Volume 15 No.1
THE UK’S LEADING PUBLICATION SERVING THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES
double uptime in abrasive fluid handling
In this issue:
Solids Handling & Processing Supplement Food & Beverage Industry Focus Special Energy Focus IN PRINT
MOBILE – THE UK’S NO.1 MEDIA FOR THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS INDUSTRIES
4 types of interface. 16 process streams. 150,000 barrels per day. Zero margin for error.
This is why level matters. Reliable interface level measurement keeps production flowing. If water and oil are not separated effectively, you face processing problems, equipment failures, production loss, fines and shutdowns. That’s why Magnetrol® matters. Our technologies are proven to accurately measure total level and emulsion layers, from upstream gun barrel tanks to downstream boots. So you get effective separation and true process optimization. That’s critical. Because when it comes to interface, level matters.
n your applications ©2019 Magnetrol International
Download the new Interface White Paper at interface.magnetrol.com
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FEATURED ARTICLES Safely extending operational intelligence
from the control room to the plant floor
PRODUCT SECTIONS PAGE
NEWS & EVENTS
04 – 06
What does the future hold for SCADA?
08 & 10-11
Food Industry Focus Power SUPPLY
Health & Safety
Serving up finance: OEMs can help their customers in the food and beverage sector embrace digitalisation with integrated finance
13 – 25
28 – 32
Heating & Cooling
36 – 38
42 – 43
CROSS CONTAMINATION FOOD INSPECTION RISKS RECEIVE HYGIENIC HAND
Digital Farms to Supermarket Smart Shelves – A New Era of Connections
49 51 – 77
Hidden truths about cooling system water filtration
RF & Microwave Material measurements: techniques and applications
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Is gas generation the solution to rising energy costs?
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All product announcements published in Process Industry Informer are paid for. All copy submitted for publication in Process Industry Informer must be legal and must comply with the British Code of Advertising Practice and is accepted for publication, or not, at the publishers’ absolute discretion. When deemed necessary all copy may be edited and classified at the publishers’ discretion. All material contained in Process Industry Informer is published in good faith, but it is emphasised that the publishers do not in circumstances accept responsibility for the accuracy or otherwise of any advertisement or message published (nor is any kind of warranty expressed or implied by such publication) and that the publishers specifically disclaim all and any liability to advertisers, readers and user of any kind for loss or damage of any nature whatsoever and however arising, whether due to inaccuracy, error, omission or any other cause, and whether on the part of the publishers of Process Industry Informer, or their servants or agents, or any other person. Although it is the intention of the publishers in general to run copy as supplied by advertisers, advertorial items headings, which are not charged for, will be selected by the Editor, and other minor changes may be made, at the Editor’s discretion, for the sake of the clarity, to avoid offence, for legal reasons or to ensure conformity to house style. Copy supplied over length will be cut to the amount paid for. Units and abbreviations will be standardised in accordance with house style. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted by any means without the prior written consent of the publishers.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
News & Events
ECHA proposes to restrict intentionally added microplastics ECHA has submitted a restriction proposal for microplastic particles that are intentionally added to mixtures used by consumers or professionals. If adopted, the restriction could reduce the amount of microplastics released to the environment in the EU by about 400 thousand tonnes over 20 years.
Collaboration tackles fatberg scourge at source The Grease Contractors Association (GCA), which represents best practice in the maintenance of grease traps and management systems in food establishments, has more than doubled its membership over the last year. The association is administered through British Water and now boasts 17 members. Plans for 2019 include: • Developing a code of practice for installing and maintaining grease traps
Automotive Manufacturing Leads the Way as Digital Factory Market Grows to US$673 Billion in 2030 The Digital Factory market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of 33% to reach US$673 billion in 2026. According to a new report published by ABI Research, a market-foresight advisory firm providing strategic guidance on the most compelling transformative technologies, these sales include the actual hardware revenues for entire industrial robots, collaborative robots, connected PLCs, intelligent industrial battery management systems, electric motors, pumps, tank management systems and smart glasses as well as data and analytics service revenues, device and app platform revenues, connection revenues, network service revenues, professional service revenues and security service revenues for all the above applications plus asset tracking and other equipment monitoring. Of these applications, only asset tracking includes connections both on and off the factory floor.
Sally Edgington joins GAMBICA as Test & Measurement Sector Head / Axrem Director GAMBICA, the industry body representing the Instrumentation, Control, Automation and Laboratory Technology industries in the UK, is delighted to announce the recruitment of Sally Edgington as our new sector head for the Test & Measurement Sector and Axrem Director.
BCAS launches free best practice guide for air treatment
• Engaging with water companies and wet wipe manufacturers • Raising awareness of the relationship between food hygiene and grease management in food service establishments
Police and Klüber Lubrication succeed in uncovering falsifier workshops Chinese law enforcement authorities succeeded in uncovering a counterfeiting network in the Guangdong province faking huge amounts of products and packages imitating lubricants of the leading German speciality lubricants manufacturer Klüber Lubrication. Thanks to the rigorous investigation of the Chinese authorities a company was detected which has established an illegal nationwide network including raw material manufacturing, distribution, filling facilities, packaging material suppliers and warehouses, as well as shell companies covering the illegal business.
Bite size news
This year International Women in Engineering Day (INWED) is “Transforming The Future” Sunday 23 June will mark 2019’s International Women in Engineering Day (#INWED19), where participants will be encourage to show the world how they are ‘transforming the future’ in pursuit of more diversity in engineering. This global awareness campaign, coordinated by the Women’s Engineering Society (WES), aims to increase the profile of women in engineering worldwide and focus attention on the amazing career opportunities available to girls in engineering and related industries. The theme will be supported by the hashtags #INWED19 and #TransformTheFuture.
Poster prize renamed in honour of process safety pioneer Sam Mannan
The British Compressed Air Society (BCAS) has launched a free best practice guide to help operators and specifiers make an informed choice on which type of compressed air treatment equipment is best suited to the air quality required.
Sam Mannan, a pioneer in process safety and the late Executive Director of the Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center (MKOPSC), will be honoured with a prize in his name at the Institution of Chemical Engineers’ (IChemE) premier process safety conference Hazards 29.
Entitled ‘The Filtration and Drying of Compressed Air,’ the 60-page guide is available for free download from the BCAS website at www.bcas.org.uk/ airtreatment and has been produced with the input of leading engineers from BCAS’s members in the field of air treatment and purification.
Mannan passed away on 11 September 2018. He spent 20 years at the MKOPSC and developed it into a leading international process safety research and education centre. At the MKOPSC, he helped establish undergraduate certificates and postgraduate qualifications in process safety.
Chinese Law Enforcement Authorities Counterstrike Product Counterfeiting
Smarter, greener, cleaner steel: £35 million boost for research to transform UK steel industry A smart, green and clean steel industry will come a giant step closer thanks to a new £35 million research network, which will see steelmakers and University experts work together on a seven-year research programme to transform the UK steel sector. Its work will be concentrated on two areas: • Zero waste iron and steelmaking, with the aim of making the industry carbon-neutral by 2040 • Smart steel processing The work of SUSTAIN is projected to: • Double UK steel manufacturers’ gross value added (GVA) by 2030 • Boost jobs in the industry to 35,000 • Increase productivity by 15%
CBA Survey Confirms Industry’s Concerns About UK Reach Post-Brexit A survey of the UK’s chemical supply chain by the Chemical Business Association (CBA) reveals that three-quarters of companies do not own the testing data for registrations they currently hold under the European Union’s REACH legislation (EU REACH). This fact confirms the industry’s worst fears and creates a major impediment to the Government’s plans to transpose EU REACH into UK law following Brexit. The online survey, conducted between 6-15 February 2019, covered 38 key companies in the UK chemical supply chain that currently hold 351 registrations under EU REACH. Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
News & Events
Practical Aspects of PROFINET, PROFIBUS and IO-Link
PI UK’s free-to-attend seminar addresses the key practical issues arising from the use of digital communications technologies in automated manufacturing and process industry applications, with particular attention being paid to Industry 4.0 and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Covering key application areas such as control systems and energy management, pulp & paper, chemical, utilities, pharmaceutical, mechanical handling and logistics, robotics, automotive engineering, electrical and electronics assembly, packaging and printing, this free-to-attend event focuses on the practical aspects of using PROFINET, PROFIBUS and IO-Link, from system design and safety considerations through to fault-finding and maintenance.
ULTRAFLO U1000MKII-FM THE NEW ALTERNATIVE TO CUTTING PIPES AND MECHANICAL METERS FROM MICRONICS, FOR SIMPLE, LOW COST FLOW MEASUREMENT FROM OUTSIDE THE PIPE!
Free seminar June 26, Manchester
Supported by an exhibition with demonstrations of actual tools used in configuration and maintenance, the seminar will be of great value to Designers, Production/System Engineers, Instrument Technicians/Engineers and C&I Engineers involved in the design, operation and maintenance of modern automated factories and process plant. More information and registration www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/practicalaspects-of-profinet-profibus-and-io-linktickets-59708396421)
Eclipse Magnetics Becomes Official UK Partner for Sesotec
We are pleased to announce that Eclipse Magnetics is now the official Partner for Sesotec products in the UK. As one of the leading specialists for contamination detection and materials sorting, Sesotec is a perfect partner for Eclipse, increasing its range of products significantly. In addition to its own high performance magnetic separation and detection systems, Eclipse Magnetics is now able to offer customers Sesotec’s impressive range of metal detection systems, X-ray detection systems, and magnet systems. Martyn Cotterill, General Sales Manager for Foreign Body Removal Systems at Eclipse Magnetics said: “We are delighted to be able to offer Sesotec products to our customers in the UK. As official UK integrators for the Sesotec range, our partnership is a fantastic step forward for Eclipse Magnetics, and we look forward to a successful ongoing relationship with them.” With headquarters in Germany, Sesotec has a global footprint which includes a total of seven subsidiaries in Singapore, China, the US, Italy, India, Canada and Thailand, as well as more than 60 partners in all key markets around the world, including Eclipse Magnetics in the UK.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Pipe range has been extended to 6" pipes.
The U1000MKII-FM is an ultrasonic permanent/ fixed clamp-on flow metering solution for measuring flow rate and total flow with a volume pulse output and optional Modbus or 4-20mA flow proportional output, which can be used as a stand alone meter or as part of an integral management system. Simple to install – connect power and enter the pipe inside diameter, adjust the sensors and clamp-on the pipe – no specialist skills or tools required!
Now available through leading magnetic technology experts Eclipse Magnetics, the Sesotec Intuity metal detector for conveyor applications promises the highest levels of product quality, and industry leading technology. Its intuitive set up and operation ensures minimal training requirements, facilitating ease of use for operators, and time saving operation. The Intuity is not only extremely reliable, it enables full compliance with all major food safety standards and is audit ready.
A cost effective alternative to traditional in-line meter installation, plus dry servicing, providing minimum downtime and maximum availability!
Suitable for: Steel, Plastic and Copper pipe, 25mm – 180mm OD
Compact, rugged and reliable, the U1000MKIIFM has been designed to provide sustained performance in industrial environments.
MADE IN BRITAIN
For further information contact Eclipse Magnetics Ltd, on: Tel: +44 (0) 114 225 0600 Fax: +44 (0) 114 225 0610 email@example.com www.eclipsemagnetics.com
For fur ther information call us on
+ 44 ( 0 )1628 810456
or email firstname.lastname@example.org w w w.micronicsflowmeters.com
News & Events
Hycontrol Launches MPQC-Accredited Silo Safety Training Courses
VinylPlus Sustainability Forum 2019: Accelerating Innovation ‘Accelerating Innovation’ is the theme of the seventh VinylPlus Sustainability Forum which will explore key drivers of innovation that support the PVC industry’s targets within the circular economy when representatives from the entire value chain meet in Prague, Czech Republic on May 9th and 10th 2019.
Leading UK level measurement and silo protection supplier Hycontrol has confirmed details of its new silo safety training courses, which have been audited and accredited by the Mineral Products Qualifications Council (MPQC). The courses cover all aspects of silo pressure safety during tanker deliveries and essential maintenance of safety equipment. Hycontrol is now taking training bookings for the rest of 2019. Having worked closely with the quarry and aggregates sectors for over thirty years, Hycontrol has become one of the most experienced companies to specify and supply level and pressure equipment in the UK.
Redditch, Worcestershire headquarters. Recently-refurbished training facilities will accommodate groups of 8-14 delegates for a detailed exploration of the causes of silo over-pressurisation, the risks involved, practical solutions, and much more – with experienced engineers and trainers providing hands-on demonstrations. Hycontrol’s training programmes and training providers are fully accredited by the MPQC. A certificate of attendance is provided to each attendee, with the option of an official MPQC certificate.
Organised by VinylPlus®, the Voluntary Commitment to sustainable development by the European PVC industry, the 2019 Forum will focus on the role innovation can play in the sector’s ability to deliver future economic, social and environmental sustainability. The two-day 2019 Forum is a ‘not-tobe-missed’ event for VinylPlus members and their stakeholders to share insight on how technological innovations supported by digitalisation are changing the PVC industry and its approach to sustainable development.
Distinguished speakers from the European Commission and Parliament, Czech Ministry of Environment, United Nations, NGOs and academia will join industry and market experts in addressing the driving forces of innovation relating to sustainability and the circular economy in the plastics industry. Featuring keynote speeches, panel discussions and interactive debate, the comprehensive programme will cover wide-ranging topics from on-going progress in areas such as PVC product competitiveness, use of recyclates and product design to how the building and construction sector is adapting to digital times. For the preliminary programme and online registration go here https://vinylplus.eu/community/vinylsustainability-forum
Full details of the training programmes and their contents can be found at hycontrol.com/services/training. hycontrol.com / 01527 406800
The in-depth training courses for UK industry representatives will be held at the company’s
‘Brexit: The Seven Major Risks To The Continuity Of Your Production Line That You Haven’t Considered’ With it estimated that 53% of all UK imports in 2017 came from the EU, UK-based manufacturing businesses should be planning right now on how to pre-empt increased costs, delays and spare parts shortages affecting production line continuity, both in the lead up to, and following, Brexit. And yet, according to the British Chamber of Commerce, nearly two-thirds of UK companies have still not carried out a risk assessment on the impact of a ‘No Deal’ (Hard) Brexit. Consequentially, large parts of the British economy are simply not prepared to minimise impact and maintain production output levels to satisfy customer demands. Amidst the political uncertainty, Brammer Buck & Hickman - the UK’s leading industrial supplies specialist -has conducted its own extensive Brexit survey amongst their supplier database. From this survey, Brammer Buck & Hickman has identified seven key threats to production line continuity and stock maintenance, which have been detailed in the white paper – ‘Brexit: The Seven Major Risks To The Continuity Of Your Production Line That You Haven’t Considered’. This white paper
includes devised recommendations and plans for the various logistical impacts that Brexit will bring. A key example of one such threat can be found in the supply chain, where increased complexity and cross-border duties and regulations will in turn lead to increased costs and inventory management challenges for UK businesses. The amount of work required to manage this is likely to increase significantly.
To read more on these potential threats and use the Brammer Buck & Hickman diagnostic tool to highlight areas where you can help make your business ready ahead of Brexit, visit here brammerbuckandhickman.com/pdfs/brexit.pdf
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
By Jürgen Harwalik, DeltaV™ Product Manager Europe, Emerson Automation Solutions.
Safely extending operational intelligence from the control room to the plant floor
The DeltaV™ Mobile app provides a secure platform that allows managers, engineers, and operators to have their operations at their fingertips, whenever they need it.
In the process industries, devices such as smart phones, tablets and laptops are increasingly being used to provide personnel with mobile access to operational data. As Emerson’s Jürgen Harwalik explains, companies should be looking to create an effective mobile HMI strategy that balances the need for flexible data access with cybersecurity requirements. Mobile solutions are increasingly being integrated into automation workflows within the process industries, to provide personnel with secure access to operational intelligence beyond the confines of the control room. Web browsers on mobile devices such as smart phones, tablets or rugged laptops enable engineers, operators, managers or maintenance technicians to monitor real-time process data, diagnostics, trends and alarms, regardless of their location or whether it is outside of regular business hours. Monitoring operations in this way facilitates faster and better-informed decisions, and thereby helps to improve plant performance, productivity and safety. To successfully provide flexible access to operational data while also implementing effective measures to safeguard their systems against unauthorised access or cyberattack, it is essential for companies to creative an effective mobile HMI strategy. Different users across an organisation will expect to have access to different information. A successful strategy for mobile HMIs requires a plan for addressing the needs of all users, from the desk-bound employee that needs to check production status on an ad-hoc basis, to the field operator that needs to closely monitor the process, and everyone in between. Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
The strategy should also consider what level of collaboration is needed between users. Easily accessible collaboration tools can enhance the mobile HMI experience by providing better ways to share information with other users. Before selecting specific technologies and tools, organisations must address information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) concerns to ensure a smooth path to implementation. One of the largest concerns around OT is the engineering required – both initially and for ongoing configuration maintenance to keep systems synchronised.
Native integration An emerging capability in this area is the concept of native integration, in which process control systems and mobile technologies are designed to share and securely transfer information without requiring duplication of the system configuration, thereby resulting in reduced engineering work. For example, graphics, alarms, trends and real-time data from an operator workstation can be automatically viewed in a web browser on mobile devices without having to reconfigure the control system on the mobile platform. Native integration among systems and technologies also enables more straightforward tasks for the facility’s IT group. Having mobile architectures that employ similar interoperability, security levels and communications simplifies implementation. For example, using similar architectures can enable a simpler set-up, optimising the use of ports on a network and making it easier for IT to track which ports are being used. After evaluating implementation plans, organisations can then compare specific technologies – namely remote operator stations, HTML5-ready mobile HMIs and mobile applications – and assess how each one contributes to their ideal mobile HMI strategy.
Remote operator stations Remote operator stations, which can be in the form of full-featured tablets or hardened laptops, give mobile team members the same visibility and defined control as
an operator in the control room. They reside either on the control network or in the ‘demilitarised zone’ – where a firewall protects an organisation’s internal network from attack – and can be particularly useful as part of a mobile HMI strategy when facilities have small number of staff and operators must be mobile. Remote operator stations provide full access to real-time data, diagnostics, trends, alarms and operator screens in the field. They enable operators and technicians to perform tasks such as confirming manual steps in a batch process, commissioning devices locally, troubleshooting and bringing equipment back online. Tasks that previously required constant verbal communication between the central control room operator and the person in the field – such as loop check-out or valve stroke tests – can be performed by a single person, thereby increasing efficiency. Secure, scalable, and reliable communications enhance collaboration and remove misunderstandings and oversights that can occur when people interpret data from different sources. Software applications also allow field workers to record their process observations directly into the system, thereby avoiding transcription errors. However, a major concern with a remote operator station is whether to allow operational interactions at all from a mobile device – and if allowed, should there be specific, mobile device limitations? For example, does location matter? What if the device is off-site? Mobile, view-only approaches provide alternative approaches for organisation with these types of concerns.
HTML5 mobile-ready HMI With an HTML5 mobile-ready HMI, any device with a browser – such as smart phones, tablets, laptops and operator workstations – allows remote or field users to see the same information and graphics as they would in the control room. The ability to easily and securely view this material on-demand from a browser enables personnel to make informed decisions, whenever and wherever they may be located, and eases collaboration between control room personnel and remotely located experts.
Feature Article Mobile applications are the most portable option, travelling wherever the user is and providing secure access via Android and iOS devices. Workflows are streamlined by data being easily combined from multiple sources across the enterprise into simplified, consolidated mobile views that are built for purpose and intuitive to navigate.
Emerson’s DeltaV™ Live is the first HMI to natively support HTML5, allowing remote or field users to see the same information and graphics as they would in the control room.
This option is read-only, with a predefined level of access and detail. Users can view simplified lists of key real-time data, trends, and alarms. Some of the strengths of mobile applications are that they raise situational awareness by providing quick access to alarms in context with process information, and notifications for the most critical alarms can be instantly sent to users.
To minimise security risks, mobile access to operations data can be limited to read-only, with cybersecurity builtin, such as by enforcing strict user permissions, ensuring that only authorised personnel can access specific data, depending on their role and other factors such as location. Additionally, access from mobile devices can be limited to connectivity from business networks that are isolated from the control network by firewalls. Overall, the HTML5 mobile-ready HMI gives users the same secure data access and analysis power that a full operator station can provide, the flexibility and convenience of mobile access and collaborative tools – without the security risks of making changes to control and operations.
Mobile applications With their highly tailorable, view-only data access, mobile applications are broadly used as secure technologies that encourage personnel to remain informed and engaged wherever they are. This mobile HMI option enables deployment to more personnel and increased collaboration.
Emerson’s DeltaV™ Mobile app features custom notifications that provide personnel across an organisation with fast access to essential information.
These applications also strongly support personnel collaboration. Workers inside and outside the facility can share data and troubleshoot in real time, sending screen shots, links, messages and emails with intuitive native mobile app functionality. Sharing knowledge and capitalising on the experience of subject matter experts around the world enables faster and more accurate decision-making.
As with HTML5 HMIs, mobile applications access data via a server that resides on the business network, so access to the control system is isolated by multiple firewalls between the business network and the control system network. User authentication, device whitelisting, read-only access and data encryption further promotes secure connectivity.
Emerson’s DeltaV™ Remote Operator Station, shown on the Panasonic Toughpad® FZ-G1, provides a full operator station experience in a rugged, easy-to-use mobile form.
Total cost of ownership The success of a mobile HMI strategy will depend on selecting a solution that matches the OT and IT strategies, and that can be easily incorporated into the daily operations of personnel. Many technologies can provide potential solutions, but the ideal solution will deliver a strong lifecycle value that balances easy, low-cost upfront implementation with security and minimal long-term engineering. Whether a remote operator workstation, an HTML5 mobile-ready HMI or a native mobile application, these solutions can be securely and easily integrated into an organisation’s daily processes and work practices, to ultimately yield the productivity, performance and safety improvements desired. Click here to learn about Emerson’s mobile HMI solutions for its DeltaV™ distributed control and safety instrumented systems.
HARTING offers innovative connectivity solutions for the IIoT world HARTING has developed a number of innovative, targeted connectivity solutions for the IIoT world of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). The fourth Industrial Revolution is witnessing the ever-advancing convergence of the physical with the digital world. The drive to generate added value from data acquired from machines has seen a rapid rise in the number of sensors and actuators. As a result, networking in machines and systems and the attendant number of connections is increasing in leaps and bounds. In the future, every machine and every component in factory halls will exchange large amounts of information and data. Infrastructure adapts to new demands in order to ensure that it remains compatible for the coming IIoT revolution and that the demand for ever more intelligent sensors can be met. Devices are getting smaller and smarter, and connectors are developing in step with this trend. HARTING started the process of standardising new interface standards with the ix Industrial® Ethernet connector concept in 2016, and today this device is a market-available connector that enables device manufacturers to design their products up to 40% smaller.
In order to manufacture devices efficiently, connectivity must support an optimal manufacturing process. SMT/SMD surfacemount assembly technology for all interfaces is required to achieve efficient production. In order to further support automated production, HARTING now supplies printed circuit board sockets on rolls in which device sockets are accommodated in a way that is compatible with use in pick & place equipment. Subsequent handling of the interfaces on the devices is also geared towards performance. Cutting assembly time while simultaneously simplifying and improving operation is one of the indispensable cornerstones of a modern interface. The PushPull locking technique represents a very significant aspect here, since previous interlocks such as screw technology are no longer adequate for ever shrinking connections. As a result, the handling aspect of connectivity is assuming increasing importance. HARTING PushPull technology increases operating safety and efficiency during use.
In order to also make the power-supply component of devices simultaneously smaller yet more powerful, HARTING is enhancing its M12 Power series by adding the standardised K coding for power supply use. Offering 7.5 kW at 630 V and 16 A, the device interface provides enough power for compact yet powerful drives and represents a future space-saving alternative to 7/8-inch solutions, while also keeping in step with the miniaturisation trend. For further information contact HARTING Limited, on: +44 (0) 1604 827500 salesUK@HARTING.com harting.com/UK/en-gb
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
By Natalie Turner, Sales Director at P4A
What does the future hold for SCADA?
As Edge Computing and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) gather pace, many businesses are wondering what automation technologies will blossom in the fourth industrial revolution. Will Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems still be part of the Factory of the Future and is so what will they look like? A limitless system The first aspect that next-generation SCADA will need to address is scalability and flexibility, in order to meet the requirements of businesses of different sizes as well as support their growth. More precisely, the systems should be able to control micro-environments as well as multiple plants. Scalable SCADA is also fundamental due to the continuously growing volume of process and machine data that needs to be stored and analysed.
Carl Nash, Technical Director at Products4Automation (P4A), the exclusive UK distributor of Progea’s Automation Platform.NExT, looks at how the latest SCADA platforms will deliver in Industry 4.0 applications There is no reason to think that SCADA systems will retire any time soon. In fact, their key features in remote monitoring, supervisory control, reporting, alarms and alerts make SCADA a mainstay in industrial automation applications. Even as IIoT and Edge Computing develop and become increasingly fundamental in industrial applications, they will certainly not replace SCADA. Instead, they will add new capabilities to SCADA platforms, as they can contribute to strengthening industrial communications, improving plant efficiency and performance whilst reducing downtime.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
It is important for SCADA to be able to integrate multivendor devices. As an industry sector expands and continues to implement Industry 4.0 applications, factory equipment will be installed and upgraded at different times. Therefore, new devices need to coexist and interact with existing ones, even when using different technologies, protocols or vendor conventions. This is the only way to create a fully interconnected factory without any islands of data. SCADA developers can address openness issues by adhering to standards such as the Open Platform Communications Unified Architecture (OPC UA), which promotes manufacturer and platform-independent industrial communications.
When implemented, Cloud- or Web-compatible SCADA platforms need to feature proper security and reliability measures. It is clearly vital to ensure continuous protection of sensitive or critical data as well as real-time monitoring.
An eye for innovation In addition to increased connectivity on different levels, other emerging technologies are likely to shape the future look of SCADA. These solutions include advanced visualisation functionalities that improve ease of use. Key examples are mixed reality technologies, such as augmented reality (AR), to unite process equipment with its SCADA automation data. Expert SCADA developers are up-to-date with the latest technology trends and always keep an eye on what other innovations could improve SCADA systems and support manufacturers. By relying on expert SCADA developers, manufacturing industries can be sure of staying ahead with innovations in plant automation with high-quality, reliable and constantly improving solutions.
Moving to the Edge Other attractive tools for SCADA systems ready for Industry 4.0 are the Cloud and the Web, which help to target scalability, comprehensive access to data and remote control. Thanks to these technologies, plant operators can access relevant data from anywhere at any time, when equipment requires human attention or intervention. As a result, any issue on the manufacturing line can be quickly addressed, minimising downtime.
Operating in the Fast Lane Contextualize Time-Series Data for Smarter Analytics By Edwin van Dijk, TrendMiner
In the world of IIoT, data is considered to be the new oil. But the full potential will only be unleashed if the operational context can be taken into account when analysing, monitoring or predicting operational performance. Shedding necessary light onto time-series data through dynamic contextualization enables you to take your processes into the highest gear of operational excellence, and your organization into the future. Factories today are capturing and storing an enormous amount of data directly or indirectly related to the production process. All this captured data typically ends up in best of breed business applications serving specific operational purposes. Some of the data is stored in historians, other data goes into the quality information system, maintenance management system, incident management system, etc. Often all this data is unconnected and so the question is whether you can find the relation between the data in various repositories, when you analyse your process data in your historian? Is all the data captured in your organization illuminating your production facilities so you can operate faster? In many cases we see that if a factory is run by experts, even with all their knowledge in their minds, you’re basically running your factory in the dark. Self-service analytics of time-series data already sheds light on the operational performance. But if you have all the available contextual information available, captured during production and leveraged from other applications, you have a much better visibility to your operations. In analogy, you can drive much faster over an illuminated highway than in the dark. That’s also the case where contextual information helps you to analyse faster, run more efficiently and have more yield.
Making use of your sensor-generated time-series data captured in your historian gives a lot of possibilities to improve operational performance through use of self-service analytics, as this practical example shows:
Practical Use Cases: Assure stable process performance by avoiding distillation column trips
In a continuous production process the distillation columns in a specialty chemicals plant are used for separating methyl acetate and methanol by adding water on top to break the azeotrope. A temperature controller near the bottom of the column is designed to make sure no methyl acetate is being entrained. A pressure spike recently occurred, which negatively impacted production and quality. The goal is to find out whether this was a single incident or if it happened before, and if so, whether a root cause of the issue could be found.
To check if the situation had occurred before, the pressure profile was used for finding similar behaviour in all historical time-series data. By performing a similarity search a nd overlaying the results a very similar event (>90% match) was found, which happened a few months ago. By overlaying the results, the pattern of the events shows the same shape, which naturally led the engineers to believe they might be due to similar cause. Instead of searching manually for potential root causes, the Recommendation Engine was used to get suggestions from the self-service analytics solution. The subject matter expert can easily iterate to find the insights he or she is looking for. In this case, quite rapidly, a number of interesting tags
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
were suggested by the software for the engineer to assess further. It became apparent that the combination of high reflux with insufficient boil-up or steam to the reboiler (steam evaporation) during the start-up phase of the column were the main causes of the spike. Through the recommendation engine, it also became clear that a higher tray temperature in the column is a nice early indicator for the pressure spike. A monitor is set up that will alert the production engineer as soon as the temperature starts dropping, so timely actions can be taken and the consequences mitigated. The analysis has shown that an undesired combination of process conditions will lead to unstable column operation, which in turn leads to bad separation and bad bottom product quality. The monitors that have been set up,will give the engineers and operators sufficient time to react and avoid these situations going forward. Each event would realistically lead to several hours of lost production and degraded quality. At an average throughput of 25t/h, this leads to more than 100 tons of off-spec product saved per event, and inversely, 100 tons of additional on-spec produced by avoiding the event altogether.
Smarter analytics with contextual data
The use of captured time-series data, in combination with the knowledge of your process and asset experts, makes you operate faster and improve overall performance. As said before, direct and indirect operational data is being captured by various business applications. If this data can be linked to the time-series data during trend analysis even more operational improvements can be gained.
A first logical addition of contextual information is tying the quality test data from the laboratory to the process data. Especially in case of batch production, where the context of a batch (such as batch number, cycle time..) can be linked to the test data from the laboratory. In this way, each specific batch run is not
only tied to its process data but also its own quality data. This extra linked information enables quicker assessment of the best runs for creating golden batch fingerprints to monitor future batches. It also helps to collect the underperforming batches for starting your analysis to improve the production process.
Running faster leveraging all contextual information?
Whether you have a continuous production process or work in batches, a wide range of contextual data can shed new light on your operational performance. Think of captured events during the production process, such as maintenance stops, process anomalies, asset health information, external events, production losses, etc. Also degrading performance of equipment can indicate that the product quality will be impacted, which can be used to assure product quality. All this contextual information helps to better understand operational performance and give new starting points for optimization projects when using your advanced analytics platform.
Process Industry Informer â€˘ March â€“ April 2019
Figure 5. Many factors influence operational performance and therefor the product quality, which can be included to analyse, monitor and predict operational performance.
For further information contact TrendMiner, on: +32 11 263830 email@example.com. www.trendminer.com
Many companies in the process manufacturing market already leverage their time-series data for improving operational performance. The best results are gained when subject matter experts can analyse the data themselves with use of self-service advanced analytics software. When data from other business applications can be tied to the timeseries data, new insights can be gained. Data in those business applications give new starting points for process improvements. The insights may lead to monitors capturing new events for future deeper assessment of the production process, and thus resulting in a continuous improvement cycle. This approach will help reducing costs related to waste, energy and maintenance and increase yield with quality products. Overall leading to improved profitability of the site making you operate in the fast lane.
Lowara Gasketed Plate Heat Exchanger (GPX) technology offers maximum efficiency in less space, with outstanding application flexibility. Innovative plate design allows GPX heat exchangers to provide more heat transfer using less space. They perform with one-third to one-fifth the surface area of conventional shell and tube heat exchangers designed for the same application. Their efficient design allows the heat exchanger to be used in a variety of applications and installations, including: District Heating and Cooling, Thermal Storage, Heat Pumps and HVAC.
For UK sales contact 01297 630 230 or visit xylem.com/uk for more information
Food Industry Focus
Industry Focus Including: - Serving Up Finance - Functional Safety - Cross Contamination Risks - Digital Farms
Feature Article Gary Thompson, UK Sales Director Siemens Industries and Markets, Siemens Financial Services (UK)
Serving up finance: OEMs can help their customers in the food and beverage sector embrace digitalisation with integrated finance
Manufacturers in the food and beverage industry are facing a number of key challenges, including increasing productivity and responding to changing consumer demands. These challenges also impact the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) that supply their machines. The sector requires that its OEMs manufacture systems with evershorter run times, greater flexibility, and increased efficiency in order for their customers to stay competitive.1 Industry 4.0 – which refers to digitalised technology brings clear, specific benefits to the food and beverage industry. 2 It introduces highly flexible and totally automated manufacturing that enables new economies of production and it allows businesses to take a product to market more quickly by connecting the supply chain to the production facility through interoperability. Connected and communicating production machinery reduces wastage. This enables more flexible production with shorter swap-over times, provides greater energy and machinery-utilisation transparency and improves overall equipment effectiveness and other key performance factors. 3 Reaching down the food-supply chain, for example, we see that agricultural production benefits from digital data. In the food-processing industry, information on the expected quality of an ingredient might be available even before harvest (e.g., on the basis of data on weather conditions). This information will be relevant for adapting manufacturing processes or sourcing other ingredients. 4 Industry 4.0 can also help with food quality. Shelf life is undeniably a real issue for many food manufacturers; and
for businesses that make fresh products the same day they are shipped, it is important to not overproduce. 5 Digital information flowing up and down the distribution and supply chains improves coordination of supply and demand (which may fluctuate as frequently as each day) to guard against over-ordering and overproducing.
Although, the various dimensions of productivity differ between industries and countries, increased manufacturing productivity – the ability to either produce the same number of products for less, or more products for the same – has a clear and calculable positive effect on costs and margins.
Electronic traceability allows producers to track items from delivery to the supermarket shelf. This is about connecting engineering to production to IT in order to support joint systems and more efficient demand and production planning.6 Similarly, connected and communicating production machinery reduces wastage. This enables more flexible production with shorter swap-over times, provides greater energy and machinery-utilisation transparency and improves overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) and other key performance factors.7
Logistics and goods or materials handling are major areas that derive value from digitalisation. Automatic guided vehicles (AGVs), once the domain of manufacturing operations like automotive plants, are making their way into the Food & Beverage industry and consumer packaging applications, replacing human-operated forklifts for moving raw materials and finished products around the food processing plant and redeploying and reskilling staff. Although the fundamental purpose of automated vehicles is to more cost-effectively move materials in a plant, these vehicles offer other benefits as well, including reduced product damage, reduced inaccuracies, and reduced safety risks.8 It is now an industry-wide expectation among manufacturers that new-generation digitalised technology will reduce costs and increase revenue as standard.9
This effect can be measured using the Digitalisation Productivity Bonus (DPB),10 a financial model devised by Siemens Financial Services (SFS) which estimates the potential gains as a result of investment in digitalised Industry 4.0 technology.11 In the case of the UK food & beverage industry, it is estimated that conversion to digitalised technology could deliver a DPB of between $7.4 billion and $11.5 billion.12 Whilst manufacturers in the food and beverage sector may be aware of the many benefits associated with digitalisation, financial obstacles frequently delay or discourage investment. Access to a range of smart and appropriate financing techniques – Industry 4.0 Finance – is critical to a manufacturer’s ability to sustainably invest in the new fourth-generation of digitalised technology and automation equipment. Industry 4.0 finance covers a range of requirements from the acquisition of a single digitalised piece of equipment, right through to financing a whole new factory. Financing techniques have now been developed to allow an enduser to in effect apply some or all of the Digitalisation Productivity Bonus to fund the digitalised technology and equipment that makes the bonus possible in the first place. In simple terms, these financing methods seek to align payments for the new generation technology with the rate of gain from the Digitalisation Productivity Bonus.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Feature Article Broadly speaking, this can help make the upgrade to digitalised technology affordable and potentially cost neutral (or better) for the end-user.
Examples of Industry 4.0 Finance:
technology and simultaneously present them with a financially sustainable method to invest in digitalisation. OEMs offering an integrated financing solution to their own customers have the potential to enhance their offering and remain competitive. In other cases, the technology provider will refer its customer to one or more finance providers to fund a sale. Integrating finance into their sales proposition allows OEMs to facilitate investment in the latest equipment and technology and help customers to invest sustainably in digitalisation. Complete solutions should be taken into consideration in order to identify the best finance package to effectively digitalise a manufacturing facility’s entire operation – from equipment to software to the production line to the whole enterprise. Between them, this range of Industry 4.0 Finance techniques allows food & beverage manufacturers to access the Digitalisation Productivity Bonus.
OEMs engaged in the manufacture of machinery can leverage these benefits to drive sales, by integrating Industry 4.0 Finance into their overall offering and helping their customers invest in new technology. Such finance arrangements tend to be offered by specialist finance providers that have a deep understanding of how the digitalised technology works. Such financiers are able to work with OEMs to demonstrate how that technology can be practically implemented to deliver the Digitalisation Productivity Bonus as well as other benefits of digitalisation. As the financing arrangement can be an embedded component of the value proposition, OEMs are able to introduce customers to the latest equipment and
R amona Schindler and Chris Pollack, ‘Digitalization benefits for the machine tool industry’ Control Engineering (14 March 2018).
S iemens Financial Services, ‘The Digitalization Productivity Bonus: What value does digitalization offer the Food & Beverage industry?’, Spring 2017
S uzanne Gill, ‘Industry 4.0 and all that…’ Food Processing (16 October 2016)
M cKinsey, Industry 4.0: How to navigate digitization of the manufacturing sector (April 2015).
E ugene Smethurst, ‘Food manufacturers advised to plan for Industry 4.0’ Food Manufacture (15 June 2016).
Gill, Food Processing. Source: original research, Germany.
D aniel Newman, ‘Four Digital Transformation Trends Driving Industry 4.0’ Forbes (12 June 2018).
Siemens Financial Services, ‘The Digitalization Productivity Bonus’, April 2017
The average bonus percentage range has been applied to the total annual revenue of the Food & Beverage manufacturing industry in selected countries across the globe (official data on revenue was taken from official third-party sources).
Average Digitalisation Productivity Bonus data derived from over 60 interviews in 11 countries with international manufacturers, international management consultancies and academic experts (expressed as a percentage of total revenues).
Food processing company eliminates risk of contamination by switching to MasoSine Certa pumps Looking to eliminate the risk of contamination from its positive displacement (PD) pumps, a leading UK manufacturer of dairy-based ingredients has invested in MasoSine Certa 250 pumps from WatsonMarlow Fluid Technology Group (WMFTG). The company now has a total of 10 Certa pumps in operation, all performing the transfer of soft cultured products like yoghurt, butter, cream and soft cheese. High standards With high demands from its blue-chip customer base in terms of productivity and quality, there is little margin for unforeseen downtime or product concerns. With this in mind, two years ago the company’s engineering team highlighted an issue with the potential to cause food contamination.
“Our customer had a number of PD pumps on site, and although they performed well and were food-grade rated, there was always the worry of potential contamination from the wear parts of the pump,” explains the WatsonMarlow’s Food Sector Specialist Eddy Smeaton. “As a result, they started looking for a pump that could do the same job, but which could take away the risk.” By chance, WMFTG was already talking to this customer about a separate dosing pump application, so there was an awareness of the potential of the MasoSine Certa pump. Unlike traditional pumps with rotors that cut through the fluid, Certa’s sinusoidal rotor gently carries product through the pump to dramatically reduce shear, an important factor when handling dairy-based products.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Further advantages delivered by sinusoidal technology include energy efficiency, virtually no pulsation, simplicity, reliability, interchangeable parts and low cost of ownership. Importantly for this company, separation between the wet end and dry end ensures no potential for contamination. Offering EHEDG (Type EL Class I and EL Aseptic Class I) and 3A certification as standard, MasoSine’s Certa is extremely easy to clean for minimal maintenance and downtime. Cleaner than any lobe or circumferential piston pump, a range of seven Certa pumps is available for flow rates to 99,000 l/h and pressures to 15 bar. Design simplicity
“We were invited to visit and give a demonstration of Certa; the customer could see immediately its simple design and lack of wear parts,” says Mr Smeaton. “With a single shaft and single seal, the drive unit is extremely advantageous to their operation.” WMFTG provided the company with a trial pump so that the company could assess its suitability for transferring soft cultured products. Duly impressed, a Certa 250 was installed approximately 18 months ago. The customer has since expanded one of its facilities with the introduction of a new filling machine, for which a Certa 250 was specified. This brings the total number of units in use to 10 Certa 250 pumps, and rising. Each is used for transferring different soft cultured products, either from IBCs to plant or from tanks to plant, or for pushing through pasteurisers. The pumps are also used for blending our ingredients in various viscosities.
In terms of transfer distance, the farthest is 20 metres with a 4 metre head. Flow rate tends to be dictated by other parts of the process.
“Previous PD pumps had always given our customer concern about wear parts, but with the MasoSine Certa this problem is essentially eliminated,” concludes Mr Smeaton. “The customer reports that reliability is excellent and issues such as contamination or leaks are a thing of the past. In addition, issues with suction have been eradicated, while efficiency is improved.” www.wmftg.com
Food Industry Focus
The true value of Functional Safety in Food Processing lines By Jean-Marc Hubsch, Sensata Technologies
Operating food processing systems can be fraught with danger. Sometimes it is the speed of machines that present the greatest risk, or the temperature at which they operate. In other examples the risk is perhaps even more obvious: cutters and slicers, for example, suggest a potential hazard to anyone walking nearby on the factory floor.
to stop and clean down a machine before switching to a different product line, a process that can take a full day. Machines have to be stopped to protect employees from the dangers of moving parts and other risks. With new Functional Safety control solutions from Sensata, however, it is possible to operate the equipment at a slow but safe pace throughout the cleaning cycle.
Designing machines that are intrinsically ‘safe’ is the role of design engineers who adhere to the rules of ‘Functional Safety’ – creating systems (and processes) that minimize the risk of physical injury or other damage to an individual’s wellbeing. ‘Functional Safety’ is not only about identifying where the risk comes from, but also how it can be controlled, usually through the integration of protective or corrective devices to prevent a hazard from arising or reduce the impact of a hazardous event.
Encoders within Sensata’s Functional Safety solutions range include the DSM5X Series safety encoder to detect rotary speed and position. They allow the equipment to be running continuously and slowly in a controlled and safe fashion, to enable workers to continuously clean the equipment as it moves, thereby ensuring they can access all parts of the equipment easily and efficiently.
Most critically, Functional Safety is about ‘active’ rather than ‘passive’ systems. One of the key challenges facing engineers is not only to ‘design-in’ safety, but also to give the system an overall safety ‘rating’. One of the quickest and most effective ways of achieving this rating – and one that is recognised world-wide – is to use components and devices that are themselves certified to a specific Safety Integrity Level (SIL) by one of the recognized certification bodies (e.g TUV Rheinland). Designers need only to feed the relevant data into the SISTEMA software (available free on the internet) for a final safety level to be calculated and recorded. Standard products that are not individually safety rated can be used, of course, but may limit the designers to a lower level of safety rating for the entire system or require a thorough and independent analysis of the system that could in turn slow the speed with which the system can finally be brought to market. Using certified products makes it easier for engineers to calculate and accurately claim a safety rating for a system overall, as well as providing important data such as a Mean Time to Failure. It also reduces the work (and cost) required of the OEM in designing Functional Safety as a machine upgrade.
Engineers can simply swap out older components for new, and in doing so immediately improve a system’s overall Functional Safety level. These newer components are often more sophisticated and a single device can sometimes be used to perform tasks that previously may have required multiple devices to achieve the same level of safety. In the example of a high-speed cutting/slicing line, a number of control technologies may be required including cameras, switches, proximity detectors etc. By using encoders with a Probability of Failure per Hour (PFH) at the higher end of SIL 2, additional components of a lower SIL, but on the cusp of SIL 2, can be added without compromising the system’s overall SIL rating. The overall PFH ‘value’ of every component gives the machine its Functional Safety rating. Optimising efficiencies
While the principal purpose of Functional Safety is, as the name suggests, about protecting people, it is also about ensuring systems are capable of achieving optimum performance. One of the most time-consuming tasks in food production is having
Manufactured in stainless steel and robust in design, the encoders are also IP69K compliant for the ultimate protection against the ingress of high-temperature steam and high-pressure water – essential in wash-down scenarios. Where such systems are already in operation, the changeover time has been reduced to as little as two hours. The improved production uptime and availability of equipment more than meets the cost of upgrading to a Functional Safety system. Intelligent Functional Safety design also allows ongoing maintenance and repair work to be completed without having to shut down an entire line. Of course, any change to an existing engineering and design process adds cost, but with the new generation of sensors, encoders and controllers now available, engineers have the building blocks to create a safer system with relative ease and at comparatively minimal expense. Existing systems can also be easily upgraded to achieve a higher level of safety, where it is needed, without having to design a system from scratch. www.sensata.com
The challenge faced by designers is not limited to what happens at the point that a new machine or system is conceived, but also how a machine’s Functional Safety can be upgraded ‘in the field’. To that end, encoders are key. Encoders translate rotary or linear motion into a digital signal, and play a crucial part in monitoring and controlling motion parameters such as speed, rate, direction, distance or position. New encoders are now being developed with analogue Sin Cos outputs and digital transistortransistor logic (TTL) and high threshold logic (HTL) outputs that are compatible with most of the existing sensors on the market, giving designers greater choice and flexibility, especially when it comes to refurbishing existing systems.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Feature Article By European Managing Director of Fortress Technology Phil Brown.
CROSS CONTAMINATION FOOD INSPECTION RISKS RECEIVE HYGIENIC HAND The impact of food and drink allergies in the UK is rising, and the risks associated with factory-level ingredient cross-contamination and cross contact are real. Yet, smart design in metal detection is helping food and drink businesses to minimise hygiene challenges at this critical point in the line, both for allergens and food-borne pathogens, says European Managing Director of Fortress Technology Phil Brown. It is too easy to dismiss today’s heightened awareness of food allergies and intolerances as being driven more by fashion than fact. This is especially true given the trend in recent years for celebrities and their fans to opt for a gluten-free diet, for example, or avoid lactose as a lifestyle and ‘healthy eating’ choice rather than because of any evidence of intolerance or allergy. Fashion has played a more substantial role, however, when it comes to our more exotic eating habits in recent years, especially among the middle classes. Figures suggest that more consumers are now exposing themselves to risk from a greater number of allergens in foreign foods which, only a few years ago, might never have made it on to their plate.
conditions can be among the most serious. The latest statistics from the Anaphylaxis Campaign, for people at risk of severe allergies, show that between 2011 and 2016, the number of UK hospital admissions with anaphylactic shock as the primary diagnosis rose by just under 20%. Over the same period, the number of admissions triggered by allergies of all kinds increased by 36%.
Is your system sanitary?
Data confirms that the challenges around allergy in the UK are real and on the rise. The most recent estimate from Allergy UK puts the proportion of the UK adult population suffering from at least one allergic disorder at 44%. That this is a growing problem is borne out by the equivalent estimate for the child population, which stands at 50%.
For the food and drink supply chain, reducing the risk of consumer exposure to allergens starts with the greatest care being taken in the sourcing all ingredients, auditing suppliers, and so on. But the benefits of carefully managing allergen content can be nullified at the factory stage by cross-contamination. The risks here are especially acute given that only tiny amounts of an allergen can trigger a serious reaction in a sufferer. For this reason, larger manufacturers will, where possible, segregate production areas handling known allergens, such as nuts and seafood.
Compared with these figures, the 1-2% of adults and 5-8% of children believed by the organisation to have a food allergy might sound relatively low. Yet these
For smaller manufacturers, this option may not be available. In this case, the emphasis must fall on hygiene and good process practices. In fact, where potential
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
allergens are present, or could be present, in some sets of ingredients but not in others, cleaning must go well beyond normal hygienic requirements. Even where heat processing is involved, allergens can still survive high temperatures. Equipment cleaning protocols should be formalised and included in staff training. Every cleaning process needs to be verified and documented. As part of a validation process, regular tests, including swabs of Critical Control Points, should be scheduled to ensure these areas are allergen-free. Product residues, potentially including allergens, can be especially troublesome in gravity metal detection systems for powders and particulates. This might be the case, for example, in a factory packing or processing different cereals, flours and baking mixes, where avoiding gluten content in certain products may be extremely important. But liquids, semi-liquids and slurries in pipeline systems can pose problems of their own. Take, for example, the trend for including added dairy or soy protein, or milk content, in beverages. Dairy proteins may not be a problem where drinks are themselves milk-based, but the same filling line which handles waters and other soft
drinks fortified with protein sources such as whey may also run dairy-free products. The same issue might be true of a line filling fresh soups into pots or cartons, where recipes, including fish and seafood, alternate with others that avoid these ingredients.
Identifying weaker hygiene links Efficient product changeovers are critical to productivity. For factory managers facing regular changeovers of this sort, it is essential for processing, filling and packing lines to be designed to facilitate both quick and deep cleaning. When it comes to specifying in-process metal detection, this means that contact surfaces on conveyor, pipeline and gravity systems should be as smooth and crevice-free as possible. This is partly to ensure that no traces of product, allergens or bacteria are left, but also to reduce the risk of cleaning agents not being fully rinsed away. High-pressure cleaning may well be deployed for fast, effective washdown, and the casing of the metal detector should be sufficiently robust to withstand this. When selecting a system, care should be taken to identify equipment with an ingress protection (IP) rating appropriate to the washdown regime being applied. In addition to these general criteria for the whole system, special attention should be paid to the reject unit. Ideally, this will be detachable (easily detached, but quickly and securely reattached, too) to allow thorough cleaning.
Of course, there are many other potential sources of cross-contamination in a food and drink factory. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) provides plenty of guidance on the hygiene and behaviour of personnel. But the potential role of operators in spreading allergens by moving ingredients around the floor in unsealed containers, running allergenic products at the start of the shift rather than the end, not changing or cleaning protective equipment, for example, needs to be driven home where the risks are especially high. Unlike labelling anomalies, which will probably show up as soon as product reaches the retailer, unnotified allergen content or harmful pathogens (just like undetected metal contamination) will usually only surface once items are on-shelf and in the hands of the consumer. At that point, product recall costs are much higher but can, in any case, be dwarfed by the massive but less immediately tangible costs of damage to the manufacturer’s brand reputation. Purchasing the best metal detection equipment for the job may constitute only one portion of a much bigger picture. Yet, it provides evidence that your company is taking the threat contamination from allergens and pathogens seriously, and will make a real and valuable contribution to reducing those risks. www.allergyuk.org/information-and-advice/statistics
New Plug and Play, High Specification MF/ UF Pilot Plant For Liquid Separation Trials Axium Process’ new innovative and versatile membrane filtration pilot plant, together with its team of specialist engineers, are helping manufacturers develop and optimise their separation processes utilising Microfiltration (MF) and Ultrafiltration (UF) technologies. Pilot plant separation studies help to determine process feasibility, plant design and economics at an early stage and can give an accurate model of what a full-scale commercial plant could achieve.
Axium’s new mobile pilot plant has been designed to be ‘plug and play’ and can easily integrate into an existing production plant minimising the set up time for companies wishing to conduct trials at their own site. The plant, which can be equipped with multiple interchangeable full-scale membrane modules including tubular, spiral, ceramic or hollow-fibre options, uses sophisticated data collection software and digital IO-Link instrumentation enabling an accurate and detailed representation of the physical separation/concentration level achievable from the feed taken from a representative process stream.
The company maintains a comprehensive range of mobile membrane filtration pilot plants and supporting plant equipment such as prefiltration, heating and mixing skids as well as in-house laboratory services which are available for manufacturers wishing to evaluate their own particular process from a wide range of membrane filtration options.
Axium’s filtration engineers routinely carry out pilot trials either at customer sites or at Axium’s dedicated test facility on a wide range of applications which typically include dairy fractionation, cell recovery, clarification, extract filtration, protein separation, removal of suspended solids and bioburden from raw plant extracts as well as the removal of microplastics from water streams.
For further information please contact, Gale Rudd at Axium Process Ltd, on: +44 (0) 1792 883 882 firstname.lastname@example.org www.axiumprocess.com
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Food Industry Focus
Ready Foods keep their cool thanks to viscous solution from HRS Ready Foods, a US manufacturer of soups and sauces, has cut the time it takes to chill one of its core products by a third, thanks to a turnkey cooling system from HRS Heat Exchangers. The HRS solution, which is ideal for viscous materials, has enabled Ready Foods to significantly increase production of the meat marinade it supplies to a leading restaurant chain. Based in Denver, Colorado, Ready Foods is a cook and chill company which manufactures soups and sauces for restaurants and the meat industry. After receiving a large order for one of its meat marinades from a leading chain of quick-service Mexican restaurants, the company needed to increase capacity. The existing process of kettle cooking and steaming the marinade, then chilling it in 5lb pouches in a water cooling system for three hours, would not allow Ready Foods to meet the customer’s increased demand for 2,000lb totes. So, Marco Antonio Abarca, President and Owner of Ready Foods, and Greg Hefter, Plant Engineer, set out to find an alternative solution that would enable them to decrease the length of time it took to cool the marinade from 200˚F to 38˚F and thereby increase production levels. A simple solution
HRS’ cooling system comprises 10 AS Series triple-tubes as the pre-cooling exchanger
However, they soon discovered that finding the right cooling system was no easy task, Greg commented; “Some recommended systems which required a large footprint or a 20ft ceiling height; others could only supply one or two parts of the solution and expected us to source the rest and integrate it ourselves; while some showed us systems which were far too complex and sophisticated for our operatives to use,” adds Greg. “We don’t have the luxury of a team of engineers on call 24/7, so any system we chose had to be simple to operate and straightforward enough for our mechanics to take care of.” Flexible design
Only one supplier, HRS Heat Exchangers, was able to meet every one of Ready Foods’ requirements, so Marco and Greg sent them two versions of their marinade for testing. One was very thin while the other was a concentrated form of the product.
“At first, Ready Foods proposed cooling the thinner product using R-404 refrigerant,” says Cameron Creech, HRS’ US Sales & Engineering Manager. “As that’s an aggressive cooling media, we considered a two-stage cooling system: the first phase would cool the product with chilled water, a much-less aggressive medium; the second stage would involve chilling with ammonia.” The original purchase order for this solution was issued in July 2017 but shortly after, Ready Foods’ client changed the brief, opting instead for the thicker product and choosing glycol rather than R-404 refrigerant as the cooling medium. HRS quickly put together a revised design and the new PO was approved in September 2017. Total support
The cooling system includes a lockable CIP cabinet, to ensure food safety
HRS’ turnkey solution for Ready Foods comprises a transfer pump to move the product from the cook kettles into the balance tank; a balance tank to receive and mix both recycled and new incoming product; a BP-6 hydraulic pump to push product through the system; a pre-cooler, consisting of 10 AS Series triple-tubes as the pre-cooling exchanger, which cools the product using chilled water; the final cooler, comprising two Unicus scraped surface heat exchangers; and finally, a three-way valve which sends product into the filler tank or back to the balance tank, depending on whether the temperature requirement is met or the filler tank is too full to receive product. Hygienic operation
HRS also supplied auxiliary equipment, including a cleaning-in-place (CIP) system and a steampowered hot water set to prevent freezing in the event of a production halt (also used to heat the solution during the automated CIP program). Setting the standard
The cooling system was commissioned in September 2018 and has been operating successfully ever since. The difference in the volume of product Ready Foods is now able to produce is considerable. “It used to take us three hours to chill the marinade, but we are now able to cool it in just one hour. We’ve been able to keep up with our client’s new, increased demand, even at peak times. On a five-day-a-week basis, we can hit 200,000lbs,” concludes Marco. From an operational standpoint, it’s proved itself to be an integrated system which is not too complex and boasts a small footprint. In addition, due to the fact that a large percentage of Ready Foods’ employees are Spanish-speaking, HRS incorporated a feature on the main page of the program which allows the controls to be switched between English and Spanish. The cooling system has cut the time it takes Ready Foods to chill its marinade by a third
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
For further information contact HRS Heat Exchangers, on: Tel: 01923 232 335 email@example.com www.hrs-heatexchangers.com
Feature Article By Nandini Natarajan, Research Analyst at Frost & Sullivan
to Supermarket Smart Shelves
– A New Era of Connections In roughly a decade everything will be made smart. Any object or being will be able to function like a computer, being able to connect to the internet, sense the environment, gather data and deliver insights on the fly. This could be a pen, it could be a water bottle or it could even be cows grazing on the fields. From the time food grows in the farm to the time it gets displayed on the supermarket shelves, every morsel of food can be tracked and traced back to its source of origin, thanks to the industrial internet of things (IIoT). This new scenario will be a profound change for humanity, in not just the way we function and interact with each other, but also in the way we connect and interact with our environment.
of products. Rapidly multiplying human population and changing consumer preferences are further aggravating the demand for wider variety of food and beverage products. Globally, as food safety regulations continue to become more stringent, manufacturers are forced to think several steps ahead and make processes and production lines future proof. In such an evolving scenario where change is the only constant, IIoT is emerging to be an important concept that will solve several pertinent issues and will emerge to become the backbone of future F&B industry.
Key areas of transformation As is the case with any other industry, IIoT is revolutionising the F&B industry. Today, we will find in our factories, a growing number of connected sensors and plant machinery like never before. IIoT is being used to optimise processes and operations not just on the factory shop floor, but also across the entire value chain. A completely integrated F&B value chain will lower downtime, provide maintenance alerts and deliver greater visibility across the entire value chain including supply, logistics and distribution. When all aspects of a value chain; from research & development to sales and supply are connected, the data collected from IIoT will be critical in delivering real-time visibility and insights to decision makers. Some of the key areas where IIoT can bring a difference in the F&B value chain include:
Therefore in future, when you receive an expensive package of Parmigiano Reggiano from the Italian cheese factories, it is most likely to be received in a smart packaging that tells you whether or not the package and its contents have been handled optimally before it reached you. Was the cheese manufactured using milk that has been sourced from the original red cows of Reggiana’s breed? Has it been ensured that an optimal temperature was maintained throughout the cheese’s journey in the supply chain? These are some of the questions that will find answers from IIoT. Food and beverage (F&B) is an economically significant and rapidly advancing industry that is on one hand, driven by expectations to meet high regulatory standards, food safety and quality requirements. On the other hand, manufacturers are under constant pressure to innovate and optimise productivity without compromising on quality
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
IIoT is thus changing how F&B manufacturers view safety, quality, packaging and distribution of food products from the time raw materials are sourced till the time the manufactured goods reach the consumer.
Value Drivers The F&B industry lags behind several other industries like automotive, aerospace and oil & gas when it comes to IIoT adoption. Nevertheless, the benefits and practical applications of IIoT in F&B manufacturing are immense. For example, previously in case of any issue with the factory machines, onsite engineers could only contact machine experts over phone or email or in many cases this would require the specialists to physically travel to the factory to resolve the issues. This has been extremely time consuming involving huge travel costs and has resulted in unnecessary downtime.
Barriers to adoption Despite proven benefits, complex supply chains and dynamic consumer demands restrain the rapid adoption of IIoT in F&B manufacturing. An IIoT implementation brings along changes in infrastructure, process changes along with cultural and ideological changes. This can at most times be difficult for enterprises to adapt to. Further connecting devices to the internet does not imply IIoT
implementation is all done and dusted. F&B enterprises will further require adding business intelligence, in order to reap benefits from the IIoT implementation. It has often been observed that these enterprises often lack sufficient foresight and fail to gather the required intelligence to make an IIoT implementation, resulting in failed efforts. The following exhibit details some of the major challenges that shroud the F&B industry:
IIoT can today help resolve such issues by bestowing upon onsite engineers the ability to connect real-time with the machine expert. Using augmented reality (AR), onsite engineers perform repairs and seek the support of machine expert. Insights derived from machine and product data can help the manufacturing community focus on which markets to target, buying trends as well as how the product is being received in the market. And these are just a few examples of how the F&B industry can benefit from IIoT. In the face of mounting pressures to improve efficiencies and increase profitability in a competitive landscape, it is important that F&B manufacturers start exploring opportunities that IIoT can bring to their shop floors.
Overcoming complexities and way forward The web of raw materials, production, and distribution can be difficult to effectively visualise and plan. IIoT provides strong data processing capabilities so that enterprises can make better, faster decisions about their business. As a first step to overcoming complexities in IIoT implementation, enterprises can begin by asking themselves the following questions â€“ IIoT is here to stay and is improving operational efficiencies of enterprises the world over. However, to ensure a better output from the concept and to leverage its full business potential, an optimal implementation of IIoT is something that is to be taken care of seriously. The key to a successful IIoT implementation is to start small, implement pilot programs, and prove success and then scale. One may face some roadblocks in implementation; however, these challenges can be dealt with and eliminated with a wellplanned and defined IIoT implementation strategy. The adoption of IIoT within the purview of F&B manufacturing has started, but there is still a long way to go before this can become ubiquitous. The potential is immense, but widespread adoption will take time.
Process Industry Informer â€˘ March â€“ April 2019
Food Industry Focus
Pumps for dairy products processing AxFlow Product Manager Malcolm Walker looks at the types of positive displacement pumps that are making their mark in the dairy products industry. Across the broad spectrum of fluids handling in the processing industries one element that is common to all is the requirement for positive displacement pumps that can move delicate or sensitive media without causing damage to or physically altering the structure of the media. The food and beverage manufacturing industry is considered to have the biggest requirement for such pumps as many applications require a gentle pumping action. Typical applications include fluids that contain solids, display either high or low levels of viscosity, have high or low temperature levels, are nonlubricating or could be made from ingredients that can be aggressive and cause damage to the pump.
that can be present in the fluid being pumped. There is very little difference between a rotary lobe and an ECP pump as they both essentially use the same operating principle. This involves interlocking lobe shaped rotors which move a fixed volume around the pump chamber pushing the liquid out of the discharge as the rotors mesh together.
The problem was solved by installing a new mixing system fitted with WCB Universal 1 ECP pumps. The rotors have large crossover clearances and higher levels of efficiency and were able to stand up to the plant’s demanding performance requirements and eliminate pump downtime. As an added benefit the simple ‘O’ring shaft seals mad an alternative to the more expensive and sensitive mechanical seals supplied with the original pumps. In another dairy plant producing white mass for Greek yoghurt, the producer was experiencing multiple issues with its existing lobe pumps, in particulate excessive shearing when pumping the mix and high maintenance costs resulting from pump break-downs. Over several years of careful testing the producer evaluated several brands of pumps to determine which type imparted the least amount of damage to the white mass, provided the best cleanability and the lowest costs of ownership. At the end of the trials the WCB Universal 2 pumps with single mechanical seals were selected for the application. The unique features of the ECP rotors provide a long slip path and gently scoop the solid particulates in the product, thus preventing slippage back through the tight clearances of the pump and minimising shear. Using the WCB pumps have proved to be durable and maintain the integrity of the producer’s product. Twin Screw pump
Food and drink processors can now take advantage of the new Waukesha Universal TS ‘twin-screw’ rotary positive displacement pump to its portfolio. (Fig.1) WCB Universal 2 series
Within food processing the pump technologies that have a very high profile are rotary piston, rotary lobe, twin-screw, air-operated double diaphragm pumps. Clearly, there is no shortage of pump types from which to choose, which makes matching the pump to the application as the prime consideration. Hygiene requirements
Although there is still no legal obligation on food manufacturers to use hygienically certified fluid handling equipment, the ever increasing costs both financially and potential harm to a brand’s reputation resulting from hygienically defective products, has meant that never before has there been so much pressure on food manufacturers to utilise the correct hygienic process equipment in the sight of the law. There are two basic groups of approval, those that apply to material compatibility and those to the actual design of the pump. Taking those concerning material compatibility, there are several globally recognised approval bodies the oldest being the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and which is still seen worldwide as the basic benchmark for material compatibility. However, the new kid on block in the guise of EC 1935/2004 has by and large superseded FDA. The reason for this being that EC 1935/2004 has wider and stricter criteria. For instance, it requires that compounds must be examined to more specific tests than FDA and requires traceability, whereas FDA does not necessarily do this. The implication of this is that not all FDA materials will meet EC1935/2004 requirements. The most widely-used employed pump types that can accommodate applications in the dairy products sector are the rotary lobe pump and external circumference piston (ECP) pump because their large rotor cavities can handle the solids and particles
(Fig.3) The Universal TS is available in four models each with three screw pitch options, and delivers flows of up to 4,618lt/min and has a pressure range up to 25bar.
(Fig.2) WCB Universal 3 series
The Waukesha Universal series of rotary lobe and ECP pumps has proved to be successful across the globe. The WCB Universal 1 and Universal 2 (Fig.1) pumps deliver many of the sector’s fluid handling requirements over many years and only quite recently the series has been extended with the introduction of the Universal 3 (Fig.2). This new pump complements the Universal 1 and Universal 2, but the difference lies in its focus on hygienic applications in food processing to meet the most stringent international standards. The main features are the complete SIP/CIP capabilities and double O-ring seals, which are not available in the Universal 2 and Universal 1 Series. Case studies
For one international producer of ice cream mix, problems were being experienced with premature failure of rotors and shaft parts in pumps in its ice cream mixing system. The pumps used in this system were being replaced every six months so it was also looking to reduce the cost of ownership.
A further recent addition to the WCB Universal Series is the Universal TS pump for food and beverage processing (Fig.3). This pump exploits the benefits of Waukesha Alloy 88 non-galling material twin screws to pump various media containing large particulates, thereby lowering damage to the pump and reducing maintenance. Users also benefit from the pump’s high suction capability and wide range of operating speeds which means that only one pump is required to transfer product and undertake CIP. This removes the number of pumps, valves and control instrumentation, thus contributing to reduced costs and simpler, more compact systems. As a result of the twin screws’ rotating geometry, a pulse-free flow is created making the pump suitable for many applications such as feeding homogenisers. Significantly, the meshing screws have identical rear and front profiles giving bidirectional flows which enable easy media transfer between vessels without alteration to the pump set-up. Front loaded access to product side seals makes for easy maintenance and reduced downtime. For further product details contact Malcolm Walker, AxFlow Ltd, on Tel: 01753 255 600 www.axflow.co.uk
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Food Industry Focus
NSK solutions for the food and beverage industry The food and beverage sector has been a long-held area of focus for NSK, which is one the world´s largest manufacturers of rolling bearings. Specific to this industry, NSK rolling bearings feature highly relevant design attributes such as rustproof materials, sealed construction and lifelong lubricants that are compatible with foodstuffs. Continuous, high-speed operation and the most stringent of hygiene standards and operating conditions call for reliable, robust bearings that facilitate cost-effective production. Outstanding performance
and maintenance-free operation must be assured, despite having to withstand high temperatures, water and chemicals. The bearings must also prevent any contamination of foodstuffs safely and reliably. Bearing applications for food production include raw material, primary (cutting and mixing), secondary (moulding), conveying, inspection, heating and packaging processes, while beverage applications focus on bottle moulding, filling, sealing, inspection and packing. To help simplify the bearing choice in such processes, NSK has renewed its catalogue entitled ´Solutions for the Food and Beverage Industries´. This comprehensive publication features an overview of the sector and highlights the individual needs of food and beverage processing lines. Core products are also presented. Available to download from NSK´s e-books platform at www.nsk-literature.com, the updated ´Solutions for the Food and Beverage Industries´ catalogue is available in English, and will soon be accompanied by other language versions.
Key Points to UV Success Disinfection of water and flavour concentrates is critical to ensure that products have a long shelf life. Traditional oxidising biocides can produce by-products including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and bromates. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has become the food and drink sector’s technology of choice. Unlike chemical disinfectants, UV treatment does not introduce any residual agents or by-products nor does it change the chemical or organoleptic properties.
the flow rate: the maximum, average and minimum and the pattern of use. Second is whether the flow is continuous or intermittent. Third, the liquid characteristics – UV is effective not only for water but is also used to treat sugar syrup. Fourth, the type of microorganisms to be destroyed so that the UV dose can be determined. Finally the reaction chamber. It should be third party validated to a recognised test protocol, such as that set out in the US EPA 2006 Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual.
To ensure consistent performance, your UV system has to be properly designed so you need to provide your UV supplier with five key items of information. First
Further guidance can be found here
Craft Brewers can now measure alcohol and extract independently Craft brewers value their independence – their freedom is what makes their beers unique. An alcohol and extract meter for beer, Alex 500 from Anton Paar, now frees craft brewers from the need for external laboratories. The reliable lab-grade analyser determines their beer’s alcohol and extract content, calories, degree of fermentation and many more parameters whenever they wish. Now easily able to monitor their entire production from wort to bottle, craft brewers can always be sure to keep their customer promise. The compact alcohol and extract meter Alex 500 is the company’s answer to the rising demand for an affordable quality control in small-scale breweries. Creative beer recipes, including bottle-fermented products as well as seasonal fruits added to the mash or fruit juice as part of individual beer mixtures, make a craft breweries product stand out from others on the market. Especially for these creations, an alcohol content calculated from the extract loss during brewing is just an estimated value, leaving only one option: measuring, instead of calculating.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Alex 500 is ready to measure any craft brewer’s new beer creation from scratch, after a simple adjustment with deionised water. The accuracy for an alcohol measurement is 0.2 %v/v and density is determined with an accuracy of 0.001 g/ cm³. With these numbers on their side, craft brewers can be certain that their beer’s taste and quality are always stable, pint for pint. And just in case: turbidity is automatically detected by the instrument in order to show that you shouldn’t trust the measured results before doing a proper filtration. For more information on the Alex 500, please visit: www.anton-paar.com/ alex500
Andrew Fleming, Managing Director of Antifriction
Specialist distributor helps launch greener, cleaner bearings for food and drinks manufacturers Leading industrial parts distributor Antifriction has signed a deal with Swedish multi-national SKF to stock its new blue range of Food Line ball bearing units. The ground-breaking bearings aim to improve health and safety for food and drinks manufacturers by lowering the risk of bacteria in hard to clean areas using innovative sealing systems, high performing bearing grease and completely sealed units. The components are 100% recyclable and the bearings improve energy efficiency by reducing the need for hot water to remove environmental waste. The new Food Line bearings do not require relubrication or the need to clean excess bearing grease, which can lead to production downtime. With less cleaning required, it is expected bearing lifespans will be lengthened.
Antifriction became an authorised distributor for SKF in 2004 and currently offers the Swedish giants complete portfolio of bearings, seals, lubrication systems, maintenance products and training courses. Antifriction will stock the new ball bearings from February. Antifriction will distribute the Food Line range through its 10 depots across the UK. It has been under-going a long-term programme to upgrade facilities, which includes expanded warehouses in Bolton and Birmingham in 2018. New sites near Heathrow Airport and Ellesmere Port, close to Liverpool, have been added to give greater national coverage and reduce delivery times. www.antifriction.co.uk/en/home www.skf.com/group/splash/index.html
Food Industry Focus
The HRS cooling system has cut the time it takes Ready Foods to chill its marinade by a third, enabling them to compete with much larger companies.
The cooling system includes a lockable CIP cabinet, to ensure food safety.
Increasing productivity takes SMEs in the food industry to the next level The UK is a nation of small business owners. According to data from the Federation of Small Businesses, the country’s 5.7 million small or mediumsized businesses (SMEs) accounted for 99.9% of all private sector businesses at the start of 2018. However, according to a 2018 Parliament UK research briefing, while the 8,000 large businesses (250+ employees) account for just 0.1% of all firms, they are responsible for 40% of employment and 48% of turnover. Ready Foods is a medium-sized US-based cook and chill company which manufactures soups and sauces for restaurants and the meat industry. Thanks to a unique cooling system from HRS Heat Exchangers, which has cut the time it takes to chill one of Ready Foods’ core products by a third, it is now able to compete with much larger businesses. This is crucial because, for owners of SMEs keen to make the leap into the big league, it can feel as though the rules of the game are unfairly stacked against them. In the food and drink industry, small and medium-sized processors can find themselves at a disadvantage when tendering for lucrative contracts with large restaurant and retail chains, in so far as they may lack they footprint, equipment or skill sets required to meet the high production volumes these customers demand.
But some SMEs have managed to break through this glass ceiling and are enjoying profitable relationships with nationally-renowned names after increasing not the size of their operation, but their productivity. Productivity is measured by the ratio of output per unit of input. It is closely linked to efficiency, ensuring that every piece of equipment and every part of the process is optimised. The owner of Colorado-based Ready Foods realised that they would need to increase their productivity if they were to take their business to the next level. After receiving a large order for one of its meat marinades from a leading US chain of quick-service Mexican restaurants, the company knew it could only fulfil the customer’s demand if it increased capacity. The existing process of kettle cooking and steaming the marinade, then chilling it in 5lb pouches in a water cooling system for three hours, would not allow it to meet the client’s request for 2,000lb totes. So, Marco Antonio Abarca, President and Owner of Ready Foods, set out to find an alternative solution that would enable them to decrease the length of time it took to cool the marinade from 200˚F to 38˚F and thereby increase production levels. However, he soon discovered that finding the right cooling system for a company of his size was no easy task. “It became clear that most of the equipment suppliers were accustomed to dealing with much larger firms than ours; their proposals were totally unsuitable for our size of operation,” admits Marco.
“Some recommended systems which required a large footprint or a 20ft ceiling height; others could only supply one or two parts of the solution and expected us to source the rest and integrate it ourselves; while some showed us systems which were far too complex and sophisticated for our operatives to use,” adds Greg. “We don’t have the luxury of a team of engineers on call 24/7, so any system we chose had to be simple to operate and straightforward enough for our mechanics to take care of.” Only HRS Heat Exchangers was able to meet every one of Ready Foods’ requirements. They supplied a turnkey cooling system, including cleaning-in-place capabilities, which is simple to operate and boasts a small footprint. It has revolutionised Ready Foods’ productivity.
“It used to take us three hours to chill the marinade, but we are now able to cool it in just one hour. We’ve been able to keep up with our client’s demand, even at peak times. On a five-day-a-week basis, we can hit 200,000lbs,” says Marco. “The HRS cooling system has evened out the playing field by allowing a medium-sized company such as ourselves to compete with the larger firms. For us, this is 21st century, advanced technology.” For further information contact HRS Heat Exchangers, on: 01923 232 335 firstname.lastname@example.org www.hrs-heatexchangers.com
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Schneider Electric prepares for Tottenham Hotspur’s Stadium Opening Schneider Electric, the leader in digital transformation of energy management and automation, and the Official Stadium Energy Management Supplier to the Tottenham Hotspur’s (‘Spurs’) new state-of-the-art stadium in North London, is preparing for the official opening of this prime sports and entertainment destination for London.
Working closely with Spurs and its partners during the construction, service and maintenance phases of the project, Schneider Electric will distribute all power supply to the stadium and integrate key systems. This will boost the stadium’s energy and operational efficiency and support the day-to-day running of the venue. The energy management and building management solutions provided by Schneider Electric will play a key role in delivering energy and operational efficiencies, supporting the Club’s vision of delivering the ultimate experience for every visitor to its new world-class stadium. Schneider Electric has embedded its EcoStruxure™ platform – the digital backbone that connects best-inclass Operations Technology (OT) solutions with the latest in Information Technology (IT) – into the stadium’s architecture to unlock the trapped value within Spurs’ operations and unleash the true potential of its connected products and software. EcoStruxure™ will provide real-time
monitoring for preventative maintenance and personalise visitor experiences, including integrating aspects such as temperature and lighting conditions. The stadium’s electrical infrastructure will be monitored constantly from Schneider Electric’s remote field services bureau. Its Building Analytics software will perform system checks every five minutes, totalling 60,000 checks every hour on-site. Schneider Electric experts will also be on-site to personally monitor the stadium’s power infrastructure on match days and in the build-up to any special events. David Hall, VP Power Systems, Schneider Electric UK & Ireland, said: “We are excited to have partnered with Tottenham Hotspur to create and help manage one of the finest stadiums in the world - for fans, visitors and the wider community. We are supporting the delivery of a best-inclass energy management system to power what is one of the most technologically advanced entertainment venues in the world. Today, this state-of-art stadium is a prime
example of how the stresses associated with hosting and attending live events can be alleviated through digitisation and automation. The venue boasts a next generation customer experience for sports fans, visitors and the wider community that can only be achieved with the latest technology.” Tottenham Hotspur’s stunning new stadium has been designed from the outset as a state-of-the art, multi-use venue, including a structurally engineered fully retractable pitch. The first for any stadium in the UK, it will ensure that the football-playing surface is always in peak condition. Underneath the grass field is a synthetic grass surface that will be used for NFL games and other events, creating a new world-class sports and entertainment venue for the capital. Designed for atmosphere, the venue aims to deliver an unrivalled fan experience inside the 62,062 seater stadium, the largest of any football club in London. www.schneider-electric.com
New whitepaper explores cell disruption equipment selection The highest HPH operating pressure doesn’t necessarily mean the most effective equipment for cell disruption. That’s the message from process engineering firm BPE, which has produced a new whitepaper on the selection of equipment for cell disruption. The paper, available for free via the BPE website, forms part of the company’s pledge to share best practice across the manufacturing sector. In it, author Gary McRobbie explores the various solutions available for cell disruption systems and the factors that can impact efficiency. The whitepaper focuses on BPE’s project for a major biopharma client, which was looking for a new cell disruption system to be used after the centrifugation of the fermentation harvest solution and prior to further downstream processing. An analysis was made for a planned future pichia cell line to assess the financial benefits from purchasing a machine that operates at higher operating pressure with increased cell disruption efficiencies and whether the additional capital investment was justified. After careful analysis, taking into account a variety of scientific and cost factors, it was concluded that the additional investment in high pressure HPH or high pressure micofluidisation would not meet the client’s target for return on capital investment. The recommendation was to use a medium pressure machine, which would meet the client’s forecast product technical and commercial requirements, while making significant savings in capital investment.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Gary McRobbie said: “Selecting the best available technology for a project requires a robust assessment of critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. The paper reviews a structured approach to get the decision right, first time.” To request a free copy of the whitepaper visit here To find out more about BPE visit www.bpe-ds.com
Health & Safety
Strata helps Pilkington Automotive reduce absenteeism A successful trial of Strata anti-fatigue floor matting at Pilkington Automotive in Birmingham has led to the company specifying the flooring as a standard across its whole site. After six months Joe Perry, one of the process engineers concluded, “Straight away the operators thought this was an improvement. What we found was a dramatic change in averages for these cells. It showed a whole 1% drop from 2.5% to 1.5% and this is down to the reduction in back pain and leg injuries”.
Made from 100% natural rubber, Strata’s Work Deck comprises 15mm thick, 900mm square interlocking floor tiles in black which can be laid to form any length or width of area. They are hardwearing with excellent anti-fatigue properties and can be cleaned with a pressure washer. An anti-static version is available too, protecting workers and manufactured components. For further information contact Strata Sales on: 01926 338547 email@example.com www.stratasales.com
Storms good for Hart
Selectronic’s ‘New Era’ Sunlight Spectrum LEDs are close to actual sunlight Imagine artificial lighting in a business or home setting with LEDs producing close to actual sunlight all day long. Well now you can get just that with the Sunlight Spectrum 2835 SMD packages from UK LED specialists Selectronic and their Chinese partners HongliTronic.
daylight particularly when linked with a time clock to accurately reflect the various times of a bright sunny day.” said Selectronic MD Kevin Dry
The Witney, Oxfordshire, based Selectronic, celebrating their 40th anniversary this year, are experts in opto-electronic technologies.
The technology produces a spectrum of light that best matches sunlight’s natural spectrum, giving the ideal solution whether it is for various industrial/retail applications as well as in business, office or home lighting products.
“The option to create lighting products that replicate daylight opens a new era of what can be achieved in previously closed-off rooms or underground environments, not to forget the health benefits in dark winter periods from creating artificial
For further information contact the Selectronic Sales: 01993 778000 firstname.lastname@example.org www.selectronic.co.uk
Working for a major transnational company active in water and waste management as well as energy services, Hart Door Systems has installed three Speedor Storms at an in-vessel composting facility capable of processing 60,000 tonnes of kitchen and green garden waste each year.
and where high humidity and corrosive atmospheres are also bi-products. Speedor Storm is designed for enhanced productivity, energy efficiency through reduced heat loss and overall environmental control. Main features include a unique guide system offering exceptional wind resistance through a reliable and clean inline drive system complete with integral safety brake and variable speed operation.
Hart now has over 60 doors installed across 11 sites for the same client, all supported by Hart’s Machinery Directive compliant planned maintenance service. Hart’s Speedor Storms are in demand for high-traffic situations where airborne smells, noise and vermin egress are issues
www.hartdoors.com tel: 0191 214 0404
New Inductive Safety Sensor Portfolio from Pepperl+Fuchs The new family of safety sensors from Pepperl+Fuchs - the inventor of the inductive proximity sensor - includes four cylindrical and rectangular series with cable and plug connection. The sensors are TÜV-certified in accordance with the Machinery Directive (EN 13849) Performance Level PLd, Category 2, and SIL 2. They are used to safeguard machines and plant components as well as for reliable position detection within this environment. Inductive sensors with an increased temperature range, as well as increased EMC resistance and E1 approval for the use of mobile machinery and vehicles in safety-critical areas, round off this new portfolio. Inductive safety sensor in Varikont L2 Design and Performance Level PLd These safety proximity sensors do not require a special coded target and can therefore be used with standard metal actuators. The sensors from Pepperl+Fuchs have no blind zone and can therefore be mounted easily and without any additional adjustment.
The sensors are equipped with standardised OSSD outputs (Output Signal Switching Device) for signals and diagnostics that can be connected to a safety module or a corresponding control panel. The inductive safety sensors from Pepperl+Fuchs have very high characteristic safety values due to the electronics used. As a result, the regular functional inspections are required significantly less often, and integration into the safety loop is notably more straightforward. The portfolio of inductive safety sensors from Pepperl+Fuchs, certified according to Machinery Directive Performance Level PLd www.pepperl-fuchs.com
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
ZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARD S HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZ ZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARD RDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS H ARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS AZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZAR ARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS S HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZ ARDS In HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS association with the Mary Kay O’Connor ProcessHAZARDS Safety Center S HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZ RDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS H 22– 24 May 2019, Birmingham, UK ARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS AZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZAR S HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZ Hazards HAZARDS 29 is IChemE’s annual process safety conference, the leading event HAZARDS of its kind in Europe. RDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS H It will share good practice, latest developments and lessons learned in process safety, promoting safer AZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS working practices and helping to make good practice common practice.HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZAR ARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS Hazards 29 will cover every major aspect of process safety and bring together hundreds of practitioners S HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZ from around the globe. It HAZARDS is the perfect place to learn from others’ experiences, keep up-to-date with ARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS good process safety practice, and network with the international process safety community. S HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZ RDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS H What’s going on? ARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS Workshop sessions Around 100 oral presentations and posters industry practitioners, researchersHAZARDSTrade AZARDS from HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZAR exhibition of process safety related products and regulators and services S HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZ Invited plenary speakers from industry Welcome reception and social event RDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDSdrinks HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS H Panel discussion AZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZAR ZARDS Programme HAZARDS themes HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARD RDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS H Process Safety Management Pipelines & Transport Human Factors Dispersion Modelling HAZARDS DS HAZARDS HAZARDS Safety HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HA Systems &HAZARDS Audit Lessons Learned Hazard Assessment Culture Integration of Process Safety Data HAZARDS Hazard Management Design Engineering ARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS CyberHAZARDS Security Risk Assessment ProcessHAZARDS Safety Futures Environment Incident Investigation S HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZ Safety Cases Offshore Safety HAZARD Case Studies Education & Training ZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS RDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS H Plenary speakers ARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS AZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZAR ARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS S HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZ ARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS S HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZ RDS HAZARDSMike HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDSTracy HAZARDS HAZARDS H Bell Dame Judith HAZARDS Mark Neate Whipple Hackitt DBE ARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS Walt HAZARDS Disney Parks & Sellafield Ltd,HAZARDS UK BP, USHAZARDS HAZARDS Resorts, US Chair, EEF, UK AZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZAR S HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZ Find out more and register at www.icheme.org/hazards29 AZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZAR RDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS H DS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HA Conference partner ARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS S HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZ ISC ZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARDS HAZARD ■■
Thames Water rolls out SEEPEX’s energy-reducing sludge solution SEEPEX’s smart air injection technology is an energy-efficient, high-performance alternative to conventional sludge handling systems
Progressive cavity pump specialist SEEPEX has developed a new system to improve dewatered sludge handling, enabling long distance transfer with reduced operational costs by using a combination of PC pump technology and dense-phase conveying. The technology has already been trialled by Thames Water at its Reading Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and is now being installed as part of the new Thames Water Riverside project, providing an energy-efficient, highperformance alternative to conventional sludge handling systems.
SEEPEX has a longstanding relationship with Thames Water, having worked for many years to increase the water company’s process efficiency and reduce the energy consumption of dewatered biosolids sludge handling. As the UK’s largest water and sewage treatment company, Thames Water provides wastewater services to 15 million customers and is committed to reducing its energy consumption. Its interest in SAI was linked to a new project at Riverside STW to handle dewatered sludge.
Testing the water
Following a visit by Thames Water representatives to observe SAI in action in Sweden, the company decided to measure the potential energy savings it could make by installing a trial SAI system at its Reading STW. This site had previously used piston pumps, but as a result of process limitations and high operating costs, Thames Water switched to SEEPEX’s multistage PC pumps in 2014. This solution halved Thames Water’s energy use, as well as reducing transport and maintenance costs. Four years on, it was time to see if SAI could improve things further. The SAI Reading trial set out to not only prove the technology, but to quantify the additional energy savings that could be delivered by pumping the dewatered biosolids from the centrifuge discharge to the storage silo. An SAI trial unit, including full controls and monitoring, was installed on the SEEPEX multistage PC pumps for a trial period and the results were recorded.
Superior energy savings
During the trial, energy use and discharge pressure measurements were taken. Using these figures, together with the volume and height of the discharge pipework, SEEPEX engineers could then calculate the optimum amount of air required. The trial concluded the energy saving with SAI compared to a multistage PC pump without air injection was 15%. Compared to the original piston pumps, the energy saving was an astonishing 61%. However, there were even greater savings to be made by switching to a single stage SAI pump fitted with SEEPEX’s Smart Conveying Technology (SCT), instead of the multistage pumps currently in use. Air usage data from a working SAI installation using SCT pumps in Belgium, enabled SEEPEX to produce an estimate for Thames Water, based on the trial results from Reading. It concluded that, if SCT single stage pumps were used in place of multistage pumps, the energy saving at Reading STW would be approximately 40%. When compared to the original piston pumps, an SAI system with SCT pumps would reduce energy consumption on this application by approximately 75%. A range of benefits
SCT pumps deliver a range of other benefits, too: reduced investment costs; longer service intervals; lower maintenance costs; smaller pump footprint; maintain in place capability; and long distance transfer of non-flowable products.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
The SEEPEX solution has allowed Thames water to significantly reduce pump length and installed motor power, and has the added benefit of ease of maintenance.
As a result of the successful Reading trial, Thames Water has procured several of SEEPEX’s SAI units for its Riverside project. “We were faced with a particularly tough challenge at Riverside,” explains Paul Fountain, Senior Consultant – Biosolids, for Thames Water. “Replacing a problematic conveyor system with proven PC pumps was the preferred solution, but due to very tight space constraints, low access walkways and a labyrinth of pipework to work around, the traditional multi-stage pump was not going to be possible.”
“Working with SEEPEX, we decided to purchase several single stage Smart Conveying Technology PC pumps, coupled with SEEPEX Smart Air Injection innovation,” continues Paul. “This allowed us to significantly reduce the pump length and installed motor powers, and has the added benefit of ease of maintenance.” Smart technology
Smart Air Injection technology works in the following way. A solid ‘plug’ of dewatered sludge is formed by an open hopper pump, which is then split into smaller plugs and transported onwards using compressed air in the discharge pipework. Air injection is tailored to each application on-site, using algorithms to ensure that the discharge pressure remains below 4 bar. The sludge plug is lubricated with boundary layer liquid, which reduces friction losses in the pipework and improves the energy efficiency of the system as a whole. Adjusting system parameters such as plug length, boundary layer liquid and air volumes on-site makes it possible to set application-specific, energy efficient, operating parameters.
pump service life. All functional components, sensors and actuators are part of the scope of supply, and are integrated into the SAI control software, configured to each application. A bright future
Already in operation at a number of sites throughout Europe, SAI is now set to improve sludge handling at Thames Water’s Riverside project and beyond. At a recent seminar held at Thames Water’s Reading site, delegates from UK Water plc enjoyed a demonstration of the technology in real time and were able to identify areas of their processes that could benefit from SAI, both in terms of increasing energy efficiency and reducing transport costs. Potential improvements that were highlighted during the seminar included: increasing the dry solid content (ds%) of sludge, where plant layout and high discharge pressure has limited it to date; removing problematic conveyors; and replacing legacy pumps with more energy efficient SCT models. For further information contact SEEPEX UK Ltd, on: 01935 472376 email@example.com
SEEPEX’s SAI technology is being installed at Thames Water’s Riverside STW to handle dewatered sludge.
In addition, SAI is a highly automated system, with connected services to allow for real-time pump monitoring. Smart control is integrated into existing automation and control systems via conventional interfaces, enabling remote monitoring of pump and system performance. This delivers optimised process conditions, maximum energy savings and increased
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Energy efficiency prompts creamery to invest in second MasoSine pump The company is the largest Cornish clotted cream Brand in the U.K. Rodda’s also exports its products around the world with its famous clotted cream being served alongside cream teas on a number of airlines.
When a world famous creamery from Cornwall installed a new depositing machine at its factory, the company’s previous success with a MasoSine pump from Watson-Marlow Fluid Technology Group (WMFTG) ensured it returned to the same source for a second unit. This time around, an energy-efficient Certa 100 was recommended to transfer a range of double and single cream products from mobile storage tanks to the hopper of the new depositing machine. A E Rodda and Son has been making Cornish clotted cream since 1890, when Eliza Jane Rodda, GreatGreat Grandmother of the current Managing Director, Nicholas Rodda, started making Cornish clotted cream in her farmhouse kitchen here in the heart of Cornwall. 128 years later, the company still maintains many traditional methods of manufacturing. Rodda’s led the way in campaigning to get protected status for this Cornish delicacy and in 1998 it was awarded Protected Designation of Origin status, along with the likes of Champagne and Parma ham.
delivered by sinusoidal technology include virtually no pulsation, simplicity, reliability, interchangeable parts and low cost of ownership.
In 2012, Rodda’s installed a MasoSine SPS 200 sine pump as part of a new clotted cream line, and its reliable performance has impressed the maintenance team.
Watson-Marlow’s technical team advised A E Rodda and Son that the smallest pump in the Certa range, the Certa 100, would meet their requirements. This pump delivers the required flow rate of up 4200 l/h.
“We were in the process of investing in a new depositing machine, which essentially deposits cream into a pot and seals it with a lid, so we needed to look for a suitable pump to transfer the product from mobile storage tanks,” explains Maintenance Supervisor Paul Johnson.
In terms of the process, a mobile storage tank is wheeled up to the new depositing machine, where upon the Certa 100 transfers cream from one to the other. The pump is mounted low, facilitating a head of two metres into the machine’s hopper. No priming is required.
“Over the past six years of hard work we’ve had virtually no maintenance issues with the SPS 200; it has basically looked after itself,” states Mr Johnson. “Importantly, the pump does not damage or compromise product integrity, which is crucial to our production process.”
Offering EHEDG (Type EL Class I and EL Aseptic Class I) and 3A certification as standard, Certa is extremely easy to clean for minimal downtime. Cleaner than any lobe or circumferential piston pump, a range of seven Certa pumps is available for flow rates up to 99,000 l/h and pressures to 15 bar.
This same approach was needed for the company’s new pouring cream production facility: low shear, low pulsation and gentle handling.
“Using a centrifugal pump, for example, would effectively churn the cream into something like butter,” says Mr Johnson. “A sine pump was clearly the way forward and we were keen on the new Certa from WMFTG, especially because of its energy-efficiency attributes.”
“We’ve had the MasoSine Certa 100 for around 12 months and there have been no issues whatsoever,” reports Mr Johnson. “Moreover, the pump is impressively quiet and is extremely energy efficient. From experience we have learnt that it is three times more expensive to run a pneumatic pump than an electric pump.” www.wmftg.com
Unlike traditional pumps with rotors that cut through the fluid, Certa’s sinusoidal rotor gently carries product through the pump to dramatically reduce shear, while cutting power consumption by up to 50% with high-viscosity fluids. Further advantages and high performance levels
Intelligent Pump Control Resets the Bar for High Pressure Coolant Delivery Wanner has introduced intelligent pump control for its Hydra-Cell pumps that it claims will generate significant savings while improving machined part quality. High-pressure coolant pumps are traditionally set to accommodate the tool in the carousel with the largest coolant flow requirement. When tools with smaller orifices are employed, the unneeded coolant is returned to the supply tank through a bypass valve. This system is wasteful of power, heats up the coolant unnecessarily and reduces the life of the pump itself.
Although it is generally considered adequate to keep the pressure constant and vary the flow according to the tool orifice size, on some occasions (tools with smaller coolant orifices) it is necessary to increase the pressure in order to optimise the cooling capacity. The Hydra-Cell Intelligent Pump offers ultimate controllability and can be programmed to produce individual pressures for each tool in the carousel if required, delivering coolant exactly when it’s needed in the exact quantity, at the exact pressure while eliminating the need for coolant bypass.
Hydra-Cell Intelligent Pump control (patent pending) is an open loop system without pressure gauges and complex electrical feedback loops. It delivers just the right flow of coolant to maintain the required system pressure, regardless of tool size.
High-pressure coolant is proven to reduce costs and increase machining productivity. Hydra-Cell Intelligent Pumps help achieve and enhance these savings with the “lowest cost of ownership” high pressure coolant solution, with ultimate controllability.
As well as reducing the power requirement, coolant chillers can be smaller and consume less energy. Pump stress is reduced, extending the life of the pump and the whole operation is quieter as the pump speed is reduced.
For further information contact Brenda Davis, Marketing Manger at Wanner, on: +44 (0)1252 816847 Brenda@wannerint.com www.hydra-cell.eu/machinetool
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Flotronic introduces ‘ONE NUT’ barrel unloading Flotronic has introduced a new barrel and drum unloading system, combining the unique ‘ONE NUT’ pump with their barrel unloading skid. The new system enables you to pump highly viscous materials out of your barrel at significantly increased flow rates. This system is built around our ‘ONE-NUT’ sanitary style pump which is based on our 3A and EHEDG design. This style of pump has already proven itself in the hygienic / sanitary industries and is a match for any environment or process where avoidance of product contamination is paramount. The system can be Cleaned in Place using the pump itself or an external CIP rig or, because of the ‘ONE NUT’ design of the pump, it can be easily stripped down for cleaning.
“Using an inflatable seal, the system ensures minimal wastage is achieved and the minimum of product remains in the barrel.” Says Leighton Jones, Sales Director, Flotronic Pumps. “As the seal inflates it creates an excellent seal while moving down the barrel and at the end of the process it deflates for easy removal. There is less hold up compared to other systems, which means you can empty challenging viscous fluids from full size drums in a matter of minutes, improving productivity with increased profit potential.”
● ● ● ● ● ●
Simple & Rapid Installations - in Minutes Joins plain-end Pipe - No Prep Required Reusable in Pipework Dis/Assembly Stress-Free Joining with Misalignment Problem Solver in Restricted Spaces WRc/WRAS Approved for Potable Water
For further information contact Jane Waite, Managing Director of Flotronic, on: 01444 881871 www.flotronicpumps.co.uk
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org • www.mvfh.co.uk
WES Ltd sees 20% increase in revenue with ambitious growth strategy
Hidrostal’s efficient pump systems ensure cost-effective production Hidrostal manufacture pumps for numerous sectors including food handling/ processing and brewing applications. Every pump in the Hidrostal range incorporates the unique screw centrifugal impeller, which was originally designed to handle fish. Its’ gentle handling characteristics, combined with exceptionally large free passages, ensures it pumps the most diverse fluids and materials gently and with low pulsation, making it perfectly suited to low shear applications, including the gentle handling of raw produce and granular activated carbon.
Hidrostal pumps are ideal for the food sector due to their low velocity and low shear design hydraulics, which handle and transfer delicate product with zero damage whilst retaining optimum efficiency and maximising energy saving. In addition to gentle handling requirements, the range is also suited to the energy efficient circulation and removal of the washwater. Hydraulic parts are built from hard materials and the large free ball passage offers a robust and reliable solution.
For further information contact Hidrostal Ltd. on: 01635 550440 email@example.com www.hidrostal.co.uk
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Encouraged by another year of expansion and success, WES Ltd’s 20% growth in 2018 is set to support the water industry deliver throughout the next AMP7 as their business expands in both wastewater and drinking water. The leading chemical dosing system specialist has achieved a third consecutive year of strong growth. In line with its formal business growth plan, the company expanded all four of its divisions in 2018: Chemical Dosing Systems and Projects; Chemical Dosing Products; Servicing and Installation; and Equipment Hire.
While WES’ hire equipment is intended for immediate mobilisation nationally, the focus for continuous expansion of other activities in 2018 has been the company’s South and South East heartland. There are also plans to grow the business in East Anglia, the Midlands and Wales. For further information on WES products and services, visit www.wes.ltd.uk
In particular its chemical dosing equipment hire options has offered alternative solutions and a vision of WES that has had impressive growth throughout 2018. Last year, WES expanded its main depot to create extra space for what is already the UK’s largest chemical dosing equipment hire fleet.
Wanner announces new Hydra-Cell heavy duty, high pressure, multi-diaphragm seal-less pump Wanner has launched the Hydra-Cell® T200 Series Medium Pressure, multi-diaphragm pump range, which in terms of flow rate and pressure are the highest performing pumps in the Hydra-Cell range and the biggest pumps ever produced by the Company. They feature a seal-less design that eliminates leaks, hazards and the expense associated with seals and packing; lowering the cost of ownership and giving a longer service life than competitive pumping technologies. eliminating seal maintenance costs while hazardous materials and VOCs (volatile organic compounds) are fully contained. The seal-less design, combined with robust check valves, also enable the pump to handle abrasive particles up to 800 microns in size and with less wear than gear, screw or plunger pumps.
There are two models, currently, in the T200 Series, rated at 207 bar (3000 psi) and 241 bar (3500 psi) with maximum flows of 387 l/min (102.2 US gpm) and 349 l/min (92.4 US gpm) respectively. The new pumps are ideal for oil and gas production, mining operations, boiler feed and high-pressure cleaning, along with chemical and petrochemical process and transfer applications.
The Hydra-Cell T200 can operate with a closed or blocked suction line and can run dry indefinitely without damage, eliminating downtime and repair costs.
Hydra-Cell pumps have no dynamic seals, cups or packing to leak, wear or replace,
With energy costs becoming an ever-increasing element in overall operational cost the T200’s low energy consumption, in relation to performance, will contribute significantly to its claim of having the lowest cost of ownership. For further information contact Brenda Davis, Marketing Manger at Wanner, on: +44 (0)1252 816847 Brenda@wannerint.com www.hydra-cell.eu
Removal of Microplastics from water streams using membrane technology The removal of microplastics from drinking, process or wastewater streams is a major step towards the reduction of microplastic pollution found in the environment. The use of plastic microbeads in cosmetics and personal care products has already been banned in the UK and many other countries. However microplastic pollution is still being generated by the waste plastics already in the environment which are aging and self-abrading on a very wide scale. As a result, most water sources now contain background but rising levels of microplastic contamination, which can ultimately feed back into in the human food chain. Crossflow Membrane Technology (CMT), renowned for its success in the removal of bacteria, pesticides, suspended solids and colour from wastewater, is now a practical solution in the fight against the microplastic pollution found in most wastewater streams. CMT works as a physical barrier against microplastics where the particulates cannot pass through the membrane on the basis of particle size, allowing only crystal clear commercially sterile, particle free water to be discharged. All the microplastic particulates and other separated impurities are safely retained in a low volume controllable form ready for further treatment. Axium Process specialises in Crossflow Membrane Technology and is working with companies wishing to evaluate the benefits of membrane
filtration as a treatment for wastewater and removal of microplastics. The company’s expertise is in the design, build and commissioning of customised membrane filtration plants that can provide cost effective solutions in terms of reduced water and energy costs, recovery of chemicals, reduced effluent volumes and disposal costs. For further information please contact Gale Rudd, Axium Process Ltd, on: +44 (0) 1792 883 882 firstname.lastname@example.org www.axiumprocess.com
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Feature Article By John Wilson of Amiad Water Systems UK
about cooling system water filtration
Many owners and operators of cooling towers and cooling systems are quite comfortable in the belief that they are operating an effective and safe water system – but how safe are they really?
John Wilson of Amiad Water Systems UK discusses some of the hidden truths.
By nature of their action, cooling systems may suffer considerable levels of system contamination. This can be caused by suspended solids in the make-up water, the ‘scrubbing action’ of cooling towers, or by process leaks encouraging microbial activity. With operators wanting to employ what they believe to be a ‘quick fix’, what we regularly see are operators focussing on just one aspect of the water treatment regime. Little do they realise that this could in fact make the situation worse as is carefully pointed out by the Health & Safety Executive’s (HSE) own advice: “An appropriate cooling water treatment programme must be capable of controlling not only legionella and other microbial activity, but also corrosion, scale formation and fouling, and include appropriate measures, such as regular physical cleaning and disinfection, to maintain the system’s cleanliness. This is very important since these aspects are often interrelated and failure to control one aspect will often lead to other problems and will increase the legionella risk.”
microbiological tests. Rather than considering the efficiency or indeed the implications of running with a heavily contaminated system, conventional chemical techniques employed may involve adding inhibitors to control corrosion and scale formation, biocides to control microbial growth and dispersants to control fouling.
By fitting a side stream filtration solution will of course dramatically improve the overall performance and allow the chemicals to work more effectively. However, we need to fully understand the implications of what lies within the cooling water before a correct side stream filtration solution can be implemented.
Here lies the hidden and often ignored issues of poor energy transfer, blockages and system shutdowns that result from a poor-quality cooling water being circulated.
Generally, when you look at a cooling system you will find that 80-90% of the particles are less than 10 micron in size and it is these particles which lead to most of the problems.
To help combat these, many operators feel safe having installed traditional technologies such as side-stream filtration, where a volume of recirculating cooling water is passed through a ‘side-stream’ loop to remove these contaminants from the water and in so doing reduce overall loading of solids. Typically these are kinetic or centrifugal separators, or other technology such as selfcleaning screen filters, disc filters or even conventional media filters. As a standard practice such systems are then combined with chemical treatment.
In most systems the process cooling water is passed through a system of pipework and then if a cooling tower is present, it is passed over the cooling area of the tower, or through a chiller or heater. Now, even in the best of systems, and most don’t fall into this category, the pipework will be plastic, steel, stainless or, as in many systems, a combination of all three. All of these materials have a single thing in common, their
In reality, what we commonly see are cooling system installations that have focused upon compliance, with operators throwing extensive chemical treatments at the problem in the belief that this will ensure they do not fail
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Feature Article surfaces are not completely smooth. Larger particles, having a larger surface area, collect into a mass which is swept along through the system by the water flow. However, looking though a microscope you will see surface inclusions and roughness and it is into these very locations where the smaller particles, typically less than 5-6 micron, affix themselves. What you now have are smaller particles lodged in the pipework and system cooling surfaces. Some may well be killed off by chemicals but they still hold their position, often building up to give a smooth internal pipe surface. This is what we call biofilm, something with which any operator will familiar.
The question is should we filter to less than 5 micron? Well, not necessarily.
This is where you need to get some meaningful water analysis done. It is quite common for operators to occasionally do a Total Suspended Solids (TSS) test which only tells you how much solid particulate you have in the water. What you really need to understand is the volume of solids and the size of particles that are present. A Particle Size Distribution (PSD) will help you understand what volume of solids you have within the cooling water.
Effective side stream filtration should be based upon selecting the most appropriate technology for the application and ensuring that it can effectively remove the type of solids in the water. Here is a short list to consider when choosing a side stream filtration and the options available: • W hat is the nature of the particles? Organic or inorganic? • How good a level of filtration is really needed? • How much space is available? • Is the site sensitive to water losses? • Do you need uninterrupted filtration? hat would be the cost of maintenance and the • W impact to operation? Like most types of equipment there is a wide choice of technology from which to choose with each type having its own distinct pros and cons. The table below provides a guide on various filtration options available and how they perform in different applications.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
And it gets worse. Underneath this now smooth biofilm remains a rough surface area which is now colonised with live bacteria and it is this live bacteria where the problem lies. Not only are they protected from chemicals but the bacteria happily colonises due to being kept warm and fed on a continuous basis. Where biofilm has formed you can expect major problems with plant and equipment as well as the stability of the cooling and there is increased risk of breaching present HSE laws.
When you look at a PSD you will often see that a considerable proportion of the solid particles are very small and as low as 1 micron in size. However, it is not just particle size that matters but the volume of the particles. For example, you may find your particle count for <5 micron particles is very high but this only represents a small fraction of the volume. The following graphs illustrate that where almost 95% of the particles are <10 micron in size this actually only accounts for less than 10% of the particles volume.
Size of particles Footprint removed
OPEX Backwash / replacements
Traditional Sand Filters 20 micron High High
Particles to 20 micron, organic & inorganic
Automatic Screen Filters 10-800 micron Low Low
Wide range of applications good for non-deformable solids
Centrifugal Separators / >100 micron Low Low Hydrocyclones
Removal of larger, heavy particles, requires constant operation
Automatic Disc Filters
Very good for organic particles
Consumables Down to 0.1 micron High V. High Bag / Cartridge Filters
Limited to smaller flow rates, good for small or temporary installations
High efficiency Down to 1 micron Medium Medium media filters
High filtration performance, low backwash compared to sand filters
In conclusion... there needs to be a better
understanding of the implications of a ‘quick fix’ approach to cooling tower and cooling water filtration. Operators may feel they have achieved biological control, but biofilm in the pipework, unless thoroughly treated, can suddenly appear and cause major problems not just to a process but more alarmingly to public health.
The best and most efficient side stream filtration system is the one that provides the best possible return on investment by improving plant efficiency, reducing both operational and maintenance costs and most importantly meeting HSE requirements.
Heating & Cooling
BABCOCK WANSON LAUNCHES UK’S FIRST BOAS CAT 5 TRAINING FOR COIL BOILER OPERATORS Babcock Wanson is pleased to announce the launch of the first Boiler Operation Accreditation Scheme (BOAS) Cat 5 training course for Coil type Steam Boiler Operators in the UK, in conjunction with the Combustion Engineering Association (CEA). The new course, prepared by Babcock Wanson, will cover a range of safety and operational issues that the operator should be aware of, including important health and safety aspects of steam systems and simple water treatment routines, as well as the safe operation of the boiler and how to recognise and what to do when the boiler is not performing correctly. The training will be assessed through a multi-question exam produced and marked by the CEA who will issue a Certificate and ID card to successful candidates, valid for five years. This important new BOAS course can be completed at Babcock Wanson’s Hertfordshire works or on the customer’s site.
Chris Horsley, Managing Director of Babcock Wanson UK, comments: “Compared to older steam generating technology, coil type steam generators can not only be considerably more energy efficient and environmentally friendly, but are very quick in raising steam and can be safer to operate. However, they are not a ‘fit and forget’ scenario and are required to be operated in full compliance with most of the same legislation as traditional shell and tube steam boilers including the Pressure Systems Safety Regulations and the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations which requires training and competence of all relevant employees. The new BOAS Cat 5 course helps address this gap.”
The new BOAS Cat 5 training course will cover two levels: steam generator operators (a one day course) and steam generator engineers/managers. The latter will require a greater level of knowledge from candidates and will include some of the more detailed maintenance and supervision aspects of operating a larger coil boiler installation and steam distribution system. Courses for this level will be three days duration and include further examinations and an interview with an experienced Assessor. For information on forthcoming BOAS Cat 5 courses please contact Babcock Wanson on 020 8953 7111 or email email@example.com.
G P Burners launches facile range of self-regulating burners
FULTON ACHIEVES CPD CERTIFICATION FOR ITS NEW VSRT TRAINING COURSE Fulton is delighted to confirm that its VSRT Steam Boiler Operation & Maintenance course has been certified by the CPD Certification Service as conforming to the continuing professional development principles.
It also focuses on the VSRT’s use of state-of-the-art controls and technology, looks in-depth at its patented spiral heat exchanger and includes training in operational procedures, daily blowdowns and the checking of water levels, alarms, etc.
The news follows the company’s announcement in late-2018 that it had achieved similar CPD Certification status, but for its Vertical Steam Boiler Operation & Maintenance course.
Finally, it examines the importance of correctly treated feedwater and what boiler inspectors will look for during routine insurance inspections.
Designed for boiler operators, the one-day VSRT Steam Boiler Operation & Maintenance course covers basic monitoring and day-to-day operation of steam boilers to provide employees with the knowledge required to ensure boilers are running safely and efficiently. 36
Swindon based combustion equipment manufacturer, G P Burners, has launched its FACILE range of fully automatic burners. The company claims that the new, state-of the-art models are the first self-regulating burners for industrial and commercial combustion applications. The patented FACILE burners feature innovative and smart technology to deliver ease of operation, faster commissioning, optimum performance, energy efficiency and reduced emissions. FACILE burners independently and automatically set up plant parameters such as temperature, pressure and boiler power, as well as reacting to ambient variables including altitude and climate. The system recognises and adapts to all types of boilers and processes for optimum performance. These characteristics simplify installation and dramatically
reduce commissioning time, compared with conventional burners. For the rare occasions when operator intervention is required, FACILE units have a user-friendly LCD controller. During operation, FACILE burners have a proactive and self-regulating mass flow sensing capability, automatically adjusting fuel and air flow. The ignition point is burner determined and regulated to ensure optimum ignition. These features help to ensure inherently safe operation, optimum combustion and reduced energy consumption. For further information please contact G P Burners (CIB) Limited, on: +44 (0) 1793 709050 firstname.lastname@example.org www.gpburners.co.uk
Further information on Fulton’s training courses can be found on their website, by calling +44 (0)117 972 3322 or emailing email@example.com. fulton.co.uk/support/training
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
EXPERTLY PACKAGED SOLUTIONS Benefits of Fulton’s skid mounted and plant room heat transfer solutions include: · Higher productivity · Reduced construction timescales and year-round construction (not constrained by weather) · Increased build and quality assurance · Design flexibility · Minimised on-site disruption · Reduced wastage · Improved Health & Safety · Built in a controlled environment with designers and fabricators under one roof · High cost benefit against site work
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+44 (0)117 972 3322 firstname.lastname@example.org 16/01/2019 13:41
Check Out Heat Exchanger Services First Hand From its three UK sites Thornhill Group provides heat exchanger design, fabrication and support services for companies processing a wide range of products from major food and drink brands and ingredients through to companies processing highly volatile chemicals. While the requirements from both of these sectors for the types of heat exchanger products required are quite different, they both have rigorous controls and criteria for the way in which manufacture and servicing of their heat exchangers is undertaken and the safeguards and working methods that are in place. This means that they often visit Thornhill’s factories to assess processes and procedures for themselves as well as send in their own certification agencies to gain third party approvals. But recognising that there are many processing managers who want the reassurance of being able to see what goes on behind the scenes but are unable to go there themselves, Thornhill has produced this short video that features the company’s main activities. >>
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Heating & Cooling
New, Higher Capacity Modular Counterflow Cooling Tower Allows Process Cooling Plants to be Operational and Productive Sooner advantages that enable safer assembly processes, including up to 60 percent faster delivery and 80 percent faster installation compared to field-erected cooling towers.
Larger sizes with greater flow rates meet more process cooling demands and offer 60 percent faster delivery, 80 percent faster installation, safer assembly processes and robust components SPX Cooling Technologies, Inc., a full-line, full-service industry leader in the design and manufacture of evaporative cooling towers, announces that new, larger models of Marley MD Everest modular counterflow cooling towers are now available. The larger Marley MD Everest Cooling Tower models, with a maximum flow rate of 12,602 gpm/cell (2862 m3/hr) expand their capabilities to meet today’s process cooling demands, and are suitable for power generation plants, chemical, oil and gas plants, and other process applications with a wide range of thermal loads.
The MD Everest counterflow tower’s robust structure meets seismic and wind load requirements per ASCE and IBC building codes, and withstands the rigors of process cooling applications using heavy-duty, corrosionresistant materials. Industrial-strength Marley mechanical components include a five-year maintenance-free System 5 Marley Geareducer® gear drive; energy-efficient, lowclog PVC heat exchange fill media; and Motor Outside Airstream (MOA), standard. The MD Everest Cooling Tower also includes a five-year mechanical component warranty. MD Everest Cooling Tower arrives onsite in modules that are built and assembled in a controlled factory environment to facilitate high quality and efficient installation. Its thermal performance is certified by the Cooling Technology Institute (CTI), eliminating the need and expense for on-site testing.
Whether designing a new plant or replacing an aging traditional site-constructed cooling tower, the MD Everest Cooling Tower’s pre-configured design offers significant
Low Carbon Heat Recovered from Wastewater: Second District Heat Network Powered by SHARC Energy Technology Wastewater heat recovery specialists SHARC Energy Systems is pleased to announce that they have been appointed to support the development of the new low temperature District Heating Scheme (“DHS”) in Stirling, Scotland. The £6 million project is being developed between Stirling Council and Scottish Water Horizons, who have contracted FES Support Services Ltd as the main contractor to Design and Build the heat network and Energy centre to be located on the Stirling Forthside Wastewater Treatment Works. The new SHARC installation will be the second District Heating project in the UK to adopt SHARC Sewage Heat Recovery, with work due to complete in spring 2019. SHARC Energy will work with main contractors FES Support Services Ltd to Design, Build and Operate (“DBO”) the Sewage Heat Recovery system and support an ongoing operating activity to deliver the 4th generation district heating service, designed to operate at a 60/40 flow and return temperature in the Forthside area of the town. The network will provide heating to several private and publicly owned buildings, with scope for the network to be expanded across the city to include homes, helping tackle fuel poverty and provide financial savings for businesses. Typical SHARC system
For more information contact Jeroen Bouten, Director of Sales – Europe, Middle East & Africa, on: Jeroen.Bouten@spx.com +31 6 11 11 39 62 www.spxcooling.com
Gardner Denver’s CompAir extends oil-free Ultima compressor range with new air-cooled model offering process heat recovery
SHARC Energy’s technology reclaims heat from the waste water that homes and businesses pour down the drain every day, reusing it to generate low-carbon, low cost, sustainable clean heat that can displace the use of carbon intensive natural gas and other fossil fuels.This installation, alongside the new 2 MW capacity DHS currently being built by SHARC Energy in the Dalmarnock area of the Clyde Gateway regeneration program, provides further evidence of the opportunity to use large scale heat pumps to support the growing appetite for low carbon district heating now emerging across the UK. For more information SHARC Energy Ltd please contact Russell Burton at russell. email@example.com or Milli Burton at firstname.lastname@example.org
Its hybrid cooling capabilities offer extra flexibility for the user too. Operators can choose between either air-cooling, water-cooling or both, depending on the most economic means of cooling at the time. For example, air-cooling might be more cost-effective to use during the winter period, as the heated cooling air can then be re-purposed for space heating in a facility. On the other hand, during summer months, when there is no demand for space heating, a watercooled operating mode might be more economic. Delivering best-in-class performance, the air-cooled Ultima compressor offers cost savings of up to 13 per cent when compared with industry standards, even without the additional application of heat recovery. Thanks to the speed-regulated fans, the power consumption in standard ambient conditions or at partial load is reduced even further.
Gardner Denver has released a new air-cooled version of its ground-breaking Ultima technology, which continues to set a benchmark in the market by being the first ever air-cooled oil-free compressor to offer heat recovery for process water. With the air-cooled model capable of recovering up to 98 per cent of heat generated during compression, cost savings of approximately £70,000 are possible* when compared with the nearest rival models. The technology’s patented closed package cooling system means the energy captured when compressing air can be used to provide process water heating, delivering usable water temperatures of up to 85oC.
Its highly-engineered oil-free airends, designed and manufactured at Gardner Denver’s Centre of Excellence in Simmern, Germany, feature a special coating to help protect the machinery and avoid performance degradation throughout its lifetime. For more information on Gardner Denver, please visit www gardnerdenver.com/industrials.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Feature Article By Enrico Brinciotti, PhD, Business Development Engineer, Anritsu - EMEA Region
RF & Microwave Material measurements: techniques and applications How can we differentiate cancerous from non-cancerous cell types? What is the propagation time of a signal within a filter? What is the shielding effectiveness of a component? What is the relative permittivity of a microstrip substrate? What is the performance of a Radar absorber? What all these questions have in common is the need to quantitatively characterise material properties at RF and microwave frequencies. Similar questions, coming from different applications, have created a continual demand to accurately measure dielectric and magnetic properties of materials. In this scenario, the Vector Network Analyser (VNA), represents a tool that allows fast, accurate, often non-destructive and sometimes even contactless, measurements of the Material Under Test (MUT). Over the years, several methods have been developed to characterise the dielectric properties of materials.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
These techniques include open-ended coaxial probe methods, free-space techniques, resonators, and transmission-line methods. Each technique has its own field of applicability depending on several factors, such as frequency of interest, required measurement accuracy, isotropic and homogeneity properties, form (i.e., powder, liquid, solid), size, requirements in terms of non-destructive or contactless testing, and temperature range. This article presents an overview of the different VNA-based techniques, along with some actual examples of novel applications.
Dielectric Properties of Materials Materials can be grouped into insulators (i.e. dielectrics), conductors, and semiconductors. When a dielectric material is exposed to an external electric field, it will be polarised. The amount of electromagnetic energy that a material stores and dissipates is measured by its dielectric and magnetic properties, namely electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability. Both are complex quantities. The real part of the permittivity is often referred to as dielectric constant. Materials can be divided into dispersive and non-dispersive, depending whether their permittivity changes as a function of frequency or not, respectively. For dispersive materials, it is necessary to quantify their frequency behavior. Accordingly, the permittivity is typically measured as a function of frequency. The complex relative permittivity, εr, is defined as
VNA-based materials measurements techniques Several VNA-based methods exist that allow measuring materials’ electrical properties, namely electric permittivity ε and magnetic permeability µ, from few kHz up to THz. From complex S-parameters measurements, the real and imaginary part of ε and µ can be obtained, simultaneously. Four approaches can be identified: open-ended coaxial probe methods, transmission-line methods, free-space techniques, and resonators. The dielectric properties of the MUT depend on frequency, anisotropy, homogeneity, temperature, and other parameters. Accordingly, there is no such thing as the best technique to accurately measure all materials’ dielectric properties at all frequencies and temperatures. The best method to choose will depend on: frequency, temperature, loss regime, MUT form (powder, solid, liquid, etc.), size (thin film, large panel, etc.), non-destructiveness test needs, and possibility to contact with the MUT or not. What follows is an overview of the four most commonly used methods to probe materials properties at RF and microwave frequencies.
Where is the electrical conductivity (S/m), is the imaginary unit, and is the angular frequency (rad/s). The complex permittivity consists of a real part and an imaginary part. The real part measures the amount of energy stored in the material, the imaginary part , also known as loss factor, measures the amount of energy loss from the material. The ratio of the imaginary part to the real part of the complex permittivity is defined as loss tangent (dissipation factor or loss factor) It measures the inherent dissipation of electromagnetic energy by the Material Under Test (MUT). continued on pages 40-41
Open-ended coaxial probe
Free-space setups In free-space setups, the S-parameters are calculated between two antennas with the sample placed in the line of sight. From the analysis of the reflected and transmitted portions of an EM wave that propagates from free-space into the sample, the dielectric properties of the MUT can be extracted. The transmitting horn radiates a collimated Gaussian beam via dielectric lenses, thus limiting
An open-ended coaxial probe is used to measure lossy materials at high frequencies over a broad frequency range of 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz. Dielectric properties are extracted from 1-port reflection measurements through a metallic probe pressed against the MUT. A calibration step is used to reference the measured reflected signal at the probe’s aperture plane. Flat solids and liquids are well suited samples for this technique. For materials with low permittivity, the method introduces some uncertainties and deflections.
Figure 1. Open-end coaxial probe method. (a) Sketch of the probe with E-field lines at the probe/MUT interface. (b) Application of the method at mm-Wave frequencies using Anritsu 3743A mm-Wave modules and with a coaxial cable and zoom of 1.85 mm (70 GHz) and 1 mm (125 GHz) connectors.
diffraction contributions from the MUT edges.
Figure 2. Transmission line setup for materials measurements. The setup is composed of an Anritsu VectorStar ME7838E VNA with 70 kHz to 110 GHz (1 mm coaxial output) full sweep capability, and a set of waveguide components, covering the wideband range. At the bottom, a zoom of a WR-19 waveguide transmission line is shown, with the MUT located at the central junction.
Common sources of error are probe/sample misalignments, as well as diffraction effects. Precise lenses manufacturing and alignment is required to limit wave-front aberrations and multiple reflections. Accordingly, free-space setups, especially for broadband applications, are quite expensive. Net accuracies and loss resolutions are similar to those reported for the transmission-line method. Figure 3.
Transmission-line method In the transmission-line method, the MUT is placed inside a transmission line (i.e. waveguide or coaxial). Permittivity and permeability are extracted from transmission and reflection S-parameters measurements. The method is applicable to both solids and fluids, and has higher accuracy and sensitivity than the open-ended coaxial probe technique. Error rates are <5% for the permittivity and permeability, and, at sufficiently high-loss levels, < 10% for the loss tangent. The resolution of the loss tangent is ±0.01; accordingly, materials having tanδ < 0.01 are not characterisable.
MUT MEASUREMENT Figure 3. Free-Space setup for E-Band material measurements from a project involving Fraunhofer FHR, RWTH Aachen IHF, and Anritsu. The setup is composed of an Anritsu Shockline MS46522B-082 VNA with small tethered source/receiver modules and a base chassis. The remote modules have native WR-12 waveguide interface and are coupled to horn antennas and a custom designed lens system. The three steps of a TRM calibration are shown, together with the actual measurement of the MUT. The video below offers a demonstration of this:
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Resonators Resonant methods enable the extraction of dielectric properties at a single frequency or at a set of discrete frequencies. This allows reaching higher accuracy – e.g. 4 digits in the permittivity and loss tangent – and sensitivity with respect to the previously described methods. The MUT is placed inside a resonant cavity having known resonance frequency and quality factor. The change in the latter quantities introduced by the MUT is thus measured, and the permittivity and permeability are determined. Errors are <1% for the permittivity and 0.3% for the loss tangent. Such high accuracy fails for high-loss materials, because the resonant peak broadens as the loss increases.
Figure 4. Cavity resonator setup for materials measurements. (a) Sketch of the sample holder stage, showing the dielectric supports and resonators, the sample plane (red), and the coupling loops. (b) and (c) show actual cavity resonators.
of different methods Each methodology has its own field of applicability and the best choice depends on: frequency range of interest, required measurement accuracy, isotropic and homogeneity properties, form (i.e., powder, liquid, solid), size, requirements in terms of non-destructive or contactless testing, and temperature range. The table below summarises the advantages, fields of applicability, and limitations of each technique.
Conclusions The use of VNA as a flexible and versatile tool to accurately and quantitatively characterise materials properties, such as electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability, from few kHz up to THz range, has been discussed. Different methods have been presented to extract permittivity and permeability of the MUT from either 2-ports or 1-port S-parameters measurements. The type of MUT that can be characterised using a VNA ranges from biological matter and liquids to solids and powders, highlighting the broad applicability of the VNA as a tool to characterise materials properties at high frequencies.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Platinum Wire-Wound & Flat-Film Detectors Labfacility offers a wide range of precision platinum temperature sensing resistors in both wire-wound and flat film construction. All standard items are available in quantity from stock • Pt100, Pt500, Pt1000 and other values available • Wide range of sizes • Tolerance values include class A or B, to 1/10th of class B • Single or duplex Platinum wire-wound detectors comprise a pure platinum wire wound into a miniature spiral and located within axial holes in a high purity alumina rod. The freedom of movement of the platinum wire gives good long term stability and a wide operating temperature range of -200 to up to +800°C.
Labfacility wire-wound detectors are cylindrical in shape and ideally suited for housing within a protective metal tube. Platinum flat-film detectors are produced by the deposition of a platinum film on to a flat ceramic substrate, the platinum being sealed to provide protection. Flat-film detectors are available in a range of sizes and are recommended for applications requiring small size, fast response to temperature changes, surface measurement, and resistance to vibration and shock. They are generally less expensive than wire-wound detectors, but the choice of tolerance classes is more limited. For further information contact Labfacility Limited, on: +44 (0)1243 871280 email@example.com www.labfacility.com
Ultrasonic Flowmeter for Process Measurement & Monitoring Using patented ultrasonic flow meter technology, that enables it to operate accurately over wide flow ranges, the Process Atrato from Titan Enterprises incorporates advanced signal processing system permitting both viscous and nonviscous fluids to be metered.
Robust, Chemically Resistant Flowmeter Oval Gear (OG2) flowmeters from Titan Enterprises provide an ideal solution for applications that require a highly accurate and chemically resistant flow measurement device.
With a standard flow range from 0.03 to 4.0l/min on 30cSt oil, OG2 flowmeters are able to regularly achieve outstanding repeatability (0.1%) and accuracy (0.75%).
There is a choice of construction materials for the OG2 flowmeter, including totally non-metallic wetted components, like ceramic, a choice of elastomer, and PEEK for metering aggressive chemicals.
Applications that have benefited from OG2 flowmeters include monitoring hydraulic fluids in earth movers and wind turbines, chemical pump testing, measuring sulphite spraying in a vineyard and for medical dosing.
OG2 flowmeters are compact and have a rugged design, which allows them to operate reliably even at higher pressure, providing steady performance with minimal maintenance. Furthermore, OG2 flowmeters are able to operate at temperatures up to 150°C and are fully IP67/NEMA 4 compliant. Each OG2 flowmeter comes with a pressure test certificate that verifies the device’s ability to handle pressures up to 700 bars (for OG2-700 model).
For further information on the OG2 flowmeter range please visit here or contact Titan Enterprises on +44-1935-812790 / firstname.lastname@example.org. www.flowmeters.co.uk/og2-positivedisplacement-pd-oval-gear-flowmeters-swept-volume-flowmeters/
Hand Held Temperature Sensors to Suit a Wide Range of Applications
The Process Atrato is a compact flow meter designed to provide fast response time, high sensitivity and wide flow range linearity - all in an IP65 (NEMA 4X) enclosure. With no moving parts the highly reliable Process Atrato flow meter is a cost-effective device for engineers looking to monitor the flow of liquids in industrial processes.
procedures for OEM manufacturers looking to integrate the flowmeter into their process and control set-up. Process Atrato ultrasonic flowmeters include a USB interface which permits users to directly monitor the rate and total on a computer while also altering some of the operating parameters, such as the pulse resolution and units. For further information please visit here or contact Titan Enterprises on +44-1935812790 / email@example.com. www.flowmeters.co.uk/process-atratoprocess-control-ultrasonic-flowmeter/
Features of the Process Atrato include an IP65 sealed enclosure, two frequency outputs of PNP and NPN, two multicolour LED light indicators (for pulse outputs, power malfunctions, and signal strength), and standard M12 four pin sensor connector for electrical connections. Rated for use up to 65°C and 20Bar, the compact Process Atrato is available in 4 models operating over flow ranges from 2ml / min to 15 litres / min, featuring an accuracy of ±1% over the whole flow range. Each Process Atrato is calibrated with a pre-set ‘K’ factor so all meters of the same flow range are fully interchangeable simplifying assembly and set-up
Manufactured by Labfacility in our Yorkshire branch, we have a comprehensive selection of hand held temperature sensors to suit a wide range of applications. 10 varieties to choose from. available to order online, from stock, for immediate despatch from www.labfacility.com
These are available in various calibration types. Style available include: • Spring Loaded Thermocouple with Copper Disc Tip • Stainless Steel Air Probes • Right Angled Probes • Ceramic Tip and Coiled Element • Right Angled Probe and Copper Disc Tip
• Temperature Needle Probe T-shaped for Asphalt or Food Processing • Moving Air Probe • Surface Probe • Stainless Steel Penetration Probes • General Purpose Probe
Labfacility have been manufacturing Temperature Sensors for 48 years now. In addition, we offer a bespoke Temperature Sensor service, please contact our Sales team using the information below. We are IOS 9001 accredited, and have an excellent Customer satisfaction rating on ‘Trustpilot’, which is an independent Customer review site. Various Product and Operational videos, including our Temperature Sensor manufacturing videos, are viewable on www.labfacility.com or our YouTube Channel. For further information contact Labfacility Limited, on: +44 (0)1243 871280 firstname.lastname@example.org www.labfacility.com
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
LED Panel Lamps NOW available with DUST Certification
Get a first-hand look at Brüel & Kjær’s soon-to-launch sound level meter Sound and vibration expert to unveil latest model via dedicated webpage Local authorities and environmental consultants, looking to upgrade their measurement tools, can get a head start by registering their interest in Brüel & Kjær’s new sound level meter on the company’s website. Launching soon, the company’s 2245 class 1 sound level meter provides users with easy-to-use applications and functionality, giving them absolute confidence and control over their noise measurement tasks.
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The meter can be tailored for specific jobs across a wide range of industries and users, from simple noise complaint investigations by local authorities to more specialised tasks, such as exhaust noise testing, occupational health monitoring or product noise analysis.
Five well defined colours LED for long life IP66 sealing front of panel, IP20 rear Optional IP66 rear sealing kit Mounting hole, 22.5mm diameter BA390, constant 20mA current & brightness BA390S, guaranteed operation at 4mA
More information is available on Brüel & Kjær’s website: www.bksv.com/ComingSoon
www.beka.co.uk Hitchin, Herts. SG5 2DA,UK
email@example.com Tel +44 (0)1462 438301
IIoT-Enabled Flow Sensor Monitors Air Loss in Pneumatic Systems to Optimise Energy Usage
E+E Elektronik’s new EE872 CO2 probe measures CO2 concentration up to 5 % (50000 ppm) and features active pressure and temperature compensation with onboard sensors. The heated, replaceable CO2 sensing module and the long-term stable dual wavelength NDIR operation principle lead to outstanding measurement performance even under harsh and condensing conditions.
Emerson’s new Aventics AF2 flow sensor monitors air consumption, enabling rapid intervention in the event of leakage, preventing excessive cost and machine breakdown Emerson have introduced the Aventics AF2 pneumatic systems flow sensor, which monitors energy losses which helps to prevent machine breakdowns and costs associated with excessive air consumption. The sensor continuously monitors the air consumption in pneumatic systems enabling compliance with the Energy Management standard DIN ISO 50001. Suitable for use in many industries, the device is just one of many components available from Emerson for networked plants in factory automation, known as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). An Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) display on the AF2 provides local indication of all relevant operating and diagnostic data. The flow sensor is available as a NO (normally open) and NC (normally closed) version. Analogue outputs can be switched with a signal from 4 to 20 mA. These signals can be interpreted directly by many controllers. InfoCentral@Emerson.com
Emerson’s new IIoT-enabled Aventics AF2 flow sensor monitors air loss in pneumatic systems to optimise energy usage. (Photo: copyright Emerson)
Another possibility for communication is the IO-Link capability of the sensor and the Ethernet interface, enabling customers to use the optimum device to communicate with existing controllers. OPC UA (Open Platform Communications Unified Architecture) and MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport), the preferred communications protocols for industry 4.0, are integrated into the AF2 sensor. In addition, the AF2 has a web-based dashboard showing real-time data for the users.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Heated CO2 Probe with Replaceable Sensing Module
Accurate and Long-Term Stable With its temperature range -40... 60 °C (-40…140 °F), the EE872 is appropriate for most CO2 monitoring applications. The multi-point CO2 and temperature adjustment ensures best accuracy over the entire working range. The probe incorporates the E+E dualwavelength NDIR CO2 sensor, which is highly insensitive to pollution. Due to autocalibration, the sensor also shows excellent long-term stability. Pressure and Temperature Compensation On-board sensors compensate the effect of temperature, altitude or weather changes on the CO2 measurement. This leads to highly accurate CO2 reading independently of the environmental conditions.
Heated, Interchangeable CO2 Sensing Module The heating prevents condensation inside the sensing head. Thus, the EE872 is appropriate for use in in high humidity and condensing environment. The modular design facilitates the replacement of the interchangeable, pluggable sensing module. Robust and Well Protected The robust IP65 stainless steel or plastic enclosure and the replaceable PTFE filter cap provide optimum protection against contamination. With a special catalytic filter, the CO2 probe is suitable for applications with periodic H2O2 sterilization. Analogue or Digital The EE872 provides the CO2 measured data simultaneously on current and voltage outputs or via RS485 interface with Modbus RTU protocol. Configuration and adjustment can be performed comfortably with the free configuration software and an optional adapter cable.
E+E Elektronik GmbH, Langwiesen 7, A-4209 Engerwitzdorf, Austria T: +43 (0) 7235 605-0 F: +43 (0) 7235 605-8 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.epluse.com 43
SPECIAL ENERGY FOCUS
Is gas generation the solution to rising
By Craig Akers, Sector Team Leader at Aggreko In an increasingly competitive world, UK industry needs to keep a tight lid on its energy costs, but, at the same time, is facing ever-increasing electricity prices. Craig Akers, Sector Team Leader at Aggreko says the answer might lie in taking advantage of the differential between electricity and gas prices. Rising energy costs Nobody looks forward to their electricity bill coming through the letterbox, particularly after a long winter. But, spare a thought for industrial electricity users who don’t get the respite of a long hot summer.
Why choose rental gas generation for your temporary power?
demonstrates that higher electricity prices result in an extra £43 million in annual costs for the sector, which either must be absorbed or passed on to customers.
Crucially, the impact of rising prices is often heavily skewed towards smaller and medium sized users without access to the compensation support mechanisms, under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme which are available to extra-large users.
Many experts believe that this situation is only going to get worse. As coal-fired power stations are decommissioned, demand on the grid is expected to increase due to the anticipated growth in electric cars, for example. The real worry is that prices are only going to rise, with the grid at capacity.
Inevitably, the high electricity prices are impacting not only competitiveness, but also investment. The UK is already suffering from an ageing industrial asset-base that badly The Gas vs Grid Differential needs updating, not1.least to take advantage new energyAttractive energy of prices annual fuel So, what isAverage UK industry going to do, in order to reduce its efficient processes andEnergy technologies. theaprice of pricesHowever, can have significant exposure toprices high electricity prices. for electricity have electricity is, all-too-often, eating away at any spare cash effect on your bottom line. Operating that could be used for investment in those technologies –a costs are more difficult to manage, a general The answerbeen may lie inon the differential between upward electricity sort of unvirtuous circleespecially that many over are struggling free when and gas prices that offers the potential to reduce energy the longtoterm, trend since 2005.” energy prices vary considerably. themselves from. costs, whilst simultaneously improving energy security. The differential can be best illustrated in the form of the graph below:
Industrial users are often big consumers of electricity all-year-round and that reliance on the grid means they are highly exposed to seemingly ever-increasing energy prices.
9 8 7
Pence per kWh
In fact, statistics from the University College London demonstrate that UK industry pays on average a third more for electricity than their European counterparts. Heavy energy users, such as steel, chemicals, cement and ceramics are being placed in an extremely uncompetitive position compared to their European competitors and those from further afield. By way of example, analysis by UK Steel, the steel industry’s trade association,
In fact, figures from IHS Market Research suggest that expected output in manufacturing has continued to drop over the last five years and that capital expenditure in the UK hit a seven-year low in 2018.
Heavy Fuel Oil Gas
5 4 3 2 1 0 2007
Source: BEIS 3
The cost per kWh of gas is currently much
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019 Renting gas generation – instead of
The figures from the Department for Business, Energy, Industry and Skills demonstrates that over a ten-year period, the differential between electricity and gas prices has risen, with the largest differential occurring in 2016 when gas was a full 6p per kWh cheaper than electricity.
All of this is very interesting, but how can industry leverage the difference to its advantage? Modern gas generators could be the solution, which, combined with battery storage capability, can provide gas generated electricity that can be used as a primary power source for production processes or to power essential every-day requirements, including lighting, heat and IT capabilities, such as data centres. Modern low emission generators can be powered by natural gas or alternatively, liquid natural gas and liquid petroleum gas. They are also designed with a number of state-of-the-art features, including lean burn technology, spark-arrested silencing and turbo charged after-cooling. Crucially, they are heavy duty, usually equipped with a purposebuilt alternator that makes them reliable in continuous operations and capable of being situated in a yard or even in the harshest environments, such as a quarry. What’s more, the heat generated can also be used to produce hot water with combined heat and power (CHP) units, offering extra cost savings, particularly in processing environments. Perhaps most importantly, the generator size can be matched to the requirements of the end-user. The gas generator is then combined with a plug and play lithium ion battery storage solution, which combines inverters, HVAC and auxiliary components, all tested and pre-assembled. The key point for end-users is that this type of technology can be deployed without making any significant changes to an end-user’s usual processes. The gas generator and battery storage are a plug and play solution that involves a simple switch from using mains electricity to gas generated electricity. While it still utilises some grid supply, it can significantly reduce the use and reliance on it, simultaneously reducing the costs.
manufacturer has an annual electricity bill of circa £1.7 million per annum. This second manufacturer could potentially make a circa 20 per cent cost saving by converting to gas generation, with a projected annual saving of £272,395. Our final scenario involves a user requiring 3,000 kW output. Again, the facility is working 24/7 for 365 days a year with an annual electricity bill of more than £2.6 million per year. In this scenario, the manufacturer could potentially make a 20 per cent saving that would equate to circa £544,791 per year, emphasising the benefit of a move towards gas generation. While these costs don’t consider the cost of renting a battery, the savings generated will still be eye-catching for manufacturers with this cost accounted for. Additionally, these stats don’t include heat recovery opportunities, which would provide even greater savings.
Unlocking the potential of DSR? However, it is not only the direct cost saving that has the potential to appeal to industrial electricity users. Demand Side Response (DSR) is still regarded as something of a ‘black art’ by many energy users, but does offer a viable option to reduce electricity costs. DSR offers industrial and commercial energy users the opportunity to flex their energy demand from the grid during peak demand, by lowering their energy consumption for short periods of time in return for lower tariffs. The key is careful analysis of energy forecasts and frequency response, in order to match the commercial energy needs of the business to its ability to lower or shift their electricity use at peak times. Whilst many industries can take advantage of DSR, others, such as data centres or aluminium smelters, have been unable, or unwilling, to access the opportunities due to their need for constant access to power. However, gas generation also offers a potential solution as a ‘gap fill’ enabling those with a constant power requirement to access DSR, with the gas generation and battery storage combination coming online, when required, for short periods of time.
This option does require careful consideration before being put into action and my advice would be to access expert energy support before putting a ‘gap fill’ plan in place.
The Capex conundrum All of this may well sound very appealing to industrial energy users wrestling with spiralling electricity prices, but I suspect many readers will have a nagging doubt in the back of their minds due to potential capex restrictions. Fortunately, there is a solution. The technologies described here are available as a long-term hire, off-balance sheet option offering a potential alternative to fixed plant. What’s more, the rental solution also comes with maintenance capability, which ensures that generators will always be optimised and any downtime can be foreseen and minimised. As UK industry continues to fall behind European countries, in terms of its electricity costs and its on-going effect on competitiveness, combined with the fact that grid supplies are only likely to be further stretched in the future, solutions like gas generation could play a pivotal role in the immediate future of UK industry. Add in the benefits of rental power solutions, and manufacturers have a financially viable option that helps meet demand and reduced outbound costs.
How much can I save? The key issue is, of course, the potential energy savings. This is best illustrated by using a series of potential scenarios for both small and large energy users to show how gas generators can provide savings. All scenarios are illustrative of a manufacturer running an industrial process 24/7 and for 365 days a year, but with different output requirements. Based on projected running hours of 8,736 per annum, a manufacturer requiring 800 kW output which is currently paying an electricity price of £0.1016 per kWh, will run up a total electricity bill of around £650,000 per annum. By switching to a gas generation, with a lower tariff of £0.0188 per kWh the manufacturer can potentially make savings of circa 10 per cent which equates to a total cost saving of £68,370 per year. The second scenario involves a manufacturer requiring 1500 kW output and paying a similar gas and electricity price to the manufacturer in our first scenario. This
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
SPECIAL ENERGY FOCUS
British industry to benefit from UK government-backed investment into innovative energy efficiency technologies Seven innovative energy efficiency projects have been selected to receive investment through the first phase of the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy’s (BEIS) Industrial Energy Efficiency Accelerator (IEEA). These projects will aim to demonstrate the application of novel technologies to reduce energy consumption in British industry. The projects will receive a share of £2.7million in government funding, leveraging over £3million in additional private sector investment. The IEEA is a £9.2million programme managed by the Carbon Trust, and supported by engineering consultancy Jacobs. The second phase of the programme launches on 1 February 2019 and will run for three months. The IEEA aims to increase the number of technologies available to British industry to help reduce energy consumption and cut carbon emissions. This intervention is designed to strengthen the global competitiveness of UK industry in sectors including manufacturing, waste processing and data centres. Government funding has been provided to overcome the risks traditionally associated with deploying new technologies such as, the disruption of production lines, capital constraints, lack of evidence for a business case, and prioritisation of core business activities over energy efficiency improvements. Energy represents a significant cost for UK industry, accounting for 17 per cent of final energy consumption,1 and is responsible for around one fifth of total UK carbon emissions.2 Over time, the IEEA is designed to unlock more than £300million of private sector investment into energy saving technologies, delivering lifetime energy savings in excess of £1billion. Following an extensive engagement process with industry and technology developers, where more than 100 technology ideas were screened, seven successful applications are today being announced. The projects have been selected based on energy saving potential and scalability, with particular focus on technologies that can be deployed across multiple industrial sectors. Energy and Clean Growth Minister Claire Perry said: “We want to make sure businesses take advantage of clean growth by making the most of the assets that they have. That is why we are investing in innovative technologies that can help British industry use less energy, reduce their costs and cut emissions as part of our modern Industrial Strategy.” Paul Huggins, Director Innovation at the Carbon Trust commented: “Throughout the first phase of the BEIS IEEA we have been really impressed by the high level of response from technology developers and industrial companies who want to actively engage in accelerating energy efficiency across a range of sectors. Technology innovation can play an important role in helping UK industry to cut energy use, which not only brings a competitive advantage, but also reduces carbon emissions. Through the IEEA we have
worked collaboratively with trade associations, industry and technology providers to identify and demonstrate the best innovative opportunities for energy reduction and we look forward to seeing the novel solutions that will be supported through the second phase of the programme.” The phase one projects are: • Low carbon multi-component cements for UK concrete applications led by the Mineral Products Association (MPA) alongside industrial partners Hanson Cement, Forterra Building Products, and Building Research Establishment (BRE). The MPA has identified that low carbon multicomponent cements have the potential to replace traditional cements in some UK construction applications. Using a combination of limestone, waste and by-products, the quantities of these materials can be increased, reducing the need for energy intensive cement clinker production. The project is formulating, developing and testing the new cements ready for the UK market. It is estimated that there could be potential carbon emission savings of eight per cent across the UK’s cement sector, which currently emits around 7.8MtCO2 annually. Additionally, some of these new cements have carbon emission profiles 40 per cent lower than conventional alternatives. • Development and trialling of Exergyn DriveTM for lowgrade waste heat recovery led by Exergyn alongside their industrial partner, a global engine manufacturer. Globally, we waste almost half of our energy as lowgrade heat. The cost-effective recovery of low-grade waste heat has been a long-standing challenge in all energy intensive industries. This ground-breaking project aims to generate electricity from low-grade waste heat streams of up to 100oC. A shape memory
alloy (SMA) core is cycled through hot and cold states to produce reciprocating motion, which is used to drive an electrical generator. The technology benefits from having zero emissions and does not require any refrigerants. • PRISMA Energy Storage (Peak Reduction by Integrated Storage and Management of Air) led by Innovatium alongside industrial partner Aggregate Industries and research partner Birmingham University. Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) has considerable potential for storing energy, which helps increased deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources. PRISMA is a unique new application for LAES in which liquid air is released to provide compressed air to an industrial site. This allows the use of smaller compressors to work more efficiently, operating at times when electricity generation is lower carbon. The project has the potential to deliver estimated electrical energy savings of around 30 per cent via reduced compressor operation, whilst also providing the ability to avoid higher tariff periods. • Replacing hot water cleaning with electrolysed cold water led by Ozo Innovations. This project demonstrates the significant energy and cost savings available from substituting hot water for cold electrolysed water in hygiene applications, particularly in the food and drink industry. The use of cold water significantly reduces demand on boilers, as well as providing a significant time saving by eliminating multiple hygiene processes, improving productivity. Replacing hot water cleaning with electrolysed cold water cleaning could save up to 90 per cent of energy consumption and 35 per cent of water consumption.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Feature Article energy savings of greater than 25 per cent compared to existing technologies; coupled with waste heat utilisation there potentially could be a 70 per cent reduction in specific energy consumption on-site. The project also provides a reduction in carbon emissions associated with transportation, where leachates are currently transported off site for treatment.
• Development and demonstration of an automatic steam boiler blowdown system led by Spirax Sarco UK. Steam boilers are widely used in a variety of process industries, with accurate control of total dissolved solids (TDS) required to avoid poorquality steam, scaling and excessive boiler water blowdown. At present, it is a statutory requirement that TDS levels are monitored within steam boilers, yet commercially available TDS sensors are fraught with unreliability issues and require frequent recalibration. Spirax Sarco, with the University of Nottingham, have developed a reliable new type of boiler TDS measurement probe and controls, hoping to improve boiler efficiency significantly. Potential energy savings have been estimated at six per cent of boiler fuel consumption at the demonstration site. • Energy efficient leachate treatment led by LAT Water alongside industrial partner Viridor Waste Management. This project will demonstrate a Low Temperature Ambient Pressure Technology (LAT) process in the treatment of a high ammonia content leachate stream on a landfill site. The LAT process utilises heat recovered from hot flue gases from on-site biogas generators to drive the leachate treatment process. The project expects to demonstrate thermal
• Novel de-watering solutions within corrugated case medium (CCM) manufacture led by Innventia alongside industrial partner, DS Smith. This project aims to demonstrate an enhanced ‘dewatering’ approach to CCM manufacturing in the paper and pulp industry. Contaminants in process water will be identified and removed, leading to improved drying rates following the removal of CCM from paper machines. This will deliver energy savings of approximately ten per cent when compared to existing drying processes, with potential on-site fuel savings of 80million kWh annually, and strong potential to scale in the industry more widely. 1
Energy Consumption in the UK July 2018, BEIS. Meeting Carbon Budgets: Closing the policy gap 2017 Report to Parliament Committee on Climate Change
Manufacturers urged to act on energy savings opportunity New research has found that the manufacturing sector has the greatest potential for energy savings, yet many organisations are failing to act on opportunities to cut cost and carbon. Thousands of manufacturers will need to comply with the Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme by December 2019, completing audits of their energy usage across operations to identify areas to save energy and cut costs. Ahead of the compliance deadline, a new report into energy reporting by energy consultancy Inenco has combined primary research of business energy professionals with insight from 320 energy audits to reveal fresh attitudes to energy and how manufacturers fare against other industries. 60% of all savings identified in the audits from a broad range of sectors were attributed to manufacturers, highlighting the potential in the sector to make direct savings to the bottom line from energy efficiency. However, only 50% have acted on their Phase 1 audit recommendations, with budget availability cited as the main reason manufacturers did not act on energy saving opportunities (20%). It seems the lack of engagement on energy reporting is wider than just ESOS, the survey also revealed that only 29% of manufacturers fully understand the new Streamlined Energy Carbon Reporting (SECR) framework, despite the scheme coming into effect in April of this year. Whilst installing on-site renewables or Combined Heat & Power was one of the most common areas to cut energy, lower cost measures or those with shorter payback times were also frequently found across manufacturing sites, with lighting topping the table as well as behavioural changes and better energy procurement to reduce costs.
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
Commenting on the findings, Rui Zu, ESOS solutions programme leader at Inenco, said:
“Energy reporting offers manufacturers a true picture of their energy consumption, costs and carbon emissions. However, the benefits of the reporting are only realised when organisations utilise the data and turn it into insight and actions. “The results of this survey show that only 50% of manufacturers have capitalised on the opportunities made available to them through ESOS Phase 1, undoubtedly impacting their cost base and competitiveness. It is also concerning that over half have not yet commenced their Phase 2 assessments. “ESOS offers manufacturer the chance to cut energy costs and improve their competitiveness. Acting now to get started on audits means savings could be realised within financial year, offering a boost to the bottom line for all organisations in the industry.” For more information about the report or to find out how Inenco can support all sizes of manufacturers with their energy compliance and saving energy, visit www.inenco. com/esos-report
SPECIAL ENERGY FOCUS By James Tyler, Director – Tidy Planet
Why will effective waste management be more important than ever before in 2019?
Waste management, resource security and sustainability are all pertinent buzzwords from 2018 – and whether you work in the manufacturing, hospitality, education, oil and gas, or chemicals industries, they won’t be disappearing anytime soon. With an increasing focus from the Government to create a more environmentally-friendly and carbonneutral society, what role will waste management play, and why will it be higher on the corporate agenda than ever before in 2019? James Tyler, director at Food Waste and Energyfrom-Waste expert Tidy Planet, offers his thoughts on the topic… Waste, in almost all its forms, has been at the forefront of governmental and public discussion over the last twelve months. From starting the year with the Prime Minister’s 25-Year Environment Plan – outlining the Government’s target to eliminate all preventable plastic waste by 2042 and all avoidable waste by 2050 – to the Chancellor’s Spring Statement, China’s ban on plastic waste imports, and the launch of the UK Plastics Pact, it’s been a very busy year for waste regulation targets and policy updates. The mounting legislative pressure from the UK Government is one of the primary reasons why firms across the country will be focusing even more on managing their wastes more effectively and efficiently in 2019. With lots of noise in the media about plastic waste and environmental responsibility, it’s more commonplace that businesses feel a sense of duty to ‘do their bit’ for the environment. This has been reflected in various companies’ actions such as Merlin Entertainments banning single-use plastic straws, Walkers launching the first national crisp packet recycling initiative and Morrisons’ debut of a trial deposit return scheme. But it’s not just the UK where companies have been seen to be fighting the waste battle, Norway made the headlines towards the end of 2018 when it was revealed that it was using fish waste to power its cruise ships. These examples perfectly illustrate how the positive shift in mentality towards being ‘green’ is and will continue to encourage more brands to close the loop in the coming year. This then ties in with the idea that brand reputation will remain a major driver in the upping of the wastemanagement ante. While it’s hoped that the majority of companies that implement measures to take control of their waste are acting out of genuine concern and care for our planet, there is a little more realistic and somewhat cynical side to this same coin, which recognises that the underlying foundation of most business decisions is competitiveness – or commerciality.
great resource potential. The truth is that this has always been the case, but with the rapid evolution of waste and recycling technologies, more is becoming possible in this sector. Taking the fish waste example mentioned earlier, gone are the days when solely plastic, paper and glass could be recycled – organic waste, WEEE, fish mortalities and carpets are all either being used to create a valuable resource – whether that be in the form of compost or energy – or recycled into other products. As a result, there’s been a heightened emphasis on Energy-from-Waste sweeping the headlines over the past year, and 2019 looks to be inkeeping with this trend.
With rising public demand for more ethical and ecological products, companies that show reverence to environmental policy and reducing the amount of waste destined for landfill, depict themselves – from a consumer perspective – in a much more appealing light. Therefore, a ‘greenwashing’ element has to be taken into consideration when it comes to assessing why waste management may be more visible on the corporate radar this year. However, whether a business closes its waste loop out of a desire to be eco-friendlier, or simply as a marketing instrument to gain publicity and brand loyalty, the waste minimisation outcome is the same. It’s in this sense that corporate peer pressure could indeed be an encouragement tool when it comes to further investment and action this year. In an age where companies are ceaselessly looking to make their business operations savvier, optimising the waste process by closing the loop will likely take off even further in 2019. In a recent report – conducted by Mintel – on global food and drink trends, it was revealed that adopting a more circular approach to business and extracting full use from materials, is what consumers want to see. It also highlighted that as societal understanding around the topic continues to rise, 2019 will be the year more corporate sustainability programmes are implemented. As mentioned above, policy changes in countries such as China, Malaysia and Vietnam – regarding plastic waste imports – will also play an important part in steering companies towards adopting an autonomous approach to their wastes. With China having received circa 45 percent of the world’s plastic waste for decades, the country’s sudden new stance on inbound waste unmistakably shook up the recycling industry and highlighted that the country’s waste policy and infrastructure were unsustainable. In 2019, it’s highly likely that this will proceed to act as a domino effect, whereby countries that still accept vast tonnes of overseas waste, also plug the import stream. As a result, this will not only force companies to take stock and think more carefully about alternative waste management options, but it will also be down to official governing bodies to streamline the UK’s existing recycling infrastructure, so that it can cope with processing waste more efficiently.
It’s no secret that when waste management is executed correctly across a company – from supply chain efficiency, through to equipment investment – it often leads to a positive increase in bottom-line revenue, such as reduced costs associated with off-site waste disposal. And this is an additional reason why businesses will be striving to adopt improved habits and approaches to their waste materials. This is an interesting and fair point, because as recycling and waste recovery enters consumer consciousness, expectation will grow that companies are taking the necessary combative and minimisation measures. Taking food waste as an example, September 2018 saw 90 of the UK’s biggest businesses within the UK food and grocery industry back an ambitious Food Waste Reduction Roadmap developed by WRAP and IDG. The overarching aim is for these firms to reduce food waste across business operations and decrease the farm-to-fork wastage by 50% by 2030. Coincidentally, DEFRA’s recently published Resources and Waste Strategy also echoes the circular-economy sentiment outlined above. With plans to introduce separate food waste collections to households England-wide by 2023, and greater emphasis on producer responsibility – when it comes to paying the costs of managing their own waste packaging – and it’s initiatives and policies such as these which we’ll no doubt be seeing more of over the coming months. Waste management may always have been on the agenda for some businesses, but there’s no doubting that the coming year will see this priority scale the importance rankings even further. And with our environment and natural resources at risk if we do not look to preserve our planet, the question need not be asked as to why 2019 should be the year that waste ownership is championed by all organisations.
Aside from governmental and corporate stimuli, effective waste management will be even more prevalent because an evolving number of wastes are being recognised as having
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
ABB launches UK-wide variable speed drives hire fleet Users of low voltage variable speed drives (VSD) can now keep processes running, test new applications or prove predicted energy savings before purchase, through a leasing program provided by the ABB authorised value provider network. ABB has invested significantly in the rollout of a variable speed drive hire fleet across the United Kingdom and Ireland, with units extending from 3 kW up to several megawatts. Hire drives can be delivered the same day, and installed and commissioned within a matter of hours by engineers from one of twelve ABB authorised value providers. With a fast response, 24 hours a day, all year round, no other drive hire scheme offers such wide geographical coverage across the UK and Ireland. Customers can choose from a wide range of drives, including the ABB general purpose drive, ABB machinery drive and ABB industrial drive. All are fully maintained and pre-loaded with the latest firmware.
There are four scenarios where hiring a drive can deliver customer benefits: Emergency or unexpected failure: Hiring a drive can be a quick, low cost way of keeping critical processes running in the event of a breakdown. It reduces the cost of downtime whilst providing time to repair the failed equipment or to source and allocate capital for a permanent replacement. Temporary capacity: Hire drives can be used for short-term, semi-permanent or seasonal applications, allowing companies to ramp process capacity up or down with ease, while eliminating storage and maintenance costs. Prove predicted energy savings: If a variable speed application has not previously used a drive, or if an existing drive is due for upgrade, hiring can be a low cost way to
prove predicted energy savings before purchase and in a real environment. This can help customers to make more informed buying decisions. Equipment testing: Testing houses may be called upon to test variable speed applications, but may not have a suitable drive with which to pair it in-house. Hiring a drive can allow testing to get underway at short notice and low cost. Drives are hired at a fixed daily rate (minimum hire period may apply), which includes all installation and maintenance for the duration of the hire. The ABB authorised value provider network can be contacted by telephone on 0333 005 7001, or via www.new.abb.com/uk/drives-for-hire.
Rapid response prevents critical pumping station from running dry When flood damage at a pumping station threatened to cut the water supply to 25,000 homes, a rapid response helped Essex & Suffolk Water keep the water flowing. Thirty minutes before the water supply to 25,000 homes ran dry, an ABB authorised value provider commissioned a new variable speed drive, avoiding 67,000 people from being deprived of water. Essex & Suffolk Water’s pumping station is an unmanned site in Herongate. A split water pipe flooded the pumping station and crippled the electrical equipment. This included the existing VSD and two of the three motors used to control the station’s treated water transfer pumps.
A rapid response by ABB authorised value provider Gibbons Engineering helped to maintain the water supply to 25,000 homes
The pumping station provides water to homes in Herongate, Warley and Brentwood and is a crucial strategic site in Essex & Suffolk Water’s supply network. The VSD is installed on the lead pump, which is in almost constant operation, transfering up to 12 million litres of potable water each day from a sealed underground reservoir.
“The pump was sitting on 70 feet of head when the pipework split,” explains Robert Wilson, maintenance team manager – electrical for Essex & Suffolk Water. “Basically when the water hit the
Process Industry Informer • March – April 2019
electrics, we lost the entire pumping station. We were able to maintain supply in the short term by using water from four onsite storage reservoirs. However, hourly trend analysis revealed that the water would run out by evening, stranding our customer base.“ Wilson contacted ABB authorised value provider, Gibbons Engineering Group, which maintains the site’s drives as part of a service agreement. Gibbons installed and commissioned an ABB 110 kW VSD on the site’s only working motor. Thirty minutes before water reserves would have run out completely, the Herongate site started pumping again. For more information please contact Layla Hewitt, Marketing Communications ABB Ltd, on: 01925 741517 email@example.com www.abb.com
Level Sensors Selection Page 6
Dust control food processing Page 10
SAFETY AND COMPLIANCE
NFPA DUST HAZARD ANALYIS Page 11
By Ian Birkinshaw, General Secretary - Solids Handling & Processing Association
Continuous Improvement Without change there is no innovation, creativity, or incentive for improvement. Those who initiate change will have a better opportunity to manage the change that is inevitable is a quote from William Pollard. While the quote is more than two hundred years old, it still rings true in our ever-changing world. The pace of change is pushing forward ever faster with advancements in technology moving at a pace never seen before in our history. Against the backdrop of international trade wars, the uncertainty of our future relationship with the EU, the need to keep improving is essential.
The Solids Handling industry as a whole is continually moving forward with these changes as part of a continuous improvement process. While some of the improvements over the last year have seen a step change in the capabilities of some SHAPA Companies as was ably demonstrated in the shortlist for the 2018 Solids Handling Industry Innovation Award, some of the improvements are not as evident. Thatâ€™s not to say these improvements are not important they are vital to the success of the member companies and the industry at large, at a time when there are many challenges to overcome, continually moving forward is the best way to keep ahead. This is where being a member of SHAPA helps. From its very beginning in 1981 the Solids Handling and Processing Association has existed to produce and disseminate high quality relevant technical, commercial, legal and marketing intelligence in a lively and engaging manner. A little look at last yearâ€™s programme of events demonstrates this ambition of living, learning and continual improvement. Earlier in the year the 10th Annual SHAPA Digital Marketing Workshop was presented in association with Susan Hallam the internationally acknowledged expert in this ever-changing environment, who recently was awarded an MBE for her work in this area. The subjects included 10 new features in Google, 10 ways to improve your website visibility, 10 ways to use social media, 10 new ways to communicate with your customers and prospects and 10 things to change on your website before GDPR hits. As usual the event was attended by a wide range of members from SME,s through to large multi-nationals. Due to the enthusiasm by the SHAPA Membership 2 | SHAPA Newsletter
for this workshop another workshop has been organised and booked for the 27th March at the Hilton East Midlands Airport Hotel, this years topics agreed by the SHAPA marketing committee include Content Marketing and Strategy update, B2B social media, Forms on website (good or bad), Voice search and E- privacy law. Visit www.shapa. co.uk for further details.
Introduction to Bulk Handling Building on the back of previous successful engineering the future workshops which focused on young engineers entering the industry this year SHAPA held its first Introduction to Bulk Handling workshop which was a joint production from both SHAPA technical and marketing committees. The workshop focused not only on young engineers but also colleagues in the support sectors such as marketing, spares, finance, etc. and new entrants to the industry who had little or no knowledge of the full end to end processes involved in a solids and bulk handling project. This workshop was held at the Nestle facility in York and a big thank you goes to Nestle for helping SHAPA run the event. In order to ensure a greater understanding of the processes
involved the workshop used the analogy of an industrial bakery with a domestic kitchen in the production of a fruit cake. Following an introduction by the host and the committees the workshop started with a shopping analogy which investigated recipes and warehousing and was then followed by Ingredients, characterisation and safety considerations; Storage; Conveying, discharging and feeding; Quantity and measurement; Sieving, blending and mixing; Time, temperature and monitoring; Presentation and packing and finally the workshop finished with Distribution and traceability. The whole of the workshop was recorded so that it could be made into a series of u-tube clips and webinars in the future. Due to the success of this venture more workshops are to be held in the future with details posted on the SHAPA website at www.shapa.co.uk Total cost of ownership was a main focus in 2018 but will again be in 2019 this is a very important consideration for all SHAPA members, their clients and the industry at large. It is well known that the capital cost of plant is only part of the overall purchase cost and all wise engineering purchasers will probe operating costs, planned maintenance and repair costs, set against the costs of unplanned downtime. Total life span and depreciation are obviously part of the mix too. All of this has been addressed by the SHAPA Committees and a new paper has been produced to give assistance to suppliers and purchasers in navigating the process to ensure that the installed plant operates in line with the overall expectations. Information on this paper has been uploaded to the SHAPA website and can be downloaded here
Introduction for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy ( BEIS ) in formulating a plan to minimise the difficulties for post Brexit trading with the EU and the rest of the world irrespective of the deal or no deal discussions, which at the time of writing are dominating parliament and the media with its twists and turns. With only a few weeks left until we officially leave the EU on the 29th March, industry is now craving for certainty over the final decision so that effective plans can be made to ensure the continued success of manufacturing and the solids handling industry as a whole. In order to bring some clarity to the situation following Brexit, SHAPA is holding a series of workshops the first is in June on Safety of Machinery - CE Marking for machinery Training Course. The objective of this course is to give designers of machinery the knowledge and tools to design safe machinery in accordance with European Union Machinery, and associated Directives, and to look at any divergence due to the UK leaving the EU and it effects on compliance. The course is internationally recognized Level 3 program of study and is designed to benefit the practical requirements of machine designers, engineers & managers.
2019 Solids Handling Industry Awards Following the success of previous awards highlighting the successes in the solids handling industry community, SHAPA has launched the 2019 Solids Handling Industry awards, these awards are once again open to all UK registered member and non-member companies and institutions operating in the Solids Handling and Processing Industry. Application forms are available direct from the SHAPA website at Shapa-Awards-Application-Form and the winners will be announced and presented at the awards ceremony at the Royal Armouries Museum on the evening of 8th May 2019. Once again, this year the Solids Handling Industry Awards fall into four categories with a closing date for applications on the 28/02/2019. The award categories are Export Award, The
Innovation Award, Newcomer of the Year and Company of the year Award. In October last year SHAPA in conjunction with the IMeche bulk handling committee awarded Alan Jackson the prestigious 2018 IMeche Bulk Solids Handling Award for services to the bulk handling Industry at the recent Bulkex conference. Collective expertise Clearly no single person, company or even a trade association can be expert at everything, which is why in these turbulent times, Shapa along with 13 other trade associations in the Engineering and Machinery Alliance ( EAMA) have been working with government departments especially the Department of International Trade ( DIT ) and the Department
Commitment to the future SHAPA may well have celebrated nearly 40 yearsâ€™ valuable service to our industry, but it is not resting on its laurels and is looking to the future and how best to develop the solids handling community going forward whether its training, networking, celebrating success or wishing to influence government on vital subjects including international trade.
Therefore, any company involved in the supply of solids handling equipment and services should consider Joining SHAPA, todayâ€™s membership stands at well over 100 companies, who have already tapped into the benefits of membership. Vitally, however, companies, consultants and suppliers involved with new solids handling projects or in the process of updating existing process plant should first consult the equipment finder and technical papers on the SHAPA website â€“ just a click or two away at www.shapa.co.uk, or email info@ shapa.co.uk.
SHAPA Newsletter | 3
Consultancy and Short courses for the Process Industry: Bulk solids handling technology
We support industries that are seeking to resolve process problems, develop design schemes for plant expansion, or simply improve product quality.
Some of our Consultancy services include advising on: Storage and Discharge of bulk materials Pneumatic Conveying of bulk solids Spoiling of materials in storage and in transit Plant and Equipment design/redesign Ship Unloading/ quayside operations Control of plant wear Dust control Bulk Materials characterisation ATEX/DSEAR compliance Expert Witness services
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Short courses for Industry
We also provide a range of short courses to help delegates identify potential bulk materials handling problems and advise on how to avoid and/or overcome these issues.They fall under 4 main categories Pneumatic conveying:
storage of bulk materials:
•Pneumatic Conveying of Bulk Materials • Pneumatic Conveying System Design • Rotary Valves; Design, Selection and Operational Issues • Commissioning and Troubleshooting ‘Hand’s On’ Pneumatic Conveying Systems
general bulk materials handling:
• Storage and Discharge of Powders and Bulk Solids • Design of Equipment for Storing and Handling Bulk Materials • Biomass Handling, Feeding and Storage (can be adapted to
other materials such as waste, recycled goods, pellets)
sPecialist areas of concern:
•Overview of Particulate Handling Technology • Dust Explosions - How to demonstrate DSEAR/ATEX Compliance • Port and Terminal Operations for Bulk Cargoes Measurement of the Properties and Bulk Behaviour of Particulate Materials • Introduction to Processing Dry Solid Materials
• Caking and Lump Formation in Powders and Bulk Solids • Undesired De-blending and Separation in Processes and Equipment • Electrostatics in Powder Handling • Numerical Modelling of Solids Handling and Processing • Dust Control in Processes Powder Handling and Flow for Additive Manufacturing
FBall mixer side view
Cementing a great mix for F Ball -Energy saving mixing in a green factory John R Boone supplied an energy efficient Horizontal Delta Blade mixer to cementitious product manufacturer F Ball Ltd for high speed mixing with low power consumption, achieving a high throughput with a very short mixing cycle. The highly efficient process comprises weigh hoppers that feed the JR Boone mixer, discharging via a‘bomb’ door to an under hopper that feeds a packaging and palletisation line beneath; a process that requires good control and a short mixing cycle to achievethe total batch time of under two minutes for a 2 ton mix. The history of F Ball, the UK’s leading producer of flooring adhesives, leveling products and grouts, goes back 125 years, originating as an ink manufacturer, moving from London to Staffordshire during the second world war and into a purpose built factory on an eight acre site in 1989. It was in the early 1990’s that they installed their first mixer from John R Boone Limited and so began a relationship that has continued and developed, leading to their latest purchase of a Boone Horizontal Delta Blade
Mixer for high speed production in their new powder mixing plant. The new plant is designed to produce up to 30tonnes of blended material per hour. At any time there may be as many as six batches within the process: one in each of the two weigh hoppers containing the bulk materials (sand, cement) together with additives such as flow promoters and set retarders; a further batch in the mixer, mixed material in the under hopper and two further batches within the packing and palletisation line. With that amount of work in process, mixing speed and efficiency is paramount, thoroughly blending the additives throughout the bulk materials before the bomb door opens and the mixed material is deposited into the under hopper. A key objective for the plant was that it would have as small an environmental impact as possible, and a vital part of that objective was to minimise the energy used, for example by the use of gravity fed rather than mechanically
conveyed processes and making every element of the process as energy efficient as it could be, including the mixer itself. F Ball approached JR Boone for a solution, JR Boone proposing their Delta Blade technology. The Delta Blade is a plough type mixer, with a precisely engineered blade shape that uses the principles of high agitator speeds to radially and axially accelerate the product formulation in a short crisscross pattern within the mixer shell. Higher levels of shear are produced with lower power consumption than more conventional mixers, meaning that batches are mixed quickly, thoroughly and homogenously using minimum energy, reducing the carbon footprint of the new installation. F Ball naturally wanted to confirm all this, soJohn R Boone provided a test mixer on site so that the efficiency of the Delta Blade mixer could be thoroughly tested with F Ball’s materials, checking that they could achieve the batch times that they needed. Since entering service a further benefit of the Delta Blade system has been noted due to its highly efficient mixing actionand despite the abrasive nature of the materials in use, no wear parts have been replaced in over two year’s operation. As Steve Tubby, F Ball’s Operations Director, put it: “Our experience of Boone’s since we installed the Rotary Drum Mixers back in 1991 has always been very positive, we have been able to rely on their support whenever we have needed it. The Delta Blade mixer was exactly what we were looking for, a fast, energy-efficient solution that gave a consistently high quality mix in the shortest time possible. Boone’s engineers were extremely responsive throughout the project and clearly understood what we were trying to achieve.”
For more information contact JR Boone on: 01260 272894 firstname.lastname@example.org www.jrboone.com F Ball mixer with cage
SHAPA Newsletter | 5
By Lana Erickson, BinMaster Digital Marketing Manager
The Why and How of Choosing Level Sensors to Fit Your Process Needs Level indicators have been around for decades. From simple switches and rotaries, to advanced non-contact sensors, there’s no shortage of technology to choose from. But what role do level sensors actually play in today’s manufacturing operations, and how do you choose the best fit for your needs?
Sensors Save Time – and People Whether your operation is large or small, at one central location or spread across geographically dispersed sites, utilising utilising level control sensors can maximise efficiency by automating cumbersome – and often dangerous – manual tasks. Simple, yet effective, point level sensors can serve as high, mid-, or low-level indicators. Fail-safe models help control processes and warn of overfills, outages, or equipment failure. Continuous level sensors such as the versatile 80 GHz non-contact radar are not only accurate, even in extremely dusty or noisy environments, they can integrate with LAN or cloud-based inventory management programs to make it easy to access, manage, and report on inventory any time, from anywhere.
Streamlining data in this way cuts down on time spent on cumbersome spreadsheets, optimises inventory turnover, and—with permissionbased user roles—makes it simple for everyone from the plant floor to accounting to access and work from the same information without wasting time on communication confusion. Sensors Prevent Problems Overfilling vessels ruins materials, wastes time, makes a mess, and causes unnecessary down time. Utilising level controls streamlines material monitoring and process control. Automated alerts prevent overflows, empty conditions, clogged chutes, and jammed conveyors. For a long life and maximum ROI, choose a sensor that is designed for your operation’s environment. High temperature
models or non-stick coatings ensure the long life of equipment with minimal maintenance. In applications where material piles unevenly, 3D level sensors can be used to circumvent issues caused by bridging or silo wall buildup. By using advanced acoustics-based technology and multiple-point measurements, this type of sensor can display a three-dimensional representation of inventory level as well as calculate volume. This both eliminates concerns about accurate inventory and helps pinpoint vessel stress areas where uneven loading may impact the life of a silo. Making the Choice Today’s manufacturing operations are increasingly automated with more sophisticated and complex systems. Plus, with increased consolidation, multinational corporations, and a global economy, the needs of the industry have changed. The market for level indicators has responded with new solutions to address those demands, creating flexible options and integrative software to allow manufacturers to customise their solutions to achieve their best fit for inventory level monitoring. The most crucial part to choosing a level control sensor or system to meet your needs is understanding the options available.
Data management programs keep operations efficient, allowing users to access inventory information remotely and receive customised alerts.
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Point Level Indicators As the name implies, point level indicators alert when the level in a silo reaches a certain point. For timely replenishment or process control, a point level indicator uses a relay to send an alert to a control room, horn, light, or an alarm panel when material reaches or falls away from the device. They can be used for high, mid, or low-level alerts in a wide variety
Feature of dry bulk solids including granules, pellets, and many powders. It is very common for point level indicators, such as rotaries, capacitance probes, vibrating rods, diaphragm switches or tilt switches, to be wired to a horn or light to indicate a full or empty status. This happens most frequently when the level indicator is used to start or stop a process to prevent running out of an
understanding the radio frequency range of the device and its potential impact on other equipment in the plant is an important consideration. • Vibrating Rod: The vibrating level sensor is a piezoelectric-driven, vibration-type level switch that can be used for level detection in bins, silos, and hoppers filled with powders and other dry bulk solid materials.
15°. A fixed-mount tilt switch mounts from the outside on the top of the silo though a process connection. It is custom-made to a specific length determined by the distance from the top of the silo an alert should be activated. Alternatively, a hanging tilt switch is installed by suspending it from a flexible cable within the silo or over a pile of material or a conveyor. A hanging tilt switch also can be used for plugged chute detection. A note of caution: some tilt switches are made using mercury, so be sure to select a mercury-free model if one is required for compliance with environmental regulations. Continuous Level Sensors Integrating continuous level sensors allows an operation to monitor how much is in one or all silos in real time or at scheduled intervals. Cable-based sensors, non-contact acousticsbased, open-air radar, or laser level sensors are commonly used in large storage silos. Open-air radar and laser are also appropriate for narrow silos. Guided wave radar is ideal for smaller silos containing solids or liquids. • Bob or cable-based sensors: A cablebased or bob-style sensor works like an automated tape measure but eliminates the need for climbing silos to take manual readings. It reliably, accurately, and repeatedly takes measurements at predetermined time intervals or on demand. Data can integrate with LAN or cloudbased software for monitoring and alerting when pre-determined high- or low-level thresholds are encountered.
Flexibility is a key attribute of point level sensors. While commonly used for high level indication, they can trigger an alarm anywhere along the vessel wall—alerting for inventory status and timely refills.
ingredient or wastefully overfilling a silo. Common point level indicators include: • Rotary: The familiar workhorse of the manufacturing world, rotaries have a continually rotating paddle. When the paddle meets resistance due to the presence of material, it stops rotating and sends an alert. Conversely—as a low-level indicator—rotaries can be set to alert when the material drops below the level of the paddle and it resumes rotation. Rotaries can be customised with a variety of paddle types, extensions, and mounting options and are available in fail-safe models, making them ideal for continuous processes as well as an inexpensive backup option for other monitoring systems. • Capacitance Probe: Capacitance sensors operate by detecting the presence or absence of material in contact with the customisable probe by sensing minute changes (as low as 0.5 picofarad) in capacitance caused by the difference in the dielectric constant of the material versus the air. Capacitance probes can easily be configured for a wide range of applications. When selecting a capacitance probe,
The rods of these rugged sensors are often constructed of durable stainless steel and are almost wear and maintenance-free. A vibrating level sensor can be mounted on the side of the vessel when used as a high-, mid-, or low-level alert. Alternatively, they can be used for high-level, top-mounted applications when built with a rigid or flexible extension. • Diaphragm Switch: A diaphragm switch, also called a pressure switch, is a very basic, affordable level sensor commonly used as a high-level alert on a silo wall. It can be mounted internally or externally. Internal mounting doesn’t require a hole to be cut in the vessel wall. An external mount has the advantage of mounting from the outside via a hole cut in the wall, so there is no need to get into the silo for installation. There are models for non-hazardous locations or with explosion proof certifications. Pressure switches are also used for plugged chute detection. • Tilt Switch: Tilt switches are designed to install easily and require no routine maintenance. They serve as a high-level indicator, activating an alert when material rises and tilts the switching mechanism
80 GHz non-contact (open-air) radar is an ideal solution for precise targeting to avoid obstacle interference.
• Open-air radar: Open-air radar, also referred to as non-contact radar, transmits a radio‐frequency signal to the material surface, reflecting a small portion of the signal back to the sensor’s antenna. The sensor processes this returned signal to determine the material’s level. Sensor models are available with different antenna types and operating frequencies (typically ranging from 6 GHz to 80 GHz). Which model will perform successfully in an application depends on the vessel height, the material being measured, the presence or absence of dust, and the sensor’s Continued >> SHAPA Newsletter | 7
Feature operating frequency. An 80 GHz radar measures in a very focused 4° beam angle that is ideal for precise targeting and works well in tall, narrow vessels and in silos that need precise targeting to avoid obstacle interference. • 3D scanners: 3D level scanners use dust-penetrating acoustic technology to provide very precise volume accuracy. They can measure and map the material surface to detect irregular material surfaces, cone up/down conditions, or sidewall buildup. A 3D scanner is unique because it can map the topography of the silo and create a computerised profile of its contents. They are proven to perform in high-dust environments where some other types of non-contact technologies struggle to perform reliably. Multiple 3D scanners can be combined to measure the entire surface of large diameter silos as well as domes. Specialised software can enable viewing of all silos across an entire location or organisation.
Capanivo ® Compact & flexible
Clever capacitance level detection of liquids, pastes, foam & interface measurement Use in non-metallic containers possible!
CN 7000 The pocket-sized one
• Laser: A laser level measurement sensor is used for level control, plugged chute detection, and monitoring buildup. It is a non-contact device that can be used in bulk solids, pellets, or granular materials of all material dielectrics in a variety of vessels. The advantage of laser is it measures in a tight beam, making it suitable for use in very narrow vessels or constrained spaces. Laser can be pointed at an outlet to ensure timely replenishment of material or mounted near the sidewall to detect buildup. Laser is ideal in low or no-dust environments. Some battery-powered models are available, making them useful in situations where wiring may be difficult. • Guided wave radar: A guided wave radar is a sensor that suspends a cable down into the silo to measure liquids, powders and bulk solids with a dielectric constant greater than 2.1 in vessels up to 78’ tall. It utilises time domain reflectometry (TDR) to measure the distance, level and volume of material. The sensor is immune to dust, humidity, temperature, pressure, and bulk density changes as well as noise present when filling or emptying the vessel. Guided wave is often used for smaller vessels containing ingredients or additives. It is a good complement to other types of continuous level sensors in a network. Conclusion Utilising level control sensors will save time, reduce risks, and improve the overall efficiency of your operation. A wide variety of sensors, accessories, and sensor configurations are available. The ROI of your sensor choice will depend greatly on your operation’s size and type, the number and size of vessels you use to store materials, and the type of materials being stored. Additional considerations include how often you need to measure your material levels, who needs access to the data and how it will be shared, and – of course – your budget. Most sensor suppliers offer an online application worksheet addressing many of these questions to help evaluate your application. Completing the worksheet is great preparation for working with a supplier to select the right continuous level sensor for your needs. Custom systems using a variety of sensors and software are easily configured working directly with a level sensor specialist. 8 | SHAPA Newsletter
Compact design Enclosure version or integral cable version Synthetic version available Chemical resistance Optional PVDF probe SensGuard protective sleeve 2-wire instrument y” itivit Sens “Tip hnology Tec
CN 8000 The allrounder Pipe and cable extension Range of process connections High safety standard Hygiene versions Very high sensitivity Digital version with LCD
UWT (UK) Ltd • 01743 718883 •
The effective way to suppress and stop explosions Solutions for chemically suppressing and isolating explosions by BS&B Safety Systems feature a modular design and do away with pyrotechnic triggers. This makes installation, repair and transport easier. Dust explosions in industrial facilities can be devastating due to the extreme rise in pressure. IPD, the system for suppressing and isolating dust explosions from BS&B Safety Systems, detects critical rises in pressure to the millibar and reacts at lightning speed. The highly effective extinguishing agent smothers any flame in an accumulating explosion in a fraction of a second, long before the explosive pressure is unleashed. When used for isolation, the IPD system stops the explosion spreading to connected parts of the facility. This provides effective protection to people, machinery and the environment. Modular design means easy onsite resetting To make sure the IPD system is ready for use again quickly after being triggered, the designers at BS&B developed a new, modular design. This allows for immediate resetting on site, reducing production downtime to a minimum. Unlike other solutions, the owner or operator can reset the system independently after triggering.
The extinguishing unit consists of an unpressurized, easily replaceable extinguishing agent cartridge and a pressurised container that’s filled with nitrogen during installation or reset. The lack of a pyrotechnic trigger means that none of the individual components or the completed system are classified as hazardous goods. This makes both handling and spare parts logistics and management much easier. It also shortens delivery times and reduces cost of ownership, as there is no need to comply with the obligatory safety regulations for transport that apply to conventional systems. Furthermore, the extinguishing unit requires no extra discharge nozzle for the agent. Instead, the integrated rupture disc becomes an aerodynamic outlet when activated. The design avoids the use of plumbing that can become blocked. Alongside the extinguishing unit, the explosion suppression and isolation system features a control unit with touchpad and the patented Triplex sensor. This ensures constant, real-time monitoring of the process pressure, allowing for fast and reliable activation. Three highly sensitive pressure sensors are arranged in a way that maximizes sensitivity while avoiding activation from vibrations. In the event of
Metal Detection Services are delighted to announce that their in house training room is now officially open! MDS have created a bespoke space within their headquarters, near Manchester, where they can provide dedicated training courses within a controlled environment. Having this space allows for a “hands on” approach with training, ensuring that each trainee receives the best instruction available. Courses can be provided on a half or full day package with all the materials included. Each session will include the basic principles of a metal detector, retail codes of practise and common basic faults. Bespoke training is available where necessary. This is an ideal opportunity for new starters, and to continue developing existing staff knowledge as new codes of practise are introduced. There are a number of working metal detectors in house which allows training to be held on
a metal detector with certain access to equipment, which can be difficult in a busy factory. All MDS Engineers are highly experienced with several brands of metal detectors. Andy Elder, the MDS Field Service Supervisor says “We’re really excited to have this facility, it’s a great space to do training as it’s away from the distractions and noise of the factory floor. We can also guarantee access to a metal detector, which is often difficult when we do training on-site”. To find out more about this facility or to book a session you can get in touch with MDS on 0161 286 0870, or book online through the MDS website
a power cut, the internal battery continues operation for at least eight hours. This provides enough reaction time to establish a secure energy supply. Protection for dusty production environments The IPD explosion suppression and isolation systems are used in all production environments where flammable dust is created or powdered substances are stored, handled and processed. Examples include the chemical or pharmaceutical industries, as well as the production of foods, feed and engineered woods. By responding to the incipient stage of a dust explosion, the IPD System reduces the pressure developed by the combustion event to a safe low level, as low as 0.2 bar. This is the combined result of having a low nitrogen gas pressure to disperse the extinguishing agent and the use of sodium bicarbonate as a fast heat absorbing agent. For more information, please visit www.bsbsystems.com.
Posi-flate Exhibiting Inflatable Seated Buttterfly Valve in Operation in Stand #2-326 at Powtech Posi-flate manufactures a complete line of inflatable-seated butterfly valves for handling a wide variety of dry bulk granular solids, liquids and gases. Posi-flate will be exhibiting a heavy duty inflatable seated butterfly valve operating next to a typical resilient seated valve at the upcoming Powtech Show in April to demonstrate how quickly a resilient seated valve can wear in comparison to the air operated Posi-flate valve. The inflatable seat design provides a better seal by utilising air pressure to expand the seat against the disc, providing more sealing area and an even pressure distribution against the disc every time.
Tork-Mate Extended Life Actuators
Also on display will be Posi-flate’s line of Tork-Mate extended life pneumatic actuators. The Tork-Mate 890 Series actuators achieve up to 15 million cycles maintenance-free, at low cost. They are ideal for 90° and 180° turn devices such as butterfly valves, ball valves, plug valves and damper valves. They meet the latest NAMUR standards, allowing direct or close coupling of NAMUR designed accessories.
For further information contact Posi-flate, on: +44 1908 622366 email@example.com www.posiflate.com
Posi-flate Series 585 Butterfly Valve
SHAPA Newsletter | 9
New ‘business wins’ help dust control specialist boost sales by 40% news is that this is just the start and there’s significant potential for us to increase market share considerably both in the UK and overseas.” Dustcheck, which holds the ISO9001 quality accreditation, provides tailored solutions for all dust control and containment requirements through clever, innovative design, manufacture and installation.
A string of new contract wins helped a leading manufacturer of dust control and dust extraction systems secure a record year. Dustcheck Ltd, which was established in 1978, has seen sales rise by 40% over the last twelve months - including exciting projects to help Weetabix, Marley Eternit and Johnson Matthey ensure their workspaces are dust free. Significant investment in the sales engineering team and improved customer support and aftermarket care has been behind the firm’s strong growth and plans are
already in place to build on this with the development of a new product range.
“This was a real milestone moment in the 40-year history of our business and has given us access to the resources and expertise of the wider group, such as working with MultiFan Systems on larger projects that need a single-source solution.”
“We’ve only been in the Group for a short while and sales have already increased 40%...the good
of Glasgow-based Dust Control Solutions and this gave us a real foothold in Scotland and a base for Filtermist’s service and Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) engineers based north of the border. “That’s one area we’re really looking to grow. The other main focus will be on the food industry, where we are launching a dedicated marketing campaign to highlight the benefits of a dust free environment to companies in this sector.”
“We have enjoyed sustained expansion since the company was acquired by Filtermist International Ltd in 2017 to become part of the globally successful Absolent Group,” explained Andy Darby, UK Sales Manager at Dustcheck.
He continued: “Customers are really liking this approach as we can now complete projects quicker and take care of additional responsibilities they were going elsewhere for.
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The company supplies a leading range of cartridge, bag and panel filtration products to customers spanning more than 10 different sectors, including food, pharma, construction and plastics and rubber.
Its design team works with clients from the outset to specify the right technology to ensure a dust free workplace, which avoids costly equipment breakdowns, reduces energy usage, improves processes and prevents catastrophic events, such as explosions.
He concluded: “This is particularly relevant to the bakery sector and comes off the back of a new Health and Safety Executive (HSE) commitment to address occupational lung disease in the workplace, an issue that is estimated to cause 14,000 cases every year and results in 400,000 lost working days. “We can provide solutions that help meet legislation and, importantly, ensure the best possible working environment for your staff.”
Importantly, the bespoke and standard systems will create a healthy and safe working environment for staff. Andy went on to add: “In May last year, we acquired the business assets
For further information, please visit www.dustcheck.com or follow @dustcheckltd on twitter.
By Jeremiah Wann, President and CEO of Imperial Systems Inc
SAFETY AND COMPLIANCE:
NFPA DUST HAZARD ANALYIS Since the earliest days when people began to store and handle grain in bulk quantities, fires and explosions have been a hazard. Almost any organic material is combustible as a dust, and this includes almost all food products. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has issued standards for handling combustible dust in general, and for handling food and agricultural dust specifically. The industry has made great improvements in raising awareness and improving safety procedures, and the NFPA has led the way in setting standards for combustible dust handling and fire prevention.
COMBUSTIBLE DUST HAZARDS Most food industry dust is combustible. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has several standards that relate to the food processing industry and to combustible dust. Food processing materials that can cause fires or explosions include flour, sugar, spices, powdered drink mixes including coffee and tea, whey powder and powdered milk, dust from shelling or processing nuts, and corn or rice starch. While the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has dust control standards that relate specifically to certain types of agricultural dust, there is no general combustible dust regulation for all industries or materials. The food processing industry has a history of combustible dust incidents, including the well-known Imperial Sugar explosion in 2008. Sugar dust had accumulated throughout the facility, and when ignition occurred in a storage building and adjacent silos, the explosion caused numerous other explosions throughout the facility. The secondary explosions, caused by accumulated dust disturbed by the blast, caused even more
damage. 14 people died and 40 were injured. OSHA fined the company over $8 million dollars, noting that the owners should have been aware of the hazards in the facility, including accumulated dust and lack of employee training. The company also settled over 40 lawsuits from injured employees and families. To prevent these kinds of devastating combustible dust incidents, NFPA 61, the Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explosions in Agricultural and Food Processing Facilities, addresses the specifics of fires and explosions in this industry. More recently, NFPA 652, the Standard on the Fundamentals of Combustible Dust, has introduced new recommendations that apply across all industries that handle combustible dust. NFPA 61, along with other industryspecific standards, are now being adjusted to align as closely as possible with NFPA 652. NFPA 652 AND DUST HAZARD ANALYSIS As of September 2020, all facilities with dust present are required to have performed a dust hazard analysis. This must be documented, Continued >> SHAPA Newsletter | 11
and during an inspection OSHA can request this document and verify it. This process starts with an analysis of the dust itself, but it also involves inspecting all equipment and areas of the facility for potential hazards and documenting the plans to address them. Dust can be collected and sent to a testing facility. The test results will establish whether the dust is combustible and other information, such as the force it can exert in an explosion and the temperature needed to ignite it. When companies are installing a dust collection system, this type of dust test may be requested to help the company decide what types of fire and explosion safety features to install on the system.
NFPA 652 details the areas of a facility that require a dust hazard analysis, and what to look for. Any area where combustible dust is transported, accidentally or as part of the manufacturing process, must be examined. This also includes ductwork or other ways that a fire could travel from one process area to another. Fugitive dust that escapes into other parts of the building, even hidden or unnoticed areas, must be identified. Dust explosions have occurred when dust accumulated unnoticed in spaces such as above drop ceilings or inside access spaces. For every area or process identified as a potential dust hazard, the potential for fire or
explosion must be assessed. If there is oxygen and an ignition source available in the presence of combustible dust, there is a risk of fire. If these two factors exist and the dust is also suspended in the air, or could become suspended in air, conditions exist for a deflagration or explosion. Once these hazards are identified, they must be documented, and a plan for addressing the hazard must be put into place. One very important strategy is basic housekeeping, which means cleaning up all fugitive dust immediately before it can start to build up. Since many food processing facilities require a high level of hygiene anyway, housekeeping is likely to be part of the regular process. However, some areas can be overlooked, and some processes generate so much dust that basic housekeeping measures will not keep it under control. Some types of industries use water to keep dust from igniting and to keep it from becoming airborne. This many not be an option in the food processing industry, since the combustible material may be a process ingredient that needs
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to stay dry. Using compressed air to blow away accumulated dust is not an acceptable method of removal, since causing dust to become airborne creates a higher explosion risk. Dust collection systems are a recommended strategy for controlling combustible dust. In the food process industry, there are multiple options for types of dust collection systems, but all of them will need to meet the same basic safety standards laid out by NFPA 652 for this type of equipment. DUST COLLECTION SYSTEMS FOR DUST MANAGEMENT The best way to control the accumulation of fugitive dust in the food processing facility is to install a dust collection system. There are many options for these types of systems, but considering the combustibility of food production dust, all will require NFPA recommended safety features. While the number of fires and explosions in the food processing and agricultural industries have remained steady for many years, the number of injuries and fatalities has decreased considerably. In part, this is due to safer dust collection systems. In many recent situations, a fire has
Feature been confined to the dust collector and not able to spread back into the building. Baghouses are a popular option in many areas of food processing. These dust collectors filter out dust using long cloth bags. The bags may be kept clean by a fan or by compressed air pulsing. Baghouses are efficient for most materials, but not for extremely small dust particles. They also tend to be very large, because many bags are needed to create enough surface area for filtration. Baghouses continue to be very popular in the food processing and agricultural industries, especially where the dust is not extremely fine. Although bags are very durable, removing and replacing them can be a very messy and time-consuming task. Another option for dust collection systems is a cartridge collector. These use pleated cartridges that are kept clean with pulses of compressed air. The cartridges have a much higher surface area than bags, so the dust collector can be smaller. Another advantage of the cartridge collectors is that the filters are much easier to remove and replace than bags in a baghouse. Cartridge collectors can also achieve a higher level of filtration for very small particles. NFPA 652 recommends several fire and explosion safety features with a dust collection system. First, the airflow in the system
must be high enough to keep all dust moving through the system and not accumulating in the ductwork. This means that it is not safe to make modifications to the system without checking to make sure the airflow isn’t compromised. All types of dust collectors need to have appropriate explosion venting that will direct the force of an explosion in a safe direction and prevent dangerous pressure inside the collector. If standard explosion venting through panels can’t be achieved because the collector is located inside a building, the system will require either a flameless explosion vent or a chemical suppression system. An explosion isolation valve is a safety device that is mechanically triggered by the force of an explosion. When it closes, it prevents the explosion and fire from traveling any farther. Spark traps and abort gates are both designed to prevent fires from occurring in the dust collector. A spark trap is a passive prevention device that extinguishes sparks before they can reach the collector. An abort gate is attached to a sensor that registers the presence of flame or sparks. The sensor will cause the abort gate to slam closed and safely vent the hazard. Chemical extinguisher systems are also available. When triggered, they use chemicals to rapidly extinguish a fire.
DESIGN OF DUST COLLECTION SYSTEMS Dust collection systems for food processing are usually source capture systems, which means they will have a hood located at the point where dust needs to be collected. The most typical setup is one or more dust collectors with ductwork leading to the hoods and fans large enough to maintain airflow to all the capture points. Occasionally, some part of the process may be in an area that’s difficult to access with ductwork or so far away from the system that maintaining airflow is a problem. In this situation, a small cartridge dust collector can be placed directly at the capture point. These small and compact systems can be located on conveyors and other food process equipment. The only requirement is that they have access to power for running the fan and compressed air for pulse cleaning. The most important aspect of a dust collection system is that it does not allow any significant amount of dust to escape or accumulate in the facility. A dust hazard analysis will help identify all the possible locations where dust needs to be controlled. It should also be noted that a dust collection system will not address dust that has already accumulated in the facility. Cleaning up dust accumulation should follow NFPA 652 recommendations, which means avoiding any method
that causes the dust to become airborne. Vacuum systems can be used if they meet NFPA standards. ACHIEVING SAFETY AND COMPLIANCE The NFPA standards are always geared toward preventing damage, injury, and loss of life. Compliance with their standards will create a safer work environment. Because the food processing industry makes up a large percentage of overall combustible dust accidents, following these standards is especially important. Improved safety features have helped prevent accumulation of dust in food processing facilities. They have also improved the ability to control potential explosions and contain them safely within the dust collector. However, fugitive dust that escapes during the process can still accumulate and ignite if problems in the dust collections system aren’t addressed. A dust hazard analysis will help identify any dust problems that exist before putting in a new dust collection system, or problems with the current system. Addressing these problems as soon as possible helps keep dust under control in the facility, greatly reducing the risk of a fire or explosion. By making the dust hazard analysis a thorough, documented process, companies will be able to present safety inspectors with evidence that they are proactive in handling dust control.
SHAPA Newsletter | 13
World-Leading Trade Fair for Processing, Analysis, and Handling of Powder and Bulk Solids
EXPERIENCE THE DYNAMIC ENERGY, SHARE KNOWLEDGE, OPTIMISE PROCESSES First comes the experience, then the success: discover the entire spectrum and dynamic energy of mechanical process engineering. POWTECH is the trade fair event for bulk solids – and the place where process optimisation begins.
9-11.4.2019 NUREMBERG, GERMANY Honorary sponsors
Dynamic Air Exhibiting Operating Pneumatic Conveying System, Bella Mixer and Vibratory Equipment at Powtech Stand #2-319
Dynamic Air, a world leader in the design and manufacturing of pneumatic conveying systems and process equipment, will be exhibiting an operating pneumatic conveying system as well as the Bella twin shaft mixer and vibratory equipment, at the upcoming Powtech show in April. Dynamic Air has developed 16 different pneumatic conveying concepts, utilising both pressure and vacuum, for handling a wide variety of dry bulk solids to provide a conveying solution that fits the process perfectly. A fully operational dense phase pneumatic conveying system will be on display along with the Bella XN double-shafted mixer in 304 stainless steel food grade design. The Bella twin shaft paddle mixer achieves fast, high-capacity, low shear, precision mixing of either dry bulk solids or liquids with solids. Regardless of particle size, shape or density, materials are mixed with a fast, efficient, and gentle action with typical mixing times of 15 to 30 seconds.
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Professional knowledge right from the experts and contacts that will help you move ahead: The supporting programme will make your trade fair visit even more worthwhile with the following highlights: • Expert Forums for Chemistry and Food • Pharma.Manufacturing.Excellence. Forum • Networking Campus • Special display area for explosion protection • VDMA Special Show: Dust knows no borders
GYRO EX Bin Activating Feeder and Discharger
Also on display will be Dynamic Air’s line of vibratory equipment including the Stedi-Flo vibratory pan feeder and the GYRO EX bin activating feeder and discharger which produces a controlled gyratory motion to positively withdraw granular materials from bins, storage silos and hoppers at any desired feed rate for a consistent and reliable discharge. For further information contact Dynamic Air Ltd, on: +44 1908 622344 firstname.lastname@example.org www.dynamicair.com
CHEMICAL POWDERS DE-LUMPED WITH BULK BAG CONDITIONER
Scissor lift raises the bulk bag to a preselected height while hydraulic rams with contoured end plates press opposite sides of the bag to loosen solidified powders.
DSM Coating Resins Spain S.L. is the world’s largest producer of polyester resins and one of the largest producers of specialty emulsions. To produce saturated polyester resin powders used in protective coatings for bridges, ships and automobiles, DSM receives large volumes of dicarboxylic acid and diol ingredients in bulk bags. Both materials agglomerate during shipment and storage, preventing them from flowing out of the bulk bag, which required operators to break lumps using hand tools. To eliminate the cost, mess, delays, and safety concerns of manual methods, the company installed a Block-Buster® Bulk Bag Conditioner that de-lumps the materials automatically. Workers originally emptied the bag onto a grate in a caged area and proceeded to crush the lumps using hand tools. “These manual methods created significant time loss and disturbances in the loading
Hydraulic rams fitted with specially contoured end plates press opposite sides of the bag to loosen solidified powders. The turntable and bag rotate 90º to condition all sides, while the scissor lift allows conditioning at all heights.
process while posing risk of injury and discomfort to workers,” says Elio Sanchez, Project Manager at DSM Coating Resins Spain. And DSM still encountered blockages in the downstream process, further slowing production.
Bulk Bag Conditioner breaks up caked chemicals efficiently, safely Manufactured by Flexicon (Europe) Ltd., the Bulk Bag Conditioner is installed in a safe atmospheric area near the front end of the process, which feeds the factory’s blending reactors. Housed in a free-standing support frame, the unit measures 2210 mm high by 3378 mm wide by 1981 mm deep. It is equipped with two hydraulic rams fitted with specially contoured end plates, and a powered scissor lift with variableheight turntable.
Forklift loads a bulk bag into the conditioner.
Once a forklift loads a bulk bag onto the conditioner’s platform, the operator closes the safety interlocked doors. From the unit’s control panel, the operator programs the ram pressure, number of ram cycles, single or multiple turntable heights and degree of rotation, according to the dimensions of the bag and the conditioning required to loosen the material throughout the bag. After pressing “start,” the conditioning cycle is automatic: the bulk bag is raised hydraulically to the pre-selected height, the end plates press opposite sides of the bag to break down the agglomerates, and the bag and turntable rotate 90° to condition the adjacent sides. The unit can also be programmed to automatically repeat conditioning cycles at multiple bag heights. The material now flows freely from bulk bag spouts into reactors, where
1 to 3 tonne batches are converted into saturated polyester resins. Mr. Sanchez says the Bulk Bag Conditioner has cut the time to de-lump materials by 75 percent and improved the quality of raw materials entering the factory’s reactors while improving safety. Since dicarboxylic acid is a main ingredient in most batches produced, the conditioner is in use daily. Flexicon (Europe) Ltd. 182 John Wilson Business Park Harvey Drive Whitstable, Kent CT5 3RB +44 1227 374710 email@example.com www.flexicon.co.uk Flexicon (Europe) Ltd. Sicilia 253, 4°, 1a 08025 Barcelona, SPAIN Tel: +34 647 670 302 firstname.lastname@example.org www.flexicon.es
SHAPA Newsletter | 15
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Speak to an expert today, call 01782 599454 or visit www.dustcheck.com Engineering a better environment 16 | SHAPA Newsletter
Fit for Liquids Under the banner “Fit for Liquids“ UWT is proud to launch a brand new product series in the field of liquids measurement. The new capacitance measuring sensors for continuous and point level detection offers new options for the UK and international market. With the new UWT liquid level detection range, pin-point accuracy and total reliability, UWT offers continuous and point level detection in liquids, pastes, foam and slurry as well as interface measurement. The UWT sensors work with the combination of the capacitive measuring principal and the change in frequency of the sensor which has a far greater switching accuracy than just the capacitance when the probes are submersed in liquid. This allows the probe to also maintain its high accuracy when it comes to viscous media like syrup or honey as the sticky build up on the probe does not affect the switching output signal. This ensures the best possible dry run detection of any system.
Another further advantage is the ability to measure interface between liquids – water and oil, foam and beer – with high repeatability and accuracy. All devices are equipped with potted electronics and work with the unique “Inverse Frequency Shift” technology. They provide a robust, certified construction and offer suitable solutions for a wide variety of liquids, pastes and foams – whether to be used for aggressive chemical applications, within the demanding food industry or in wastewater handling. Through a variety of metal rope, cable, rod and pipe extensions the units can be easily adjusted to single conditions of the process vessel. Thanks to the integrated “Tip Sensitivity” technology the Capanivo® range with the CN 7 and CN 8 level detectors guarantees high reliability for products that cause caking. The Capanivo 7000 delivers a very compact design for limited space, available as enclosure or integral cable version as well as synthetic model.
The Capanivo® 8000 on the other hand is a universally applicable all-round talent due to its range of process connections, hygienic versions and the high safety standard.
For further information contact UWT on: 01743 718883 email@example.com www.uwtuk.com
UWT has expanded the RF limit switch line with the robust Rfnivo® 8000 that includes a hightemperature version for a wide temperature range from -40°C to +400°C and pressure resistance up to 35bar. The PFA isolation ensures high degree of chemical resistance. The NivoCapa® 8000 measures the continuous level in conductive and non-conductive materials with complete accuracy. At the same time the LCD display with control buttons and diagnostic function make the level sensor very userfriendly. The integrated “Active Shield“ technology found in the RF and NC devices ensures precise measuring results even when detecting media that tend to stick to the probe.
SHAPA Newsletter | 17
PROTECT YOUR DUST FILTER AGAINST FIRE AND EXPLOSION
Firefly’s unique Spark Detection System is based on true IR spark detectors that are insensitive to daylight. They are designed to detect all dangerous ignition sources, such as hot dark particles, sparks and flames within milliseconds.
Baghouse performance monitoring for reduced operating costs For optimum performance, fabric filter baghouses require correct and timely maintenance. ENVEA’s UK business (formerly PCME) manufacture a range of particulate monitoring systems, from simple leak to QAL1 certified measurement instruments providing Process Operators with an improved understanding of their baghouse operation. Designed to monitor dust releases from single or multiple filter compartment baghouses, sensors installed in the clean gas output of each filter chamber are able to detect leaks as they develop, even down at very low emission concentrations. Knowing where leaks are developing enables process stoppages and maintenance times to be scheduled saving time and resources by highlighting which bags require changing prior to potential emission limit excursions. In addition, ENVEA now provide sensors to warn of hopper blockages, often a
18 | SHAPA Newsletter
cause of bag filter abrasion and which can potentially result in explosions within the filter. For Combustion applications which require sorbent injection such as lime or activated carbon, PicoFlow sensors are available to measure the quantity of injected sorbent. Ensuring the correct amount is injected maintains acidic conditions in the filter at the desired level preventing costly damage to the baghouse and also helps to prevent sorbent over usage and consequent wastage. For further details of ENVEA’s range of Particulate Emission and Solids Flow instrumentation, contact: +44 (0)1480 468200 firstname.lastname@example.org www.enveauk.global
More information at: www.orthos.co.uk Call us: 01858 464246 For enquiries: email@example.com
GERICKE GMS Batch Mixers: New sizes, new options Based on sound scientific knowledge, extensive trials and the experience from many installations around the globe, the double shaft mixer GMS Mixer is the technological leading mixer on the market. With new options and functionalities the GMS is the optimal process solution for many applications. The batch mixer is now available in sizes from 140 litres up to 5’000 liters. Highest homogeneity Short mixing time while maintaining high mixing efficiency. Homogenous mixing of microingredients (down to <0.001%) has never been easier and faster and effectively substitutes the need of expensive premixes The effectiveness of the mixing (RSD <1.0%) can easily be checked in one of Gericke’s test centers around the globe. Liquid injections The design of the GMS mixer and the high mixing dynamics with the fluidised zone do not only allow for mixing of powders but also
for the efficient addition of liquid ingredients. Efficient delumping and dispersion The new optional cutters (patent pending) can be added in the front door to disperse agglomerates. With its large diameter and optimal location in the mixer process chamber it works highly efficiently. For cleaning the front door swivels open, thus the cutter is highly accessible for cleaning. With this new feature the GMS becomes even more flexible to meet additional process requirements. Heat transfer The GMS also comes with inflated double shell housing, which allows to control the temperature and safeguard the product quality. The active cooling or heating is achieved by the means of efficient heat transfer from the jacket to the mixer. Typical application for controlled heat transfer are mixing of synthetic products that are sensitive to high temperatures and the addition of liquids that tend to crystalise on the cold mixer housing.
How Various Types of Screening Motion Can Impact Performance In simple terms, screening is the mechanical process of separating dry bulk materials based on particle size. Material is fed into a screener, which utilises precision-woven screens configured to sort the material according to the desired size, as required for the application. Screener manufacturers employ different screening motions to accomplish the separation, and the screener’s motion significantly affects the efficiency of the separation. This paper will provide a brief overview of mechanical screening applications before exploring the different types of screening motion and their various levels of efficiency and efficacy. Types of screening applications Screening applications are typically broken into three categories: Oversize removal: The process of removing particles that are bigger than what is desired in the final product. Oversize particles are typically 5% or less of the incoming feed material’s particle-size distribution. Consider a product like fertiliser. To achieve a desired distribution of particle sizes, oversize removal is performed prior to shipment, isolating and removing unwanted clumps that, in addition to negatively impacting the aesthetic appeal of the final product, could interfere with the delivery of the intended nutrient concentration and potentially clog the spreader. Fines removal: The process of removing particles that are smaller than desired. In this application, fine particles make up 10% or less of the particle-size distribution of the incoming feed material. Consider a cat litter product derived from bentonite clay. To ensure the final product does not include unacceptably small granules that could stick to a cat’s paw, the manufacturer could perform fines removal before packaging. Of course, many applications require both oversize and fines to be removed, which can be achieved in a two-deck screener. In this
case, the final product is usually defined with an upper and lower size specification, with a small allowance for particles outside the size specification.
some screeners operating as high as 3,600 rpm. Short-stroke machines typically have a higher frequency, while long-stroke machines tend to operate at a lower frequency.
Product grading: The process of separating an incoming feed of material into several different product grades. Consider sugar, which could be broken into a coarser grade (to be sold as granulated table sugar), a finer grade (to be sold as confectioner’s sugar), and a superfine grade (to be sold as baker’s sugar). Grading is typically performed in one multiple-deck machine. It is more challenging than simply performing oversize or fines removal, because it involves meeting several different size specifications and handling a greater volume of particles that are of a similar size to the separation opening (near-size).
Slope: This refers to the angle of the screen deck relative to horizontal. Some screeners use screen decks that are at or near horizontal, while others can have the screen decks inclined as much as 35 degrees. If a short-stroke screener is being used to process a high volume of material, it will typically have a higher degree of incline, in order to move the material rapidly through the machine.
Motion Function The motion of a mechanical screener serves three main functions throughout the separation process. The screener must spread and convey material from the inlet to the outlet; it must stratify the material, with the smaller particles migrating through the bed depth of material toward the screen opening and the larger particles moving upward, thereby producing a graduation of particle size; and it must separate the material as particles are presented to the screen opening. Additionally, it is important to ensure the screen openings stay open and don’t blind, or become blocked. The screener’s motion typically enables a method for controlling blinding, often by implementing mesh cleaning balls or slider rings under the screen clothing to flex or scour the screen wire and dislodge any particles that have blocked the openings. Motion terminology The motion employed by a particular mechanical screener can be broken down into three parameters: Stroke: This is the amplitude of displacement that the screener moves during its operation. Typical strokes range from 1/8 inch (3 mm) up to 3 ½ inches (90 mm) of displacement. Frequency: This refers to the number of cycles per minute the device moves. Frequency tends to range from 200 rpm on the low end up to 1,800 rpm on the high end, with
Stroke, frequency, and slope combine to influence the behavior of the particles on the screening surface. When considering how efficiently and effectively a mechanical screener will convey, stratify, and separate the material being processed, it is useful to examine its stroke, frequency, and slope. For example, consider the potential impact of slope. A near-horizontal screen deck will provide more accurate separation, because the openings that the particles encounter as they reach the screen deck are almost the exact same size as the openings in the screen wire itself. Conversely, a screen deck that is inclined at, say, a 20-degree angle will provide projected openings to the particle that are smaller than the actual openings in the screen. Types of motion These typically fall into three categories: Vibratory motion: By definition, “vibratory” means moving rapidly to and fro, or up and down. So, these machines are associated with a short-stroke, high-frequency motion and typically incorporate both horizontal and vertical components to their motion. Gyratory motion: The screen deck moves in a circular fashion, as observed when the screener is seen from a plan view perspective. This motion is typically associated with a longerstroke and lower-frequency screener. Gyratory reciprocating: In machines that utilise gyratory reciprocating motion, the motion is gyratory at the feed end and is converted to reciprocating action at the discharge end. An elliptical shape to the motion occurs in the middle of the machine, as the motion transitions from gyratory to reciprocating. Like gyratory machines, gyratory reciprocating machines are typically associated with a longer-stroke and lower-frequency. How does motion affect performance? It’s important to consider the various differences between screening motions when selecting the right equipment for a
SHAPA Newsletter | 19
particular application. For example, the vertical component of vibratory motion can be suited to disrupting surface tension in wet applications or working with a material that has surface moisture. However, vibratory machines tend to be less effective in more challenging dry product-grading applications, because the vertical component of their motion – which is necessary for conveying the material – tends to hinder the stratification process. When particles are launched from the screen deck by that vertical component of the motion, they are being remixed rather than being stratified. In addition, these particles are being denied contact with the screen opening while launched, further reducing efficiency. Gyratory motion is very effective at quickly spreading the material across the width of the screen deck and achieving a consistent bed depth of material. The horizontal nature of the gyratory motion is also effective at stratifying the material, with the smaller particles moving toward the bottom of the material bed depth and the larger particles moving toward the top, thus facilitating the separation process.
degree of mesh cleaning ball movement than those that use a shorter stroke. Another factor to consider: Longer-stroke machines can move material over a certain distance at a lower speed than shorter-stroke machines, enabling them to handle the product more gently. Finally, gyratory and gyratory reciprocating machines can process a relatively high volume of material at near-horizontal because of their longer strokes, whereas shorter-stroke vibratory machines typically must be inclined for high-capacity applications.
To best understand how a screener’s motion affects the separation performance in a given application, it is useful to review the product recovery efficiency for the defined size range of the material. The product recovery efficiency is defined as the amount of on-size product The reciprocating action of the gyratory that is recovered divided by the amount of reciprocating screeners excels at separating on-size product in the feed that could be near-size particles, thereby boosting the recovered. This important measurement should screener’s separation performance. As this be highlighted on the lab reports provided by reciprocating action changes direction every half each potential screening vendor. In addition to revolution, the near-size particles settle down, product recovery efficiency, lab reports must remain in contact with the opening, and separate. state product yields, product quality, and the motion parameters of stroke, frequency, and Longer-stroke machines tend to provide better slope used to achieve the stated results. The blinding control, because they enable a greater Isolator (2019) Ad (130x190)_Layout 1 26/02/2019 15:41 Page 1
information listed above is critical data needed to compare different screener technologies for use in a given application. Conclusion Vibratory, gyratory, and gyratory reciprocating machines are all available options for a production screener that performs a separation of dry bulk material by particle size. Selecting the proper screener for the application requires an understanding of the application type, the types of motion, the motion parameters, and their respective strengths. Ultimately, these motion parameters, along with the application expertise of the potential screener manufacturer, will determine the screener’s product recovery efficiency and performance in the production process.
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By Richard Farnish, The Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology
The process that you don’t want In the overall perception of investment priorities in process plant, filtration systems often are the poor relatives to the value adding aspects of the plant operations. Local dust extraction and ventilation is an obvious exception to this statement due to legislative requirements relating to Health and Safety in the workplace. However, filtration units that serve to capture high concentrations of particles (such as on pneumatic conveying reception vessels) do have the immediate and direct benefit of such legislative requirements. Thus in instances where ‘value engineering’ exercises are implemented for new build or plant uprating projects it can be the case that the filter systems are early victims. A major problem for attempts at securing adequate CAPEX to support the installation
of a well-designed and efficient filtration system is that, quite clearly, such systems are not ‘value adding’ and such a nominal payback period for expenditure cannot be easily arrived at – making appropriate budget allocation justifications very difficult. The end result for many end users is that systems are installed which can have direct impacts on the plant energy consumption, process stability and in-plant dust emissions. Returning to basics for a moment, the function of a filter is clearly to capture particles, hold a given volume of material (before a peak pressure drop is arrived at) and finally to release the captured material. These are clearly obvious requirements, and yet in some instances one or all of these operational aspects can become compromised by changes in; the bulk solids being handled,
transfer rate (increase), the quality of filter elements and/or cleaning system. Taking these requirements individually, changes in the nature of the bulk solids with which the filter is expected to work are not unusual over the lifetime of many units. Changes in product lines or material suppliers are a common feature for many plants. Such shifts in bulk solid types are usually represented by shifts (sometimes major) in the particle size distributions – the most serious manifestation of which is increased fines content. A corresponding upgrading of the filter media specification sometimes does not follow – with the result that the filter loading burden increases dramatically when in service. Usually this increase in fines loading would be apparent as a reduced time to reach peak pressure drop across the filter.
Fig Typical filter loading characteristics – showing the transition from in-depth to surface filtration Continued >> SHAPA Newsletter | 21
Fig Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a wet laid fibre filtration membrane In the event that the filter cleaning is by shaker mechanism (i.e. integral to a batch transfer process step), it may be the case that towards the end of the transfer the back pressure through the system will increase – which can manifest as line stalling (in very marginally configured pipelines) or over pressure of the filter housing (potentially over stressing sealing gaskets and creating fugitive dust). For shaker systems, the filter media will rely on surface capture of particles and release by agitation. For reverse jet cleaning systems, the particle capture does not rely on bed development on the filter face, but instead a progressive capture mechanism occurs whereby particles are captured within the open fibre matrix of the media and progressively saturate the voids within, following which particle accumulation develops on the face of the filter. Thus the pressure drop development characteristic is of a low initial progression during in-depth capture which then transitions to a higher rate of pressure drop development as particles begin to a bed on the face of the filter. If the process
22 | SHAPA Newsletter
is progressed without cleaning, ultimately the rate of pressure drop decreases due a lack of gas flow as the filter blocks (a situation that would not form part of the standard operating procedure for most types of filter). Clearly the rate at which the filter develops these pressure drop characteristics will be function of the operating conditions and bulk solid properties. Fine material will tend to lodge deeper into the fibre lay and as the filter progressively loses its functional surface area due to particle accumulation, so the lodgement force will increase in response to higher face velocities. Reverse jet filters are commonly (but not exclusively) applied to continuous processes, and as such are subject to continual cleaning cycles – with the control of the cycles being triggered by either a timer or measurement of pressure drop cross the filter housing. Taking these two control methods into account for a scenario whereby the process or change in bulk solids has changed the function of the filter (from when it was first commissioned). In the case of the use of a timer, the issue may now be that the filter is loading with particles more quickly and that peak pressure drop is arrived at before the timed pulse if actioned. This accelerated loading can lead to deeper embedment of particles and a progressive deterioration in the service life of the filter (towards irreversible blinding).
If the filter is cleaned on a peak pressure drop basis, an increase in loading rate into/onto the filter will result in a higher frequency of pulsing – and in this respect the system can be considered to have almost autonomous operation. An increased frequency of cleaning may not be a major concern in the early stages of filter deterioration, but a concern can be that the frequency of pulse delivery may begin to approach or exceed the ability of the external air reservoir to recover full pressure between pulses (i.e. insufficient time). The result of reducing pressure availability will be a weakening pulse (and air induction if a venturi nozzle is installed) –hence cleaning efficiency reduces and the rate of filter deterioration speeds up. It should be noted that over the life cycle of a filter the pressure drop is initially dominated by the in-depth and surface particle capture, but over time it is the irretrievably lodged particles within the filter media that dominate pressure drop. If the filter becomes sufficiently blocked and pressure/air progression through filter limited, an over pressure of the ‘clean’ side of the filter can result that can overload gaskets and dust seals. Such a break though of particles can be readily mobilised through the process hall with the finer particle content remaining airborne for substantial periods of time and hence transporting widely (even beyond the immediate process). Although this article is clearly only dealing very lightly with engineering and physics of filter operation, it is hoped that the casual reader can gain an appreciation for piece of equipment that is often largely ‘out of sight’ and often ‘out of mind’ – until problems start of course!
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SHAPA Newsletter | 23
Schenck Process ESP Solutions Enable Emission Compliance in Cement Plant Application The ModuPower™ MPX, from Schenck Process has been designed and proven to improve collection efficiency of harmful particulate matter (PM emissions), of any electrostatic precipitator, by increasing the average power into the process, regardless of application. The ModuPower™ MPX Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) utilizes high frequency IGBT (Insulated-gate bipolar transistor) switching to reduce secondary voltage ripple in any ESP (Electro Static Precipitator) from 30% to 3%, when compared with conventional power
supplies. The reduced voltage ripple results in higher than average voltages and faster migration velocities. Due to the VI ((Voltage–current curve) relationship of the ESP, a higher average voltage results in higher secondary currents, increasing the rate of particle charging. A larger quantity of charged particles and faster collection rate of those charged particles results in a significant increase in the performance of any ESP. To ensure accurate government compliance to lower plant emission rates, Schenck Process received an order from a customer working in the cement industry, to replace a conventional TR Set (Transformer Rectifier Set) with a High Frequency TR Set (ModuPower) in Rajasthan, India. Prior to contacting Schenck Process, the client had installed a potential solution, a Mid-Frequency Transformer Rectifier controller/set (MFTR), with the intention to lower their emission rates, however the result were not sufficient.
As a result, the customer contacted Schenck Process to discuss potential solutions to meet the government emission regulations. Schenck Process was able to utilise their process expertise to provide the customer with performance estimates for a variety of scenarios. The confidence generated by this analysis prompted the customer to quickly adopt the proposed solution. Schenck Process provided a complete system, which included an Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) inspection and rectification services, bundled with a HFTR (ModuPower™ MPX). After the HFTR (ModuPower™ MPX) installation, the outlet emission achieved well below the original and within the government limits and improved the ESP performance significantly. Without careful consultation from specialists that covered ESP solutions for air filtration, the results could have been very different. For enquiries relating to ModuPower and ESP solutions, please email Elavarasu Jayakumar, Filtration & Environmental Controls Manager, email@example.com
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TRAI N I NG
DMN UK Ltd
www.dmnwestinghouse.uk 24 | SHAPA Newsletter
Whatever your bulk handling question,
Spirotech is the answer
As global leaders in the design, manufacture and installation of the world’s most advanced and safest bulk handling solutions, our focus is on safety, quality and operational performance both onshore and oﬀshore. Supporting customers in over 80 countries, our ‘rapid build’ program ensures that critical deadlines are met whichever type of market we supply. www.spirotechgroup.co.uk
Giants in bulk handling products – design, manufacture and maintenance
Aberdeen UK (Sales and manufacturing) +44 (0)1224 502 038 www.spirotech-aberdeen.co.uk email@example.com
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