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CCCC -- Core Curriculum Cultural Course

Professor Dr. Benjamin Gal-Or

Author in Spain, 2000

New Physics, New Thermo: Expanding Voids allow all shining sources to radiate, evolve, structure.

Largest PORTRAIT of Our Universe: 60 million galaxies are still visible in our shrinking visible world caused by voids expansiion. Portrait Scale: More than 1,000,000,000 Light Years (ly) across.

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2

The familiar attractive force of gravity controls all history of the universe since the first 3 minutes past its explosive coming into being: The Big Bang Creation [BBC].

The resulting, ever-expanding cosmos is 13.75 billion years old. But only intergalactic voids marked in the cover image expand. Galaxies, stars and planets do NOT expand with the so-called “expanding universe”.

The expanding voids recorded above by NASA are only the ones between super-clusters of radiating galaxies, as marked above.

With black holes in the centers of galaxies, these never-staturated voids by inflowing radiation energies arriving from the surrounding galaxies, form the sole universal thermo-sink in the world, the central pilar

of

Astrophysical

the

author’s

NY-Academy-of-Sciences-gold-awarding

Thermodynamics

and

macro-physics

based

on

Einstein’s General Relativity. These voids are unsaturatable because their size ever increases, by the slightly accelerated expanding universe.

With

radiation-density/radiation-pressures building up inside each

expanding void, causing back-pressures, they fully explain their detected accelerated expansion without resorting to currently speculated popular dark matter and dark energy unverified/undetected speculations in science. 2


3

CONCLUSION: The entire history of the universe is ressessed and published in books and reviewed journals and repeated herein within an updated CCCC: Core Corriculum Cultural Course.

Gravity and These Voids dominate all history beyond the first 3 minutes away from BBC. Hence, CCCC world history is strictly dictated by Einstein’s General Relativity and These

Voids ( See“Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy”, Springer Verlag, Contents at book end)

During most of the history of the universe gravity has controlled its transition from structureless beginning to the current structures of galaxies, stars, planets, moons, geological structures and life. However, the first 3 minutes of our universe are dominated by quantum physics.

There is no Physical Time Prior to BBC

The only clock initially available to “measure time” is the expanding and thermodynamic cooling of the universe itself – namely, cooling by its increase in ‘size’, decrease in spatially uniform temperature, decrease in spatially-uniform energy-matter density

The

totality of the universe was extremely dense and hot at the

beginning.

Direct verification of the first 380,000 solar-based years of the world 3


4

history is banned by the verified fact that during the earliest epoch of the universe it had been totally opaque. During this early period the entire universe was in a state of uniform thermal equilibrium (in space). Out of this extremely high-energy density the electroweak and the strong force-field-interactions would split as the universe had cooled below about 1028 degrees Kelvin.

A short transit ‘first proton day’: Duration in our solarbased time is just a micro second. As the temperature dropped below about 1015K, the strong and electroweak fields parted from each other, forming the four fundamental fields-forces-interactions of nature as we know them today. Emerging quarks combine with strong field-interactions and, are ‘later’ fused to form the nuclei of light chemical elements that we know today: Hydrogen, helium and lithium.

Following quantum physics one can speculate that such ‘Elementary particles’ pairs are formed out of the dense, hot, expanding and cooling universe. This ‘2nd Day’ in world history. It may also be termed PARTICLE CREATION day. The ‘3rd day’ may be termed ‘ISOTROPISATION day’, marked by interacting ‘elementary particles’ such as photons, neutrinos, leptons, mesons, nucleons, and their antiparticles.

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5

As the temperature of these particles drops to about 100,000,000,000 degrees Kelvin, the neutrinos and antineutrinos are decoupled from other elementary particles -- a very short duration that may be termed ‘NEUTRINO DECOUPLING’. Electron-positron pairs next annihilate each other and the cooling of the neutrinos and anti-neutrinos froze the neutron-proton ratio of the universe at a value that has since been preserved during the entire history of the universe. As the universe keeps its expanding-cooling the photons stop disintegration of the newly formed protons of hydrogen and helium. Nuclear fusion Begins. Neutrons next start to fuse with protons to form their relative abundances detected today. As the temperature drops further the Nuclear fusion ends

A new translation I will try. I read, if by the spirit I am taught, This sense: ’In the beginning was the Thought’. This opening I need to weigh again, Or sense may suffer from a hasty pen. Does Thought create, and work, and rule the hou

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‘Tis writ: ’in the beginning was the Word!’ I pause, to wonder what is here inferred? The Word I cannot set supremely high, ’Twere best: ’In the beginning was the Power!’ Yet, while the pen is urged with willing fingers, A sense of doubt and hesitancy lingers. The spirit come to guide me in my need, I write, ’In the beginning was the Deed!’

Wolfgang von Goethe Faust I. Transl. Philip Wayne (Penguin Classics, London)

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was without form and void … Genesis 1 6


7

Most astrophysicists, cosmologists and astronomers agree today that the biblical account of the beginning of cosmic evolution, in stressing "a beginning" and the initial roles of "void" and a structure-less, chaotic state, may be uncannily close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us with. according to modern astronomy and empirical relativistic cosmology, the highly curved space-time of the early universe is, in many senses, analogous to a "white hole" in which radiation-dominated (structure-less) pre-atomic medium had expanded away from extremely high density and temperature, to end up in the present, matter-dominated era in which the initial structure-less medium has gradually developed into the present hierarchy of gravitationally-bounded galaxies and other structures, including the late arrival of mortals. 13.75 to 13 years ago

The early universe was opaque, chaotic and structureless. Neutral hydrogen is first formed when the cosmic temperatures drops below about 3000-4000 degrees Kelvin. Below these temperatures gravity proceeds with its everlasting transformation of chaos into structures in the entire universe. The

resulting, unstaurable, expanding voids between non-

expanding galaxies and stars next drive all irreversibility and structuring in the universe that eventually lead to the generation of all the blocking elements of life in the core of 7


8

massive stars, which are the first to explode, and some form solar-like systems that may lead to life, as happened here about 8.8 billion years post BBC and detailed below. The First Stars and Galaxies were gravity-structured out of 150 to 800 years post the first genesis

expanding cosmic hydrogen clouds. As gravity has condensed them, their core temperatures have gradually increased. Eventually, at around 10 million degrees Kelvin inside their cores, nuclear reactions start, gradually converting hydrogen into heavier chemical elements: The building blocks of future life. But first terminology. A Word on Verified Cosmic Distances

The faster any galaxy is moving away from any observer, due to intergalactic voids expansion, the more its observed light is skewed towards longer, redder wavelengths. This redshift, there are other, are caused by the expansion of the universe, namely, expansion of intergalactic voids. In short: The greater the redshift the further away the source is.

Tables of Galactic Redshifts are Our Records of Cosmic History Images recorded by telesopes reveal far away galaxies that show redshifts up to about 9. This figure means the light from that most distant detected early galaxy had been 8


9

emitted about 13 billion years ago, namely, about 600 million years past BBC. 150 to 800 years post the first genesis

Increasing gravity-induced pressures and temperatures inside cores of stars ignite nuclear fusion. Billions galaxies, each containing up to trillion stars, gradually emerge and radiate energy to EXPANDING SPACE in between said galaxies and super clusters of galaxies. These are called voids. [Cover image]. And when we speak on the currently expanding universe said expansioin is confined to said voids. The galaxies DO NOT EXPAND.

4.567 billion

Solar-Type Wind of radiation and particles hits all orbiting planets. On earth it is partially reflected back to cold expanding dark-night Space. This reflection is from the upper Earth atmosphere. The rest of it is undergoing complex energy transformations/cycles in the air, clouds and down to the ground,

being

eventually

reflected

back,

at

longer

wavelengths, to cold space, and eventually to said expanding voids. 4.55 to 4.40 billion

Isotopes exist on earth since 4.54 billion years ago. Crystals of zircon from Australia provide 4.55 billion years as earth age. A compromise between astronomers and paleontologists, which includes the “radiometric age dating� of meteorite material and lunar samples, fix the age of earth at 4.404 billion years.

4.5 to 0.543 billion

Precambrian Era is fragmented into: Hadean [4.5 to 3.8 9


10

million YRS AGO]; Achaean [3.8 to 0.543 million YRS AGO]; further fragmented into Paleoproterozoic [2.5 to 1.6 billion YRS AGO]; Proterozoic [2.5 to 0.543 million YRS AGO]; Mesoproterozoic [1.6 to 0.9 billion YRS AGO]; Neoproterozoic [0.900 to 0.543 million YRS AGO], Vendian [0.650 to 0.543 billion YRS AGO. (Also proof of a water lake on Mars 3.4 Billion YRS AGO) The origin of life on earth begins with natural amino acids being ‘organized’ into proteins and nucleic acids (e.g.,

guanine

&

ribose

depicted on the right -- the building RiboNucleic

molecules Acid

of

[RNA],

which can reproduce on its own and had predated DeoxyRibonucleic Acid [DNA]. But how the first nucleic acids were formed has not been verified by science beyond doubt. It is at this point in world history that Creationism provides an answer: HOW the laws of physics ‘were introduced’ to the just created universe and how the first nucleic acids were formed. [Cf. Lecture 1 vs. Appendix VI]. What has been verified by science beyond doubt is, inter alia, limited by three facts: (1) about 3.8 billion years ago fossil micro-like bio-objects existed (simple cells), (2) multicellular life emerges about 1 10


11

billion yrs ago; (3) life was widespread on earth about 3 billion

years

ago

as

evidenced

by

photosynthesis.

(Photosynthesis had gradually caused the hidrogen-rich early atmosphere to be converted to our present, oxygen-rich atmosphere.) 650 to 543 mill.

The first animal-like organisms were not motile. The earliest fossils that may represent animals appear towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian around

610

million

yrs

ago.

Ancestors of insects emerge 570 million yrs ago. Fish emerge 500 million yrs ago. Reptiles emerge 300 million yrs ago. These are known as the ediacaran or venedian biota. They did not have any type of digestive system and lived on deepsea grounds, just increasing their surface area to maximize energy intake. They were replaced during the Cambrian Era by motile animals that have gradually developed digestive systems in which energy intake is enhanced by millions of inner residing bacteria. Reproduction is originated by irreversible processes1.1. First these processes had involved only single-cell organisms, but later two different organisms exchanging DNA heredity code for reproduction of a newly-born organism have emerged.

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Some of the newly-born organisms lacked the capability to reproduce and vanish from the history of life. Female and male entities have gradually evolved to reproduce by combining DNA of the two parents. Different types, locations

and orientations of legs, wings,

eyes, hair, digestive systems, mouth and reproductive organs evolve under the influence of and in response to gravity1.1. Biological clocks associated with fertility are gravitationally linked to the annual changing sun-earth gravity cycles and the moon-gravity-induced tides. The head-legs super-structureorientation of the embryo is formed by gravity-induced orientation. Nearly

all

animals

undergo

some

form

of

sexual

reproduction. They have a few specialized reproductive cells needed to re-produce. Many animals are also capable of non-sexual reproduction in which fertile eggs are produced without mating, or via fragmentation. Fish become the first creatures on land, moving with sideextended legs, backbones and eyes on the top of their heads rather than on the side. Unlike other fish, such land types could move their head independently of its shoulders, like current land animals. 12


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Overlapping ribs that could support the body against gravity evolve. Motility was increased by evolving legs directly under the body, like most current land animals (instead of on the sides). 543 to 248 million

Paleozioc Era [543 to 248 million YRS AGO], fragmented into: Cambrian [543 to 490 million YRS AGO]; Ordovician [490 to 443 million YRS AGO]; Silurian [443 to 417 million YRS AGO]; Devonian [417 to 354 million YRS AGO]; Carboniferous [354 to 290 million YRS AGO]; Permian [290 to 248 million YRS AGO] Most known animal appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the so-called Cambrian Explosion era.

248 to 65 million

Mesozoic Era is fragmented into: Triassic [248 to 206 million YRS AGO]; Jurassic [206 to 144 million YRS AGO]; Cretaceous [144 to 65 million YRS AGO].

230 to 65 million

Mounted skeletons of Tyrannosaurus (left) and Apatosaurus (right) at the American Museum of Natural History; Various types of dinosaurs live around the globe. They vanished around 65 million yrs ago. Flowers emerge about 13


14

130 million yrs ago. Together with most species they became extinct by gravityinduced climatic phenomena – including large meteor impacts and volcanic eruptions. The resulting dust/ash blocked sunlight causing lack of sufficient water, grass, etc. Smaller species and some ‘DinoBirds’ have survived and further evolved into various birds and other species. 55 -45 million

Mammoths, mastodons, and elephants. The first mammoths emerged in Africa and later reached Europe, Siberia, etc.. One branch reached North America about

1,700,000

YRS

AGO.

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15

College of Eastern Utah, Prehistoric Museum

50 to 45 million

Indian subcontinent is pushed up, gradually forming the Himalayas. The new barrier to global wind changes weather patterns, altering average temperatures and ecological systems, forming arid zones. Climates that had been tropical had turned largely temperate, jungles had thinned out, and fruits and nuts normally available year around began to appear only seasonally. The changing conditions for feeding, outside the forest in the resulting savanna, attracted forest-dwelling 15


16

apes in search of food. Once out of the forest these apes began to evolve rapidly. [Cf. Book Synopsis] The grasslands favored the survival of those who could stand up; for an erect position enables to see over the grass to spot and hunt their prey, and to see and escape the animals that preyed on them. Thus they were able to survive longer and produce more offspring who shared their characteristics. After many generations they had evolved into the upright-standingwalking hominids [Refrs. 60-62] in Ubeidiya or Eastern Africa. Intellect henceforth is aided by fore-limbs freed from tasks of walking. [Cf. “Lucy”, “Ardi” & “Ubeidiya” below] 65 to 1.8 million

Cenozoic Era [65 million YRS AGO until present], fragmented into: Paleocene [65 million to 54,800,000 YRS AGO]; Eocene [54.8 to 33.7 million YRS AGO]; Oligocene [33.7 to 23.8 million YRS AGO]; Miocene [23.8 to 5.3 million YRS AGO]; Pliocene [5.3 to 1.8 million YRS AGO].

14 to 8 million

Experience with gravity-induced factors, grew in hominids into primitive but intelligent thinking. [Cf. “Lucy”, “Ardi” & “Ubeidiya” below]

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17

Several hominids may be

8 to 6 million

our

ancestors: Sahelanthropous

techadensis,

Orrorin

tugenesis Ardipithecus

and kadabba.

Australopithecus afarensis is shown on the left. It is closely related to the human genus Homo, and may be ancestral to it. Its family is Hominidae. [Cf. “Lucy”, “Ardi” & “Ubeidiya” below] Gravity-induced changes in the environment, e.g., when a volcano erupts, cause changes in feeding behavior of hominids, and thus changes in teeth, jaws, legs, backbone, etc. Skeleton structure adapts to enhance motility.Loss of estrus by the female hominid. This sexual rhythm differentiated them from all other animals. New modes of mating improve the selection of a partner lead to prolonged infant dependency, stable and more enduring family units. Both human (Ardipithecus, Australopithecus and Homo) and Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus) lineages further diverged from a common ancestor about 5 to 6 million years ago

17


18 4.4 to 1.8 million

Hominids “Lucy” and “Ardi” lived in Afar, Ethiopia, about 4.4 [“Ardi”] or 3.2 [“Lucy”] million years ago. The structure of both “Ardi” and “lucy” knee, pelvis and hip indicates that they could walk upright on two legs. However, chimpanzees also occasionally walk upright for short periods of time. Genetic studies show that both shared a common ancestor about 8,000,000 YRS AGO. Other sites date from 2,000,000 to 1,400,000 YRS AGO and include Turkana, Kanapoi, Olduvaland and Ubeidiya. Some 17 or 19 gravity-induced ice ages’ since 3,000,000 YRS AGO have strongly affected ecological systems on earth. Each lasted about 50,000 to 100,000 years and each had lowered the surface of the oceans, resulting in climate-induced changes in life and ecological systems, e.g., U-shaped valleys in North America and Canada. Ice melting lead to destruction of creatures which had adapted to colder climates.

3 million

The Jordan Valley formed a low-level, hot, bio-geographic, gravity-induced tectonic corridor connecting hominid habitats in East Africa with the Gravity-induced Jordan River Valley. Between 2 million and 3 million years ago Afro hominids and animals migrated to the Jordan Valley under the same climatic 18


19

conditions as in their source. The earliest evidence for a human presence in the Jordan valley comes from the site of Ubeidiya, just south of Lake of Galilee, Israel. Stone tools and fossils of large mammals were found there together with remnants of a muddy shoreline about 1.6 to 1.4 million years ago. Human-like ‘settlement’ of hominids

2.0 to 1.4 million

UBEIDIA, Israel, is the site where hominids evolved, improved and then spread to all corners of the world.

in Ubeidia, Israel, 3km South of present lake of Galilee. [Refs. 61-62]. It is where the Jordan River, meets a small (mostly dry) river flowing down from the Porria Valley. This world unique site is still not open to tourists. It

consists of 'living floors' that include hand axes, picks, bifaces, pebble-core tools. Bones found at the site include extinct species of hippopotamus, deer, and mollusks. The Ubeidia site contains distinct layers composed of alternating ‘living’ floors which contain animalbones vs. lake-fish-bones, in mud, not on ‘living’ floors. The layers with floors are composed of ‘ordered’

river-rounded-stones

that

include the tools mentioned above. The alternating layers correspond to repeated expansions and contractions of the ancient Lake of Galilee. When the lake was contracting, the animals and hominids that had migrated from East Africa via the gravity-induced Red and Dead Seas found here a unique feeding site that has allowed them to gradually surpass the 19


20

‘technology’ of the Neanderthals. [SEE BELOW] It is partly in Ubeidia where hominids improved their 1.4mill ion to 12k Yrs ago

physical and mental capabilities, living and hunting technologies and organization of settlements; it is from Ubeidia that our early ancestors have gradually spread to all corners of the world. Ubeidia is therefore one of the earliest Academies of mankind. Their earliest migration waves to cold lands have not survived (Cf. Neanderthals below), but later migrations -- of more advanced hominids -- did. Recent mtDNA studies of ‘Graduated’ hominids from Ubeidia, Israel, prove migrations to: South Asia, about 50,000 Years Ago; to Europe about 40,000 Years Ago; to East Asia about 30,000 Years Ago; to North America about 30,000 or about 14-11,000 Years Ago; to Australia about 30,000 or 40,000 Years Ago; Ubeidiya is not younger than 2 Million Years. It may be older than any record of Early Acheulian artifacts or Homo Erectus in Africa.

780k to 80k yrs ago

Stone hand axes, fashioned according to African techniques and found at a site just north of Lake of Galilee, indicate additional emigration waves out of Africa about 780,000 years ago. Remains discovered west of Lake of Galilee at Skhul Cave and Qafzeh Cave in Israel indicate that early modern humans-probably either descendants or near relatives of the recently 20


21

discovered, 160,000-year-old H. sapiens fossils from Herto, Ethiopia--were present in the gravity-induced Jordan River tectonic Valley between 130,000 and 80,000 years ago.

0.8 million to 25k yrs ago

Various mtDNA analyses show that Neanderthals ancestor

shared

with

a

Homo

common Sapiens,

probably living in North-East Africa, Ubeidia or the Carmel Caves. mtDNA-based dating of that split ranges from 800,000, 516,000 or 500,000 years ago while fossil records indicate 400,000 years ago.

AMNH

Neanderthal fossil finds spread from Israel to Germany and from Spain, Portugal, Italy and England to Uzbekistan. Neanderthals made their last stand in Gibraltar about 25,000 yrs ago. Like apes, they lacked a bony chin. Yet, they had a larger and broader face than ours. Their skull has a receding forehead and low braincase, but their brain is larger than those of our ancestors. Moreover, they used fire and introduced burial sites, as did our ancestors. 500k to 40k

Carmel Caves are occupied by migrants from Ubeidiya. The Tabun Cave has the longest sequence of occupation, almost half a million years. The dwellers used improved hand axes of flint or limestone for killing animals (gazelle, hippopotamus, 21


22

rhinoceros and wild cattle) and for digging out plant roots. Hand axes became smaller and better shaped and scrapers, made of thick flakes chipped off flint cores, were used for scraping meat off bones and for processing animal skins. Upper levels in the Tabun Cave consist mainly of clay and silt, indicating that a colder, more humid climate prevailed when glaciers formed once more; this caused the Mediterranean Sea level to drop about 100m to its present level. It also produced a wider coastal strip, covered by dense forests and swamps. Trash in such sites is gold to the archaeologist. Its gravityinduced layers reveal at least the diet of the dwellers. It consisted of fruit, seeds, roots and leaves with meat supplements. 1,800k to prst

120k

The Quaternary Era is fragmented into the Pleistocene [1.8 million to 10k YRS AGO] and Holocene [10k to present] Burial tradition spreads. Skeleton of a female buried inside a stone niche just outside a Carmel Cave is one of the most ancient human skeletal remains.

100k to 13k

Migration from Ubeidiya to the Indian subcontinent. Carmel graves show a cult and rituals related to death and spiritual realm. [Migrations from Ubeidiya to the rest of the world are proved by studies of complete Mitochondrial DNA sequence.] In Ubeidiya, during 1.4 million years, hominids have ‘selfeducated’ themselves to graduate as ‘modern humans’. They have later survived with relatively advanced technology in 22


23

other climates. At least 14 skeletons uncovered portray Homo sapiens, who are closely related to modern humans in physical appearance with delicate facial features, a protruding chin and a straight forehead. These appearances have been developed in the Carmel Caves and the Jordan River Valley. 67k to 10k

Early migrations from Ubeidiya to China. Improved inventions in fishing and fire making emerge. 40k YRS AGO, further migrations from Ubeidiya to Europe. 35k YRS AGO, the earliest clothed body discovered in Russia. 30k YRS AGO: Beginning of the last North-American ice age. Mitochondrial-DNA [mtDNA]

studies

provide

evidence for migration from the Baikal Lake area in Southern Siberia, across the Bering land bridge, to Alaska, North America and further South along the coast. 27k YRS AGO, caves in Africa abound with paintings and carvings. 20k YRS AGO, further migration to North America via the Bering land bridge. 15k YRS AGO, domestication of dogs from a few ancestor wolfs starts in China. 13k YRS AGO, further migration from North to South 23


24

America. Plant-gathering and animal-hunting is transformed to plantgrowing and animal-domestication. The level of the Mediterranean Sea rose again, as the last glacial period came to an end, and the coastline stabilized to roughly its present contours. Carmel settlements become permanent, consisting of a few families living together in a kind of a village that serves as a base for hunting expeditions and food gathering. Improved Natufian flint tools are used primarily as scrapers of animal skins. Decorative beads, blades for cutting meat and sawing bone and sickle blades (secured in wooden or bone scythes) emerge for harvesting grain (which left a characteristic gloss on the edge of the blades). Microliths of a lunatic shape are used as arrowheads, harpoons and fish hooks. Grinding tools, mortars and pestles made of stone are used for food processing. 12k to 8k Yrs ago

The last Ice Age gradually ends from about 12,000 to 8000 years ago. The earliest levels of excavation in Jericho show the inhabitants had gathered the seeds of cereal grasses from the rocky hills flanking the Jordan River Valley and planted them in fertile soil. The result: Domesticated plants followed centuries later by domesticated cattle, goats, and sheep, and the expansion of human settlements. Further migrations from Asia across the Bering land bridge to the Americas. Migrants’ artifacts in Clovis, N.M., North 24


25

America. This finding is the oldest indisputable evidence of human presence in the Americas since about 11,000 years ago. 10k Yrs ago

Main racial groups are frozen in territories that they dominate. Cultivation of primitive forms of rice in South-East Asia emerges. Pottery is produced in Japan 9,819 YRS AGO. Human remains in‘On Your Knees’ cave in Alaska. 9,500 YRS AGO, evidence of harvesting of wild grasses in Asia Minor. 9,400 YRS AGO, human remains in Kennewick, on the Western Coast of North America. 8,640 YRS AGO, human remains in Palli Aike, at the Southern end of Chile.

9200

Village and perhaps a shrine in Jericho, the Jordan Valley. Jericho is considered by some as the birthplace of civilization. However, see UR below.

7,000 to 5,500

UR is recognizable as the first stage of civilization: It was established on the fertile soil formed between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, in an area close to where they flow into what is today Iraq, near the Persian or Arabic Gulf. It is also called Shummer. Yet, other call it the ‘the land between the two rivers’, ‘the Ur Civilization’, or ‘Ki-engir’, ‘Acadi’ as the Bible refers to it. (Also via other names, including Ur). Its first settlers are called Ubaidians. Their name is derived from Tel al'Ubaid, near the city of Ur.

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26

6600 YRS AGO. Ubaidians living

in

villages

develop

systems to drain marshes and irrigate crops by digging ditches to river waters. They learn to keep farm animals and develop weaving, leather work and copper and bronze metallurgy. They are involved in trade with nearby societies. [App. VI] 6100 YRS AGO. Ubaidians develop large ovens for baking bread. In Tell Hamoukar, a protective city wall is erected. Dry clay marks and primitive hieroglyphics are emerging for record keeping of trade transactions or taxes involving livestock or crops. [App. VI]. Stamp seals are used at various Ubaid-culture sites as precursors to writing. The first written language in the history of humanity emerges.

Villagers construct early religious centers, each with its particular god. One of these, Eridu, is traced back to about 7000 YRS AGO. It later had a temple with monumental architecture that goes back to around 6500 YRS AGO. Semites work their way from the Carmel Caves into the fertile Ur area. An U’baid site at Yarim Tepe yields several hundred grindstones and grinders in a single room. Wheels for donkey carts and for simple machines are devised 26


27

to make pottery easier to manufacture and paint. Pottery emerges as Ubaid Style of Art, with its monochrome black painting.

The earliest historical division of labor evolves. Earlier flint sickles are replaced by clay sickles. A religious temple dedicated to Nin-Khursag (Ninhursag) was uncovered at al'Ubaid, with a dedication inscription from A-anni-padda, king of Ur and son of Mes-anni-padda, king of Ur. Uncovered “Shummerian King List� shows that they are from the First Dynasty of Ur. Ubaidians are invaded by Shummerians and a new era starts to evolve. As with the Ubaidians, the origin of the Shummerians is not clear. Their language, which has survived through writing, bears some resemblance to the Ural-Altaic languages. Earlier than 9,000 YRS AGO Ali Kosh becomes a village with wide lanes and rectangular houses. Sheep and goats are well domesticated. Fishing in nearby marshes and irrigation gradually evolve to help grow cereal crops by at least 8000 YRS AGO. 5.9k

Shummerians construct improved canals for irrigating crops and for transporting crops by boat to village centers. They also improve the roads over which their donkeys trod, some of their donkeys pulling wheeled carts.

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28

As the UR/Shummerian population increases, key elements in creating a civilization - a word derived from an ancient word for city – evolve. At least fifteen cities emerge: Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Eridu, Sipper, Nippur, Adab, Umma, Larsa, Eshnunna, Shaduppum, Isin, and Shurupak. Sufficient food is gradually produced to support city population that had developed professions: Priesthood, pottery making, weaving, carpentry, early metallurgy and trading, including trade by sea for which they constructed seaworthy boats and even ships. They imported commodities made from wood, stone, tin and copper. Ur, for example, has increased to a city of about 24,000 people and Uruk to around 45,000. Around each city were fields of grain, orchards of date palms and land for herding. 5.4k

Wikipedia

The “ICE MAN” -- discovered on September 19, 1991 almost intact under an Alpine melting glacier near the border 28


29

between Austria and Germany -- had a tattoo-like marks on his preserved skin, a deerskin quiver that contained 14 arrows, unfinished bow, an ax of nearly pure copper and a tool to sharpen flint blades. Other findings reveal that these people grew wheat and barley and made linen cloths from flax. They have already domesticated dogs, sheep, goats, cattle and pigs.

Are We All Ashes of Dead Stars?

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30

UR; The First Civilization And the name of the third river is Hiddekel; which flows toward the east of Ashur. And the fourth river is Euphrate. Genesis 2:14 Te’rah begat Abram, Nahor, and Ha’ran; and Ha’ran begat Lot. And Ha’ran died before his father Te’rah, in the land of his nativity, in Ur Kasdim [of the Chal’dees].

UR like Egypt, India and China, is among first-timer civilizations in world history. It is where the first full-fledged written

Genesis, 11; 27, 28 Get yourself out of your country, And from your kindred, And from your father’s house, To the land that I will show you.

language and Abrahamic

Genesis 12:1

Monotheism enter world history and have since irreversibly changed humanity. AVI.1—AVI.11 and Appendix V

nce a complete writing language has evolved and used in UR, its surviving records -- on time-invariant, dry, clay tablets -- have provided us with details of incredibly rich culture that had flourished mainly from about 6500 to 4700 years ago and has been later adopted, almost in its entirety, by the Babylonian civilization and subsequent ones.

his first recognizable civilization invented the use of seconds, minutes, hours, degrees and numerology as we use them today.

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oems, anecdotes, prose, huge decorated temples, pantheon of gods, diversified theology, cosmology, political system, government, organized armies and numerology, had all flourished there. No such parallels in Egypt, India and China had emerged that early. Hence, UR is widely recognized as the first full fledged civilization on earth. ome of its great epics have surfaced to the light of history in various archeological sites. A few surfaced independently in the biblical stories of GilgameshAVI.2, the flood, Noah, the ark and the city of Ur -- the birthplace of Abraham, the biblical founder of monotheism.

Ubaidians -- The Founders of Ur round 8,000 years ago, the first settlers in UR are called Ubaidians. Their name is derived from Tel al'Ubaid, near the city of Ur. There is no evidence to back-link them with Ubeidiya, more than a million years earlier. Nevertheless, as recent mtDNA-based studies link humans around the world, it may be a plausible assumption. [Cf. Lecture 6] bout 6600 years ago, the Ubaidians living in villagesAVI.3 developed systems to drain marshes and irrigate their crops by digging ditches to river waters. As in the earlier Carmel culture [Appendix V], they learned to keep farm animals and developed weaving, leather work and even copper and bronze metallurgy. They were also involved in trade with nearby societies: West, east, North and South of their unique land.

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t about 6100 years ago the Ubaidians [Appendix V] developed large ovens for baking bread. In Tell Hamoukar, a protective city wall had been erected. Hieroglyphics were first developed, mainly for record-keeping of trade transactions and taxes. Gradually these hieroglyphics evolved into the first written language. (See below) The earliest known writing for record keeping evolved from a system of counting using small clay tokens that began in Sumer about 8000 BC.[4] When the summerian wanted to represent "two sheep", they selected two round clay tokens each having a + sign baked into it. Each token represented one sheep. Representing a hundred sheep with a hundred tokens would be impractical, so they invented different clay tokens to represent different numbers of each specific commodity, and strung the tokens like beads on a string. There was a token for one sheep, a different token for ten sheep, a different token for ten goats, etc. Thirty-two sheep would be represented by three ten-sheep tokens followed on the string by two sheep tokens. To ensure that nobody could alter the number and type of tokens, they invented a clay envelope shaped like a hollow ball into which the tokens on a string were placed, sealed, and baked. If anybody disputed the number, they could break open the clay envelope and do a recount. To avoid unnecessary damage to the record, they pressed archaic number signs and witness seals on the outside of the envelope before it was baked, each sign similar in shape to the tokens they represented. Since there was seldom any need to break open the envelope, the signs on the outside became the first written language for writing numbers in clay. Beginning about 3500 BC the tokens and envelopes were replaced by numerals impressed with a round stylus at different angles in flat clay tablets 32


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which were then baked.[5] A sharp stylus was used to carve pictographs representing various tokens. Each sign represented both the commodity being counted and the quantity or volume of that commodity. About 3100 BC written numbers were dissociated from the things being counted and abstract numerals were invented.[6] The things being counted were indicated by pictographs carved with a sharp stylus next to round-stylus numerals. The Sumerians had a complex assortment of incompatible number systems and each city had their own local way of writing numerals. In the city of Uruk about 3100 BC, there were more than a dozen different numeric systems.[7] One number system was used for counting discrete objects such as animals, tools, and containers. A different system was for counting cheese and grain products. Another system was used to count volumes of grain and included fractions. Another system counted beer ingredients. Another system counted weights. Another system counted land areas. Another system counted time units and calendar units. And these systems changed over the years. Numbers for counting volumes of grain changed whenever the size of the baskets changed. People who added and subtracted volumes of grain every day used their arithmetic skills to count other things that were unrelated to volume measurements. The Sumerians invented the wheel and also invented arithmetic. Multiplication and division were done with multiplication tables baked in clay tablets.[see below]

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Conversion of archaic numbers to cuneiform

Middle Babylonian legal tablet from Alalah in its envelope

Between 2700 BC and 2000 BC, the round stylus was gradually replaced by a reed stylus that had been used to press wedge shaped cuneiform signs in clay. To represent numbers that previously had been pressed with a round stylus, these cuneiform number signs were pressed in a circular pattern and they retained the additive sign-value notation that originated with tokens on a string. Cuneiform numerals and archaic numerals were ambiguous because they represented various numeric systems that differed depending on what was being counted. About 2100 BC in Sumer, these proto-sexagesimal signvalue systems gradually converged on a common sexagesimal number system that was a place-value system consisting of only two impressed marks, the 34


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vertical wedge and the chevron, which could also represent fractions.[8] This sexagesimal number system was fully developed at the beginning of the Old Babylonia period (about 1950 BC) and became standard in Babylonia. Sexagesimal numerals were a Mixed radix system that retained the alternating base 10 and base 6 in a sequence of cuneiform vertical wedges and chevrons. Sexagesimal numerals became widely used in commerce, but were also used in astronomical and other calculations. This system was exported from Babylonia and used throughout Mesopotamia, and by every Mediterranean nation that used standard Babylonian units of measure and counting, including the Greeks, Romans and Egyptians. In Arabic numerals, we still use sexagesimal to count time (minutes per hour), and angles (degrees). Ubaid Invaded By Shummerians bout 5900 years ago the Shummerians [“Sumerians�] replaced Ubaidians and constructed improved canals for irrigating crops and more advanced roads for transporting crops by boat to village centers.

isciplined infantry in a phalanx with overlapping shields and leveled spears appear on monuments from UR. They have also introduced a new key weapon: A bow composed of interlocked wood and horn strips, which had provided their arrows with a longer range.

he Shummerians had also introduced the foundations of mathematics, establishing the technique of expressing numbers by position and sign, as well as the sixty-based system in our circle of 360 degrees and our hour of sixty minutes, each composed of 60 seconds. 35


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later Babylonian cosmogony is based on the Shummerian one, with creation of the world from watery medium and the eventual generation of mankind. UR/Summer lasted about 1,300 years, roughly from 5300 to 4000 years ago. Then the Elamites invaded and sacked it.AVI.4. How the First Writing Language Was Invented? The invention of the first full-fledged writing language is attributed to both the Ubaidians and the Shummerians. That progress coincides with the gradual transition from hunting-gathering families, groups, and tribes, to more permanent agrarian communities, villages and cities.

he need to mark and count private property, such as parcels of land, animals, or measures of grain, or evidence of trade in transferring private property to another, or to contribute it to the cult center to please the local ruler/priest/god, were probably the main driving force for the invention of a writing language. Rich literature, list of kings and religious mythologies have emerged and survived on clay tablets. he first evidence of recording of property was discovered as "counting tokens", such as those depicted below. These may represent numerical records of trade, or goods provided to the temple priest/god.

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Full-Fledged 1st Language: The Cuneiform Writing etween 6100 to 5800 years ago, such records are transformed into more meaningful symbols that can be inscribed into wet clay configurations as shown above -- prior to drying and thus preserving them. Such records are precursors of the first written language in world history. ome pictographs have also served as bases for developing a written language. Both were gradually stylized, rotated with respect to the common ‘up-down vector of gravity’, and then impressed on a soft wet clay with a wedge shaped stylus to become the script known today as Cuneiform writing. Examples and their meanings are shown below.

Head

Foot

Sun "day" Hand

Woman

xcavations of the ancient city Ugarit, have produced texts in a cuneiform script that were consonantal [no vowels] and in the order of the Alef-Beyt, as shown below.

Cuneiform Writing The Shummerians also wrote arithmetic based on units of ten. Such records were also read as a common language when their ‘up-down’ and ‘left-right’ orientations were agreed upon by the priest or king and enforced on some others by hard education.

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uch education was enforced by punishable training aimed to associate symbols with things, animals and spoken sounds. Gradually, when enforced as the common order of symbols, via gravity-induced orientation [Lecture 6], to represent the spoken sounds, they have been used by the Shummerians for hundreds of years. Emergence of Religious Order he invention of writing was immediately exploited as a tool to tighten the control of kings and priests over the population. It was mainly used to increase the control of rulers and priests over assets and to exercise their claimed divine power. Such enforced spread of the written language has helped control bigger villages, towns and cities. A sort of an empire has eventually emerged. But that signaled its forthcoming end. It is in the UR/Summer civilization that a close relationship between religion and government had evolved.

Origin of Cosmogony and Numerology oncerned about their cosmological-star-gods, the Shummerians needed to map the fixed and moving stars. That prompted them to divide the sky circle into units of sixty, each 6 degrees, from which they also invented the 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in an hour. Therefore, when we use them in everyday life, we are using an ancient culture, a cultural system that we

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take for granted, namely, without inquiring about its origin and ancient-scope meaning. Education, Judicial Law & Women’s Equality cholars assume that the first organized system of education was also introduced in UR.

he legal idea of justice, with or without clear division between secular and religious authorities, played a basic role in UR. Monogamous

families

were

gradually

established by law, which also gave women important rights. Divorce, for instance, was conducted by law that provided equitable treatment of divorced wives.

R/Shummerian art portrays women in skirts, cleanshaved men and uniformly dressed soldiers as well as men sitting in armchairs with cups in their hands while musicians play for them. Some scholars therefore assume that one of the first musical instruments in the ancient world is the depicted Shummerian Lyre. Ur, Uruk, Erech Ur is identified with Uruk and the biblical Erech. The Talmud also identifies Ur Kaśdim with Erech in a place called Urichus.

According to the

Shummerians, the primeval sea (abzu) existed BEFORE anything else, and 39


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within it, heaven (an) and earth (ki) were formed. The boundary between heaven and earth was firm and solid. The earth was a flat disk, while the brighter spots were the stars, sun and moon. An, god of heaven, is the main god of the pantheon. Ki is probably the earth goddess Ninhursag (queen of the mountains), Ninmah (the exalted lady), or Nintu (the lady who gives birth). Enki, during the first days, needed things that were created. How ‘Heaven’ and Earth Were Separated? n took ‘Heaven’ while Enlil took earth. Nammu is the Goddess of the watery abyss, the primeval sea. She may be the earliest of deities within the Shummerian cosmology. Elsewhere she is described both as the mother of all gods and as the wife of An, Enki’s mother. Anunnaki’s temple was in Erech. He and Enlil give the gods, goddesses and the Shummerian kings their “divine power”.

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1801-1976 BCE -- Birth of Abrahamic Religions in UR. [located in current Southern Iraq]. Abraham migrates to Canaan and settles there and with his children as their “Promised Land”. Abraham is buried in the Patriarchs Tomb in Hebron. This is also the Birth of Zionism. 1686-1476 BCE -- Abraham’s offspring in Egypt. This is also Diaspora I. 1476-1436 BCE -- “Zionism II”: Mass Exodus from Egypt; Moses provides the “Ten Commandments” and prepares and leads 12 Israeli tribes back to the “Promised Land”. 1436-961 BCE – Joshua, Judges, Saul, KING DAVID/KING SOLOMON; 1st Temple in Jerusalem erected on the Temple-Mount (located in what is termed today “East Jerusalem”). 587 BCE -- “Diaspora II”: Kingdom of Judea falls to Babylion. 536 BCE -- “Zionism III”: Back to the “Promised Land”; Ezra; 2nd Temple in Jerusalem erected on Temple-Mount. 164

BCE -- Rededication of the Temple after occupation by Greeks ends; Maccaabees.

1 -- Jesus [Yeshuah, Jeshu, Gesus] born in Galilee, Judea 6 -- Herod Archelaus deposed by Augustus; Samaria and Judea annexed as Iudaea Province under direct Roman administration; 7-26 – Relative period of peace in Iudaea & Galilee 14-37 -- Tiberius, Roman Emperor. 18-36 -- Caiaphas, appointed High Priest of Herod's Temple by Prefect Valerius Gratus, deposed by Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius. 26-36 -- Pontius Pilate Governor of Iudaea; recalled to Rome by Syrian Legate Vitellius on complaints of excess violence. 41


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28/29 -- John baptized Jesus and later arrested and beheaded by Herod Antipas. 37-41 -- Crisis in Judea under Roman emperor Caligula. 37-54 -- Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor and succeeded to the throne following Claudius' death in 54. 44 -- Death of Herod Agrippa I 48 -- Herod Agrippa II appointed King of Judea by Claudius. 50 -- Passover riot in Jerusalem, 30,000 killed 54-68 –During Nero’s 14 years Regime he ordered the building of theaters and promoted athletic games. Yet he is infamously known as the emperor who "fiddled while Rome burned". During his reign he negotiated peace with the Iranians-Parthians and indirectly was instrumental in causing Jewish Judea to rise against the Roman Empire. [66-73]. 58 -- Paul arrested, accused of being "ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes"; teaching resurrection of the dead, imprisoned in Caesarea. 59 -- Paul shipwrecked on Malta. 60 -- Paul greeted by "brothers" ("believers") in Rome; called together local Jewish leaders and tried to convince them that the Gentiles would listen to the Kingdom of God and "Lord Jesus Christ". Paul later beheaded and Peter crucified. 68 -- Rebellion in Gaul and acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne. Facing assassination, he committed suicide on 9 June 68. He is the last emperor of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty. 66-73 – The big Revolt of the Hebrews in Judea, Galilee and the Gamla area: Destruction of the 2nd Temple and Jerusalem in 70; Joseph Phlasius [Yosef Ben-Maatitiahoo, Commander of the Jewish Revolt in the Galilee and later a celebrated Roman historian.] 42


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Occupation by local non-Hebrew Greek and Roman Citizens of all Hebrew cities and villages from Judea in the South and Samaria in the center to the Galilee [Yodfatt area] and Gamla area in the North. Hebrews are spread throughout the Roman Empire as the “Final Diaspora”. Qumran community is also destroyed. (site of Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1947). 72-73 – The battle for Freedom in Masada, a high-rocky city in the desert near the Dead Sea; Hebrew leader Eleazar Ben-Ya’ir against the Roman Commander Lucius Flavius Silva. 115–117 -- 2nd Jewish Rebellion against Rome. 132-135 – The Great and famous Bar Kochva revolt of the Hebrews against Rome. 313 -- Roman Emperor Constantine's conversion to Christianity and founder of the Byzantine Empire. 330, May 11: Constantinople inaugurated. Constantine moves the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium, renaming it New Rome. 351 – The Hebrews revolt against Gallus is originated in Tzipori [Sepphoris] in the Western Galilee. 412-415 -- In 412 Cyril became the Christian Patriarch of Alexandria. Hypatia as head of the World acclaimed library-university there teaches her philosophical, astronomical, mathematical and freespirited lifestyle becomes the focal point of struggle on Cyril’s part. But she continued to teach and publish, until, in the year 415, she was set upon by a fanatical mob of Cyril's parishioners, who dragged her from her chariot, tore off her dress, and armed with sharp seashells, flayed her flesh from her bones, dragging her body parts through the streets to the newly Christianized Caesareum Church. Then she was burned and her work banned and destroyed. In great panic the faculty run away for their life. 455 -- Destruction of Rome by Vandals. Spoils of the 2nd Temple of Jerusalem previously taken by Titus are among the treasures taken to Carthage. 484-572 – The Samaritan Revolts originate largely in Neapolis. 43


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613 – The Teberian Hebrew Revolt against Heraclius had been originated in Tiberias on the shores of the Lake of Galilee. 570-632 -- Islamic Abrahamic Religion is born in what is today Saudi Arabia. Its father is the prophet Muhammad ibn Abdullāh. Part of it follows the Hebrew Bible [Torah], including no-holy-images and rejection of the Christian Trinity as well as the accounts about Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, etc. Yet it teaches the husbands how to beat their wives. 1009-- The Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. 1039 -- Muslim armies' pressure and violence of the Seljuk Turks cause calls for Crusades. 1071 -- The immediate cause of the First Crusade was the Byzantine emperor Alexios I's appeal to Pope Urban II for mercenaries to help him resist Muslim advances into territory of the Byzantine Empire. 1071 -- At the Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantine Empire was defeated, which led to the loss of all of Asia Minor (contemporary Turkey). 1135-1204 -- The great Physician-philosopher-theist Moshe Maimonides describes the treatment of Hebrews by Muslims in Islamic Spain, Egypt and the Holy Land, stating that they “persecute us severely ... devise ways to harm us and to debase us.... No nation has matched it in debasing and humiliating us.” 1095-1456 – The First Crusade involved princes of northern Spain. It unleashed a fury that was expressed in large massacres of Jews. Six crusades followed and three additional ones are: 1396

-- The Crusade of Nicopolis organized by Sigismund of Luxemburg, king of Hungary.

1444

– The Crusade of Varna led by the Polish-Hungarian king, Władysław Warneńczyk.

1456

-- The Crusade of Belgrade led by John Hunyadi and Giovanni da Capistrano. 44


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Lecture XX The Rise of Political Freedom Philosophy

Europeans

had first expanded around the world mainly by their trade

companies. These were closely supported by advanced-technology fleets of armed ships.

Gradually, in semi-cooperation with Arab trading of slaves and expanding Islamization of South and East Asia, have generated European and Islamic occupying colonies around the world. The rise of Political Freedom Philosophy has strongle affected the American Revolution. Since then, in a progressive historical change, Europe has lost its colonies and the Islamic Caliphate based in Turkey has collapsed too. Antagonism in the European land and Islamic teritorries against the Chosen People has been there since the separation of these three religions. The occupation of Spain and Portugal by Islamic Arabs was supported by the local Hebrews suffereing under christian rules. Hindreds years alter the reqonquering Christian forces, killed or deported the Hebrews since 1492. Hebrews next spread across Europe, up to Poland and in North Africa, Italy, Greece, Turkey.

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Anti-Semitism has thus been growing and has culminated by the Death Camps of WW-II in which about six millions Hebrews were murdered just because they adhere to their Faith. This mass murder was coordinated by Nazi-Germany and has been wellorganized with most local Europeans. The Dryphus case has sparked the fourth return of the Hebrews to their homeland. This is Zionism IV, after Abraham, Zionism I, Moses, II, EzraNehemiah. III.

The Current Internet/TV Debates on Occupation: Past and Present Was Arab-Muslim Aniti-Semism Created by “Land Occupation”? 1840-1929 – A Christian monk and his servant disappeared in Syrian Damascus immediately followed by European-Style libel against Jews, charging them with use of Christian blood in their religious rituals. All were found guilty. [Wikipedia; Arab AntiSemitism, mid 2009.] This famous “verdict” has led to multiple massacre-pogroms; the Killing of Jews throughout the Mideast Muslim World [Id.]: Jerusalem (1847), Damascus (1840, 1848, 1890), Beirut (1862, 1874), Cairo (1844, 1890, 1901-02), Alexandria (1870, 1882, 1901-07), Port Said (1903, 1908), Istanbul (1870, 1874), Izmir (1872, 1874), Buyukdere (1864), Kuzguncuk (1866), Eyub (1868), Edirne (1872), Aleppo (1850, 1875), Damanhur (1871, 1873, 1877, 1891), Dayr al-Qamar (1847), Mansura (1877)[Id.] 46


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It is, therefore, misleading to state, inter alia by President Obama, that once the land conflict between the State of Israel and the Palestinians is resolved, a lasting peace would be established. As proved above, and below, the Islamic-Arab Anti-Semitism is deeply rooted for at least 170 years. It is not hate based on a land issue. It is the “eternal” hate re-stated by Muslim-Arab Leaders and aired in recent years, in Arabic as evidenced by various U-TUBE Videos. And it preceded any land dispute in Palestine; any issue of Palestinians; It is the "eternal" hate that drives Muslims to murder Jews even if all Palestine is given to them. Recorded Examples: U-Tube videos: In a sermon delivered by Sheik Muhammad Al-Muraikhi, which aired on Qatar TV on January 9, 2009, he stated [Id.]: "We do not treat the Jews as our enemies just because they occupied Palestine, or because they occupied a precious part of our Arab and Islamic world. We will treat the Jews as our enemies even if they return Palestine to us, because they are infidels." The “foremost Sunni Arab authority”, the Egyptian Sheikh Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy, the Grand Cleric of Al-Azhar Mosque and of Al-Azhar Cairo University, where President Obama launched, on June 4, 2009, his reach speech to Islam, had proclaimed, in April 2002, that, according to the Holy Qur’an and the Hadith Jews are “descendants of apes and pigs.” [Id.] President Obama selected Al-Jazeera – the Muslims’ major TV – as the first one to interview him as the new president of the United States. In a sermon aired there on January 9, 2009, the Muslim scholar and preacher Yusuf al-Qaradawi stated:

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“Oh Allah, take this oppressive, Jewish, Zionist band of people. Oh Allah, do not spare a single one of them. Oh Allah, count their numbers, and kill them, down to the very last one.” Eight days later the Muslim cleric Muhammad Hussein Yacoub stated on AlRahma TV: “Our fighting with the Jews is eternal. We will fight, defeat, and annihilate them, until not a single Jew remains on the face of the Earth… As for you Jews, whose ancestors were apes and pigs, ….” [Id.] Palestinian preacher Sheikh Ibrahim Mahdi Ibrahim proclaims: Nothing will deter [the Jews] except for us voluntarily detonating ourselves in their midst. They have nuclear power, but we … blow them up in Tel Aviv.” “One of the Jews’ evil deeds is what has come to be called ‘the Holocaust,’ — the slaughter of the Jews by Nazism. However, revisionists [historians] have proven that this crime, carried out against some of the Jews, was planned by the Jews’ leaders, and was part of their policy." [Id.] 1636-1948 Early Enlightment people motions [Baruch Spinoza, Moshe Hess and in particular Zeev Hertsel] to go back to the “Promised Land” were accelerated by the Holocaust after 1945. 1947 – UN-Plan for 2 states in Palestine: Hebrew & Arab-Palestinians. Palestinian-Arab-States refuse. May 1, 1948 -- State of Israel born again; Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia invade baby-State-of-Israel and were defeated in shame. 1949-- Cease-fire “borders” established. “West bank” and Temple Mount occupied for 17 years by Jordan. Israelis denied access to Occupied Temple-Mount 48


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1949-1967 – Syria, Egypt, Jordan and Palestinian terrorists fight the State of Israel and were repeatedly defeated. Their occupation of the “Promised Land” and the Temple-mount ends in the 1967 Sixdays War. 1975 -- "The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 declared "Zionism is a form of racism." [Wikipedia, Anti-Zionism]. 1991 --

16 YEARS LATER said decision was revoked in shame. Nevertheless various people, including former democratic U.S. President Carter, still adhere to the formula “Zionism = Racism”, and/or “Israel = Apartheid”.

June 4, 2009 -- President Obama in his Cairo Speech reaches to the Islamists by claiming that the Temple-Mount “legally” does not belong to the Hebrews. 2009-2014 – President Obama’s reaches to non-Arab Iran, whose President denies the Holocaust while promising Muslims to wipe Israel off the map, with or without its atomic bombs. Militant ArabMuslims express hopes that the President of America will at last finish the “chosen people” and deliver the “Promised Land” to their ready-to-accept hands. May-19 2011 -- President Obama in a State-Department speech state that Israel must go back to the 1949-1967 Cease-fire “borders”. May 20, 2011 -- Prime Minister of Israel Netanyahu in the White House Responds: Such 9-mile-wide ceasefire lines are “indefensible”. May 22, 2011 – U.S. Congress greets Netanyahu with 29 standing ovations, while Arab main TV Al-Jazeera airs these applauds as “shocking” and complain that they are more than President Obama ever been bestowed with.

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The Origin of Abrahamic [Hebrew] Monotheism he Hebrews are the first to collectively arrive at and obey the abstract notion of a single Creator of All, and, later, to forbid, mainly via the Ten Commandments in the TorrahAVI.10, any representation of YHVH [Lecture 10] by any image, statue, painting or icon. No people have produced a greater historical impact from the idea of Monotheism. In trying to comprehend the origin of Monotheism one must first refer to the culture of UR that is briefly reviewed in Appendix V and footnote AVI.9.

braham (Ibrahim in Arabic, and initially Abram) was 75 years old when he left Ur. [Reference: The Biblical quotations at this Appendix opening page.] He was probably forced to leave because of his known belief in Monotheism and total rejection of the pantheon of pagan gods. His son, Yitzhak [Isaac] wisely avoided defining God by saying only: “The God of my father, the God of Abraham� [Genesis 31:42].

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ll Abrahamic religions are deduced from Abraham’s early idea of a single, ONE GOD. Unlike Isaac and Jacob, Abraham had tried to Tomb of Abraham in Israel spread Monotheism through people who had not been 'blood-related'. hristianity, as Judaism, had first spread to Egypt, Greece and Rome. It was later divided into various churches and denominations. On the 5th century it was split between Western Catholicism and the Oriental Church (later divided into Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, etc) and, on the 16th century, into the Protestant Reformation and later into hundreds of Protestant denominations.[30] slam originated and was established by Muhammad in the 7th century in Mecca and Medina. It is a direct continuation of Abrahamic Monotheism. Through the son of Abraham,

Ishmael,

conceived

through

Abraham's servant Hagar, Muslims are also related to Abraham. Abraham had 8 sons: Ishmael by his wife's servant Hagar, Isaac by his wife Sarah, and six by another wife, Keturah.

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he Druzes also believe in the Abrahamic faith through their ancestor Yitro [Jethro], the fatherin-law of Moshe [Moses, Mussa]. The Noachide faith, is also based upon the faith of Abraham through the children of Abraham. (Right) Moses and God-Given, Hebrew-Written Ten Commandments; Rembrandt, 1659; (left) Moses at the top of Mt. Horev holding up his arms during the battle of Israel against the evil people of Ammaleck, assisted by Aaron and Hur. Painting by J. E. Millais; Jethro Druze Shrine in Israel. (Right) [Wikipedia]; Behaii Religion World Center Shrine in Haifa, Israel, is shown at this Volume end. he Behaii religion is the most modern Abrahamic religion. Its adherents maintain that all people are citizens of planet earth and the beauty of the world shines at any place and via any religion. There is neither a single book to follow, nor ornaments in its temples. It was established by Bahaullah and its world center is in Haifa, Israel. It recognizes Moses, Jesus, Muhammad and Bahaullah as descendants of Abraham through one of his sons and relatives. [Its world Center in Haifa, Israel, is shown at book end.]

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The Bible: Where Did it Come From? The contents of Genesis and of the first five books of the Bible [Torah, Pentateuch] have probably existed since a written language was widely used in what is currently called the Middle East. There is little doubt that since the UR/Shummerian/Akkadian literature is so rich with epics, proverbs and wisdom anecdotes, that part of Genesis had been partially originated in the Ur civilization. In fact, some parts of the Original Hebrew Bible concerning, say, the story of the great flood, may have originated in UR, the birth place of Abraham AVI.10. ilgamesh, and the major implementations of the law, have most likely been adopted in the Original Hebrew Bible from UR. Yet, there is no surviving written evidence of any of the early Hebrew Biblical texts prior to the famous Dead Sea Scrolls from about 2112 years ago. cholars conclude that the early written Hebrew texts had been consonantal. Only much later, after the first exile, the Hebrew consonantal text of the Bible has been inserted with vowels, as various geometrical combinations of dots and small ‘Tees’. The early translators of the Original Hebrew Bible to Aramaic and Greek had to struggle with the proper pronunciation and understanding of the text, with or without vowels.AVI.11 diting processes have generated many textual variants as well as many critical mistakes. Perhaps the most famous mistake is demonstrated by the statue of Moses with horns by Michael Angelo. Examples of simple 53


54

distortions are: Jerusalem instead of Yerushalaim; Jesus or Chesus instead of Yeshu In some variants of the TEN COMMANDMENTS the ‘Do not murder’ has been distorted to read ‘do not kill’, a significant difference that has caused endless political and moral misunderstandings and accusations. he change from ‘The First Day’ of the week to Sunday, has violated one of the Ten Commandments. Hence, the ‘Seventh Day Adventists’ have corrected this violation by returning to Saturday -- the sacrosanct ‘7th Day’ – Shabbat. RECAP: All current bible versions have evolved through a slow process that has resulted in thousands of mistakes in both the Old Testament [the Original Hebrew Bible] and the New Testament [the Expanded Bible], which is not ‘New’AVI.10. In fact, Psalms, Proverbs and Job in the non-Hebrew texts have reached their final form as late as the 4th century. Eleazar, the high priest of Jerusalem, sent to Ptolemy Philadelphus in Alexandria, Egypt, about 2260 years ago, the Hebrew manuscript of the Pentateuch to be translated to Greek -- the famous Septuagint. This great historical event took place about 150 years prior to the writing of the Dead Sea Scrolls about 2110 years ago. The Dead Sea scrolls are, so far, the earliest surviving document of the Original Hebrew Bible.

There are at least 5,250 different Church variants and texts of the Original Hebrew Bible.AVII.11 Each translator, or a mere copier, had first to master the Hebrew grammar, pronunciation and meaning, an almost impossible task for those who had known only the Greek Septuagint and the Latin versions.

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UR -- The City-State-Civilization of Abraham -- The Founder of Hebrew Monotheism. Ur is a famous biblical and archeological site. It is geographically located on the fertile soil formed by repeated flooding and deposition of rich fertile soil between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, in an area that is currently Southern Iraq. This area is close to where the two rivers enter the PersianArabic Gulf. Its original name, however, as used by it’s the founders, is not clear, and was probably not a single uniform name. Both Ur and Shummer will be henceforth used to refer to this important civilization. It was also referred to refer to as the ‘the land between the two rivers’, or Ki-engir, Acadd, Uru, etc., while the Bible refers to it with other names, including Ur. Hiddekel and Euphrates are amongst the four rivers identified in the original Bible as leading to Eden, the Garden of Eden and the river of Eden. Hiddekel was later shortened to Diklat. The Persians pronounced it, Tigra, from whence the Greek name Tigris. In Arabic it is, Dijla. Idikna, Idikla, or Idiklat. The city-state-civilization Ur is located at Tell el-Mukayyar, which in ancient texts had been named Uriwa or Urima and later Uru. Shinaar is also a designation applied to Mesopotamia: The ‘land between the two rivers’. It is mentioned eight times in the original Hebrew Bible in reference to a later civilization: Babylonia. Shinaar may have also included Erech, or Ur/Summer. The Euphrates is also called Puranum [meaning, great water], Pura, Purat, or Ufratu. In Greek it is Euphrates and in Arabic Furat. Gilgamesh ruled Uruk and was probably the first world poet and author of great epics. One of his epics relates to the coming of a great flood, which obliterates mankind except for a single righteous family that has survived the 55


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flood by constructing an ark. Also uncovered by archaeological facts are original Ur/Shummerian epics resembling the Biblical Eden, Creation of the world and creation of man from mud or dust. It is from this single family that an improved race has emerged and inherited the earth. The Ur/Shummerian literature, cosmogony, theology and rituals, have also influenced the next civilizations to such an extent that even today one can detect their echoes in the Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions. Villages in the Early UR Civilization already had local religious cult centers, each with its locally particular god. One of these, Eridu, is traced back to about 7000 years ago. It later had a temple with monumental architecture that can be traced back to some 6500 years. Some scholars consider the people of Ur ‘Semites’ and assume that multiple migrating wave of Semites have worked their way into the fertile Ur/Shummerian area, either peacefully or by force. It was during the Ubaid period that a simple machine was devised to make pottery easier to manufacture and paint. Pottery gradually became more uniform, conforming to an Ubaid Style of Art, with its monochrome black painting. The invention of a more advanced potters' wheel emerged at the end of the Ubaid era. Other scholars assume that within this period the early historical division of labor had started to evolve.

Stamp seals have been

found at various Ubaid-culture sites, perhaps as precursors to writing (see below). Earlier flint sickles had gradually been replaced by clay sickles. A great temple was uncovered at al'Ubaid, with a dedication inscription from A-anni-padda, king of Ur and son of Mes-anni-padda, also a king of Ur. According to the “Shummerian King List” that has survived, they are from the First Dynasty of Ur. 56


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Hammurabi of Babylon defeated Rim-Sin of Larsa around 5823-5763 years ago and became the sole ruler of UR/Summer/Akkad. These decades mark the end of the UR/Shummerian Empire, but not the end of its culture.

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Cluster I

Space-2

Space-3 wraps stars & galaxies

SPACE-1

Cluster II

Space-2

f you can look into the seeds of time, And say which grain will grow and which will not, Speak then to me ‌

William Shakespeare

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Fig. 1.2: Our ‘neighborhood’ of 2500 galaxies. The Virgo Cluster shown here includes over 2,500 galaxies, each containing billions of active stars. It is about 50,000,000 light years away from us and stretches about 25,000,000 light years in ‘diameter’. Non-expanding SPACE-3 [Fig. 1.1] wraps planets, stars and galaxies and is inside non-expanding SPACE-2, which is inside the expanding VOIDS/SPACE-1 -- the MASTER DARK SINK, which is the MASTER ARROW OF TIME. All voids are interconnected in 3D. E.g., Void Capricornus wraps around Pvo-Indus Supercluster and is linked with Void Sculptur through the one in between them. Adiabatic envelopes [Fig. 1.1] are about midway between any pair of superclusters Note the different scales in Light Years [ly] as depicted here and in Figs. 1.1

Fig. 1.3: Large-scale astronomical portrait of the early universe. 59


60 The blue spots shown are the early colder Voids that wrap around the yellow-green-red sources and irreversibly absorb radiation poured into them from the surrounding, gravitationally-condensed, and, therefore, heated material emitters. Note the isotropic and homogeneous distribution of voids and material emitters -- qualities that have been approximately preserved as the universe has expended into the large scale shown by Fig. 1.1. This fact is to become important later. By Monica Catao Fernandez

All of chemistry, beyond hydrogen and helium, and therefore, all of life, has been formed by stellar evolution. In other words, with the exception of hydrogen, everything in our bodies and brains has been produced in the thermonuclear reactions within stars which later exploded in galactic space. But most important, Gravity controls all macro structures and order, all our spatio-temporal perceptions and the very settings of our languages: Updown, left-right asymmetries in writing and grammar temporal order. In pertraints and recording too.

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What Did van Gogh Imagine When He Painted This Picture ? Apparently he did not think that the field of gravitation has generated all. Yet, his painting convey the ‘reality’ that all living and non-living systems are embedded in a ’field of brush strokes’, which, by themselves, in their very shape, direction and rhythm, convey the presence of flux, structure, cosmos and universal field of force, which penetrates all things and is at one with land, life, sky and the stars.

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History of Religions via Einstein According to Einstein there have been three developmental states in the evolution of religion: (i)

“with primitive man it is above all fear that evokes religious notions. This ‘religion of fear’ … is in an important degree stabilized by the formation of a special priestly caste” that cooperates with secular rulers to take advantage of its own interest.

(ii)

“admirably illustrated in the Jewish scriptures” – “a [moral] development [that] continued in the New Testament.” Yet, according to Einstein, this stage harbors a fatal flaw: “the anthropomorphic character of the concept of God.”, which is easy to grasp by “underdeveloped minds” while freeing them from personal responsibility and associating them with human-like entity-being that takes care of their personal desires and acts like love, envy, anger, hate, cheating, manipulations and greed.

(iii)

“cosmic religious feeling” that frees mankind from all false anthrophomorphic elements and reaches to the highest stage which has characterizes our unending quest for scientific unification of all forces of nature under the umbrella of modern 62


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physics, astronomy and cosmology, as a single unified whole, and where “The individual feels the futility of human desires, and aims at the sublimity and marvelous order which reveal themselves both in nature and in the world of thought.” “I maintain that [this] religious feeling is the strongest and noblest motive for scientific research” where “serious scientific workers are the only profoundly religious people.”

And Einstein adds: “The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious. It is the fundamental emotion that stands at the crade of true art and true science. Whoever does not know it can no longer wonder, no longer marvel, is as good as dead, and his eyes are dimmed.” and concludes: “Imagination is more important than knowledge.”

The right to search for truth implies also a duty. One must not conceal any part of what one has recognized to be true. Albert Einstein

"Most astrophysicists, cosmologists and astronomers agree that the biblical account of cosmic evolution, in stressing “a beginning” and the initial roles of “void”, “light” and “structure-less” state, may be uncannily close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us." Weisskopf’s quotation from the first author’s papers and books. [Scientific 63


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American; on The Judeo-Christian Tradition and potentially also about modern Hinduism, Buddhism, Behaai and Islam]

Appendix AV AVI.5

According to Islamic Tradition Abram, or Abraham, lived in Edessa Sanli Urfa, a site of a mosque called the Mosque of Abraham. [See also footnote AVI.6] The Talmud and some Arabic writers regard Erech, or Orek, as the birthplace of Abraham. The cuneiform writing refers to this city as Urnki. UR is also identified with the current Iraqi city Mugheir, or Mughayyar, also called Urumma, or Urima, and later Uru in a district called Chaldea, or Kaldu. Ur Kasdim is also identified with the Turkish name Urfa, which, in turn, is derived from Orhāy and the Greek Ορρα, Orrha. AVI.6

UR, the Well-Investigated Archaeological Site. Its castle-temple is depicted above and its Biblical account is the hometown of the first Hebrew and most father of Monotheism, Abraham. Those who are considered descendants of Abraham are known as ‘Hebrews’, ‘Ishmaels’ and Druses. AVI.7

UR was constantly at war with nearby city-states. It was attacked by raiders from Akkad. It then entered a stage comparable to the Dark Ages, and has remained so until a new king, Ur-Nammu, came to power. Under his rule a government was established which enforced its laws and rules strictly. Temples were re-built, including the biggest: The Ziggurat, depicted above. This period ended when northern tribes attacked and UR was occupied by Babylonians. AVI.8

UR vs. The Creation of Man. Through the invention of the cuneiform writings, we can read today hymns, myths, lamentations, incantations and the structure of their religious world. The British Museum began excavations there in 1919 and was joined later by the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. The ruins of UR 64


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were first excavated by J. E. Taylor, who had partly uncovered the ziggurat of Nanna. An impressive discovery was the Royal Cemetery. It contained art treasures of gold, silver, bronze, and precious stones. The Shummerians also invoked the idea of the creation of man from several models, or designs that had been created from mud or dust, prior to the final selection of man. They also introduced the faith in life after death, and the idea of Sheol [hell]. The priesthood maintained great power over the population also through omens and dreams, while some of the kings claimed divine power. The temples included many rooms for priests and priestesses and were decorated with human and animal figures. Some have evolved into towering ziggurats in which priests, priestesses, musicians, singers, castrates and hierodules performed. Various public rituals and food sacrifices were performed daily, while other, like New-Year celebrations, annually. Lamentations reveal that people asked and prayed while confessing sins. AVI.9

The Akkadian Top God was Marduk. All land belonged ultimately to the gods, while the king-priest was their vicar. There were gods of the air and water as well as the goddess of love and procreation and war named Ishtar, as was later mentioned in the BibleAVI.10. One may therefore label the UR/Shummerian religious government as the beginning of a systematic and organized pagan theology.

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AVI.10

The True Origins of Christianity And The Bible [Andrew D. Benson, Prudential Publishing Company, Clovis, Ca, 1997 [29]. Mr. Benson has assembled a massive amount of evidence and documented it with over 2000 footnotes and references to recorded historical events. [See also Footnotes AVI.11 and AVI.2] AVI.11

The Original Hebrew Bible. Hebrew is the language spoken by G-D to Moses; also the written Language [Alef-Beyt] attributed to G-D-Written first Stone Tablets provided to humans to observe via the TEN COMMANDMENTS displayed on the Holy Closet in Synagogues around the globe at all times. As in the earliest surviving scrolls depicted above, it was without vowels; it is the Ten Commandments. The DEAD SEA SCROLLS were discovered between 1947 and 1956 in the Gravity-induced Dead Sea Caves of Qumran. The ones that contain the Original Hebrew Bible were written about 100 years prior to the birth of Christ, about 2112 years ago. They do not contain one book; the book of Esther. The Original Hebrew Bible was written only with consonants of the Hebrew language. The vowels, as dots, had to be studied by Hebrew scholars. Only later, after the first exile, the Hebrew consonantal text has been inserted with vowels, as dots, especially when the early translators from Hebrew to Aramaic and Greek had to fix the proper pronunciation and 66


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understanding of the text. Each text translator, or a mere copier, had first to master the Hebrew grammar, pronunciation and meaning -- an almost impossible task for those who had known only the Greek Septuagint and the Latin versions.at least 5,250 different texts of the Original Hebrew.

A Few Notes On Einstein’s Personal Philosophy Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Germany and died on April 19 1955 in the United States. His unprecedented contributions to physics, philosophy, theology, politics, cause of freedom and defense [atomic bomb developed mainly against Nazi Germany] and strong support of Zionizim and the State of Israel, are detailed in Appendix A. • “It is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science. … A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate, of the manifestations of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty, which are only accessible to our reason in their most elementary forms -- it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute the truly religious attitude; in this sense, and in this alone, I am a deeply religious man.” • “I cannot conceive of a God who rewards and punishes his creatures, or has a will of the type of which we are conscious in ourselves.” • “An individual who should survive his physical death is also beyond my comprehension, nor do I wish it otherwise; such notions are for the fears or absurd egoism of feeble souls.” • “Enough for me the mystery of the eternity of life, and the inkling of the marvelous structure of reality, together with the single-hearted 67


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endeavor to comprehend a portion, be it never so tiny, of the reason that manifests itself in nature.” • “I gang my own gait and have never belonged to my country, my home, my friends, or even my immediate family, with my whole heart; in the face of all these ties I have never lost an obstinate sense of detachment, which increases with age.” • “One is sharply conscious, yet without regret, of the limits to the possibility of mutual understanding and sympathy with one's fellowcreatures. Such a person no doubt loses something in the way of geniality and light-heartedness; on the other hand, he is largely independent of the opinions, habits, and judgments of his fellows.” [The World As I See It. Also Schilpp, Clark, Golden, Pais, etc. Appendix A) In lieu of the aforementioned personal-life philosophy, Einstein consistently selected to protect his privacy inside his room, in his house, working in a maximized-freedom, undisturbed solitude; even sleeping naked in his room while his privacy has been strictly guarded by his devoted secretary Helen Dukas, who also screened his incoming mail, deleted nasty or anti-Semitic letters and politely blocking unwanted visitors. Einstein is also known for his subtle sarcasm. For instance, prior to running away from Hitler’s Germany to the United States [Appendix VII], Professor XXX in Berlin was extremely nasty in targeting Einstein at all times. One day Einstein was informed that Professor XXX had just died. Einstein’s reaction was: Everyone does something good in his life, even Professor XXX; he died. As a younger man he used to play his beloved violin in the homes of some German women. One day, while he was playing there, they started knitting. Einstein stopped playing, packed his violin to leave, and apologized: I would not even dream to disturb you from your knitting work. On another occasion, as a celebrity living in his house near a lake outside Berlin, his wife urged him to change his simple, but comfortable home dress, to a formal one, for dignitaries are to arrive soon to visit him. His response: If they come to visit me, let them meet me as I am dressed and work in my house. If they come to see my formal dress, please show them my closet. 68


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_____________________________ Appendix AV II Is Our Academia Precarious? ntil around the mid-Thirties of the previous century, Core CulturalCurriculum Courses (in Europe!) were made as ‘scientific’ as possible, and science propped up its foundations by turning to philosophy. This attitude was in part motivated by the desire to appropriate the sciences with the great ‘prestige’ of philosophers, and for the philosopher the fast-growing ‘status’ of science. Hence, European professors vied with one another in presenting science based on high philosophical grounds, and philosophy as a ‘science among sciences’, or even as the ‘sum of the other sciences’. A ‘PhD’ was then a bona fide Philosophy Doctor, a person of advanced core knowledge and eloquence outside his specialism. Western education has since withdrawn from the game. mpty specialism has since gained the highest prestige, especially in the U.S.; no longer do professors need borrow it from philosophy, nor to teach a CCCC. Claim-Assertion AVIII.1 The greatest challenge in acquiring updated, verified knowledge and the ability to be intellectually independent, is self-removal of externallyimposed disciplinary borders while working hard, often alone, as an AUTODIDACT. Indeed, contemporary teachers and professors vie with one another in presenting fragmented, technical lectures devoid of interconnected content, for they can no longer hope to achieve popularity by injecting updated core 69


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knowledge into what has gradually become an ever narrower, disciplinary professionalism. This turn of events has resulted in overvaluation of technical professionalism, empty academicism, absolutation of evernarrower disciplines, and the common inclination to reject bona fide core knowledge from the class. A pity. For these trends only push the young into cynicism, nihilism and feelings of emptiness in education and in society at large.

I.2.1 Interconnected Thinking, Teaching and Research Assertion AVIII.2 lthough most academic teaching and research must be distributed amongst various departments of a university, there is an objective need to regenerate an old tradition that cannot be associated with any specialism, because the ideas with which it deals are common to all studies, or not involved in any. Accordingly, the selection of interconnected kernels of updated knowledge to be included in this book is based on an interconnected approach to what I consider a much needed, simplified CCCC book for all. The Current Crisis in Education is not subsiding. More than ever before it demands answers, re-assessments, a neo-philosophy and acts: How to teach mutual interactions instead of linear causality; structured complexity instead of summation of events; structured historical buildup of facts, instead of summation of isolated events. odern skepticism is usually the negation of a core, interconnected, educational methodology. Not so with Einstein's skepticism. Claim-Assertion AVIII.3 Without a Guiding-Structuring Theme, or at least a Unified World Outlook for gaining an all-embracing, interconnected cultureknowledge that crosses frozen disciplines, any Core Curriculum Cultural Course [CCCC] is nothing but a pity encyclopedia displayed by a specialist nominated by “Organizers” as the “CCCC-Coordinator”, who remains helpless in teaching the alluring beauty of mathematics, physics, the life sciences, and comparative religions, but fails to perceive their profound educational implications as a whole. 70


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To start with, Einstein advocated the total removal of borders between traditional disciplines. Claim-Assertion AVIII.4 Structuring an all-embracing CCCC-Outlook is a matter entailing far more ambiguity than the technicalities of the application of any disciplinary course and its “Academic Credit Regulations”.

he current academic crisis, especially in the U.S., may be Literary intellectuals at one pole – at moderated by using the Einsteinian the other scientists, and as the most representative, methodology, at least as properly the physical scientists. adapted CCCC series provided in Between the two a gulf of mutual high-schools and, on structured incomprehension – sometimes (particularly among the higher levels, in undergraduate and young) hostility and dislike, but graduate schools. Such a most of all lack of understanding. methodology may lead to new, interconnected fertilization between C. P. Snow, The Two Cultures Cambridge University Press [Ref. 32] the most promising kernels of fundamental knowledge, and, thus, to the potential to rejuvenate educational methodology by resorting to an oldnew world-outlook and practice.

I.3

Our Declining Temples of Knowledge

iterary intellectuals, the people of the arts and most educators are currently ignorant of modern advances in the ‘exact sciences’, of their mathematical formulations, experimental, observational and verification methods. They are likely to resort to an a priori, or superficial answers to complex problems whose detailed implications are beyond them. Similarly, faculty, ‘experts’ and professionals in the “exact sciences”, via their past, ever-narrowing, disciplinary education, are currently ignorant of the widespan knowledge, literature, arts and history that are needed to share their thinking and aspirations with other thinking persons. 71


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Claim-Assertion AVIII.5 Students are often discouraged by their professors and mentors from asking fundamental, interdisciplinary questions in class, as a result of which inconsistent, or outright incorrect premises, are given a better chance of perpetuating themselves. he resulting gap can hardly be Claim-Assertion AVIII.6 bridged despite the fact that our globe is currently an interconnected village, Students flood colleges and internationally linked by what might universities with the hope be expected to bridge old gaps of finding there the grand outlook between traditional cultures, of a spacecraft. languages, religions, political systems Entering our temples of and a unified educational philosophy knowledge they settle for that of of humanity. Yet, the facts are that an eagle, but what they often find deep divisions keep deepening and is that of a specialist gopher. deserts of narrow specialism keep spreading more than ever before. A sad fact. A dark future.

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Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy Table of Contents VOLUME I [Out of print. May only be purchased online as a hardcover, used book]

Worldwide Acclaims ……………………………………...……… ii SIR KARL POPPER, Foreword ……………….……………..…. xx SIR ALAN COTTRELL, Foreword ………………….………..... xxi Preface ……………………………………..….……….…..……... xxii Introduction 1.1 The Revival of Relativistic Cosmology vs. Modified Concepts in Physics and Philosophy …………………...….… 1.1.1 The problem of ordering ……………………...….… 1.1.2 How did it all start? …………………………………. 1.1.3 The first seven stages …………………………….... 1.1.4 The present matter-dominated era ………………….. 2.1 The Einsteinian Methodology: A Preliminary Remark.. 2.2 The Withdrawal of Philosophy From Physics (and of Physics From Philosophy) ………………………….…...… 2.3 The Greatest Ambition of Physics …………………..…...... 2.3.1 Unification of initial-boundary conditions first? Unification of fields second? …………………..….... 2.3.2 Should unification begin with differential equations? …………………..………...… 2.4 The Great Physico-Philosophical Gains From The Discovery of the Cosmic Background Radiation ………. 2.5 The Expanding Universe ………………………….……....... 2.6 The 1977 “Aether Drift” Discovery ……………..………....… 2.7 Verification of Physical Laws by Astronomy and Astrophysics …………………………………….……….…... 3.1 Some Tentative Assertions …...…………………..…...…….

2 3 5 7 11 11 13 16 16 17 19 22 23 24 26 73


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3.2 The Skeptic’s Outlook .…………………...………..…...……. 69

PART I: Preliminary Concepts 1.

From Terrestrial Gravitational Structures To Black Holes and Neutrinos in Astrophysics

1.1 Gravitation, Asymmetry and Structure ……………….…… 80 A fallacy associated with current theories …………….........…. 80 1.1.2 Gravity-induced sedimentary structures …………... 81 1.2 Stars and the Hertzsprung-Russel Central Diagram ……….. 88 1.3 Supernovae, Gravitational Collapse, Neutron Stars, Pulsars …………………………………….. 92 1.4 X-Ray Astronomy, Binary X-Ray Systems, and Gravitational Clocks ……………………………………... 100 1.5 Black Holes …………………………………………….… 106 1.6 Gas, Dust and the Formation of Stars in Our Galaxy ….… 113 1.7 How Are Cosmic Distances Measured? ………………… 116 1.8 Neutrino Astronomy and Astrophysics ………………… 130 1.9 The Emergence of Gamma-Ray Astronomy ……………. 132 1.10 Exploration of Extra-Solar Space By Unmanned Spacecraft ……………………………….. 134 2.

From “Conservation” in Classical Physics To Solitons in Particle Physics

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Aim and Scope …………………………………………... 138 Limitations of Theory …………………………………… 140 The General Macroscopic Equation …………………….. 142 Continuity Equation (Total Mass Conservation) ………... 146 Conservation of Linear Momentum and Gravity.………… 147 The Navier-Stokes Equations and Gravity ………………. 149 Kinetic-Energy Equation and Dissipation Function in Gravitational Fields ……………. 152 2.8 First Law of Thermodynamics or Energy Conservation Equation …………………………………… 154 2.9 First Law and Enthalpy ………………………………….. 156 2.10 First Law In Terms of Temperature Field ……………….. 157 74


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2.11 Entropy Balance Equation ……………………………….. 2.12 Beyond Classical Physics: Solitons, Antisolitons and Conservation …………………. 2.13 Neutrinos and the Powerful Role Conservation Equations Play in Subatomic Processes (Addendum) …… 3.

159 160 163

From General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology To Gauge Theories

3.1 Introduction ……………………………………………….... 167 3.1.1 Einstein’s field equations in general relativity ……….….. 169 3.1.2 Confirmation of Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation ………. 172 3.2 Principles and Formulations of General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology ………………...……….…………… 191 3.3 Observations, The “Age” of the Universe And “Equivalent Local Cells” …………………….……….… 200 3.4 Timekeeping, Accelerated Observers and the Principle Of Equivalence ………………………….………… 204 3.5 From General Relativity to Unified Field Theories ………… 205 PART II From Physics to Philosophical Crossroads and Back 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

The Arrows of Time Time and The Arrow of Time: The Most Distorted Of All Ideas? ………………………….. 215 Asymmetry-Symmetry-Space-Time and The Unification of The Laws of Physics …………………… 216 Methodology, Aim and Scope ……………………………… 217 Confusing Concepts of Time and Time Asymmetries ……… 219 The Entropic Arrow of Time ……………………………….. 222 Causality, Causation and Time Asymmetries ………………. 226 Causation and Determinism in Relativistic Theories ………………………………………… 227 Cosmological Arrows of Time and Cosmic Time …………. 230 A Few Remarks ……………………………………...…….. 232 75


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4.10 Time-Reversal Invariance and Irreversibility …………….… 236 4.11 Microscopic Time Asymmetries in “Elementary Particles” ………………………….……….. 240 4.12 The Death of Scale-Based Physics ……………….……….... 242 4.13 The “Dual” Quantum-Geometrodynamical School and “Superspace” ………………………………….. 243 4.14 Tachyons and Causal Violations …………………….……… 246 4.15 Macrocausality and Microcausality in Quantum Mechanics … 247 4.16 Fading Memory in Classical Physics ……………………….. 247 4.17 Doubts As To The Universality of Entropy ………………… 249 4.18 Entropy-Free Thermodynamic Arrows of Time ………….…. 250 5.

The Crisis In Quantum Physics

5.1 Preliminary Review …………………………………….……. 255 The effect of gravitation and the outside world on quantum physics 5.1.1 The three main schools of thought ………………….…. 261 5.2 Einstein’s Objections to the Uncertainty Principle ……….... 262 5.3 The Heresy of a Few Skeptics ………………………….….. 265 5.4 Mythologized Concepts of Quantum Physics …………...…. 265 5.5 The Failure of Classical and Quantal Statistical Mechanics to Deduce Irreversibility and Time Asymmetries ……………………………………………..… 267 5.6 The Emergence of Quantum Chromodynamics And Super-Symmetry …………………………………….... 272 5.6.1 Spatio-Temporal Approach to Quantum Physics ….… 272 5.6.2From Weinberg-Salam Theory to Quantum Chromodynamics ………………………...... 273 5.6.2.1 Conservation laws as symmetry principles; and vice versa ………………………………….. 273 5.6.2.2 Global, exact, approximate, isotopic and SU(3) symmetries ……………………….… 274 5.6.2.3 From SU(3) to renormalizable gauge theories ……………………………………....... 276 5.6.2.4 Quark confinement asymptotic freedom in gauge theories …………………………... 276-1 5.6.2.5 QCD and the search for higher symmetry principles ………………………………..… 276-1 5.6.3From Quantum Field Theories to Super-Symmetry 76


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Super-Gravity ……………………………………... 276-3 5.6.3.1 On the limits of super-gravity ‘unified field theories’ …………………….... 276-4 PART III From Physics to Cosmological Crossroads and Back 6.

Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy 6.1 Reduction of Thermodynamics to Gravitation ……...… 277 6.1.1 Methodology ……………………………………. 277 Dialectical gravitism: Definition of the first problems …………………………………… 278 6.1.3 Gravitation as super-asymmetry ……………….. 279 6.2 The Earliest and Most Universal Asymmetry: Observational Evidence …………………..………...….. 279 6.2.1 Which space expands and which does not? …...…. 282 6.3 Gravitation-Asymmetry Principle of Equivalence ……. 284 6.4 Can Intercluster Space Be Saturated With Radiation? … 287 6.5 Derivation of the Master Asymmetry From Gravitation Theories ………………………...…. 290 6.6 Irreversibility in the New Gravitational Cosmological Thermodynamics …………………...…. 293 6.7 Origin of Dissipation in Newtonian Fluids ………..…. 297 6.8 Terrestrial Thermodynamics ……………………..…… 299 6.9 Connections With Classical and Continuum Thermodynamics …………………………………..…. 301 6.10 Electromagnetic Irreversibility And the Master Asymmetry …………………….....….. 303 7.

Cosmological Origin of Time and Evolution 7.1 Time: The All-Embracing Concept ………………….. 7.2 Cosmological Origin of Time ………………………... 7.3 Cosmological Interpretations of Newton’s Laws of Motion …………………………………..….... 7.4 Gravitational Origin of Structure and Evolution .…….. 7.5 Gravitation and the Outflow of Energy Into Un-Saturable Space …………………………………..

309 310 314 316 322 77


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7.6 7.7 7.8

8.

Stellar Evolution …………………………………….... 324 Terrestrial Evolution ………………………………...... 325 Some Open Questions ……………………………..… 326 7.8.1 Microscopic T-Violation and the Master Asymmetry: A possible Connection? ………..….. 327 Black Holes and the Unification of Asymmetries

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7

Introduction ……………………………………….. Observational Evidence …………………………… Schwarzschild Solution and Black Holes …………. Black Holes Mechanics and Entropy ……………… Can Black Holes “Evaporate”? ……………………. Primordial Black Holes? …………………………... Back to the Melting Pot of Unification? …………...

330 331 332 340 341 341 341

PART IV: Beyond Present Knowledge 8.

Havayism – The Science of The Whole 9.1 The Futile Quest for Final Answers ……………….. 9.2 An Example in Havahyism ……………………..…. 9.3 From Cosmology to Irreversible Structures and Memory ……………………………………..…. 9.4 The Skeptic Outlook ……………………………..….

349 350 365 415

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VOLUME II [Out of print. May only be purchased as a hardcover used book. Bounded with Volume I.]

Critique of Western Thought Introduction …………………………………………….................

420

A Few Historical Remarks on Time, Mind and Symmetry ………

437

The Philosophy of Time & Change: Some Historical Notions …………………….…………………..

455

Structuralism and the Divided American Thought: A Short Glossary of Terms ………………………………..……..

467

Policy and Publicity: A Critique ………………………………….

483

Thought-Provoking and Thought-Depressing Quotations ………..

495

Critique of Western Methodology ……………………………….

530

Reviews of Volumes I and II

A Master Piece. The well-known author bases his philosophy on a very sound knowledge of present-day scientific theories.

Indian Journal of

Physics

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The works of scientists like Gal-Or, Bohm, and (Noble Prize-Winner) Prigogine

provide

important

resources.

Prigogine's formalisms do not really tell us how irreversible change emerges from reversible [mathematics]. (in this Gal-Or is superior). The Crisis of the Sciences We are all Gal-Orians !

Editor, Foundations of Physics

Gal-Or launches a new spirit of inquiry by his excellent and thought provoking writings. I would recommend awarding a prize and would hope that this would serve to focus attention on a most important subject.” T. Gold, Cornell University, To the N.Y. Academy of Sciences and the Arts Evokes a person heart !! Has generated a large number of responses from around the world, some declaring that it has turned them into “Gal-Orians”. Since the thought presented by this book is so rich, translators of our country should recommend this book with all their intellectual power.

Chinese

Academy of Sciences This is a great book, and an exciting book; readable, worth reading and enlightening. Sir Karl Popper Recommended by Encyclopedia Britannica, "Nature, Philosophy of" This is one of the most beautiful books that I have read. Outstanding Books List 80


81

Tour de force. A magnificent and sustained piece of work! Gal-Or’s net is widely cast – it reaches as far as science policy and political philosophy. Sir A. Cottrell, V. Chancellor, Cambridge University Appeals to scientists of all disciplines who are prepared to open their minds. Shines a welcome light in some dark corners of science. Sir Karl Popper, in a Foreword, correctly describes it “a great book”. New Scientist I do not know a better modern expression of science, philosophy and classical humanism than that of Gal-Or’s book.

Haaretz

“A comprehensive explication of a large area of science which the reader may study in many subjects. ”

Contemporary

Philosophy “An interesting and original book, easy to read, interesting and fascinating.” Novo Cimento “This book has a wide-ranging scope. Dr. Gal-Or develops a philosophy of science which he calls Havahyism.

Space Science Reviews

Smithsonian - NASA Astrophysics Data Systems Recommended by Encyclopedia Britannica, Philosophy of Nature

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This is one of the most beautiful books that I have read. Outstanding Books List Gal-Or’s “beauty” has always been the object of science, which, he lyrically observes a

longing

as

“a for

most the

fundamental

run-away

aesthetic

horizons

of

frame

truth

and

of

mind,

symmetry

that we always try to reach.” Order Amidst Chaos, Enlightenment Aesthetics "Most astrophysicists, cosmologists and astronomers agree that the biblical account of cosmic evolution, in stressing `a beginning´ and the initial roles of `void,´ `light´ and a `structure-less´ state, may be uncannily close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us" Weisskopf quote the author’s work in Scientific American as not negating the "The Judeo-Christian Tradition”

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“Gal-Or's remarkable book sees and seizes the world whole. He emphasizes that all scientists operate under some set of philosophical prejudices, and that failure to acknowledge this is self-delusion. Furthermore, he argues that a failure to attend to the philosophical base of physics leads to an empty scientism. His work is challenging on many levels, constituting a review 'with derivations' of general relativity 'as applied to cosmology', thermodynamics, the current state of theoretical particle physics, astrophysics, as well as a summary history of western philosophy, 'especially the philosophies of time and mind'

and critiques of western society,

the intelligentsia and the

relationship between academic science and government. One 'and perhaps the central' theme explored, is that of the interplay between symmetry and asymmetry. His primary interest is not in the recent progress in the unification of forces in gauge theory, although he finds support in it for his Einsteinian outlook, but is rather time, time's arrow, and the asymmetry between past and future. Around time are accumulated discussions, both mathematical and philosophical, of thermodynamic reversibility, time reversibility, the nature of causality, and the use of advanced and retarded solutions to wave equations. The second major theme is that of gravity and its overwhelming domination of the actual form of the universe, at all scales. The combination of these themes is not accidental; they are point and counterpoint to his thesis that the time asymmetries are connectable to and perhaps even determined by the master asymmetry given by the gravity of general relativity:

the

remorseless cosmological expansion. He argues that only the expansion can provide the unification of time asymmetries.

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The expansion provides, among other things, an unsaturable sink for radiation, which, in turn, permits the establishment of gradients in temperature and density, which provide the basis for the physical process that leads to life. He also criticizes the sloppy and improper use of the concepts of entropy 'and the related notions in information theory' and quantum indeterminism, especially as covers for an inadequate understanding of temporal asymmetries. Taking an Einsteinian position on the interpretation of quantum mechanics, he looks forward to revitalization of Einstein's quest for a deterministic interpretation of quantum events. The value of this book lies in the challenging combination of ideas which Gal-Or presents, which goes far beyond what can be sensibly described in a review. [This] work may be too large to digest as a text in these days of the decline of academic institutions "as Gal-Or describes them", but that will be the loss of both the faculty and the students.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS

Lecture one [in Volume I] affirms that the stress placed by Genesis on ‘beginning’ and the initial roles of ‘void’, ‘light’ and a ‘structure-less’ state, “may be uncannily close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us.

Christian

Apologetics, Journal Interesting to read, integrating much of scientific material. Deutsche Literaturzeitung

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85

Einstein's time-symmetric tensor was elevated by Gal-Or’s “New Astronomical School of Unified Thermodynamics” to the status of the source of “Master Asymmetry” controlling not only irreversible thermodynamics, but all physical and biological phenomena! Gal-Or calls “GRAVITISM” (his philosophy) that gravitation is the prime cause of structures, irreversibility, time, geo-chemical and biological evolution -- that the expansion of the universe is the cause of the second law of thermodynamics -- that microscopic physics, and thermodynamics in particular, cannot be understood without reference to cosmology. He ties “irreversibility” to the “expansion of space itself”, i.e. as far as space is expanding, the contribution of all kinds of radiation in space is weakened “irreversibly” due to the expansion phenomenon itself. Such loss, or “degradation” of energy in the depth of inter-cluster expanding space, may then be considered as a universal sink for all the radiation flowing out of the material bodies in the expanding universe.” Advancement of Physics “One of the best books on the totality of the sciences & the universe/ It was one of the favorite books of Sir Karl Popper. It looks at physics and the universe as a totality of the mathematical philosophical understanding. It also combines the physical concept of time with human psychological perception and brain understanding of languages.” Robin (forumhub.com/expr/@202.54.92.222 Your

book

“was

/

is

an

inspiration

in

my

life”

a reader in January 2011/ FB

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86

“One noted scientist [B. Gal-Or], even Einstein's time-symmetric tensor was elevated

by

Gal-Or’s

“New

Astronomical

School

of

Unified

Thermodynamics” to the status of the source of “Master Asymmetry” controlling not only irreversible thermodynamics, but all physical and biological phenomena. Gal-Or calls “GRAVITISM” (his philosophy) that gravitation is the prime cause of structures, irreversibility, time, geo-chemical and biological evolution -- that the expansion of the universe is the cause of the second law of thermodynamics -- that microscopic physics, and thermodynamics in particular, cannot be understood without reference to cosmology. He ties “irreversibility” to the “expansion of space itself”, i.e. as far as space is expanding, the contribution of all kinds of radiation in space is weakened “irreversibly” due to the expansion phenomenon itself. Such loss, or “degradation” of energy in the depth of inter-cluster expanding space, may then be considered as a universal sink for all the radiation flowing out of the material bodies in the expanding universe.” Advancement of Physics “I have in the meantime studied your book, with great interest, and made pages of notes on it. I feel as if I had been on numerous walks and talks with you on the great questions, and know that would be great to go on with them! Who cannot be impressed by your love for the great men of all times and all countries, by your phrase “working back and forth between theory and fact”, by your belief that philosophy is too important to be left to the philosophers, by your concern for where thought and language lie in the scheme of things – and by so much more! 86


87

I continue to reflect, again and again, on your central thesis that expansion is the origin of all asymmetry in time. What an ingenious phrase is your, “smuggle irreversibility in without declaring the contraband”! I regard your book as seeking to accomplish two tasks – and being two books – at the very least. One is the exposition of your central thesis, with clarity, and careful mustering of every argument pro and con that can lead to testable consequences. I don’t see how it is possible to do proper justice to a thesis of such importance by mixing it in with the other great task. That is to give students an appreciation of the unity of philosophy and modern physics. You do both tasks far better than I could hope to. I give you my personal thanks for putting the two books into a package that I personally have found most thought-provoking.” John A. Wheeler, Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton

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INTERGALACTIC -- GOD'S KINGDOM of DARKNESS, Volume V.  

17,000 visits since 2 weeks ago. Originally published as 532-page book "COSMOLOGY, PHYSICS and PHILOSOPHY", abridged in 2008 & 2014 as HIST...

INTERGALACTIC -- GOD'S KINGDOM of DARKNESS, Volume V.  

17,000 visits since 2 weeks ago. Originally published as 532-page book "COSMOLOGY, PHYSICS and PHILOSOPHY", abridged in 2008 & 2014 as HIST...

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