering land bridge, to Alaska, North America and further South along the coast. 27k YR AGO, caves in Africa abound with paintings and carvings. 20k YR AGO, further migration to North America via the Bering land bridge. 15k YR AGO, domestication of dogs from a few ancestor wolfs starts in China. 13k YR AGO, further migration from North to South America. Plant-gathering and animal-hunting is transformed to plant-growing and animal-domestication. The level of the Mediterranean Sea rose again, as the last glacial period came to an end, and the coastline stabilized to roughly its present contours. Carmel settlements become permanent, consisting of a few families living together in a kind of a village that serves as a base for hunting expeditions and food gathering. Improved Natufian flint tools are used primarily as scrapers of animal skins.

12k to 8k Yrs ago

Decorative beads, blades for cutting meat and sawing bone and sickle blades (secured in wooden or bone scythes) emerge for harvesting grain (which left a characteristic gloss on the edge of the blades). Microliths of a lunatic shape are used as arrowheads, harpoons and fish hooks. Grinding tools, mortars and pestles made of stone are used for food processing. The last Ice Age ends about 12,000 to 8000 yr ago. The earliest levels of excavation in Jericho show the inhabitants had gathered the seeds of cereal grasses from the rocky hills flanking the Jordan River Valley and planted them in fertile soil. “The result: Domesticated plants followed centuries later by domesticated cattle, goats, and sheep, and the expansion of human settlements.� [J. J. Shea, Ref. 62] 107


10k Yrs ago

9200

7,000 to 5,500

Further migrations from Asia across the Bering land bridge to the Americas. Migrants’ artifacts in Clovis, N.M., North America. This finding is the oldest indisputable evidence of human presence in the Americas since about 11,000 year ago. Main racial groups are frozen in territories that they dominate. Cultivation of primitive forms of rice in South-East Asia emerges. Pottery is produced in Japan 9,819 YR AGO. Human remains in’ On Your Knees’ cave in Alaska. 9,500 YR AGO, evidence of harvesting of wild grasses in Asia Minor. 9,400 YR AGO, human remains in Kennewick, on the Western Coast of North America. 8,640 YR AGO, human remains in Palli Aike, at the Southern end of Chile. Village and perhaps a shrine in Jericho, the Jordan Valley. Jericho is considered by some as the birthplace of civilization. [But see Appendix III]. UR is recognizable as the first stage of civilization: It was established on the fertile soil formed between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, in an area close to where they flow into what is today Iraq, near the Persian or Arabic Gulf. It is also called Shummer. Yet, other call it the ‘the land between the two rivers’, ‘the Ur Civilization’, or ‘Ki-engir’, ‘Acadi’ as the Bible refers to it. (Also via other names, including Ur). Its first settlers are called Ubaidians. Their name is derived from Tel al'Ubaid, near the city of Ur. [App. III]. 6600 YR AGO. Ubaidians living in villages develop systems to drain marshes and irrigate crops by digging ditches to river waters. They learn to keep farm animals and develop weaving, leather work and copper and bronze metallurgy. They are involved in trade with nearby societies. [App. III].

108


6100 YR AGO. Ubaidians develop large ovens for baking bread. In Tell Hamoukar, a protective city wall is erected. Dry clay marks and primitive hieroglyphics are emerging for record keeping of trade transactions or taxes involving livestock or crops. [App. III]. Stamp seals are used at various Ubaid-culture sites as precursors to writing.

The first written language in the history of humanity emerges. Villagers construct early religious centers, each with its particular god. One of these, Eridu, is traced back to about 7000 YR AGO. It later had a temple with monumental architecture that goes back to around 6500 YR AGO. [Appendix III]. Semites work their way from the Carmel Caves into the fertile Ur area. An U’baid site at Yarim Tepe yields several hundred grindstones and grinders in a single room. Wheels for donkey carts and for simple machines are devised to make pottery easier to manufacture and paint. Pottery emerges as Ubaid Style of Art, with its monochrome black painting.

The earliest historical division of labor evolves. Earlier flint sickles are replaced by clay sickles. A religious temple dedicated to Nin-Khursag (Ninhursag) was uncovered at al'Ubaid, with a dedication inscription from Aanni-padda, king of Ur and son of Mes-anni-padda, king of Ur. Uncovered “Shummerian King List” shows that they are from the First Dynasty of Ur. Ubaidians are invaded by Shummerians and a new era starts to evolve. As with the Ubaidians, the origin of the Shummerians is not clear. Their language, which has survived through writing, bears some resemblance to the Ural-Altaic languages. Earlier than 9,000 YR AGO Ali Kosh becomes a village with wide lanes and rectangular houses. Sheep and goats are well domesticated. 109


5.9k

Fishing in nearby marshes and irrigation gradually evolve to help grow cereal crops by at least 8000 YR AGO. [Appendix III] Shummerians construct improved canals for irrigating crops and for transporting crops by boat to village centers. They also improve the roads over which their donkeys trod, some of their donkeys pulling wheeled carts. As the UR/Shummerian population increases, key elements in creating a civilization - a word derived from an ancient word for city – evolve. At least fifteen cities emerge: Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Eridu, Sipper, Nippur, Adab, Umma, Larsa, Eshnunna, Shaduppum, Isin, and Shurupak. Sufficient food is gradually produced to support

city population that had developed professions: Priesthood, pottery making, weaving, carpentry, early metallurgy and trading, including trade by sea for which they constructed seaworthy boats and even ships.

5.4k

They imported commodities made from wood, stone, tin and copper. Ur, for example, has increased to a city of about 24,000 people and Uruk to around 45,000. Around each city were fields of grain, orchards of date palms and land for herding. [App. III]. The “ICE MAN” -- discovered on September 19, 1991 almost intact under an Alpine melting glacier near the border between Austria and Germany -- had a tattoo-like marks on his preserved skin, a deerskin quiver that contained 14 arrows, unfinished bow, an ax of nearly pure copper and a tool to sharpen flint blades. Other findings reveal that these people grew wheat and barley and made linen cloths from flax. They have already domesticated dogs, sheep, goats, cattle and pigs. WORLD HISTORY PART III was moved to APPENDIX III

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Lecture 6 Standing on the smoking ruins of the Temple of Knowledge; Egypt

D

uring a lecture delivered at a university in South-East Asia, I delivered Lecture

1. At lecture end, a distinguished professor of the Graduate School of Education, resorted to the microphone and facing her graduate students and faculty members, declared: “We have only one sun in the world. In contradiction with this established fact, you claim that it is expanding during the last billion years. But it is not. It is a mistake!�

111


While trying to reply, she interrupted to add: Astronomy is star-working practice that borders with paganism. We can neither change our curriculum, nor help you find a mutual accommodation for star-working in this state university.

Amazed, I asked: Have you heard about the most notable woman in early astronomy and science? About Hypatia? About the greatest clash between science and organized religion 1600 years ago? No! Never!

And she adjourned the lecture.

*

T

he

*

*

daughter of Theon

[335-405], Hypatia, is a noted astronomer, mathematician, educator and philosopher. She became the head of the world’s-greatest academy of science in her time, in Alexandria, Egypt.

D

uring this historical period,

Alexandria was the most important center of commerce, culture, science and philosophy in the entire world.

R

ome had already been sacked earlier by the barbarians, and its rich libraries

and records of science, medicine and philosophy destroyed and lost for ever. Only the Academy-Library in Alexandria has remained. It is now the world’s top educational center of science, medicine, astronomy and philosophy. 112


D

uring Hypatia's lifetime, the Roman Empire was split into two, while Roman

Law and political power have been challenged by the rising Christian organized power.

A

t the very center of this conflict, Hypatia is freely leading top-world studies,

while practicing an unprecedented lifestyle of feminine freedom, equality, and independence.

In addition, her unmatched intellectual gifts attracted a large number of students from all over the two divided Roman Empires.

S

he had many suitors but rejected all offers of marriage, preferring to live

independently of any man, in men's world in which women were considered their property, harboring almost no civil rights and being denied higher education.

S

ome reliable ancient documents [12] have survived concerning the tragic events

that took place there between 412 to 415: In 412

Cyril became the Christian Patriarch of Alexandria.

The Roman governor of Alexandria at that time was Orestes.

Cyril and Orestes became bitter enemies. • Hypatia was a friend of Orestes. This fact, together with prejudice against her philosophical, astronomical, mathematical and free-spirited lifestyle, led to Hypatia becoming the focal point of envy on Cyril’s part. • She dared to defy both church and state interference in science and philosophy; to preserve the rights of academic freedom and the conviction 113


that all individuals have the right to defend their beliefs and share science and its fact-finding activities with all. • In great personal danger, she continued to teach and publish, until, in the year 415, she was set upon by a fanatical mob of Cyril's parishioners. • They dragged her from her chariot, tore off her dress, and armed with sharp seashells, flayed her flesh from her bones, dragged her through the streets to the newly Christianized Caesareum church. • Then she was burned and her work banned and destroyed. • In great panic the faculty run away for their life.

T

he

Educational

Outcome: The world’s sole top Academy-Library was destroyed; its exclusive and unique world’s knowledge in mathematics, astronomy, medicine and philosophy has been lost forever to humanity, while Cyril was crowned a Saint

W

ith Hypatia and the unique

world center gone, the ‘Dark Ages’ have lingered in, blocking the progress of science, medicine and philosophy. • It lasted a thousand years as the church policy and practice.

114


• Eventually, it was only the tragic outcomes of brave-wise persons like Bruno, Copernicus and Galileo that have gradually marked the end of this darkest period in science. • But this educational lesson remains valid and highly instructive beyond the end of the ‘dark ages’:

C

an one imagine where we would be today without these 1000 years of delay in

science, medicine, philosophy and the freedom of thought and practice?

W

ould knowledge today be at much higher levels if that brutal murder of a

most talented scientist-philosopher [12] and the 1000-years of forced retardation of science that followed, would have been avoided? Would, say, cancer, stroke, heart attack and other diseases be well-cured by now? There is no answer.

Memorial

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The Library of Alexandria in a Modern Design. Alexandria, Egypt

I

n bringing this sad chapter of humanity to a close, we mention that Hypatia had

followed Plotinu, who maintains that there is an ultimate reality that is beyond the reach of thought, or language, like shadows of ‘real’ mountains and trees, as seen by one staying in a cave. These ideas go back to Plato, to Socrates and to earlier Greek philosophers, who, inter alia, have maintained that the object of life is to try to live and act as close as possible to reality-in-itself, to ‘things-in-themselves’, which, however, may never be precisely described, formulated and comprehended.

V

arious documents [12] have been uncovered about Hypatia. They describe

verifiable historical facts, not popular stories and anecdotes as many wrongly assume or, in vain, intend to distort, or discredit the issue in public and in private circles. Her own work was lost after her defamation by the Church. Only a few titles and references to her contributions survived, some of them, ironically, in the Vatican. In Mathematics: Hypatia and her father Theon had produced a new version of Euclid's Mathematical Elements; - elements which have become the basis for later editions of Euclidian mathematics. The Greek-Theon-Hypatia methods of operating with sexadecimal fractions and the extraction of the square root of a non-number should also be noted. Hypatia’s contributions to mathematics are currently undergoing academic investigations and evaluations, for instance, those conducted by the Departments of Mathematics in Monash University in Australia and in St. Andrews University in Scotland [12]. In Astronomy: Hypatia and her father, professor Theon, expanded the works of the great astronomer Ptolemy; Almagest and Handy Tables. [E.g., a 9th century Vatican manuscript

116


exists, which is based on Theon-Hypatia's text used in the year 463 in Apamea in Syria.] Hypatia had contributed to the early knowledge of Arithmetica and to Apollonius's Conics vis-à-vis Ptolemy's astronomical works. In Medicine: Among Hypatia’s admirers was Synesius of Cyrene, later to become the Bishop of Ptolemaist. Some of the letters that Synesius wrote to Hypatia have survived. They testify that he was filled with great respect to Hypatia's knowledge when he asked her advice for the construction of an astrolabe and a hydroscope. In Education: Hypatia taught updated philosophical ideas with a greater scientific emphasis than earlier followers of Neo-Platonism. She was also described as a charismatic teacher. Her eloquence and authority had reached global influence, so much so that some Christians had considered themselves being threatened by her very existence, teaching and influence. She was murdered by Church members who felt threatened by her scholarship, learning, and depth of scientific knowledge. Nitrian monks; a sect of Christians who were supporters of Cyril, were instrumental in her murder. Her scientific research and teaching was banned from all countries ruled by Christianity. In Philosophy: Hypatia’s philosophical ideas discouraged mysticism while encouraging logical and mathematical studies. In Today’s University Campus Style: The influence of the Academy-Library of Alexandria model is seen today in the conceptual layout of many university campuses. According to the earliest sources of information [12], the library was initially organized by a student of Aristotle under the reign of Ptolemy Soter (367-283). Built in the style of Aristotle's Lyceum, adjacent to and in service of the Musaeum (a Greek Temple or "House of Muses", hence the term "museum"), the academylibrary comprised gardens, a room for shared dining, a reading room, lecture halls and meeting rooms.

Where we would have been in medicine without 1000-years of forced retardation of science? 117


Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesars’; and unto God the things that are God’s. Matt. 22:21

118


Lecture 7 Gravity-Induced Structures/Time vs. Socio-Biology and Social Order Gravity is Gravity; my mind is independent of it! Is it? As a starter let us examine the two ‘same-images’ below. << Here the mind perceives gravity-induced flow from ‘right’ to ‘left’; from ‘lighted-up upstream to a ‘dark-downstream’ and the time structuresequence in our mind begins with matter on the ‘right’, for the flow ‘must go down’ to the ‘left’. It cannot flow ‘up’ against gravity, from ‘left’ to ‘right’. Is that the physical law of nature or the generation of our mind? ANSWER: Observe next the ‘same-image’ on the right. Here our mind perceives the opposite -- just because the gravity axis on this computer display has changed in our mind: The flow ‘must go down’ from the ‘dark upstream’ to the ‘bright downstream’. ASSERTION 7.001: Our mental ‘right’ and ‘left’ are gravity-induced, therby letting gravity into our mind. We return to this issue below, after we discuss the role of gravity in our theory, in physics, society, biology, territory, property, writing, nationalism, religions, and wars.

119


T

he outlook presented in these pages covers little explored fields of

integrated studies where specialized fragments have not yet been interconnected, integrated and treated as a unified system: From largest to smallest-scale dynamics of physics, chemistry, biology and sociology. As a result, different researchers have approached these subjects from widely varying and sometimes misleading viewpoints, employing disjointed concepts to what should be a single unified methodology-system. We therefore depart from traditional, isolated texts, in emphasizing the interconnectedness of updated facts in different and apparently unrelated disciplines. Thus, we refrain from repeating isolated analyses, and, instead, stress the integrated consequences from the point of view of verified-unified pan-physics-chemistry, differing only in terms of scale.

F

or the sake of unification and simplicity this approach is first introduced in

as simple a manner as possible, using illustrated graphs and images that can lead to testable consequences.

V

erified evidence cannot yet be admitted to a number of topics presented

here. Therefore, if scientists are counted as “moderate skeptics”, as no doubt they should, they must adopt the practice of “suspend judgment”. By this we do not mean radical empiricism, or the denial of any rational addition to specific disciplines outside physics and chemistry. We therefore refrain from leaving this unified study and teaching to the sole care of specialists.

A

lthough some of the greatest scientists -- from Newton to Einstein --

studied astronomy and cosmology, and made substantial contributions to our comprehension of the universe, their outlooks, today, amid a tsunami of internet bloggers and imposters of scientific knowledge, still struggle with some who reject astronomy and cosmology; in part a past-fixed image that has retarded science during about 1600 years.

120


In fact, such geocentric, or rather anthropocentric outlooks, are still alive as they had been when Hypatia was murdered about 1600 years ago [References 12], and during the years up to the times of Copernicus (who dethroned Earth and paid with his life for that high treason), Shapely (who dethroned the Sun, but was not killed), and Baada (who dethroned our Milky Way, and nobody has cared since). And they make astronomy and cosmology difficult intellectual subjects, even to intellectually mature readers. Indeed, of late, we have witnessed a new revival of astronomy, general relativistic cosmology and astrophysics, a renaissance sustained by an almost daily inflow of verified empirical information on the dynamic universe, far away and all around us. To deny today the central role of astronomy, cosmology and astrophysics in physics, is to deny the very methodology of science, and to a priori reject a large portion of its verified empirical evidence.

G

ravity is the universal, all penetrating, scale-free force, which interacts

with all verified matter-energy in the observable universe, and is the curver of light path near any detectable large matter-energy aggregation. [Lectures 1 and 3]. The force of gravity may be compared with SPACE-1expansion that causes the observed gradients of radiation energy densities because it dilutes its energy densities and is unsaturable to incoming radiation. These densities are relatively high around stars and around their home galaxies in non-expanding SPACES-3 and 2. Without said SPACE-1expansion, the observed energydensity gradients cannot be formed. And without them no 121


star evolution is possible, nor that of any supernova, -- the massive star structures, which, in their very hot cores, by thermo-nuclear-fusion [somewhat similar to that in the hydrogen bomb], generate all chemistry beyond hydrogen and helium, and then die by explosion that spreads in SPACES 3, 2 and 1 their debris as heavy chemical elements from which we and the soil are made. Black holes can only be formed if SPACE-1-generated gradients exist. SPACE-1 expansion is therefore THE MASTER BLACK SINK of the universe, the sole cause of time asymmetries and irreversibilities in nature.

Thought Experiment IV: Imagine that the expansion of SPACE-1 stops now. Certainly nothing will be detected for some time. Yet, over a prolonged time the energy densities in SPACE-1 would be gradually increasing because the energy input from all cosmic sources keeps pouring into it from SPACES 3 and 2. [Cf. the first 3 thought experiments in Lecture 1 footnote 1.] Galactic energy inputs into the voids [SPACE-1], in case its expansion stops, would gradually cause the temperatures there to rise up to the very high values within the cores of the hottest stars, supernovas or galactic cores. Reaching that hot stage would gradually stop further thermo nuclear fusion processes in all shining sources. Thermal equilibrium would thus be established anywhere in the cosmos, bringing, inter alia, the end of life anywhere. SPACE-1-expansion is thus the stealthy dark driver of the generation of all macro structures. It is also the sole time clock fundamentally available to thinking atoms. Unequivocally, it constitutes the origin of time, arrows of time, irreversibility and the sole prime cause of the universal 2 nd law of thermodynamics. SPACE-1 started to form after the initial, uniform, hot opaque world ‘soup’ had cooled down to about 3000 degrees Kelvin (K), about 300,000 to 500,000 years post Genesis. However, thermo-fusion in the gravitating bodies took many more years to start. Black holes1.6, which may be scattered throughout Spaces 3, 2 and 1[Lecture 1] only add their dissipation of mass and energy to that caused by the Master Black Sink. The ‘total mass of the universe’, nevertheless remains invariant. 122


Unsaturable Voids/SPACE-1 is the largest and primary sink for all energies radiating away from all gravity-induced aggregations of matter. It was generated from about 300,000 to about 2 billion [earth-sun] years post the 1 st Genesis (the so called ‘Big Bang’). Starting from the early differentiation of SPACE-1 from structures shown in Fig. 1.3, gravity has ruled all macro structures, gradually compressing them to become hot enough for nuclear fusion4.2 to start in their cores. This fusiongenerated energy the energy that spreads away to the colder voids of Spaces 3 and 2, and, eventually and irreversibly dissipated in the ever expanding, colder SPACE-1, A comparison of Fig. 1.1 with 1.3 shows that, despite the aforementioned, differentiation, the universe has remained isotropic and homogeneous in terms of large-scale distribution of expanding cold ‘voids’ vis-à-vis hot matter emitters and their maximum temperatures. [See also supernova in Lecture 1] There has been no net energy flows across adiabatic envelopes within SPACE-1. This central issue is further explained below. The early SPACE-1 [Fig. 1.4] has evolved to become the large, dark-cold void between and around the shining filaments of the super-clusters of galaxies recorded in Fig. 1.1. The early, isotropic & homogenous distributions of voids, emitters and maximum temperatures have been preserved as the universe grew older. [Fig. 00.001 vs. Fig. 1.1].

But what about everyday life’here-Now’? Let us next examine the word ‘gninaem’ and ask: Can I associate it with anything I know? 123


Now reverse the order of the letters in ‘gninaem’. Your mind now recognizes ‘meaning’. This test of mind remains invariant for any language, including symbols, codes, words and sentences that people use. [box].

GRAVITY VERTICAL Space Symmetry: X, θ, +, Ф, O, I, Σ, E, B, Z, Н, §; 3, 8, 0, I, etc. GRAVITY HORIZONTAL Space Symmetry: M,U,V,W,Y,X,+,Ф,O,I,П,Ť,A; 8, 0, I, V, etc. Double Spatial Symmetry: X, +, Ф, O ,I; 8, 0 and I. Vertical (Gravity) Axis Irreversibility includes: $, ¢, €, B, C, D, E, F, G, L, K, N, S, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, k, n, r, s, t, z, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, µ, ¶, @, Ί, σ, , &, δ, η, etc. Horizontal (Gravity) Axis Irreversibility includes: $, ¥, F, P, G, L, R, S, T, a, b, d, e, f, g, h, i, n, q, l, v, u, y, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, µ, ¶, @, &, Ψ, ά, δ, γ, η, , etc. CONCLUSIONS: 1. Linguistic space-time reversals destroy meaning. 2. Space and Space-Time Linguistic Asymmetries in GT [gravitism] generate loss of meaning in human minds by violating gravity-induced rules of space-oriented symbols, and of space-time gravity-induced order of symbols in words, words in sentences, speech, musical notes and in other structures. 3. Gravity-induced asymmetries are termed Master Linguistic Arrows of Time. 4. MEANING is attainable by gravity-induced linguistic irreversibility; 5. This ‘Educational-Rule’ goes back to the first full-fledged writing language in history: UR’s civilization Cuneiform Writing [Appendix III]. It also started with Egyptian and other space-time oriented/ordered pictorial writings.

Consequently, we are left with no other option but to conclude that this adaptation of our brain-mind goes back in history to our cultural ancestors as far back in historical time until one reaches the roots of the first written language. [Appendix III].

7.1 Gravity-Induced Standards and “Meaning” 124


W

e train our brain-mind to appreciate gravity-induced, configuration-order-

orientation and reject chaos and disorder. In short, we reject what does not well align with gravity-induced posture, standing, sitting modes and writing. Our brain-mind searches for what is 'right' via gravity-induced symmetriesasymmetry ‘standards’. Each picture we observe, and each letter-symbol, word and sentence that we read, or hear, forms in our brain-mind a specific aggregated, configuration-boundary, -a gravity-oriented asymmetry that is compared with said standard. Each letter-symbol, each word and each sentence generates such an aggregated, configuration-boundary-asymmetry in our brain-mind, where it had been irreversibly recorded and compared with what had been forced on our brain-mind by previous forces of our education; -- the STANDARDS at home, school, social group, tribe, nation, religion or a specific branch of civilization. Time reversal of musical notes destroys our pleasure. One cannot enjoy it if it is played in reverse. The structure and modulation of voice and the sentences a human mind seeks to identify with are similarly affected.

E

ven a minor deviation from one's pre-trained language, intonation, accent,

symmetry and asymmetry -- in face, body and walking way -- destroys our gravityinduced concepts about what is 'right', young, healthy, and what is not. RECAP: In observing a person, animal or a tree, our mind generates a gravityinduced structural asymmetry that is compared with our own stored standard Any image is gravitationally oriented in our brain-mind: ‘up/down’ or ‘horizontal/left/right’. Thus, inversion of a picture, or reversing the direction of symbols, words and a meaningful text, destroys the meaning. We maintain that this process generates gravity-induced form-orientationconfiguration of 'heading', ‘beginning’ and 'end'.

Socio-biology vs. Territory? 125


Gravity-induced changes develop territoriality in a given spatial region or in a given assembly of individuals, especially when key resources are not sufficiently abundant and stable through long periods of historical times. We observe this phenomenon in both the animal and human domains of socio-biology. Assertion 7.1 When a limited terrestrial space is divided into lots in a community, it carries economic and social standing, or "lebensraums", involving "well-defined territories" and "Gravity-induced Natural Selection"; from animals' mating systems to animals' monopolies on water resources; from natural food administration to the control of key strategic ridges; from controlling fossil fuel resources to disputes over territories. One species, or one sex, may control a larger quantity of resources, say, scarce water ponds, than the other, until a small percentage of the population monopolizes key resources. Gravity-induced, tall structures may become worship temples of nature. [Cf., Am. Indians].

Inequality in human society begins with land demarcation and high-lands, or any territorial property, private and tribal, state owned or company run. Envy then drives competition, company ads, venture capital, TV and academic rating, political candidates, religious rivalry and key human traits, sometimes stronger than death. As history testifies, gravity-induced territoriality is often developed into nationality, imperialism and territorial conquest wars.

126


Assertion 7.2 Many aspects of animals’ social organization and evolution can be predicted on the basis of gravity-induced environmental variables. Since biogeochemical evolution causes key natural resources to be distributed non-uniformly in the spatial and temporal coordinates of the biosphere, resource monopolization develops in all levels of socio-biological systems.

The first local "aggregates" of matter in the solar system have already contained atoms and simple molecules, and it was gravity that stratified these compounds in ‘horizontal’ layers according to their “specific gravity”.

T

he atmosphere and geological strata are ordered-selected by the specific gravity

of their chemical components. It was gravity that put the early components of living systems at one and the same strata.

Gravity Selection is the Root-Cause of “Natural selection”. Gravity is also the universal builder of structures, including all chemistry in the cores of gravitationally pressed-heated stars [See fusion in Lecture I], geological strata, earth morphology the entire evolution of life, village/city structures, transportation systems, linguistic hierarchy, recorded symbols, letters, grammar vs. time, structure of sentences, pages, books.

7.2 Gravity-Induced Orientation and Order

127


Using gravity pointers up, Assertion 7.3 down, left, right, we generate signs and record numbers and The origin of temporal behavior in animals can be traced back in time and out to external letters for a later use and for physical influences. Even “innate patterns" are other to read. frequently associated with simple orientation Animals are also 'conscious' movement in the field of gravitation, i.e., as "upof the commonly-shared "upward-downward" balancing of the biological down" surroundings, and body vis-à-vis the gravity pointer. Gravity about "weight" and periodicities around the sun emerge as prime acceleration. Plants also sources of order via time and the arrow of time. harbor innate sensors that guide them in which direction to grow even on a mountain slope.

A

dditional examples range from gyroscope inertial changes and gravity-

induced changes involving the fluid in the vertebrate inner ear to a crystallizing suspension of organic spheres in water.

7.3 Gravity-Induced Plant Growth and Animal Behavior

T

he sensing devices which plants and

Assertion 7.4 Plants ‘know’ to grow vertically upward when, undisturbed, they start growing in total darkness as seeds inserted deep into the ground; -- even when they grow on a steep mountain slope. As most high-growing trees they align their growth under the control of the gravity vector.

animals use for "gravity perception" ("gravity receptors", "g-perception", "bio-accelerometers", "gravityinduced biological clocks", etc.) are not yet well understood, even though a voluminous literature has been published on this subject. But what we already know justifies the central role we claim gravity plays in living systems and society.

I

f a growing higher plant is displaced with respect to the "upright" position, some

tens of minutes later it will adapt its growth in such a way as to restore its original 128


orientation in coincidence with the gravity vector. (If it is displaced only briefly and then restored to its original orientation well before the growth response can set in, it still responds to that displacement.) Gravity-induced orientation-adaptation of an organism may occur when an organism orients itself by a gravity-induced gradient of density differences or hydrostatic pressure. Small organisms (including all bacteria) may have no means for sensing gravity, but they are affected by it.

A

nimals low on the evolutionary scale characteristically exhibit innate patterns

that depend little on learning, and have a lesser adaptability to changes in the environment. Consequently, their dependence on heredity-geophysical-gravitational origins is ‘high’ in proportion to animals that are ‘high’ on the evolutionary scale. While the latter show some signs of Assertion 7.5 innate patterns, they harbor a greater capacity to Even the computer page is ordered by up, bottom, produce a much more left, right margins and footnotes. flexible mechanism to And it takes time to read them and to comprehend respond to a variety of other them; the time that always advances from past to external changes that future; the time that we term Linguistic Arrow of Time. stimulate them. The Similarly, gravity-induced ordering of shelves, evolutionary origin of the files, documents and books in a library introduces so-called "innate ideas" order into our life. may, therefore, be external rather than internal.

7.4 Gravity-Induced Law, Seconds, Minutes, Days, Years

129


W

hole cultures, civilizations and religions have been constructed on gravity-

induced human orientability, concepts, spirituality, art, music, home structure, village structure, wells, canals, boats, trade, agriculture, and even law enforcement by hanging [13].

H

istory testifies that such gravity-induced cultural phenomena may proceed

beyond grammar and social order far into the spiritual and hierarchical domains: High priest, low deck, high commissioner, and highness, heaven, lofty, go to the bottom of the subject, etc. [Appendices].

7.5 Biological Clocks and Gravitation

T

he origin of temporal behavior in animals can be traced back in time and out to

external physical influences. Gravity and geophysical periodicities thus emerge as prime sources of order and information in all non-living and living systems. Animals low on the evolutionary scale depend little on learning, and have a lesser adaptability to changes in the environment. Consequently, their dependence on heredity-geophysical-gravitational origins is high in proportion to animals high on the evolutionary scale.

7.6 Vertigo, Loss of Coordination-Balancing & Gravity

130


V

ertigo is a loss of coordination, balancing and orientation vis-à-vis space and

the gravity-induced horizon.

B

iological structures in the inner ear include semicircular canals and a fluid that

moves, by gravity force, with respect to the gravity vector and activates a system that transmits linear and rotational motions vis-à-vis the gravity vector to the vestibular nerve, which carries these signals through the brainstem to our brain cerebellum, which, in turn, uses them to control our balancing, orientation, coordination and movement. The vestibular system in our ears comprises two semi-circular ‘canals’, which are used to indicate our rotational movements, and otoliths, which indicate linear translations.

T

he vestibular system sends signals primarily to the neural structures that

control our eye movements, and to the Cerebellum-muscles system that keeps us upright and helps maintain clear vision-orientation vs. the gravity vector.

7.7 Biological Cells, Reproduction, Immunity System & Gravity

131


G

ravity causes changes in cell division, metabolism and the immunity system.

Reproduction is also impaired and the immune cells cannot differentiate into mature cells in low or zero gravity conditions attainable in space craft. The size of a biological cell depends on the local gravity vector â&#x20AC;&#x201C; its size increases in larger local gravitational field-force values. Bone cells must attach themselves to something and will die if they cannot. Without the gravity force-field they float around and perish. When animals evolve on land, outside the oceans, they develop stronger skeletons to cope with larger gravity forces vis-Ă -vis the reduced one due to buoyancy in the waters. Earlier life forms in the oceans were smaller and had a jellyfish-like configuration. Thus, without strong skeletons, land animals cannot evolve.

7.8 Animals and Gravity-Induced Effects

G

ravimorphism, gravitropism and tropism are directional movements of a

plant with respect to a directional stimulus. One such tropism is gravimorphism -the growth or movement of a plant with respect to gravity. Plant roots grow in the direction of gravity while shoots and stems grow against it.

RECAP: Gravity generates structures and controls all geological layers and global phenomena ranging from mountain crests, gravity-induced tectonic folds, valleys, beaches, oceans and lagoons, to springs, wells, swamps, glaciers and rivers, and the bio-systems connected with them. Without gravity-induced orientation-order and grammar we are lost in any given written language. Gravity-induced grammar prevents us from vertical reversals. Similarly, horizontal reversals prevent us, say, from reversals of W to M. There are more complicated gravity-induced grammar rules. They range from preventing reversal of past into future, and vice versa, to use gravity-induced structures as reference: A mountain crest, valley, beach line, river bed, sky, earth, ocean, etc. [Appendices]. 132


Gravity-sensing cells function as detectors of the direction of gravity. The fluidparticles systems inside cells initiate inner convective currents that cease under zero gravity. Thus, the absence of gravity affects the contacts of cells via their membrane potential and their cytoskeletons.

7.9 Gravity-Induced Village and City Structures

G

ravity

generates

structures

and

controls all geological layers and global phenomena ranging from mountain crests, tectonic folds, geological uplifts, valleys, village and city structures, transportation systems, oceans and lagoons, to springs, wells, swamps, glaciers and rivers, as well as the ecological-systems connected with them.

133


7.10 Gravity and Global Warming

Gravity affects global warming and all ecological systems. [Cf. Solar System in Lecture 1, Footnotes.].

7.11 Gravity and Health The

evolution and everyday

functioning of our bones, legs, hips, joints, cartilages, ligaments, femurs, tibia, pelvis and muscles, has been "in response" to the force and direction of gravity. Gravity plays a key factor in hygiene and in heart failure associated with swollen legs, in flooded lungs, walking, sleeping needs, etc. Nevertheless, the cardinal role gravity plays in the treatment of gravity-induced disorders in biological systems, human perception, health and longevity, has been largely overlooked by health providers and researchers, partly because the key role of gravity as the universal generator of all socio-gravity-dynamics, has not yet been well understood and investigated.

Homework Part I 134


The images posted in this free online Volume III have been allowed, by stated public policies of NASA, CERN, various observatories, Facebook and Wikipedia, to be freely re-posted in the public domain. The images below may be used for initiating independent thoughts and essays on gravity-induced aspirations, concepts and facts. Students are required to give captions to all the pictures and submit an asay on a selected topic.

7.12 Gravity and Transportation Systems

135


7.13 Gravity, Landscaping and Symmetry

7.14 Gravity, Seas, Lakes, Mountains, Valleys, Trees

136


137


138


7.15

Gravity and the Arts

Lecture 10 Gravitism and Havayism

‘Tis writ: 'in the beginning was the Word!' I pause, to wonder what is here inferred? Word I cannot supremely 10.1 The The Seeds ofsetTime andhigh, Monotheism A new translation I will try. I read, if by the spirit I am taught, This sense: 'In the beginning was the Thought'. This opening I need to weigh ravitation, since the end of the “Radiation Era”again, [Introduction], dominates all. Or sense may suffer from a hasty pen. Does [Lecture 5].Thought create, and work, and rule the hour? 'Twere best: 'In the beginning was the Power!' Yet, while the pen is urged with willing fingers, A sense of doubt and hesitancy lingers. The spirit come to guide me in my need, 139 I write, 'In the beginning was the Deed!' Wolfgang von Goethe

G

Faust . Transl. Philip Wayne (Penguin Classics, London)


According to the Bible:

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was without form and void â&#x20AC;Ś Genesis 1

M

ost astrophysicists, cosmologists and astronomers agree today that the biblical

account of the beginning of cosmic evolution, in stressing "a beginning" and the initial roles of "void" and a structure-less, chaotic8.4 state, may be uncannily close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us with. In the beginning, according to modern astronomy and empirical relativistic cosmology, the highly curved space-time of the early universe is analogous to a "white hole" in which radiation-dominated (structure-less) pre-atomic medium [Lecture 5], had expanded away from extremely high density and temperature, to end up in the present, matter-dominated era in which the initial structure-less medium has gradually developed into the present hierarchy of gravitationallybounded galaxies, and other structures, including the late arrival of mortals. (Appendix III).

140


Conservative scientists employ the concept of ‘disorder’ or ‘entropy’ in all branches of science to claim, contrary to fact, that entropy increases disorder in the cosmos. However, as described in these pages it is gravity that makes the ‘entropists’ worse than wrong; Gravity generates order and structures all over the universe. Entropy-free science is flawless. Gravitism score: 8:0.

141


How gravity generates order out of disorder?

142


Symmetry

and Anti-

Symmetry are key concepts in adequate understanding of Time and Monotheism and What are ‘things-in-themselves’? Assertion 10.1

Scientists who claim that they operate without reliance on pre-supposed philosophical principles are self deluded. Scientific theories always advance, stagnate or decline under the domination of a philosophy, whether declared or undeclared. Therefore, philosophy of science is the base of science that should not be left only to the care of the philosophers. Assertion 10.2

No slice of verified facts should be ‘fenced’, isolated and divided from the rest of verifiable knowledge. Assertion 10.3

All facts are interconnected by the current Laws of Physics. 143


Assertion 10.4

Verified evidence: The current Laws of Physics are not “final”. They will be replaced. Assertion 10.5

A higher set of LAW had been introduced to this world simultaneously with the socalled Big Bang at maximally curved space-time at physical time zero. Assertion 10.6

Scientists do split over the issue of the origin of and ‘missing’ One Unified Law: The ones who assume that One Law was introduced by what is commonly termed the creator; the ones who assume that a creator is not required in science, the ones who refuse to think.

The language of Abrahamic Religions [Western Monotheism] attributes infinite absolute knowledge to the Creator, part of which is not foreign to science, like the following examples [list below]: Cause whose essence is its very existence, and therefore is self-sufficient and not in need of something else to give it existence. Cause of form and matter, which, by themselves, cannot cause the movement of the universe or the meshech of existing things. Cause of all Chains of Secondary Causes, Cause of existing things that coexists with its effect. Cause of the laws of physics,

144


P

erhaps the first to avoid false “definitions”, or “isolation”, or “fencing” [Lecture

2] of the creator, are Abraham’s son and grandson: “The God of our Father; the God of Abraham.

145


All Rights Reserved to Benjamin Gal-Or, Editions 1981-2012

2012

The non-inclusive list provided in the next pages has been carefully collected over a period of years. In our humble opinion it reflects deep-rooted human aspirations in the past and today. By resorting to U.S.-English pronunciation we attempt to spell some publicly pronounced concepts-names as they often sound in various languages, resorting to our own free translation. All resulting mistakes are entirely ours.

1


All Rights Reserved to Prof.Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or

2012

Abrahamic Monotheism, Abrahamic Religions, Absolute, Absolute Authority with Infinite Knowledge Absolute Being, Absolute cause of All, Absolute Duration, Absolute Entity, Absolute Extension, Absolute Guidance of the created, Absolute in ever-lasting Duration, Absolute in ever-lasting Meshech, Absolute infinity-Being, Absolute infinity of meshech-space-extension, Absolute Judge, Absolute Justice, Absolute Law, Absolute of what Exists forever, Absolute of what Is, Absolute Order, Absolute Meshech, Absolute Moral Law, Absolute past and future, Absolute Predictor, Absolute Reality, Absolute Reason, Absolute Reason of all Reality, Absolute Reason that manifests itself in nature, Absolute Ruler of physical time, Absolute space-time, Absolute Spirit, Absolute Things-in-Themselves, Absolute Truth, Absolute Undividable, Absolute universal Being, Absolute Universal Mind, Absolute Unity, Absolute Zmann, Absolute Time, Absolute Truth, Achaman, 2


All Rights Reserved to Prof.Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or

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Ad-Daarr, Addir Bi-Mromav, Addirainu, Addonnai, Addonnai Ehaad, Addonnai Eloheychah, Addonnai Eloheyinu, Addonnai Eloheyinu U-moshyainu Addonnai Eloheyinu Ve-Elohay Avootainu, Addonnay Ha-Adonim, Addonnay Ha-Mashiach, Addon Ha-Aretz, Addon Kol Tolladott, Addonai Melech, Addonai Moshyainu, Addonai Tzvaoot, Addon Olamm, Addoshem, Agla, Aj-Jaami^, Aj-Jaleel, Al-^Adl, Al-^Afuw, Al-Ahahaad, Al-'Akhir, Al-^Aleem, Al-^Aliyy, Al-'Awwal, Al-^Azeem, Al-^Azzeez, Al-Baaqi, Al-Baasit, Al-Baatin, Al-Ba^ith, Al-Badi^, Al-Bari', Al-Barr, Al-Baseer, Al-Fattaah, Al-Ghaffaar, Al-Ghafoor, Al-Ghaniyy, 3


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Al-Haadi, Al-Hafeez, Al-Hakam, Al-Haleem, Al-Hameed, Al-Hakeem, Al-Haqq, Al-Haseeb, Al-Hayy, Al-Jabbaar, Al-Khaafid, Allah, Allah Akbaar, All-Glorious Ruler of the Universe, All-Merciful, All Nature, All-Observer, All-Peaceful, Al-Maajid, Al-Maani^, Al-Malik, Al-Mateen, Almighty, Al-Mu'akh-khir Al-Muhsee, Al-Mubdi', Al-Mu^eed, Al-Mughni, Al-Muhaimin, Al-Muhyi, Al-Mu^iz, Al-Mujeeb, Al-Majeed, Al-Mumeet, Al-Mu'min, Al-Muntaqim, Al-Muqeet, Al-Muqsit, Al-Muqtadir, Al-Muqaddim, Al-Musawwir, Al-Mutakabbir, 4


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Al-Muta^ali, Al-Muthil, Al-Mu'tiy, Al-Qahhaar, Al-Quddoos, Al-Qaabid, Al-Kabeer, Al-Kareem, Al-Khaaliq, Al-Lateef, Al-Qaadir, Al-Qawiyy, Al-Qayyoom, Al-Razzaaq, Al-Waahid, Al-Waajid, Al-Waarith, Al-Wadood, Al-Wahhaab, Al-Wakeel, Al-Waliyy, Al-Walee, Al-Wasi^, Amahan Namo, Ama Namin, Am What I am, Ang Gumaawa, An-Nafi^, An-Noor, Anu, Anwalda, Ar-Raafi^, Ar-Raheem, Ar-Rahmaan, Ar-Ra'uf, Ar-Raqeeb, Ar-Rasheed, Asher Hoo Addon Ollam, Asher Kidshahanu Be-Mitzvotaav, Asher Nattaan Lechah, Asher Tzivaanu, Ash-Shaheed, 5


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Ash-Shakoor, As-Sabboor, As-Salaam, As-Samee^, As-Sammaad Attah El, Attah Gibor Le-Ollam Addonai, Attah Hoo, Attah Addonai Eloheainu Melech Ha-Ollam, At-Tawwaab, Avvinu, Azboga, Az-Zaahir, Babaji, Being as cause of all, Bog, Boreh, Borainu, Bore Ollam, Blessing All, Blessed is Him, Brich Hoo, Cause of all, Cause of all being, Cause of all Chains of secondary Causes, Cause of Nature, Cause of the laws of physics, Cause of the World, Cause whose essence is its very existence, and therefore is self-sufficient and not in need of something else to give it existence, Cause of existing things that coexists with its effect, Cause of form and matter, which, by themselves, cannot cause the movement of the universe or the meshech of existing things. Creator, Creator of all, Creator of all life, Creator of food from the earth, Creator of Order and Law of Nature, Creator of sky and earth, Creator of stars and their path, 6


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Cause of the laws of physics, Creator of us, Creator of the world, Creator of all Beings, Creator of Holy Script, Creator of the Law of Nature, Cyninga Wuldor, Demiurge, Deus, Dhatr, Dio, Dios, Divine Fire, Divine Teacher, Divine Personal Providence, Divinly Merciful, Divinity of Pre-Existence, Diyos, Dywok, Ehaad Elohainu, Eeheyeh Asher Eeheyeh, El, El Kannaei, El Kaddosh, Eleichah Eeinainu, El Ha-Shammaim, Eli, El Malle Rahamim, El Melech Hanoon Verahoom, Elohay Avvotainu, Elohay Avraham, Yitzhak Ve-Yaakov, Elohay Ha-Elohim, Elohay Ishaainu, Elohay Yaakov, El Elyon, El Shaddai, El Ollam, Elohainu, Elohim, 7


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El Gibbor, Elohei Kedem, Elohim, Elokim, Et shimchah Malknu, Eternal Mind, Eyel, Ezramm Umaginam Hoo, Father, Father Alwalda, Final Reason of all things, Final reason of Nature, Frea Ealles, Gaall Israel, Ghuto, Gheu, Ginoo, Goallainu, Gott, God of Abraham, God of Abraham, Itzhack and Yakkov, God of Israel, God of the children of Israel, God of the world, God of all life, God of Heaven and earth, God of â&#x20AC;Ś [see Lord of ...] God-the Father, Ground of all being and itself all being Ha-Boreh, Ha-El Avvinu, Ha-El Ha-Gaddol, Hahu, Hahu Tammir Ve-Neellaam, Hahvahyah, Hahvahyah Kullah, Halleluyah, Ha-Mattir Assorim, Ha-Kaddosh Baruch Hoo, 8


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Ha-Maitiv La-Kol, Ha-Makkom, Ha-Mavvdil, Ha-Maitiv, Ha-Mechahyeh Metim, Ha-Mehoollal be-rov Tishbachoot, Ha-Mekitz Nirdammim, Ha-Melech Ha-Tov, Ha-Melech Ha-Yoshev Aall Kisseh Raam Ve-Nissah, Ha-Menaheg Ollamo Be-Hessed, Ha-Meorer Yeshenim, Ha-Messiach Ylmim, Ha-Motzi Lehem Min Ha-Aretz, Hari, Ha-Yekum Koolo, Ha-Zokef Kfufim, Hannon Addonai Ve-Tzaddik, Ha-Rachmaann, Ha-Shem, Ha-Shem Yitbarach, Ha-Shochen Bamromim, Ha-Somech Noflim, Ha-Yesh Kullo, Ha-Yekuum Kullo, Hear, O Israel: Yahweh is our God, Yahweh is one, Hetefi, Hetem, Hephep, He Who Is, He Who Gives Being, He created the heavens and the earth and sent down for you water from the Sky, He is beyond time, He is a unity unlike any other possible unity, He is not the object of any creatural attribute or qualification, He is unknowable, inaccessible, the source of all Revelation, eternal, Omniscient, Omnipresent and almighty, He, the Cause of all, is one, Hoo, Hoo Gmalainu, Hoo Ha-Maytiv, Hoo Yaasse Shallom Allainu, 9


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HNYBMhKhKRTK (read right to left) Hubal, Hwa-Taw, I am the LORD, who made all things, who alone stretched out the heavens, who by myself spread out the earth, Ilah, Imminent, Ineffable Name, Ishvara Itnuw, Itmu, Jahowah, Jahovah, Jahovah Nissi, Jahovah Rapha. Jahovah Tsidkeinu, Jahovah Shallom, Jahovah Shabbatt Ka, Kaddosh Shmo, Kami, Kdoshainu, Kdosh Israel, Kewen, Khabkhab, Khetraj, Khoda, King of Majesty, King of Kings of the Kings King of the World, Kol Asher Hahffetz Assa, Krishna-Vasudeva, Kun, Lechah Ezbach, Leffannaav Lemi She-Assa Le-Avvootainu Ve-lanno, Le-Shimchah Ten Kavvodd, 10


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Lord, Lord and Master, Lord of All Things, Lord of Glory, Lord of Hosts, Lord of Humankind, Lord of Men, Lord our God, Lordly Master of All, Makapang Yarihan Naming Diyos, Mashbiah Le-Kol Hai Ratzon, Malik Al-Mulk, Malkainu, Malkainu Tammid, Mekkaddesh Israel Veha-Zmannim, Melech Ha-Olam Melech Malchei Hamlachim, Melech Mehoolal Ba-Tishbachoot, Melech Raav, Mi Kamochah, Moral Order of Nature and Life, ‘MTKNA MTSP MYSPSP MYSNVYD’ (read code from right to left) Necessitating cause of the entire chain of lower causes that constitutes the world of contingent existing of apparent and things-in-themselves, Necessitating cause-and-effect in universal determinism of one Law, Neter, Nethraj, Nekhbaj, Nehef, Nebirut, Nebi, Nebu, Neberdher, Non-existence is impossible for Him, ‘NTSIRQ zTTYGBA GTzTRTB SKYDGN QZPLGY INTDKhK TYzTVKS’ (read code from right to left) Notten Lehem Le-Kol Bassar, Nun, 11


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O Lord, One in Process, Oneness of God-Allah (Tawhid) Osseh Niflaoot Osseh Orim Gdolim, Osseh Shalom Bi-Mromav, Osseh Shammaim Va-Aretz, Omnibenevolence, Omnipotence, Omnipotent Being, Omnipresence, Omniscience, Omniscient, One Universal, Osiris, Our God, Our Father, Our Lord, Panginoon, Perfect goodness, Personal Providence Prime Mover, Prjapati, Primordial Consciousness, Protector, Protector of Mankind, Ramathel, Reason of all, Reason of duration, Reason of first Cause, Reason of meshech, Reason of Mind, Reason of space-meshech, Reason of duration-extension, Reason of time, Reason of Time Arrow, Reason of Zmann, Roainu, Roaeh Israel, Ruler of the Universe, 12


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Sabbaoth, Sai, Saj, Sathya, Savitr, Scyppend, Sedga, Shaddai, ShangSha, Shesa, Self-able, Self-Powerful, She-hehcheyannu Ve-Kymannu, She-Hinchilanno, She-hotziannu Mimitzrraim, She-Karrah Lanno et Ha-Yaam, Shem Addonai, She-Sippek Tzrachainu Ba-Midbar, She-Kirvvanu Le-Harr Sinai, She-Hichnisanu Le-Eretz Israel, She-Kipper Aall Koll Avvoonotainu She-Nattan Lanno et Ha-Shabbatt, She-Nattan Lano et Ha-Thorah, She-Banna et Beith Ha-Mikdash, Shemirah, Shemurah, Shochen Aad, Marom Ve-Kaddosh Shmo, Spinozaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s God, Supreme Being, Supreme Reality, Sema Maat, Surya,

Tawhid (oneness of God-Allah) Tehuti, Tetragrammaton YHVH, The Able, The Acceptor of Repentance, The Alive, 13


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The All-Embracing, The All-Forgiving, The All-Hearing, The All-Knowing, The All Powerful, The All-Seeing, The All Wise, The Almighty, The Appreciative, The Avenger, The Aware, The Beneficent, The Bestower, The Blessing Being, The Bountiful, The Capable, The Clement, The Compassionate, The Compeller, The Constrictor, The Counter, The Creator, The Creator of Death, The Defeater who is not defeated, The Deity, The Delayer, The Destroyer The Dishonorer, The Dominant, The Dweller of the Upper Levels, The Elevator, The Enlarger, The Enricher, The Equitable, The Eternal Owner of Sovereignty, The Eternity of the World, The Eternal, The Everlasting, The Evolver, The Expander, The Expediter, The Fashioner, 14


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The Father, The Feeder, The Finder, The Firm One, The First, The Forbearing, The Forgiving, The Future, The Gatherer, The Giver, The Giver of Forms, The Giver of Life, The Glorious, The Glory, The God of Justice, The God of Our Fathers, The God of Einstein & Spinoza, The Governor, The Gracious, The Grateful, The Greatest Conceivable Being, The Greatest Good, The Guardian, The Guardian of Faith, The Guide, The Guide to the Right Path, The Hearer, The Hearkener, The Heir, The Hidden, The High Exalted, The Holy, The Holy Blessed One, The Holy One, The Honorer, The Humiliator, The Ineffable Name, The Imperious, The Imperishable, The Incomparable, The Independent, The Judge, 15


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The Judge of Judges, The King of Kings of Kings, The King of the Universe, The Knowledgeable, The Last, The Light, The Lord, The Lord of All, The Lord of All Creatures, The Lord of Majesty and Bounty, The Lord, Our Lord, The Loving, The Maintainer, The Maker, The Maker of All Things, The Manifest One, The Master who is relied upon, The Merciful, The Mercy of Allah is His will to endow upon whoever He willed among His creatures, The Mighty, The Most Exalted, The Most Glorious One, The Most High, The Name, The Patient, The Perceiver, The Perfectly Free, The Perfectly Good, The Powerful, The praised One, The Praiseworthy, The Preserver, The Promoter, The Propitious, The Pure Spiritual Being, The Perfect Peace, The One, The One attributed with a life that is unlike our life and is not that of a combination of soul, flesh or blood, The One attributed with self-knowledge, The One deserving the attributes of Exaltment, Glory, Extolment and Purity 16


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from all imperfection, The One nothing is absent from His Knowledge, The One that exists without a place and proofs, The One that nothing happens in His Dominion except that which He willed, The Majestic, The One that nothing is above Him and nothing is underneath Him, The One that nothing is absent from Him, The One who answers the one in need if he asks Him and rescues the yearner if he calls upon Him, The One who brings back the creatures after death, The One who brings everything from non-existence to existence, The One who constricts the sustenance by His Wisdom and expands and widens it with His Generosity and Mercy, The One who count of things are known to him, The One who delays the punishment for those who deserve it and then He Might forgive them, The One who deserves to be Exalted and not denied, The One who destroys His Enemies, The One who does not quickly punish the sinners, The One who forgives a lot, The One who forgives the sins of His slaves time and time again, The One who forms His creatures in different pictures, The One who gives a lot of reward for a little obedience, The One who gives a lot of reward for a little obedience, The One who gives life by giving the souls back to the worn out bodies on Resurrection day, The One who gives esteem to whoever He willed, none can degrade Him; But He degrades whoever He Willed, hence there is no one to give Him esteem, The One who gives the satisfaction and is relied upon, The One who grants repentance to whoever He willed among His creatures and accepts his repentance, The One who guides, The One who has plenty of mercy for the believers, The One who has the perfect Power and is not unable over anything, The One who Hears all things that are heard by His Eternal Hearing without an ear, instrument or organ, The One who is attributed with greatness of Power and Glory of status, The One who is clear from the attributes of the creatures and from resembling them, The One who is clear from delusions and attributes of bodies, 17


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The One who is correct in His Doings, The One who is indivisible, The One who is invisible, The One who dissipates the rain, The One who is entitled to do what He does, The One who is greater than everything in status. The One who is Majid, The One who is related to the attribute of Knowledge, The One who is with High Status, Compassion, Generosity and Kindness, The One who is pure from any Imperfection, children and adversaries, The One who knows the truth of things, The One who loves His believing slaves and His believing slaves love Him, The One who Lowers Whoever He Willed by His Destruction and Raises Whoever He Willed by His Endowment, The One who makes a distinction between the holy and every day, The One who makes the hearts alive by the light of knowledge, The One who moves mountains, The One who nothing is absent from Him, The One who protects whatever and whoever He willed to The One who opens for His slaves the closed worldly and religious matters, The One who owns things and manages them, The One who puts things in their right places, The One who Remains and Does Not End, The One who renders the living dead, The One who resurrects His slaves after death for reward and/or punishment, The One who sits in the high sky levels, The One who started the human being, The One who’s Dominion is clear from imperfection, The One who’s Existence is without a beginning, The One who’s Existence is without an end, The One who’s Existence Remains, The One who took out a living human from semen that does not have a soul, The One who truly exists, The One who victoriously prevails over His enemies and punishes them, The One who witnessed for Himself that no one is God but Him, and Witnessed for His believers that they are truthful in their belief that no one is God but Him, The One who witnesses the saying and deeds of His creatures, The One with attributes of the Will and Kalam, 18


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The One with extreme Power which is un-interrupted and He does not get tired, The One with the complete Dominion, The One with the perfect Power that nothing is withheld from Him, The One without a Partner, The Opener, The Originator, The Raiser (from death), The Reason that manifests itself in nature, The Reckoner, The Relenting, The Reliever, The Reproducer, The Responsive, The Restorer, The Resurrector, The Retarder, The Retainer, The Righteous, The Ruler and His judgment is His Word, The Self-Subsisting, The Self-Sufficient, The Source of All Goodness, The Source of Moral Obligations, The Source of Peace, The Sovereign Lord, The Strong, The Subduer, The Sublime One, The Subtle One, The Supporter, The Supreme Inheritor, The Sustainer, The Sustaining Cause of the Universe, The Trustee, The Truth, The Unique, The Universe, The unmoved mover, The Vast, The Watcher, The Watchful, 19


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The Whole Havayah, The Witness, The Wise, The Withholder, The Zealous El, Thul-Jalali wal-Ikram, Ti, Tien, Tien Ti, Tot, Tratr, Tsao, Tvashtr, Universum, Uo-Leshimchah Naaeh Le- Zammer,

Va-Yehi Li Le-Yeshuah, Vidhatr, Vishnu, Vishvakarman, ‘VZVK ZSKVM VZVK’ (read sections right to left) Waldend fira, Wealdend, Wholly Other, Wise God, Witig God, Wu che, Wuldres Hyrde, Wuldres Wealdend, Yaah, Yaah Elohainu, Yaah Addonainu, Yaah Shmo, Yahovah, YHVA Yotsrah

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Appendix I On Einstein’s Personal Philosophy

A

lbert Einstein was born on March 14,

1879 in Germany and died on April 19 1955 in the United States. His unprecedented contributions to physics in particular and to science, philosophy, defense [atomic bomb], politics against Nazi Germany and support of Israel are detailed in Ref. 1, especially in “The World As I See It”.

Einstein’s deep religiosity: “It is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science. It was the experience of mystery -- even if mixed with fear -- that engendered religion. A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate, of the manifestations of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty, which are only accessible to our reason in their most elementary forms -it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute the truly religious attitude; in this sense, and in this alone, I am a deeply religious man.” “I cannot conceive of a God who rewards and punishes his creatures, or has a will of the type of which we are 21


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conscious in ourselves. An individual who should survive his physical death is also beyond my comprehension, nor do I wish it otherwise; such notions are for the fears or absurd egoism of feeble souls.” “Enough for me the mystery of the eternity of life, and the inkling of the marvelous structure of reality, together with the single-hearted endeavor to comprehend a portion, be it never so tiny, of the reason that manifests itself in nature.” “I gang my own gait and have never belonged to my country, my home, my friends, or even my immediate family, with my whole heart; in the face of all these ties I have never lost an obstinate sense of detachment, which increases with age.”. “One is sharply conscious, yet without regret, of the limits to the possibility of mutual understanding and sympathy with one's fellow-creatures. Such a person no doubt loses something in the way of geniality and light-heartedness; on the other hand, he is largely independent of the opinions, habits, and judgments of his fellows.” For the following notes one may consult Schilpp, Clark, Golden, Pais, etc. in Ref. 1. In lieu of the aforementioned personal-life philosophy, Einstein consistently selected to protect his privacy inside his room, in his house, working in maximized-freedom, undisturbed solitude; even sleeping naked in his room while his privacy has been strictly guarded by his devoted secretary Helen Dukas, who also screened his incoming mail, deleted nasty or anti-Semitic letters and politely blocking unwanted visitors. Einstein is also known for his subtle sarcasm. Before Einstein left Hitler’s Germany to the United States, a Professor XXX in Berlin was extremely nasty in targeting him. One day Einstein was informed that Professor XXX just died. Einstein’s reaction: “Everyone does something good in his life, even Professor XXX; he died.” As a younger man he used to play his beloved violin in the homes of some German women. One day, while he was playing there, they started knitting. Einstein stopped playing, packed his violin to leave, and apologized: 22


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â&#x20AC;&#x153;I would not even dream to disturb you from your knitting work.â&#x20AC;? On another occasion, as a celebrity living in his house near a lake outside Berlin, his wife urged him to change his simple, but comfortable home dress, to a formal one, for dignitaries are to arrive soon to visit him. His response: If they come to visit me, let them meet me as I am dressed and work in my house. If they come to see my formal dress, please show them my closet.

A

ppendix

II

Gravity-Induced Aspirations, Concepts and Facts; Homework Part II The images posted in this free online Volume III have been allowed, by stated public policies of NASA, CERN, various observatories, Facebook and Wikipedia, to be freely re-posted in the public domain. The groups-lists below may be used for initiating independent thoughts and essays on gravity-induced aspirations, concepts and facts. Students are required to give captions to all the pictures and submit an asay on a selected topic. The sections below harbor no fundamental meaning, except that each aspiration, concept and fact is gravity-induced.

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Galaxies, stars, solar system, planets, atmosphere, biosphere, ionosphere, stratosphere, tectonic lifts, craters, volcanoes, earth quakes, specific gravity, geological strata, dust, drops, rain, snow, clouds, fog, shadows, climate, tropical storms, typhoonhurricane, coriolis forces, weather, dust storms, arid zones, dunes, eco-systems, ozone layer, climate change, stalagmites-stalactites, caves, lakes, oceans, bays, islands, islets, beaches, reefs, waterfront, dunes, sea

level, highland, rivers, valleys, ponds, river bank, canals, river flow, river stones, rocks, brooks, waterfalls, birds, snakes, seeds, plants, grass roots, trees, sky, firmament, ice ages,

Uploading, downloading, uprising, lowly, underlining, underscoring, upright, upbeat, uphold, upgrading, under-performing, underachieving, 24


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stand-up, withstand, stand-by, show down, falling-apart, (physical and conceptual) meltdown, far down, hanging, dissipating, declining, breaking down, Overcoming, over-reacting, updating, tearing down, downgrading, precipitating, overturning, settling, settling down, settle up, settle upon, steady, steadiness, showdown, bring down, upbringing, upheaval, ascend, descend, upkeep, uplifting, lofty, high, low, heavy, earthy, light, upper-class, floating, sitting, rising, hanging, plowing, mowing, diving, floating, flying, walking, balancing, jumping, skiing, ski-lift, ski-jump; taking-off,

landing, pouring, deposition, writing down, flooding, flood insurance,

Otolith biological organs, bio-gravitysensors, gravity-detectors, biological detectors of sound modulations; bioaccelerometers, biological evolution, gravity perception, gravity receptors, digestive system, spine, skeleton, fingers-arms-legs, cerebellum, motor cortex, spinocerebellar tract, vertigo, bioaccelerometers, brainstem, balancing, coordination, orientation, movement, motility, vestibular system, 25


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City and village structures, origin of life, and the origin of hominids in Africa, in Ubeidiya, in Asia. World history and the first recognizable civilizations; The origin of writing; Gravityinduced linguistic arrow of time, perception, brain-mind aggregations of boundaries, bio-sociology, Second, minute, hour, day, year, duration, time, space, cosmological arrow of time, the origin of time, cosmic time, electromagnetic arrows of time, retarded solutions, advanced solutions, initial conditions, Landscape architecture, landscape gardening, hanging gardens, environmentalism vs. preservation of gravity-induced structures, global warming, ice ages, etc.

Clay tokens, numerology, seasonal rituals, calendar, predictionretrodiction, DNA, RNA, Mitochondrial-DNA, mtDNA-based archaeology, gravity-induced tectonic folds, climatology, erosion, wind, wind energy, geothermal energy, gravity-thermo convection, typhoon-hurricane, sediments, biogeo-chemistry, fractional crystallization, geophysical periodicities, fossil fuels, meteors, comets, asteroids, etc. 26


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Center of gravity in air, land and sea machines, center of gravity in trees, animals and aircraft, cars, boats, ships, tractors, gravity feeders, Sunrise, sunset, scuba diving, coral reef, coast-line control, coast guard, border barriers, nationalities; roots, branches, flower or wheat morphology; apical dominance position of a shoot, form (habit) of a plant depends on the orientation of its parts in relation to

gravity, production of ethylene by physical stress imposed on the tissue, gate, poles, posts, Underpass, overpass, bridge, foundations, floor, table, chair, chairperson, chairing, bed, bedding, rugs, walls, doors, windows, curtains, tapestries, chandeliers, candle flame, roof, stairs, stage, dome, arc, shelves, balcony, porch, piers,

drainage, water dams, water reservoirs, lava, adder, lift, elevator, escalator, columns, tides,

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Geological layers, coral reefs, crust, mantle, lithosphere, mountain crests, gravity-induced tectonic folds and uplifts, earthquakes, lagoons, springs, wells, swamps, glaciers, city and village structures, downtown, upper town, airfields, aircraft, spacecraft, airports, lots, landslide, septic tank, drainage

systems, sewage systems, aqueduct, drop and bubble phenomena, fields, ports, harbors, railways, highways, path, trail, road systems, transportation systems, structures, bridges, tunnels, ships, light houses, dock view, boats, boat docks, anchors, cable cars, space

exploration, sports, basketball, •

Aesthetics, Dadaism, Realism, Naturalism vs. Mark Chagall, antigravity modern art; Salvador Dali vs. surrealism and gravity-induced, downflowing clocks; Marc Chagall vs. mankind dreams of flying; ‘anti-gravity’ leitmotifs vs. related stories, anecdotes, movies; Van Gogh vs. oriented brush 28


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strokes of what penetrates all nature, what controls all life: direction and rhythms; â&#x20AC;˘

Linguistic asymmetries & symmetries, space orientation of symbols, syntax, words, sentences, grammar, linguistic arrow of time, gravity axis, social determinism, bio-

social systems and communication, aggregated-oriented entities-symbolswords, oriented verbal thinking, aggregated things-in-themselves, aggregated pictures in the brain-mind, â&#x20AC;˘

Structures and structural stability, aggregation, symmetry-asymmetry, irreversibility, mathematically-based theories, aggregated memory;

â&#x20AC;˘

Origin of life, biosphere, biological

cells, Head, legs, gravity and the organism, geo-bio-systems, structural changes in legs, hands, fingers, knees, neck, throat, intestine, rectum, skeletons, nervous system, skull, hair, location of eyebrows, eyelids, nose nostrils, mouth, orientation-location of the reproduction organs, inability to eat upside down; shoes, slippers, socks, 29


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underwear, pants, shirt, coat, necktie, hat, crown, cell structure vis-Ă -vis gravity, diapers, blanket, Socio-environmental interactions, point of view, maps, clays, pottery, machines that exploit the force of gravity, ocean waves, wind-turbines, Gravitational field, relativistic

astrophysics and astronomy, relativistic transformations, curved space-time, quasars, black holes, neutron stars, red & white dwarfs, gravitational selection-orientation, gravitational lens, pre-genesis, principle of

equivalence, gravitational attraction, gravitational collapse, X-ray sources, proto-galaxies, dwarf planet, dwarf star, dwarf galaxies,

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Boundaries, territories, boundary conditions, boundary problem, membranes, Gravitation vis-à-vis: Entropy, ‘Noise’, ‘Disorder’ and ‘Information’: Thermodynamics-Information Theories. Entropy, ‘Noise’, ‘Disorder’, Chaos.

High-rise

buildings,

cathedrals,

mosques. pagodas, higher-class, heavenliness, heaven-ward, hell, high priest, High Table, kingdom of the

sky, underworld, The One who sits in the

high sky levels, The One who dissipates the rain, The One who moves mountains, The One who lifts the … [See also Epilogue] My Church of Gravity, the origin of time, SPACE-1, Master Black Sink,

Master Arrow of Time, time asymmetries, 31


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Fences,

territories,

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domains,

Supersymmetries, Symmetry breaking, Higgs boson, Anti-Symmetry, string theories, general relativity relativistic cosmology, unified field theories,

geodesics, photon trajectories, system, solar wind, bow shock,

solar

termination shock, meteors, heliosphere, entropy and Entropy-Free Thermodynamics; moon-planet-stars-rounded shape, our galaxy, Local Group of galaxies, superclusters of galaxies, expanding SPACER-1/Voids [The Master Black Sink], Inter-cluster space, radiation energy density in inter-cluster space, supernovae, fusion and heavy elements. thermo-nuclear reaction, the building blocks of life, observations-distance-light-year, galactic centers, planetary systems, space research, 32


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A

ppendix

III

WORLD HISTORY Part III [Parts I and II are avaialble in Lecture 5]

And the name of the third river is Hiddekel; which flows toward the east of Ashur. And the fourth river is Euphrate. Genesis 2:14 Te’rah begat Abram, Nahor, and Ha’ran; and Ha’ran begat Lot. And Ha’ran died before his father Te’rah, in the land of his nativity, in Ur Kasdim [of the Chal’dees]. Genesis, 11; 27, 28 Get yourself out of your country, And from your kindred, And from your father’s house, To the land that I will show you.

U

r, like Egypt, India and China, is among first-

timer civilizations in world history. It is where the first full-fledged written language and Abrahamic Monotheism enter world history and have since irreversibly changed humanity. Science also emerged there and it is not clear why the two grand outlooks – modern physics and old and modern 34


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monotheism are so-far apart despite common interest to explain all. [Lectures 1 to 9]. Let us next examine the facts. Shown is a Middle Babylonian legal tablet from Alalah in its envelope

O

nce a complete writing language has evolved and used in UR, its surviving

records -- on time-invariant, dry, clay tablets -- have provided us with details of incredibly rich culture and early science that had flourished mainly from about 6500 to 4700 years ago and has since been adopted, almost in its entirety, by the Babylonian civilization and subsequently us, today.

This first recognizable civilization invented the use of seconds, minutes, hours, degrees, astronomy and numerology as we use them today. [See below]

Poems,

anecdotes, prose, huge decorated temples, pantheon of gods, diversified theology, cosmology, political system, government, organized armies and numerology, had all flourished there. No such parallels in Egypt, India and China had emerged that early. Hence, UR is widely recognized as the first fully fledged civilization on earth.

Some of its great epics have surfaced to the light of history in various

archeological sites. A few surfaced independently in the biblical stories of GilgameshAVI.2, the flood, Noah, the ark and the city of Ur -- the birthplace of Abraham, the biblical founder of Western monotheism.

The Ubaidians -- The Founders of UR

Around 8,000 years ago, the first settlers in UR are called Ubaidians. Their name is derived from Tel al'Ubaid, near the city of Ur. There is no evidence to back-link them with Ubeidiya, more than a million years earlier. Nevertheless, as recent mtDNA-based studies link humans around the world, it may be a plausible assumption.

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About 6600 year ago, the Ubaidians living in villages

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3

developed systems to drain marshes and irrigate their crops by digging ditches to river waters. As in the earlier Carmel culture, they learned to keep farm animals and developed weaving, leather work and even copper and bronze metallurgy. They were also involved in trade with nearby societies: West, east, North and South of their unique land.

At about 6100 year ago the Ubaidians developed large ovens for baking bread. In Tell Hamoukar, a protective city wall had been erected. Hieroglyphics were first developed, mainly for record-keeping of trade transactions and taxes. Gradually these hieroglyphics evolved into the first written language. (See below) The earliest known writing for record keeping evolved from a system of counting using small clay tokens that began about 8000 BCE. When the Sumerian wanted to represent "two sheep", they selected two round clay tokens each having a + sign baked into it. Each token was first represented one sheep. But representing a hundred sheep with a hundred tokens was impractical, so they invented different clay tokens to represent different numbers. There was a token for one sheep, a different token for ten sheep, a different token for ten goats, etc. To ensure that nobody alters the tokens, they invented a clay envelope shaped like a hollow ball into which the tokens on a string were placed, sealed, and baked. If anybody disputed the number, they could break open the clay envelope and do a recount. To avoid unnecessary damage to the record, they pressed archaic number signs and witness seals on the outside of the envelope before it was baked, each sign similar in shape to the tokens they represented. Since there was seldom a need to break open the envelope, the signs on the outside became the first written language for writing numbers on a clay. Beginning about 3500 BCE the tokens and envelopes were replaced by numerals impressed with a round stylus at different angles in flat clay tablets which were then baked. A sharp stylus was used to carve pictographs representing various tokens. Each sign represented both the commodity being counted and the quantity or volume of that commodity. About 3100 BCE written numbers were dissociated from the things being counted and abstract numerals were invented. The things being counted were indicated by pictographs. Multiplication and division were done with multiplication tables baked in clay tablets. 36


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Ubaid Invaded By Shummerians

About 5900 year ago the Shummerians [â&#x20AC;&#x153;Sumeriansâ&#x20AC;?] replaced Ubaidians and constructed improved canals for irrigating crops and more advanced roads for transporting crops by boat to village centers.

Disciplined infantry in a phalanx with overlapping shields and leveled spears appear on monuments from UR. They have also introduced a new key weapon: A bow composed of interlocked wood and horn strips, which had provided their arrows with a longer range.

The Shummerians had also introduced the foundations of mathematics, establishing the technique of expressing numbers by position and sign, as well as the sixty-based system in our circle of 360 degrees and our hour of sixty minutes, each composed of 60 seconds.

A later Babylonian cosmogony is based on the Shummerian one, with creation of the world from watery medium and the eventual generation of mankind. UR/Summer lasted about 1,300 years, roughly from 5300 to 4000 years ago. Then the Elamites invaded and sacked it.

How the First Writing Language Was Invented? The invention of the first full-fledged writing language is attributed to both the Ubaidians and the Shummerians. That progress coincides with the gradual transition from hunting-gathering families, groups, and tribes, to more permanent agrarian communities, villages and cities. The need to mark and count private property, such as parcels of land, animals, or measures of grain, or evidence of trade in transferring private property to another, or to contribute it to the cult center to please the local ruler/priest/god, were probably the main driving force for the invention of a writing language. Rich literature, list of kings and religious mythologies have emerged and survived on clay tablets.

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The first evidence of recording of property was discovered as "counting tokens", such as those depicted below. These may represent numerical records of trade, or goods provided to the temple priest/god.

Full-Fledged 1st Language: The Cuneiform Writing

Between 6100 to 5800 years ago, such records are transformed into more meaningful symbols that can be inscribed into wet clay configurations as shown above -- prior to drying and thus preserving them. Such records are precursors of the first written language in world history.

Some pictographs have also served as bases for developing a written language. Both were gradually stylized, rotated with respect to the common â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;up-down vector of gravityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, and then impressed on soft wet clay with a wedge shaped stylus to become the script known today as Cuneiform writing. Examples and their meanings are shown below.

Head

Foot

Sun "day" Hand

Woman

Excavations of the ancient city Ugarit, have produced texts in a cuneiform script that were consonantal [no vowels] and in the order of the Alef-Beyt, as shown below.

Cuneiform Writing 38


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The Shummerians also wrote arithmetic based on units of ten. Such records were also read as a common language when their ‘up-down’ and ‘left-right’ orientations were agreed upon by the priest or king and enforced on some others by hard education.

Such education was enforced by punishable training aimed to associate symbols with things, animals and spoken sounds. Gradually, when enforced as the common order of symbols, via gravity-induced orientation [Lecture 6], to represent the spoken sounds, they have been used by the Shummerians for hundreds of years.

Emergence of Religious-Cosmic Order

The invention of writing was immediately exploited as a tool to tighten the control of and priests over the population. It was used to increase the control of rulers and over assets and to exercise their claimed power. Such enforced spread of the language has helped control bigger villages, towns and cities. A sort of an has eventually emerged. But that signaled forthcoming end. It is in the UR/Summer civilization that a close

kings mainly priests divine written empire its

Shummerian Lyre relationship between religion and government had evolved.

Origin of Cosmogony, Astronomy and Numerology Concerned about their cosmological-stargods, the Shummerians needed to map, 39


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by astronomical methods, the fixed and moving stars. That prompted them to divide the sky circle into units of sixty, each 6 degrees, from which they also invented the 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in an hour. Therefore, when we use them in everyday life, we are using an ancient culture, a cultural system that we take for granted, namely, without inquiring about its origin and ancientscope meaning.

Scholars

Judicial Law & Womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Equality

assume that the first organized system of education was also introduced in UR. The legal idea of justice, with or without clear division between secular and religious authorities, played a basic role in UR. Monogamous families were gradually established by law, which also gave women important rights. Divorce, for instance, was conducted by law that provided equitable treatment of divorced wives.

UR/Shummerian

art

portrays skirts, clean-shaved men and dressed soldiers as well as men sitting armchairs with cups in their hands musicians play for them. Some therefore assume that one of the first instruments in the ancient world is the Shummerian Lyre.

women in uniformly in while scholars musical depicted

Ur, Uruk, Erech Ur is identified with Uruk and the biblical Erech. The Talmud also identifies Ur KaĹ&#x203A;dim with Erech in a place called Urichus. According to the Shummerians, the primeval sea (abzu) existed BEFORE anything else, and within it, heaven (an) and earth (ki) were formed. The boundary between heaven and earth was firm and solid. The earth was a flat disk, while the brighter spots were the stars, 40


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sun and moon. An, god of heaven, is the main god of the pantheon. Ki is probably the earth goddess Ninhursag (queen of the mountains), Ninmah (the exalted lady), or Nintu (the lady who gives birth). Enki, during the first days, needed things that were created.

‘Heaven’ and Earth Separate

An took ‘Heaven’ while Enlil took earth. Nammu is the Goddess of the watery abyss, the primeval sea. She is the earliest of deities within the Shummerian cosmology. Elsewhere she is described as mother of all gods and as wife of An, Enki's mother. Anunnaki’s temple was in Erech. He and Enlil give the gods, goddesses and the Shummerian kings their “divine power”.

The Origin of Abrahamic [Hebrew] Monotheism

The Hebrews are the first to collectively arrive at and obey the abstract notion of a single Creator of All, and, later, to forbid, mainly via the Ten Commandments in the Torrah, any representation of YHVH by any image, 41


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statue, painting or icon. No people have produced a greater historical impact from the idea of Monotheism. In trying to comprehend the origin of Western Monotheism one must first refer to the culture of UR. [Lecture 5].

Abraham

(Ibrahim in Arabic, and initially Abram) was 75 years old when he left Ur. He was probably forced to leave because of his known belief in Monotheism and total rejection of the pantheon of pagan gods. His son, Yitzhak [Isaac] wisely avoided defining God by saying only: “The God of my father, the God of Abraham” [Genesis 31:42].

All

Abrahamic religions are deduced from Abraham’s early idea of a single, ONE GOD. Unlike Isaac and Jacob, Abraham had tried to spread Monotheism through people who had not been 'blood-related'. Tomb of Abraham in Israel

Christianity, as Judaism, had first spread to Egypt, Greece and Rome. It was later divided into various churches and denominations. On the 5th century it was split between Western Catholicism and the Oriental Church (later divided into Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, etc) and, on the 16th century, into the Protestant Reformation and later into hundreds of Protestant denominations.

Islam

originated and was established by Muhammad in the 7th century in Mecca and Medina. It is a direct continuation of Abrahamic Monotheism. Through the son of Abraham, Ishmael, conceived through Abraham's servant Hagar, Muslims are also related to Abraham.

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Abraham had 8 sons: Ishmael by his wife's servant Hagar, Isaac by his wife Sarah, and six by another wife, Keturah.

The Druzes also believe in the Abrahamic faith through their ancestor Yitro [Jethro], the father-in-law of Moshe [Moses, Mussa]. The Noachide faith is also based upon the faith of Abraham through the children of Abraham.

The

Behaii religion is the most modern Abrahamic religion. Its adherents maintain that all people are citizens of planet earth and the beauty of the world shines at any place and via any religion. There is neither a single book to follow, nor ornaments in its temples. It was established by Bahaullah and its world center is in Haifa, Israel. Moshe Leads the Hebrews to victory over Amalec Moses is holding up his arms during the battle of Israel against Ammalec, assisted by Aaron and Yoshuah Bin Noon. Painting by J. E. Millais;

The Behaii religion recognizes Moses, Jesus, Muhammad and Bahaullah as descendants of Abraham through one of his sons and relatives.

The Bible: Where Did it Come From? The contents of Genesis and of the first five books of the Bible [Torah, Pentateuch] have probably existed since a written language was widely used in what is currently called the Middle East. There is little doubt that since the UR/Shummerian/Akkadian literature is so rich with epics, proverbs and wisdom anecdotes, that part of Genesis had been partially originated in the Ur civilization. 43


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Some parts of the Original Hebrew Bible concerning, say, the story of the great flood, may have originated in UR, the birth place of Abraham.

Gilgamesh, and the major implementations of the law, have most likely been adopted in the Original Hebrew Bible from UR. Yet, there is no surviving written evidence of any of the early Hebrew Biblical texts prior to the famous Dead Sea Scrolls from about 2112 years ago.

Scholars conclude that the early written Hebrew texts had been consonantal. Only much later, after the first exile, the Hebrew consonantal text of the Bible has been inserted with vowels, as various geometrical combinations of dots and small ‘Tees’. The early translators of the Original Hebrew Bible to Aramaic and Greek had to struggle with the proper pronunciation and understanding of the text, with or without vowels.AVI.11

Editing processes

have generated many textual variants as well as many

critical mistakes. Perhaps the most famous mistake is demonstrated by the statue of Moses with horns by Michael Angelo. Examples of simple distortions are: Jerusalem instead of Yerushalaim; Jesus or Chesus instead of Yeshu. In some variants of the TEN COMMANDMENTS the ‘Do not murder’ has been distorted to read ‘do not kill’, a significant difference that has caused endless political and moral misunderstandings and accusations up to the present time.

The change from ‘The First Day’ of the week to Sunday has violated one of the Ten Commandments. Hence, the ‘Seventh Day Adventists’ have corrected this violation by returning to Saturday -- the sacrosanct ‘7th Day’ Shabbat. RECAP: All current bible versions have evolved through a slow process that has resulted in thousands of mistakes in both the Old Testament [the Original Hebrew 10 Bible] and the New Testament [the Expanded Bible], which is not ‘New’ .

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In fact, Psalms, Proverbs and Job in the non-Hebrew texts have reached their final form as late as the 4th century. Eleazar, the high priest of Jerusalem, sent to Ptolemy Philadelphus in Alexandria, Egypt, about 2260 years ago, the Hebrew manuscript of the Pentateuch to be translated to Greek -- the famous Septuagint. This great historical event took place about 150 years prior to the writing of the Dead Sea Scrolls about 2110 years ago. The Dead Sea scrolls are, so far, the earliest surviving document of the Original Hebrew Bible. There are at least 5,250 different Church variants and texts of the Original Hebrew Bible.11 Each translator, or a mere copier, had first to master the Hebrew grammar, pronunciation and meaning, an almost impossible task for those who had known only the Greek Septuagint and the Latin versions.

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A portion of the Bible as written in Hebrew about 2000 years ago. The Dead Sea Scrolls. Israel Museum, Jerusalem

Key Events in Evolving Western Monotheism

The Ten Commandments as written in Hebrew about 2000 years ago. The Dead Sea Scrolls. Israel Museum, Jerusalem 1801-19 BCE -- Birth of Abrahamic Religions in UR. [Lecture 5]. Abraham migrates to Canaan and settles there and with his children as their “Promised Land”. Abraham is buried in the Patriarchs Tomb in Hebron, Israel. This is also the Birth of Zionism. 1686-1476 BCE -- Abraham’s offspring in Egypt. This is also Diaspora I. 1476-1436 BCE -- “Zionism II”: Mass Exodus from Egypt; Moses provides the “Ten Commandments” and prepares and leads 12 Israeli tribes back to the “Promised Land”.

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1436-961 BCE – Joshua, Judges, King Saul, King David, King Shlomo. 1st Temple on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. 930—720 BCE – Kingdom of Israel. Was conquered by the Assyrian Empire. Diaspora of the 10 tribes of Israel. 587 BCE -Kingdom of Babylon.

“Diaspora II”: Judea falls to

536 BCE -- “Zionism III”: Back to the “Promised Land”; Ezra; 2nd Temple in Jerusalem erected on Temple-Mount. 164BCE -- Rededication of the Temple after occupation by Greeks ends; Maccaabees. [green area in the map]. 1 -- Jesus [Yeshuah, Jeshu, Gesus] is born in Beit Lehe’m, Judea, Iudaea Province. 6 -- Herod Archelaus deposed by Augustus; Samaria and Judea annexed as Iudaea Province under direct Roman administration; 7-26 – Relative period of peace in Iudaea & Galilee, Iudaea Province. 14-37 -- Tiberius, Roman Emperor. 18-36 -- Caiaphas, appointed High Priest of Herod's Temple by Prefect Valerius Gratus, deposed by Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius. 26-36 -- Pontius Pilate Governor of Iudaea; recalled to Rome by Syrian Legate Vitellius on complaints of excess violence. 47


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28-29 -- John baptized Jesus and later arrested and beheaded by Herod Antipas. 37-41 -- Crisis in Judea under Roman emperor Caligula. History of Jerusalem

37-54 -- Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor and succeeded to the throne following Claudius' death in 54. 44

-- Death of Herod Agrippa I

48 -- Herod Agrippa II appointed King of Judea by Claudius. 50 -- Passover riot in Jerusalem; 30,000 killed 54-68 â&#x20AC;&#x201C;During Neroâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 14 years Regime he ordered the building of theaters and promoted athletic games. Yet he is infamously known as the emperor who 48


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"fiddled while Rome burned". During his reign he negotiated peace with the Iranians-Parthians and indirectly was instrumental in causing Jewish Judea to rise against the Roman Empire from 66 to 73. 58 -- Paul arrested, accused of being "ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes"; teaching resurrection of the dead, imprisoned in Caesarea. 59 -- Paul shipwrecked on Malta. 60 -- Paul greeted by "brothers" ("believers") in Rome; called together local Jewish leaders and tried to convince them that the Gentiles would listen to the Kingdom of God and "Lord Jesus Christ". Paul later beheaded and Peter crucified. 68 -- Rebellion in Gaul and acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne. Facing assassination, he committed suicide on 9 June 68. He is the last emperor of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty.

Destruction of the 2nd Temple and Jerusalem; Roman siege and destruction of Jerusalem in 70. (David Roberts, 1850)

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66-73 – The ‘Big Revolt’ of the Hebrews in Judea, Galilee and the Gamla [image] area on the Golan Hightes.

Occupation Hebrews,

by Greek

nonand

Roman peoples of all Hebrew cities and villages from Judea in the South and Samaria in the center, to the Galilee [Yodfatt area] and the Gamla area in the North, while the Hebrews

are

spread

throughout

the

Roman

Empire as the Roman Army brings to Rome the Holiest Items from the destructed 2nd Temple in Jerusalem. Titus Arc, Rome.

“Final Pagan Roman Solution”. And we know what happened next to Rome. It was not only destroyed, its people adopted the undivided AbrahamicHebrew Religion -- a destination of the early-spread Hebrew people.

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Footnotes

AIII.1 UR -- The City-State-Civilization of Abraham -- The Founder of the Hebrew Monotheism is a famous biblical and archeological site. It is geographically located on the fertile soil formed by repeated flooding and deposition of rich fertile soil between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, in an area that is currently Southern Iraq. This area is close to where the two rivers enter the Persian-Arabic Gulf. Its original name, however, as used by it’s the founders, is not clear, and was probably not a single uniform name. Both Ur and Shummer will be henceforth used to refer to this important civilization. It was also referred to refer to as the ‘the land between the two rivers’, or Ki-engir, Acadd, Uru, etc., while the Bible refers to it with other names, including Ur. Hiddekel and Euphrates are amongst the four rivers identified in the original Bible as leading to Eden, the Garden of Eden and the river of Eden. Hiddekel was later shortened to Diklat. The Persians pronounced it, Tigra, from whence the Greek name Tigris. In Arabic it is, Dijla. Idikna, Idikla, or Idiklat. The city-state-civilization Ur is located at Tell el-Mukayyar, which in ancient texts had been named Uriwa or Urima and later Uru. Shinar is also a designation applied to Mesopotamia: The ‘land between the two rivers’. It is mentioned eight times in the original Hebrew Bible in reference to a later civilization: Babylonia. Shinar may have also included Erech, or Ur/Summer. The Euphrates is also called Puranum [meaning, great water], Pura, Purat, or Ufratu. In Greek it is Euphrates and in Arabic Furat. AIII.2 Gilgamesh ruled Uruk and was probably the first world poet and author of great epics. One of his epics relates to the coming of a great flood, which obliterates mankind except for a single righteous family that has survived the flood by constructing an ark. Also uncovered by archaeological facts are original UR/Shummerian epics resembling the Biblical Eden, Creation of the world and creation of man from mud or dust. It is from this single family that an improved race has emerged and inherited the earth. 51


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The Ur/Shummerian literature, cosmogony, theology and rituals, have also influenced the next civilizations to such an extent that even today one can detect their echoes in the Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions. AIII.3 Villages in the Early UR Civilization already had local religious cult centers, each with its locally particular god. One of these, Eridu, is traced back to about 7000 year ago. It later had a temple with monumental architecture that can be traced back to some 6500 years. Some scholars consider the people of Ur ‘Semites’ and assume that multiple migrating wave of Semites have worked their way into the fertile Ur/Shummerian area, either peacefully or by force. It was during the Ubaid period that a simple machine was devised to make pottery easier to manufacture and paint. Pottery gradually became more uniform, conforming to an Ubaid Style of Art, with its monochrome black painting. The invention of a more advanced potters' wheel emerged at the end of the Ubaid era. Other scholars assume that within this period the early historical division of labor had started to evolve. Stamp seals have been found at various Ubaid-culture sites, perhaps as precursors to writing (see below). Earlier flint sickles had gradually been replaced by clay sickles. A great temple was uncovered at al'Ubaid, with a dedication inscription from A-anni-padda, king of Ur and son of Mes-anni-padda, also a king of Ur. According to the “Shummerian King List” that has survived, they are from the First Dynasty of Ur. AIII.4 Hammurabi of Babylon defeated Rim-Sin of Larsa around 5823-5763 years ago and became the sole ruler of UR/Summer/Akkad. These decades mark the end of the UR/Shummerian Empire, but not the end of its culture. AIII.5 According to Islamic and Judaic Tradition Abram, or Abraham, lived in Edessa Sanli Urfa, a site of a mosque called the Mosque of Abraham. [See also footnote 6].The Talmud and some Arabic writers regard Erech, or Orek, as the birthplace of Abraham. The cuneiform writing refers to this city as Urnki. UR is also identified with the current Iraqi city Mugheir, or Mughayyar, also called Urumma, or Urima, and later Uru in a district called Chaldea, or Kaldu. 52


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Ur Kasdim is also identified with the Turkish name Urfa, which, in turn, is derived from Orhāy and the Greek Ορρα, Orrha. AIII.6 Those who are considered descendants of Abraham are known as ‘Hebrews’, ‘Ishmaels’ and Druses. AIII.7 UR was constantly at war with nearby city-states. It was attacked by raiders from Akkad. It then entered a stage comparable to the Dark Ages, and has remained so until a new king, Ur-Nammu, came to power. Under his rule a government was established which enforced its laws and rules strictly. Temples were re-built, including the biggest: The Ziggurat. This period ended when northern tribes attacked and UR was occupied by Babylonians. AIII.8 UR vs. The Creation of Man. The ruins of UR were first excavated by J. E. Taylor, who had partly uncovered the ziggurat of Nanna. An impressive discovery was the Royal Cemetery. It contained art treasures of gold, silver, bronze, and precious stones. The British Museum began excavations there in 1919 and was joined later by the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. Through the invention of the cuneiform writings, we can read today hymns, myths, lamentations, incantations and the structure of their religious world. The Shummerians also invoked the idea of the creation of man from several models, or designs that had been created from mud or dust, prior to the final selection of man. They also introduced the faith in life after death, and the idea of Sheol [hell]. The priesthood maintained great power over the population also through omens and dreams, while some of the kings claimed divine power. The temples included many rooms for priests and priestesses and were decorated with human and animal figures. Some have evolved into towering ziggurats in which priests, priestesses, musicians, singers, castrates and hierodules performed. Various public rituals and food sacrifices were performed daily, while other, like NewYear celebrations, annually. Lamentations reveal that people asked and prayed while confessing sins.

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AIII.9 The Akkadian Top God was Marduk. All land belonged ultimately to the gods, while the king-priest was their vicar. There were gods of the air and water as well as the goddess of love and procreation and war named Ishtar, as was later mentioned in the BibleAIII.10. One may therefore label the UR/Shummerian religious government as the beginning of a systematic and organized pagan theology. AIII.10 The True Origins of Christianity And The Bible [Andrew D. Benson, Prudential Publishing Company, Clovis, Ca, 1997 [29]. Mr. Benson has assembled a massive amount of evidence and documented it with over 2000 footnotes and references to recorded historical events. [See also Footnotes AIII.11 and AIII.2] AIII.11 The Original Hebrew Bible. Hebrew is the language spoken by G-D to Moses; also the written Language [Alef-Beyt] attributed to G-D-Written first Stone Tablets provided to humans to observe via the TEN COMMANDMENTS displayed on the Holy Closet in Synagogues around the globe at all times. As in the earliest surviving scrolls depicted above, it was without vowels; it is the Ten Commandments. The DEAD SEA SCROLLS, now mostly in Israel Museum, Jerusalem, were discovered between 1947 and 1956 in the Dead Sea Caves of Qumran. The scrolls that contain the Original Hebrew Bible were written about 100 years prior to the birth of Christ, about 2112 years ago. But they do not contain one book; the book of Esther.

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AppendixIV Big Government Part I IRAN -- Two Unknowns

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he

2012

persons

mentioned in Appendix are:

this

"Jimmy" Carter, former President of the United States (1977-1981). His presidential tenure was marked by his ideology and activities to oust the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last of the Pahalavi Dynasty [left], resulting in the establishment of the current regime of Iran.

Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (1902 - 1989) was an Iranian Islamic leader and politician who spent more than 15 years in exile for his opposition to the shah, who was ousted in 1979. He was known for his support of the hostage takers during the U.S.-Iranian hostage crisis.

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Yigal Allon (1918 â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1980) was Minister of Foreign Affairs of Israel between June 1974 and June 1977. Uriel (Uri) Lubrani (born October 7, 1926 in Germany) an Israeli diplomat, military and security persona. He led the Eastern Division in the Israeli Foreign Ministry and from 1973 to 1978 was the head of diplomatic mission in Iran, in the rank of ambassador. Earlier from 1952 to 1953 he was political secretary to the Prime Minister. From 1960 to 1963 he acted as advisor on Arab affairs and from 1963 to 1965 as counselor to the Office of the Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion. *

T

*

*

ehran; living room of the head of the Israeli diplomatic mission in Iran;

meeting with Uri Lubrani: --- I am the first head of the Institute of advanced Studies at the Technion. Our goal is to advance cooperation between Academia, Government and Industry, first by annual workshops, starting from 1976, and secondly by promoting shared education between our academia, government and industries and counterparts in other countries. Assessing our strategic situation I first focused on Iran â&#x20AC;&#x201C; not only because it provides us with oil and a market, but because we concluded that much of the future in the Middle East -- between us and Iran and, indirectly, between Iran and the Arab-Muslim countries -- depends on actual enhancement of said relationships between us and the Iranian people and the Iranian regime. The current regime is being criticized by some who lack knowledge of the culture and religions here, and by empty authority are interfering in what are local affairs. If democracy is to emerge in this part of the world, it should come from the inside, neither from the West, nor from us. Most of our universities have already established advanced laboratories and the technicians are currently half-idling. 57


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So why not we first share academic teaching with Iran? --- I just met with the leadership of Tehran University and with the Iranian Minister of Education. They all bless the idea. Hence I decided it is my duty to inform the Government first and then advance the Program with specific private industries. In a nutshell: Key strategic and historical points are: •

Iran, as a non-Arab nation-state, is not only ambitious to advance its academic and technological base; it is a key nation-state to the future of the Mid-East, in particular the future of Israel.

My plan is proposed for a long-run-sharing, irrespective of the Shah’s current regime and irrespective of the U.S. State Department position to stop supporting the Shah’s “Police State” for securing U.S. interests in the oil-rich Islamic states and appease the entire Islamic World.

Irrespective of Naïve perceptions, Israel must do whatever it can to enhance deep, bona fide friendship and effective academictechnological sharing with the Iranian moderate the Islamic people, aside from obvious reasons to keep Iran as a source of low-cost oil and a huge market for Israeli products.

Following highly positive meetings with top Iranian government officials and university presidents, this initiative may serve as an example in providing, initially for no pay, reliable assistance to build advanced laboratories in Iran, first by Israeli technicians and professors and the cash funds of this new Institute of Advanced Studies.

Since the time of Cyrus, the Great Zoroastrian King of Persia 58


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(Iran) [600 or 576 – 530 BCE], and the Great Iranian Leader Darius, there has been a standing debt of the Hebrews to the Iranian people for allowing the Hebrews, some of whom served in the victorious Persian Armies, to return to their homeland in Israel and build the 2nd Temple of Jerusalem (completed around 516 BCE). An assumed design of the 1st Temple of Jerusalem is depicted on the right. The 2nd Hebrew Temple was destroyed by the Romans in the year 70 [Appendix III). And we know what happened to Rome next. •

This standing debt is time invariant. It should not be undermined by hasty, One-Line Thinkers [Lecture 2] of foreign affairs in the U.S.

Success of our Program can be a guide for future peace initiatives with other neighbors.

T

el Aviv; a secret meeting in a hotel room. Participants include the Foreign

Minister Yigal Allon, Ms. Tzemach, the new Head of Mid-East Affairs, her staff, General [reserves] Amos Horev, President of the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology [TIIT], TIIT Vice President Abraham Ginsburg. Agenda: Uri Lubrani Report. The Report was read by Ms. Tzemach. It repeated my proposal and politely suggested not to stop it. Tzemach next added her conclusions: • • • • • • •

Her personal and official positions are both influenced by the U.S. President and the State Department Policy. She is against the Program. Yigal Allon accepted Ms. Tzemach conclusion. Horev and Ginsburg accepted on the spot and said that my program would effectively end now. I asked to state my opinion. Allon signaled OK, sort of ‘we never heard this man’. I repeated the key points. There was no further discussion. 59


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Allon closed the meeting. Later, in the Hotel lobby, Ginsburg told me that he wanted to slap my face in that room, and what I had done in the presence of Allon means that I am fired as head of the Institute of advanced studies, after securing that decision with Horev.

The rest is a known chapter in history books, ending with the failure of Jimmy Carter to rescue the U.S. Embassy Staff in Iran and his forced need to leave the White House for failing to be elected for a Second Term. These are the facts, without any speculation “if”. But I hold one more piece of unknown information. At 78 I can release both.

I

t is a rare event to see the U.S. Army Under-Secretary

emerging from a helicopter that has just landed, in a surprise visit, on Mount Carmel green lawns of the Technion in Haifa. “Dr. Dust”

The Technion president and vice presidents were rushing to invite him to see the vast facilities of the campus. Apologizing, the Under-Secretary said that he only has 30 minutes, during which he must see the dust filtration facilities at the JetEngine Laboratory and talk – four eyes – with its head. At said laboratory I told him, that after the Iranian take-over of the U.S. Embassy there is no need to state the purpose of his surprise visit, especially after he had previously invited me to the Pentagon to disclose my research results about operating helicopters in the arid-dusty zones of the Middle East. To ease his apparent tension I told him what happened when I imported to Israel 2 tons of “U.S. dust standard” to be compared with my new “Helicopter Dust Standard for Middle-East Deserts”. The custom man ordered me to the Haifa port: 60


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“What’s that? Don’t we have enough dust here that you have to import more from America?” Detailed technical explanations did not help to relax the suspicious man. So, eventually I said “It is our research discovery for a special healthy food for the birds.” “OK, no customs” said the man, “Go back to your research.” You should not tell me anything, I understand. I told the visitor. But there are two points I want to share with you: First, my research shows that there are no efficient filtration solutions to operate helicopters in the deserts of the Middle East. Common in the Middle-East is a fine dust of clay (mainly ‘montmorilonite’ aluminum sulfate with water molecules), which readily melts in the fine cooling holes inside the first-stage turbine blades of the gas turbine, causing them to overheat, partly melt and fail. Just 10 minutes in such a dust cloud, or in a duststorm, which is NOT a sand storm, causes the helicopter engines to fail. Even if you filter out 99 % of this fine dust, the engines will fail, but after a longer time. Current dust filters on the CH-53 remove only up to about 86% of the dust. Yet, it is better to have them on to increase engine life span under such conditions. Secondly, never fly in a dust storm or land and take-off from dusty areas. Use the roads or build large concrete landing platforms. We had a few minutes to inspect the dust filtration facilities of the jet-lab U.S. CH-53 helicopters and to inform the distinguished visitor about the tragic 61


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background behind our efforts, when more than 30 soldiers died in a crash because of such a sudden failure of the engines. Notes: More than a year prior to that visit I provided this critical information to the engine producer General Electric and to the CH-53 dust-filter manufacturer Donaldson, both of which next selected to fund my research effort. And as a result of this effort, I was invited to the Pentagon to brief the high brass about these dangers. *

W

*

*

hat happened next on the geopolitical map is well-known. A few excerpts

on the “Iranian Hostage Crisis”, “Operation Eagle Claw”, “Rescue attempts”, from Wikipedia read (Emphasize added): “The strict radio silence also prevented the [helicopters] from requesting permission to fly above the sandstorm as the C-130s had done, and they flew the entire route at hazardous low levels, even while inside the sandstorm and with limited field of vision and erratic instrumentation.” “…,three weeks [prior to D-Day] an ankle-deep layer of powdery sand was deposited [in the selected landing site] by sandstorms.” And after landing: “As the [remaining] helicopters repositioned themselves for refueling, one helicopter ran into a C-130 tanker aircraft and crashed, killing eight U.S. servicemen and injuring several more.” [One of the remaining helicopters on the landing site was ordered] “to be moved [meaning start the engines again and take-off) from directly behind the EC-130. An Air Force CCT marshaller attempted to direct the maneuver from in front of the helicopter, but was sandblasted by the rotor's churning up the desert sand. 62


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As the marshaller attempted to back away from the source of the sandblast, the pilot … perceived he was drifting backward (engulfed in a dust cloud the pilot only had the CCT marshaller as a point of reference) and thus attempted to "correct" this situation by applying forward stick in order to maintain the same distance from the rearward moving marshaller. The RH-53 struck the vertical stabilizer of the EC-130 with its main rotor and crashed into the wing root of the EC-130.” “In the U.S., some political analysts believe the crisis was a major reason for U.S. President Jimmy Carter's defeat in the November 1980 presidential election.”

Years later, during a lecture at the Pentagon on post-stall supermaneuverability of tailless-stealth manned and unmanned military and civil thrust-vectored aircraft [jet-steering of tailless-stealth air and also modified land and sea vehicles ["Future Jet Technologies" in air, land and sea applications, with 17 figures, http://www.referenceglobal.com/doi/pdfplusdirect/10.1515/TJJ.2011.006 ; "Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability, and Robot Aircraft", Springer Verlag, 1990, ISBN 1990, ISBN 0-387-97161-0, 3-540-97161-0; USAF & NATO Report RTOTR-015 AC/323/(HFM-015)/TP-1 (2001)], I asked

Why the pilots were not informed? No answer, except one unofficial remark: It is not a personal issue. We should have a Small Government, for information to get down to all levels and be implemented. These are the bare facts less any speculations such as “if”.

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Appendix V Thought Provoking Quotations The world is a dangerous place, not because of those who do evil, but because of those who look on and do nothing. The right to search for truth implies also a duty. One must not conceal any part of what one has recognized to be true. ---- Albert Einstein Do not go where the path may lead, go instead where there is no path and leave your own trail. ----- Emerson Any fool can criticize, condemn and complain, and most fools do. --- Dale Carnegie

Do what you feel to be right, for you'll be criticized anyway. ---- Eleanor Roosevelt

Every worthwhile accomplishment, big or little, has its stages of drudgery and triumph; a beginning, a struggle and a victory. ----- Mahatma Gandhi Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds. ----- Albert Einstein Those who think learnt by themselves and not from Sages. -- Huan Yin Tze Confusion of goals and perfection of means seems, in my opinion, to characterize our age. --- Albert Einstein Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory, tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat. ---- Sun Tzu Pride goes before a fall. ---- a famous proverb No style of thinking will survive which cannot produce a usable product when survival is at stake. ----- Thomas Favill Gladwin

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People are born ignorant, not stupid; it is (local) education that makes them stupid. ---- Old adage advanced by B. Russell Errors? Who can pretend to comprehend their source? And for the unknown ones, please forgive me. ------ Psalm 19:12 Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new.----Albert Einstein Our whole problem is to make the mistakes as fast as possible. ---John Archibald Wheeler All our knowledge grows only through the correcting of our mistakes. ----Sir Karl R. Popper All science is cosmology ----- Sir Karl R. Popper All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them. --- Galileo Galilei Most people do not really want freedom, because freedom involves responsibility, and most people are frightened of responsibility. --- Sigmund Freud All the rivers run into the sea. Yet the sea is not full. --- King Solomon Music is a moral law. It gives soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, and charm and gaiety to life and to everything. ------ Plato

The telescope at one end of his beat, And at the other end the microscope, Two instruments of equal hope ---- Robert Frost

If you can look into the seeds of time, And say which grain will grow and which will not, Speak then to me ---- Shakespeare If you have knowledge, let others light their candles with it. --- Winston Churchill Imagination is more important than knowledge.--- Albert Einstein

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Everything is connected with everything else --- Plato Some subjects are so serious that one can only joke about them. ------ Niels Bohr The parking entree police guard to Schrodinger: "Do you know that you got a live cat in your car trunk?". Schrodinger: "Now I know." We haven’t the money, so we’ve got to think. -- Lord Ernest Rutherford You sadist. You make people think. --- Ezra Pound God may have created Man in his own image, but Man has more than returned the favor. ---- Voltaire Scripture harbors no need of human fabrications. --- Baruch Spinoza No science is immune to the corruption of politics. --- Jacob Brunowski Everybody can be great... because anybody can serve. You don't have to have a college degree to serve. You don't have to make your subject and verb agree to serve. You only need a heart full of grace. A soul generated by love. --- Martin Luther King Only the dead have seen the end of war. --- SANTAYANA If people are good only because they fear punishment, and hope for reward, then we are a sorry lot indeed. --- Albert Einstein It is important when scientists are called upon to play their part in the world of affairs, as is happening to an increasing extent.----- Sir William Lawrence Bragg It is man’s social being that determines his thinking. ---- Mao Tse-tung The man who trims himself to suit everybody will soon whittle himself away. ----Charles Schwab Everything is foreseeable but permission is given. --- Rabbi Akiva Ben Yossef (Killed by Romans) The most incomprehensible about the world is that it is comprehensible.-- Albert Einstein. Gravitation is not responsible for people falling in love.

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Are not the mountains, waves and skies a great part of me and I of them? --- Lord Byron as quoted by Schopenhauer It is essential for the men of science to take an interest in the administration of their own affairs or else the professional civil servant will step in – and then the Lord helps you. ---- Lord Ernest Rutherford We must become the change we want to see. --- Mahatma Gandhi Do not let your fire go out, Do not let the hero in your soul perish. The world you desire can be won. It exists.. it is real.. it is possible , it's yours. --- Ayn Rand A man said to the universe: ‘Sir, I exist,’ ‘However,’ replied the universe ‘The fact has not created in me a sense of obligation.’ -- Stephen Crane We ought to regard the present state of the universe as the effect of its anterior state and the cause of the one to follow. -- Pierre Simon Laplace It is only in the quantum theory that Newton’s differential method becomes inadequate, and indeed strict causality fails us. But the last word has not yet been said. May the spirit of Newton’s method give the power to restore unison between physical reality and the profoundest characteristics of Newton’s teaching-strict causality. ------- Albert Einstein The best engineers are those who, in addition to technical expertise, have had good training in the liberal arts and understand the world around them. --- Admiral Rikover Quantum physics formulates laws governing crowds of particles, not individuals. --Albert Einstein Space and bodies are not really different. --- Baruch Spinoza Even the categories in which facts are collected and ordered vary according to the social position of the observer. --- Karl Mannheim It is better to light a single candle than to curse the darkness. --- Chinese Proverb Not even wrong ! --- Wolfgang Pauli about a physics manuscript submitted for publication.

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Men go abroad to wonder at the heights of mountains, at the huge waves of the sea, at the long courses of the rivers, at the vast compass of the ocean, at the circular motion of the stars; and they pass by themselves without wondering. â&#x20AC;Ś. ST. AUGUSTIN Compassion without knowledge is ineffective; knowledge without compassion is inhuman. --- Victor Weisskopf Every great and deep difficulty bears in itself its own solution. --- Victor Weisskopf Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. --- Margaret Mead As the soil, however rich it may be, cannot be productive without cultivation, so the mind without culture can never produce good fruit. --- Seneca Be more concerned with your character than your reputation, because your character is what you really are, while your reputation is merely what others think you are. ------ John Wooden 1910-2010 Don't walk in front of me, I may not follow. Don't walk behind me, I may not lead. Just walk beside me and be my friend. --- Albert Camus Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take your eyes off your goal. --Henry Ford The pursuit of knowledge for its own sake, an almost fanatical love of justice, and the desire for personal independence--these are the features of Jewish tradition which make me thank my stars that I belong to it. ---- Albert Einstein Be on your guard against all kinds of greed: A man's life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions. ---- Luke 12:15 He gave man speech, and speech created thought, which is the measure of the universe; and science struck the thrones of earth and heaven. --- Percy B. Shelley, Prometheus Unbound And I gave my heart to seek and search out by wisdom concerning all things that are done under Heavenâ&#x20AC;Ś For in much wisdom is much grief; and he who increaseth knowledge increases sorrow. --- King Solomon Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. --- Rousseau

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If you see the poor oppressed in a district, and justice and rights denied, do not be surprised at such things; for one official is eyed by a higher one, and over them both are others, higher still. --- King Solomon; Ecclesiastes 5; 8,9

The right to search for truth implies also a duty. One must not conceal any part of what one has recognized to be true. --- Albert Einstein

It is impossible to demonstrate the non-contradictoriness of a logical mathematics system using only the means offered by the system itsel --- Kurt Gรถdel He who can properly define and divide is to be considered a god. ----- Plato

Man is stranger to his own research; He knows not whence he comes, nor whither goes; Tormented atoms in a bed of mud; Devoured by death, a mockery of fate; But thinking atoms, whose far-seeing eyes, Guided by thoughts, have measured the faint stars; Our being mingles with infinite; Ourselves we never see, or come to know. ----Voltaire Timid men prefer the calm of despotism to the tempestuous sea of liberty. ----Thomas Jefferson It is better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to open one's mouth and remove all doubt. ---- Abraham Lincoln

Every child is an artist. The problem is how to remain an artist once we grow up. -----Pablo Picasso The reward for conformity was that everyone liked you except yourself. ---Rita Mae Brown

FAUST: 'Tis writ: 'in the beginning was the Word!' I pause, to wonder what is here inferred? The Word I cannot set supremely high, A new translation I will try. I read, if by the spirit I am taught, This sense: 'In the beginning was the Thought'. This opening I need to weigh again, Or sense may suffer from a hasty pen.

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Does Thought create, and work, and rule the hour? 'Twere best: 'In the beginning was the Power!' Yet, while the pen is urged with willing fingers, A sense of doubt and hesitancy lingers. The spirit come to guide me in my need, I write, 'In the beginning was the Deed!' ---- Goethe Great minds discuss ideas, average minds discuss events, inferior minds discuss people. ---- source unknown Be yourself; everyone else is already taken.----- Oscar Wilde Only those who risk going too far can possibly find out how far they can go. ------T.S. Elliot The price of hating other human beings is loving oneself less. ----- Eldridge Cleaver Wherever you go , go with your whole heart. ----- Confucious Happiness comes when your work and words are of benefit to yourself and others. ----- Buddha The harder I work, the luckier I get. ---- Goldwyn If you light a path for someone it will also brighten your path. ---- Chinese proverb I have never killed a man, but I have read many obituaries with great pleasure. -----Samuel Clemens No man can put a chain about the ankle of his fellow man without at last finding the other end fastened about his own neck.---- Tim Cavanaugh If you have integrity, nothing else matters. If you don't have integrity, nothing else matters. ----- Alan Simpson If you don't want to have critics: don't do anything and don't be anybody --- source unknown

You never reach a mature technology, there's no end to the future of improvement.----- Dr. Sam Williams (1921-2009)

You....cannot strengthen the weak by weakening the strong. You....cannot help small men by tearing down big men.

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You...cannot help the poor by destroying the rich. You....cannot help the wage earner by pulling down the wage payer. You....cannot keep out of trouble by spending more than your income. You ... cannot further the brotherhood of man by inciting class hatred. You.....cannot establish security on borrowed money. You.....cannot build character and courage by taking away a man's initiative and independence. You.....cannot help men permanently by doing for them what they could and should do for themselves. ------- J. Paul Getty Friendship marks a life even more deeply than love. Love risks degenerating into obsession, friendship is never anything but sharing. --- Elie Wiesel Who is rich? The one who is happy with what he has. --- biblical adage

We are only just embarking on a universal quest for knowledge and are still like children playing with pebbles on the seashore, while the great ocean of truth rolls, unexplored, beyond our reach. --- Isaac Newton Only humans conceive beyond reality, desire beyond adequacy, create beyond need. --- source unknown You understand something until you try to explain it to your grandmother. ----Albert Einstein Work, Finish, Publish. --- Michael Faraday I hate quotations. Tell me what you know. --- Ralph Waldo Emerson But as for certain truth, No man has known it. Nor will he know it; Neither of the gods. Nor yet of all the things of which I speak. And even if by chance he were to utter the final truth, He would himself not know it; For all is but a woven web of guesses. --Xenophanes

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E pilogue G

ravity generates infinite beauty and order in the world at large, but at

the same time, it “tears down” almost everything that we build; that ultimate “downfall”, “decline”, and “defeat” of every motile creature is the fate of individual life -- a life that must terminate in “de-aggregation” and gravitational “precipitation”. Yet, with anti-gravity aspiration, we “standup”. Perhaps not all is “on the downgrade”? Perhapd there would be “another option”?

E

ven though we know that in the end we cannot “get up” again; that a

day will come when staying “upright” becomes impossible, we do not “break-down”. By the same knowledge that foresees our own “collapse” in the journey “from dust to dust”, we “withstand” that which will “bring us down”. Thus, in the face of “gravitational collapse”, we hope to preserve some “lasting structure”, or “spiritually”, get “up-and-away” from that “gravitating earth”. Do these “upholdings” lead people to adopt “spiritual” or “heavenly” ideologies? To construct towers and sky-high cathedrals? To launch programs for the exploration of “outer” space? Or to preserve some “lasting” structure in the composition of music, the writing of books and the construction of new theories? 73


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Perhaps I know, perhaps not.

*

I

*

*

t was many years ago, during my affiliation with Johns Hopkins and

Pittsburgh universities, that I started to write about the foundations of this new system [Lecture 1], on the outlook ‘Gravitism’ [Lecture 7] and within the general philosophy ‘Havayism’ [Lecture 10]. And it was this work that had gradually led me to become an autodidact of philosophy and of the general theory of relativity, a process which later prompted me to give these lectures as formal university courses. But following the publication of my works, I came to realize that they contain too many technical concepts, formalism and mathematics that could be clearly understood only by a specialist. Hence I decided, that, this time, I would try to write an entirely different book, that, with a minimal amount of technical formalism, would follow the guidelines of Volumes I and II but without mathematics and by adding illustrations and homework for students in any field of study, strating from the level of high school.

E

ver since I have been working on this book, which reproduces, if not the

letter, then the spirit of my lectures. No series of lectures was ever a set-piece; they have remained in a state of flux until now when the final writing and publishing online has “frozen” them. 74


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This “freezing” is very apprehensive to me, but it cannot be helped. My hope is to write additional volumes in this series. Meanwhile I hope that at least some of my readers will “thaw out” the lines and give them greater dynamical force through their own critical attention. Indeed, it was the work on the present volume that gave me the opportunity to develop more fully than in my earlier works the general and physico-philosophical principles of this new field of study. Arriving at this end, seemed, at times, like reconstructing a vast jigsaw puzzle from scattered and (apparently) unrelated pieces of information. But the eventual emergence of new regularities, which, at the beginning, I had not even suspected to be a part of the overall picture, was often a rewarding surprise.

The Skeptic Outlook I can only invite the interested reader to join me in further work on some of these thought-provoking excursions along trails leading to new fields of inquiry. As we bring this book to a close, there is one particular objection which I believe is essential for all scientific and philosophical studies. Consequently, it was stressed in a number of paragraphs – especially in

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Lectures 1 to 4. My Objection may best be directed against Eddington’s famous subjectivistic conclusion: “We have found a strange footprint on the shores of the unknown.

We have devised profound theories, one after another, to account for its origin. At last, we have succeeded in reconstructing the creature that made the footprint. And lo! It is our own.” While I take pleasure from Eddington’s flowery prose, I cannot agree with his implied conclusion. It is not only our “footprint” that counts. There are other “footprints”. One may find them anywhere in nature; “on the shores of the unknown”, on the grand beaches of the Philippines, or in the fields of physics and astronomy. And they do not exclusively belong to man! Man is not the center of science and philosophy. Many historical examples demonstrate this fact and the more recent ones have been described in these lectures and in the Introduction. It is perhaps better to conclude on a dual note of “skepticism” and “optimism’ as exemplified by Einstein’s dictum:

“The hypotheses with which (a development in modern science) starts, become steadily more abstract and remote 76


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from experience. On the other hand it gets nearer to the grand aim of all science, which is to cover the greatest possible number of empirical facts by logical deduction from the smallest possible number of hypotheses or axioms. Meanwhile the train of thought leading from the axioms to the empirical facts of verifiable consequences gets steadily longer and more subtle.â&#x20AC;?

Additional conclusions, or assertions, would, perhaps, be peripheral. Thus, as we bring these lectures to a close, we are left with a new theory and its potentials. But whatever the outcome of this theory, it is only a slice throughout our humanistic views (which are discussed in Volumes I and II, and in Lectures 7 and 10 here).

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References I shall make you love books more than you love mother, and I shall place their excellence before you. (Reading books) is the task-must for everyone. Father to Son in the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (Papurus Seller I)

Let us come now to References that other books contain and yours lacks. The remedy for this is very simple; for you have nothing else to do but to find a book that quotes them all, from A to Z, as you say. Then you put the same into yours, and if it serves no other purpose, at least that long list of References will be useful to lend authority to your book at the outset. Miguel de Cervantes

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A. Einstein: Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen (Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity), Ann. Phys. 4: 513 (1901); A. Einstein, On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light, ibid, 17: 132 (1905); A. Einstein, new determination of molecular dimensions, PhD thesis (April 30, 1905); A. Einstein, On the Motion Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid, (Brownian Motion), ibid., 17: 549–560 (1905); A. Einstein, On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, (on Special Relativity) Ibid, 17: 891 (1905); A. Einstein, Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?, (on Mass-Energy equivalence), Ibid, 19: 639 (1905); A. Einstein, On the Influence of Gravity on the Propagation of Light, ibid, 35: 898 (1911); A. Einstein, ibid. 10, 195 (1909); ibid. 10, 323 (1909); W. Ritz, (Wrongly Attacking Einstein’s Origin of Electromagnetic Irreversibility), Phys. Z. 9, 903 (1908); A. Einstein, Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation), Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: 844 (1915); A. Einstein, Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie (Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity), Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften (1917); A. Einstein, Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung (On the Quantum Mechanics of Radiation)", Physikalische Zeitschrift 19: 121 (1917); A. Einstein, Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901–1921, Amsterdam: Elsevier (1923); A. Einstein, Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases (Quantum theory of monatomic ideal gases) Sitzungsberichte der Preussichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Physikalisch—Mathematische Klasse: 261 (1924); A. Einstein, Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flussläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes (On meanders in the courses of rivers) Die Naturwissenschaften 14: 223 (1926); A. Einstein, B. Podolsky and N. Rosen, Nathan, Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?", (The EPR Paradox) Physical Review, 47 (10): 777 (1935); A. Einstein, Lens-Like Action of a Star by 79


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the Deviation of Light in the Gravitational Field, Science 84, 506 (1936) (Gravitational Lens, Einstein Rings); A. Einstein, On Science and Religion, Nature 146: 605 (1940); A. Einstein, et al. To the editors, New York Times (4 December 1948); On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation, Scientific American (4): 13 (1950); E. Hubble, A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae, Proc., Nat. Acad. of Sciences (U.S.), Vol. 15, Iss. 3, (1929); A. Einstein and L. Infeld,, The World As I See It (1934); A. Einstein, The Evolution of Physics, (1938); Out of My Later Years (1950); A. Einstein, The Meaning of Relativity, Princeton University Press (1956); A. Friedman, A: Über die Krümmung des Raumes, Z. Phys. 10 377 (1922), (English translation: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, 1991 (1999); A. Alain, D., Jean and R., Gérard, Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers, Phys. Rev. Letters, 49 (25) (1982): Nobel Foundation, Albert Einstein — Biography; D. Howard and J. Stachel, Einstein: The Formative Years, 19791909, Springer (2000); P. A. Schilpp (Ed.), Albert Einstein — Autobiographical Notes, Open Court Publishing (1979); P. A. Schilpp, (Ed.), Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, Harper Torchbook (1951); R. Clark, Einstein: The Life and Times, Harper-Collins (1984); F. Golden, Person of the Century: Albert Einstein, Time (Jan 3, 2000); About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930); Why War? (1933, with Sigmund Freud); P. Galison, Einstein's Clocks: The Question of Time; A. Pais, Subtle is the Lord. The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein, Oxford University Press (1982); J. Crelinsten, Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity, Princeton University Press (2006); H. Kant, Albert Einstein and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin; J. Renn, (Ed), Albert Einstein — Chief Engineer of the Universe: One Hundred Authors for Einstein, Wiley-VCH. (2005); J. Schmidhuber, Albert Einstein (1979–1955) and the 'Greatest Scientific Discovery Ever' (2006); Einstein archive at the Instituut-Lorentz, NL; G., Goettling, Einstein's refrigerator, Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine (1998); U.S. Patent 1,781,541 , Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd (refrigerator), November 11, 1930; Brian, Dennis Einstein: A Life, New York: John Wiley & Sons (1996); Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman (eds) Albert Einstein, The Human Side, Princeton University Press (1981); A. Einstein, The World as I See It. New York: Philosophical Library Albert (1949); Zionism and Israel Information Center, Albert Einstein and Zionism; American Museum of Natural History (2002), Einstein's Revolution; Rowe, David E.; Schulmann, Robert, Einstein on 80


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Politics: His Private Thoughts and Public Stands on Nationalism, Zionism, War, Peace, and the Bomb, Princeton University Press (2007); Einstein Archives, History of the Estate of Albert Einstein, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (2007); Princeton Online Einstein in Princeton: Scientist, Humanitarian, Cultural Icon, Historical Society of Princeton;J. Stachel, et al, (Eds.) The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vols. 1–10, Princeton University Press; The Atomic Heritage Foundation, Einstein’s Famous Letter to the U.S. President about the need to survive by developing the atomic bomb before the Germans would do it; W. Isaacson, Person of the Century: Why We Chose Einstein, Time, (3 January 2000). 2. E. Schrödinger, Space-Time Structure, Cambridge Univ. Press (1950) 3. J. Tou, et al, Models to Study Gravitational Biology of Mammalian Reproduction, Biology of Reproduction Vol. 67. (2002) 4. S. Perlmutter et al. (The Supernova Cosmology Project) Measurements of Omega and Lambda from 42 high redshift supernovae, Astrophysical J. 517: 565 (1999). 5. C. W. Kilmister, Eddington's search for a fundamental theory. Cambridge Univ. Press (1994) 6. H. F. M.Gönner, On the History of Unified Field Theories. Living Reviews in Relativity (2005) 7. D.J. Schwarz and B. Weinhorst, Isotropy of the Hubble Central Diagram: Comparing Hemispheres, Astronomy & Astrophysics 474: 717 (2007) 8. D. L. Wiltshire, Exact Solution to the Averaging Problem in Cosmology, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99: 251101 (2007). 9. D. Zwillinger, Handbook of Differential Equations (3rd edition), Academic Press, (1997) A. D. Polyanin and V. F. Zaitsev, Handbook of Exact Solutions for Ordinary Differential Equations (2nd edition), Chapman & Hall/CRC Press (2003). 10. Adam G. Riess et al. (Supernova Search Team) Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and a cosmological constant Astronomical J. 116: 1009 (1998); 11. M. Gasperini, et al, The pre-Big Bang Scenario in String Cosmology, Physics Reports, Vol. 373, 1 (2003) 12. On HYPATIA: A. Fitzgerald, Letter of Synesius of Cyrene to Hypathia, London, (1926); Grand Commentaire, de Théon d'Alexandrie aux 'Tables faciles' de Ptolémée, Livre II, III, Vatican City, 1985, 1991; Commentaries de 81


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Pappus et de Théon d'Alexandrie sur l'Almageste Tome III. Théon d'Alexandrie, Rome, 19; The calculation of an eclipse of the sun according to Theon of Alexandria, in Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians, 1, 209-219, (1950), Providence, 1952; Marinus de Naplouse un commentaire au 'Petit commentaire' de Théon, Janus 63 (1-3), 167-194, 1976; Théon d'Alexandrie et les 'Tables faciles' de Ptolémée, Arch. Internat. Hist. Sci. 35 (114-115, 106-123) 1985; 'Commentaire à l'Almageste' de Théon d'Alexandrie, Antiquité Classique, 56, 201-219, 1987; O. Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy, New York, (1975); A. Khan, Hypatia; Authorhouse, (2001); K. Chares, Hypatia: New Foes with an Old Face, Kessinger Publishing, (1997); A. Margaret, Hypatia’s Heritage: A history of Women in Science from Antiquity Through the Ninetheenth Century; I. Mueller, L.S. Grinstein & P. J. Campbell Women of Mathematics: A Biobibliographic Sourcebook. New York: Greenwood Press, (1987); M. M. Mangasarian,. The Martyrdom of Hypatia, (1915); J. Bregman, Synesius of Cyrene: Philosopher-bishop. Berkley: University of California Press (1982); M. B. Ogilvie, Women in science: Antiquity through the nineteenth century. MIT Press, (1986); Hypatia - Physics, culture and sense of duty, Spanish university (2006); T L. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics, Oxford, (1921); W. Müller, Das isoperimetrische Problem im Altertum mit einer übersetzung der Abhandlung des Zenodoros nach Theon von Alexandrien, Sudhoffs Arch. 37 (1953), 39-71, (1953); P. Pingree, An illustrated Greek astronomical manuscript: Commentary of Theon of Alexandria on the 'Handy tables' and scholia and other writings of Ptolemy concerning them, J. Warburg, Courtauld Inst., 45, 195 (1982); Reports by the Department of Mathematics, St. Andrews University in Scotland; Carl Sagan, Cosmos; Maria Dzielska, Hypatia of Alexandria; Hypathia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy. 13. B. Gal-Or, [Editor] Critical Review of the Foundations of Relativistic and Classical Thermodynamics, Pittsburgh, Pa. April 7-8, (1969), Mono Book, (1970); The Crisis on the Origin of Irreversibility, Science, 176, 11 (1972); 178, 119 (1972); Cosmological Origin of Thermodynamics, Nature 230, 1971); 234, 217 (1971); Entropy, Fallacy, and the Origin of Irreversibility: An Essay on the New Astrophysical Revolutionary School of Thermodynamics. Annal. N.Y. Acad. Acad. Sci., 196 (A6) 305 (1972) (Gold Medal); Cosmological Origin of Irreversibility, Time and Time-Anisotropies, Found. Phys. 6, 407 (1976); 6, 623 (1976); 7, 50 (1977); Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy 82


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29. A. Benson, The True Origins of Christianity and the Bible, Prudential, Clovis, CA, 1999 30. P. N. Strearns et al, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Edition 31. J. Hartley, Contemporary Physics, Vol. 45 (6), 2004 32. C. P. Snow, The Two Cultures and A Second Look, Cambridge University Press, (1964) 33. K. Gödel, Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandtr Systeme, I. Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik, 38: 173-98, (1931). 34. J. van Heijenoort, From Frege to Gödel: A Source Book on Mathematical Logic. Harvard University Press: 596 (1967). 35. G. Boolos, A New Proof of the Gödel Incompleteness Theorem, in Boolos, G., Logic, Logic, and Logic. Harvard University Press, (1998). 36. H. Putnam, Minds and Machines in Sidney Hook, ed., Dimensions of Mind: A Symposium. New York University Press, (1960). 37. J. B. Rosser, Extensions of some theorems of Gödel and Church, Journal of Symbolic Logic 1: 87 (1936). 38. J. van Heijenoort, Gödel's Theorem in Edwards, Paul, ed., Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Vol. 3. Macmillan: 348 (1963). 39. D. Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. Vintage Books, (1979). 40. R. Rucker, Infinity and the Mind: The Science and Philosophy of the Infinite. Princeton Univ. Press. (1995). 41. R. Smullyan, Godel's Incompleteness Theorems. Oxford Univ. Press, (1991). 42. H. Wang, A Logical Journey: From Gödel to Philosophy. MIT Press, (1997) 43. S. Peter, An Introduction to Gödel's Theorems. Cambridge University Press, (2007). 44. E. J. Masoro and S.N. Austad (eds.): Handbook of the Biology of Aging, Academic Press, (2006). 45. J. D., Rowe and R. I. Kahn, Human Ageing: Usual and Successful. Science, 237, 143 (1987) 46. F. Philip, Einstein: His Life and Times, Alfred Knopf, (1953, 1972) 47. J. E. Lidsey, et al, Physics Reports, Vol. 337, 343-492, (2000) 48. A. Vilenkin, Many Worlds in One: The Search for Other Universes. New York: Hill and Wang, 235 (2006) 84


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49. R. Serway and J. Jewett, Jr., Physics, for Scientists and Engineers, with Modern Physics, 6th Edition, Brooks/Cole, pp 1273 (2004) 50. R. H. Anken, Gravitational Zoology: How Animals Use and Cope with Gravity, Hinrich Rahmann (2001) 51. L. Smolin, The Trouble with Physics: The Rise of String Theory, the Fall of a Science, and What Comes Next. Houghton Mifflin, 392 (2006). See also Refs. 53 and 59. 52. B. Gal-Or, Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuveriuability and Robot Aircraft, book published by Springer Verlag , ISBN 1990, ISBN 0-387-97161-0, 3-54097161-0; (1990) ; "Future Jet Technologies -- air, land and sea applications of Thrust Vectoring”, International J. of Turbo and Jet Engines, 2011 (2011) http://www.reference-global.com/doi/pdfplusdirect/10.1515/TJJ.2011.006; U.S. AIR FORCE and NATO Report on thrust vectoring, super-agile, tailless aircraft; RTO-TR-015 AC/323/(HFM-015)/TP-1 (2001). “Thrust Vectoring/Reversing Systems” for enhancing flight safety of passenger and cargo jets by adding kits to their engine nacelles, 1998 U.S. Patent … 431. See also Refs 13 and 15. 53. P. Woit, Constantly Updated Webpage: “Not Even Wrong” and a book by this title: the failure of string theory and the search for unity in physical law, New York: Basic Books (2006); See also Refs. 51 and 59. 54. Adam G. Riess et al. (Supernova Search Team) "Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and a cosmological constant", Astronomical J. 116: 1009–38. (1998) 55. R. G. Crittenden & Turok N., "Looking for Lambda with the Rees-Sciama Effect", Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 575 (1966) 56. J. Hogan, "Unseen Universe: Welcome to the dark side", Nature 448 (7151): 240–245 (2007). 57. S. Weinberg, "Anthropic bound on the cosmological constant", Phys. Rev. Letters 59 (22): 2607 (1987) 58. J. Polchinski, String Theory, Cambridge University Press (1998) 59. P. Binétruy, Supersymmetry: Theory, Experiment, and Cosmology, Oxford University Press (2007); M. Dine, Supersymmetry and String Theory: Beyond the Standard Model, Cambridge University Press (2007); M. Gasperini, Elements of String Cosmology, Cambridge University Press (2007); C. Johnson, D-branes, Cambridge University Press (2003); K. Becker, et al, String 85


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87. Nature 463, 203-206 (14 January 2010) | doi:10.1038/nature08640,Bulgeless dwarf galaxies and dark matter cores from supernova-driven outflows 88. Faber, S.M. and R.E. Jackson, "Velocity dispersions and mass-to-light ratios for elliptical galaxies".Astrophysical Journal 204: 668– 683.doi:10.1086/154215. 1976 89. Rejkuba, M., Dubath, P., Minniti, D. and G. Meylan, (E. Vesperini, M. Giersz, and A. Sills. ed.),"Masses and M/L Ratios of Bright Globular Clusters in NGC 5128".Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. IAU Symposium246: 418–422.doi:10.1017/S1743921308016074, 2008 90. Minchin, R. et al., "A Dark Hydrogen Cloud in the Virgo Cluster".The Astrophysical Journal 622: L21–L24. doi:10.1086/429538, 2005 91. Moore, B., et al, "Dark Matter Substructure within Galactic Halos". Astrophysical Journal Letters, 524: L19–L22.doi:10.1086/312287, 1999 92. "Hot News for Cold Dark Matter". Chandra X-ray Observatorycollaboration. 11 June 2003. 93. Massey, R. et al., "Dark matter maps reveal cosmic scaffolding". Nature 445 (7125): 286 290. doi:10.1038/nature05497.PMID 17206154, 2007. 94. Clowe, D., et al, "A direct empirical proof of the existence of dark matter". Astrophysical Journal Letters 648: 109– 113.doi:10.1086/508162. arXiv:astro-ph/0608407, 2006. 95. Chandra, Dark Matter Mystery Deepens in Cosmic "Train Wreck" :: 16 August 07http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2007/a520/ 96. 636. doi:10.1038/nature03597.arXiv:astro-ph/0504097.PMID 15931216. 97. Freese, K.. Death of Stellar Baryonic Dark Matter Candidates.arXiv:astroph/0007444. 98. Freese, K. Death of Stellar Baryonic Dark Matter. arXiv:astro-ph/0002058 99. Cline, D. B., "The Search for Dark Matter". Scientific American. 2003 100. Siddhartha G. et al, (ICN-UNAM) [astro-ph/0003105v2] Quintessence-like Dark Matter in Spiral Galaxies [1]. 2000 101. Vittorio, N.; J. Silk, "Fine-scale anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background in a universe dominated by cold dark matter". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 – Letters to the Editor 285: L39–L43. doi:10.1086/184361. 1984 89


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Umemura, M. and S. Ikeuchi, "Formation of Subgalactic Objects within TwoComponent Dark Matter". Astrophysical Journal 299: 583– 592. doi:10.1086/163726. 1985 103. Goddard Space Flight Center, "Dark Matter may be Black Hole Pinpoints". NASA's Imagine the Universe. 2004 104. Bertone, G., "Dark matter dynamics and indirect detection". Modern Physics Letters A 20: 1021–1036.doi:10.1142/S0217732305017391.arXiv:astroph/0504422. 2005 105. Kane, G. and Watson, S., "Dark Matter and LHC: What is the Connection?". Modern Physics Letters A23: 2103– 2123.doi:10.1142/S0217732308028314. 2008 106. Drukier, A., K. Freese, and D. Spergel, "Detecting Cold Dark Matter Candidates". Physical Review D 33: 3495– 3508.doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.33.3495. 1986. 107. Aleksic, A., et al, "MAGIC Gamma-ray Telescope Observation of the Perseus Cluster of Galaxies: Implications for Cosmic Rays, Dark Matter, and NGC 1275".Astrophysical Journal 710: 634–647.doi:10.1088/0004-637X/710/1/634. 2009 108. Freese, K., "Can Scalar Neutrinos or Massive Dirac Neutrinos be the Missing Mass?". Physics Letters B167: 295–300. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(86)90349-7. 1986 109. Mandal, S., M. Buckley, K. Freese, D. Spolyar and H. Murayama, "Cascade Events at IceCube+DeepCore as a Definitive Constraint on the Dark Matter Interpretation of the PAMELA and Fermi Anomalies". Physical Review D 81: 043508.doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.81.043508. 2010 110. Brownstein, J.R. and J. W. Moffat, "The Bullet Cluster 1E0657-558 evidence shows modified gravity in the absence of dark matter". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 382: 29–47.doi:10.1111/j.13652966.2007.12275.x.arXiv:astro-ph/0702146. 2007 111. Peebles, J. E., and R. Bharat,"The cosmological constant and dark energy". Reviews of Modern Physics, 75: 559– 606.doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.75.559. 2003 112. Carroll, S. (2001). "The cosmological constant". Living Reviews in Relativity 4: 1.doi:10.1038/nphys815-<span. Retrieved 2006-09-28. 2001 113. Alexander, S. et al, "Local Void vs Dark Energy: Confrontation with WMAP and Type Ia Supernovae". ArΧiv ePrint.arXiv:astro-ph/0712.0370v2. 2008 102.

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Timothy C. and P. Ferreira, "Does Dark Energy Really Exist?". Scientific American 300 (4): 48–55. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican040948.PMID 19363920. 2009 Exirifard, Q., "Phenomenological covariant approach to gravity". General Relativity and Gravitation. doi:10.1007/s10714-010-1073-6. 2010 Hossenfelder, S., "A Bi-Metric Theory with Exchange Symmetry". Physical Review D 78: 044015. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.78.044015. 2008 Lineweaver, C. and T. M. Davis, "Misconceptions about the Big Bang". Scientific American. 2005 Loeb, A., "The Long-Term Future of Extragalactic Astronomy". Physical Review D 65 (4). doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.65.047301. arXiv:astro-ph/0107568. 2002 Booksindex.eu, “If you begin to read “The Origin of Writing and Abrahamic Religions, Benjamin Gal-Or, Msn Scribd, 2008”, you win many good ideas”, www.booksindex.eu/.../the-origin-of-writing-and-abrahamic-religion. Whiting, A. B., "The Expansion of Space: Free Particle Motion and the Cosmological Redshift". ArXiv preprint. arXiv:astroph/0404095. Bibcode2004Obs...124..174W, 2004 Bunn, E.F. & DW Hogg, "The kinematic origin of the cosmological redshift". ArXiv preprint. arXiv:0808.1081. Bibcode 2009AmJPh..77..688B. doi:10.1119/1.31291 03, 2008 Baryshev, Yu. V., "Expanding Space: The Root of Conceptual Problems of the Cosmological Physics". Practical Cosmology 2: 20– 30. arXiv:0810.0153. Bibcode2008pc2..conf...20B, 2008 Peacock, J.A., "A diatribe on expanding space". ArXiv preprint. arXiv:0809.4573.Bibcode 2008arXiv0809.4573P, 2008 L. Cosmides, J. Tooby and R. Kurzban. ‘Perceptions of race’. Trends Cogn Sci, 7, 173-179. S1364661303000573, 2003 R. Kurzban, J. Tooby and L. Cosmides.). ‘Can race be erased?’ Coalitional computation and social categorization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 98, 15387-92. 10.1073/pnas.251541498, 2001 L. Hirschfeld. ‘Race in the Making’, Journal. 1996. F. J. Gil-White. Are ethnic groups biological "species" to the human brain? Essentialism in our cognition of some social categories. Current Anthropology, 42, 515-554, 2001 91


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G. J. Lewis and T. C. Bates. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Genetic Evidence for Multiple Biological Mechanisms Underlying Ingroup Favoritismâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Psychological Science, 21, 16231628. 10.1177/0956797610387439, 2010 R. Goldenberg. Review of "Dying for God: Martyrdom and the Making of Christianity and Judaism" by Daniel Boyarin in The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 92, No. 3/4 (Jan. - Apr., 2002), pp. 586-588, 2002 J. D. G. Dunn Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways by DurhamTubingen Research Symposium on Earliest Christianity and Judaism (2nd : 1989 : University of Durham), , 1989 A. F. Segal, Rebecca's Children: Judaism and Christianity in the Roman World, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986. "Astronomy Education in the United States". Astronomical Society of the Pacific.

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Never Before We were Free; The kingdom of Darkness Runs Our Life More Than Our DNA  
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