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         All  Rights  Reserved  to  Benjamin  Gal-­‐Or,  the  father  of  the  Astrophysical  School  of  Thermodynamics,  Refrs.  1-­‐6

DARK  ENERGY  is  a   HOAX.  Save  Funding  to      


Evelyne  Katz  1986  Einstein's  Portrat,  by  Permission      


‫יןד שׁראןבךק‬


Proof  that  Dark  Energy  

is  a

 Hoax  by    Figures  1  to  4    

Worldwide  Acclaims  are  presented  in  pages  10  to  12        






Figure  1:  Verified  observations  prove  that  there  are  about  2.3  million  galaxies,  each   harboring  billions  of  stars,  within  a  narrow  window  to  the  sky  of  150  square  degrees.   All   observed   galaxies   lump   together   by   gravity   to   form   the   "filaments"   or   "walls"   of   non-­‐expanding,  super-­‐clusters  of  galaxies  shown  in  this  NASA-­‐Figure  1.                    By   turning   resaerch   attention   to   (i)   the   thermodynamics   of   the   dark,   cold,   expanding  voids  between  these  "filaments"  and  "walls",  Figure  2,  and  (ii)  to  the  stellar   and   intergalactic   winds   entering   them   from   all   directions,   e.g.,   the   four   yellow   arrows   marked,   we   next   prove   that   dark   energy   is   not   neded   to   account   for   the   1998-­‐ detected   cosmic   expansion   acceleration.  Our   proof   thus  empty   dark   energy   claims,  as   discussed  below.    

The  PROOF  that  Dark  Energy  is  a  Hoax  and  its  Funding  Stopped    


ACH   VERIFIED,   EXPANDING,   INTERGALACTIC   VOID,   some   marked   in   pink,  

encounters  fast  INCOMING  RADIATION  JETS  that  enter  it  from  ALL  DIRECTIONS.                  Then   by   momentum   conservation   applied   to   all   jets   entering   all   EXPANDING   voids   from   ALL   directions,   thrust-­‐out   of   aLL   observed   "walls"   of   non-­‐expanding,   super-­‐ clusters  of  galaxies  around  each  is  effected,  thus  adding  accumulated  acceleration  to   the  entire  EINSTEIN-­‐HUBBLE  expansion  INERTIA  of  the  cosmos.            Prior  to  the  formation  of  these  "walls"  the  Einstein-­‐Hubble  inertia  expansion    was   slowing   down   by   gravitation,   but   since   the   voids   vis-­‐à-­‐vis   the   "walls"   have   been   formed,  the  cosmic  inertia  expansion  has  been  acclerated  by  the  simple  mechanism   explained  above.              Dark  energy  propoponents  also  claim  that  (i)  dark  energy  contents  in  the  cosmos   have   increased   with   its   age,   (ii)     that   "negative   pressure"   on   which   no   verified   physics   is  known,  explains  the  1998-­‐discovered  acceleration.  


In  turn,  to  complete  our  long  maintained  proof  that  has  been  submitted  to  various   dark  enery  proponents  years  ago,  we  resort  to  Figure  2.                         Figure  2:   two  simple  Clusters  represent  Super-­‐clusters  of  galaxies  recorded  in  NASA  map,  Figure   1,  here.  [Figure  taken  from  page  283  in  our  Ref.  5].    

The   marked   EXPANDING,  UNSATURABLE,  SPACE  "1"  represents  the  expanding  voids  shown  in   Figure  1.     Depression  in  energy-­‐density  gradients  between  Clusters  I  and  II  represents  gradients  inside  the   expanding   voids.   Nearby   expanding   voids   are   half-­‐shown.   Energy-­‐gradients   in   intergalactic   SPACE-­‐2,  which  wraps  all  non-­‐expanding  clusters  and  super-­‐clusters  of  galaxies,  and  interstellar   SPACE-­‐3  located  inside  each  galaxy,  are  marked.   "Adiabatic   walls"   are   virtual   surfaces   that   encage   each   expanding   void   and   thus   prevent   net   energy  flow  from  one  expanding  void  to  another  due  to  their  uniform  distribution  in  space.  [Figure   1].  Energy  still  flows  through  this  surface  in  opposing  directions,  but  the  net  value  is  zero.        


Therefore  the  study  of  one  expanding  void  is  unequivocally  equivalent  to  the  study  of  all,  namely,   the   sole   root-­‐cause   of   all   irreversible   processes   in   the   cosmos   is   originated   by   these   expanding-­‐ cooling   voids;   from   about  4,000   degrees   at   radiation-­‐dominated-­‐era-­‐end,   down   to   2.7   degrees   K   that  currently  rules  all  dark  cold  voids  recorded  by  NASA  map,  Figure  1  

Figure  3:    SPACE-­‐2  wraps  all   non-­‐expanding  galaxies  [Fig.  2]   and  all  non-­‐expanding    SPACE-­‐3,           where  super-­‐fast,  interstellar  winds,                                flow  out  to  SPACE-­‐2    and   next,  irreversibly  dissipate  in  cold,   EXPANDING-­‐VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1,   composed  of  expanding  VOIDS   located  between  all  super-­‐clusters   of  galaxies.  [Figure  1].      Images  from  NASA,  author's  book  Ref.  5  &  Wikipedia.  



Figure   4:   Illustrated   stellar   evolution   produces   the   building   blocks   of   life.   Emergence  of  life  is  impossible  without  energy  gradients  generated  by  expanding-­‐ cooling  of  the  voids.  Figure  2.                  Thought   experiment:   Tomorrow   the   voids   expansion   stops   and   temperatures   in  SPACES  3  to  1  gradually  rise  to  those  in  the  center  of  stars  or  galactic  centers,   eventually,  thermal  equilbrium  is  reached,  by  which  all  processes  stop.  


Partial   conclusion:   Figure-­‐2-­‐gradients   cause   all   outflowing   radiation   (interstellar   winds,   or   jets,   Fig.   3]   emerging   from   all   active   stars   and   galaxies,   to   gradually  proceed  to  SPACE-­‐2  and  dissipated  in  SPACE-­‐1.      A   note   on   the   1964-­‐discovered   Cosmic   black-­‐body   radiation:   It   is   a   remnant,   left-­‐

over,   radiation   glow   that   has   expanded   with   VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1   during   about   17   billion  years.  It  is  cooled  by  the  expansion  itself  from  about  4,000-­‐3,000  K  to  about   270   degrees   below   zero   C.   Accordingly,   this   black-­‐body   radiation   provides   one   of   the   direct   proofs   that   VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1   has   expanded   and   is   forming   the   sole   universal,  thermodynamic  "sink"  in  the  cosmos.   A  note  on  Black  holes:  These  are  local  "sinks"  whose  energy  dissipating  capacities   form  important  research  subjects  but  so  far  do  not  provide  the  sole  universal  sink.  


Concluding  Remarks                 Dark   energy   proponents   also   claim   that   the   "existance"   of   dark   energy   means   that   Einstein's   Gravity   Physics   (general   Relativity)   is   wrong   and   must   be   corrected.   Such   claims   are   shared   by   about  400  active  proponents  in  the  U.S.,  Germany,  UK,  Austria,  Spain,  Switzerland,  Brazil  and  Chile   within  extensive  funded  programs  conducted  at  Fermilab,  University  of  Chicago,  UCL,  University  of   Pennsylvania,   Ohio   State   University,   DOE,   NSF,   IEEC,   IFAE,   OzDEZ,CTIO,   LMU,   BLANCO,   Argone   National  Lab,  UK  Consortium,  NOAD,    NCSA,  SLAC.    

CONCLUSION-­‐I:   Our   simple   technical   proof   denies   and   replaces   a   mystic,   immeasurable,   dark   energy   that   fills   the   entire   cosmos   as   own-­‐generated   by   armies   of   proponents   who   extract   billions  for  space-­‐craft,  instrumentation  and  activities  based  on  baseless  claims  that  are  not  only   misleading   and   fooling   fellow   scientists,   media   editors   and   the   public,   but,   to   put   it   short:   Are   nothing  but  18-­‐years  re-­‐sold  Chimera.  


Said   Dark-­‐Energy   Armies,   "DEA"   are   composed   of   highly-­‐devoted  

proponents  who  fool  themselves  and  sponsors  to  finance  their  grand  Chimera,  partly  because  they  


fail  to  account  for  their  inability  to  read  and  comprehend  this  counter-­‐dark-­‐energy-­‐proof.  In  short:   DEA     (i)   Resurrect   a   Misleading,   Ghost   Number,   Historically   and   Wrongly   Called   "Cosmological   Constant",   which   is   nothing   but   a   "Socio-­‐Religious   Prejudice   Constant",  or  "SoRePreC",  enforced  on  gentle  Einstein  to  add  to  his  well-­‐verified   Gravity   Field   Equations   to   stop   the   socially-­‐unwanted   expanding   universe   predicted  by  his  famous,  well-­‐verified  equations.     HOWEVER,   post   Hubble's   famous   discoveries   that   all   clusters   of   galaxies   are   indeed   receding  away  from  each  other,  the  EXPANDING  UNIVERSE,  Figs.  1  and  2  below,   Einstein  totally,  and  most  famously,  rejected  this  Ghost  Number,  partly  as  WARNING   to   SCIENTISTS   to   avoid   Fooling   Themselves,   and   mainly   characterizing   his   own   yielding   to   add   it   to   his   well-­‐verified   world   equations,   the   most   misleading-­‐ intervening  social  pressure  in  science  and  the  "worse  blunder"  of  his  life.   (ii)   DEA   also   reject   and/or   ignore   verified   astrophysical   evidence   used   by   this   Astrophysical   School,   Refers.   1   to   6,   which   empties   their   own-­‐generated,   mysterious,   ghost,   called   "Dark   Energy"   on   which   they   dream   and   fool   themselves,   fellow   scientists,   media   editors   and   the   public,   to   fill   the   entire   cosmos,  and  ask  academia  and  government  to  pay  for  their  dreams,  and     (iii)     they   also   reject   and/or   ignore,   without   providing   a   single   reason,   verified   facts   and   laws   of   physics   presented   by   this   school,   which   unequivocally,   fully   account   for  the  1998-­‐detected  acceleration,  and     (iv)      they  also  reject  well-­‐verified  Einstein  Gravity  Physics  as  "wrong",  and   (v)        Demand  to  "correct"  the  well-­‐verified  Einstein  Gravity  Physics,  and   (vi)     Demand   that   other   fellow   scientists   adopt   their   dreams   formulations,   some   of   which  are  based  on  other  wrongs  briefed  in  PART  B  below,  and    


(vii)   Demand   that   governments   endlessly   finance   their   dreams   by   huge   budgets   in   space-­‐crafts,  space  research  and  academic  education  aimed  to  maintain  alive  their   Chimerian  dreams.    

CONCLUSION  III:   Such   empty   claims   only   bring   a   sad-­‐end   to   global   trusting   of   theoretical   physics.  To  save  this  trust  and  wasted  $-­‐billions,  universities  and  governments  should  dismantled   these  armies.  

CONCLUSION   IV:   Reference   5   details   the   chain   of   processes   ruled   by   the   2nd   Law   of   Thermodynamics.   This   chain   includes   the   generation   of   the   chemical   building   elements   of   life   inside   massive   stars   [Figure   4]   and   supernova   explosions   that   spread   the   elements   in   SPACE-­‐3,   [Figure   2],   the   origin   of   the   solar   system   and   earth   from   the   sole   origin   of   all:   The   Master   Cosmological   Expansion   of   VOIDS/SPACE-­‐1   as   has   been   established   since   1969-­‐1972   by   our   Astrophysical  School  of  Relativistic  and  Classical  Thermodynamics  and  Time  Asymmetries.  [1-­‐6]. ��

Brief  Mathematical  Remarks  on  the  Astrophysical  School     Reference   5,   at   267-­‐283,   summarizes   the   "THE   FAILURE   OF   CLASSICAL   AND   QUANTAL   STATISTICAL   MECHANICS   TO   DEDUCE   IRREVERSIBILITY   AND   TIME   ASYMMETRIES".     A   few   Examples:     (a)     A   common   mathematical   practice   to   resort   to   prediction   that   rejects   retrodiction  to  support  desired  wishes  to  extract  "proofs"  of  the  origin  of   irreversibility   in   nature   e.g.,   the   famous   Boltzmann   Theorem,   or   more   recently,   the   wrong   "proof"   advanced   by   the   late   Nobel   Prize   Winner   I.   Prigogine,  is  stressed  first  by  this  school.   (b)        A  common  acceptance  of  retarded  solutions  of  wave  equations  in  static  vs.     expanding   cosmos,   while   rejecting   advanced   solutions.   [Cf.   John   Wheeler's  comment  in  Appendix  A],  is  also  stressed  by  this  school.     (c)       A   common   wrong   in   accepting   only   initial   conditions   vs.   rejecting   final   conditions  when  one  starts  formulations  with  symmetric  mathematics  to   provide   the   sought-­‐after   "proof"   in   asymmetric   mathematics,   is   also   exposed  by  this  school.   (d)        Similar  common  mistakes  are  detailed  in  Ref.  5.  They  amount  to  smuggling   irreversibility   into   symmetric   mathematics   without   declaring   the   contraband.  


Published  Worldwide  Acclaims   References  1-­‐6  


AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  PHYSICS:   “Gal-­‐Or's  remarkable  book  sees  and  seizes  the  world  whole.  He  emphasizes  that  all  scientists  operate  under   some  set  of  philosophical  prejudices,  and  that  failure  to  acknowledge  this  is  self-­‐delusion.  Furthermore,  he   argues  that  a  failure  to  attend  to  the  philosophical  base  of  physics  leads  to  an  empty  scientism.              His   work   is   challenging   on   many   levels,   constituting   a   review   'with   derivations'   of   general   relativity     'as   applied  to  cosmology',  thermodynamics,  the  current  state  of  theoretical  particle  physics,  astrophysics,     as  well   as  a  summary    history  of  western    philosophy,    'especially  the  philosophies  of  time  and  mind'    and  critiques  of   western  society,    the  intelligentsia  and  the  relationship  between  academic  science  and  government.  

           One  'and  perhaps  the  central'  theme  explored,  is  that  of  the  interplay  between  symmetry  and  asymmetry.              His  primary  interest  is  not  in  the  recent  progress  in  the  unification  of  forces  in  gauge  theory,  although  he   finds  support  in  it  for  his  Einsteinian  outlook,  but  is  rather  time,  time's  arrow,  and  the  asymmetry  between  past   and  future.  Around  time  are  accumulated  discussions,  both  mathematical  and  philosophical,  of  thermodynamic   reversibility,  time  reversibility,  the  nature  of  causality,  and  the  use  of  advanced  and  retarded  solutions  to  wave   equations.              The  second  major  theme  is  that  of  gravity  and  its  overwhelming  domination  of  the  actual  form  of  the   universe,  at  all  scales.   The  combination  of  these  themes  is  not  accidental;  they  are  point  and  counterpoint  to  his  thesis  that  the  time   asymmetries  are  connectable  to  and  perhaps  even  determined  by  the  master  asymmetry  given  by  the  gravity  of   general  relativity:    the  remorseless  cosmological  expansion.              He  argues  that  only  the  expansion  can  provide  the  unification  of  time  asymmetries.              The  expansion  provides,  among  other  things,  an  unsaturable  sink  for  radiation,  which,  in  turn,  permits  the   establishment  of  gradients  in  temperature  and  density,  which  provide  the  basis  for  the  physical  process  that   leads  to  life.              He  also  criticizes  the  sloppy  and  improper  use  of  the  concepts  of  entropy  'and  the  related  notions  in   information  theory'  and  quantum  indeterminism,  especially  as  covers  for  an  inadequate  understanding  of   temporal  asymmetries.              Taking  an  Einsteinian  position  on  the  interpretation  of  quantum  mechanics,  he  looks  forward  to   revitalization  of  Einstein's  quest  for  a  deterministic  interpretation  of  quantum  events.              The  value  of  this  book  lies  in  the  challenging  combination  of  ideas  which  Gal-­‐Or  presents,  which  goes   far  beyond  what  can  be  sensibly  described  in  a  review.              [This]  work  may  be  too  large  to  digest  as  a  text  in  these  days  of  the  decline  of      academic    institutions   "as  Gal-­‐Or  describes  them",  but  that  will  be  the  loss  of  both  the  faculty  and  the  students.”                       AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  PHYSICS     "Einstein's  time-­‐symmetric  tensor  was  elevated  by  Gal-­‐Or’s  “New  Astronomical  School  of  Unified   Thermodynamics”  to  the  status  of  the  source  of  “Master  Asymmetry”  controlling  not  only  irreversible   thermodynamics,  but  all  physical  and  biological  phenomena!  


Gal-­‐Or  calls  “GRAVITISM”  (his  philosophy)  that  gravitation  is  the  prime  cause  of  structures,  irreversibility,   time,  geo-­‐chemical  and  biological  evolution  -­‐-­‐  that  the  expansion  of  the  universe  is  the  cause  of  the  second  law   of  thermodynamics  -­‐-­‐  that  microscopic  physics,  and  thermodynamics  in  particular,  cannot  be  understood   without  reference  to  cosmology.   He  ties  “irreversibility”  to  the  “expansion  of  space  itself”,  i.e.  as  far  as  space  is  expanding,  the  contribution  of  all   kinds  of  radiation  in  space  is  weakened  “irreversibly”  due  to  the  expansion  phenomenon  itself.              Such  loss,  or  “degradation”  of  energy  in  the  depth  of  inter-­‐cluster  expanding  space,  may  then  be  considered   as  a  universal  sink  for  all  the  radiation  flowing  out  of  the  material  bodies  in  the  expanding  universe.”                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Advancement  of  Physics

"The  works  of  scientists  like  Gal-­‐Or,  Bohm,  and  (Noble  Prize-­‐Winner)  Prigogine  provide  important   resources.  Prigogine's  formalisms  do  not  really  tell  us  how  irreversible  change  emerges  from  reversible   [mathematics].  (in  this  Gal-­‐Or  is  superior)."                                                                                                                                  The  Crisis  of  the  Sciences       "Gal-­‐Or  launches  a  new  spirit  of  inquiry  by  his  excellent  and  thought  provoking  writings.  I  would  recommend   awarding  a  prize  and  would  hope  that  this  would  serve  to  focus  attention  on  a  most  important  subject.”                                                                                                                                            Prof.  Tommy  Gold,  Award  the  Gold  Medal  by  N.Y.  Academy  of  Sciences    

    "Has  generated  a  large  number  of  responses  from  around  the  world,     some  declaring  that  it  has  turned  them  into  “Gal-­‐Orians”.                                                                                                                                                                 Since  the  thought  presented  by  this  book  is  so  rich,  translators  of  our  country  should  recommend  this  book  with   all  their  intellectual  power."                                                                                                                                                                            Chinese  Academy  of  Sciences     "A  Master  Piece.  The  well-­‐known  author  bases  his  philosophy  on  a  very  sound  knowledge  of  present-­‐day   scientific  theories.  "                                                                                                                                                                                            Indian  Journal  of  Physics     "Appeals  to  scientists  of  all  disciplines  who  are  prepared  to  open  their  minds.                                                    Shines  a  welcome  light  in  some  dark  corners  of  science.     Sir  Karl  Popper,  in  a  Foreword,  correctly  describes  it  “a  great  book”.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          New  Scientist  Magazine                   "We  are  all  Gal-­‐Orians  !  "                                                                                                                                                        Editor,  Foundations  of  Physics     “One  of  the  best  books  on  the  totality  of  the  sciences  &  the  universe.  It  was  one  of  the  favorite  books  of  Sir  Karl   Popper.  It  looks  at  physics  and  the  universe  as  a  totality  of  the  mathematical  philosophical  understanding.  It   also  combines  the  physical  concept  of  time  with  human  psychological  perception  and  brain  understanding  of   languages.”                                                                                                                                                                          Robin    

                                             Recommended  by  Encyclopedia  Britannica,  "Nature,  Philosophy  of"  


"Tour  de  force.  A  magnificent  and  sustained  piece  of  work!    

                                                                                                                                                                     A.  Cottrell,  V.  Chancellor,  Cambridge  University         "Gal-­‐Or’s  “beauty”  has  always  been  the  object  of  science,  which,  he  lyrically  observes  as    “a  most  fundamental   aesthetic  frame  of  mind,     a  longing  for  the  run-­‐away  horizons  of  truth  and  symmetry     that  we  always  try  to  reach.”                                                                                      Order  Amidst  Chaos,  Enlightenment  Aesthetics     "This  is  a  great  book,  and  an  exciting  book;   readable,  worth  reading  and  enlightening."                                                                        

                                                               Sir  Karl  Popper,  The  greatest  philosopher  of  science  in  the  previous  century     "I  do  not  know  a  better  modern  expression  of  science,  philosophy    

and  classical  humanism,  than  that  of  Gal-­‐Or’s  book."                                                                                              Newspaper  HaAretz    


           “I  have  in  the  meantime  studied  your  book,  with  great  interest,  and  made  pages  of  notes  on  it.    I  feel  as  if  I   had  been  on  numerous  walks  and  talks  with  you  on  the  great  questions,  and  know  that  would  be  great  to  go  on   with  them!                Who  cannot  be  impressed  by  your  love  for  the  great  men  of  all  times  and  all  countries,  by  your  phrase   “working  back  and  forth  between  theory  and  fact”,  by  your  belief  that  philosophy  is  too  important  to  be  left  to   the  philosophers,  by  your  concern  for  where  thought  and  language  lie  in  the  scheme  of  things  –  and  by  so  much   more!              I  continue  to  reflect,  again  and  again,  on  your  central  thesis  that  expansion  is  the  origin  of  all  asymmetry  in   time.              What  an  ingenious  phrase  is  your,  “smuggle  irreversibility  in  without  declaring  the  contraband”!              I  regard  your  book  as  seeking  to  accomplish  two  tasks  –  and  being  two  books  –  at  the  very  least  One  is  the   exposition  of  your  central  thesis,  with  clarity,  and  careful  mustering  of  every  argument  pro  and  con  that  can   lead  to  testable  consequences.              I  don’t  see  how  it  is  possible  to  do  proper  justice  to  a  thesis  of  such  importance  by  mixing  it  in  with  the  other   great  task.   That  is  to  give  students  an  appreciation  of  the  unity  of  philosophy  and  modern  physics.    You  do  both  tasks  far   better  than  I  could  hope  to.              I  give  you  my  personal  thanks  for  putting  the  two  books  into  a  package  that  I  personally  have  found  most   thought-­‐provoking.”                                                                    Prof.  John  A.  Wheeler,  Institute  for  Advanced  Studies,  Princeton  University  






Unverifiable  String  Theories  v.  Unverifiable  Dark  Energy      


urrent  experimental  techniques  in  science  cannot  provide  direct  verification  below  about  

10-­‐19  meter,  which  is  more  than  15  orders  of  magnitude  above  any  direct  verification  scale  of   string  theories,  or  of  any  theory.       Moreover,  all  string  theories  have  failed  to  converge  into  a  single  acceptable  formulation,  and   no   string   theory   version   has   made   any   prediction   that   differs   from   those   made   by   other   theories.   Whatever   the   future   holds   for   string   theories,   they   have   become   an   active   branch   of   theoretical   physics,   that,   in   part,   had   originated   from   Einstein’s   search   for   a   unified   field   theory  of  gravity  and  quantum  physics.       The  first  to  add  a  fifth  spatial  dimension  to  Einstein's  general  relativity  were  Theodor  Kaluza   (in   1919)   and   Oskar   Klein   (in   1926).   These   attempts   attracted   Einstein’s   attention   in   his   attempts  to  develop  a  unified  field  theory.  But  Einstein  died  prior  to  being  successful  in  this   domain.     The   current   proponents   of   string   theories   claim,   inter   alia,   that   on   very   small   sub-­‐atomic   scales,  all  fundamental  field-­‐forces  consist  of  vibrating  strings  or  membranes  of  energy.  See   below.     The   spectrum,   or   zoo,   of   subatomic   particles   then   emerges   (mathematically)   as   small   vibrating   strings   that   by   altering   their   mode   of   vibration   transform,   say,   an   electron   into   a   neutrino,   a   quark,   or   other   particles,   while   causing   space-­‐time   to   curve   around   these   entities   so  as  to  give  rise  to  Einsteinian  relativistic  gravity.     Despite  three  decades  of  intensive  attempts  to  provide  experimental  proof  of  string  theories,   as   conducted   by   armies   of   physicists,   there   is   not   a   single,   direct   verification   test   that   the   theory  is  correct.  And  none  is  expected.    


While  the  various  equations  of  string  theories  have  survived  mathematical  challenges,  each   solution   represents   an   entire   set   of   unverifiable   predictions;  a  mysticism  of  scientists,  which,   when  combined  with  the  fundamental  issue  of  a  priori  smuggling  into  these  theories  what  is   to   be   proved,   makes   them   what   they   are.   Einstein’s   anti-­‐probabilistic   views   remain   un-­‐ falsified.  Similarly,  the  much  acclaimed  “Theory  of  Everything”  is  misleading.     Some   of   the   string   theories   proponents   claim   that   prior   to   Genesis   a   pre-­‐Genesis   world   contraction  had  turned  into  a  black  hole  that,  at  the  moment  of  Genesis,  had  created  many   WHITE  HOLES,  namely,  our  observable  universe  is  just  one  of  them   –  indeed  a  mystic  science   but  a  beautiful  mathematical  music  to  the  brain-­‐mind.     Hidden   variables   are   postulated   in   string   theories   as   extra   [beyond   3   space   and   one   time   dimensions]   6,   7   or   higher   spatial   dimensions.   Postulated   by   David   Bohm,   these   ideas   are   now  driving  string  theories.  They,  inter  alia,  by-­‐pass  the  embarrassing  point-­‐like  feathers  of   ‘particles’  in  quantum  theories    Such  variables  also  allow  theorists  to  get  closer  to  Einstein’s   dream   of   a   deterministic   world   outlook   of   general   relativity   that   is   unified   with   quantum   physics.   Investigating   how   a   string   theory   may   include  fermions   led   to   the   concept   of  supersymmetry   a   mathematical   collection   of   ideas   relating   bosons   and   fermions   (every   particle   has   superpartner  that  is  not  observable.  Superpartners  are  called  squarks,  selectrons  and  gluinos.       M-­‐Theory   is   one   group   of   string   theories   that   postulates   ‘Landscapes-­‐Inside-­‐landscapes’   in   10,  11  or  26  space  dimensions  so  as  to  harbor  a  large  number  of  hidden  variables,  different   vacua   and   endless   other   universes.     The   theoretical   limit   of   the   M-­‐theory   infers   that   protons,   electrons,   neutrons   and   their   antimatter   counterparts,   may   be   converted   to   photons   and   then  converted  to  other  particles,  i.e.,  to  particles  such  as  protons  that  may  be  changed  to   other  particles,  such  as  electrons.    It  is  not  yet  a  fully  understood  theory.     D-­‐branes  are  membranes  of  different  spatial  dimensionality.  The  membranes  are  postulated   to   be   gravitational   sources,   so   that   one   may   end-­‐up   with   a   modified   gravitational   theory   within   the   framework   of   string   and   quantum   theories.   They   may   emit   and   absorb   closed   strings  and  are  postulated  to  emit  gravitons   and  also  to  emit  charge  since  they  emit  closed   strings,  which  are  gauge  bosons.    


The   pre-­‐supposed   (hidden   variables   tiny   entities   are   postulated   to   contract   to   minimize   their   potential  energy.  But  conservation  of  energy  prevents  them  from  disappearing.  Instead  they   are  postulated  to  oscillate-­‐vibrate.  By  pre-­‐assuming  the  reality  of  vibrating  strings,  one  may   deduce   different   vibrational   modes   that   are   further   postulated   to   represent   different   sub-­‐ atomic  particles.       Such  postulated  strings  may  split  and  combine,  which  may  resemble  particles  emitting  and   absorbing  other  particles,  as  in  quantum  interactions  between  sub-­‐atomic  particles.     Quantum   strings   are   also   postulated   to   harbor   tension,   like   regular   strings   of   a   violin;   a   tension   that   is   related   to   their   size   and   shape.   A   closed   loop   string,   left   to   move   without   external  forces,  will  contract  into  a  smaller  loop.  But  it  is  further  postulated  that  it  would  not   shrink  to  a  zero-­‐sized  point.     Open  strings  have  two  distinct  end-­‐points,  while  closed  strings  are  joined  to  make  a  complete   loop.   The   two   types   may   allow   speculations   about   two   different   spectra   of   ‘elementary-­‐ particles’.   For   example,   one   of   the   closed   string   modes   is   the   graviton,   and   in   the   open   string   mode  it  is  a  photon.   ‘Landscapes-­‐Inside-­‐landscapes’,  (worlds-­‐inside-­‐worlds)  in  10,  11  or  26  space  dimensions  are   postulated   in   string   theories   to   harbor   a   large   number   of   hidden   variables,   different   vacua   and   endless   other   universes.     Such   theories   are   also   being   postulated   to   be   the   theoretical   limit  of  the  M-­‐theory.    

Symmetry-­‐Asymmetry:    All  laws  of  physics,  except  those  of  thermodynamics,  are  space  and   time  symmetric,  namely,  there  is  no  distinction  between  any  direction  in  space  and  in  time.   However,   the   2nd   law   of   thermodynamics,   in   its   fundamental   form,   states   that   in   using   the   time   coordinate   one   can   only   proceed   from   past   to   future   and   never   in   reverse.   Accordingly,   some   theorists   claim,   in   contradiction   with   thermodynamics,   that   if   the   universe   is   eternal   into  the  future,  it  must  be  eternal  into  the  past.  Hence,  they  claim,  prior  to  creation  [the  “big-­‐ bang”]  there  was  a  symmetrical  world  contraction  into  an  all-­‐containing  black  hole.     As  the  density  “had”  increased  during  that  pre-­‐creation  contraction,  gigantic  black  holes  had   been  formed,  and,  at  the  instant  of  maximum  contraction,  they  all  switched  to  expnasion,  the   interior  of  one  of  them  has  become  “our  universe”.      


Such   claims   encounter   endless   debates.   Yet,   their   proponents   hope   that   upcoming   observations   by,   say,   the   Planck   Sattelite   and   the   ground-­‐based   LIGO   and   VIRGO   observatories,  may  reveal  slight  variations  in  gravitational  radiation  that  might  be  detected   by   their   effect   on   the   polarization   of   the   cosmic   black   body   radiation;   perhaps   conferring   some  supportive  evidence.                        

References  on  the  New  Philosophy  Gravitism  and  the   Astrophysical  School  of  Thermodynamics  and  Time   Asymmetries  


1.            Benjamin   Gal-­‐Or,   Cosmological   Origin   of   Thermodynamics,   Nature   230,   1971);   234,   217  (1971);  

2.          Ibid,   On   The   Origin   of   Irreversibility,   Science,   176,   11   (1972);   178,   119   (1972);   Partly   based   on   Benjamin   Gal-­‐Or,   Chair   &   editor,   The   1969-­‐International   Congress   "Critical   Review  of  the  Foundations  of  Relativistic  and  Classical  Thermodynamics",  Pittsburgh,   Pa.  April  7-­‐8,  (1969),  and  proceedings  published  by  Mono  Book,  (1970).  

3.            Ibid,     Entropy,   Fallacy,   and   the   Origin   of   Irreversibility:   An   Essay   on   the   New   Astrophysical  Revolutionary  School  of  Thermodynamics;  Annal.  N.Y.  Acad.  Acad.  Sci.,   196  (A6)  305  (1972)  (Gold  Medal  Award).    

4.          Ibid,       on   the   New   Astrophysical   Revolutionary   School   of   Thermodynamics,   Found.   Phys.  6,  407  (1976);  6,  623  (1976);  7,  50  (1977).  

5.          Ibid,  Cosmology,  Physics  and  Philosophy  (CPP),  Volumes  I  and  II,  Springer  Verlag,  New   York,  1981,  1983,  1987,  Volumes  I  and  2  in  522-­‐page,  Hard-­‐Cover  worldwide  acclaimed   book,   Expanding   and   updating   Refers.   1   to   4   and   adding   "Einsteinian-­‐Induced-­‐Physics   and  philosophy  of  Physics"  and  'Gravitism'    to  "The  Astrophysical  School"    

6.          Ibid,   "Unifications   of   Symmetries   and   Asymmetries:   What   should   be   first?,   Physics   Essays,  6,  60,  1993.  Then  published  notes  since  the  1998-­‐Discovery  that  the  expanding   universe   is   accelerating,   new   evidence   on   the   formation   of   planets,   energy-­‐gravity   gradients-­‐structuring   from   voids   to   earth   that   lead   to   life,   published   online   by   ISSUE from   2015   to   2016   (Earlier,   from   2007   to   2013   by   "Scribd"   but   ended   by   a   dispute)   These   notes   updated   the   main   themes   of   the   "Astrophysical   School   of   Classical   and  






uthor   is   editor-­‐in-­‐chief,   International   Journal   of   Turbo   &   Jet   Engines   ,   DeGruyter,  

Berlin,   Germany,   but lives   in   the   Philippines   and   the   U.S.   since   1999;   a   former   professor   at   the   Johns   Hopkins   and   Pittsburgh   Universities   and   Technion-­‐Israel   Institute   of   Technology.   Current   research:  (i)   Stealth,   Tailless,   Thrust   Vectoring   drones,   cruise   missiles   &   fighter   aircraft,   (ii)   Updating   the   Astrophysical   School   of   Thermodynamics   and   Time   Asymmetries.   References   1   to   6.   All  rights  reserved  

to  the  Author  but  sharing  is  allowed  FREE  to  anyone  under  ISSUU   policie


10 20 2016 Dark energy is proven a hoax