All Rights Reserved to Benjamin Gal-‐Or, the father of the Astrophysical School of Thermodynamics, Refrs. 1-‐6
DARK ENERGY is a HOAX. Save Funding to
EDUCATION TRUE SCIENCE &
Evelyne Katz 1986 Einstein's Portrat, by Permission
Proof that Dark Energy
Hoax by Figures 1 to 4
Worldwide Acclaims are presented in pages 10 to 12
Figure 1: Verified observations prove that there are about 2.3 million galaxies, each harboring billions of stars, within a narrow window to the sky of 150 square degrees. All observed galaxies lump together by gravity to form the "filaments" or "walls" of non-‐expanding, super-‐clusters of galaxies shown in this NASA-‐Figure 1. By turning resaerch attention to (i) the thermodynamics of the dark, cold, expanding voids between these "filaments" and "walls", Figure 2, and (ii) to the stellar and intergalactic winds entering them from all directions, e.g., the four yellow arrows marked, we next prove that dark energy is not neded to account for the 1998-‐ detected cosmic expansion acceleration. Our proof thus empty dark energy claims, as discussed below.
The PROOF that Dark Energy is a Hoax and its Funding Stopped
ACH VERIFIED, EXPANDING, INTERGALACTIC VOID, some marked in pink,
encounters fast INCOMING RADIATION JETS that enter it from ALL DIRECTIONS. Then by momentum conservation applied to all jets entering all EXPANDING voids from ALL directions, thrust-‐out of aLL observed "walls" of non-‐expanding, super-‐ clusters of galaxies around each is effected, thus adding accumulated acceleration to the entire EINSTEIN-‐HUBBLE expansion INERTIA of the cosmos. Prior to the formation of these "walls" the Einstein-‐Hubble inertia expansion was slowing down by gravitation, but since the voids vis-‐à-‐vis the "walls" have been formed, the cosmic inertia expansion has been acclerated by the simple mechanism explained above. Dark energy propoponents also claim that (i) dark energy contents in the cosmos have increased with its age, (ii) that "negative pressure" on which no verified physics is known, explains the 1998-‐discovered acceleration.
In turn, to complete our long maintained proof that has been submitted to various dark enery proponents years ago, we resort to Figure 2. Figure 2: two simple Clusters represent Super-‐clusters of galaxies recorded in NASA map, Figure 1, here. [Figure taken from page 283 in our Ref. 5].
The marked EXPANDING, UNSATURABLE, SPACE "1" represents the expanding voids shown in Figure 1. Depression in energy-‐density gradients between Clusters I and II represents gradients inside the expanding voids. Nearby expanding voids are half-‐shown. Energy-‐gradients in intergalactic SPACE-‐2, which wraps all non-‐expanding clusters and super-‐clusters of galaxies, and interstellar SPACE-‐3 located inside each galaxy, are marked. "Adiabatic walls" are virtual surfaces that encage each expanding void and thus prevent net energy flow from one expanding void to another due to their uniform distribution in space. [Figure 1]. Energy still flows through this surface in opposing directions, but the net value is zero.
Therefore the study of one expanding void is unequivocally equivalent to the study of all, namely, the sole root-‐cause of all irreversible processes in the cosmos is originated by these expanding-‐ cooling voids; from about 4,000 degrees at radiation-‐dominated-‐era-‐end, down to 2.7 degrees K that currently rules all dark cold voids recorded by NASA map, Figure 1
Figure 3: SPACE-‐2 wraps all non-‐expanding galaxies [Fig. 2] and all non-‐expanding SPACE-‐3, where super-‐fast, interstellar winds, flow out to SPACE-‐2 and next, irreversibly dissipate in cold, EXPANDING-‐VOIDS/SPACE-‐1, composed of expanding VOIDS located between all super-‐clusters of galaxies. [Figure 1]. Images from NASA, author's book Ref. 5 & Wikipedia.
Figure 4: Illustrated stellar evolution produces the building blocks of life. Emergence of life is impossible without energy gradients generated by expanding-‐ cooling of the voids. Figure 2. Thought experiment: Tomorrow the voids expansion stops and temperatures in SPACES 3 to 1 gradually rise to those in the center of stars or galactic centers, eventually, thermal equilbrium is reached, by which all processes stop.
Partial conclusion: Figure-‐2-‐gradients cause all outflowing radiation (interstellar winds, or jets, Fig. 3] emerging from all active stars and galaxies, to gradually proceed to SPACE-‐2 and dissipated in SPACE-‐1. A note on the 1964-‐discovered Cosmic black-‐body radiation: It is a remnant, left-‐
over, radiation glow that has expanded with VOIDS/SPACE-‐1 during about 17 billion years. It is cooled by the expansion itself from about 4,000-‐3,000 K to about 270 degrees below zero C. Accordingly, this black-‐body radiation provides one of the direct proofs that VOIDS/SPACE-‐1 has expanded and is forming the sole universal, thermodynamic "sink" in the cosmos. A note on Black holes: These are local "sinks" whose energy dissipating capacities form important research subjects but so far do not provide the sole universal sink.
Concluding Remarks Dark energy proponents also claim that the "existance" of dark energy means that Einstein's Gravity Physics (general Relativity) is wrong and must be corrected. Such claims are shared by about 400 active proponents in the U.S., Germany, UK, Austria, Spain, Switzerland, Brazil and Chile within extensive funded programs conducted at Fermilab, University of Chicago, UCL, University of Pennsylvania, Ohio State University, DOE, NSF, IEEC, IFAE, OzDEZ,CTIO, LMU, BLANCO, Argone National Lab, UK Consortium, NOAD, NCSA, SLAC.
CONCLUSION-‐I: Our simple technical proof denies and replaces a mystic, immeasurable, dark energy that fills the entire cosmos as own-‐generated by armies of proponents who extract billions for space-‐craft, instrumentation and activities based on baseless claims that are not only misleading and fooling fellow scientists, media editors and the public, but, to put it short: Are nothing but 18-‐years re-‐sold Chimera.
Said Dark-‐Energy Armies, "DEA" are composed of highly-‐devoted
proponents who fool themselves and sponsors to finance their grand Chimera, partly because they
fail to account for their inability to read and comprehend this counter-‐dark-‐energy-‐proof. In short: DEA (i) Resurrect a Misleading, Ghost Number, Historically and Wrongly Called "Cosmological Constant", which is nothing but a "Socio-‐Religious Prejudice Constant", or "SoRePreC", enforced on gentle Einstein to add to his well-‐verified Gravity Field Equations to stop the socially-‐unwanted expanding universe predicted by his famous, well-‐verified equations. HOWEVER, post Hubble's famous discoveries that all clusters of galaxies are indeed receding away from each other, the EXPANDING UNIVERSE, Figs. 1 and 2 below, Einstein totally, and most famously, rejected this Ghost Number, partly as WARNING to SCIENTISTS to avoid Fooling Themselves, and mainly characterizing his own yielding to add it to his well-‐verified world equations, the most misleading-‐ intervening social pressure in science and the "worse blunder" of his life. (ii) DEA also reject and/or ignore verified astrophysical evidence used by this Astrophysical School, Refers. 1 to 6, which empties their own-‐generated, mysterious, ghost, called "Dark Energy" on which they dream and fool themselves, fellow scientists, media editors and the public, to fill the entire cosmos, and ask academia and government to pay for their dreams, and (iii) they also reject and/or ignore, without providing a single reason, verified facts and laws of physics presented by this school, which unequivocally, fully account for the 1998-‐detected acceleration, and (iv) they also reject well-‐verified Einstein Gravity Physics as "wrong", and (v) Demand to "correct" the well-‐verified Einstein Gravity Physics, and (vi) Demand that other fellow scientists adopt their dreams formulations, some of which are based on other wrongs briefed in PART B below, and
(vii) Demand that governments endlessly finance their dreams by huge budgets in space-‐crafts, space research and academic education aimed to maintain alive their Chimerian dreams.
CONCLUSION III: Such empty claims only bring a sad-‐end to global trusting of theoretical physics. To save this trust and wasted $-‐billions, universities and governments should dismantled these armies.
CONCLUSION IV: Reference 5 details the chain of processes ruled by the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. This chain includes the generation of the chemical building elements of life inside massive stars [Figure 4] and supernova explosions that spread the elements in SPACE-‐3, [Figure 2], the origin of the solar system and earth from the sole origin of all: The Master Cosmological Expansion of VOIDS/SPACE-‐1 as has been established since 1969-‐1972 by our Astrophysical School of Relativistic and Classical Thermodynamics and Time Asymmetries. [1-‐6].
Brief Mathematical Remarks on the Astrophysical School Reference 5, at 267-‐283, summarizes the "THE FAILURE OF CLASSICAL AND QUANTAL STATISTICAL MECHANICS TO DEDUCE IRREVERSIBILITY AND TIME ASYMMETRIES". A few Examples: (a) A common mathematical practice to resort to prediction that rejects retrodiction to support desired wishes to extract "proofs" of the origin of irreversibility in nature e.g., the famous Boltzmann Theorem, or more recently, the wrong "proof" advanced by the late Nobel Prize Winner I. Prigogine, is stressed first by this school. (b) A common acceptance of retarded solutions of wave equations in static vs. expanding cosmos, while rejecting advanced solutions. [Cf. John Wheeler's comment in Appendix A], is also stressed by this school. (c) A common wrong in accepting only initial conditions vs. rejecting final conditions when one starts formulations with symmetric mathematics to provide the sought-‐after "proof" in asymmetric mathematics, is also exposed by this school. (d) Similar common mistakes are detailed in Ref. 5. They amount to smuggling irreversibility into symmetric mathematics without declaring the contraband.
Published Worldwide Acclaims References 1-‐6
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: “Gal-‐Or's remarkable book sees and seizes the world whole. He emphasizes that all scientists operate under some set of philosophical prejudices, and that failure to acknowledge this is self-‐delusion. Furthermore, he argues that a failure to attend to the philosophical base of physics leads to an empty scientism. His work is challenging on many levels, constituting a review 'with derivations' of general relativity 'as applied to cosmology', thermodynamics, the current state of theoretical particle physics, astrophysics, as well as a summary history of western philosophy, 'especially the philosophies of time and mind' and critiques of western society, the intelligentsia and the relationship between academic science and government.
One 'and perhaps the central' theme explored, is that of the interplay between symmetry and asymmetry. His primary interest is not in the recent progress in the unification of forces in gauge theory, although he finds support in it for his Einsteinian outlook, but is rather time, time's arrow, and the asymmetry between past and future. Around time are accumulated discussions, both mathematical and philosophical, of thermodynamic reversibility, time reversibility, the nature of causality, and the use of advanced and retarded solutions to wave equations. The second major theme is that of gravity and its overwhelming domination of the actual form of the universe, at all scales. The combination of these themes is not accidental; they are point and counterpoint to his thesis that the time asymmetries are connectable to and perhaps even determined by the master asymmetry given by the gravity of general relativity: the remorseless cosmological expansion. He argues that only the expansion can provide the unification of time asymmetries. The expansion provides, among other things, an unsaturable sink for radiation, which, in turn, permits the establishment of gradients in temperature and density, which provide the basis for the physical process that leads to life. He also criticizes the sloppy and improper use of the concepts of entropy 'and the related notions in information theory' and quantum indeterminism, especially as covers for an inadequate understanding of temporal asymmetries. Taking an Einsteinian position on the interpretation of quantum mechanics, he looks forward to revitalization of Einstein's quest for a deterministic interpretation of quantum events. The value of this book lies in the challenging combination of ideas which Gal-‐Or presents, which goes far beyond what can be sensibly described in a review. [This] work may be too large to digest as a text in these days of the decline of academic institutions "as Gal-‐Or describes them", but that will be the loss of both the faculty and the students.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS "Einstein's time-‐symmetric tensor was elevated by Gal-‐Or’s “New Astronomical School of Unified Thermodynamics” to the status of the source of “Master Asymmetry” controlling not only irreversible thermodynamics, but all physical and biological phenomena!
Gal-‐Or calls “GRAVITISM” (his philosophy) that gravitation is the prime cause of structures, irreversibility, time, geo-‐chemical and biological evolution -‐-‐ that the expansion of the universe is the cause of the second law of thermodynamics -‐-‐ that microscopic physics, and thermodynamics in particular, cannot be understood without reference to cosmology. He ties “irreversibility” to the “expansion of space itself”, i.e. as far as space is expanding, the contribution of all kinds of radiation in space is weakened “irreversibly” due to the expansion phenomenon itself. Such loss, or “degradation” of energy in the depth of inter-‐cluster expanding space, may then be considered as a universal sink for all the radiation flowing out of the material bodies in the expanding universe.” Advancement of Physics
"The works of scientists like Gal-‐Or, Bohm, and (Noble Prize-‐Winner) Prigogine provide important resources. Prigogine's formalisms do not really tell us how irreversible change emerges from reversible [mathematics]. (in this Gal-‐Or is superior)." The Crisis of the Sciences "Gal-‐Or launches a new spirit of inquiry by his excellent and thought provoking writings. I would recommend awarding a prize and would hope that this would serve to focus attention on a most important subject.” Prof. Tommy Gold, Award the Gold Medal by N.Y. Academy of Sciences
"Has generated a large number of responses from around the world, some declaring that it has turned them into “Gal-‐Orians”. Since the thought presented by this book is so rich, translators of our country should recommend this book with all their intellectual power." Chinese Academy of Sciences "A Master Piece. The well-‐known author bases his philosophy on a very sound knowledge of present-‐day scientific theories. " Indian Journal of Physics "Appeals to scientists of all disciplines who are prepared to open their minds. Shines a welcome light in some dark corners of science. Sir Karl Popper, in a Foreword, correctly describes it “a great book”. New Scientist Magazine "We are all Gal-‐Orians ! " Editor, Foundations of Physics “One of the best books on the totality of the sciences & the universe. It was one of the favorite books of Sir Karl Popper. It looks at physics and the universe as a totality of the mathematical philosophical understanding. It also combines the physical concept of time with human psychological perception and brain understanding of languages.” Robin firstname.lastname@example.org
Recommended by Encyclopedia Britannica, "Nature, Philosophy of"
"Tour de force. A magnificent and sustained piece of work!
A. Cottrell, V. Chancellor, Cambridge University "Gal-‐Or’s “beauty” has always been the object of science, which, he lyrically observes as “a most fundamental aesthetic frame of mind, a longing for the run-‐away horizons of truth and symmetry that we always try to reach.” Order Amidst Chaos, Enlightenment Aesthetics "This is a great book, and an exciting book; readable, worth reading and enlightening."
Sir Karl Popper, The greatest philosopher of science in the previous century "I do not know a better modern expression of science, philosophy
and classical humanism, than that of Gal-‐Or’s book." Newspaper HaAretz
“I have in the meantime studied your book, with great interest, and made pages of notes on it. I feel as if I had been on numerous walks and talks with you on the great questions, and know that would be great to go on with them! Who cannot be impressed by your love for the great men of all times and all countries, by your phrase “working back and forth between theory and fact”, by your belief that philosophy is too important to be left to the philosophers, by your concern for where thought and language lie in the scheme of things – and by so much more! I continue to reflect, again and again, on your central thesis that expansion is the origin of all asymmetry in time. What an ingenious phrase is your, “smuggle irreversibility in without declaring the contraband”! I regard your book as seeking to accomplish two tasks – and being two books – at the very least One is the exposition of your central thesis, with clarity, and careful mustering of every argument pro and con that can lead to testable consequences. I don’t see how it is possible to do proper justice to a thesis of such importance by mixing it in with the other great task. That is to give students an appreciation of the unity of philosophy and modern physics. You do both tasks far better than I could hope to. I give you my personal thanks for putting the two books into a package that I personally have found most thought-‐provoking.” Prof. John A. Wheeler, Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton University
Unverifiable String Theories v. Unverifiable Dark Energy
urrent experimental techniques in science cannot provide direct verification below about
10-‐19 meter, which is more than 15 orders of magnitude above any direct verification scale of string theories, or of any theory. Moreover, all string theories have failed to converge into a single acceptable formulation, and no string theory version has made any prediction that differs from those made by other theories. Whatever the future holds for string theories, they have become an active branch of theoretical physics, that, in part, had originated from Einstein’s search for a unified field theory of gravity and quantum physics. The first to add a fifth spatial dimension to Einstein's general relativity were Theodor Kaluza (in 1919) and Oskar Klein (in 1926). These attempts attracted Einstein’s attention in his attempts to develop a unified field theory. But Einstein died prior to being successful in this domain. The current proponents of string theories claim, inter alia, that on very small sub-‐atomic scales, all fundamental field-‐forces consist of vibrating strings or membranes of energy. See below. The spectrum, or zoo, of subatomic particles then emerges (mathematically) as small vibrating strings that by altering their mode of vibration transform, say, an electron into a neutrino, a quark, or other particles, while causing space-‐time to curve around these entities so as to give rise to Einsteinian relativistic gravity. Despite three decades of intensive attempts to provide experimental proof of string theories, as conducted by armies of physicists, there is not a single, direct verification test that the theory is correct. And none is expected.
While the various equations of string theories have survived mathematical challenges, each solution represents an entire set of unverifiable predictions; a mysticism of scientists, which, when combined with the fundamental issue of a priori smuggling into these theories what is to be proved, makes them what they are. Einstein’s anti-‐probabilistic views remain un-‐ falsified. Similarly, the much acclaimed “Theory of Everything” is misleading. Some of the string theories proponents claim that prior to Genesis a pre-‐Genesis world contraction had turned into a black hole that, at the moment of Genesis, had created many WHITE HOLES, namely, our observable universe is just one of them – indeed a mystic science but a beautiful mathematical music to the brain-‐mind. Hidden variables are postulated in string theories as extra [beyond 3 space and one time dimensions] 6, 7 or higher spatial dimensions. Postulated by David Bohm, these ideas are now driving string theories. They, inter alia, by-‐pass the embarrassing point-‐like feathers of ‘particles’ in quantum theories Such variables also allow theorists to get closer to Einstein’s dream of a deterministic world outlook of general relativity that is unified with quantum physics. Investigating how a string theory may include fermions led to the concept of supersymmetry a mathematical collection of ideas relating bosons and fermions (every particle has superpartner that is not observable. Superpartners are called squarks, selectrons and gluinos. M-‐Theory is one group of string theories that postulates ‘Landscapes-‐Inside-‐landscapes’ in 10, 11 or 26 space dimensions so as to harbor a large number of hidden variables, different vacua and endless other universes. The theoretical limit of the M-‐theory infers that protons, electrons, neutrons and their antimatter counterparts, may be converted to photons and then converted to other particles, i.e., to particles such as protons that may be changed to other particles, such as electrons. It is not yet a fully understood theory. D-‐branes are membranes of different spatial dimensionality. The membranes are postulated to be gravitational sources, so that one may end-‐up with a modified gravitational theory within the framework of string and quantum theories. They may emit and absorb closed strings and are postulated to emit gravitons and also to emit charge since they emit closed strings, which are gauge bosons.
The pre-‐supposed (hidden variables tiny entities are postulated to contract to minimize their potential energy. But conservation of energy prevents them from disappearing. Instead they are postulated to oscillate-‐vibrate. By pre-‐assuming the reality of vibrating strings, one may deduce different vibrational modes that are further postulated to represent different sub-‐ atomic particles. Such postulated strings may split and combine, which may resemble particles emitting and absorbing other particles, as in quantum interactions between sub-‐atomic particles. Quantum strings are also postulated to harbor tension, like regular strings of a violin; a tension that is related to their size and shape. A closed loop string, left to move without external forces, will contract into a smaller loop. But it is further postulated that it would not shrink to a zero-‐sized point. Open strings have two distinct end-‐points, while closed strings are joined to make a complete loop. The two types may allow speculations about two different spectra of ‘elementary-‐ particles’. For example, one of the closed string modes is the graviton, and in the open string mode it is a photon. ‘Landscapes-‐Inside-‐landscapes’, (worlds-‐inside-‐worlds) in 10, 11 or 26 space dimensions are postulated in string theories to harbor a large number of hidden variables, different vacua and endless other universes. Such theories are also being postulated to be the theoretical limit of the M-‐theory.
Symmetry-‐Asymmetry: All laws of physics, except those of thermodynamics, are space and time symmetric, namely, there is no distinction between any direction in space and in time. However, the 2nd law of thermodynamics, in its fundamental form, states that in using the time coordinate one can only proceed from past to future and never in reverse. Accordingly, some theorists claim, in contradiction with thermodynamics, that if the universe is eternal into the future, it must be eternal into the past. Hence, they claim, prior to creation [the “big-‐ bang”] there was a symmetrical world contraction into an all-‐containing black hole. As the density “had” increased during that pre-‐creation contraction, gigantic black holes had been formed, and, at the instant of maximum contraction, they all switched to expnasion, the interior of one of them has become “our universe”.
Such claims encounter endless debates. Yet, their proponents hope that upcoming observations by, say, the Planck Sattelite and the ground-‐based LIGO and VIRGO observatories, may reveal slight variations in gravitational radiation that might be detected by their effect on the polarization of the cosmic black body radiation; perhaps conferring some supportive evidence.
References on the New Philosophy Gravitism and the Astrophysical School of Thermodynamics and Time Asymmetries
1. Benjamin Gal-‐Or, Cosmological Origin of Thermodynamics, Nature 230, 1971); 234, 217 (1971);
2. Ibid, On The Origin of Irreversibility, Science, 176, 11 (1972); 178, 119 (1972); Partly based on Benjamin Gal-‐Or, Chair & editor, The 1969-‐International Congress "Critical Review of the Foundations of Relativistic and Classical Thermodynamics", Pittsburgh, Pa. April 7-‐8, (1969), and proceedings published by Mono Book, (1970).
3. Ibid, Entropy, Fallacy, and the Origin of Irreversibility: An Essay on the New Astrophysical Revolutionary School of Thermodynamics; Annal. N.Y. Acad. Acad. Sci., 196 (A6) 305 (1972) (Gold Medal Award).
4. Ibid, on the New Astrophysical Revolutionary School of Thermodynamics, Found. Phys. 6, 407 (1976); 6, 623 (1976); 7, 50 (1977).
5. Ibid, Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy (CPP), Volumes I and II, Springer Verlag, New York, 1981, 1983, 1987, Volumes I and 2 in 522-‐page, Hard-‐Cover worldwide acclaimed book, Expanding and updating Refers. 1 to 4 and adding "Einsteinian-‐Induced-‐Physics and philosophy of Physics" and 'Gravitism' to "The Astrophysical School"
6. Ibid, "Unifications of Symmetries and Asymmetries: What should be first?, Physics Essays, 6, 60, 1993. Then published notes since the 1998-‐Discovery that the expanding universe is accelerating, new evidence on the formation of planets, energy-‐gravity gradients-‐structuring from voids to earth that lead to life, published online by ISSUE from 2015 to 2016 (Earlier, from 2007 to 2013 by "Scribd" but ended by a dispute) These notes updated the main themes of the "Astrophysical School of Classical and
uthor is editor-‐in-‐chief, International Journal of Turbo & Jet Engines , DeGruyter,
Berlin, Germany, but lives in the Philippines and the U.S. since 1999; a former professor at the Johns Hopkins and Pittsburgh Universities and Technion-‐Israel Institute of Technology. Current research: (i) Stealth, Tailless, Thrust Vectoring drones, cruise missiles & fighter aircraft, (ii) Updating the Astrophysical School of Thermodynamics and Time Asymmetries. References 1 to 6. All rights reserved
to the Author but sharing is allowed FREE to anyone under ISSUU policie