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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Beyond Horizons D A R K E

ByBenjamin Gal-Or

By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved


What IS beyond the horizons of science, philosophy and religions? What is beyond the runaway horizons of symmetry and ''truth" that we always try to reach, without knowing WHY? What is behind the wonder of what was before the big bang? What is beyond authorities? beyond religious yearning? What is behind the agreement of math with physical reality in general relativity? What is behind the root cause of agreement between the math-side of Einstein's ''field'' equations and physical ''reality"? of things in themselves? of gravitational fields? of curved space-time? How the generation of the mind, independent of observation, agrees with ''realiy"? What is behind music? Behind the smile of a baby? Behind colors of modern art?


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Table of Contents Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy, Volume I, Ref. 9 PREFACE SIR KARL POPPER, Foreword ……………….……………..…… xx SIR ALAN COTTRELL, Foreword ………………….………........ xxi Preface ……………………………………..….……….…..…….... xxii

Introduction 1.1 The Revival of Relativistic Cosmology vs. Modified Concepts in Physics and Philosophy …………………....…… 2 1.1.1 The problem of ordering ……………………...….…..... 3 1.1.2 How did it all start? …………………………………..... 5 1.1.3 The first seven stages ………………………….............. 7 1.1.4 The present matter-dominated era …………………..... 11 2.1 The Einsteinian Methodology: A Preliminary Remark .... 11 February. 19, 2012

From Terrestrial Gravitational Structures to Black Holes and Neutrinos in Astrophysics 1.1 Gravitation, Asymmetry and Structure ……………….……. 80 A fallacy associated with current theories ……………............... 80 1.1.2 Gravity-induced sedimentary structures …………............. 81 1.2 Stars and the Hertzsprung-Russel Central Diagram ……….. 88 1.3 Supernova, Gravitational Collapse,


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Neutron Stars, Pulsars …………………………………….......…92 1.4 X-Ray Astronomy, Binary X-Ray Systems, and. Gravitational Clocks ……………………………………......... . 100 1.5 Black Holes …………………….……………………….… 106 1.6 Gas, Dust and the Formation of Stars in Our Galaxy ............113 1.7 How Are Cosmic Distances Measured? ……………….….. 116 1.8 Neutrino Astronomy and Astrophysics ………………….... 130 1.9 The Emergence of Gamma-Ray Astronomy ………….…... 132 1.10 Exploration of Extra-Solar Space by Unmanned Spacecraft ………………………………..…… 134

From “Conservation” in Classical Physics to Solitons in Particle Physics 2.1 Aim and Scope ……………………………………………. 138 2.2 Limitations of Theory ……………………………….….… 140 2.3 The General Macroscopic Equation ………………….….... 142 2.4 Continuity Equation (Total Mass Conservation) ………..... 146 2.5 Conservation of Linear Momentum and Gravity.…………. 147 2.6 The Navier-Stokes Equations and Gravity ……………….. 149 2.7 Kinetic-Energy Equation and Dissipation Function in Gravitational Fields ……………......... 152 2.8 First Law of Thermodynamics or Energy Conservation Equation ………………………………….......… 154 2.9 First Law and Enthalpy ………………………………….... 156 19, 201

2.10 First Law In Terms of Temperature Field …………….…. 157 2.11 Entropy Balance Equation ……………………………….. 159 2.12 Beyond Classical Physics: Solitons, Antisolitons and Conservation …………………...…. 160 2.13 Neutrinos and the Powerful Role Conservation Equations Play in Subatomic Processes (Addendum) …...…… 163

From General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology to Gauge Theories 3.1 Introduction …………………………………………………....... 167 3.1.1 Einstein’s field equations in general relativity ………..…….… 169 3.1.2 Confirmation of Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation …………..... 172 3.2 Principles and Formulations of General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology ………………...……….………………....... 191 3.3 Observations, The “Age” of the Universe. And “Equivalent Local Cells” …………………….……….….......... 200


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3.4 Timekeeping, Accelerated Observers and the Principle of Equivalence ………………………….……………........ 204 3.5 From General Relativity to Unified Field Theories ………….…. 205

From Physics to Philosophical Crossroads and Back The Arrows of Time 4.1 Time and The Arrow of Time: The Most Distorted of All Ideas? ..215 4.2 Asymmetry-Symmetry-Space-Time and The Unification of the Laws of Physics …………………….............. 216 4.3 Methodology, Aim and Scope ………………………………....... 217 4.4 Confusing Concepts of Time and Time Asymmetries ………...... 219 4.5 The Entropic Arrow of Time ……………………………….....… 222 4.6 Causality, Causation and Time Asymmetries ………………........ 226 4.7 Causation and Determinism in Relativistic Theories ……..............227 4.8 Cosmological Arrows of Time and Cosmic Time ……….…….... 230 4.9 A Few Remarks ……………………………………...………...... 232 4.10 Time-Reversal Invariance and Irreversibility …………….……. 236 4.10 Microscopic Time Asymmetries in “Elementary Particles” … .. 240 4.11 The Death of Scale-Based Physics ……………….……….......... 242 4.12 The “Dual” Quantum-Geometrodynamical School and “Superspace” 243 4.13 Tachyons and Causal Violations …………………….………. ....246 4.14 Macrocausality and Microcausality in Quantum Mechanics …... 247 4.15 Fading Memory in Classical Physics …………………………... 247 4.16 Doubts as to the Universality of Entropy ……………………..... 249 4.17 Entropy-Free Thermodynamic Arrows of Time ………….…... . 250

The Crisis in Quantum Physics 5.1 Preliminary Review …………………………………….……...... 255 The effect of gravitation and the outside world on quantum physics: 5.1.1 The three main schools of thought ……………………............. 261 5.2 Einstein’s Objections to the Uncertainty Principle ………........... 262 5.3 The Heresy of a Few Skeptics ………………………….…......... 265 5.4 Mythologized Concepts of Quantum Physics …………...…....... 265 5.5 The Failure of Classical and Quantal Statistical Mechanics to Deduce Irreversibility and Time Asymmetries .............267 5.6 The Emergence of Quantum Chromodynamics and Super-Symmetry …………………………………….................. 272 5.6.1 Spatio-Temporal Approach to Quantum Physics ……….......... 272


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5.6.2 From Weinberg-Salam Theory to Quantum Chromodynamics ………………………............................ 273 Conservation laws as symmetry principles; and vice versa ... 273 Global, exact, approximate, isotopic and SU(3) symmetries 274 From SU(3) to renormalizable gauge theories ……............... 276 Quark confinement asymptotic freedom in gauge theories 276-1 QCD and the search for higher symmetryprinciples ……... 276-1 5.6.3 From Quantum Field Theories to Super-Symmetry & Super-Gravity 276-3 On the limits of quantum gravity and ‘Unified Field Theories’ 276-4

From Physics to Cosmological Crossroads and Back Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy 6.1 Reduction of Thermodynamics to Gravitation …….......… 277 6.1.1 Methodology ……………………………………........... 277 Dialectical Gravitism: Definition of the first problems … .......278 6.1.3 Gravitation as super-asymmetry …………………......... 279 6.2 The Earliest and Most Universal Asymmetry: Observational Evidence …………………..………......... ........279 6.2.1 Which space expands and which does not? …...…......... 282 6.3 Gravitation-Asymmetry Principle of Equivalence …….. . 284 6.4 Can Intercluster Space Be Saturated With Radiation? ….. 287 6.5 Derivation of the Master Asymmetry from Gravitation Theories ………………………...…............ 290 6.6 Irreversibility in the New Gravitational Cosmological Thermodynamics ………………...…….........,. 293 6.7 Origin of Dissipation in Newtonian Fluids ……..….....… 297 6.8 Terrestrial Thermodynamics ……………………..……... 299 6.9 Connections with Classical and Continuum Thermodynamics …………………………………..…........... 301 6.10 Electromagnetic Irreversibility and the Master Asymmetry …………………….....….......... 303

Cosmological Origin of Time 7.1 Time: The All-Embracing Concept …………………................. 309 7.2 Cosmological Origin of Time ……………………….................. 310 7.3 Cosmological Interpretations of Newton’s Laws of Motion …... 314 7.4 Gravitational Origin of Structure and Evolution .……................ 316 7.5 Gravitation and the Outflow of Energy Into Un-Saturable Space …………………………………......... 322 7.6 Stellar Evolution …………………………………….... 324


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7.7 Terrestrial Evolution ………………………………...... 325 7.8 Some Open Questions …………………………..…..… 326 Microscopic T-Violation and the Master Asymmetry: A possible Connection? …………. .................327 8. Black Holes and the Unification of Asymmetries 8.1 Introduction ………………………………………...… 330 8.2 Observational Evidence ………………………….….....331 8.3 Schwarzschild Solution and Black Holes …………...... 332 8.4 Black Holes Mechanics and Entropy ………………..... 340 8.5 Can Black Holes “Evaporate”? ……………………...... 341 8.6 Primordial Black Holes? …………………………........ 341 8.7 Back to the Melting Pot of Unification? …………........ 341

Beyond Present Knowledge 9. Havaism – The Science of The Whole 9.1 The Futile Quest for Final Answers …………………...... 349 9.2 An Example in Havaism ……………………..….........… 350 9.3 From Cosmology to Irreversible Structures and Memory 365 9.4 The Skeptic Outlook ……………………………..…...… 415

VOLUME II Introduction ……………………………………………................... 420 A Few Historical Remarks on Time, Mind and Symmetry ………... 437 The Philosophy of Time & Change: Some Historical Notions …………………….……………….…...... 455 Structuralism and the Divided American Thought: A Short Glossary of Terms ………………………………..……….. 467 Policy and Publicity: A Critique ………………………………….... 483 Thought-Provoking and Thought-Depressing Quotations ………..... 495 Critique of Western Methodology ………………………………. ... 530


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Einstein's Painting by E. Katz, by permission.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Preface to Vulume IX

"Einstein's time-symmetric tensor was elevated by Gal-Or’s “New Astronomical School of Unified Thermodynamics” to the status of the source of “Master Asymmetry” controlling not only irreversible thermodynamics, but all physical and biological phenomena! Gal-Or calls “GRAVITISM” (his philosophy) that gravitation is the prime cause of structures, irreversibility, time, geo-chemical and biological evolution -- that the expansion of the universe is the cause of the second law of thermodynamics -- that microscopic physics, and thermodynamics in particular, cannot be understood without reference to cosmology. He ties “irreversibility” to the “expansion of space itself”, i.e. as far as space is expanding, the contribution of all kinds of radiation in space is weakened “irreversibly” due to the expansion phenomenon itself. Such loss, or “degradation” of energy in the depth of inter-cluster expanding space, may then be considered as a universal sink for all the radiation flowing out of the material bodies in the expanding universe.” Advancement of Physics "Gal-Or launches a new spirit of inquiry by his excellent and thought provoking writings. I would recommend awarding a prize and would hope that this would serve to focus attention on a most important subject.” Gold Award by N.Y. Academy of Science (allegedly a rival article by S. Hawking did not make it.) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: “Gal-Or's remarkable book sees and seizes the world whole.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

He emphasizes that all scientists operate under some set of philosophical prejudices, and that failure to acknowledge this is self-delusion. Furthermore, he argues that a failure to attend to the philosophical base of physics leads to an empty scientism. His work is challenging on many levels, constituting a review 'with derivations' of general relativity 'as applied to cosmology', thermodynamics, the current state of theoretical particle physics, astrophysics, as well as a summary history of western philosophy, 'especially the philosophies of time and mind' and critiques of western society, the intelligentsia and the relationship between academic science and government. One 'and perhaps the central' theme explored, is that of the interplay between symmetry and asymmetry. His primary interest is not in the recent progress in the unification of forces in gauge theory, although he finds support in it for his Einsteinian outlook, but is rather time, time's arrow, and the asymmetry between past and future. Around time are accumulated discussions, both mathematical and philosophical, of thermodynamic reversibility, time reversibility, the nature of causality, and the use of advanced and retarded solutions to wave equations. The second major theme is that of gravity and its overwhelming domination of the actual form of the universe, at all scales. The combination of these themes is not accidental; they are point and counterpoint to his thesis that the time asymmetries are connectable to and perhaps even determined by the master asymmetry given by the gravity of general relativity: the remorseless cosmological expansion. He argues that only the expansion can provide the unification of time asymmetries. The expansion provides, among other things, an unsaturable sink for radiation, which, in turn, permits the establishment of gradients in temperature and density, which provide the basis for the physical process that leads to life. He also criticizes the sloppy and improper use of the concepts of entropy 'and the related notions in information theory' and quantum indeterminism,


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

especially as covers for an inadequate understanding of temporal asymmetries. Taking an Einsteinian position on the interpretation of quantum mechanics, he looks forward to revitalization of Einstein's quest for a deterministic interpretation of quantum events. The value of this book lies in the challenging combination of ideas which Gal-Or presents, which goes far beyond what can be sensibly described in a review. [This] work may be too large to digest as a text in these days of the decline of academic institutions "as Gal-Or describes them", but that will be the loss of both the faculty and the students.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS "This is a great book, and an exciting book; readable, worth reading and enlightening." Sir Karl Popper, the Greatest Philosopher of Science Book referred to is Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy REFERENCE 10, Volumes I and II, 530 pages

"I do not know a better modern expression of science, philosophy and classical humanism than that of Gal-Or’s book." HaAretz "We are all Gal-Orians ! " Editor, Foundations of Physics "Gal-Or’s “beauty” has always been the object of science, which, he lyrically observes as “a most fundamental aesthetic frame of mind, a longing for the run-away horizons of truth and symmetry that we always try to reach.” Order Amidst Chaos, Enlightenment Aesthetics Recommended by Encyclopedia Britannica, "Nature, Philosophy of" "This is one of the most beautiful books that I have read." Outstanding Books List


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

"Tour de force. A magnificent and sustained piece of work! Gal-Or’s net is widely cast – it reaches as far as science policy and political philosophy." A. Cottrell, V. Chancellor, Cambridge University "Appeals to scientists of all disciplines who are prepared to open their minds. Shines a welcome light in some dark corners of science. Sir Karl Popper, in a Foreword, correctly describes it “a great book”. New Scientist Magazine

"Evokes a person heart !! Has generated a large number of responses from around the world, some declaring that it has turned them into “Gal-Orians”. Since the thought presented by this book is so rich, translators of our country should recommend this book with all their intellectual power." Chinese Academy of Sciences "A Master Piece. The well-known author bases his philosophy on a very sound knowledge of present-day scientific theories. " Indian Journal of Physics "The works of scientists like Gal-Or, Bohm, and (Noble Prize-Winner) Prigogine provide important resources. Prigogine's formalisms do not really tell us how irreversible change emerges from reversible [mathematics]. (in this Gal-Or is superior)." The Crisis of the Sciences “I have in the meantime studied your book, with great interest, and made pages of notes on it. I feel as if I had been on numerous walks and talks with you on the great questions, and know that would be great to go on with them! Who cannot be impressed by your love for the great men of all times and all countries, by your phrase “working back and forth between theory and fact”, by your belief that philosophy is too important to be left to the


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

philosophers, by your concern for where thought and language lie in the scheme of things – and by so much more! I continue to reflect, again and again, on your central thesis that expansion is the origin of all asymmetry in time. What an ingenious phrase is your, “smuggle irreversibility in without declaring the contraband”! I regard your book as seeking to accomplish two tasks – and being two books – at the very least One is the exposition of your central thesis, with clarity, and careful mustering of every argument pro and con that can lead to testable consequences. I don’t see how it is possible to do proper justice to a thesis of such importance by mixing it in with the other great task. That is to give students an appreciation of the unity of philosophy and modern physics. You do both tasks far better than I could hope to. I give you my personal thanks for putting the two books into a pacackage that I personally have found most thought-provoking.” Prof. John Wheeler, Inst. of Advanced Studies, Princeton University "Most astrophysicists, cosmologists and astronomers agree that the biblical account of cosmic evolution, in stressing `a beginning´ and the initial roles of `void,´ `light´ and a `structureless´ state, may be uncannily close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us" Professor Victor F. Weisskopf from MIT, quotes CPP, REF. 9 in Scientific American “Lecture one [in Volume I] affirms that the stress placed by Genesis on ‘beginning’ and the initial roles of ‘void’, ‘light’ and a ‘structure-less’ state, “may be uncannily close to the verified evidence with which modern science has already supplied us.” Christian Apologetics Journal


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The Catholic Church has recently confirmed that there is no contradiction between the Bible, astrophysics and modern cosmology. Cf. 2014 Pop Declaration. “One of the best books on the totality of the sciences & the universe. It was one of the favorite books of Sir Karl Popper. It looks at physics and the universe as a totality of the mathematical philosophical understanding. It also combines the physical concept of time with human psychological perception and brain understanding of languages.” Robin

Against Fooling oneself and others by Nobel Laureate Feynman: “The first principle is that you must not fool yourself – and you are the easiest person to fool. So you have to be very careful about that. After you’ve not fooled yourself, it’s easy not to fool other scientists. You just have to be honest in a conventional way.” “You should not fool the layman when you’re talking as a scientist."


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

PART I of Volume III

First Assertion: Our discovery of 2 EXPANSIONS of the UNIVERSE

Stellar-galactic winds dissipating in intergalactic expanding voids are asseted to (1) compact galaxies into observed "filaments" (Figure 1), (2) reverse early cosmic deceleration, (3) refute obsolete dictums.


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FIG. 1: We claim (PREFACE & Refs. 5 to 9) two proven simultaneous expansions of the universe, the second caused by stellar-galactic winds dissipating in all observed intergalactic voids -- a dissipation that causes compacting billions galaxies into observed SUPERCLUSTERS-FILAMENTS as recorded, reversing early gravity-induced cosmic expansion and refute obsolete dictums in cosmology, physics and philosophy.


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Four arrows depicted should be inserted into all these recorded dark voids to prove that opposing, rocket-type-winds compact galaxies from both opposing sides of each pair of voids, accelerate the expansion of each, and collectively

(1) compact galaxies into observed "filaments", (2) reverse early, gravity-induced cosmic deceleration, (3) refute obsolete dictums in cosmology, physics, philosophy.

ASSERTED DYNAMICS: Super-fast winds that are emitted from any opposite filament side thrust-compact each, like opposing jet engines or rockets. The net result is thrusting away all voids' "filaments borders", namely, accelerating extant, gravity-induced Einstein-Hubble decelerating expansion of the universe. 1.

2. 3.


MOST IMPORTANT IS NOT VOIDING DARK ENERGY CLAIMS. These claims would, by themselves, be consumed by the flame of history.





FIG. 2 defines the most important energy-densities gradients that keep allowing and maintaining stellar evolution by each nearby, local void-sink removes disposed energy from emitters, especially the stars, energy that must be disposed somewhere to irreversibly dispose it at the depths of this 2nd-expansion-generated largest collective energy sink in the universe.

WHEREFORE, without our proven 2nd simultaneous expansion, active emitters, heavy elements, supernovae, planets and life, ARE ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE.


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A due doubt may linger in: To what extent the Einstein-


Hubble verified earliest cosmic expansion allows and maintains what is claimed by our Einsteinian School of relativistic themodynamcs? 6.

The answer is simple. Only two expansions account for 2 main claims:

(a) afore-proven compacting only into filaments, (b) afore-proven reversing of early, gravity-induced, decelerating Einstein-Hubble expansion, reversing that cannot be reversed by known laws of physics. 7.

Neither 'dark-energy' nor any change to Einstein's gravity physics (general relativity) is needed within the context of this 2nd-expansion of the universe.


Localized black holes at the center of galaxies and elsewhere should be accounted for, but their effects do not change this multiple assertions and facts.

Supplemental Notes


xistence of super-fast, stellar-galactic winds that are becoming strongest

during the last 6 billion years, has been verified by astronomic observations. Such winds are flowing into each equally distributed intergalactic voids. They enter each from all directions. FIG. 1. Subject to momentum conservation, like opposing rockets in space, the superfast winds on both opposing sides of any filament or void border [FIG. 1] thrust-push-away both border-sharing-voids from each other, collectively providing extra expansion-thrusting-away against all other similarly expanding voids.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

This process is herein defined the second, simultaneous, accelerated expansion of the universe, which not only compacts galaxies into superclusters and filaments, but reverses earlier gravity-induced decelerated expansion of the universe. Most important: (1) These newly defined dynamics generate energy-densities gradients (Fig. 2) that keep maintaining all stellar evolution by removing disposed energy from emitters to 2nd-expansion-generated largest energy sink in the universe, without which, no heavy elements, supernovae, planets and life, are possible. (a) there is no transfer of energy from one expanding void to

another due to the uniform distribution of the intergalactic voids. (b) The ORIGIN of almost all dissipating stellar and galactic winds are essentially limited to the nearby LOCAL stars and galaxies that surround each void. (c) Only a minor fraction of the winds proceeds across the universe to reach our telescopes, allowing NASA recording of Fig. 1. (2) Various claims and dictums are also refuted by this newly defined world: (A) Wheeler-Feynman static-space-theory should be redefined for two simultaneous space expansions between emitters and absorbers, (B) Dark energy claims -- and associated attempts to change general relativity) -- should be replaced by the two proven simultaneous accelerated expansions of the universe, (C) Obsolete dictums should be identified.


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FIG. 2: SUPPLEMENTAL DEFINITIONS: "CLUSTER I" and II represent mid-term effect of the 2nd simultaneous expansion of the universe, namely, prior to being further compacted into superclusters and filaments (FIG. 1). "RADIATION ENERGY DENSITY" vs. "DISTANCE" defines "DIRECTION OF NET RADIATION FLOW" as "3rd COSMOLOGICAL ARROW", which generates

energy-density gradients that lead to the "2nd COSMOLOGICAL ARROW", that represents "EXPANDIND SPACE "1" inside Einstein-Hubble expansion. "SPACE "1" is thus the sole MASTER of various world phenomena. It is the MASTER ARROW OF TIME, THE MASTER OF TIME ASYMMTEIES and THE ROOT CAUSE OF OUR 2ND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS, THE SOLE ASYMMETRIC FUNDAMENTAL LAW IN THEORETICAL PHYSICS.


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Spatially connecting all intergalactic expanding voids SPACE-1 also constitutes the "largest, expanding, un-saturable, thermodynamic sink

of disposed energy of active emitters in the universe". Volume III is supplemental to Volume I Claims: 1. Some mathematical 'proofs' in physics are disproved, e.g.: 2. Deterministic physics and engineering may begin with symmetric partial differential equations. To agree with observations and be useful, asymmetry is fundamentally wrongly forced on them in presented or published 'proofs', that proceed only under imposed INITIAL CONDITIONS (for future time evolution), while rejecting FINAL CONDITIONS (for symmetric past time evolution). 3. Enforced results are often adopeted as final 'proofs' that conform with observations. Common example: Retarded solutions in electromagnetism that conform with observations, while wrongly hidding or rejecting ADVANCED SOLUTIONS (which do not conform with observations.). If known in advance, it tantamounts to SMUGGLING

what one tries to prove by not DECLARING THE CONTRABAND. It also applies to another fundamental domain in theoretical physics. 1.

Quantum-statistics/probabilities are symmetric for prediction AND retrodiction. Common self-fooling example: Predictions that conform with observations are accepted "proofs" or theorems or dictums or "laws" of physics, while hidding or rejcting retrodiction is "legal" because it does not conform with observations. Under any formulations such procedures do not constitute a 'proof', unless one fools himself and fellow scientists.

2. Endless known linguistic game-terminologies exist that are aimed to (wrongly) "justify" symmetry breaking. Beyond being fundamentally


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wrong, some prevent unification with deterministic Einsteinian Gravity Physics (general relativity). But this is not to be further treated herein.

CONCLUSIONS 1. Super-fast stellar-galactic winds flow from filaments to voids on both sides of each.

2. dissipate in each void. 3. Entering each void from all 3D directions, momentum conservation, which also control opposing rockets or jet engines, the super-fast winds arriving from all 3D borders of any void, locally on both sides of any sharedsupercluster filament [FIG. 1] they thrust-push all voids, as interconnect collection, away from each other, thereby, collectively, providing extra expansion-thrusting-away against all other similarly expanding voids.

4. This process is herein defined 2nd, simultaneous, accelerated expansion of the universe. 5. The net result is co-compacting most galaxies first, with gravity, into clusters next into superclusters and filaments that are thus locked and compacted between all voids, (FIG. 1).

6. The 2nd expansion is integrated with gravity-induced slowing down of Einstein-Hubble expansion. 7. gradually, by the collective action of Expanding-Voids/SPACE-1 (FIG. 2) reverses earlier, deceleration of the expansion of the universe, thereby refuting-voiding claims linking this 2nd expansion to the 1998 (affirmed 2016) accelerated expansion of the universe, namely, there is no need for any un-measurable dark energy claims to explain the same.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

PART II of Volume III


Why TIME had selected Einstein Person of the Century? On page 551 of his remakable book "EINSTEIN, His Life and Universe", Walter Isaacson concludes:

"He was a loner with an intimate bond to humanity, a rebel who was suffused with reverence. And thus it was that an imaginative, impertinent patent clerk became the mind reader of the creator of the cosmos, the locksmith of the mysteries of the atom and the universe." On page 215 Issaacson explains: "(During October-November 1915) Einstein was in the throes of one of the most concentrated frenzies of scientific creativity in history. He was working, he said, 'horrendously intensity'" (to complete and publish first


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his general relativity). "In the midst of this ordeal, he was also still dealing with the personal crisis within his family." "(Hilbert) was racing him to find the equations of general relativity." On page 214 Isaacson adds: "Every week, the fifty or so members of the Prussian Academy gathered in the grand hall of the Prussian State Library in the heart of Berlin to address each other." Since November 4 Einstein delivered there four lectures, the last one states:

"I had discovered the only law of gravitation." Days later Hilbert responded (page 219): "Cordial congratulations" But on November 20 he submitted for publication to the Gotingen science journal his manuscript "proclaiming his own version of the equations for general relativity." titled "The Foundations of Physics".


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Einstein completed and published his Gravity Physics, known as General Relativity, in November 1915, post checking if it correctly predicts published, irregular, motions of planet Mercury. He found total agreement with said astronomical observations, agreement that no other theory had accomplished before. That was the first obsevational veification of his gravity physics. About three years later, in 1918-1919, Einstein's gravity field equations were independently confirmed valid the second time for correctly and excactly predicting gravity-induced, bending of light passing near a large mass, in this first, British organized sun-eclipse-based test in Australia, later affirmed by various observations around the globe.


nstant world celebrations followed. But somehing else was at

store under the curse of numbers, which always retards science misleads some scientists and much of humanity.

1921: A talented Russian mathematician-cosmologists, professor Alexander Friedmann, proved that Einstein's Field Equations, when applied to the universe, Cannot make it stay stable, it must expand or contract. Organized religions around the world strongly protested that Einstein is profundly wrong. Expanding universe violates the "established and known fact" that earth is the center of the universe. According to experts, any observer, stationed on any galaxy, would report that all other galaxies are receding away from him, thus refuting the established truth that earth is the sole center of the entire universe.


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Einstein was indeed horified. Various hostile protests from around the globe have joined the Claim:





Horified Einstein knew that his equations are universally valid, that they shine truth on some dark corners of science. However, the terror of words, the hate, treats and brutal hostilty, some by professors, defeated him to force on his valid equations a simple number to stop the curse-of-numbers-terror. Immediately peace returned to earth, but not to bona fide science, not to the great Hubble, who, by observations, verified that the universe indeed expands. Thus, by fact, the big bang should be replaced by Einstein-Hubble genesis (or bang?). And the word genesis bridges to tradition. (PREFACE).

OUR 2nd CENTRAL THEME: Is science ruled by theory & fact or by peoples numbers, majority, protests, organizations, democracy & marketing? (Reminding United Nations General Assembly? No answer, or is it closely cursed by numbers?)


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2nd theme: Human Life vs. Verified Knowledge

Even though we all know that in end we cannot "get up" again, that a day will come when staying "upright" becomes and impossibility, we do not "break down". By the same knowledge that foresees our own "collapse" in our "journey from dust to dust", we "withstand that which will bring us down". In the end we know that it will "tear down" almost everything that we build; that ultimate "downfall", "decline" and "defeat" of every motile creature is the fate of individual life - a life that must terminate in "deaggregation" and Gravitational "precipitation".

Yet, we "stand up". Perhaps not all is "on the downgrade"? Thus, in the face of "gravitational collapse", we hope to preserve some "lasting structure", or "spiritually" get "up-and-away" from that "gravitating earth". Do these "upholds" lead people to adopt "spiritual", "idealistic" or "heavenly" ideologies, or "after-life" promising religions? To construct towers, minarets and sky-high cathedrals? To launch programs for the exploration of "outer" space? Or to preserve some "lasting" structure in the composition of music, the writing of books and poetry, and the construction of new theories? --- I do not know. What I know is “beauty� has always been the object of science, of its most fundamental aesthetic frame of mind, a longing for the run-away horizons of truth and symmetry that we always try to reach. What I deeply know, feel and teach


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Life is a most beautiful road, if one works hard, learns, creates and aspires beyond hilltops, resists side-road attractions. During our life-road from dust to dust, fresh inspiring vista await beyond hilltops -- beyond the horizon – outlooks that not only aspire our longing to discover what is ahead, but to look back, thanking ancestors, parents, doctors, teachers and one's origin and culture.

What else is contented?: Scientists are the deepest religious people on earth, -- closely associating the first words in the bible, about light, structureless dark voids and gravitating-structuring-separating the dark sky from all material bodes, vs. verified intergalactic dark voids gravity-induced separations form all material filaments in the universe, all generated by nonanthropomorphic creator and roughly conforming with what modern science has already provided us with.


inally language: What I know is that all texts, all religious and scientific

texts, are impossible without the Gravity-Law-Order-Structure-Meaning: For instance, try to comprehend gninaem. Next reverse it to read meaning.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

PART III of Volume III

Assertions A (Plato), B and C: Human Life vs. Science vs. The road to Gravitism?

Assertion A: Everything is connected with everything else, (plato).

Assertion B: Precise definitions and axioms may lead to unrepairable errors: Anything outside strictly errected axiomatic erected fence is a priori rejected and lost forever or may also block unification with Einsteinian deterministic Gravity Physics (general relativity), relativistic cosmology and the the induced philosophy GRAVITISM. This assertion first applies to the


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

highly respected "Standard Quantum Model", and there to "symmetry breaking" dictums.

Assertion C: Errorless definitions-axioms begin with 'the whole universe', because there is neither any outside fense around its curved-spacetimecontents, nor alternative to its verified observations of its intergalactic expanding dark cold voids and associated stellar-galactic super-fast winds, dynamics, time asymmetries, stellar evolution, irreversibly causing heavy elements construction, supernovae, orbiting around a star planets, life and history.

Contention 1: WHEREFORE, precise definitions or axioms only encage, arrest or block ideas by error-generating ‘fences’ that should a priori be identified, deleted, ignored and comitted to the flames of history, even if have already been awarded a Nobel Prize. For instance: 3. It is well known that deterministic physics and engineering resort to basic symmetric partial differential equations that are often been forced in presented or published 'proofs', to proceed only under imposed INITIAL CONDITIONS (for future evolution), while rejecting FINAL CONDITIONS (for symmetric past evolution). 4. Enforced results are often adopeted as final 'proofs' that conform with observations. Common example: Retarded solutions in electromagnetism that conform with observations, while wrongly hidding or rejecting ADVANCED SOLUTIONS (which do not conform with observations.). If known in advance, tantamount to SMUGGLING what one tries to prove by not DECLARING THE CONTRABAND. It also applies to another fundamental domain in theoretical physics. 5. Quantum-statistics/probabilities are symmetric for prediction AND retrodiction. Common self-fooling example: Predictions that conform with observations are accepted "proofs" or theorems or laws of physics, while


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

hidding or rejcting retrodiction because it does not conform with observations. Endless known linguistic terminologies exist that are aimed to bypass this "symmetry breaking". Beyond being fundamentally wrong, some may prevent unification with deterministic Einsteinian Gravity Physics (general relativity). But this is not to be further treated herein.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

PART IV of Volume III


herefrom academic decline originate? In devastated, empty Europe, post WW-II? Post the Einsteinian Era? [9]


ntil around the mid-Thirties of the previous century, Core Cultural-

Curriculum Courses (in Europe!) were made as ‘scientific’ as possible, and science propped up its foundations by turning to philosophy. This attitude was in part motivated by the desire to appropriate the sciences with the great ‘prestige’ of philosophers, and for the philosopher the fast-growing ‘status’ of science. Hence, European professors vied with one another in presenting science based on high philosophical grounds, and philosophy as a ‘science among sciences’, or even as the ‘sum of the other sciences’. A ‘PhD’ was then a bona fide Philosophy Doctor, a person of advanced core knowledge and eloquence outside his specialism. Western academia has since withdrawn from the game. Empty specialism has since gained the highest prestige; no longer do professors need borrow it from philosophy, nor to teach a bona fide CCCC. Indeed, contemporary professors today vie with one another in presenting fragmented lectures devoid of interconnected content, for they can no longer hope to achieve popularity by injecting updated core knowledge into what has gradually become an ever narrower, disciplinary professionalism.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

This turn of events has resulted in overvaluation of technical professionalism, empty academicism, absolutation of ever-narrower disciplines, and the common inclination to reject bona fide core knowledge from the class. A pity. For these trends only push the young into cynicism, nihilism and feelings of emptiness in education and society at large.

The current crisis in education is not

Assertion D1

subsiding. More than ever before it With hope of finding the grand demands answers, re-assessments, a outlook of a spacecraft, students revised philosophy and acts: How to enter our universities. Entering administer mutual interactions instead the temples of knowledge they of linear causality; structured complexity settle for that of an eagle, but instead of summation of events; what they find is that of a structured historical buildup of facts, specialist gopher. instead of summation of isolated events and narrow academic Departments. Assertion D2 Although most academic teaching and research must be distributed amongst various Schools and Departments of a university, there is an objective need to regenerate an old tradition that cannot be associated with any specialism, because the ideas with which it deals are common to all studies, or not involved in any. A

Assertion D3 Without a guiding-structuring-unifying methodology aimed at gaining an allembracing, interconnected knowledge that crosses frozen disciplines, any Core Curriculum Cultural Course [CCCC] is nothing but a pity encyclopedia displayed by a specialist nominated by “Organizers” as the “CCCCCoordinator” who remains helpless in teaching the alluring beauty of mathematics, physics, astronomy, history, the life sciences, and comparative religions, but fails to perceive their profound educational implications as a whole. 33

By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Modern skepticism is usually the negation of a core, interconnected, educational methodology. Not so with Einsteinian skepticism. Einstein advocated the removal of imposed borders between traditional disciplines and university departments and faculty; stating that knowledge is one; its division is human weakness. Assertion D4 Structuring an all-embracing Core-Outlook is a matter entailing far more ambiguity than the technicalities of the application of any disciplinary course and its “Academic Credit Regulations”. The Western crisis, today more than ever before, may be Literary intellectuals at one pole – at the other scientists, repaired by resorting to Einsteinian vision, in highand as the most representative, the physical scientists. schools and constantly upgraded and updated for Between the two a gulf of mutual undergraduate and graduate incomprehension – schools. Such a methodology sometimes (particularly among the young) leads to interconnected hostility and dislike, but most of all lack of fertilization between the most understanding. promising kernels of fundamental knowledge, and, C. P. Snow, The Two Cultures thus, to the potential to Cambridge University Press rejuvenate the “system”. Assertion D5 Students are often discouraged by their professors and mentors from asking fundamental, interdisciplinary questions in class, as a result of which inconsistent, or outright incorrect premises, are given a better chance of perpetuating themselves.


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The Temples of Knowledge Yesterday, Today


iterary intellectuals, the people of the arts, and most educators, are

currently ignorant of modern advances in the ‘exact sciences’, of their mathematical formulations, experimental, observational and verification methods. They are likely to resort to a priori or superficial answers to complex problems whose detailed implications are beyond them. Similarly, faculty, ‘experts’ and professionals in the “exact sciences”, via their past, evernarrowing, disciplinary education, are currently ignorant of the wide-span knowledge, literature, arts and history that are needed to share their thinking and aspirations with other thinking persons. The resulting gap can hardly be bridged despite the fact that our globe is currently an interconnected village, internationally linked by what might be expected to bridge old gaps between traditional cultures, languages, religions, political systems and a unified educational philosophy of humanity. Yet, the facts are that deep divisions keep deepening and deserts of narrow specialism keep spreading more than ever before.

Empty "Thinkers" What was a two-semester halflife of a textbook is today one day or less. Sources of studies are millions of online blogs with uneven quality and little or no


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

reliable references. A-million-a-day posts confuse the young; generating one-line thinkers; a tsunami of Tower-of-Babel Kalthure; a kalthure where scholars secure same weight as one-line thinkers; Eulogies are heard over the smoking ruins of the classical temples of knowledge – new layers of ruins on top of the destroyed Academy-Library of Alexandria. [Ref. 4 & Lecture 6].


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

PART V of Volume III


imitations of Theories and


There may be something provisional about all current verified scientific theories

They must be re-confirmed by fresh verified information from any sub-field of science, hence, are subject to constant revision and even replacement; -- in this, each succeeding generation takes a measurable step beyond the position of its predecessors.


losely related to the unrestricted content of modern science is its

unrestricted questioning of all earlier convictions in light of verifiable evidence that refutes extant axioms, definitions, assertions, outlooks and theories. Thus, every item of carefully recorded experimental or observational information is a proper object for analysis. A drive towards novelty and discovery impels inquiry to explore all corners of the universe. These tenets are the central pillars of Gravitism. But there is more to it. The outlook includes constant re-assessments of the theory -- of any theory -- and analysis of the errors involved as one updates and improves it.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Tarski's Indefinability Theorem


ccording to this theorem no sufficiently powerful language is strongly-

semantically-self-representational. For instance, any arithmetical truth cannot be defined by arithmetics. According to Smullyan [42], Tarski's Indefinability Theorem is somewhat superior to the famous Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems, which are more related to mathematics and less to philosophical, scientific, and linguistic issues. Tarski's theorem is not directly about mathematics but about the inherent limitation of any formal language that is strongly-semantically-self-representational when it contains predicates and function symbols defining the semantic concepts specific to that language.

Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem


ödel [34-43] has demonstrated that conventional mathematics, which we tend

to consider as our supremely logical and consistent system, involves paradoxical, self-referential statements about itself, i.e., a conventional mathematical system, say, the mathematics of flat space in the Euclidian geometry -- an ‘absolute stage’ upon which Newtonian gravity and physics stands, can be incomplete because one has not discovered all its necessary axioms. In other words, no matter how many physico-mathematical issues theoretical physicists solve, there always will be other issues that cannot be solved by any known laws of physics; and since these laws constitute a finite set of rules, and are based on mathematics, Gödel's theorem restricts them.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Even in computer science one cannot create a complete and consistent finite list of axioms, or an infinite list. Each time one adds a statement as an axiom; there are other correct statements that cannot be proved, even with the new axiom. Moreover, if the system can prove that it is consistent, it is not. As might have been expected, this idea has been much debated by mathematical philosophers:

v How can a theory be both correct and unprovable? v Is mathematics a loop of our mind? v Is the mind a self referential loop? Gödel's first incompleteness theorem shows that any system that allows one to define the natural numbers is necessarily incomplete: it contains statements that are neither provable correct, nor provably false. Some scholars therefore argue that this refutes the logicism of Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell, who had aimed to reduce/define the natural numbers in terms of logic.

Not all axiom systems satisfy these hypotheses, even when these systems have models that include natural numbers as a subset. For example, there are axiomatizations of ‘flat’ space that do not meet the hypotheses of Gödel's theorems. Another limitation applies only to systems that are used as their own proof systems. Gödel's theorem has another interpretation in the language of computer science. Theorems are computably enumerable: one can write a computer program that will eventually generate any valid proof. One can then ask if it has the stronger property of being recursive: v Can one write a computer program to definitively determine if a statement is true or false? Gödel's theorem says that you cannot. His theorems, however, are confined to sufficiently strong axiomatic systems, i.e., that a theory contains enough arithmetic to carry out the proof of the incompleteness theorem.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Some scholars claim that Gödel's incompleteness theorems have provided a deadly blow to David Hilbert’s program towards a universal mathematical formalism. Nevertheless, the essence of these issues is much more complicated, as indicated below.

Undecidable Statements: A statement is neither provable nor refutable. Hence, some scholars resort to the concept "independent". However, that concept is also ambiguous.

Meta-Language: A sufficiently developed language cannot represent its own semantics. Any meta-language includes primitive notions, axioms, and rules absent from an object language. Theorems provable in a meta-language are not provable in the object language.


Some of the aforementioned theorems may presuppose that

mathematical "truth" and "falsehood" are well-defined in an absolute sense, rather than relative. If an axiomatic system can be proven to be consistent and complete from within itself, then it is inconsistent.

Minds and Machines: Gödel's incompleteness theorems may also reflect on human intelligence. While Gödel's theorems cannot be applied to humans, since they make mistakes and are, therefore, inconsistent, it may be applied to the domain of science.

Sets of expressions are considered as coded as sets of numbers. For various syntactic properties (such as a formula, a sentence, etc.), these sets are computable. And any computable set of numbers can be defined by some arithmetic formula. There are various additional theorems and sub-theorems 34-49. I do not intend to expand on them in these pages, for these pages are mainly written for the general reader, without resorting to any mathematics.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

We therefore move next to elaborate on some more practical domains in the mined fields of verifiable scientific theories and proofs.

“Pure Mathematics”

is human attempt to stay aloof and beyond

emotions, traditions and ambitions. It may protect one from making mistakes, prior to and aft writing down any mathematical equation.


ow mathematics -- combined with verifiable observations -- help protect the

human mind from falling into unverifiable traditional dictums of ‘intuitively’ generating mistakes? This may be best demonstrated by the most dramatic event in the history of science; when Einstein lost trust in the most verified gravity field equations of general relativity3.3, the most accepted theory of the universe, which harbors no mistake. To correct sociallly accused ‘mistake’, he had to force on this reality, ‘correction number’, wrongly termed a "cosmological constant". Luckily his tensorial gravity field equations were flawless, despite the fact that a cult has evolved to demand adding this factor to fit its ulterior needs to operate under some set of philosophical prejudices. Most important, the failure to acknowledge this is not only self-delusion, but a failure to attend to the philosophical base of physics, a failure that leads to empty scientism.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Space-Time vs. Symmetry-Asymmetry


he essence and fundamental meaning of curved space-time, symmetry-

asymmetry, statistics and probabilities are understood only by a portion of scientists. A much smaller portion, or, in fact, a splendid minority, maintains that probabilities, statistics and quantum postulates provide them with no ‘free will’. [Volume I].

Differential Equations vs. Observations


time-symmetry, reversibility and the symmetrical laws of physics serve us as

key tools to better understand nature, despite the limitations mentioned above. And it is only by combining (conceptual, reversible, analytic) time-symmetry with (factual, aggregated, observational) time-asymmetry, or by combining reversible equations with a priori known, factual, initial and boundary conditions, that one may, mathematically, arrive at a reliable world outlook in agreement with observations/experimentations. While symbols and analytical concepts may be symmetric, words and sentences (in order, syntax, phoneme, form, sound modulation or other modes), or ‘useful’ physico-mathematical equations, are basically asymmetric. Mathematics, gravitation, symmetry-asymmetry, aggregation, time and meaningful sentences are coupled. While some minor reservations are justifiable, there is an overwhelming "word of evidence", derived from physics, the languages and the studies of linguistics, cybernetics, information and mathematics that fortifies this contention.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

A theory may be a “set of statements”, some of which are taken as valid without proof (axioms), and others, the theorems, are taken as valid because they are implied by the axioms. A complete and consistent set of axioms for all mathematics is impossible. "Provable by a theory" means "derivable from the axioms and primitive notions of the theory, using logic.”

The Popperian Falsification Principle Sir Karl Popper, has introduced the Falsification Principle about the ability of mankind to establish what is science and what is nonscience, in addition to what might be ‘true’ within the domain of a given theory, or a set of ‘facts’, axioms or definitions. [Lecture 4]

Applied mathematics is often used as unverifiable covers to advance subjectivistic claims, ‘proofs’ and ‘theories’. Lectures 3 and 4, and this one, illustrate how -- by a priori selecting only the time-asymmetric mathematics, or time-asymmetric mathematical solution that fits with their desired ‘proof’ – scientists easily fool themselves, and others. Applied mathematics is the key tool of the ‘exact sciences’. It constitutes a special kind of 'intelligent thinking’ that is integrated with its ‘universal grammar' -- a sort of critical thinking which has been partially developed to safeguard our minds from prejudices and inconsistencies. Yet, consistency, by itself, is a two-sided issue.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

‘Pure mathematics’ is often developed for its own sake, without a priori harboring intentional applications, although they may be ‘un-covered’

According to Einstein, when we predict the behavior of a specific or confined set of natural phenomena, we usually mean that we have found a ‘constructive theory’ covering this set. When we find that other sets of phenomena are incompatible with that theory, we tend to either generalize or modify it, or failing that, seek an alternative one.

To this ‘constructive’ category Einstein opposes the so-called “theories of principles” (exemplified, according to Einstein, by thermodynamics and the general theory of relativity), whose point of departure and foundation are not hypothetical constituent, but empirically observed general properties from which mathematical formulae are deduced so as to apply to every case of observation which presents itself. Thus, according to Einstein, the merit of “constructive theories” lies in their comprehensiveness, adaptability, and clarity for a given set of phenomena, while that of the “theories of principles” -- in their logical ‘perfection’ and universality and in the vast observational spectrum of their formulation at any scale and time. Yet, Einstein did not trust some semi-hidden aspects of his own general theory of relativity2.5. Two such events are described next: The failure of statistical mechanics (both classical and quantum) to deduce and explain the origin of irreversibility, time-asymmetries, cosmic and local structuring, generation of order and what is called “entropy growth” -- as well as its philosophical and applicative limitations and lack of large-scale universality -- has been explained in footnotes 2.5, 3.4 and 3.5 as well as in Volume I. (See Table of Contents,). Einstein had not suspected that his general theory of relativity already incorporates another ‘theory of principle’: Thermodynamics, especially the socalled Second Law of Thermodynamic. Namely, the foundations of


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

thermodynamics should NOT be a separate, stand-alone, theory of science; it should NOT be fragmented from the rest of physics. It constitutes an integral part of gravity-induced, interconnected, unified physico-philosophical knowledge.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

PART VI of Volume III

DO armies of gate guards defile our temple of knowledge? NON-APPEALABLE, COMPUTER DICTUMS BY ARMIES OF NON-SCIENTISTS, INDUCE NEW SCIENCE, PARTLY CORRUPTED? Einstein's general relativity and Hilbert spaces may have been lost to humanity by today's red tape that defiles our temple of theoretical physics? WHAT kind of science is so smuggled into present and future knowledge?


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

SIX OPEN QUESTIONS: (1) Gate-Guards'-computers of important publications order authors to provide verified phone-fax-email of preferred reviewers for the clerks' computers to send authors' submitted manuscripts to this list of authors' recommended reviewers to decide on their merits: Is this procedure free from corruption? (2) Are so-pre-arranged reviewers' opinions next presented to an editor to sign to send manuscripts to printers like in highly efficient mass production of (defected?) cars and publications at a minimum cost? (3) Do the so-ordered authors's list of reviewers often include (hidden?) cosupporting friends, COMPANIES, GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, "CENTER-FOR ...", non-scientific organizations, politicians, political parties, inviting authorities, other individuals, or even high-profile or NOBEL-PRIZE impostors [2]? (4) Are undisclosed CLERKS' LIST OF PAST RECOGNIZED "CLOSE CIRCLES OF REVIEWING TRUSTED SCIENTISTS", OR EDITORS, are also so involved within each scientific domain? (5) Would Einstein's highly verified and central to science general relativity (gravity physics, theoretical physics, string theories, cosmology, astronomy, astrophysics, space dynamics, thermodynamics and philosophy of science [3]) and Hilbert spaces be lost to humanity by (a) just being subjected to such a red-tape procedure? (procedure not clear how mandated or how taken by clerks or lazy, careless editors) -- or (b) lost to humanity by such AuthorClerks-Reviewers-corruption practice? (CF. a well-known simulation by submitting Einstein's general relativity to such a review, which was rejected. [Einsten's name was replaced by smeone else]). (6) Finally, what kind, quality and reliability of science has so been smuggled recently into science? and, most important, would armies of non-scientificclerks so-defile the future temples of knowledge? So-rule science and all associated fields of humanity?


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

References for this part a. Anne Waldron, Peggy Judd and Valerie Miller, "Physical Review Style and Notation Guide", published on March 8, 2012, 26 pages of highly elborated detailed instructions without which the submitted work is saved but not submitted in addition to a priori common clerks's instructions to authors to (i) provide phone-fax-email-contacts of preferred reviewers of their work for the clerks' computers to contact and deliver the manuscript for reviewbefore presenting to an editor, (ii) author must in advance select one of 10+ specific journals. B. Benjamin Gal-Or, "How Prigonine Fooled the NOBEL PRIZE Committees" ISSUU, December 25, 2017; c. REF. 9; Benjamin Gal-Or, "Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy", Springer Verlag, 1981, 1987 to present editions. Cf. GOOGLE Benjamin Gal-Or.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

PART VII of Volume III


We NEED be more careful in defining freedom, equality, discrimination, and justice because since birth we are in fact 'life-time-arrested' by

gender, skin, name, organized religion, citizenship and assigned local language, education, duties to country, regime, organized religion. We are also slaves of anticipated ordeals with red-tape dictated by the gate guardians that range from health agencies to wedding and divorce regulations in our one-time journay from dust to dust that often end in a discriminating cemetery. So, a degree of humilty is at the door of truth.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Beyong being arrested by gravitation, some try and gain partial freedom by migration, -- or by international education and often by replacing a locally restricting culturekulthure-regime, or the domains of arid zones, with greener ones. Under ever growing global migrations, transportation systems and precariously inflicted "defacto-education'" enforced uncontrolled by at least 10 thousand selfappointed, often fooling themselves and the laymen, various traditional degrees of creativity, ethics and honesty in collective life rapidly change. Well, for the sake of bona fide science and the noble duty to maintain individual and community ethics of scientists at respectable universities, agancies, services and companies around the globe, a genetle but well defined warning is presented next.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved


How the "Doctor of The Church", St. Cyril, resorted to Moses' terror and induced thousand years

Retarded Science

During a 2007 invited lecture on the cosmological world in which we live, delivered at the Graduate School of a university in SouthEast Asia, I indicated the key historical facts that had preceded Einstein's 1915 Gravity Physics (General Relativity).

At lecture end, a distinguished professor of that Graduate School, resorted to the microphone and facing her graduate students and faculty members, declared: “We have only one sun in the world. In contradiction with this established fact, you claim that it is expanding during the last billion years. But it is not. It is all a mistake!. Read the Bible. We cannot endorse mistakes in our university� Trying to reply, she interrupted me, adding: Astronomy is star-working practice that borders with paganism. We can neither change our curriculum, nor help you find here support for your star-working paganism. Amazed, I asked:


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Have you heard about the most notable woman in early astronomy and science? About Hypatia? About the greatest clash between science and organized religion 1600 years ago? In response she abruptly adjourned the lecture, uttering two words: No! Never!



he daughter of Theon [335-405], Hypatia, is a noted

astronomer, mathematician, educator and philosopher. She became the head of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s-greatest academy of science in her time, in Alexandria, Egypt.


uring this historical period Alexandria was the

most important center of commerce, culture, science and philosophy in the entire world.


ome had already been sacked earlier by the barbarians.

All its rich libraries and records of early science, medicine and philosophy were totally destroyed and lost for ever. Only the Academy-Library in Alexandria has remained the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s top educational center of science, medicine, astronomy, mathamatics and philosophy.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved


uring Hypatia's lifetime, the Roman Empire was split

into two, while Roman Law and political power have been challenged by the rising Christian organized power.


t the very center of this conflict, Hypatia is freely leading

top-world scientific studies, while practicing an unprecedented lifestyle of feminine freedom, equality, and independence.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

In addition, her unmatched intellectual gifts attracted a large number of students from all over the two divided Roman Empires.


he had many suitors but rejected all offers of marriage,

preferring to live independently of any man, in men's world in which women were considered their property, harboring almost no civil rights and being denied higher education.


ome reliable ancient documents have survived concerning

the tragic events that took place there between 412 to 415:

In 412 Cyril became the Christian Patriarch of Alexandria. The Roman governor of Alexandria at that time was Orestes. Cyril and Orestes became bitter enemies. Hypatia was a friend of Orestes. This fact, together with prejudice against her philosophical, astronomical, mathematical and free-spirited lifestyle, led to Hypatia becoming the focal point of envy on Cyrilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s part.


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She dared to defy both church and state interference in science and philosophy; to preserve the rights of academic freedom and the conviction that all individuals have the right to defend their beliefs and share science and its fact-finding activities with all. In great personal danger, she continued to teach and publish, until, in the year 415, she was set upon by a fanatical mob of Cyril's parishioners. They dragged her from her chariot, tore off her dress, and armed with sharp seashells, flayed her flesh from her bones, dragged her through the streets to the newly Christianized Caesareum church. Then she was burned and her work banned and destroyed. In great panic the faculty run away for their life.




Outcome: The worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s top Academy- Library at that time was destroyed; its exclusive and unique worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s knowledge in mathematics, astronomy, medicine and philosophy was forever lost to humanity, while Cyril was crowned a Saint


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved


ith Hypatia and the

unique world center gone, the ‘Dark Ages’ have lingered in, blocking the progress of science, medicine and philosophy. It lasted about a thousand year as the church policy and practice.

Eventually, it was only the tragic outcomes of brave-wise persons like Bruno, Copernicus and Galileo that have gradually marked the end of this darkest period in education, freedom and evolving knowledge of our world. But the remnant educational conclusions remain valid and highly instructive beyond the end of the ‘dark ages’:


an one imagine where we would be today without these

1000 year of delay in science, medicine, philosophy and the freedom of thought and practice?


ould knowledge today be at much higher levels if that

brutal murder of a most talented scientist-philosopher and the 1000-year forced retardation of knowledge that have followed, would have been avoided?

Would, say, cancer, stroke, heart attack and other diseases be well-cured today? There is no answer.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved


n bringing this sad chapter of humanity to a close, we

mention that Hypatia had followed Plotinus, who maintains that there is an ultimate reality that is beyond the reach of thought, or language, like shadows of ‘real’ mountains and trees, as seen by one staying in a cave. These ideas go back to Plato, to Socrates and to earlier Greek philosophers, who, inter alia, have maintained that the object of life is to try to live and act as close as possible to reality-in- itself, to ‘things-inthemselves’, which, however, may never be precisely described, formulated and comprehended.


arious documents [12] have been uncovered about Hypatia.

They describe verifiable historical facts, not popular stories and anecdotes as many wrongly assume or, in vain, intend to distort, or discredit the issue in public and in


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

private circles. Her own work was lost after her defamation by the Church. Only a few titles and references to her contributions survived, some of them, ironically, in the Vatican.

Memorial The Library of Alexandria in a Modern Design. Alexandria, Egypt.

In Mathematics: Hypatia and her father Theon had produced a new version of Euclid's Mathematical Elements; - elements which have become the basis for later editions of Euclidian mathematics. The Greek-Theon-Hypatia methods of operating with sexadecimal fractions and the extraction of the square root of a non-number should also be noted. Hypatia’s contributions to mathematics are currently undergoing academic investigations and evaluations, for instance, those conducted by the Departments of Mathematics in Monash University in Australia and in St. Andrews University in Scotland, amongst others. In Astronomy: Hypatia and her father, professor Theon, expanded the works of the great astronomer Ptolemy; Almagest and Handy th Tables. [E.g., a 9 century Vatican manuscript exists, which is based on Theon-Hypatia's text used in the year 463 in Apamea in Syria.] Hypatia had contributed to the early knowledge of Arithmetica and to Apollonius's Conics vis-à- vis Ptolemy's astronomical works. In Medicine: Among Hypatia’s admirers was Synesius of Cyrene, later to become the Bishop of Ptolemaist. Some of the letters that Synesius wrote to Hypatia have survived. They testify that he was filled with great respect to Hypatia's knowledge when he asked her advice for the construction of an astrolabe and a hydroscope.


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

In Education: Hypatia taught updated philosophical ideas with a greater scientific emphasis than earlier followers of NeoPlatonism.

She was also described as a charismatic teacher. Her eloquence and authority had reached global influence, so much so that some Christians had considered themselves being threatened by her very existence, teaching and influence. She was murdered by Church members who felt threatened by her scholarship, learning, and depth of scientific knowledge. Nitrian monks; a sect of Christians who were supporters of Cyril, were instrumental in her murder. Her scientific research and teaching was banned from all countries ruled by Christianity. In Philosophy: Hypatiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s philosophical ideas discouraged mysticism while encouraging logical and mathematical studies. In Todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s University Campus Style: The influence of the Academy-Library of Alexandria model is seen today in the conceptual layout of many university campuses. According to the earliest sources of information [12], the library was initially organized by a student of Aristotle under the reign of Ptolemy Soter (367-283). Built in the style of Aristotle's Lyceum, adjacent to and in service of the Musaeum (a Greek Temple or "House of Muses", hence the term "museum"), the academy-library comprised gardens, a room for shared dining, a reading


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

room, lecture halls and meeting rooms.

Without the 1000-year of forced retardation of

science, Where we would have been in



ender therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesarsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;;

and unto God the things that are Godâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. Matt. 22:21


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

PART IX of Volume III

The reason why men enter into society is the preservation of their property. John Locke Gravity is the most fundamental integrator of all studies. Lectures 1 to 4 in CPP (Ref. 9) demonstrate this fact within the studies of physics, astrophysics, astronomy, cosmology and philosophy, while Lecture 5 extends it to the origin of the sun, earth, life, hominids, writing and civilization.


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We next extend it to gravity- induced sociology and the philosophy of natural selection: The fight for propertydomains-resources, the socio-rules of time-grammar, gravityinduced territorial wars, city and village structures, transportation systems, aspirations, religions, theology and the arts.

‘Gravity-Induced ‘Natural Selection’ Gravity-induced changes develop territoriality in a given spatial region or in a given assembly of individuals, especially when key resources are not sufficiently abundant and stable through long periods of historical times. We observe this phenomenon in both the animal and human domains of socio- biology. When a limited terrestrial space is divided into lots in a community, it carries economic and social “standing”, or "lebensraums", involving "well-defined territories" and "Gravity-induced Natural Selection"; from animals' mating systems to animals' monopolies on water resources; from natural food administration to the control of key strategic ridges; from controlling fossil fuel resources to disputes over territories.

Assertion 1 One species, or one sex, or one race, may control a larger quantity of resources, say, scarce water ponds, than the other, until a small percentage of the population monopolizes key resources. Gravity-induced hills and mountains control castle and village structures and especially tall structures may become worship temples of the super- natural.


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RECAP: Domain-Property and Envy drive competition, company ads, venture capital, TV and academic rating, political candidates, religious rivalry and key human traits, sometimes stronger than death. As history testifies, gravity-induced territoriality is often developed into nationality, imperialism and territorial conquest wars. Many aspects of animals’ social organization and evolution

can be predicted on the basis of gravity-induced environmental variables. Since biogeochemical evolution causes key natural resources to be distributed non-uniformly in the spatial and temporal coordinates of the biosphere, resource monopolization develops in all levels of sociobiological systems.

Assertion 2 RECAP from previous Lectures: The first local "aggregates" of matter in the solar system have already contained gas, supernovae debris, dust, rocks. It was gravity that stratified these compounds in ‘horizontal’ layers according to their “specific gravity”, a term to used below in modified “natural selection”.


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The atmosphere and geological strata are ordered-selected by specific gravity of their chemical components. It was gravity that put the early components of living systems at one and the same strata for life to begin. Gravity is therefore the universal builder of structures, including all chemistry in the cores of gravitationally pressed-heated stars [Fusion in Lecture 1, CPP], geological strata, earth morphology the entire evolution of life, village/city structures, transportation systems, linguistic hierarchy, recorded symbols, letters, grammar vs. time, structure of sentences, pages, books.

Gravity Selection is in fact “Natural selection”. The origin of temporal behavior in animals can be traced out to gravityinduced forces. Even “innate patterns" are wrongly dissociated from simple movements in the field of gravitation, i.e., as "up-ward-downward" balancing of the biological body vis-à-vis the gravity pointers in each biological cell. Gravity periodicities around the sun emerge as prime sources of order via time and the arrow of time [Lecture 1].

Assertion 3 Gravity-Induced Orientation and Order Using gravity pointers we say ‘up’, ‘down’, ‘left’, ‘right’ and generate symbols, codes, signs, numbers and letters for a later use and for other to read. Animals are also 'conscious' of the commonly-shared "up-


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down" surroundings, and about "weight" and acceleration. Plants also harbor innate sensors that guide them in which direction to grow even on a mountain slope.

Additional examples range from gyroscope inertial changes, balancing machines, heading indicators and gravity-induced changes involving the fluid in the vertebrate inner ear to a crystallizing suspension of organic spheres in water.

Gravity-induced Behavior





The sensing devices which plants and animals use for "gravity perception" ("gravity receptors", "g-perception", "bio-accelerometers", "gravity-induced biological clocks",etc.) are not yet well understood, even though a voluminous literature has been published on this subject. But what we already know justifies the central role we claim gravity plays in living systems and society. Plants â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;knowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to grow vertically upward when, undisturbed,


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they start growing in total darkness as seeds inserted deep into the ground; -- even when they grow on a steep mountain slope. As most high-growing trees they align their growth under the control of the gravity vector.

Assertion 4 If a growing higher plant is displaced with respect to the "upright" position, some tens of minutes later it will adapt its growth in such a way as to restore its original orientation in coincidence with the gravity vector. (If it is displaced only briefly and then restored to its original orientation well before the growth response can set in, it still responds to that displacement.) Gravity-induced orientation-adaptation of an organism may occur when an organism orients itself by a gravity-induced gradient of density differences or hydrostatic pressure. Small organisms (including all bacteria) may have no means for sensing gravity, but they are affected by it. Animals low on the evolutionary scale characteristically exhibit innate patterns that depend little on learning, and have a lesser adaptability to changes in the environment. Consequently, their dependence on heredity-geophysicalgravitational origins is ‘high’ in proportion to animals that are ‘high’ on the evolutionary scale. While the latter show some signs of innate patterns, they harbor a greater capacity to produce a much more flexible mechanism to respond to a variety of other external changes that stimulate them. The evolutionary origin of the so-called "innate ideas" may, therefore, be external rather than internal. Even the computer page is ordered by up, bottom, left, right margins and footnotes. And it takes time to read them and to


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comprehend them; the time that always advances from past to future; the time that we term Linguistic Arrow of Time. Similarly, gravity-induced ordering of shelves, files, documents and books in a library introduces order into our life.

Assertion 5 Gravity- Chained Law, Seconds, Minutes, Days, Years Whole civilizations religions constructed on gravity-induced orientability, concepts, spirituality, art, music, home structure, wells, canals, trade roads, agriculture, and even law enforcement by hanging. Such gravity-induced cultural phenomena may proceed beyond grammar and social order into the spiritual and hierarchical cultures, and have been domains: High priest, low deck, high commissioner, and highness, heaven, lofty, go to the bottom of the subject, etc. [see below].

7.5 Biological Clocks The origin of temporal behavior in animals can be traced back in time and out to external physical influences. Gravity and geophysical periodicities thus emerge as prime sources of order and information in all non-living and living systems. Animals low on the evolutionary scale depend little on learning, and have a lesser adaptability to changes in the environment. Consequently, their dependence on hereditygeophysical-gravitational origins is high in proportion to animals high on the evolutionary scale.

Vertigo, Loss of Coordination-Balancing & Gravity Chains


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Biological structures in the inner ear include semicircular canals and a fluid that moves by gravity force, and activates a system that transmits linear and rotational motions vis-à-vis the gravity vector to the vestibular nerve, which carries these signals through the brainstem to our brain cerebellum, which, in turn, uses them to control our balancing, orientation, coordination and movement. The vestibular system in our ears comprises two semicircular ‘canals’, which are used to indicate our rotational movements, and otoliths, which indicate linear translations. Vertigo is a loss of coordination, balancing and orientation vis-à-vis space and the gravity-induced horizon. The vestibular system sends signals primarily to the neural structures that control our eye movements, and to the Cerebellum-muscles system that keeps us upright and helps maintain clear vision-orientation vs. the gravity vector.

Biological Cells, Reproduction, Immunity System & Gravity Gravity causes changes in cell division, metabolism and the immunity system. Reproduction is also impaired and the immune cells cannot differentiate into mature cells in low or zero gravity conditions attainable in space craft. The size of a biological cell depends on the local gravity vector – its size increases in larger local gravitational fieldforce values. Bone cells must attach themselves to something and will die if they cannot. Without the gravity force- field they float around and perish. When animals evolve on land, outside the oceans, they develop stronger skeletons to cope


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with larger gravity forces vis-Ă - vis the reduced one due to buoyancy in the waters. Earlier life forms in the oceans were smaller and had a jellyfish-like configuration. Thus, without strong skeletons, land animals cannot evolve.

Animals and Gravity-Induced Effects Gravimorphism, gravitropism and tropism are directional movements of a plant with respect to a directional stimulus. One such tropism is gravimorphism -- the growth or movement of a plant with respect to gravity. Plant roots grow in the direction of gravity while shoots and stems grow against it.

RECAP: Gravity generates structures and controls all geological layers and global phenomena ranging from mountain crests, gravity-induced tectonic folds, valleys, beaches, oceans and lagoons, to springs, wells, swamps, glaciers and rivers, and the bio-systems connected with them. Without gravity-induced orientation-order and grammar we are lost in any given written language. Gravity-induced grammar prevents us from vertical reversals. Similarly, horizontal reversals prevent us, say, from reversals of W to M. There are more complicated gravity-induced grammar rules. They range from preventing reversal of past into future, and vice versa, to use gravity-induced structures as reference: A mountain crest, valley, beach line, river bed, sky, earth, ocean, etc. [Appendices]. Gravity-sensing cells function as detectors of the direction of gravity. The fluid-particles systems inside cells initiate inner convective currents that cease under zero gravity. Thus, the absence of gravity affects the


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contacts of cells via their membrane potential and their cytoskeletons

Gravity-Induced Village and City Structures Gravity generates structures and controls all geological layers and global phenomena ranging from mountain crests, tectonic folds, geological uplifts, valleys, village and city structures, transportation systems, oceans and lagoons, to springs, wells, swamps, glaciers and rivers, as well as the ecological-systems connected with them.


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Gravity and Global Warming Gravity and Health ;

The evolution and everyday functioning of our bones, legs, hips, joints, cartilages, ligaments, femurs, tibia, pelvis and muscles, has been "in response" to the force and direction of gravity. Gravity plays a key factor in hygiene and in heart failure associated with swollen legs, in flooded lungs, walking,


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sleeping needs, etc. Nevertheless, the cardinal role gravity plays in the treatment of gravity-induced disorders in biological systems, human perception, health and longevity, has been largely overlooked by health providers and researchers, partly because the key role of gravity as the universal generator of all socio-gravitydynamics, has not yet been well understood and investigated.


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PART X of Volume III

Fooling Nobel-Prize Committee Members? "The works of scientists like Gal-Or, Bohm, and (Noble Prize-Winner) Prigogine provide important resources. Prigogine's formalisms do not really tell us how irreversible change emerges from reversible [mathematics]. (in this Gal-Or is superior)." The Crisis of the Sciences As chair of the 1969 International Conference on Classical and Relativistic Thermodynamics, Refrences, I invited Prigoigine to preset his much published and globally lectured thermodynamic theory about what he claimed to be the universal origin of irreversibility in nature â&#x20AC;&#x201C; namely, on the origin of the 2nd law of thermodynamics,, in his FORMULATIONS I discovered a fundamentaL MISTAKE THAT HE IS Intentionally HIDING. Thus we had uneasy talk there about the validity of his worldwide acclaimed, and I prevened him to present a misleading theory and formulation there. That issue was raised again in 1974 at the State University of New York in Buffalo, post his invited lecture there. While Prigogine did not object my following his proposed dictums, he has not correctd the erorrs. These are: v

Conservation of symmetry -- If one starts a theory with symmetric mathematics it can never be changed to a asymmetrical results, unless one smuggles-in the results without declaring the contraband. In fact, without going into mathamitacl details, if one claims that by so breaking symmetry he discovered a great proof of science, this ver fact is a proof that the proof is not a proof, to say the least


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Same with asymmtery.

v Prediction is also symmetric with retrodiction. If one a priori selects only prediction one fools himeself that a proof was made. If one seels his proof to fellow scientists, the proof does not even rise to the level of being scientifically wrong.

v Initial conditions are also symmetric with final conditions. If one a priori selects only initial conditions, one fools himself that a proof was made, and again the conclusion is as stated above.

v Linguistics foolings are also ve common: E.g., "the particles were "un-correlated" and then "correlated", therefore â&#x20AC;Ś., or other linguistic manipulations that had been well-reviewed and published as articles of top science proofs. This includes the semi-sacrosact Boltzman Theorem, and endless statistical and quantum theories claimed "proofs".


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Some 'SYMMETRY BREAKING' crowning string and similar attempts to unify the standard quantum modeld with Einsten's deerministic gravity physics may thus prevent unification.Prigogine was indeed a great impostor in hiding his stealthy smuggling of asymmetry into his equations aimed to marke his 'proofs' to editors, to the public, to endless awards-people and their friends, that, indeed, he had found the final, greatest universal proof vis-a-vis all previously failed attempts before. And he got the Nobel for that.


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Against marketing 'proofs' in science

Fig 1: Marked EXPANDING, UNSATURATED, SPACE "1". represents typical cosmic voids located between all superclusters of galaxies. Figs. 2 & 3. Each void encounters fast incoming "RADIATION FLOWS/JETS" [Fig. 2], which clash about midway inside it. By rocket-type reaction law of physics, the jets entering from all directions [Figs. 2 and 3], push back and compact the "walls" of non-expanding, superclusters


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filaments of galaxies around each, causing acceleration of the left-over EINSTEINHUBBLE expansion inertia.

Figure 2: All dark, cold, expanding VOIDS located between all super-clusters of galaxies, some marked in pink, encounter fast, incoming inter-galactic/interstellar [Fig. 4] radiation jets. An

Figure 2: The biggest portrait of the visible universe [NASA, etc.] records dark, cold, expanding VOIDS, a few marked in pink, located between all super-clusters M

Fig. 2: Matter inside these billions of galaxies does not expand. Expanding are only the voids between all superclusters of galaxies shown. The voids are interconnected as SPACE "1". [Fig. 1]. Einstein's General Relativity [Gravity Physics], contains no mistake as claimed by armies of scientists that demand change of his wellproven field


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equations, a change by adding an artificial, non-scientific, "cosmological number", which, as proved by Refs. [1 and 9] amounts to a temporary social protest factor or a "social-religious constant" enforced on science at WW-Iend, and then removed as by Hubble's 1920s verified observations thus yielding to that temporary social protest was Einstein's biggest "blunder",

YET not a scientific one as the media and laymen wrongly claim, or tell their children that even Einstein made a great mathematical mistake in his universe.


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PART XI of Volume III Supplemental Glossary Stellar winds interactions with our solar System

Fig. 3: SPACE-"2"

wraps all non-expanding galaxies [Fig. 1] and all non-expanding SPACE-"3" where super-fast, interstellar winds, flow out to SPACE-"2" and next, irreversibly dissipate in cold expanding SPACE-"1", composed of cold, dark, expanding VOIDS located between all Super-Clusters of galaxies. [Figures 1 to 2]. All images from author's books & Wikipedia.


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REFERENCES, Associated Factual Background & Notes

1. Isaacson Walter, "Einstein, His Life and Universe", SIMON & SCHUSTER PAPERBACKS, 2007, pages 214-221, 551. TIME: Person of the Century: Why We Chose Einstein, January 3, 2000. 2. Post the first Relativistic Thermodynamics Conference, in Pittsburgh, Pa, and a few publications [4-6] -- Einstein's memorial supporters in the U.S. approached the author, proposing to fund handling, editing & publishing of Einstein's Life and scientific Records [3]. But due to research-teaching loads the thankful and grateful response included a respectful proposal to transfer this great memorial and historical task to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, as done. 3. Main Publication list by and on Albert Einstein: Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen (Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity), Ann. Phys. 4: 513 (1901); A. Einstein, On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light, ibid, 17: 132 (1905); A. Einstein, new determination of molecular dimensions, PhD thesis (April 30, 1905); A. Einstein, On the Motion Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid, (Brownian Motion), ibid., 17: 549–560 (1905); A. Einstein, On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, (on Special Relativity) Ibid, 17: 891 (1905); A. Einstein, Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?, (on Mass-Energy equivalence), Ibid, 19: 639 (1905); A. Einstein, On the Influence of Gravity on the Propagation of Light, ibid, 35: 898 (1911); A. Einstein, ibid. 10, 195 (1909); ibid. 10, 323 (1909); W. Ritz, (Wrongly Attacking Einstein’s Origin of Electromagnetic Irreversibility), Phys. Z. 9, 903 (1908); A. Einstein, Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation), Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: 844 (1915); A. Einstein, Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie (Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity), Koniglich


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Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften (1917); A. Einstein, Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung (On the Quantum Mechanics of Radiation)", Physikalische Zeitschrift 19: 121 (1917); A. Einstein, Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901–1921, Amsterdam: Elsevier (1923); A. Einstein, Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases (Quantum theory of monatomic ideal gases) Sitzungsberichte der Preussichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Physikalisch—Mathematische Klasse: 261 (1924); A. Einstein, Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flussläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes (On meanders in the courses of rivers) Die Naturwissenschaften 14: 223 (1926); A. Einstein, B. Podolsky and N. Rosen, Nathan, Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?", (The EPR Paradox) Physical Review, 47 (10): 777 (1935); A. Einstein, Lens-Like Action of a Star by the Deviation of Light in the Gravitational Field, Science 84, 506 (1936) (Gravitational Lens, Einstein Rings); A. Einstein, On Science and Religion, Nature 146: 605 (1940); A. Einstein, et al. To the editors, New York Times (4 December 1948); On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation, Scientific American (4): 13 (1950); E. Hubble, A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae, Proc., Nat. Acad. of Sciences (U.S.), Vol. 15, Iss. 3, (1929); A. Einstein and L. Infeld,, The World As I See It (1934); A. Einstein, The Evolution of Physics, (1938); Out of My Later Years (1950); A. Einstein, The Meaning of Relativity, Princeton University Press (1956); A. Friedman, A: Über die Krümmung des Raumes, Z. Phys. 10 377 (1922), (English translation: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, 1991 (1999); A. Alain, D., Jean and R., Gérard, Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers, Phys. Rev. Letters, 49 (25) (1982): Nobel Foundation, Albert Einstein — Biography; D. Howard and J. Stachel, Einstein: The Formative Years, 1979-1909, Springer (2000); P. A. Schilpp (Ed.), Albert Einstein — Autobiographical Notes, Open Court Publishing (1979); P. A. Schilpp, (Ed.), Albert Einstein: PhilosopherScientist, Harper Torchbook (1951); R. Clark, Einstein: The Life and Times, Harper-Collins (1984); F. Golden, Person of the Century: Albert Einstein, Time (Jan 3, 2000); About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930); Why War? (1933, with Sigmund Freud); P. Galison, Einstein's Clocks: The Question of Time; A. Pais, Subtle is the Lord. The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein, Oxford University Press (1982); J. Crelinsten, Einstein's


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4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Jury: The Race to Test Relativity, Princeton University Press (2006); H. Kant, Albert Einstein and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin; J. Renn, (Ed), Albert Einstein — Chief Engineer of the Universe: One Hundred Authors for Einstein, Wiley-VCH. (2005); J. Schmidhuber, Albert Einstein (1979–1955) and the 'Greatest Scientific Discovery Ever' (2006); Einstein archive at the Instituut-Lorentz, NL; G., Goettling, Einstein's refrigerator, Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine (1998); U.S. Patent 1,781,541 , Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd (refrigerator), November 11, 1930; Brian, Dennis Einstein: A Life, New York: John Wiley & Sons (1996); Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman (eds) Albert Einstein, The Human Side, Princeton University Press (1981); A. Einstein, The World as I See It. New York: Philosophical Library Albert (1949); Zionism and Israel Information Center, Albert Einstein and Zionism; American Museum of Natural History (2002), Einstein's Revolution; Rowe, David E.; Schulmann, Robert, Einstein on Politics: His Private Thoughts and Public Stands on Nationalism, Zionism, War, Peace, and the Bomb, Princeton University Press (2007); Einstein Archives, History of the Estate of Albert Einstein, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (2007); Princeton Online Einstein in Princeton: Scientist, Humanitarian, Cultural Icon, Historical Society of Princeton;J. Stachel, et al, (Eds.) The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vols. 1–10, Princeton University Press; The Atomic Heritage Foundation, Einstein’s Famous Letter to the U.S. President about the need to survive by developing the atomic bomb before the Germans would do it; Person of the Century: Why We Chose Einstein, Time, (3 January 2000). Gal-Or Benjamin, Entropy, Fallacy, and the Origin of Irreversibility: An Essay on the Einsteinian New Astrophysical Revolutionary School of Thermodynamics; Annal. N.Y. Acad. Acad. Sci., 196 (A6) 305 (1972) Awarded the Gold Medal, while allegedly a rival article by S. Hawking did not make it. Gal-Or Benjamin, on cosmological origin of thermodynamics, Nature 230, 1971); 234, 217 (1971); Gal-Or Benjamin, On The Origin of Irreversibility, Science, 176, 11 (1972); 178, 119 (1972); Gal-Or Benjamin, Found. Phys. 6, 407 (1976); 6, 623 (1976); 7, 50 (1977); Gal-Or Benjamin, Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy (CPP), Volumes I and II, Springer Verlag, New York, 1981, 1983, 1987, Volumes I and 2 in 522-page,


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Hard-Cover worldwide acclaimed book, based on Refers. 5 to 10; "Gravitism", "Havayism", '"The New Astrophysical School" , still in high demand nowdays. 10. Gamov's book on the expanding universe. As undergraduate student I read there about Einstein's background, his field equations and apparently Gomov's predictions about 270 degrees below zero C cosmic voids between all galaxies receding away from each other – expanding voids that rule intergalactic dark cold spaces between all galaxies and the OLBERSE PARADOX RE WHY THE NIGHT SKY IS SO DRK AND COLD? And the affrmation of the expanding voids by Hubble – extensive reading tht had caused a serch for physical links between the voids-expansion aand non-expanding stars and gaalaxies, Gravity Physics and the asymmetric 2nd law of thermodynamics. References 5 to 10. Associted facts: With that conviction I refuted Mr. S. Zeidman's final "Thermo Exam", claiming the 2nd law of Thermodynamics is based on dissipating radiated energy from stars & galaxies into expanding, cold dark space, a claim that he considered a bad joke, and failed me, only to cause a scandal at the Technion, claiming a Dr. Degree should not be granted due to said FAILURE TO PASS HIS "THERO EXAM" in 1957. At that time, in 1963/4, the cosmic background radiation was discovered, proving not only the prediction, but overthrowing the steady-state theory of Fred Hoyle, Herman Bondi and Tommy Gold. My contested thermo was thus presented before a committee headed by Professors William "Bill" Resnick and Reuel Shinaar. Dr. Degree was next granted with "Flying Colors". 11. Gal-Or Benjamin, "Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability and Robot Aircraft, Springer Verlag, 1989, 1990, still in high demand. 11. On HYPATIA: A. Fitzgerald, Letter of Synesius of Cyrene to Hypathia, London, (1926); Grand Commentaire, de Théon d'Alexandrie aux 'Tables faciles' de Ptolémée, Livre II, III, Vatican City, 1985, 1991; Commentaries de Pappus et de Théon d'Alexandrie sur l'Almageste Tome III. Théon d'Alexandrie, Rome, 19; The calculation of an eclipse of the sun according to Theon of Alexandria, in Proceedings of the International Congress of


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Mathematicians, 1, 209-219, (1950), Providence, 1952; Marinus de Naplouse - un commentaire au 'Petit commentaire' de Théon, Janus 63 (1-3), 167-194, 1976; Théon d'Alexandrie et les 'Tables faciles' de Ptolémée, Arch. Internat. Hist. Sci. 35 (114-115, 106-123) 1985; 'Commentaire à l'Almageste' de Théon d'Alexandrie, Antiquité Classique, 56, 201-219, 1987; O. Neugebauer, A history of ancient mathematical astronomy, New York, (1975); A. Khan, Hypatia; Authorhouse, (2001); K. Chares, Hypatia: New Foes with an Old Face, Kessinger Publishing, (1997); A. Margaret, Hypatia’s Heritage: A history of Women in Science from Antiquity Through the Ninetheenth Century; I. Mueller, L.S. Grinstein & P. J. Campbell Women of Mathematics: A Biobibliographic Sourcebook. New York: Greenwood Press, (1987); M. M. Mangasarian,. The Martyrdom of Hypatia, (1915); J. Bregman, Synesius of Cyrene: Philosopher-bishop. Berkley: University of California Press (1982); M. B. Ogilvie, Women in science: Antiquity through the nineteenth century. MIT Press, (1986); Hypatia - Physics, culture and sense of duty, Spanish university (2006); T L. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics, Oxford, (1921); W. Müller, Das isoperimetrische Problem im Altertum mit einer übersetzung der Abhandlung des Zenodoros nach Theon von Alexandrien, Sudhoffs Arch. 37 (1953), 39-71, (1953); P. Pingree, An illustrated Greek astronomical manuscript: Commentary of Theon of Alexandria on the 'Handy tables' and scholia and other writings of Ptolemy concerning them, J. Warburg, Courtauld Inst., 45, 195 (1982); Reports by the Department of Mathematics, St. Andrews University in Scotland; Carl Sagan, Cosmos; Maria Dzielska, Hypatia of Alexandria; Hypathia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy; Wessel, Susan. Cyril of Alexandria and the Nestorian Controversy: The Making of a Saint and a Heretic. Oxford, 2004. ISBN 0-19-926846-0. 12. J. T. Nielsen; A. Guffanti; S. Sarkar (21 October 2016). "Marginal evidence for cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae". Nature Scientific Reports. 6: 35596. arXiv:1506.01354  Bibcode:2016NatSR...635596N. doi:10.1038/srep35596. 13. Wiltshire, David L. (2007). "Exact Solution to the Averaging Problem in Cosmology". Physical Review Letters. 99 (25): 251101. arXiv:0709.0732  . Bibcode:2007PhRvL..99y1101W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.251101. PMID 18233512 14 Mattsson, Teppo (2007). "Dark energy as a mirage". Gen. Rel. Grav. 42 (3): 567–599. arXiv:0711.4264  . Bibcode:2010GReGr..42..567M. doi:10.1007/s10714-009-0873-z.


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15 Tsagas, Christos G. (2011). "Peculiar motions, accelerated expansion, and the cosmological axis". Physical Review D. 84 (6): 063503. arXiv:1107.4045  . Bibcode:2011PhRvD..84f3503T. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.84.063503.

16. Stuart Gillespie (21 October 2016). "The universe is expanding at an accelerating rate – or is it?". University of Oxford - News & Events - Science Blog (WP:NEWSBLOG).

17. Clifton, Timothy; Ferreira, Pedro (April 2009). "Does Dark Energy Really Exist?". Scientific American. 300(4): 48– 55. Bibcode:2009SciAm.300d..48C. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican040948. PMID 19363920. Retrieved April 30, 2009.

18. Wiltshire, D. (2008). "Cosmological equivalence principle and the weak-field limit". Physical Review D. 78(8): 084032. arXiv:0809.1183  . Bibcode:2008PhRvD..78h4032W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.78.084032.



Beyond Horizons; Temporary free downloading  
Beyond Horizons; Temporary free downloading