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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

ALL THERMO  THEORIES     REPLACED  by  Einsteinian  Gravity     ENTROPY  IS  NONSENSE   WHY?   FACT?  

D A R K E

 


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Gravity Thermo  Controls  the  Solar   System

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

It controls  OUR    &  Similar  Galaxies      

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Note    the    scale    1  million    light    years   when  affirming  the  theory  between  Our   Galaxy  and  the  other  nearby  

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Note  the    bigger  10  million    light    years  scale     when  affirming  it  in  our    Local  Group  of  galaxies  

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

                        Note    the    scale    100  million    light    years   when  affirming  it  inside  ALL  supercluster  of   galaxies  compacted  by  dark  expanding     VOIDS  BETWEEN  ALL  COMPACTED   FILAMEMTS        

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

v v v v v

It controls all stellar evolution It controls the generation of the elements of life, It controls all supernovae explosions It controls the formation of the solar system It controls all trees, flowers and birds, v By it we come by it we die.

                        Her  

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

IT CONTROLS   HUMANITY     v

Even though  we  know  that  in  end  we  cannot  "get  up"  again,   that  a  day  will  come  when  staying  "upright"  becomes  and   impossibility,  we  do  not  "break  down".    

v

By the  same  knowledge  that  foresees  our  own  "collapse"  in   our  "journey  from  dust  to  dust",  we  "withstand  that  which   will  bring  us  down".    

v

In the  end  we  know  that  it  will  "tear  down"  almost   everything  that  we  build;    that  ultimate  "downfall",  "decline"   and  "defeat"  of  every  motile  creature  is  the  fate  of  individual   life  -­‐  a  life  that  must  terminate  in  "de-­‐aggregation"  and   Gravitational  "precipitation".  

v

Yet,  we  "stand  up".    Perhaps  not  all  is  "on  the  downgrade"?    

v

Thus, in  the  face  of  "gravitational  collapse",  we  hope  to   preserve  some  "lasting  structure",  or  "spiritually"  get  "up-­‐ and-­‐away"  from  that  "gravitating  earth".  Do  these  "upholds"   lead  people  to  adopt  "spiritual",  "idealistic"  or  "heavenly"   ideologies,  or  "after-­‐life"  promising  religions?  

v

To  construct  towers,  minarets  and  sky-­‐high  cathedrals?  To   launch  programs  for  the  exploration  of  "outer"  space?  Or  to   preserve  some  "lasting"  structure  in  the  composition  of   music,  the  writing  of  books  and  poetry,  and  the  construction   of  new  theories?    

v I do  not  know.  What  I  know  I  say  below.   8


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v

v v

The  ENTROPY  FREE  PHYSICS,  SCIENCE,  COSMOLOGY  and  PHILOSOPHY     “beauty”  has  always  been  the  object  of  science,     of  its  most  fundamental  aesthetic  frame  of  mind,     of  a  longing  for  the  run-­‐away  horizons  of  truth  and  symmetry   that  we  always  try  to  reach,     often  by  following  our  own  roads     roads  that  lead  beyond  hilltops,     beyond  the  trees  lines  at  the  top,     while  resisting  side-­‐road  attractions     during  our  life-­‐roads  from  dust  to  dust,     to  discover  what  is  waiting  ahead.       Are  scientists  the  deepest  religious  people  on  earth?   FACT:    some  admire  the    ancient  first  words  in  the  Bible,     at  the  beginning  were     a  sudden  light,     a  structureless  darkness     a  gravitating-­‐structuring-­‐separating  the  dark  sky-­‐void  from  matter     vs.     verified   intergalactic   dark   voids   and   gravity-­‐induced   separation   of   material   super-­‐clusters  of  galaxies  as  detected  filaments  of  the  entire  universe    

(NASA Records  are  evaluated  below),    

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

v v v v v v

all generated  by  non-­‐anthropomorphic  creator     and  roughly  bridging  the  first  lines  of  the  bible  with  what  modern  science  has   already  provided  us  with.   All  texts  I  know,  religious  &  scientific,  Gravity-­‐based  are   Gninaem  try   Meaning  recover   For  gravity  rules  all  languages,  science,  religions,  property  and  conflicts.                                                                

v

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Cosmology and GravityThermo-Physics vs.

the Voids Philosophy Preface SIR KARL POPPER, Foreword ……………….……………..… xx SIR ALAN COTTRELL, Foreword ………………….……........ xxi Preface ……………………………………..….……….…..….... xxii

Introduction 1.1 The Revival of Relativistic Cosmology vs. Modified Concepts and Order in Physics and Philosophy ....….……2 1.1.1 Science Order: Cosmology to Quantum or in Reverse..... 3 1.1.2 How did all start v. Science teaching of that Order….......5 1.1.3 The first seven stages v. tradition ……….....…............... 7 1.1.4 The present matter-dominated era by Astronomy........... 11 2.1 The Einsteinian Methodology: A Preliminary Remark ..... 11 February 19, 2012

From Terrestrial Gravitational Structures to Black Holes and Neutrinos in Astrophysics 1.1 Gravitation, Asymmetry and Structure of Earth v. Cosmos ...80 A fallacy associated with current Education ...………...........80 1.1.2 Gravity-induced sedimentary structures …………............. 81 1.2 Stars and the Hertzsprung-Russel Central Diagram ……….. 88 1.3 Supernova, Gravitational Collapse, Neutron Stars, Pulsars …………………………………….......…92

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

1.4 X-Ray Astronomy, Binary X-Ray Systems, and... Gravitational Clocks ……………………………………......... . 100 1.5 Black Holes …………………….……………………….… 106 1.6 Gas, Dust and the Formation of Stars in Our Galaxy ............113 1.7 How Are Cosmic Distances Measured? ……………….….. 116 1.8 Neutrino Astronomy and Astrophysics ………………….... 130 1.9 The Emergence of Gamma-Ray Astronomy ………….…... 132 1.10 Exploration of Extra-Solar Space by Unmanned Spacecraft ……………………….………..…… 134

From Old Physics to Particle Physics-I 2.1 Aim and Scope ……………………………………………. 138 2.2 Limitations of Theory ……………………………….….… 140 2.3 The General Macroscopic Equation ………………….….... 142 2.4 Continuity Equation (Total Mass Conservation) ………..... 146 2.5 Conservation of Linear Momentum and Gravity.…………. 147 2.6 The Navier-Stokes Equations and Gravity ……………….. 149 2.7 Kinetic-Energy Equation and Dissipation Function in Gravitational Fields ……………......... 152 2.8 First Law of Thermodynamics or Energy Conservation Equation ………………………………….......… 154 2.9 First Law and Enthalpy ………………………………….... 156 2.10 First Law In Terms of Temperature Field …………….…. 157 2.11 Entropy Balance Equation ……………………………….. 159 2.12 Beyond Classical Physics:...............…………………...…. 160 2.13 Neutrinos and the Powerful Role Conservation Equations Play in Subatomic Processes (Addendum) …...…… 163

General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology Should Rule Particle-Quantum Physics, Not the Other Way, Not by Any Quantum Axiom 3.1 Introduction …………………………………………………....... 167 3.1.1 Einstein’s field equations in general relativity ………..…….… 169 3.1.2 Confirmation of Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation …………..... 172 3.2 Principles and Formulations of General Relativity and Relativistic Cosmology ………………...……….………………....... 191 3.3 Observations, The “Age” of the Universe. And “Equivalent Local Cells” …………………….……….….......... 200

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

3.4 Timekeeping, Accelerated Observers and the Principle of Equivalence ………………………….……………........ 204 3.5 From General Relativity to Unified Field Theories ………….…. 205

From Physics to Philosophical Crossroads and Back The Arrows of Time 4.1 Time and The Arrow of Time: The Most Distorted of All Ideas? ..215 4.2 Asymmetry-Symmetry-Space-Time and The Unification of the Laws of Physics …………………….............. 216 4.3 Methodology, Aim and Scope ………………………………....... 217 4.4 Confusing Concepts of Time and Time Asymmetries ………...... 219 4.5 The Entropic Arrow of Time ……………………………….....… 222 4.6 Causality, Causation and Time Asymmetries ………………........ 226 4.7 Causation and Determinism in Relativistic Theories ……..............227 4.8 Cosmological Arrows of Time and Cosmic Time ……….…….... 230 4.9 A Few Remarks ……………………………………...………...... 232 4.10 Time-Reversal Invariance and Irreversibility …………….……. 236 4.10 Microscopic Time Asymmetries in “Elementary Particles” … .. 240 4.11 Death of Scale-Based Physics….......….………….……….......... 242 4.12 “Dual” Quantum-Geometrodynamical School and “Superspace” 243 4.13 Tachyons and Causal Violations …………………….………. ....246 4.14 Macrocausality and Microcausality in Quantum Mechanics …... 247 4.15 Fading Memory in Classical Physics …………………………... 247 4.16 Doubts as to the Universality of Entropy ……………………..... 249 4.17 Entropy-Free Thermodynamic Arrows of Time ………….…... . 250

Crisis origin in Fundamental Quantum: Gravitation & Cosmology Rejected by Quantum Physics 5.1 Preliminary Review …………………………………….……...... 255 5.1.1 The three main schools of thought ……………………............. 261 5.2 Einstein’s Objections to the Uncertainty Principle ………........... 262 5.3 The Heresy of a Few Skeptics ………………………….…......... 265 5.4 Mythologized Concepts of Quantum Physics …………...…....... 265 5.5 The Failure of Classical and Quantal Statistical Mechanics to Deduce Irreversibility and Time Asymmetries .............267 5.6 The Emergence of Quantum Chromodynamics and Super-Symmetry …………………………………….................. 272 5.6.1 Spatio-Temporal Approach to Quantum Physics ……….......... 272

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

5.6.2 From Weinberg-Salam Theory to Quantum Chromodynamics ………………………............................ 273 5.6.2.1 Conservation laws as symmetry principles; and vice versa ... 273 5.6.2.2 Global, exact, approximate, isotopic and SU(3) symmetries 274 5.6.2.3 From SU(3) to renormalizable gauge theories ……............... 276 5.6.2.4 Quark confinement asymptotic freedom in gauge theories 276-1 5.6.2.5 QCD and the search for higher symmetry principles ……... 276-2 5.6.3 Quantum Field Theories, Super-Symmetry & Super-Gravity... 276-3 5.6.3.1 Limits of quantum gravity and ‘Unified Field Theories’ .......276-4

From Physics to Cosmological Crossroads and Back Cosmology, Physics by Our Bridging Physics-Philosophy 6.1 Thermodynamics is Gravity-Physics less Entropy Lacuna 6.1.1 Intergalactic voids rule 2 Expansions of the Universe....,.277 6.1.2 Gravitation as super-structuring of matter and All Life....279 6.2 The Earliest Observational Evidence. .…...………..........279 6.2.1 Which space expands and which does not? …...…......... 282 6.3 Gravitation-Asymmetry Principle of Equivalence ……......284 6.4 Can Inter-cluster Voids Be Saturated with Radiation? .......287 6.5 Derivation of the Master Asymmetry form our Gravitational School of Intergalactic Voids v. life...... 290 6.6 Irreversibility in the New Gravitational Cosmological Thermodynamics ………………................ 293 6.7 Origin of Dissipation in Newtonian Fluids ……..….....… 297 6.8 Terrestrial Thermodynamics ……………………..……... 299 6.9 Connections with Classical and Continuum Thermodynamics …………………………..…..…........... 301 6.10 Electromagnetic Irreversibility v. Master Asymmetry..... 303

Cosmological Base of Time, Quantum & Future Science 7.1 Time: The All-Embracing Concept …………………................. 309 7.2 Cosmological Origin of Time ……………………….................. 310 7.3 Cosmological Interpretations of Newton’s Laws of Motion …... 314 7.4 Gravitational Origin of Structure and Evolution .……................ 316 7.5 Gravitation and the Outflow of Energy Into Un-Saturable Space 322 7.6 Stellar Evolution …………………………………….... 324 7.7 Terrestrial Evolution ………………………………...... 325

Two Unprecedented Philosophies-Unified Science

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

8.1 Introduction ………………………………………...… 330 8.2 Observational Evidence ………………………….….....331 8.3 Schwarzschild Solution and Black Holes …………...... 332 8.4 Black Holes Mechanics and Entropy ………………..... 340 8.5 Can Black Holes “Evaporate”? ……………………...... 341 8.6 Primordial Black Holes? …………………………........ 341 8.7 Back to the Melting Pot of Unification? …………........ 341

Two Philosophies Within and Beyond Present Knowledge 9.1 The Futile Quest for Final Answers …………………...... 349 9.2 An Example in Havaism ……………………..….........… 350 9.3 From Cosmology to Irreversible Structures and Memory 365 9.4 The Skeptic Outlook ……………………………..…...… 415

VOLUME II Introduction ……………………………………………................... 420 A Few Historical Remarks on Time, Mind and Symmetry ………... 437 The Philosophy of Time & Change: Some Historical Notions …………………….……………….…...... 455 Structuralism and the Divided American Thought: A Short Glossary of Terms ………………………………..……….. 467 Policy and Publicity: A Critique ………………………………….... 483 Thought-Provoking and Thought-Depressing Quotations ………..... 495 Critique of Western Methodology ………………………………. ... 530

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Einsteinian Herritage in Science, Politics and Philosophy A Great 1987 Painting by Israeli E. Katz, by permission.

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

"Einstein's  time-­‐symmetric  tensor  was  elevated  by  Gal-­‐Or’s  “New   Astronomical  School  of  Unified  Thermodynamics”  to  the  status  of  the  source   of  “Master  Asymmetry”  controlling  not  only  irreversible  thermodynamics,  but   all  physical  and  biological  phenomena!   Gal-­‐Or  calls  “GRAVITISM”  (his  philosophy)  that  gravitation  is  the  prime  cause   of  structures,  irreversibility,  time,  geo-­‐chemical  and  biological  evolution  -­‐-­‐   that  the  expansion  of  the  universe  is  the  cause  of  the  second  law  of   thermodynamics  -­‐-­‐  that     microscopic  physics,  and  thermodynamics  in  particular,  cannot  be  understood   without  reference  to  cosmology.   He  ties  “irreversibility”  to  the  “expansion  of  space  itself”,  i.e.  as  far  as  space  is   expanding,  the  contribution  of  all  kinds  of  radiation  in  space  is  weakened   “irreversibly”  due  to  the  expansion  phenomenon  itself.   Such  loss,  or  “degradation”  of  energy  in  the  depth  of  inter-­‐cluster  expanding   space,  may  then  be  considered  as  a  universal  sink  for  all  the  radiation  flowing   out  of  the  material  bodies  in  the  expanding  universe.”                                 Advancement  of  Physics    

"Gal-­‐Or launches  a  new  spirit  of  inquiry  by  his  excellent  and  thought   provoking  writings.  I  would  recommend  awarding  a  prize  and  would  hope   that  this  would  serve  to  focus  attention  on  a  most  important  subject.”                                                                                                                                                                                Gold  Award  by  N.Y.  Academy  of  Science   (a  rival  article  by  S.  Hawking  did  not  make  it.)     AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  PHYSICS:   “Gal-­‐Or's  remarkable  book  sees  and  seizes  the  world  whole.                                         He  emphasizes  that  all  scientists  operate  under  some  set  of  philosophical   prejudices,  and  that  failure  to  acknowledge  this  is  self-­‐delusion.  Furthermore,   he  argues  that  a  failure  to  attend  to  the  philosophical  base  of  physics  leads  to   an  empty  scientism.  

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

     His  work  is  challenging  on  many  levels,  constituting  a  review                                         'with  derivations'  of  general  relativity    'as  applied  to   cosmology',  thermodynamics,  the  current  state  of  theoretical  particle  physics,   astrophysics,  as  well  as  a  summary    history  of  western    philosophy,    'especially   the  philosophies  of  time  and  mind'    and  critiques  of  western  society,    the   intelligentsia  and  the  relationship  between  academic  science  and   government.              One  'and  perhaps  the  central'  theme  explored,  is  that  of  the  interplay   between  symmetry  and  asymmetry.              His  primary  interest  is  not  in  the  recent  progress  in  the  unification  of  forces   in  gauge  theory,  although  he  finds  support  in  it  for  his  Einsteinian  outlook,  but   is  rather  time,  time's  arrow,  and  the  asymmetry  between  past  and  future.   Around  time  are  accumulated  discussions,  both  mathematical  and   philosophical,  of  thermodynamic  reversibility,  time  reversibility,  the  nature  of   causality,  and  the  use  of  advanced  and  retarded  solutions  to  wave  equations.              The  second  major  theme  is  that  of  gravity  and  its  overwhelming   domination  of  the  actual  form  of  the  universe,  at  all  scales.   The  combination  of  these  themes  is  not  accidental;  they  are  point  and   counterpoint  to  his  thesis  that  the  time  asymmetries  are  connectable  to  and   perhaps  even  determined  by  the  master  asymmetry  given  by  the  gravity  of   general  relativity:    the  remorseless  cosmological  expansion.              He  argues  that  only  the  expansion  can  provide  the  unification  of  time   asymmetries.              The  expansion  provides,  among  other  things,  an  unsaturable  sink  for   radiation,  which,  in  turn,  permits  the  establishment  of  gradients  in   temperature  and  density,  which  provide  the  basis  for  the  physical  process  that   leads  to  life.          He  also  criticizes  the  sloppy  and  improper  use  of  the  concepts  of  entropy  'and   the  related  notions  in  information  theory'  and  quantum  indeterminism,   especially  as  covers  for  an  inadequate  understanding  of  temporal   asymmetries.              Taking  an  Einsteinian  position  on  the  interpretation  of  quantum   mechanics,  he  looks  forward  to  revitalization  of  Einstein's  quest  for  a   deterministic  interpretation  of  quantum  events.  

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

         The  value  of  this  book  lies  in  the  challenging  combination  of  ideas   which  Gal-­‐Or  presents,  which  goes  far  beyond  what  can  be  sensibly  described   in  a  review.              [This]  work  may  be  too  large  to  digest  as  a  text  in  these  days  of  the   decline  of      academic    institutions  "as  Gal-­‐Or  describes  them",  but  that  will  be   the  loss  of  both  the  faculty  and  the  students.”     AMERICAN  JOURNAL  OF  PHYSICS   "This  is  a  great  book,  and  an  exciting  book;   readable,  worth  reading  and  enlightening."                                                                  Sir  Karl  Popper,  the  Greatest  Philosopher  of  Science      

"I  do  not  know  a  better  modern  expression  of  science,  philosophy  and   classical  humanism  than  that  of  Gal-­‐Or’s  book."  Israeli  HaAretz  Daily     "We  are  all  Gal-­‐Orians  !  "                          Editor,  Foundations  of  Physics     "Gal-­‐Or’s  “beauty”  has  always  been  the  object  of  science,  which,  he  lyrically   observes  as    “a  most  fundamental  aesthetic  frame  of  mind,     a  longing  for  the  run-­‐away  horizons  of  truth  and  symmetry     that  we  always  try  to  reach.”                                                                                                                  Order  Amidst  Chaos,  Enlightenment  Aesthetics                                      Recommended  by  Encyclopedia  Britannica,  "Nature,  Philosophy  of"     "This  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  books  that  I  have  read."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Outstanding  Books  List  

"Tour  de  force.  A  magnificent  and  sustained  piece  of  work!     Gal-­‐Or’s  net  is  widely  cast  –  it  reaches  as  far  as  science  policy  and  political   philosophy."                                            A.  Cottrell,  V.  Chancellor,  Cambridge  University    

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

"Appeals  to  scientists  of  all  disciplines  who  are  prepared  to  open  their  minds.   Shines  a  welcome  light  in  some  dark  corners  of  science.     Sir  Karl  Popper,  in  a  Foreword,  correctly  describes  it  “a  great  book”.                                                                                                                                                                                    New  Scientist  Magazine    

"Evokes a  person  heart  !!     Has  generated  a  large  number  of  responses  from  around  the  world,     some  declaring  that  it  has  turned  them  into  “Gal-­‐Orians”.                                             Since  the  thought  presented  by  this  book  is  so  rich,  translators  of  our  country   should  recommend  this  book  with  all  their  intellectual  power."                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chinese  Academy  of  Sciences     "A  Master  Piece.  The  well-­‐known  author  bases  his  philosophy  on  a  very  sound   knowledge  of  present-­‐day  scientific  theories.  "                        Indian  Journal  of  Physics     "The  works  of  scientists  like  Gal-­‐Or,  Bohm,  and  (Noble  Prize-­‐Winner)   Prigogine  provide  important  resources.  Prigogine's  formalisms  do  not  really   tell  us  how  irreversible  change  emerges  from  reversible  [mathematics].  (in   this  Gal-­‐Or  is  superior)."        The  Crisis  of  the  Sciences                “I  have  in  the  meantime  studied  your  book,  with  great  interest,  and  made   pages  of  notes  on  it.                I  feel  as  if  I  had  been  on  numerous  walks  and  talks  with  you  on  the  great   questions,  and  know  that  would  be  great  to  go  on  with  them!                Who  cannot  be  impressed  by  your  love  for  the  great  men  of  all  times  and   all  countries,  by  your  phrase  “working  back  and  forth  between  theory  and   fact”,  by  your  belief  that  philosophy  is  too  important  to  be  left  to  the   philosophers,  by  your  concern  for  where  thought  and  language  lie  in  the   scheme  of  things  –  and  by  so  much  more!              I  continue  to  reflect,  again  and  again,  on  your  central  thesis  that   expansion  is  the  origin  of  all  asymmetry  in  time.              What  an  ingenious  phrase  is  your,  

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

“smuggle irreversibility  in  without  declaring  the  contraband”!              I  regard  your  book  as  seeking  to  accomplish  two  tasks  –  and  being  two   books  –  at  the  very  least  One  is  the  exposition  of  your  central  thesis,  with   clarity,  and  careful  mustering  of  every  argument  pro  and  con  that  can  lead  to   testable  consequences.              I  don’t  see  how  it  is  possible  to  do  proper  justice  to  a  thesis  of  such   importance  by  mixing  it  in  with  the  other  great  task.   That  is  to  give  students  an  appreciation  of  the  unity  of  philosophy  and   modern  physics.    You  do  both  tasks  far  better  than  I  could  hope  to.    I  give  you  my  personal  thanks  for  putting  the  two  books  into  a  pacackage   that  I  personally  have  found  most  thought-­‐provoking.”       Prof.  John  Wheeler,  Inst.  of  Advanced  Studies,  Princeton  University     "Most  astrophysicists,  cosmologists    and     astronomers    agree    that    the    biblical  account  of   cosmic  evolution,  in  stressing  `a  beginning´  and   the  initial  roles  of  `void,´  `light´  and  a  `structure-­‐ less´  state,  may  be  uncannily  close  to  the  verified   evidence  with  which  modern  science  has  already  supplied  us"                                                           Professor  Victor  F.  Weisskopf  from  MIT,     quotes  CPP,  REF.  9,  Scientific  American       “Lecture  one  [in  Volume  I]  affirms  that  the  stress  placed  by  Genesis  on   ‘beginning’  and  the  initial  roles  of  ‘void’,  ‘light’  and  a  ‘structure-­‐less’  state,   “may  be  uncannily  close  to  the  verified  evidence  with  which  modern  science   has  already  supplied  us.”      Christian  Apologetics  Journal    

The Catholic  Church  has  recently  confirmed  that  there  is  no  contradiction   between  the  Bible,  astrophysics  and  modern  cosmology.                                           Cf.  2014  Pop  Declaration.      “One  of  the  best  books  on  the  totality  of  the  sciences  &  the  universe.  It  was   one  of  the  favorite  books  of  Sir  Karl  Popper.  It  looks  at  physics  and  the  

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

universe as  a  totality  of  the  mathematical  philosophical  understanding.  It  also   combines  the  physical  concept  of  time  with  human  psychological  perception   and  brain  understanding  of  languages.”   Robin  forumhub.com/expr/@202.54.92.222    

Against Fooling  oneself  and  others  by  Nobel  Laureate  Feynman:     “The  first  principle  is  that  you  must  not  fool  yourself  –  and  you  are  the   easiest  person  to  fool.  So  you  have  to  be  very  careful  about  that.    After   you’ve  not  fooled  yourself,  it’s  easy  not  to  fool  other  scientists.  You  just   have  to  be  honest  in  a  conventional  way.”    “You  should  not  fool  the  layman  when  you’re  talking  as  a  scientist."  

Too late  for  you  Richard  to  tell  it  to  S.  Hawking  

                    22


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

PART I  of  Volume  III  

              Our  1st  Prediction:    2  EXPANSIONS  of  the  UNIVERSE    

Stellar-­‐galactic winds   dissipating   in   intergalactic   expanding  voids   (1)    compact  galaxies  into  observed  "filaments"  (Fig.  1),     (2)  reverse  early  Big-­‐Bang  inertia  deceleration,     (3)  refute  obsolete  dictums  such  as  dark  energy.      

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

                               

FIG. 1:   To   start   with   we   claim   by   Refs.   5   to   8   and   Figs.   1   to   5,   the   existence   of   a   neglected  second  simultaneous  expansions  of  the  universe,  which  is  confined  to  the  cold-­‐ dark   voids   shown   –   an   expansion   that   compacts   galaxies   to   clusters   (Fig.   2)   then   to   filaments  composed  of  millions  galaxies  each  (Fig.  1):     Ø (1)         First   the   well   verified   Big-­‐Bang   remnant   inertia   expansion   that   up   to   a   few   billion   years   ago   had   been   decelerating,   but   due   to   expansion   (2)   has   been   accelerating,   as   discovered  in  1998,    

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Ø (2)   a   predicted   [5-­‐8,   Fig.   2]   simultaneous   expansion   confined   to   intergalactic   voids   shown  here,     Ø analyzed   by   Fig.   2,   and   caused   by   stellar-­‐galactic   winds   dissipating   about   equally   in   each   and  all  observed  voids  –     Ø a  dissipation  that  by   these  expanding   voids  compacts  billions  galaxies   into  clusters,  then   into  SUPERCLUSTERS-­‐FILAMENTS.   Ø  That  the  compacting  had  started  to  be  significant  only  when  the  number  and  intensities   of   emitters   around   each   void   has   increased   to   effect   reversing   of   the   early   gravity-­‐ induced  DECELERATING  cosmic  expansion,  thus  refuting  unsubstantiated  claims  of  dark   energy   that   "causes   somehow"   the   1998   detected   acceleration   of   2   combined   expansions,  which  also     Ø

(3)   refute   associated   wrong   dictums   in   cosmology,   physics   and   philosophy.    

Ø

The four   yellow   arrows   depicted   should   be   inserted   into   each   and   all   recorded   dark   voids   to   illustrate   that   opposing,   rocket-­‐type-­‐winds   compact   galaxies   from   both   opposing   sides   of   each   filament,   thus   accelerating  the  expansion  of  each  and  all  collectively.  RECAP:    

Ø

Super-­‐fast winds   that   are   emitted   from   any   opposite   filament   sides   keep  thrust-­‐compacting  each,  like  opposing  rockets.    

v

The net  result  is  thrusting  away  each  and  all  voids'  "filaments  borders-­‐ "walls",    

v

RESULT: Accelerating   extant,   gravity-­‐induced   (Einstein-­‐Hubble)   decelerating  inertia  expansion  of  the  universe  since  time  zero.  

v

MOST IMPORTANT   ARE   NOT   VOIDING   DARK   ENERGY   CLAIMS,   but   to   refute  induced  dictums  in  science  and  philosophy.    

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

v

Most important  is  to  understand  Fig.  2  

FIG.   2:       "CLUSTER   I"   and   II   represent   mid-­‐term   effect   of   the   2nd   simultaneous   expansion   of   the   universe,  namely,  prior  to  being  further  compacted  into  superclusters  and  filaments  (FIG.  1).    

"RADIATION ENERGY  DENSITY"  vs.  "DISTANCE"  defines  "DIRECTION  OF  NET  RADIATION  FLOW"   as  "3rd  COSMOLOGICAL  ARROW",  generate  energy-­‐density  gradients  that  lead  to  the     "2nd   COSMOLOGICAL   ARROW",   that   represents   "EXPANDIND   SPACE   "1"   CONFINED   TO   THE   COLD-­‐DARK,  INTERGALACTIC  VOIDS  and  NOT  involving  spaces  "2"  and  "3"  within  the  filaments,   within  galaxies,  within  stellar  systems,  within  planetary  systems.   "VOIDS/SPACE  "1"  is  thus  the  sole  MASTER  of  world  phenomena  that  lead  to  the  emergence  of   life  in  non-­‐expanding  gravitational  systems:    

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

The MASTER  ARROW  OF  TIME  

Ø v

Is also  THE  MASTER  OF  TIME  ASYMMETRIES    

v

And THE   ROOT   CAUSE   OF   OUR   2ND   LAW   OF   THERMODYNAMICS,    

v

THE SOLE   ASYMMETRIC   FUNDAMENTAL   LAW   IN   THEORETICAL  PHYSICS.  

v

The largest,   expanding,   un-­‐saturable,   thermodynamic   sink  of  disposed  energy  from  the  surfaces  of  all  active   emitters  in  the  universe.  

                       

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

How Stellar  winds  interact  with  us  in  our  solar  System    

Fig. 3:  SPACE-­‐"2"  wraps  all  

non-­‐expanding galaxies  [Fig.  1]   and  non-­‐expanding    SPACE-­‐"3"            

where super-­‐fast,  

interstellar winds,  flow  

out to  SPACE-­‐"2"    and  next,   irreversibly  dissipate  in  SUPER-­‐

SPACE-­‐"1"

COLD EXPANDING  FILAMENT  COMPACTING   ,   composed  of  2nd-­‐expansion  of  the  universe  VOIDS  located  between   all  Super-­‐Clusters-­‐filaments  of  galaxies.  [Figures  1  to  2].         All  images  from  author's  books  or  Wikipedia.  

   

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How the  Voids  Increased  since  700  million  years  after  the  Big  bang  

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Fig. 4:    This  figure  does  not  show  the  astronomy  verified  chain  of  facts  that   the  galaxies  depicted  have  been  later  compacted  first  into   2)  

then

further

compacted

into

clusters (Fig.  

super-­‐clusters

'FILAMENTS' that   surround   each   and   all   cold,   expanding,   intergalactic   voids,   or   what   had   been   defined   by   Volume   I   of   this  

Cosmology, Physics   and   Philosophy   series,   an   independently   expanding  

SPACE-­‐"1"

by   the   inflowing   stellar   and   galactic  

winds (Figs.  2  &  3).  

           

 

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Fig. 5:  The  earliest  detected  intergalactic  voids  (dark   blue)   vs.   early   galaxies   with   radiating   galactic-­‐stellar     winds.   These   early   voids   have   been   expanding   with   the   big-­‐band   expansion   (Fig.   4).   Gradually,   as   the   number   and   intensities   of   the   emitters   increased   the   thermodynamic  processes  defined  by  Figs.  1  to  3,  have   established   an   independent,   second,   simultaneous   expansion   of   n   of   the   universe.   Source:   The   cosmic   background  radiation  discovered  in  1964.  

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES   (1)

Deterministic physics  and  engineering  may  begin  with  symmetric  partial   differential   equations.   To   agree   with   observations,   asymmetry   is   forced   on   in   presented   or   published     'proofs',   that   proceed   only   under   imposed   INITIAL   CONDITIONS   (for   future   time   evolution),   while   rejecting  FINAL  CONDITIONS  (for  symmetric  past  time  'evolution'.).  

(2)

Common example:   Retarded   solutions   in   electromagnetism   that   conform  with  observations  are  in,  while  ADVANCED  SOLUTIONS  (which   do  not  conform  with  observations.)  are  out.    

(3)

FIG. 2  defines  the  most  important  energy-­‐densities  gradients  that  keep   allowing  and  maintaining  stellar  evolution.  

(4)

Each void-­‐sink   removes   energy   from   emitters   around   it   by   its   very   increase  in  volume.  

(5)

Stars cannot  evolve  without  disposing  its  inner  energy.  

Ø

That energy   is   irreversibly   removed   from   their   surfaces   and   being   disposed  in  the  depths  of  2  expansions  that  generate  the  largest  sink  of   the  universe.    

Ø

WHEREFORE, without  the  2nd  simultaneous  expansion  of  the  universe,   all  heavy  elements  in  the  universe,  including  the  elements  essential  to   generate  life,  like  oxygen,  carbon,  nitrogen,  are  impossible.  

Ø

Also impossible  without  the  2nd  expansion  are  supernovae,  that  allow   planets  to  be  formed  and  life  to  emerge  by  gravitation   –  a  complicated   process  that  is  described  next.  

Ø

Localized black  holes  at  the  center  of  galaxies  and  elsewhere  should  be   accounted   for,   but   their   effects   do   not   change   these   predictions,   assertions  and  facts  as  detailed  here  and  by  Volume  I.  

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Ø

Existence of  super-­‐fast,  stellar-­‐galactic  winds  that  are  becoming  strong   during   the   last   6   or   so   billion   years,   has   been   well-­‐verified   by   all   astronomic  observations.    

Ø

Such winds  are  flowing  into  each  equally  distributed  intergalactic  voids.  

Ø

The voids   themselves   are   present   from   earlier   time,   as   proven   by   the   1964  black-­‐body  radiation.  Fig.  5.  

Ø

The winds  emerge  only  from  the  inside  of  the  filaments  that  surround   each  void  –  and  the  spread  out  from  opposite  sides  of  each  filament.  

Ø

The winds   enter   each   void   from   all   directions,   thus   causing   each   and   all   to  expand  faster  than  the  remnants  of  the  big-­‐bang  expansion.  FIG.  1.  

Ø

Subject to   momentum   conservation,   like   in  opposing   rockets   in   space,   the   super-­‐fast   winds   on  both  opposing  sides  of  any  filament  or   void  border  [FIG.  1]  thrust-­‐push-­‐away  both  border-­‐sharing-­‐voids  from   each   other,   collectively   providing   extra   expansion-­‐thrusting-­‐away   against  all  other  similarly  expanding  voids.    

Ø

This process   is   herein   defined   the   second,   simultaneous,   accelerated   expansion   of   the   universe,   which   not   only   compacts   galaxies   into   superclusters   and   filaments,   but   reverses   earlier   gravity-­‐induced   decelerated  expansion  of  the  universe.    

Ø

These newly  defined  dynamics  generate  energy-­‐densities  gradients  (Fig.   2)   that   keep   maintaining   all   stellar   evolution   by   removing   disposed   energy   from   emitters   to   2nd-­‐expansion-­‐generated   largest   energy   sink   in  the  universe,  without  which,  no  heavy  elements,  supernovae,  planets   and  life,  are  possible.    

             (a)       there   is   no   transfer   of   energy   from   one   expanding   void   to  

another due  to  the  uniform  distribution  of  the  intergalactic  voids.                    (b)       The   ORIGIN   of   almost   all   dissipating   stellar   and   galactic   winds   are   essentially   limited   to   the   nearby   LOCAL   stars   and   galaxies   that   surround  each  void.  

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v

   Only   a   minor   fraction   of   the   winds   proceeds   across   the   universe   to   reach  our  telescopes,  allowing  NASA  recording  of  Fig.  1.        

v

 Various   claims   and   dictums   are   also   refuted   by   this   newly   defined   world  outlook:        

v

   Wheeler-­‐Feynman   static-­‐space-­‐theory   should   be   redefined   for   two   simultaneous  space  expansions  between  emitters  and  absorbers,    

v

   Dark   energy   claims   -­‐-­‐   and   associated   attempts   to   change   general   relativity)   -­‐-­‐   should   be   replaced   by   the   two   proven   simultaneous   accelerated  expansions  of  the  universe,    

v

   Quantum-­‐statistics/probabilities  

are

symmetric

for

prediction AND   retrodiction.   Common   self-­‐fooling   example:   Predictions  that  conform  with  observations  are  accepted  "proofs"  or   theorems   or   dictums   or   "laws"   of   physics,   while   hidding   or   rejcting   retrodiction  is  "legal"  because  it  does  not  conform  with  observations.   Under   any   formulations   such   procedures   do   not   constitute  a   'proof',   unless  one  fools  himself  and  fellow  scientists.   v

   Endless   known   linguistic   game-­‐terminologies   exist   that   are   aimed   to   (wrongly)   "justify"   symmetry   breaking.   Beyond   being   fundamentally   wrong,   some   prevent   unification   with   deterministic   Einsteinian   Gravity  Physics  (general  relativity).  But  this  is  not  to  be  further  treated   herein.  

Interim Concluding  Remarks   1. Super-­‐fast  stellar-­‐galactic  winds  flow  from  filaments  to  voids  on  both  sides   of  each.  

2. dissipate in  each  void.   3. Entering  each  void  from  all  3D  directions,  momentum  conservation,  which   also  control  opposing  rockets  or  jet  engines,  the  super-­‐fast  winds  arriving   from   all   3D   borders   of   any   void,   locally   on   both   sides   of   any   shared-­‐

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supercluster filament   [FIG.   1]   they   thrust-­‐push   all   voids,   as   interconnect   collection,   away   from   each   other,   thereby,   collectively,   providing   extra   expansion-­‐thrusting-­‐away  against  all  other  similarly  expanding  voids.    

4. This process  is  herein  defined  2nd,  simultaneous,  accelerated  expansion  of   the  universe.   5. The   net   result   is   co-­‐compacting   most   galaxies   first,   with   gravity,   into   clusters   next   into   superclusters   and   filaments   that   are   thus   locked   and   compacted  between  all  voids,    (FIG.  1).  

6. The 2nd   expansion   is   integrated   with   gravity-­‐induced     slowing   down     of   Einstein-­‐Hubble  expansion.   7. Gradually,   by   individual   almost   uniform   expansion   of   each   and   all   expanding-­‐voids   as   explained   above,   all   of   them   interconnected   as   the   overall   expanding   SPACE-­‐1   (FIG.   2)   they   cause   REVERSAL   of   the   earlier,   decelerated  expansion  of  the  universe,  into  a  slightly  accelerated  one,  but   still  expanding  and  cooling  universe,  thereby  refuting-­‐voiding  claims  linking   this   highly   integrated   two   simultaneous   expansions     to   be   first   time   detected     in   1998   (re-­‐affirmed   in   2016)   slightly   accelerated   expansion   of   the   universe,   namely,   there   is   no   need   for   any   un-­‐measurable,   mystic,   dark   energy   to   explain   the   observed   records   or   to   modify   Einstein's   general  relativity  gravity  physics.                

35


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

PART II    History,  Physics,  Society  

W

hy the  TIME  Magazine  selected  Einstein  as  Person  of  the  

C

entury?

On page  551  of  his  remakable  book  "EINSTEIN,  His  Life  and   Universe",    Walter    Isaacson  concludes:   "He  was  a  loner  with  an  intimate  bond  to  humanity,  a  rebel  who  was  suffused   with  reverence.    And  thus  it  was  that  an  imaginative,  impertinent  patent  clerk   became  the  mind  reader  of  the  creator  of  the  cosmos,  the  locksmith  of  the   mysteries  of  the  atom  and  the  universe."   On  page  215  Issaacson  explains:     "(During  October-­‐November  1915)  Einstein  was  in  the  throes  of  one  of  the   most   concentrated   frenzies   of   scientific   creativity   in   history.   He   was   working,   he   said,   'horrendously   intensity'"   (to   complete   and   publish   first   his  general  relativity).  "In  the  midst  of  this  ordeal,  he  was  also  still  dealing   with   the   personal   crisis   within   his   family."   "(Hilbert)   was   racing   him   to   find   the  equations  of  general  relativity."     On  page  214  Isaacson  adds:     "Every  week,  the  fifty  or  so  members  of  the  Prussian  Academy  gathered  in   the  grand  hall  of  the  Prussian  State  Library  in  the  heart  of  Berlin  to  address   each  other."     Since  November  4  Einstein  delivered  there  four  lectures,  the  last  one  states:   "I  had  discovered  the  only  law  of  gravitation."    

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Days later   Hilbert   responded   (page   219):   "Cordial   congratulations"   But   on   November  20  he  submitted  for  publication  to  the  Gotingen  science  journal  his   manuscript   "proclaiming   his   own   version   of   the   equations   for   general   relativity."  titled  "The  Foundations  of  Physics".  

Einstein   completed   and   published   his   Gravity   Physics,   known   as   General  

Relativity, in  November  1915,  post  checking  if  it  correctly  predicts  published,   irregular,  motions  of  planet  Mercury.       He   found   total   agreement   with   said   astronomical   observations,   agreement   that  no  other  theory  had  accomplished  before.       That  was  the  first  obsevational  veification  of  his  gravity  physics.     About   three   years   later,   in   1918-­‐1919,   Einstein's   gravity   field   equations   were   independently   confirmed   valid   the   second   time   for   correctly   and   excactly  

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

predicting gravity-­‐induced,  bending  of  light  passing  near  a  large  mass,  in  this   first,   British   organized   sun-­‐eclipse-­‐based   test   in   Australia,   later   affirmed   by   various  observations  around  the  globe.      

I

nstant world  celebrations  followed.  But  somehing  else  was  at  

store under  the  curse  of  numbers,  which  always  retards  science     misleads  some  scientists  and  much  of  humanity.    

1921: A  talented  Russian  mathematician-­‐cosmologists,  professor  Alexander  

Friedmann, proved   that   Einstein's   Field   Equations,   when   applied   to   the   universe,  Cannot  make  it    stay  stable,  it  must  expand  or  contract.     Organized   religions   around   the   world   strongly   protested   that   Einstein   is   profundly  wrong.       Expanding   universe   violates   the   "established   and   known   fact"   that   earth   is   the  center  of  the  universe.       According   to   experts,   any   observer,   stationed   on   any   galaxy,   would   report   that   all   other   galaxies   are   receding   away   from   him,   thus   refuting   the   established  truth  that  earth  is  the  sole  center  of  the  entire  universe.      

Einstein was  indeed  horified.   Various  hostile  protests  from  around  the  globe  have  joined  the  Claim:    

E

INSTEIN IS  IMPOSTOR  OF  SCIENCE.  EINSTEIN  MADE  A  GREAT  

MATHEMATICAL MISTAKE.    HIS  JEWISHNESS  DEFILES  GOD.    

HE SHOULD  BE  PUT  TO  THE  FLAMES  OF    ....    

Horified Einstein   knew   that   his   equations   are   universally   valid,   that   they   shine   truth   on   some   dark   corners   of   science.   However,   the   terror   of   words,    

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

the hate,  treats  and  brutal  hostilty,  some  by  professors,  defeated  him  to  force   on  his  valid  equations  a  simple  number  to  stop  the  curse-­‐of-­‐numbers-­‐terror.   Immediately   peace   returned   to   earth,   but   not   to   bona   fide   science,   not   to   the   great   Hubble,   who,   by   observations,   verified   that   the   universe   indeed   expands.   Thus,   by   fact,   the   big   bang   should   be   replaced   by   Einstein-­‐Hubble   genesis  (or  bang?).  And  the  word  genesis  bridges  to  tradition.    

   

              39


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

PART III  Volume  III    

Assertion A:  Everything  is  connected  with  everything  else,  (Plato).  

Assertion   B:     Precise   definitions   and   axioms   may   lead   to   unrepairable   errors:   Anything   outside  strictly  errected  axiomatic  erected  fence  is  a  priori  rejected  and  lost  forever  or  may   also   block   unification   with   Einsteinian   deterministic   Gravity   Physics   (general   relativity),   relativistic  cosmology  and  the  the  induced  philosophy  GRAVITISM.  This  assertion  first  applies     to   the   highly   respected   "Standard   Quantum   Model",   and   there   to   "symmetry   breaking"   dictums.     Errorless   definitions-­‐axioms   begin   with   'the   whole   universe',   because   there   is   neither   any   outside   fense   around   its   curved-­‐spacetime-­‐contents,     nor   alternative   to   its   verified   observations   of   its   intergalactic   expanding   dark   cold   voids   and   associated   stellar-­‐galactic  

40


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

super-­‐fast winds,   dynamics,   time   asymmetries,   stellar   evolution,   irreversibly   causing   heavy   elements  construction,  supernovae,    orbiting  around  a  star  planets,  life  and  history.      

Contention 1:     WHEREFORE,   precise   definitions   or   axioms   only   encage,   arrest   or   block   ideas   by  error-­‐generating  ‘fences’  that  should  a  priori  be  identified,  deleted,  ignored  and  comitted  to   the  flames  of  history,  even  if  have  already  been  awarded  a  Nobel  Prize.  For  instance:   1. It  is  well  known  that  deterministic  physics  and  engineering  resort  to  basic   symmetric   partial   differential   equations   that   are   often   been   forced   in   presented   or   published     'proofs',   to   proceed   only   under   imposed   INITIAL   CONDITIONS   (for   future   evolution),   while   rejecting   FINAL   CONDITIONS   (for   symmetric  past  evolution).     2.  Enforced   results   are   often   adopeted   as   final   'proofs'   that   conform   with   observations.   Common   example:   Retarded   solutions   in   electromagnetism   that   conform   with   observations,   while   wrongly   hidding   or   rejecting   ADVANCED   SOLUTIONS   (which   do   not   conform   with   observations.).   If   known   in   advance,   tantamount   to   SMUGGLING   what   one   tries   to   prove   by   not   DECLARING   THE   CONTRABAND.   It   also   applies   to   another   fundamental   domain  in  theoretical  physics.   3. Quantum-­‐statistics/probabilities   are   symmetric   for   prediction   AND   retrodiction.  Common  self-­‐fooling  example:  Predictions  that  conform  with   observations  are  accepted  "proofs"  or  theorems  or  laws  of  physics,  while   hidding   or   rejcting   retrodiction   because   it   does   not   conform   with   observations.   Endless   known   linguistic   terminologies   exist   that   are   aimed   to   bypass   this   "symmetry  breaking".  Beyond  being  fundamentally  wrong,  some  may  prevent   unification   with   deterministic   Einsteinian   Gravity   Physics   (general   relativity).   But  this  is  not  to  be  further  treated  herein.    

Wherefrom  academic  decline  originate  in  devastated,     empty  Europe,  post  WW-­‐II,  post  Einsteinian  Era?  [9]  

       

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Until around   the   mid-­‐Thirties   of   the   previous   century,   Core   Cultural-­‐ Curriculum   Courses   (in   Europe!)   were   made   as   ‘scientific’   as   possible,   and   science   propped   up   its   foundations   by   turning   to   philosophy.   This   attitude   was  in  part  motivated  by  the  desire  to  appropriate  the  sciences  with  the  great   ‘prestige’  of  philosophers,  and  for  the  philosopher  the  fast-­‐growing  ‘status’  of   science.    Hence,   European   professors   vied   with   one   another   in   presenting   science   based   on   high   philosophical   grounds,   and   philosophy   as   a   ‘science   among   sciences’,  or  even  as  the  ‘sum  of  the  other  sciences’.       A   ‘PhD’   was   then   a   bona   fide   Philosophy   Doctor,   a   person   of   advanced   core   knowledge   and   eloquence   outside   his   specialism.     Western   academia   has   since  withdrawn  from  the  game.       Empty   specialism   has   since   gained   the   highest   prestige;   no   longer   do   professors   need   borrow   it   from   philosophy,   nor   to   teach   a   bona   fide   CCCC.   Indeed,   contemporary   professors   today   vie   with   one   another   in   presenting   fragmented  lectures  devoid  of  interconnected  content,  for  they  can  no  longer   hope   to   achieve   popularity   by   injecting   updated   core   knowledge   into   what   has  gradually  become  an  ever  narrower,  disciplinary  professionalism.       This   turn   of   events   has   resulted   in   overvaluation   of   technical   professionalism,   empty   academicism,   absolutation   of   ever-­‐narrower   disciplines,   and   the   common   inclination   to   reject   bona   fide   core   knowledge   from   the   class.   A   pity.   For   these   trends   only   push   the   young   into   cynicism,   nihilism   and   feelings   of   emptiness  in  education  and  society  at  large.   Assertion D1

With hope  of  finding  the  grand  outlook  of  a   spacecraft,  students  enter  our  universities.   Entering  the  temples  of  knowledge  they  settle   for  that  of  an  eagle,  but  what  they  find  is  that  of   a  specialist  gopher.     42


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

The current  crisis  in  education  is  not  subsiding.  More  than  ever  before  it   demands  answers,  re-­‐assessments,  a  revised  philosophy  and  acts:  How  to   administer  mutual  interactions  instead  of  linear  causality;  structured   complexity  instead  of  summation  of        events;  structured  historical  buildup  of   facts,    instead  of  summation  of  isolated  events                                              and  narrow   academic  Departments.       Assertion  D2   Although  most  academic  teaching  and  research  must  be  distributed  amongst   various  Schools  and    Departments  of  a  university,  there  is  an  objective  need   to  regenerate  an  old  tradition  that  cannot  be  associated  with  any  specialism,   because  the  ideas  with  which  it  deals  are  common     to  all  studies,  or  not  involved  in  any.       A

Assertion D3   Without  a  guiding-­‐structuring-­‐unifying  methodology  aimed  at  gaining  an  all-­‐ embracing,  interconnected  knowledge  that  crosses  frozen  disciplines,  any   Core  Curriculum  Cultural  Course  [CCCC]  is  nothing  but  a  pity  encyclopedia   displayed  by  a  specialist  nominated  by  “Organizers”  as  the  “CCCC-­‐ Coordinator”  who  remains  helpless  in  teaching  the  alluring  beauty  of   mathematics,  physics,  astronomy,  history,  the  life  sciences,  and  comparative   religions,  but  fails  to  perceive    their  profound  educational  implications  as  a     whole.   Modern   skepticism   is   usually   the   negation   of   a   core,   interconnected,   educational  methodology.  Not  so  with  Einsteinian  skepticism.     Einstein   advocated   the   removal   of   imposed   borders   between   traditional   disciplines  and  university  departments  and  faculty;  stating  that  knowledge  is   one;  its  division  is  human  weakness.     Assertion  D4     Structuring  an  all-­‐embracing  Core-­‐Outlook  is  a  matter  entailing     far  more  ambiguity  than  the  technicalities  of  the  application  of  any  disciplinary   course  and  its  “Academic  Credit  Regulations”. 43


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

The Western   crisis,   today   more   than   ever   before,   may   be   repaired   by   resorting   to   Einsteinian   vision,   in   high-­‐ schools   and   constantly   upgraded   and   updated   for   undergraduate   and   graduate   schools.   Such   a   methodology   leads   to   interconnected   fertilization   between   the   most   promising   kernels   of   fundamental   knowledge,   and,   thus,   to   the   potential   to   rejuvenate  the  “system”.  

Literary  intellectuals  at  one  pole  –     at  the  other  scientists,     and  as  the  most  representative,   the  physical  scientists.     Between  the  two  a  gulf  of  mutual   incomprehension  –     sometimes  (particularly  among  the  young)   hostility  and  dislike,  but  most  of  all  lack  of   understanding.       C.  P.  Snow,  The  Two  Cultures   Cambridge  University  Press  

  Assertion D5   Students   are   often   discouraged   by   their   professors   and   mentors   from   asking   fundamental,  interdisciplinary  questions  in  class,  as  a  result  of  which  inconsistent,  or     outright  incorrect  premises,  are  given  a  better  chance  of  perpetuating  themselves.    

The  Temples  of  Knowledge   Yesterday,  Today   L

iterary intellectuals,   the   people   of   the   arts,   and   most   educators,   are   currently  

ignorant of   modern   advances   in   the   ‘exact   sciences’,   of   their   mathematical  

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

formulations, experimental,   observational   and   verification   methods.   They   are   likely   to   resort   to   a   priori   or   superficial   answers   to   complex   problems   whose   detailed   implications  are  beyond  them.  Similarly,  faculty,  ‘experts’  and  professionals  in  the   “exact   sciences”,   via   their   past,   ever-­‐narrowing,   disciplinary   education,   are   currently   ignorant   of   the   wide-­‐span   knowledge,   literature,   arts   and   history   that   are   needed  to  share  their  thinking  and  aspirations  with  other  thinking  persons.     The   resulting   gap   can   hardly   be   bridged   despite   the   fact   that   our   globe   is   currently   an   interconnected   village,   internationally   linked   by   what   might   be   expected   to   bridge  old  gaps  between  traditional  cultures,  languages,  religions,  political  systems   and   a   unified   educational   philosophy   of   humanity.     Yet,   the   facts   are   that   deep   divisions   keep   deepening   and   deserts  of  narrow  specialism  keep   spreading  more  than  ever  before.    

Empty "Thinkers"   What   was   a   two-­‐semester   half-­‐ life  of  a  textbook  is  today  one  day   or   less.   Sources   of   studies   are   millions   of   online   blogs   with   uneven   quality   and   little   or   no   reliable   references.   A-­‐million-­‐a-­‐ day   posts   confuse   the   young;   generating   one-­‐line   thinkers;   a   tsunami   of   Tower-­‐of-­‐Babel   Kalthure;   a   kalthure   where   scholars   secure   same   weight   as   one-­‐line   thinkers;   Eulogies   are   heard   over   the   smoking  ruins  of  the  classical  temples  of  knowledge  –  new  layers  of  ruins  on  top  of   the  destroyed  Academy-­‐Library  of  Alexandria.  [Ref.  4  &  Lecture  6].          

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

L

imitations of  Theories  and  

Definitions

There may  be  something  provisional  about                           all  current  verified  scientific  theories  

They must  be  re-­‐confirmed  by  fresh  verified  information  from  any   sub-­‐field  of  science,  hence,  are  subject  to  constant  revision  and   even  replacement;  -­‐-­‐  in  this,  each  succeeding  generation  takes  a   measurable  step  beyond  the  position  of  its  predecessors.    

C

losely related   to   the   unrestricted   content   of   modern   science   is   its  

unrestricted questioning   of   all   earlier   convictions   in   light   of   verifiable   evidence   that  refutes  extant  axioms,  definitions,  assertions,  outlooks  and  theories.     Thus,   every   item   of   carefully   recorded   experimental   or   observational   information   is   a   proper   object   for   analysis.   A   drive   towards   novelty   and   discovery   impels   inquiry   to   explore   all   corners   of   the   universe.   These   tenets   are   the   central   pillars   of   Gravitism.   But   there   is   more   to   it.   The   outlook   includes  constant  re-­‐assessments  of  the  theory   -­‐-­‐  of  any  theory  -­‐-­‐  and  analysis   of  the  errors  involved  as  one  updates  and  improves  it.    

    46


By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Tarski's  Indefinability  Theorem    

A

ccording to   this   theorem   no   sufficiently   powerful   language   is   strongly-­‐

semantically-­‐self-­‐representational. For   instance,   any   arithmetical   truth   cannot   be   defined  by  arithmetics.         According   to   Smullyan   [42],   Tarski's   Indefinability   Theorem   is   somewhat   superior   to   the   famous   Gödel's   Incompleteness   Theorems,   which   are   more   related   to   mathematics   and   less   to   philosophical,   scientific,   and   linguistic   issues.   Tarski's   theorem  is  not  directly  about  mathematics  but  about  the  inherent  limitation  of  any   formal  language  that  is  strongly-­‐semantically-­‐self-­‐representational  when  it  contains   predicates   and   function   symbols   defining   the   semantic   concepts   specific   to   that   language.        

Gödel's Incompleteness  Theorem    

G

ödel [34-­‐43]  has  demonstrated  that  conventional  mathematics,  which  we  tend  

to consider   as   our   supremely   logical   and   consistent   system,   involves   paradoxical,   self-­‐referential   statements   about   itself,   i.e.,   a   conventional   mathematical   system,   say,  the  mathematics  of  flat  space  in  the  Euclidian  geometry  -­‐-­‐  an  ‘absolute  stage’   upon  which  Newtonian  gravity  and  physics  stands,  can  be  incomplete  because  one   has  not  discovered  all  its  necessary  axioms.    In  other  words,  no  matter  how  many   physico-­‐mathematical   issues   theoretical   physicists   solve,   there   always   will   be   other   issues   that   cannot   be   solved   by   any   known   laws   of   physics;   and   since   these   laws   constitute   a   finite   set   of   rules,   and   are   based   on   mathematics,   Gödel's   theorem   restricts  them.  

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

Even  in  computer  science  one  cannot  create  a  complete  and  consistent  finite  list  of   axioms,  or  an  infinite  list.  Each  time  one  adds  a  statement  as  an  axiom;  there  are   other  correct  statements  that  cannot  be  proved,  even  with  the  new  axiom.                                   Moreover,  if  the  system  can  prove  that  it  is  consistent,  it  is  not.  As  might  have   been  expected,  this  idea  has  been  much  debated  by  mathematical  philosophers:      

v  How  can  a  theory  be  both  correct  and  unprovable?   v    Is  mathematics  a  loop  of  our  mind?     v    Is  the  mind  a  self  referential  loop?     Gödel's   first   incompleteness   theorem   shows   that   any   system   that   allows   one   to   define   the   natural   numbers   is   necessarily   incomplete:   it   contains   statements   that   are   neither   provable   correct,   nor   provably   false.   Some   scholars   therefore   argue   that   this   refutes   the   logicism   of   Gottlob   Frege   and   Bertrand   Russell,   who   had   aimed   to   reduce/define   the   natural   numbers   in   terms  of  logic.  

        Not  all  axiom  systems  satisfy  these  hypotheses,  even  when  these  systems  have   models  that  include  natural  numbers  as  a  subset.  For  example,  there  are   axiomatizations  of  ‘flat’  space  that  do  not  meet    the  hypotheses                                                                         of  Gödel's  theorems.       Another   limitation   applies   only   to   systems   that   are   used   as   their   own   proof   systems.     Gödel's   theorem   has   another   interpretation   in   the   language   of  computer   science.  Theorems  are  computably  enumerable:  one  can  write  a  computer  program   that  will  eventually  generate  any  valid  proof.  One  can  then  ask  if  it  has  the  stronger   property  of  being  recursive:       v      Can  one  write  a  computer  program  to  definitively  determine    if  a  statement  is  true  or  false?    

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Gödel's theorem   says   that   you   cannot.   His   theorems,   however,   are   confined   to   sufficiently  strong  axiomatic  systems,  i.e.,  that  a  theory  contains  enough  arithmetic   to  carry  out  the  proof  of  the  incompleteness  theorem.     Some  scholars  claim  that  Gödel's  incompleteness  theorems  have  provided  a  deadly   blow   to   David   Hilbert’s   program   towards   a   universal   mathematical   formalism.   Nevertheless,  the  essence  of  these  issues  is  much  more  complicated,  as  indicated   below.  

Undecidable Statements:   A   statement   is   neither   provable   nor   refutable.     Hence,   some   scholars   resort   to   the   concept   "independent".   However,   that   concept   is  also  ambiguous.    

Meta-­‐Language: A  sufficiently  developed  language  cannot  represent  its  own   semantics.   Any   meta-­‐language   includes   primitive   notions,   axioms,   and   rules   absent   from  an  object  language.  Theorems  provable  in  a  meta-­‐language  are  not  provable   in  the  object  language.      

“Truth”:

Some of   the   aforementioned   theorems   may   presuppose   that  

mathematical "truth"  and  "falsehood"  are  well-­‐defined  in  an  absolute  sense,  rather   than  relative.  If  an  axiomatic  system  can  be  proven  to  be  consistent  and  complete   from  within  itself,  then  it  is  inconsistent.      

Minds and  Machines:  Gödel's  incompleteness  theorems  may  also  reflect   on  human  intelligence.  While  Gödel's  theorems  cannot  be  applied  to  humans,  since   they   make   mistakes   and   are,   therefore,   inconsistent,   it   may   be   applied   to   the   domain  of  science.    

Sets of   expressions   are   considered   as   coded   as   sets   of   numbers.   For   various   syntactic   properties   (such   as   a   formula,   a   sentence,   etc.),   these   sets   are   computable.   And   any   computable   set   of   numbers   can   be   defined   by   some   arithmetic  formula.  

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There are   various   additional   theorems   and   sub-­‐theorems   34-­‐49.   I   do   not   intend   to   expand  on  them  in  these  pages,  for  these  pages  are  mainly  written  for  the  general   reader,  without  resorting  to  any  mathematics.    

We  therefore  move  next  to  elaborate  on  some  more  practical  domains  in   the  mined  fields  of  verifiable  scientific  theories  and  proofs.    

“Pure Mathematics”  

is human   attempt   to   stay   aloof   and   beyond  

emotions, traditions  and  ambitions.  It  may  protect  one  from  making  mistakes,  prior   to  and  aft  writing  down  any  mathematical  equation.    

H

ow mathematics   -­‐-­‐   combined   with   verifiable   observations   -­‐-­‐   help   protect   the  

human mind   from   falling   into   unverifiable   traditional   dictums   of   ‘intuitively’   generating  mistakes?  This  may  be  best  demonstrated  by  the  most  dramatic  event   in  the  history  of  science;  when  Einstein  lost  trust  in  the  most  verified  gravity  field   equations  of  general  relativity3.3,  the  most  accepted  theory  of  the  universe,  which   harbors  no  mistake.  To  correct  sociallly  accused  ‘mistake’,  he  had  to  force  on  this   reality,  ‘correction  number’,  wrongly  termed  a  "cosmological  constant".       For  good  reasons  stated  above  Einstein's  tensorial  gravity  field  equations  were   flawless,  despite  the  fact  that  a  cult  has  evolved  to  demand  adding  this  factor  to   fit  its  ulterior  wishes  to  operate  under  some  set  of  philosophical  prejudices.       Most  important,  the  failure  to  acknowledge  this  is  not  only  self-­‐delusion,  but  a   failure   to   attend   to   the   philosophical   base   of   physics,   a   failure   that   leads   to     empty  scientism.          

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             Space-­‐Time  vs.  Symmetry-­‐Asymmetry  

T

he essence   and   fundamental   meaning   of   curved   space-­‐time,   symmetry-­‐

asymmetry, statistics   and   probabilities   are   understood   only   by   a   portion   of   scientists.  A  much  smaller  portion,  or,  in  fact,  a  splendid  minority,  maintains  that   probabilities,  statistics  and  quantum  postulates  provide  them  with  no  ‘free  will’.   [Volume  I].  

                 

Differential Equations  vs.  Observations    

T

time-­‐symmetry, reversibility   and   the   symmetrical   laws   of   physics   serve   us   as  

key tools  to  better  understand  nature,  despite  the  limitations  mentioned  above.   And  it  is  only  by  combining  (conceptual,  reversible,  analytic)  time-­‐symmetry  with   (factual,   aggregated,   observational)   time-­‐asymmetry,   or   by   combining   reversible   equations  with  a  priori  known,  factual,  initial  and  boundary  conditions,  that  one   may,   mathematically,   arrive   at   a   reliable   world   outlook   in   agreement   with   observations/experimentations.       While   symbols   and   analytical   concepts   may   be   symmetric,   words   and   sentences   (in   order,   syntax,   phoneme,   form,   sound   modulation   or   other   modes),   or   ‘useful’   physico-­‐mathematical   equations,   are   basically   asymmetric.   Mathematics,   gravitation,   symmetry-­‐asymmetry,   aggregation,   time   and   meaningful   sentences   are   coupled.   While   some   minor   reservations   are   justifiable,   there   is   an   overwhelming   "word   of   evidence",   derived   from   physics,   the   languages   and   the   studies  of  linguistics,  cybernetics,  information  and  mathematics  that  fortifies  this   contention.  

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A theory   may   be   a   “set   of   statements”,   some   of   which   are   taken   as   valid   without  proof  (axioms),  and  others,  the  theorems,  are  taken  as  valid  because  they   are  implied  by  the  axioms.     A   complete   and   consistent   set   of   axioms   for   all   mathematics   is   impossible.     "Provable  by  a  theory"  means  "derivable  from  the  axioms  and  primitive  notions  of   the  theory,  using  logic.”    

The Popperian  Falsification  Principle   Sir   Karl   Popper,   has   introduced   the   Falsification   Principle   about   the   ability   of   mankind   to   establish   what   is   science   and   what   is   non-­‐ science,   in   addition   to   what   might   be   ‘true’   within  the  domain  of  a  given  theory,  or  a  set  of   ‘facts’,  axioms  or  definitions.  [Ref.  8,  Lecture  4]  

Applied mathematics   is   often   used   as   unverifiable   covers   to   advance   subjectivistic   claims,   ‘proofs’   and   ‘theories’.   Lectures  3  and  4,  and  this  one,  illustrate  how  -­‐-­‐   by   a   priori   selecting   only   the   time-­‐asymmetric   mathematics,  or  time-­‐asymmetric  mathematical   solution   that   fits   with   their   desired   ‘proof’  –   scientists   easily   fool   themselves,   and   others.       Applied  mathematics  is  the  key  tool  of  the  ‘exact  sciences’.  It  constitutes  a  special   kind  of  'intelligent  thinking’  that  is  integrated  with  its  ‘universal  grammar'  -­‐-­‐  a  sort   of   critical   thinking   which   has   been   partially   developed   to   safeguard   our   minds   from  prejudices  and  inconsistencies.  Yet,  consistency,  by  itself,  is  a  two-­‐sided  issue.    

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‘Pure  mathematics’  is  often  developed  for  its  own  sake,  without  a   priori  harboring  intentional  applications,  although  they  may  be  ‘un-­‐covered’      

According to   Einstein,  when  we  predict  the  behavior  of  a  specific  or   confined   set   of   natural   phenomena,   we   usually   mean   that   we   have   found   a   ‘constructive  theory’  covering  this  set.     When  we  find  that  other  sets  of  phenomena  are  incompatible  with  that  theory,  we   tend  to  either  generalize  or  modify  it,  or  failing  that,  seek  an  alternative  one.  

To this  ‘constructive’  category  Einstein  opposes  the  so-­‐called  “theories  of   principles”  (exemplified,  according  to  Einstein,  by  thermodynamics  and  the   general  theory  of  relativity),  whose  point  of  departure  and  foundation  are  not   hypothetical  constituent,  but  empirically  observed  general  properties  from   which                      mathematical  formulae  are  deduced  so  as  to  apply  to                                                                         every  case  of  observation  which  presents  itself.   Thus,   according   to   Einstein,   the   merit   of   “constructive   theories”   lies   in   their   comprehensiveness,  adaptability,  and  clarity  for  a  given  set  of  phenomena,  while   that  of  the  “theories  of  principles”  -­‐-­‐  in  their  logical  ‘perfection’  and  universality   and  in  the  vast  observational  spectrum  of  their  formulation  at  any  scale  and  time.   Yet,   Einstein   did   not   trust   some   semi-­‐hidden   aspects   of   his   own   general   theory   of   relativity2.5.  Two  such  events  are  described  next:     The   failure   of   statistical   mechanics   (both   classical   and   quantum)   to   deduce   and   explain   the   origin   of   irreversibility,   time-­‐asymmetries,   cosmic   and   local   structuring,   generation   of   order   and   what   is   called   “entropy   growth”   -­‐-­‐   as   well   as   its  philosophical  and  applicative  limitations  and  lack  of  large-­‐scale  universality  -­‐-­‐   has   been   explained   in   footnotes   2.5,   3.4   and   3.5   as   well   as   in   Volume   I.   (See   Table   of  Contents,).     Einstein   had   not   suspected   that   his   general   theory   of   relativity   already   incorporates   another   ‘theory   of   principle’:   Thermodynamics,   especially   the   so-­‐ called  Second  Law  of  Thermodynamic.  Namely,  the  foundations  of    

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thermodynamics should   NOT   be   a   separate,   stand-­‐alone,   theory   of   science;   it   should   NOT   be   fragmented  from  the  rest  of  physics.  It  constitutes  an  integral  part  of  gravity-­‐induced,  interconnected,   unified  physico-­‐philosophical  knowledge. DO  armies  of  gate  guards  defile  our  temple  of  knowledge?   NON-­‐APPEALABLE,  COMPUTER  DICTUMS  BY  ARMIES  OF  NON-­‐SCIENTISTS,         INDUCE  NEW  SCIENCE,  PARTLY  CORRUPTED?   Einstein's  general  relativity  and  Hilbert  spaces  may  have  been  lost  to  humanity                                   by  today's  red  tape  that  defiles  our  temple  of  theoretical  physics?   WHAT  kind  of  science  is  so  smuggled  into  present  and  future  knowledge?  

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SIX OPEN  QUESTIONS   (1)                                                  Gate-­‐Guards'-­‐computers  of  important  publications  order  authors   to   provide   verified   phone-­‐fax-­‐email   of   preferred   reviewers   for   the   clerks'  computers  to  send  authors'  submitted  manuscripts  to  this  list   of  authors'  recommended  reviewers  to  decide  on  their  merits:  Is  this   procedure  free  from  corruption?     (2)                                                            Are  so-­‐pre-­‐arranged  reviewers'  opinions  next  presented  to  an   editor   to   sign   to   send   manuscripts   to   printers   like   in   highly   efficient   mass   production   of   (defected?)   cars   and   publications   at   a   minimum   cost?   (3)                                             Do   the   so-­‐ordered   authors's   list   of   reviewers   often   include   (hidden?)   co-­‐supporting   friends,   COMPANIES,   GOVERNMENT   AGENCIES,   "CENTER-­‐FOR   ...",   non-­‐scientific   organizations,   politicians,   political   parties,   inviting   authorities,   other   individuals,   or   even   high-­‐ profile  or  NOBEL-­‐PRIZE  impostors  [2]?     (4)                                               Are   undisclosed   CLERKS'   LIST   OF   PAST   RECOGNIZED   "CLOSE   CIRCLES   OF   REVIEWING   TRUSTED   SCIENTISTS",   OR   EDITORS,   are   also   so  involved  within  each  scientific  domain?     (5)                               Would   Einstein's   highly   verified   and   central   to   science   general   relativity   (gravity   physics,   theoretical   physics,   string   theories,   cosmology,   astronomy,   astrophysics,   space   dynamics,   thermodynamics  and  philosophy  of  science  [3])  and  Hilbert  spaces  be   lost   to   humanity   by   (a)   just   being   subjected   to   such   a   red-­‐tape   procedure?   (procedure   not   clear   how   mandated   or   how   taken   by   clerks   or   lazy,   careless   editors)   -­‐-­‐   or   (b)   lost   to   humanity   by   such   Author-­‐Clerks-­‐Reviewers-­‐corruption   practice?   (CF.   a   well-­‐known   simulation   by   submitting   Einstein's   general   relativity   to   such   a   review,   which  was  rejected.  [Einsten's  name  was  replaced  by  smeone  else]).         (6)                           Finally,   what   kind,   quality   and   reliability   of   science   has   so   been   smuggled  recently  into  science?  and,  most  important,  would  armies  of   non-­‐scientific-­‐clerks   so-­‐defile   the   future   temples   of   knowledge?     So-­‐ rule  science  and  all  associated  fields  of  humanity?        

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References Re  This  Issue   a.    Anne  Waldron,  Peggy  Judd  and  Valerie  Miller,  "Physical  Review  Style  and   Notation  Guide",  published    on  March  8,  2012,  26  pages  of  highly  elborated   detailed   instructions   without   which   the   submitted   work   is   saved   but   not   submitted  in  addition  to  a  priori  common  clerks's  instructions  to  authors  to  (i)   provide  phone-­‐fax-­‐email-­‐contacts  of  preferred  reviewers  of  their  work  for  the   clerks'   computers   to   contact   and   deliver   the   manuscript   for   reviewbefore   presenting  to  an  editor,  (ii)  author  must  in  advance  select  one  of  10+  specific   journals.                                                                                                                                                                                                                               B.     Benjamin   Gal-­‐Or,   "How   Prigonine   Fooled   the   NOBEL   PRIZE   Committees"   ISSUU,   December   25,   2017;   https://issuu.com/prof.-­‐dr.benjamingal-­‐ or/docs/12.25.2017_how_prigoigine_fooled_th                                                                                                                 c.   REF.   9;   Benjamin   Gal-­‐Or,   "Cosmology,   Physics   and   Philosophy",   Springer   Verlag,  1981,  1987  to  present  editions.  Cf.  GOOGLE  Benjamin  Gal-­‐Or.  

                     

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PART IV    Volume  III    

HISTORY of  Physics  was  Born  

and Died  in  Alexandria    

During a  2007  invited  lecture  on  the  cosmological  world  in  which   we  live,  delivered  at  the  Graduate  School  of  a  university  in  South-­‐ East  Asia,  I  indicated  the  key  historical  facts  that  had  preceded   Einstein's  1915  Gravity  Physics  (General  Relativity).    

At lecture  end,  a  distinguished  professor  of  that  Graduate  School,   resorted  to  the  microphone  and  facing  her  graduate  students  and   faculty  members,  declared: “We  have  only  one  sun  in  the  world.  In   contradiction  with  this  established  fact,  you   claim  that  it  is  expanding  during  the  last  billion   years.  But  it  is  not.  It  is  all  a  mistake!.  Read  the   Bible.  We  cannot  endorse  mistakes  in  our   university”   Trying  to  reply,  she  interrupted  me,  adding:   Astronomy  is  star-­‐working  practice  that   borders  with  paganism.  We  can  neither   change  our  curriculum,  nor  help  you  find  here   support  for  your  star-­‐working  paganism.   Amazed,  I  asked:  

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Have you  heard  about  the  most  notable   woman  in  early  astronomy  and  science?   About  Hypatia?  About  the  greatest  clash   between  science  and  organized  religion   1600  years  ago?   In  response  she  abruptly  adjourned  the  lecture,  uttering  two  words:   No!  Never!    

<<>><<>><<>>

T

he daughter of Theon [335-405], Hypatia, is a noted

astronomer, mathematician, educator and philosopher. She became the head of the world’s-greatest academy of science in her time, in Alexandria, Egypt.

D

uring this historical period Alexandria was the

most important center of commerce, culture, science and philosophy in the entire world.

R

ome had already been sacked earlier by the barbarians.

All its rich libraries and records of early science, medicine and philosophy were totally destroyed and lost for ever. Only the Academy-Library in Alexandria has remained the world’s top educational center of science, medicine, astronomy, mathamatics and philosophy.

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By Benjamin Gal-Or, All Rights Reserved

D

uring Hypatia's lifetime, the Roman Empire was split

into two, while Roman Law and political power have been challenged by the rising Christian organized power.

A

t the very center of this conflict, Hypatia is freely leading

top-world scientific studies, while practicing an unprecedented lifestyle of feminine freedom, equality, and independence.

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In addition, her unmatched intellectual gifts attracted a large number of students from all over the two divided Roman Empires.

S

he had many suitors but rejected all offers of marriage,

preferring to live independently of any man, in men's world in which women were considered their property, harboring almost no civil rights and being denied higher education.

S

ome reliable ancient documents have survived concerning

the tragic events that took place there between 412 to 415:

In 412 Cyril became the Christian Patriarch of Alexandria. The Roman governor of Alexandria at that time was Orestes. Cyril and Orestes became bitter enemies. Hypatia was a friend of Orestes. This fact, together with prejudice against her philosophical, astronomical, mathematical and free-spirited lifestyle, led to Hypatia becoming the focal point of envy on Cyrilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s part.

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She dared to defy both church and state interference in science and philosophy; to preserve the rights of academic freedom and the conviction that all individuals have the right to defend their beliefs and share science and its fact-finding activities with all. In great personal danger, she continued to teach and publish, until, in the year 415, she was set upon by a fanatical mob of Cyril's parishioners. They dragged her from her chariot, tore off her dress, and armed with sharp seashells, flayed her flesh from her bones, dragged her through the streets to the newly Christianized Caesareum church. Then she was burned and her work banned and destroyed. In great panic the faculty run away for their life. The Educational  Outcome:   The   world’s   top   Academy-­‐   Library   at   that   time   was   destroyed;   its   exclusive   and   unique   world’s   knowledge   in   mathematics,   astronomy,   medicine   and  philosophy  was   forever   lost   to   humanity,   while   Cyril   was  crowned  a  Saint   With  Hypatia  and  the   unique  world  center   gone,  the  ‘Dark  Ages’  have  lingered  in,  blocking  the  progress  of  

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science, medicine  and  philosophy.   It  lasted  about  a  thousand  year  as  the  church  policy  and  practice.     Eventually,   it   was   only   the   tragic   outcomes   of   brave-­‐wise   persons   like   Bruno,   Copernicus   and   Galileo   that   have   gradually   marked   the   end   of   this   darkest   period   in   education,   freedom   and   evolving   knowledge  of  our  world.   But the remnant educational conclusions remain valid and highly instructive beyond the end of the ‘dark ages’: 

Can one   imagine   where   we   would   be   today   without   these   1000   year   of  delay  in  science,  medicine,  philosophy  and  the  freedom  of  thought   and  practice?     Would   knowledge   today   be   at   much   higher   levels   if   that   brutal   murder  of  a  most  talented  scientist-­‐philosopher  and  the  1000-­‐year   forced   retardation   of   knowledge   that   have   followed,   would   have   been  avoided?       Would,  say,  cancer,  stroke,  heart  attack  and  other  diseases  be   well-­‐cured  today?  There  is  no  answer.   In  bringing  this  sad  chapter   of  humanity  to  a  close,   we   mention   that   Hypatia   had   followed   Plotinus,   who   maintains   that   there   is   an   ultimate   reality   that   is   beyond   the   reach   of   thought,   or   language,   like  shadows  of  ‘real’  mountains  and  trees,  as  seen  by  one  staying  in   a  cave.    

These ideas   go   back   to   Plato,   to   Socrates   and   to   earlier   Greek   philosophers,  who,  inter  alia,  have  maintained  that  the  object  of   life  is  to  try  to  live  and  act  as  close  as  possible  to  reality-­‐in-­‐  itself,   to   ‘things-­‐in-­‐themselves’,   which,   however,   may   never   be   precisely  described,  formulated  and  comprehended.  

Various documents  [12]  have  been  uncovered  about  Hypatia.  They  

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describe verifiable   historical   facts,   not   popular   stories   and   anecdotes  as  many  wrongly  assume  or,  in  vain,  intend  to  distort,  or   discredit  the  issue  in  public  and  in      

private  circles.  Her  own  work  was  lost  after  her  defamation  by  the  Church.   Only  a  few  titles  and  references  to  her  contributions  survived,  some  of  them,   ironically,  in  the  Vatican.   Memorial   The  Library  of  Alexandria  in  a  Modern  Design.  Alexandria,  Egypt.   In  Mathematics:  Hypatia  and  her  father  Theon  had  produced  a  new  version  of   Euclid's  Mathematical  Elements;  -­‐  elements  which  have  become  the  basis  for   later  editions  of  Euclidian  mathematics.  The  Greek-­‐Theon-­‐Hypatia  methods  of   operating  with  sexadecimal  fractions  and  the  extraction  of  the  square  root  of   a  non-­‐number  should  also  be  noted.  Hypatia’s  contributions  to  mathematics   are  currently  undergoing  academic  investigations  and  evaluations,  for   instance,  those  conducted  by  the  Departments  of  Mathematics  in  Monash   University  in  Australia  and  in  St.  Andrews  University  in  Scotland,  amongst   others.  

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In Astronomy:  Hypatia  and  her  father,  professor  Theon,  expanded  the  works   th   of   the   great   astronomer   Ptolemy;   Almagest   and   Handy   Tables.   [E.g.,   a   9 century   Vatican   manuscript   exists,   which   is   based   on   Theon-­‐Hypatia's   text   used  in  the  year  463  in  Apamea  in  Syria.]   Hypatia   had   contributed   to   the   early   knowledge   of   Arithmetica   and   to   Apollonius's  Conics  vis-­‐à-­‐  vis  Ptolemy's  astronomical  works.   In   Medicine:   Among  Hypatia’s   admirers   was  Synesius   of   Cyrene,   later   to  become   the   Bishop   of  Ptolemaist.   Some   of   the  letters   that   Synesius   wrote  to   Hypatia   have   survived.  They   testify   that   he   was  filled   with   great   respect  to  Hypatia's  knowledge  when  he  asked  her  advice  for  the  construction   of  an  astrolabe  and  a  hydroscope.  

In Education:   Hypatia   taught   updated   philosophical   ideas   with   a   greater  scientific  emphasis  than  earlier  followers  of  Neo-­‐Platonism.  

She was  also  described  as  a  charismatic  teacher.     Her   eloquence   and   authority   had   reached   global   influence,   so   much  so  that  some  Christians  had  considered  themselves  being   threatened  by  her  very  existence,  teaching  and  influence.   She  was  murdered  by  Church  members  who  felt  threatened  by   her   scholarship,   learning,   and   depth   of   scientific   knowledge.   Nitrian  monks;  a  sect  of  Christians  who  were  supporters  of  Cyril,   were  instrumental  in  her  murder.   Her  scientific  research  and  teaching  was  banned  from  all   countries  ruled  by  Christianity.   In   Philosophy:   Hypatia’s   philosophical   ideas   discouraged   mysticism  while  encouraging  logical  and  mathematical  studies.   In  Today’s  University  Campus  Style:   The   influence   of   the   Academy-­‐Library   of   Alexandria   model   is   seen   today   in   the   conceptual   layout   of   many   university  

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campuses. According  to  the  earliest  sources  of  information  [12],  the  library  was  initially   organized  by  a  student  of  Aristotle  under  the  reign  of  Ptolemy  Soter  (367-­‐283).   Built   in   the   style   of   Aristotle's   Lyceum,   adjacent   to   and   in   service   of   the   Musaeum  (a  Greek  Temple  or  "House  of  Muses",  hence  the  term  "museum"),   the  academy-­‐library  comprised  gardens,  a  room  for  shared  dining,  a  reading room, lecture halls and meeting rooms.

Without the   1000-­‐year   of   forced   retardation   of   science,   Where   we   would   have  been  in  medicine?     Render   therefore   unto   Caesar   the   things   which   are   Caesars’;   and   unto   God   the  things  that  are  God’s.                                  Matt.  22:21

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PART V  of  Volume  III  

The  reason  why  men  enter  into  society  is  the  preservation  of  their  property.   John  Locke   Gravity  is  the  most  fundamental  integrator  of  all  studies.   Lectures   1   to   4   in   CPP   (Ref.   8)   demonstrate   this   fact   within   the   studies   of   physics,  astrophysics,  astronomy,  cosmology  and  philosophy,  while  Lecture  5   extends   it   to   the   origin   of   the   sun,   earth,   life,   hominids,   writing   and   civilization.   We   next   extend   it   to   gravity-­‐induced   socio-­‐dynamics   and   the  philosophy   of   natural  selection:     The   fight   for   property-­‐resources,   the   socio-­‐rules   of   time-­‐grammar,   gravity-­‐ induced  territorial  wars,  city  and  village  structures.  

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ENTROPY-­‐FREE  (Natural)  GRAVITY  Selection     Gravity-­‐induced   changes   develop   territoriality   in   a   given   spatial   region   or   in   a   given   assembly   of   individuals,   especially   when   key   resources   are   not   sufficiently  abundant  and  stable  through  long  periods  of  historical  times.  We   observe   this   phenomenon   in   both   the   animal   and   human   domains   of   socio-­‐   biology.   When  a  limited  terrestrial  space  is  divided  into  lots  in  a  community,  it  carries   economic   and   social   “standing”,   or   "lebensraums",   involving   "well-­‐defined   territories"   and   "Gravity-­‐induced   Natural   Selection";   from   animals'   mating   systems   to   animals'   monopolies   on   water   resources;   from   natural   food   administration   to   the   control   of   key   strategic   ridges;   from   controlling   fossil   fuel  resources  to  disputes  over  territories.   Assertion  1   One   species,   or   one   sex,   or   one   race,   may   control   a   larger   quantity   of   resources,  say,  scarce  water  ponds,  than  the  other,  until  a  small  percentage  of   the  population  monopolizes  key  resources.   Gravity-­‐induced  hills  and  mountains  control  castle  and  village  structures  and   especially  tall  structures  may  become  worship  temples  of  the  super-­‐  natural.     RECAP:  Domain-­‐Property  and  Envy  drive  competition,  company  ads,  venture   capital,  TV  and  academic  rating,  political  candidates,  religious  rivalry  and  key   human  traits,  sometimes  stronger  than  death.                  As   history   testifies,   gravity-­‐induced   territoriality   is   often   developed   into   nationality,  imperialism  and  territorial  conquest  wars.  

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Many aspects  of  animals’  social  organization  and  evolution  can  be  predicted   on  the  basis  of  gravity-­‐induced  environmental  variables.     Since  biogeochemical  evolution  causes  key  natural  resources  to  be  distributed   non-­‐uniformly   in   the   spatial   and   temporal   coordinates   of   the   biosphere,   resource  monopolization  develops  in  all  levels  of  socio-­‐biological  systems.   Assertion  2   The   first   local   "aggregates"   of   matter   in   the   solar   system   have   already   contained  gas,  supernovae  debris,  dust,  rocks.     It  was  gravity  that  stratified  these  compounds  in  ‘horizontal’  layers  according   to   their   “specific   gravity”,   a   term   to   used   below   in   modified   “natural   selection”.   The  atmosphere  and  geological  strata  wee  ordered-­‐selected  by  specific  gravity   of  their  chemical  components.  It  was  gravity  that  put  the  early  components  of   living  systems  at  one  and  the  same  strata  for  life  to  begin.   Gravity   is   therefore   the   universal   builder   of   structures,   including   all   chemistry   in  the  cores  of  gravitationally  pressed-­‐heated  stars  [Fusion  in  Lecture  1,  CPP,   Ref.   8],   geological   strata,   earth   morphology   the   entire   evolution   of   life,   village/city   structures,   transportation   systems,   linguistic   hierarchy,   recorded   symbols,  letters,  grammar  vs.  time,  structure  of  sentences,  pages,  books.       Gravity  Selection  is  in  fact  “Natural  selection”.   The   origin   of   temporal   behavior   in   animals   can   be   traced   out   to   gravity-­‐ induced   forces.   Even   “innate   patterns"   are   wrongly   dissociated   from   simple   movements  in  the  field  of  gravitation,  i.e.,  as  "up-­‐ward-­‐downward"  balancing   of  the  biological  body  vis-­‐à-­‐vis  the  gravity  pointers  in  each  biological  cell.   Gravity   periodicities   around   the   sun   emerge   as   prime   sources   of   order   via   time  and  the  arrow  of  time  [Lecture  1].    

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Assertion 3   Gravity-­‐Induced  Orientation  and  Order   Using  gravity  pointers  we  say  ‘up’,  ‘down’,  ‘left’,  ‘right’  and  generate  symbols,   codes,  signs,  numbers  and  letters  for  a  later  use  and  for  other  to  read.     Animals   are   also   'conscious'   of   the   commonly-­‐shared   "up-­‐   down"   surroundings,  and  about  "weight"  and  acceleration.   Plants  also  harbor  innate  sensors  that  guide  them  in  which  direction  to  grow   even  on  a  mountain  slope.    

Additional   examples   range   from   gyroscope   inertial   changes,   balancing   machines,  heading  indicators  and  gravity-­‐induced  changes  involving  the  fluid   in  the  vertebrate  inner  ear  to  a  crystallizing  suspension  of  organic  spheres  in   water.   Gravity-­‐induced  Plant  Growth  and  Animal  Behavior   The   sensing   devices   which  plants   and   animals   use   for  "gravity   perception"  ("gravity   receptors",   "g-­‐  perception",   "bio-­‐  accelerometers",   "gravity-­‐  induced   biological   clocks",  etc.)   are   not   yet   well  understood,   even  

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though a  voluminous  literature  has  been  published  on  this  subject.  But  what   we   already   know   justifies   the   central   role   we   claim   gravity   plays   in   living   systems  and  society.   Plants   ‘know’   to   grow   vertically   upward   when,   undisturbed,   they   start   growing   in   total   darkness   as   seeds   inserted   deep   into   the   ground;   -­‐-­‐   even   when  they  grow  on  a  steep  mountain  slope.   As   most   high-­‐growing   trees   they   align   their   growth   under   the   control   of   the   gravity  vector.   Assertion  4   If   a   growing   higher   plant   is   displaced   with   respect   to   the   "upright"   position,   some   tens   of   minutes   later   it   will   adapt   its   growth   in   such   a   way   as   to   restore   its  original  orientation  in  coincidence  with  the  gravity  vector.  (If  it  is  displaced   only   briefly   and   then   restored   to   its   original   orientation   well   before   the   growth  response  can  set  in,  it  still  responds  to  that  displacement.)   Gravity-­‐induced   orientation-­‐adaptation   of   an   organism   may   occur   when   an   organism  orients  itself  by  a  gravity-­‐induced  gradient  of  density  differences  or   hydrostatic  pressure.   Small   organisms   (including   all   bacteria)   may   have   no   means   for   sensing   gravity,   but   they   are   affected   by   it.   Animals   low   on   the   evolutionary   scale   characteristically   exhibit   innate   patterns   that   depend   little   on   learning,   and   have  a  lesser  adaptability  to  changes  in  the  environment.   Consequently,  their  dependence  on  heredity-­‐geophysical-­‐gravitational  origins   is   ‘high’   in   proportion   to   animals   that   are   ‘high’   on   the   evolutionary   scale.   While   the   latter   show   some   signs   of   innate   patterns,   they   harbor   a   greater   capacity  to  produce  a  much  more  flexible  mechanism  to  respond  to  a  variety   of  other  external  changes  that  stimulate  them.  The  evolutionary  origin  of  the   so-­‐called  "innate  ideas"  may,  therefore,  be  external  rather  than  internal.   Even   the   computer   page   is   ordered   by   up,   bottom,   left,   right   margins   and   footnotes.  And   it   takes   time   to   read   them   and   to   comprehend   them;   the   time  

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that always   advances   from   past   to   future;   the   time   that   we   term   Linguistic   Arrow  of  Time.  Similarly,  gravity-­‐induced  ordering  of  shelves,  files,  documents   and  books  in  a  library  introduces  order  into  our  life.   Assertion  5   Gravity-­‐Chained  Law,  Seconds,  Minutes,  Days,  Years   Whole  civilizations  religions  constructed   on   gravity-­‐induced   orientability,   concepts,   spirituality,   art,   music,   home   structure,   wells,   canals,   trade   roads,   agriculture,   and   even   law   enforcement   by   hanging.   Such   gravity-­‐induced   cultural  phenomena  may  proceed  beyond  grammar  and  social  order  into  the   spiritual   and   hierarchical   cultures,   and   have   been   domains:   High   priest,   low   deck,   high   commissioner,   and   highness,   heaven,   lofty,   go   to   the   bottom   of   the   subject,  etc.  [see  below].   Assertion  6   Biological  Clocks   The  origin  of  temporal  behavior  in  animals  can  be  traced  back  in  time  and  out   to   external   physical   influences.   Gravity   and   geophysical   periodicities   thus   emerge  as  prime  sources  of  order  and  information  in  all  non-­‐living  and  living   systems.   Animals   low   on   the   evolutionary   scale   depend   little   on   learning,   and   have   a   lesser   adaptability   to   changes   in   the   environment.   Consequently,   their   dependence   on   heredity-­‐geophysical-­‐gravitational   origins   is   high   in   proportion  to  animals  high  on  the  evolutionary  scale.   Assertion  7   Vertigo,  Loss  of  Coordination-­‐Balancing  &  Gravity  Chains   Biological   structures   in   the   inner   ear   include   semicircular   canals   and   a   fluid   that  moves  by  gravity  force,  and  activates  a  system  that  transmits  linear  and   rotational   motions   vis-­‐à-­‐vis   the   gravity   vector   to   the   vestibular   nerve,   which   carries   these   signals   through   the   brainstem   to   our   brain   cerebellum,   which,   in  

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turn, uses   them   to   control   our   balancing,   orientation,   coordination   and   movement.   The  vestibular  system  in  our  ears  comprises  two  semi-­‐circular  ‘canals’,  which   are   used   to   indicate   our   rotational   movements,   and   otoliths,   which   indicate   linear  translations.   Vertigo   is   a   loss   of   coordination,   balancing   and   orientation   vis-­‐à-­‐vis   space   and   the  gravity-­‐induced  horizon.             The   vestibular   system   sends   signals   primarily   to   the   neural   structures   that   control   our   eye   movements,   and   to   the   Cerebellum-­‐muscles   system   that   keeps   us   upright   and   helps   maintain   clear   vision-­‐orientation   vs.   the   gravity   vector.   Assertion  8   Biological  Cells,  Reproduction,  Immunity  System  &  Gravity   Gravity   causes   changes   in   cell   division,   metabolism   and   the   immunity  system.   Reproduction  is  also  impaired  and  the  immune  cells  cannot  differentiate  into   mature  cells  in  low  or  zero  gravity  conditions  attainable  in  space  craft.   The   size   of   a   biological   cell   depends   on   the   local   gravity   vector   –   its   size   increases  in  larger  local  gravitational  field-­‐force  values.  Bone  cells  must  attach   themselves   to   something   and   will   die   if   they   cannot.   Without   the   gravity   force-­‐   field   they   float   around   and   perish.   When   animals   evolve   on   land,   outside   the   oceans,   they   develop   stronger   skeletons   to   cope   with   larger   gravity  forces  vis-­‐à-­‐  vis  the  reduced  one  due  to  buoyancy  in  the  waters.  Earlier   life   forms   in   the   oceans   were   smaller   and   had   a   jellyfish-­‐like   configuration.   Thus,  without  strong  skeletons,  land  animals  cannot  evolve.   Assertion  9   Animals  and  Gravity-­‐Induced  Effects   Gravimorphism,   gravitropism   and   tropism   are   directional   movements   of   a  

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plant with   respect   to   a   directional   stimulus.   One   such   tropism   is   gravimorphism  -­‐-­‐  the  growth  or  movement  of  a  plant  with  respect  to  gravity.   Plant   roots   grow   in   the   direction   of   gravity   while   shoots   and   stems   grow   against  it.     RECAP:   Gravity   generates   structures   and   controls   all   geological   layers   and   global   phenomena   ranging   from   mountain   crests,   gravity-­‐induced   tectonic   folds,  valleys,  beaches,  oceans  and  lagoons,  to  springs,  wells,  swamps,  glaciers   and  rivers,  and  the  bio-­‐systems  connected  with  them.   Assertion  10   Gravity  Rules  Grammar   Without   gravity-­‐induced   orientation-­‐order   and   so   induced   time-­‐space   grammar  we  are  lost  in  any  given  written  language.     Gravity-­‐induced  grammar  prevents  us  from  vertical  reversals.     Similarly,  horizontal  reversals  prevent  us,  say,  from  reversals  of  W  to  M.     There  are  more  complicated  gravity-­‐induced  grammar  rules.  They  range  from   preventing  reversal  of  past  into  future,  and  vice  versa,  to  use  gravity-­‐induced   structures  as  reference.   Assertion  11   Gravity  Vector  detectors  in  trees   Spacial   Gravity-­‐sensing-­‐cells   function   as   detectors   of   the   direction   of   the   gravity  vector  on  earth.     The   fluid-­‐particles   systems   inside   our   cells   initiate   inner   convective   currents   that  change  under  zero  gravity.     Thus,  the  absence  of  gravity  affects  the  contacts  of  cells  via  their  membrane   potential  and  their  cytoskeletons.   Gravity-­‐Induced  Village  and  City  Structures  

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Gravity generates  structures  and  controls  all  geological  layers  and  global  

phenomena ranging   from   mountain   crests,   tectonic   folds,   geological   uplifts,   valleys,  village  and  city  structures,    

transportation systems,   oceans   and   lagoons,   to   springs,   wells,   swamps,   glaciers  and  rivers,  as  well  as  the  ecological-­‐systems  connected  with  them.  

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Assertion  12   Evolution  and  Health  Ruled  by  Gravity   The   evolution   and   everyday   functioning   of   our   bones,   legs,   hips,   joints,   cartilages,   ligaments,   femurs,   tibia,   pelvis   and   muscles,   has   been   "in   response"  to  the  force  and  direction  of  gravity.   Gravity   plays   a   key   factor   in   hygiene   and   in   heart   failure   associated   with   swollen  legs,  in  flooded  lungs,  walking,  sleeping  needs,  etc.  

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Nevertheless, the   cardinal   role  gravity   plays   in   the   treatment   of   gravity-­‐ induced   disorders   in   biological   systems,   human   perception,   health   and   longevity,   has   been   largely   overlooked   by   health   providers   and   researchers,   partly  because  the  key  role  of  gravity  as  the  universal  generator  of  all  socio-­‐ gravity-­‐dynamics,  has  not  yet  been  well  understood  and  investigated.                              

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PART V  of  Volume  III

Fooling Nobel-­‐Prize  Committee  Members     "The   works   of   scientists   like   Gal-­‐Or,   Bohm,   and   (Noble   Prize-­‐Winner)   Prigogine  provide  important  resources.  Prigogine's  formalisms  do  not  really   tell   us   how   irreversible   change   emerges   from   reversible   [mathematics].   (in   this  Gal-­‐Or  is  superior)."                                                                                            The  Crisis  of  the  Sciences     As   chair   of   the   1969   International   Conference   on   Classical   and   Relativistic   Thermodynamics   [9],   I   invited   Prigoigine   to   preset   his   much   published   and   globally   lectured   thermodynamic   theory   about   what   he   claimed   to   be   the   universal  origin  of  irreversibility  in  nature  –  namely,  on  the  origin  of  the  2nd   law   of   thermodynamics.   But   in   his   FORMULATIONS     I   discovered   a   fundamentaL  MISTAKE  THAT  HE  IS  Intentionally  HIDING.     Thus  we  had  uneasy  talk  there  about  the  validity  of  his  worldwide  acclaimed   "proof",  and  I  prevened  him  to  present  a  misleading  formulation  there.       That   issue   was   raised   again   in   1974   at   the   State   University   of   New   York   in   Buffalo,  post  his  invited  lecture  there.  Prigogine  simply  avoided  my  objections   and   pointing   of   his   errors.   He   never   correctd   them,   because   he   could   not.   These  are:     v

 Conservation   of   symmetry   -­‐-­‐   If   one   starts   a   theory   with   symmetric   mathematics  it  can  never  be  changed  to  a  asymmetrical  results,  unless  one   smuggles-­‐in  the  results  without  declaring  the  contraband.    

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v

In fact,   without   going   into   mathamitacl   details,   if   one   claims   that   by   so   breaking   symmetry   he   discovered   a   great   proof   of   science,   this   very   fact   is   a   proof  that  the  proof  is  not  a  proof,  to  say  the  least.    

v

 The   answer   is   cosmological,   never   in   manmade   formulations   that   without   declaring  the  contraband  smuggle  asymmetry  into  symmetric  mathematics.  

v

In   geneal,   prediction   is   also   symmetric   with   retrodiction.   If   one   a   priori   selects   only   prediction   one   fools   himeself   that   a   proof   was   made.   If   one   present   such   a   "proof"   to   fellow   scientists,   the   proof   does  not  even  rise  to  the  level  of  being  scientifically  wrong.  

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v

Initial conditions   are   also   symmetric   with   final   conditions.   If   one   a   priori   selects   only   initial   conditions,   one   fools   himself   that   a   proof  was  made,  and  again  the  conclusion  is  as  stated  above.   v Linguistics   foolings   are   also   ve   common:   E.g.,   "the   particles   were   "un-­‐correlated"   and   then   "correlated",   therefore   ….,   or   other   linguistic  manipulations  that  had  been  well-­‐reviewed  and  published   as   articles   of   top   science   proofs.   This   includes   the   semi-­‐sacrosact   Boltzman   Theorem,   and   endless   statistical   and   quantum   theories   claimed  "proofs".    

Some

artificially imposed,   non   cosmological   'SYMMETRY  

BREAKING' are   imposed   on   the   various   string   mathemacal   games   that   preseve   quantum   axioms   and   similar   failing   attempts   to   unify   the   standard   quantum   model   with   Einstein's   deterministic   gravity   physics  block  unification.                      It   is   like   Nobel-­‐Laurate-­‐Prigogine   hiding   his   smuggling   asymmetry  into  symmeric  equations  to  present  false  'proofs'  before   laymen,   editors,   the   public,   awards-­‐people   and   their   friends,   that,     fraudulently   mathmatically   agreed   that   he   had   indeed   found   the   final,  greatest  universal  proof  vis-­‐a-­‐vis  all  previously  failed  attempts   before.  And  he  acquired  the  Nobel  for  that  smuggling  asymmetry   into  symmery  without  declaring  the  contraband. [9].

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REFERENCES and Factual Background a.

b.

2.

Isaacson Walter,   "Einstein,   His   Life   and   Universe",     SIMON   &   SCHUSTER   PAPERBACKS,   2007,   pages   214-­‐221,   551.   TIME:   Person   of   the   Century:   Why  We  Chose  Einstein,  January  3,  2000   Post   the   first   Relativistic   Thermodynamics   Conference,   in   Pittsburgh,   Pa,   and   a   few   publications   [4-­‐6]     -­‐-­‐   Einstein's   memorial   supporters   in   the   U.S.   approached  the  author,  proposing  to  fund  handling,  editing  &  publishing   of   Einstein's   Life   and   scientific   Records   [3].   But   due   to   research-­‐teaching   loads  the  thankful  and  grateful  response  included  a  respectful  proposal  to   transfer  this  great  memorial  and  historical  task  to  the  Hebrew  University   in  Jerusalem,  as  done.   Main   Publication   list   by   and   on   Albert   Einstein:   Folgerungen   aus   den   Capillaritätserscheinungen   (Conclusions   Drawn   from   the   Phenomena   of   Capillarity),  Ann.  Phys.  4:  513  (1901);  A.  Einstein,  On  a  Heuristic  Viewpoint   Concerning   the   Production   and   Transformation   of   Light,   ibid,   17:   132   (1905);   A.   Einstein,   new   determination   of   molecular   dimensions,   PhD   thesis   (April   30,   1905);   A.   Einstein,   On   the   Motion   Required   by   the   Molecular   Kinetic   Theory   of   Heat   of   Small   Particles   Suspended   in   a   Stationary   Liquid,   (Brownian   Motion),   ibid.,   17:   549–560   (1905);   A.   Einstein,  On  the  Electrodynamics  of  Moving  Bodies,  (on  Special  Relativity)   Ibid,  17:  891  (1905);  A.  Einstein,  Does  the  Inertia  of  a  Body  Depend  Upon   Its   Energy   Content?,   (on   Mass-­‐Energy   equivalence),   Ibid,   19:   639   (1905);   A.  Einstein,  On  the  Influence  of  Gravity  on  the  Propagation  of  Light,  ibid,   35:  898  (1911);  A.  Einstein,  ibid.  10,  195  (1909);  ibid.  10,  323  (1909);  W.   Ritz,   (Wrongly   Attacking   Einstein’s   Origin   of   Electromagnetic   Irreversibility),  Phys.  Z.  9,  903  (1908);  A.  Einstein,  Die  Feldgleichungen  der   Gravitation   (The   Field   Equations   of   Gravitation),   Koniglich   Preussische   Akademie   der   Wissenschaften:   844   (1915);   A.   Einstein,   Kosmologische   Betrachtungen   zur   allgemeinen   Relativitätstheorie   (Cosmological   Considerations  in  the  General  Theory  of  Relativity),  Koniglich  Preussische   Akademie   der   Wissenschaften   (1917);   A.   Einstein,   Zur   Quantentheorie   der  

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Strahlung (On   the   Quantum   Mechanics   of   Radiation)",   Physikalische   Zeitschrift  19:  121  (1917);  A.  Einstein,  Nobel  Lectures,  Physics  1901–1921,   Amsterdam:  Elsevier  (1923);  A.  Einstein,  Quantentheorie  des  einatomigen   idealen   Gases   (Quantum   theory   of   monatomic   ideal   gases)   Sitzungsberichte   der   Preussichen   Akademie   der   Wissenschaften   Physikalisch—Mathematische  Klasse:  261  (1924);  A.  Einstein,  Die  Ursache   der   Mäanderbildung   der   Flussläufe   und   des   sogenannten   Baerschen   Gesetzes  (On  meanders  in  the  courses  of  rivers)  Die  Naturwissenschaften   14:   223   (1926);   A.   Einstein,   B.   Podolsky   and   N.   Rosen,   Nathan,   Can   Quantum-­‐Mechanical   Description   of   Physical   Reality   Be   Considered   Complete?",   (The   EPR   Paradox)   Physical   Review,   47   (10):   777   (1935);   A.   Einstein,   Lens-­‐Like   Action   of   a   Star   by   the   Deviation   of   Light   in   the   Gravitational   Field,   Science   84,   506   (1936)   (Gravitational   Lens,   Einstein   Rings);   A.   Einstein,   On   Science   and   Religion,   Nature   146:   605   (1940);   A.   Einstein,   et   al.   To   the   editors,   New   York   Times   (4   December   1948);   On   the   Generalized   Theory   of   Gravitation,   Scientific   American   (4):   13   (1950);   E.   Hubble,   A   Relation   between   Distance   and   Radial   Velocity   among   Extra-­‐ Galactic   Nebulae,   Proc.,   Nat.   Acad.   of   Sciences   (U.S.),   Vol.   15,   Iss.   3,   (1929);  A.  Einstein  and  L.  Infeld,,  The  World  As  I  See  It  (1934);  A.  Einstein,   The  Evolution  of  Physics,  (1938);  Out  of  My  Later  Years  (1950);  A.  Einstein,   The   Meaning   of   Relativity,   Princeton   University   Press   (1956);   A.     Friedman,   A:   Über   die   Krümmung   des   Raumes,   Z.   Phys.   10   377   (1922),   (English  translation:  Gen.  Rel.  Grav.  31,  1991  (1999);  A.  Alain,  D.,  Jean  and   R.,   Gérard,   Experimental   test   of   Bell's   inequalities   using   time-­‐varying   analyzers,   Phys.   Rev.   Letters,   49   (25)   (1982):     Nobel   Foundation,   Albert   Einstein  —   Biography;   D.   Howard   and   J.   Stachel,   Einstein:   The   Formative   Years,   1979-­‐1909,   Springer   (2000);   P.   A.   Schilpp   (Ed.),   Albert   Einstein  —   Autobiographical  Notes,  Open  Court  Publishing  (1979);  P.  A.  Schilpp,  (Ed.),   Albert   Einstein:   Philosopher-­‐Scientist,   Harper   Torchbook   (1951);   R.   Clark,   Einstein:   The   Life   and   Times,   Harper-­‐Collins   (1984);   F.   Golden,   Person   of   the  Century:  Albert  Einstein,  Time  (Jan  3,  2000);  About  Zionism:  Speeches   and   Lectures   by   Professor   Albert   Einstein   (1930);   Why   War?   (1933,   with   Sigmund   Freud);   P.   Galison,   Einstein's   Clocks:   The   Question   of   Time;   A.   Pais,  Subtle  is  the  Lord.  The  Science  and  the  Life  of  Albert  Einstein,  Oxford  

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3. 4.

5. 6.

University Press   (1982);   J.   Crelinsten,   Einstein's   Jury:   The   Race   to   Test   Relativity,  Princeton  University  Press  (2006);  H.  Kant,  Albert  Einstein  and   the   Kaiser   Wilhelm   Institute   for   Physics   in   Berlin;   J.   Renn,   (Ed),   Albert   Einstein  —   Chief   Engineer   of   the   Universe:   One   Hundred   Authors   for   Einstein,  Wiley-­‐VCH.  (2005);  J.  Schmidhuber,  Albert  Einstein  (1979–1955)   and  the  'Greatest  Scientific  Discovery  Ever'  (2006);  Einstein  archive  at  the   Instituut-­‐Lorentz,   NL;   G.,   Goettling,   Einstein's   refrigerator,   Georgia   Tech   Alumni   Magazine   (1998);   U.S.   Patent   1,781,541  ,   Albert   Einstein   and   Leó   Szilárd   (refrigerator),   November   11,   1930;   Brian,   Dennis   Einstein:   A   Life,   New   York:   John   Wiley   &   Sons   (1996);   Helen   Dukas   and   Banesh   Hoffman   (eds)  Albert  Einstein,  The  Human  Side,  Princeton  University  Press  (1981);   A.    Einstein,  The  World  as  I  See  It.  New  York:  Philosophical  Library  Albert   (1949);   Zionism   and   Israel   Information   Center,   Albert   Einstein   and   Zionism;     American   Museum   of   Natural   History   (2002),   Einstein's   Revolution;   Rowe,   David   E.;   Schulmann,   Robert,   Einstein   on   Politics:   His   Private  Thoughts  and  Public  Stands  on  Nationalism,  Zionism,  War,  Peace,   and   the   Bomb,   Princeton   University   Press   (2007);   Einstein   Archives,   History   of   the   Estate   of   Albert   Einstein,   The   Hebrew   University   of   Jerusalem   (2007);   Princeton   Online   Einstein   in   Princeton:   Scientist,   Humanitarian,  Cultural  Icon,    Historical  Society  of  Princeton;J.  Stachel,  et   al,   (Eds.)   The   Collected   Papers   of   Albert   Einstein,   Vols.   1–10,   Princeton   University   Press;   The   Atomic   Heritage   Foundation,   Einstein’s   Famous   Letter   to   the   U.S.   President   about   the   need   to   survive   by   developing   the   atomic  bomb  before  the  Germans  would  do  it;      Person  of  the  Century:  Why  We  Chose  Einstein,  Time,  (3  January  2000).      Gal-­‐Or   Benjamin,     Entropy,   Fallacy,   and   the   Origin   of   Irreversibility:   An   Essay   on   the   Einsteinian   New   Astrophysical   Revolutionary   School   of   Thermodynamics;   Annal.   N.Y.   Acad.   Acad.   Sci.,   196   (A6)   305   (1972)   Awarded  the  Gold  Medal,  while  allegedly  a  rival  article  by  S.  Hawking  did   not  make  it.   Gal-­‐Or  Benjamin,  on  cosmological  origin  of  thermodynamics,  Nature  230,   1971);  234,  217  (1971);   Gal-­‐Or  Benjamin,  On  The  Origin  of  Irreversibility,  Science,  176,  11  (1972);   178,  119  (1972);  

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7. 8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Gal-­‐Or Benjamin,    Found.  Phys.  6,  407  (1976);  6,  623  (1976);  7,  50  (1977);   Gal-­‐Or  Benjamin,  Cosmology,  Physics  and  Philosophy  (CPP),  Volumes  I  and   II,  Springer  Verlag,  New  York,  1981,  1983,  1987,  Volumes  I  and  2  in  522-­‐ page,   Hard-­‐Cover   worldwide   acclaimed   book,   based   on   Refers.   5   to   10;   "Gravitism",   "Havayism",   '"The   New   Astrophysical   School"   ,   still   in   high   demand  nowdays.      Gal-­‐Or,   Chair,   Int'l   Conference   on   relativistic   and   Classical   thermodynamics,   Pittsburgh,   April   1969,   Procedding   Book   1970.   Chair   prevented  Prigogine  to  lecture  on  his  rejected  false  proof  of  the  origin  of   the  2nd  law.    Gamov's  book  on  the  expanding  universe.  As  undergraduate  student  I  read   there   about   Einstein's   background,   his   field   equations     and   apparently   Gomov's   predictions   about   270   degrees   below   zero   C   cosmic   voids   between   all     galaxies   receding   away   from   each   other   –   expanding   voids   that   rule   intergalactic   dark   cold   spaces   between   all       galaxies   and   the   OLBERSE   PARADOX   RE   WHY   THE   NIGHT   SKY   IS   SO   DRK   AND   COLD?   And   the  affrmation  of  the  expanding  voids  by  Hubble  –  extensive  reading  tht   had   caused   a   serch   for   physical   links   between   the   voids-­‐expansion   aand   non-­‐expanding   stars   and   gaalaxies,   Gravity   Physics   and   the   asymmetric   2nd  law  of  thermodynamics.  References  5  to  10.    Associted   facts:       With   that   conviction   I   refuted   Mr.   S.   Zeidman's   final   "Thermo   Exam",   claiming   the   2nd   law   of   Thermodynamics   is   based   on   dissipating   radiated   energy   from   stars   &   galaxies   into   expanding,   cold   dark  space,  a  claim  that  he  considered  a  bad  joke,  and  failed  me,  only  to   cause   a   scandal   at   the   Technion,   claiming   a   Dr.   Degree   should   not   be   granted   due   to   said   FAILURE   TO   PASS   HIS   "THERO   EXAM"   in   1957.     At   that   time,   in   1963/4,   the   cosmic   background   radiation   was   discovered,   proving  not  only  the  prediction,  but  overthrowing  the  steady-­‐state  theory   of  Fred  Hoyle,  Herman  Bondi  and  Tommy  Gold.  My  contested  thermo  was   thus   presented   before   a   committee   headed   by   Professors   William   "Bill"   Resnick   and   Reuel   Shinaar.   Dr.   Degree   was   next   granted   with   "Flying   Colors".      Gal-­‐Or   Benjamin,     "Vectored   Propulsion,   Supermaneuverability   and   Robot  Aircraft,  Springer  Verlag,  1989,  1990,  still  in  high  demand.  

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13.

 On   HYPATIA:     A.   Fitzgerald,   Letter   of     Synesius   of   Cyrene   to   Hypathia,   London,   (1926);   Grand   Commentaire,   de   Théon   d'Alexandrie   aux   'Tables   faciles'  de  Ptolémée,  Livre  II,  III,  Vatican  City,  1985,  1991;  Commentaries   de   Pappus   et   de   Théon   d'Alexandrie   sur   l'Almageste   Tome   III.   Théon   d'Alexandrie,   Rome,   19;   The   calculation   of   an   eclipse   of   the   sun   according   to   Theon   of   Alexandria,   in   Proceedings   of   the   International   Congress   of   Mathematicians,   1,   209-­‐219,   (1950),   Providence,   1952;   Marinus   de   Naplouse  -­‐  un  commentaire  au  'Petit  commentaire'  de  Théon,  Janus  63  (1-­‐ 3),  167-­‐194,  1976;  Théon  d'Alexandrie  et  les  'Tables  faciles'  de  Ptolémée,   Arch.   Internat.   Hist.   Sci.   35   (114-­‐115,   106-­‐123)   1985;   'Commentaire   à   l'Almageste'   de   Théon   d'Alexandrie,   Antiquité   Classique,   56,   201-­‐219,   1987;   O.   Neugebauer,   A   history   of   ancient   mathematical   astronomy,   New   York,   (1975);   A.   Khan,   Hypatia;   Authorhouse,   (2001);   K.   Chares,   Hypatia:   New   Foes   with   an   Old   Face,   Kessinger   Publishing,   (1997);   A.   Margaret,   Hypatia’s  Heritage:  A  history  of  Women  in  Science  from  Antiquity  Through   the   Ninetheenth   Century;   I.   Mueller,   L.S.   Grinstein   &   P.   J.   Campbell   Women   of   Mathematics:   A   Biobibliographic   Sourcebook.   New   York:   Greenwood   Press,   (1987);   M.   M.   Mangasarian,.   The   Martyrdom   of   Hypatia,   (1915);   J.   Bregman,   Synesius   of   Cyrene:   Philosopher-­‐bishop.   Berkley:   University   of   California   Press   (1982);   M.   B.   Ogilvie,   Women   in   science:   Antiquity   through   the   nineteenth   century.   MIT   Press,   (1986);   Hypatia  -­‐  Physics,  culture  and  sense  of  duty,  Spanish  university  (2006);  T  L.   Heath,   A   History   of   Greek   Mathematics,   Oxford,   (1921);   W.     Müller,   Das   isoperimetrische   Problem   im   Altertum   mit   einer   übersetzung   der   Abhandlung   des   Zenodoros   nach   Theon   von   Alexandrien,   Sudhoffs   Arch.   37   (1953),   39-­‐71,   (1953);   P.   Pingree,   An   illustrated   Greek   astronomical   manuscript:   Commentary   of   Theon   of   Alexandria   on   the   'Handy   tables'   and   scholia   and   other   writings   of   Ptolemy   concerning   them,   J.   Warburg,   Courtauld   Inst.,   45,   195   (1982);   Reports   by   the   Department   of   Mathematics,   St.   Andrews   University   in   Scotland;   Carl   Sagan,   Cosmos;   Maria   Dzielska,   Hypatia   of   Alexandria;   Hypathia:   A   Journal   of   Feminist   Philosophy;     Wessel,   Susan.  Cyril   of   Alexandria   and   the   Nestorian   Controversy:  The  Making  of  a  Saint  and  a  Heretic.  Oxford,  2004.  ISBN  0-­‐ 19-­‐926846-­‐0.  

14.

J. T.  Nielsen;  A.  Guffanti;  S.  Sarkar  (21  October  2016).  "Marginal  evidence   for   cosmic   acceleration   from   Type   Ia   supernovae".  Nature   Scientific   Reports.  6:   35596.  arXiv:1506.01354   Bibcode:2016NatSR...635596N.  doi:10.1038/srep35596.  

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15.

Wiltshire, David   L.   (2007).   "Exact   Solution   to   the   Averaging   Problem   in   Cosmology".  Physical   Review   Letters.  99  (25):   251101.  arXiv:0709.0732  .  Bibcode:2007PhRvL..99y1101W.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.251101.  P MID  18233512  

16.

14 Mattsson,   Teppo   (2007).   "Dark   energy   as   a   mirage".  Gen.   Rel.   Grav.  42  (3):   567–599.  arXiv:0711.4264  .  Bibcode:2010GReGr..42..567M.  doi:10.1007/s10714-­‐009-­‐0873-­‐z.  

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15 Tsagas,   Christos   G.   (2011).   "Peculiar   motions,   accelerated   expansion,   and   the   cosmological   axis".  Physical   Review   D.  84  (6):   063503.  arXiv:1107.4045  .  Bibcode:2011PhRvD..84f3503T.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.84.063503.  

18.

Stuart Gillespie   (21   October   2016).  "The   universe   is   expanding   at   an   accelerating   rate   –   or   is   it?".  University   of   Oxford   -­‐   News   &   Events   -­‐   Science  Blog  (WP:NEWSBLOG).  

19.

Clifton, Timothy;   Ferreira,   Pedro   (April   2009).  "Does   Dark   Energy   Really   Exist?".  Scientific   American.  300(4):   48– 55.  Bibcode:2009SciAm.300d..48C.  doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0409-­‐ 48.  PMID  19363920.  Retrieved  April  30,  2009.  

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Wiltshire, D.   (2008).   "Cosmological   equivalence   principle   and   the   weak-­‐ field   limit".  Physical   Review   D.  78(8):   084032.  arXiv:0809.1183  .  Bibcode:2008PhRvD..78h4032W.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.78.084032.  

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ENTROPY IS NONSENSE; ALL THERMO THEORIES BY EINSTEINIAN GRAVITY REPLACED  
ENTROPY IS NONSENSE; ALL THERMO THEORIES BY EINSTEINIAN GRAVITY REPLACED  
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