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October 2019 Volume 15 No. 4

The Uk’s leading publication serving the process industry

What is hydrodemolition water treatment?

In this issue:

Pumps & Valves Special Sean Morris on Plant Design Bearing Basics and Hybrid Bearings

Digital | Online | Mobile - The UK’s No. 1 Media for the manufacturing process industries



NEWS & EVENTS Sean Moran

IIoT Pumps & Valves focus

Magnetic Separation FOOD INDUSTRY FOCUS


Control & Automation

WHAT DOES THE FUTURE Electric Valve HOLD FOR SCADA? Actuators in Process Plant Operations

Materials Handling


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EDITOR EDITOR Phil PhilBlack: Black:philblack@piimag.com philblack@piimag.com PUBLISHING / ADVERTISING MANAGER PUBLISHING / ADVERTISING MANAGER Peter Ullmann: peterullmann@piimag.com Peter Ullmann: peterullmann@piimag.com SALES & MARKETING MANAGER SALES & MARKETING MANAGER Guy Ullmann: guyullmann@piimag.com Guy Ullmann: guyullmann@piimag.com CIRCULATION MANAGER Jean Caunin: info@piimag.com CIRCULATION MANAGER Jean Caunin: info@piimag.com OFFICE MANAGER Diane Ullmann: dianeullmann@piimag.com OFFICE MANAGER Diane Ullmann: dianeullmann@piimag.com ART DIRECTION Louise Brooks & Jayden Ken ART DIRECTION JaydenbyKen Printed Bishops Printers Ltd

HIDDEN TRUTHS Improving Papermaking about cooling system Chemical Dosing Accuracy water filtration Offers ROI In Just 4 Weeks



IS GAS GENERATION THE SOLUTION TO RISING Inside Three Common Froth Pumping energy costs? Challenges For Mine Operators



39 59

44 65

BRITISH INDUSTRY TO BENEFIT FROM UK GOVERNMENTSelectingINVESTMENT The Right Chemical BACKED Dosing System energy into innovative efficiency technologies WHY WILL EFFECTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT Hybrid bearing life be more a reality checkimportant than ever before in 2019?



RF & MICROWAVE Managing Cybersecurity MATERIAL MEASUREMENTS: Risk in Smart Valve and techniques and applications Pumping Technology

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42 – 43 What is 49 hydrodemolition water treatment? SHAPA NEWS 51 – 77

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SERVING UP FINANCE: OEMS CAN HELP THEIR CUSTOMERS impact of inThe thepositive food and beverage adopting condition monitoring sector embrace digitalisation for your pump with integrated finance

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SAFELY EXTENDING Actuation set INTELLIGENCE to play an OPERATIONAL increasing role in theROOM process FROM THE CONTROL industry TO THE PLANT FLOOR


Test & Measurement






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News & Events

Bite size news Universal Robots Maintains Top Spot in ABI Research’s Ranking of Cobot Companies in Industrial Applications Clean Steel Fund Announcement Commenting on the Government announcement of the Clean Steel Fund, Gareth Stace, UK Steel Director General, said: “Today’s announcement of the Clean Steel Fund is extremely positive news for UK steelmakers and the whole of the UK’s decarbonisation efforts. The fund is a vital step towards further reducing our carbon footprint here in the UK and will cement our position in a future low-carbon world.   “Recent years’ Government policy of carbon taxation and renewables funding has added costs to steel production through higher energy bills. As steel is an intensively traded product, this has had a negative impact on the sector’s competitiveness and leads to fears that we are exporting steel production, its jobs, and emissions, rather than lowering emissions at home.   “It is crucial that the Clean Steel Fund is designed in a manner that can be best used by the steel sector and make maximum use of funds allowed by state aid. This is not a time to be too cautious, as UK steelmakers face an uncertain business environment. The Government needs to move swiftly to secure a bright future for the sector while addressing the elements which undermines our competitiveness.”

There are well over 50 manufacturers of collaborative robots (cobots) worldwide, but only a handful of these companies have so far deployed cobots on any meaningful level of scale. Tens of thousands of cobots have been sold as of 2019 and earned US$500 million in annual revenue for world markets. In its new Industrial Collaborative Robots Competitive Assessment, global tech market advisory firm, ABI Research finds Universal Robots (UR) to be the clear forerunner, particularly in implementation. The Industrial Collaborative Robots Competitive Assessment analysed and ranked 12 collaborative robot vendors in the industry - ABB, Aubo Robotics, Automata, Doosan Robotics, FANUC, Franka Emika, Kuka AG, Precise Automation, Productive Robotics, Techman Robot, Universal Robots, and Yaskawa Motoman – using ABI Research’s proven, unbiased innovation/implementation criteria framework. For this competitive assessment, innovation criteria included payload, software, Ergonomics and human-machine interaction, experimentation and safety; implementation criteria focused on units and revenue, cost and ROI, partnerships, value-added services, and the number of employees. Read the full article here

“The best just got better!”: NEBOSH unveils new-look General Certificate The most trusted health and safety qualifications in the world – the NEBOSH National and International General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety – have been updated with the input of 3,000 of the sectors leading experts and organisations. Listening to what businesses needed their managers to know and do, the refreshed qualifications now even better reflect the needs of today’s workplaces. The result? A streamlined syllabus representative of the role of a real-life health and safety professional and a greater emphasis on risk management. Held by 300,000 people worldwide and recognised by many high profile organisations – Maersk, The Football Association, Thames Water, Shell, Skanska, Nestle and the Dubai World Trade Centre amongst them – the NEBOSH General Certificates have long been considered the gold standard in health and safety qualifications. Read the full article here

Industry urged to boost cyber defence investment as 60% of Make UK members report attack

In partnership with:



More than half of manufacturers have been the victim of cyber-crime, and a third of those have suffered some financial loss or disruption to business as a result, according to a new report published today. Manufacturing sector is the fifth most targeted for attack in 2019, behind government systems and finance. Yet manufacturing - which has 2.6 million employees,

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

provides 10 per cent of UK output and 70 per cent of business research and development – remains amongst the least protected sector against cyber-crime in Britain. The new report, “CyberSecurity and Manufacturing – A Briefing for Manufacturers by Make UK”, revealed the full extent of the threat across the sector from loss of data, theft of capital and

intellectual property along with disruption to business and catastrophic impact on the trading reputation of a business. Alarmingly, all expert opinion points to the fact that many more attacks will have gone undetected, with businesses woefully prepared to protect themselves against this evergrowing threat or to detect a breach after the event. Download the report from here


News & Events Coventry University launches engineering degree apprenticeships Course for budding engineers continues to build on success

A training course giving talented learners a leg-up into a career in engineering construction continues to go from strength to strength. The ECITB’s Introduction to Engineering Construction Course (ITEC) is a 10-month programme preparing learners for apprenticeships and other roles in the industry. This year’s ITEC graduates have been snapped up by major engineering construction industry employers, including Cavendish, Doosan Babcock and Sellafield, and some household names who recognise the excellent foundation the ITEC provides, such as Airbus, Rolls-Royce and Wren Kitchens. Funded by the Engineering Construction Industry Training Board (ECITB) and delivered by 11 colleges and training providers across England, the ITEC equips young people with the skills, qualifications and behaviours to prepare them for employment. Read the full article here

Unite comment on Increased Hinkley Point costs Commentating on the announcement today that the new nuclear Hinkley Point C nuclear power station will cost an additional £2.9 billion over its original budget, Unite assistant general secretary Gail Cartmail said: “The government needs to swiftly learn the lessons from the Hinkley Point project, to ensure that the new nuclear power building programme, which is desperately needed in order to keep the lights on is able to proceed and be expanded. “The government’s current laissezfaire policy of simply hoping that private companies will come forward to develop and build incredibly complicated crucial strategic infrastructure projects, is not fit for purpose. “We have already witnessed private sector companies pulling out of proposed new nuclear 5

Coventry University is launching two new degree apprenticeships for students looking to combine top-level academic study with practical work experience. The two new degree apprenticeships are in Manufacturing Engineering and Product Design and Development Engineering. The first intake of students start the courses in September 2019. Applications for the January 2020 start are now open. Delivered in partnership with MIRA Technology Centre and Coventry University staff, the apprentices will split their time between studying their course in five day blocks twice a semester and getting real-world industry experience. Both schemes will deliver an effective approach to achieving high level skills and knowledge fit for current and future engineering requirements and apprentices will benefit from world-class facilities both at MIRA and Coventry University.   The programmes have attracted support from a wide range of companies in the automotive, engineering and manufacturing industry.

Industrial Manufacturing Sector Will Have an Installed Base of Over 15 Million AI-Enabled Devices in 2024 In recent years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been touted as a powerful technology that will revolutionize the industrial manufacturing space. The sentiment has its validity, but the reality is extremely complex. AI in industrial manufacturing is a collection of various use cases at different phases of manufacturing, such as generative design in product development, production forecasting in inventory management, and machine vision, defect inspection, production optimization, and predictive maintenance in the production phase. ABI Research, a global tech market advisory firm, forecasts that the total installed base of AI-enabled devices in industrial manufacturing will reach 15.4 million in 2024, with a CAGR of 64.8% from 2019 to 2024. Read the full article here

power stations in Cumbria and Anglesey, and the government’s hand wringing response is clearly inadequate. “EDF has had to contend unsupported - with challenges that are simply unrealistic to expect a private sector company to deal with, for example developing a new skills base in order to be able to build and maintain a nuclear power station. “The challenges faced by EDF demonstrate why the government must introduce a proactive industrial strategy which will allow the government to work in partnership with the private sector to develop future infrastructure projects that are desperately needed if the UK is to meet the challenges of the future.”

SET AWARD 2020: CALL FOR APPLICATIONS FOR TOP INNOVATORS IN THE ENERGY TRANSITION The SET initiative invites start-ups around the world to present their business ideas The international ‘Start Up Energy Transition’ (SET) initiative invites young and innovative companies around the world to apply for the SET Award 2020. The fourth year of the awards for business ideas in energy transition and climate protection was launched at a kick-off event in Stockholm, Sweden. Applications are welcomed and submissions are open until 15th January 2020 at www. startup-energy-transition.com. Over the past three years, over 1300 start-ups from 88 countries have taken part. Read the full article here

Cathy Newman to host SOE Women in Engineering event

  Channel 4 News presenter Cathy Newman will host a SOE Women in Engineering event in London this November.   Panellists from across the engineering world will convene in London to discuss the role of schools in promoting positive messages about modern, cutting-edge engineering and career opportunities within engineering-related sectors.   Read the full article here Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

News & Events

Endress+Hauser and Deutsche Telekom drive industry digitisation with 5G campus networks

With its campus networks, Deutsche Telekom offers an infrastructure for the smart factory of tomorrow. Together with partners from industry, Europe’s largest telecommunications company wants to further expand its 5G ecosystem for industry. In process automation, Deutsche Telekom is now cooperating with Endress+Hauser. The aim of the cooperation is to develop joint offers in the field of measurement and automation technology for the process industry. This involves

the integration of measuring instruments and accessories into the next generation of mobile communication networks as well as digital services based on them. Both companies have signed a corresponding memorandum of understanding and are now working on a coordinated timetable. Measuring instruments with mobile communication module Endress+Hauser is one of the first manufacturers to equip its field devices with mobile communication modules and to connect existing installations to 5G networks via newly developed HART gateways. This enables a large number of instruments to transmit a wealth of process and device data in parallel and

AxFlow Denmark strengthens its position in compressor and service business with the acquisition of Trio Trykluft A/S AxFlow Denmark strengthens its position in the country’s compressed air provision and service business with the acquisition of Trio Trykluft A/S. Located in Slangerup 30km northwest of Copenhagen and in Vildbjerg in Jutland, Trio Trykluft has forged a strong reputation across many industry sectors over the 24 years since it was established. Trio Trykluft specialises in the supply of compressed air equipment and generators for nitrogen all of which are supported by a nationwide service, maintenance, installation and design consultancy facilities. By providing both products and design consultancy services, Trio

Trykluft enables users of compressed air systems and gas generators to access a single source for all their requirements. The company has also strong niche position in the fast-growing nitrogen generation market. AxFlow’s product offering comprises pumps, filters, UV systems, compressors, vacuum pumps, blowers and mixers. Trio Trykluft will give AxFlow Denmark a very strong market position. Due to better market coverage and shorter distances between customers and service engineers there will be improved service efficiency for all customers in the food, laboratory, pharmaceutical and water and wastewater sectors.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

in real time. These can, for example, be used in cloud applications for predictive maintenance of process plants. Campus networks open second signal path “In addition to the actual measured values, our instruments record a wealth of information from the process and about the sensor,” says Matthias Altendorf, CEO of Endress+Hauser. “5G campus networks open up a second signal path that is independent of the plant’s control system and thus make it possible to tap this potential. This will enable us to link value chains more closely across company boundaries and make industrial processes more efficient.”

Acquisition of Invertek Drives Ltd will lead to continued investment in growth and innovation

Invertek Drives Ltd, one of the leading innovators and manufacturers of variable frequency drives, has been acquired by Tokyobased Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd (SHI). The deal will lead to significant investment in the growth and development of Invertek in Mid Wales. Invertek, which has its global headquarters and manufacturing based at Welshpool, Powys, UK, designs and manufactures VFDs used to control electric motors in a wide range of

commercial, industrial and energy-saving applications. Employing 245 people, it exports over 90% of its products to more than 80 countries and has seen significant yearon-year growth since it was established in 1998, reporting a £36m turnover last year.   Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd has acquired the entire share capital of Invertek in the deal.    The deal is expected to be completed in early November 2019.


News & Events

Recognition for Spiroflow founder at PPMA Awards



Spiroflow, the Clitheroebased manufacturer of dry ingredients conveying and bulk bag handling equipment, is celebrating the achievement of its cochairman and president, Michel Podevyn, in being presented with the Lifetime Achievement Award at the recent PPMA Industry Awards. The event, which was held at the National Conference Centre, Birmingham, represents a coming together of more than 400 industry professionals and influencers from the world of processing and packaging machinery and recognises the finest examples of innovation, smart manufacturing and entrepreneurship. During a 45 year career in the industry, Michel’s leadership is widely recognised as being pioneering and influential. Being an innovator of the ‘flexible screw conveyor’ and its successful application in the food, chemical and mineral industries, Michel, is best known for being the driving force behind making his company, Spiroflow, the market-leading global

enterprise that it is today. In a wider context and as an example of his far reaching influence, Spiroflow was one of the founding members of the UK’s leading specialist association for the solids handling and processing industry, SHAPA. In accepting the award, Michel said: “I am delighted to receive this year’s Lifetime Achievement Award from the industry. As I near retirement, I have an abundance of wonderful memories from my career at Spiroflow. I am incredibly proud of those around me who have helped make this life’s challenge such an enjoyable and remarkable journey, in particular the team of both experienced and young engineers who continue to drive the company forward to explore new design methodology and improvements.”

Spiroflow.com UK: +44 (0) 1200 422525 US: +1 704 246 0900 marketing@spiroflow.com

NEW OPEN CHANNEL OR PARTIALLY-FILLED PIPE FLOW METER Measures Velocity and Level to Calculate Flow n Measure flow in pipes and open channels of any shape n Ideal where flumes or weirs are difficult to install n Works with water level from 25.4 mm (1") to 4.5 m (15 ft.) n Auto-detects field installation of options serial communications and control relays The UF AV5500 Area-Velocity Flow Meter includes a submerged ultrasonic sensor that is installed at the bottom of an open pipe or channel. Exposed materials are stainless steel so the sensor resists fouling and corrosion. It has no moving parts and no orifices, ports or electrodes. Recommended for: n Wastewater n Industrial Effluent n Stormwater

n Combined Sewers n Natural Streams n Irrigation Water

For fur ther information call us on

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or email sales@micronicsltd.co.uk w w w.micronicsflowmeters.com 7

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Drives & MoTors

A new standard of repair for motors… Sustainability can officially play a part in the remanufacture of rotating equipment Karl Metcalfe of the AEMT (Association of Electrical and Mechanical Trades) outlines the potential impact and benefits of the international repair, overhaul and reclamation of rotating equipment standard IEC 60034-23:2019. Until now environmental considerations for rotating equipment have mainly focussed on new equipment and energy efficiency; however, the full lifecycle of an existing device, including material consumption is now being considered. The new international standard IEC 60034-23 which was published in Spring 2019, is the first to include the requirements of the circular economy, which aims to reduce the consumption of resources. Setting the standard for sustainability The new standard establishes the benchmarks for repairing rotating equipment, maintaining efficiency levels, high standards of quality control and improving efficiency in associated pieces of equipment. The standard does not supersede those pertaining to specialist equipment, such as ATEX, nuclear, aviation, hydrogen cooled and

traction, but it does include reference to them and several other standards. By complying with the new standard, maintenance and repair facilities can prove their quality of workmanship and performance, as well as promoting their commitment to reducing waste and recycling resources. By following the international guidelines, the repaired equipment can be badged with an indicative sustainability statement. The long-term aim of the standard is to maintain or improve the efficiency of equipment. It will allow upgrades to be implemented, if they are allowed by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). This means that a repairer needs to be well equipped, with good quality control procedures and staffed by suitably qualified employees capable of delivering high quality repairs. The circular economy This brings us back to the circular economy, which aims to minimise waste through reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products. The repair of electrical machines fits-in exactly to this concept and by keeping equipment operational and energy efficient, we are minimising the use of additional resources.

For some larger - older machines, it may be possible to upgrade their efficiency at the same time as completing a repair. Using modern materials in the rewind and upgrading to a highergrade insulation e.g. grade B to F, which is much thinner than the legacy component, the copper content of the windings can be increased, making it more efficient by reducing the electrical losses and extending the longevity of the motor. At the same time, any materials that are removed during the repair process, such as old windings and bearings, can also be recycled, which again minimises the net increase in material consumption. Not every motor, drive or gearbox can be economically repaired, and new units do offer increasingly high efficiency levels alongside advanced control and monitoring options. Best practice for an accurate efficiency and sustainability analysis however should consider both the repair and the replacement options, which is where the new standard will help to provide a balance of information in order to make the best environmental decision.

Apex Dynamics’ World-Class Support Package for Servo Gearboxes APEX Dynamics, a global leader in the design, manufacture and supply of precision servo gearboxes, is setting the benchmark for customer service in the automation and motion control industry by offering a world-first, a fiveyear warranty plan on its entire product range. This unique support package from a major manufacturer of precision servo gearboxes is only available in the UK and Ireland from APEX Dynamics UK, the exclusive and sole authorised distributor of this brand of equipment.   In addition to pioneering a world-beating length of

warranty on this type of equipment in the industry, APEX Dynamics also offers customers the shortest lead times, with the capability to deliver in three weeks or less, compared to others’ timescales of 15 weeks or more. As well as setting the standard for customer service, the Uttoxeter-based company is buoyant about the future after recently launching a new range of stainless steel, planetary servo gearboxes that it says will be a game-changer for the food, pharmaceutical, packaging and automation sectors.    What makes these highperformance, planetary

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

servo gearboxes different, but not significantly more expensive than standard steel units, is the stainless-steel body and patented design features around the gearbox and bearings, which make them ideal for food grade applications. Managing Director of APEX Dynamics UK, Mike Gulliford, says the company is driven by the innovation spirit, which is why its support and delivery times are unmatched by global competitors, saying: “We offer a vision of the future in this field of technology. We’re so confident in the quality and reliability of our products that we are able to back this up with a five-year warranty.

“Our equipment portfolio includes in-line and rightangle gearboxes for a whole range of applications, offering economy and high-performance models. We stock a huge range of ratios and drop-in replacements which, along with our product quality standards, enables us to offer customers the security of such a lengthy service guarantee”   For enquiries, please contact: Mike Gulliford Managing Director APEX Dynamics UK Telephone: 0121 737 1170 Email: mikeg@apexdynauk.com Website: www.apexdynauk.com


Drives & MoTors

What All Engineers Should Know About Variable Speed Drive Repairs I’m sure we can all agree Variable Speed Drives are expensive pieces of equipment that require regular maintenance to minimize premature failure and maximize the life span of your asset.

However, all makes of Drives do fail and one of the most common faults is IGBT (Insulated-gate bipolar transistor) failure. An insulated-gate bipolar transistor is a three-terminal power semiconductor device primarily used as an electronic switch in Variable Speed Drives. When a drive suffers an IGBT failure the best practice is to replace all three devices, even if only one has actually failed, as the fault condition more often than not weakens the remaining devices which will inevitably lead to a further premature failure and more costly downtime for the user. So far, I’m sure I’ve not told you anything you don’t already know, but

the real issue with drive repairs is this… it is imperative that each repair is fully load tested. This is important because each IGBT has a free-wheeling diode which you can only accurately be tested with a full inductive load test. Most companies that offer Drive Repair do not have the required load test facilities and hence they simply carry out a resistive load test which actually does not show if the IGBT’s are fully functioning as a power device. This leads to a very high percentage of IGBT drive repairs simply failing again as soon as they are fitted to the original application when load is introduced, leading to another repair cost and more costly downtime for your process.

In summary all engineers should only send their valuable variable speed drive assets to drive repair facilities that have fully qualified Drive Engineers who have attended the relevant manufacturers courses. But also insist that the repairer has suitable load test facilities, that they carry out a full load test on your drive and they give you the option to attend a witness test or at the very least request a video of the final test. Insisting on these simple steps for all your drive repairs ensures 100% that your drive is repaired correctly and fully functioning before you put back into service on your plant, thus ensuring minimum repair cost and minimises expensive lost production costs. Quantum Controls have an 8,000 square foot Drive Repair Facility near Newcastle with full load testing facilities and are Official Drive Service Partners for all major Brands of Drives. When you next have a Drive failure get in touch with our expert team for repair estimate. Email: service@quantum-controls.co.uk Tel: 01661 835566


Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Drives & MoTors

VFD technology replaces inefficient start/stop pump control system to ensure clean water supply The water is pumped from wells and stored in reservoirs within local communities in the country, such as at Las Brisas, a residential area in Managua, the capital of Nicaragua. Working with Electricas BC, a sales partner of Invertek Drives, ENACAL engineers replaced the old pump system in one well with an Optidrive P2.

Replacing an inefficient start-stop transformer-based control with a variable frequency drive (VFD) on a high-powered water pump has produced 36 per cent savings in energy costs within weeks of installation. As a result, the Invertek Drives Optidrive P2 VFD has also significantly cut pump downtime and maintenance costs.

“The stop/start transformer meant the pump was working at full power regardless of the demand for water,” said Marcus Silva, Invertek Drives Country Manager for Latin America. “This placed constant pressure on the pump and having no soft start/stop resulted in increased damage to it and the pipe system at start-up, with the well having to be taken offline regularly for maintenance.

ENACAL, the government-owned Nicaraguan Company of Aqueducts and Sewers, provides potable and wastewater services to communities throughout Nicaragua in Latin America.

“The installation of the Optidrive VFD has provided greater control over pumping conditions, such as when demand for water is lower. This reduces energy use and results in less maintenance costs and

downtime. The client has already reported energy savings of 36 per cent which will provide a return on investment in a very short time.” The P2 Optidrive Size 7 IP55 with 460V 200HP was used for the application with the addition of a panel mounted remote keypad to allow easy control of the VFD parameters without opening the cabinet. Cristhian Carrillo of Electricas BC said: “The potential savings in energy and maintenance costs by introducing efficient VFD technology is significant. Energy savings of between 20% to 50% are achievable in most cases.” For more media information, contact: Owain Betts Invertek Drives t: +44 (0)1938 558 253 e: Owain.Betts@invertek.co.uk w: www.invertekdrives.com

Smaller, high efficiency hydro generators ideal for low power hydroelectric plants WEG has introduced its GH20 Hydro Generator line, a series of small low and medium voltage generators designed to meet and comply with all aspects of the growing and demanding Small Hydro Power Plants (SHPP) market. The new GH20 generators are lighter and more compact in comparison with the previous GH10 design, offering a reduction of up to 70% in volume and 40% in length. This compact envelope enables optimisation within low power hydroelectric power plants, saving up to 30% in total space, and lowering the necessary investment in installation infrastructure. Aside from the smaller design, WEG’s new GH20 Hydro Generators offers many

more strategic advantages in hydroelectric generating plants, not least the potential to be skid mounted at the factory. This configuration helps to reduce field mounting costs and save time during site installation. Further benefits include vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) with epoxy resin. The VPI process has for many years shown its efficiency and reliability in rotating electric machines across a variety of applications. Importantly, the GH20 Hydro Generators include bearings which have been developed for easy maintenance and high operational reliability. Moreover, the design of the generator’s anti-friction bearings (grease or oil lubricated) means they

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

can withstand both radial and axial loads from the hydraulic turbine and flywheel. As a result, the use of multiple bearings to support turbine and flywheel loads, is not required, which in turn reduces the length of the generator turbine assembly. Of particular note, the GH20 Hydro line is supplied with protection devices such as thermal sensors, voltage and current measurement devices, and speed sensors. The sensors are used to improve and monitor the operation of the generator, bringing greater reliability to its operation. In addition, the generators feature a main terminal box that not only offers six terminals with access to neutral leads but, thanks to the winding

process, has been specially designed and specified for the required generation voltage (low or medium). The medium voltage hydro generator coils are manufactured with rectangular copper wire, pre-formed and insulated with mica-based porous tape. Both conducting and semi-conducting strips are used in the winding process, wrapping the coils and ensuring their resistivity. For further information contact Marek Lukaszczyk WEG (UK) Ltd Tel: +44(0)1527 513800 Fax: +44(0)1527 513810 Email: wegsales@ wegelectricmotors.co.uk Web: www.weg.net 10

Feature Article

Francesco Paolo Nigri INAIL UOT Bari, Italy f.nigri@inail.it

Corrado Delle Site INAIL DIT Rome, Italy c.dellesite@inail.it

Maria Rosaria Vallerotonda INAIL DIT Rome, Italy m.vallerotonda@inail.it

Application of the

SIL Analysis

to the safety systems of a process plant Abstract Functional safety is important in the process industry. Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are nowadays used to reduce risks of processes with higher hazard potential for both people and environment. Choosing the right components for safety instrumented systems is a critical step for an effective risk reduction in industrial applications. To achieve this target, any system component has to meet special safety requirements in compliance with international standards, such as IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. Some of these requirements are shortly described in the following. INTRODUCTION No single safety measure alone can eliminate process risks. For this reason, an effective safety system consists of several protective layers. This way, if one protection layer fails, other layers will probably take the process to a safe 11

state. As the number of protection layers increases, the safety of the whole process increases. Figure 1 provides a global view of the protection layers. It is important to understand that each layer has to function independently from the others in case one of them fails. The Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) is a method that allows to closely examine all process hazards and helps choose the most suitable layers of protection. For each process hazard, where the LOPA concludes that existing protection cannot reduce risk to an acceptable level, the so-called Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) can be introduced to control the process. Safety instrumented systems are specifically designed to detect dangerous process states as they develop and start appropriate countermeasure. To fulfill its role, a SIS always

consists of at least one sensor, one logic device and one final element. This final element is usually an electric actuator connected to a valve.Safety Instrumented Systems are nowadays installed in process plants to mitigate hazards by taking the process to a “safe state” when predetermined set points are exceeded and safe operating conditions

can be ensured no longer. If process risks are not within an acceptable range, safety instrumented systems are used as one possible way to reduce them to a tolerable value. The use of a SIS has to be in relation with a target SIL level. This article shows how SIL levels are determined in process applications.

Figure 1: protection layers (Magnetrol) Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article Examples of protection layers include: »» fire suppression systems; »» leak containment systems; »» pressure relief valves; »» toxic substances detection and warning systems. After the hazard frequency of each hazard is known, the key question is: “With all protection layers operating, is the effective frequency lower than the acceptable frequency?”. In other words, once all protection layers are defined, if the LOPA concludes that existing protection layers cannot reduce risks to an acceptable or tolerable level, a Safety Instrumented System is required. 1.0 Safety Instrumented Systems and Functions A Safety Instrumented Function (SIF) is a safety function carried out by a SIS to achieve or maintain a safe state. Sensors, logic solvers and final elements act in concert to detect a hazard and bring the process to a safe state. Each SIF serves as a protection layer to bring the effective hazard frequency down below the acceptable hazard frequency. To do this, each SIF must have a minimum SIL Level.

Figure 2: SIL Level as a function of hazard frequency and severity of consequence. for the Process Industry Sector As defined in the IEC standards, there are four SIL Levels (1-4). A higher SIL Level means a higher level of protection required from the SIS. To show how SIL Levels are determined, please refer to Figure 2. SIL Level is a function of hazard frequency and hazard severity of

consequence. Hazards that can occur more frequently or have more severe consequences require higher SIL Levels. The global importance of SIL has substantially grown in the process industries over the last 20 years. However, for many end users SIL still represents an ambiguous concept that is often misinterpreted. In order to fully understand SIL concept and its implications, it is important

to introduce the Functional Safety and how it applies to Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) within the process industries. 2.0 Functional Safety Functional Safety is a term used to describe the safety system that depends on the correct functioning of logic solvers, sensors and final elements in order to achieve a desired Risk Reduction Factor (RRF). The Functional Safety, as

SIL is an acronym which stands for “Safety Integrity Level”. It comes from two international standards used by operators to quantify safety performance requirements for hazardous operations: »» IEC 61508: Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/ Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems »» IEC 61511: Safety Instrumented Systems Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Figure 3: Risk Graph 12

Feature Article

Table 1: SIL Level as a function of required Risk Reduction Factor. defined by IEC standard 61508, is the safety that control systems automatically provide to a process. The Functional Safety was developed in response to the growing need for improved confidence in safety systems. The increasing use of electrical, electronic or programmable electronic systems to carry out safety functions raised awareness to design safety systems in such a way as to prevent dangerous failures and to control them when they eventually arise. Industry experts began to address functional safety and formalise an approach for reducing risks in the process plants through the development of standards IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. These standards are important because previous safety standards were only prescriptive and not performance based. The basic idea behind functional safety is that the potential risks posed by a process plant for people and environment have to be evaluated before the design phase by means of a hazard and risk analysis. The Risk Graph is often helpful in order to determine the target SIL Level. Functional Safety is achieved when every safety function is successfully carried out and the process risk is reduced to the desired level. Since Safety 13

Instrumented Systems are mainly used to reduce the risks of processes with high hazard potential for both people and environment, any individual system component has to fully meet the safety requirements provided by the standards.

level has to be assigned using the described method. The next step for a safe process is to design a SIS capable of reaching the required SIFs and maintaining the target SIL level for a predetermined period of time, the so-called “SIS lifetime”.

3.0 Target SIL Level of the SIF Let’s make an example, trying to solve the problem raised by a dangerous tank overfill. After applying all protection layers, let’s suppose to still have an effective frequency of 2.5 times per year. If the acceptable hazard frequency is once in 10 years, then the SIF must have a Risk Reduction Factor (RRF) of at least 25 (Minimum RRF of SIF = Effective frequency / Acceptable frequency = 2.5/0.1 = 25). The minimum required RRF of the SIF is used to determine the target SIL Level of the SIF by using the table 1. This chart establishes a relationship between SIL Level and RRF. SIL1 corresponds to a minimum RRF of 101, SIL2 has a minimum RRF of 102 and so on.

4.0 Achievable SIL Level of the SIS Three main criteria have to be satisfied to make sure the SIS conforms to the specified SIL:

For the tank overfill example, just taken into account, the minimum RRF is 25 and, therefore, the target SIL level of the SIF is SIL1. The example shows that for each hazard identified by LOPA that requires a SIF, a target SIL

1) systematic capability; 2) maximum allowed probability of dangerous failure on demand; 3) architectural constraints. In the following, we are going to briefly examine all these main criteria. 4.1 Systematic capability IEC 61508 defines two alternative methods to ensure that a component is suitable for use in a safety instrumented system with a defined SIL rating. The first method is called “Route 1S”. It requires that everyone working on the component, and therefore concerned with its development, manufacture and maintenance, has to follow strict procedures during the so-called “life cycle” of the component. The aim is to avoid “systematic errors” due to calculations, wrong specifications and design

faults. “Route 1S” is the preferred way for newly developed components. The second method is called “Route 2S”. It relies on field data and, therefore, applies to existing components. “Route 2S” takes field data into account to show that existing components still have the required reliability for use in a safety instrumented system. This method is mainly used for components where data field, which usually come from a proved experience, actually exist. Both methods require field tests, which have to be carried out at the user’s plant with a defined frequency, named “Test Interval” by the standards. The SIL capability of a component is usually stated in the certificate released by a “third part” that acts independently from both the manufacturer and the end user. 4.2 Probability of Failure on Demand The probability of Failure on Demand (PFD) is the probability that the SIS fails to perform its safety function when required. The standards define a maximum allowed PFD for the overall SIS. Since the SIS contains at least one sensor, one logic device and one final element, none of these components must have a dangerous failure rate equal or close to the maximum allowed PFD. The standards specify that the maximum allowed PFD is in relation with the dangerous failure rate of each component and it also depends on the Test Interval: the longer the Test Interval, the higher the probability that the system might fail on demand. Considering the SIS as a whole, a PFD distribution of 15% for logic devices, 35% for sensors, 25% for actuators and 25% for

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article valves can be considered a good guideline. The values of the dangerous failure rate are usually made available by manufacturers. 4.3 Architectural constraints Any safety instrumented system has to have a failure-tolerant architecture. The “Route 1H” in IEC 61508 relies on a combination of sufficient redundancy and a minimum Safe Failure Fraction (SFF). The Safe Failure Fraction is the fraction of system failures that are either safe or lead to a safe condition of functioning. The standards require that the architecture of the SIS has to fulfill strict requirements. For example, a SIL 2 safety system, that has no redundancy and uses at least one complex electronic component as a logic device, will result in a minimum required SFF of 90% for the microprocessor. It is not necessary for all the components used in this safety instrumented system have a SFF of 90%. With no redundancy, it is allowed to choose a component with a minimum required SFF of 60% only if the component can be regarded as a simple electronic component, such as a valve or an actuator. If “Route 1H” is selected, it is always advisable to choose components that fulfill the minimum SFF requirements in order to avoid expensive redundancies to achieve the required SIL level of the SIS. 4.4 Special requirements for

References [1] IEC 61508; [2] IEC 61511;

actuators Field components such as sensors, actuators and valves are exposed to influences that logic devices do not normally have to bear. These include environmental conditions such as temperature, pressure, humidity, contaminations and vibrations. In addition, field components may be exposed to abrasive or corrosive process elements. When designing a SIS, it is crucial to select components able to withstand these conditions over the intended lifetime of the SIS. If a single component fails due to such “off-design use”, the whole SIS will not even fulfill SIL1. To improve the system reliability, i.e. the probability that the safety system automatically intervenes in critical situations, it is absolutely vital to carry out periodic field tests. The standards consider the use of these tests a basic requirement for employing actuators and valves successfully in safety instrumented systems. A few other technical questions have to be analysed before an actuator is selected for a SIS. The discussion below is far away from being exhaustive but experience shows that some aspects are neglected, resulting sometimes in major design faults. 4.5 Further technical questions At times, an actuator has to perform different safety functions. This happen when an actuator is part

of a SIS designed for a safe stop function during standard operations and, at the same time, it is also part of another SIS realised for an emergency shutdown (ESD). In this case, it is essential to establish a priority to make sure that both safety functions can be carried out in compliance with the requirements of each safety instrumented system. A SIS should be physically separate from the Basic Process Control System (BPCS). If we only take sensors and logic solvers into account, the SIS is always structured in this way. Nevertheless, for the final elements, such as actuators and valves, this approach is often very expensive since two actuators and valves have to be purchased, installed and maintained instead of just one of each. There is therefore the tendency to use the same actuator and valve for both the process control system and the safety instrumented system. This is allowed but under some very restrictive conditions. The most important are as follows. a) All components jointly used by the BPCS and the SIS have to be treated as part of the safety system, which means that they have to comply with IEC 61508. b) The failure of a component used as part of both the SIS and the BPCS must not cause a failure of the BPCS that, in return, might result in

a request for the SIS to intervene. c) The SIS and the BPCS have to be sufficiently separated to make sure that a failure in the BPCS has no negative impact on the SIS. 5.0 Summary and Conclusions The following are the key points of this article. »» The purpose of a SIS is to bring a process to a “safe state” when predetermined set points are exceeded and safe operating conditions are transgressed. The role of the SIS is to reduce risk by implementing Safety Instrumented Functions (SIF). »» Process plant hazards become “SIL-Rated” only when existing non-SIS safety layers prove to be not sufficient to reduce process hazards to an acceptable level. »» SIL-Rated hazards have to be mitigated by SIFs implemented by a SIS. »» The SIL Level of each hazard is determined by calculating the required target Risk Reduction Factor of each SIF. »» To achieve an acceptable level of risk, the SIS has to be designed such that each component has a dangerous failure rate less than the maximum allowed PFD. »» When choosing the components for a SIS, it is important to ensure that the Systematic Capability of each component matches the required SIL of the whole SIS.

[3] Safety Instrumented Systems using electric actuators – How to choose the right components. CPP (Chemical Production Plants Processes) – Konradin Industrie – August 2017 - Author: Heike Schmeding, AUMA Riester

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019


4 types of interface. 16 process streams. 150,000 barrels per day. Zero margin for error.

This is why level matters. Reliable interface level measurement keeps production flowing. If water and oil are not separated effectively, you face processing problems, equipment failures, production loss, fines and shutdowns. That’s why Magnetrol® matters. Our technologies are proven to accurately measure total level and emulsion layers, from upstream gun barrel tanks to downstream boots. So you get effective separation and true process optimization. That’s critical. Because when it comes to interface, level matters.

©2019 Magnetrol International

Download the new Interface White Paper at interface.magnetrol.com

Test & Measurement

New TFX-5000 Clamp-on Ultrasonic Flow Meter for liquids Bell Flow Systems have announced the introduction of the Dynasonics® TFX-5000 ultrasonic clamp-on flow and energy meters manufactured in the United States by Badger Meter. Designed for non-invasive, ultrasonic transit time flow measurement of liquids, these flow meters are ideal for use in water and wastewater treatment, Heating/Ventilation/Air Conditioning (HVAC) and oil and gas applications. TFX-5000 ultrasonic clampon flow and energy meters are a versatile solution for measuring volumetric flow and heating/cooling rates in clean liquids as well as those with small amounts of suspended solids or aeration, such as surface water or

raw sewage. Typical applications include water mains, reclaimed water, lift stations and booster pump stations in water and wastewater or the energy transfer of chilled water (cooling) and glycol/hot water (heating) in HVAC systems as well as produced water in oil and gas applications. As the newest generation of clamp-on ultrasonic flow and energy meters, the TFX-5000 meter is intended for users seeking an accurate, reliable and affordable transit time metering device, The TXF5000 is available in a variety of configurations and can be selected with features suitable to meet particular application requirements. By clamping onto the outside of pipes, ultrasonic

devices like the TFX-5000 meter do not contact the internal liquid and have inherent advantages, such as reduced installation time and cost, no limits on pressure or fluid compatibility. The meter is available in two versions: »» A flow meter for water delivery, raw sewage, cooling water, sea water, deionized water, waterglycol mixtures, alcohols, chemicals and many acidic or caustic fluids »» A heating/cooling energy flow meter used in conjunction with dual clamp-on Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) for temperature measurement in hydronic processes and HVAC systems The TFX-5000 meter is specifically developed for fluid flow metering and heating/cooling energy measurement and can be

employed for a host of data logging tasks. Users can select up to eight parameters to log, including flow rate and total, signal strength, and alarms with a time/date stamp to an 8 GB microSD™ (Secure Digital) card. It also features helpful diagnostics that take the guesswork out of isolating process or application problems. Users are alerted to out-of-specification flow conditions and can access a history with the most recent alarm, error and event codes. In addition, the meter can be integrated into remote telemetry packages for cloud based viewing, monitoring and download. For further information contact: Bell Flow Systems mail@bellflowsystems.co.uk 01280 817304 www.bellflowsystems.co.uk

Accurate Flow Rate Measurement of Viscous Liquids Titan Enterprises’ OG range of Oval Gear flowmeters provide the perfect solution for accurate measurement of the flow of viscous liquids and lubricating fluids. Unlike other flowmeters, measurement accuracy with oval gear devices actually improves as the liquid viscosity increases, from a nominal 1% to around 0.1% of flow rate at higher viscosities. The OG range of oval gear flowmeters are compact, rugged and deliver

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

unprecedented performance at a low cost of ownership. Available as standard with stainless steel or aluminium bodies, OG flowmeters are bidirectional and available in sizes from 1/4 to 2-inches (6 to 50 mm), for flows between 1ml/min and 500l/min. For applications involving measurement of corrosive or caustic fluids, versions of OG flowmeters with completely non-metallic wetted components (ceramic, PEEK™ and a choice of elastomer) are available. Over recent years, Titan Enterprises has expanded its OG flowmeter range and has supplied special application optimised OEM versions for use at elevated temperatures (200°C) or high pressure (950Bar). Models are also available certified as suitable for use in hazardous areas.

The standard inlet and outlet options for OG flowmeters are BSP or NPT, though alternative versions are available with flanges and female threads. The electronic pulse output signal is transmitted via TTL or contact closure. Each OG flowmeter supplied by Titan Enterprises is individually flow calibrated and supplied with a traceable flow test certificate. For further information on the oval gear flowmeters please visit here or contact Titan Enterprises on +44-1935-812790 or sales@flowmeters.co.uk.


Test & Measurement


MID & OIML Approved MRM Turbine gas flow meters are now available in the UK exclusively from Bell Flow Systems. Manufactured by Metreg Technologies who offers a complete product range for fiscal and nonfiscal gas flow measurement for industrial and commercial applications.

The MRM rotary displacement gas flow meter is designed for fiscal metering of natural gas and is approved according to the European requirements of EN12480, MID (2004/22/ EG) and OIML R137-1 & 2: 2012. The MRM rotary displacement gas meter is suitable to be installed in hazardous areas of Category 2 (Zone 1) II 2 G c IIC T4 X. The MRM rotary displacement gas meter is suitable for the following gases: Natural gas, town gas, propane, butane, ethylene, air, nitrogen, with further gases on request. Rotary gas meters are characterised by their very compact design and high accuracy. The MRM rotary meter requires no inlet or outlet straight pipe lengths or flow conditioning and is insensitive to severe gas flow fluctuations (discontinuous operation). The rotary

meters MRM are manufactured with large measurement ranges due to the precision machining of the parts and a very reproducible assembly process. The standard calibrated measurement range for the MRM is 1:50. Extended measurement ranges up to 1:200 are optionally available according to approved and certified measurement ranges as shown in the table. The MRM rotary gas meters show very stable and reproducible measurement results. The design of the housings and pressure containing parts has been optimised especially for outstanding operation, even under challenging torsional and bending stresses. The meters can withstand more than twice the specified torsional and bending stresses after installation as defined in EN 12480. The lifetime durability of the MRM rotary gas meter is very stable due to the large dimensioned high precision ball bearings “Made in Germany” along with the high precision machining of the body and all moving parts. After machining all Aluminium parts are hard anodised for reduced friction and higher resistance to mechanical wear and tear or chemical attack. Utilising the LF of HF pulser (reed contact) the volume pulse output sensors allow for remote monitoring, data recording and linking with Building Management Systems (BMS) as well as with gas volume correctors (EVC’s) and our ATEX telemetry systems. For further information on the Metreg gas meter ranges contact: Bell Flow Systems mail@bellflowsystems.co.uk 01280 817304 www.bellflowsystems.co.uk


Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Test & Measurement

imaging cameras

used to study electrocalorific effect

Today’s refrigerator devices make use of coolants that turn into gases. Although these coolants form the basis of an effective cooling process, they may be harmful to the environment. But what if we could use solid materials instead of fluids as an economical and environmentally friendly way to cool down food, beverages, medicine, and even electronic devices? It’s something that the Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST) is looking into. Researchers at the institute make use of FLIR’s thermal imaging cameras to study the subject in depth. The Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST) is a research and technology organization located in the heart of Luxembourg’s new Research and Innovation Campus at Esch-Belval. The Campus

brings together strong potential for innovation uniting university, research centres, joint laboratories, start-ups and incubators. One of the departments at LIST is the Materials Research and Technology (MRT) group. This department is looking into ways to turn nanotechnology/ nanomaterials into application-driven solutions. One of the research themes is how solid materials exhibiting the electrocaloric effect can be used as cooling systems for, among others, electronic devices. STUDYING THE ELECTROCALORIC EFFECT The electrocaloric effect is a phenomenon where a polarizable substance undergoes reversible changes in temperature with the application or removal of electric

fields. The electrocaloric effect in thin films could have the potential to be used for efficient refrigerators and cooling systems for high power electronic devices. Applying an electric field to an electrocaloric material raises its temperature, and decreasing the field lowers its temperature. “At the Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies Unit of PhD researchers, we have been building a prototype of an electrocaloric refrigerator in order to compare it to a conventional refrigerator,” says Romain Faye, researcher at LIST. “The advantage of this technology is that electrocaloric refrigerators have a higher energy efficiency and they enable us to avoid the use of potentially harmful fluids.” More specifically, researchers in the Ferroic Materials for Transducers group are using multilayer capacitors to test the cooling rate of the refrigerator. Multilayer capacitors consist of several tens to few hundreds of ceramic layers of about 10 to 40 microns separated by metal electrodes of several microns which are alternatively connected to 2 external terminals. The cooling rate of the refrigerator can be easily increased through the electrocaloric effect by increasing the frequency of the electric field.

Researchers at LIST measure the electrocaloric effect and hope to get better insights on its usability for cooling applications.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

The FLIR X6580sc accurate images caloric effects and thermal behavior of materials both temporally and spatially

What is important in this process is the ability to exchange the created heat with the environment before removing the field. This way, it is possible to achieve a temperature that is colder than the ambient temperature. “We want to exchange heat as quick as possible,” says Romain Faye. “We are trying to determine how this heat exchange process is limited by the material itself, for example in terms of thermal conductivity, or by the shape of the material. If the heat exchange is


Test & Measurement very small temperature differences at a very high frequency,” says Romain Faye. “The FLIR X6580sc managed to do exactly that. We are truly impressed by the performance of this camera.”

The electrocaloric effect in thin films could have the potential to be used for efficient refrigerators and cooling systems for high power electronic devices

sufficiently fast, we could be able to switch the field on and off several times per second.” EFFICIENT, DIRECT MEASUREMENTS By measuring the electrocaloric effect, researchers at LIST hope to get better insights on the usability of this phenomenon for cooling applications. “In the past, researchers have mainly been using indirect measurement, whereby the electrocaloric effect is deduced from the measurement of the polarization as a function of temperature and voltage, not from actual temperature measurements” says Romain Faye. “However, indirect measurements have not always resulted in correct interpretations. Therefore, our team has been looking into more efficient ways of direct, temperature-based measurement.” The most common ways of direct measurement of temperature change are thermocouples and thermal imaging cameras. Thermocouples are electric devices that measure changes in voltage associated with changes in temperature, while thermal imaging cameras measure changes in IR radiation associated with changes in temperature. “Thermocouples have not proven to be practical for us,” says Romain Faye. “We are studying very fast temperature changes induced by electrical current, on very small surfaces. Thermocouples just do not offer the precision you need to make that kind of measurements. Thermal imaging on the other hand allows us to show fast heat exchange between materials and the environment in a visual way.”


FLIR X6580SC The FLIR X6580sc is a high-end thermal imaging camera for researchers and scientists that provides thermal images of 640 x 512 pixels and is able to record fast dynamic scenes up to 355 Hz. The camera also provides excellent thermal contrast (with NETD = 20 mK). LIST researchers have been coupling the FLIR X6580sc with FLIR’s ResearchIR software for thermal measurement, recording and real-time analysis. The software allows them to record the temperature changes induced by the electric field and to make better distinctions in the image between what is induced by the electric field and what is image noise.

THERMAL IMAGING OF CALORIC EFFECTS Compact and high-frequency thermal imaging cameras, like the FLIR X6580sc can provide an accurate and sensitive imaging of caloric effects and thermal behaviour of materials both temporally and spatially. LIST has been studying the thermal behaviour of oxide materials by using the FLIR X6580sc camera combined with a lens that allows them to obtain a 3x magnification.

This allows them to present the thermal images in even higher detail. “The support from the FLIR team has been amazing,” says Romain Faye. “They have helped us to make an efficient camera setup and to adapt the camera settings to obtain the best results. And fortunately for us, thanks to the promising results we have booked with our FLIR camera, we will be starting a new followon research project within a few months.” The research work that led to these results has been funded by the National Research Fund of Luxembourg (FNR) through the project COFERMAT FNR/ P12/4853155

The measured thermal variations as a function of the applied electric field have a thermal sensitivity ranging from 20mK to 4K. “We needed a thermal imaging camera that is able to measure

For more information about thermal imaging cameras or about this application, please visit www.flir.eu/ Scince or contact the author - Ruud Heijsmann on ruud.heijsmann@flir.com

LIST researchers study very fast temperature changes induced by electrical current, on very small surfaces.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Sean Moran

Sean Moran

The Voice of Chemical Engineering

Stages of Plant Design Back when I was writing my book on Plant Layout, I surveyed other practising engineers on the issue of staging of plant design, asking how many stages they thought there were in the design of a plant. My survey respondents generally thought there were somewhere between three and ten, depending to some extent on what they thought I meant by a ‘stage’. However, it was quite noticeable that many engineers believed their view on the matter was the only correct one, whilst non-practitioners were equally certain that their view was also correct. Most engineering practitioners have to work with a stage-gate process, which is set by the management of the organisation ultimately responsible for paying for/operating the plant. Precisely which stage gates are chosen is driven by a combination of the regulatory environment and prevailing culture within the company, industry or country of the plant in question. If we are working in a research/ science led industry such as pharma, there will be more up-front ‘sciencey’ stages, followed by a mad rush to go from lab scale to “full scale” without much thought of optimisation. The full scale plant will probably just be the lab process only with bigger vessels. Nowadays the kit may even comprise a collection of single-use disposables. The rush to make as much money as possible before the patent runs out militates against spending the time necessary to design a reasonably optimal continuous process. The high profit margins in some of these sectors mean that this approach makes a kind of sense, though much less so in food and drink, where the products are more low margin commodities. There are

moves to address this anomaly, but for now, this is how staging looks in the food and drugs industries. In the traditional chemical process industries (CPI), centred on bulk organic chemical manufacture and oil and gas, lab scale science and research play less of a part. Instead, software process modelling fills additional upfront stages, especially in the retrofits, plant extensions etc. which form the bulk of the work in this sector in the West nowadays. This approach tends to carry with it the US cultural terminology, and units which were exported worldwide through the oil and gas industry. I tend to find that it is those who work in the CPI who are most convinced that their ways of working, terminology etc. are correct, as they are the ones apparently doing ‘proper’ chemical engineering. Then there are the environment industries (in which I tend to do most of my work) where much of what chemical engineers do nowadays was done historically by civil engineers. We have inherited some of their culture although, as staging of design is a feature of all engineering activity, what we do does not differ significantly from the previous two approaches. However, we tend to have neither labwork nor modelling to support our design activity. We must consequently rely more on heuristics, and are under a lot of resource pressure as we work in a low margin environment. We therefore tend to have fewer stages of design, and a shorter design programme. One thing I found from my survey was that everyone who practices engineering knows that there are three basic stages of design prior to construction. We can call these conceptual, front end engineering design (FEED), and detailed design. We might split conceptual design into a number of sub-stages. We might differentiate between detailed

everyone who practices engineering knows that there are three basic stages of design prior to construction” design and design for construction. We might include redesign during and after construction, and so on. But whether we are designing a process plant or a wedding cake, this is how it goes. Apparent differences mask an underlying similarity. This has always been true, and always will be true. But what about those who have never practised? What do academic “chemical engineers” think? Some apparently believe that the differences mean that there is no underling similarity, that there is no necessary progression, that things can be rearranged anyway that suits. Academics often teach an approach to process design which entirely ignores the commercial reality of engineering. Some admit that they are teaching how it ‘should be’ rather than how it is, but many do not, and instead try to make a virtue of ignoring how things are, claiming that they are teaching how things will be in future. This is of course nonsense. When I wrote my plant layout book, updating it from a first edition published in the

Sean Moran 1980s, I found that nothing significant had changed in how design was done since then. We have new tools, but we have the same design problems to solve, and there is a natural order in which to do so. Process design is no more maths and science than it ever was. For readers who graduated fairly recently, consider how ludicrous “Process Synthesis and Design” is in the context of engineering practice. Has anyone ever given you a clean sheet and suggested that you singlehandedly design a fullscale plant from scratch? In the unlikely event that they did, did they expect to you to devise your own process chemistry, use multiple novel processes never used at the proposed scale before, model the whole thing in Aspen Hysys without supporting process trials, carry out a pinch analysis on the result and optimise for maximum product yield and minimum input energy without consideration of cost, safety, plant footprint, or the requirements of other engineering disciplines? No? So what was the point of those “process design” modules you did at university?

What does this have to do with staging? The exercise undertaken by chem eng students in design projects is at best a FEED study, but is more often no better than conceptual design, to the extent that it bears any resemblance at all to professional design. Projects are staged to avoid wasting money on engineering an unviable design. The “Process Synthesis and Design” approach they are being taught is virtually all wasted effort. The main thrust of conceptual and FEED stages is a viability check. Detailed design costs a lot of money. If the process proves, upon investigation by design, to be insufficiently cost effective, robust and safe, then we abandon the project. This is in fact the most likely outcome. Applying just enough effort to establish these things to the required degree of certainly is what we are employed for, and this is where design staging plays its part. Teaching an approach which ignores staging is a waste of the students’ time.

www.euromixers.co.uk Test & Measurement

Powerful Type 8139 enhances radar level measurement for challenging hygienic applications Those facing challenges in measuring fluid levels in hygienic applications should be aware of Bürkert’s new Type 8139 non-contact radar measuring device. Designed to provide highly accurate, continuous measurement for specialised tanks that contain difficult to measure fluids, the Type 8139 is optimised to meet the needs of the pharmaceutical, food and beverage and water industries. Radar level measurement relies on a signal being emitted, reflected by the medium and then received by the device’s antenna. Differences between the emitted and received signal

Bürkert’s new Type 8139 non-contact radar measuring device is designed to provide highly accurate, continuous measurement for specialised tanks that contain difficult to measure fluids.

are then rationalised via sensors to provide a level reading. For hygienic applications, this provides the advantage of non-contact level measurement, all important in minimising contamination. As a result, the Type 8139 is suitable for bioreactors, ultra-pure water storage tanks, clean agent storage, beer and raw milk tanks, as well as containers for liquid foodstuffs, water treatment tanks, mixing and equalisation ponds, intake channels and flocculant storage tanks. What differentiates the Type 8139 from competitive

solutions is how it applies its radar signals. Delivering a radar frequency at 80 GHz with a dynamic range of 120 dB ensures continuous radar measurement of the medium. Higher frequency translates to short radar wavelengths, improving the accuracy of received signals. As a result, the Type

8139 delivers a measuring accuracy of +/- 1 mm, regardless of temperature or pressure in the tank. Read the full article here For further information contact:Kirsty Anderson Bürkert Fluid Control Systems Tel: +44 (0)1285 648761 Fax: +44 (0)1285 648721 Web: www.burkert.co.uk Email: kirsty.anderson@ burkert.com




Lowara Gasketed Plate Heat Exchanger (GPX) technology offers maximum efficiency in less space, with outstanding application flexibility. Innovative plate design allows GPX heat exchangers to provide more heat transfer using less space. They perform with one-third to one-fifth the surface area of conventional shell and tube heat exchangers designed for the same application. Their efficient design allows the heat exchanger to be used in a variety of applications and installations, including: District Heating and Cooling, Thermal Storage, Heat Pumps and HVAC.

For UK sales contact 01297 630 230 or visit xylem.com/uk for more information

Pumps & Valves focus

Feature Article

By Les Littlewood – Sales and Marketing Director at Albion Valves (UK) Ltd

set to play an increasing role in the process industry Actuated valves have become more and more prevalent within the process industry over the past few years, due to their accurate and efficient flow control. So perhaps it is no surprise that the market for valves and actuators is predicted to show strong growth over the coming years too.

efficiency, reduced human intervention and improved health and safety.

Here, Les Littlewood – Sales and Marketing Director at Albion Valves (UK) Ltd., explores the options for those specifying and using actuated valves. At Albion, we have been supplying actuated valves for over 20 years, and we have definitely seen an upward trend in demand for actuation, especially amongst the process industries where there is an increased desire for production

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

David Keys, Managing Director at Albion Valves (UK) Ltd comments: “Due to the increased demand for actuation, the range has increased in line with our other product ranges with the aim to provide a complete solution from under one roof. Our actuated range now includes stainless steel, brass and cast iron in a variety of formats such as ball and butterfly in either two or three-way configurations. We also have a choice of actuators – Direct Acting, Spring Return and Electric. All our valves come with a standard ISO mounting making assembly with any type of actuator simple and straightforward” With such choice, can come confusion. So, for those who may not be involved in specifying or buying actuated valves on a regular basis, it’s worth remembering a few basics.

Control v Isolation Within the process industries, actuation is usually used in one of two potential applications – either control or isolation. Modulating control valves are used to regulate the flow of liquid to control a process, these valves allow for precise control over the medium that is required. In comparison an isolation valve is simply used for a complete shut-off, so the valve will fully open or fully close as required. When the type of valve has been established, the specifier would then need to select an actuator to complete the actuation package. For this it is important to know the type of environment it will be operating in. A number of factors would need to be considered here such as: »» Is air or electricity available? »» Are there any concerns over ‘clean’ operation? »» Does the application represent a harsh or corrosive environment?


Feature Article After the answers to these questions have been provided, it should dictate which type of actuator would be the most suitable, principally pneumatic or electric for process applications. Pneumatic v Electric Pneumatic actuators are powered by compressed air or gas and generally high force and speed at a low unit cost and in a relatively small operating footprint. Pneumatic cylinders provide more force and speed per unit size than any other actuator technology except hydraulic.

Electric actuators use an electric motor to provide torque to operate a valve. The advantages to an electric actuator are that they are quiet, non-toxic and energy efficient. Electric actuators are available in a wide range of voltages including 24VAC, 24VDC, 110VAC, 220VAC and 380V. When compared to pneumatic actuators, electric actuators are more economical when they are placed in small to medium applications, as opposed to large-scale, as they provide precise control and positioning. Approvals After a valve and actuator has been selected it is important to

check that both the valve and the actuator have the necessary approvals for the job. For example, if the actuation package is going to be used on a potable water line it is important that the valve has a WRAS approval. Or if the pipe medium is highly flammable, it is important that both the valve and actuator are ATEX approved and fire safe. There is no set answer as to what type of valve and actuator package is best as it is solely dependent on the application and environment, so our advice is simple – if in doubt – Ask.

Hydra-Cell® Pulse-less MT8 Metering Pump has ATEX Certification The Hydra-Cell MT8 low-flow, highpressure metering and dosing pump is now available with ATEX Zone 2 certification. Conforming to ATEX Group ll, Category 3, Zone 2, gas group (IIC) and temperature class (T5 or T4 depending on process liquid temperature), the MT8 is classified for use within explosive atmospheres consisting of a mixture of air and flammable substance in the form of gas, vapour or mist that is not likely to occur in normal operation, but if it does occur will persist for a short time only For Category 3, Zone 2, a protective system isn’t always required. In this case, an oil level sight bowl is fitted to the drive side of the Hydra-Cell pump that enables easy monitoring by the end user. As with all ATEX approved HydraCell pumps, the MT8 features an ATEX nameplate fixed to the pump housing that displays the markings of conformity to prove the pump is “suitable for use” in the zones for


which it is certified. The nameplate also indicates the specific ATEX Zone classification. Each pump is also fitted with an earth stud to test for earth continuity.

The variable gear box also has a lock option to stop unauthorised adjustments.

To achieve its low flow accuracy, the MT8’s flow rate is controlled by altering the pump RPM by an ATEX precision variable gear box. Keeping a constant diaphragm stroke length ensures a constant compression ratio and excellent accuracy in very large turndown applications.

Brenda Davis Marketing Manager Direct: +44 (0)1252 919033 Main:   +44 (0)1252 816847 Email: brenda@wannerint.com

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Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

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Feature Article

By Paul Hopkins – MD, AUMA Actuators Limited

Electric Valve

Actuators in Process Plant Operations Precision flow control Process plant operation requires precise control of valves, and so the modulation of flow throughout the system depends on the operation of the valve actuator. Taken across their range of operations, these critical pieces of equipment may have to perform under extremes of conditions – very high, very low temperatures, in arid or high rainfall environments, in remote situations in deserts or arctic tundra or reliably rebuffing the corrosive effects of high humidity or salinity. When they operate in potentially explosive atmospheres, there is a requirement for explosion protection, failsafe and fireproof operation. This article considers electric actuation, so in addition to the core function of opening and closing the valve, the actuator often forms the crucial interface between the process and the control system, providing integration into whichever distributed control system (DCS) is in use. And, at a time where the IIoT and Edge Computing is gaining more and more momentum, electric actuators equipped with powerful electronics play a key role as information hubs providing direct access to a wide variety of both process and diagnostics data. Fixed speed, variable speed, modulating? Valve actuation comes 27

in many forms Actuators have to be able to operate the full range of valves gate valves, ball valves and others, to control flow of both gas and liquids. Typically, ball or butterfly valve actuation requires partturn actuators providing a swivel movement of generally 90° for full travel. Gate valves, on the other hand, typically need multiturn actuators providing several complete actuator turns to operate the valve from open to close and vice versa. Further distinction between open/ close and modulating duty must be made. Actuators for open-close duty are required to infrequently open or close shut-off valves. Modulating (positioning) actuators, on the other hand, provide enhanced positioning accuracy for control valves in order to precisely modulate the flow within pipes. An example from the oil and gas world is gas receiving terminals in gas pipelines where pressure control valves have to operate frequently and precisely to reduce the gas pressure. For ultimate control and process protection, a variable speed actuator offers a number of additional benefits. Valves, and pipe flanges, can be protected by slow initial and final valve velocity, while a higher speed through the middle of the cycle reduces the total open/ close time, and fine adjustments

can be made if a modulating duty version is specified. In many ageing plants, and particularly in cold weather, exposed pipes and flanges can be prone to cracking, and so a ‘sympathetic’ actuation cycle can protect the integrity of the process. Variable speed operation also reduces power usage at the beginning of the cycle, so operation by solar PV power becomes a genuine option. Modular Actuator Approach It is not unusual for different automation processes within a pipeline to require a different actuation solution for each individual application. To support the customer, consistency of user interfaces and device handing is needed: from installation to commissioning, operation and maintenance. A modular actuator concept meets varied demands with a set of standard components. A broad range of multi-turn and part-turn actuators are available for different torque ranges, for different power supply sources, different valve attachments, etc. At control level, a choice between basic or intelligent actuator controls provide costefficient solutions for both simple and the most complex process control tasks. Modular design combined with a flexible actuator geometry Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article allows easy on-site adjustment of mounting positions, making sure that operating elements such as local controls and display are always easily accessible, even if space is scarce. Case study – Limited space application for Saudi Aramco KAEQC pipeline Space constraints are often an issue for filtration skids due to their very compact design. This is illustrated in figure 1, showing a filtration skid for the Saudi Aramco KAEC Pipeline Project. AUMA supplied the actuators for the main line valves and filtration skids for this project. The actuators could be mounted in various orientations to meet the customer’s space requirements, while assuring optimum positioning of cable entries, hand wheel and local controls.

Combining standard actuators with a complementing gearbox portfolio allows very large valves to be operated, achieving torques of up to 675,000 Newton metres. Case study – Modulating actuator for Copenhagen District Heating Network The 48-inch butterfly valve supplied by KOSO Kent Introl is the largest they have supplied and has a Cv of 59,531. It features a profiled vane that dissipates the energy as a valve works across a large pressure drop, reducing the chance of cavitation. The AUMA SEVEN HiMod, in conjunction with the GS gearbox, delivers a torque of 90,000Nm. A variable speed (modulating) actuator means, clearly, that the speed of movement of the valve can vary throughout its travel, moving quickly throughout the majority of the cycle and slowing as it closes to reduce wear on the mechanical components. Variable speed also gives the opportunity for a ‘soft’ start, reducing energy usage.

Figure 2: A 48 inch butterfly valve designed for use on the new District Heating network in Copenhagen is actuated with a multi-turn, variable speed actuator and gearbox combination (credit: Koso Kent Introl)

As an additional benefit, a modular concept dramatically reduces the amount of inventory required, as only a small number of standard/ core components needs to be stocked by the end user. Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Additional requirements can call for actuators in fireproof versions that reliably maintain all functionality, even under the direct impact of fire. Meeting these demands, actuators can be equipped with a fireproof enclosure that meets the requirements of UL 1709. In the event of a fire, the enclosure absorbs the heat and ensures reliable actuator operation at ambient temperatures up to 1,100 °C for 30 minutes, enabling the fire to be blocked and preventing spread of fire by closing the valve. For more general failsafe operation, electric actuators can be backed up by mechanical failsafe devices such as AUMA’s FQM. The AUMA FQM works by tensioning up a ‘mainspring’. If power is lost, then the spring releases, safely moving the valve to the safe position, either valve open or valve closed.

Figure 1: Variable speed actuator with modulating duty for ‘sympathetic’ actuation and fine control

Figure 1: Modular actuator design helps to meet the tight space constraints at a Saudi Aramco filtration skid.

To maintain the correct separation from a potentially explosive atmosphere the ideal solution is a flameproof enclosure, so the enclosure must be able to withstand the pressure that may develop during an internal explosion to prevent it from being transmitted to an explosive gas surrounding the enclosure.

Explosion Proofing and failing safe Explosion-proof actuators are designed so that they will not act as ignition source for a potentially explosive atmosphere. They will neither generate sparks nor hot surfaces. All the electrical, mechanical and electronic components of the actuator are integrated into a single housing.

Figure 4: Actuators with patented K-Mass coating remain fully functional for 30 minutes even when subjected to temperatures up to 1,100 °C

Systems Integration with Intelligent Actuator Controls Electric actuators are, in most cases, equipped with intelligent integral controls, which assume communication between DCS and actuator. Controls are available with various interfaces to the DCS – allowing both parallel signal transmission and fieldbus communication. Supported are, for 28

Feature Article example, Profibus DP, Modbus RTU, Devicenet, Foundation Fieldbus as well as HART and WirelessHART. Embedded advanced diagnostics functions enable preventive maintenance and integration of actuators into asset management systems. Latest developments also include interfaces for the Industrial Ethernet standards Profinet and Modbus TCP/IP. Thanks to an unprecedented connectivity and real-time data transmission these standards are especially suitable for integrating actuators into IIoT/ Edge applications. Electric valve actuators can play a key role in these systems: On one hand, they operate remotely, opening and closing valves. On the other, powerful electronics allow electric actuators to act as information hubs for both processrelated data, for example valve position feedback, and actuatorrelated data, based on advanced self-diagnostics. For instance, intelligent algorithms monitor actuator characteristics to indicate when maintenance should be carried out. Asset management based on device-specific data boosts plant reliability and reduces unexpected downtime. All information is directly available on the IT network and can be used for process visualisation, statistics, advanced modelling, or simulation


to improve process performance.

Figure 3: AUMA offers TÜV-certified electric actuators suitable for applications up to SIL 2/SIL 3.

training staff and support engineers, called AUMA Certified Engineers, or ACE. A dedicated training suite has been established at our UK head office and, via a secure log-in, accredited ACE technicians can access a raft of resources through our UK web portal. These include wiring diagrams, specific ‘how-to’ support and a library of short videos that support and reinforce training. The video below gives you a flavour of how they work.

Empowering the User As devices, including actuators, become more sophisticated, they need more in terms of set-up, and when things do go wrong, an expert understanding of their operation. On a large site, where there may be hundreds of valves and actuators in operation, this can cause headaches, especially when diagnosing a fault has to take into consideration the distinct possibility that any issue may lie with the mechanical operation of the valve rather than its actuator. That can result in significant service and repair costs and downtime that may well be unnecessary.

Optical fibre communication for long distances To cope with the long distances between the devices frequently encountered in pipeline projects and the high demands for data transmission security, data transmission via optical fibres can present a viable solution. Low attenuation of signals in optical fibre cables allow long distances between participants and, unlike copper cables, optical fibre cables are resistant to electromagnetic interference; so separate installation of signal and power cables is not necessary.

One approach, as an alternative to using a manufacturer’s in-house service department, is to empower and train the user to work on the equipment themselves. Recognising that an instrument engineer will tend to want to be able to handle requirements themselves, at AUMA we have instituted a protocol for

Case study: Optical fibre data transmission in Trans-Adriatic Oil Pipeline Optical fibres proved to be a suitable solution for the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) project. The pipeline will transport gas from the TurkishGreek border via Greece and Albania across the Adriatic Sea to Italy,

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article enhancing security of supply as well as diversification of gas suppliers for the European markets. For the first phase, compressor stations in Greece and Albania are required, together with a metering station at the Greece/Albania border. The TAP system is controlled from the main supervisory control room at the pipeline receiving terminal in Italy, where the pipeline ends and the gas enters into the Snam Rete Gas (SRG) Network. The pipeline uses a SCADA system featuring a ring of fibre-optic cables laid along the whole pipeline route. Fibre optic components also have to meet strict directives if they are to be deployed in explosion hazard areas, as the luminous power, under certain conditions, represents an explosion risk. AUMA therefore implemented a solution that uses fibre optic converters that fulfil EN 60079-28 for inherent optical radiation (“Op

is”) in accordance with the ATEX directive. These FO converters were installed within the Ex d enclosure of the actuator’s electrical connection. A modular approach allowed this solution to be rolled out across all applications, which included high torque applications using actuators combined with part-turn gearboxes as well as linear applications using actuators combined with linear thrust units.

Figure 5: Electric actuators have to withstand extreme environmental conditions.

Air Pumping helps keep compressed air systems shipshape

The Waverley, one of the world’s greatest historic ships, and the last SeaGoing Paddle Steamer in the World, contacted Air Pumping for spares for their on-board air compressors. As a specialist in marine and vessel applications, Air Pumping were called to supply parts to ensure the compressed air systems onboard were shipshape Air Pumping had such enthusiasm for keeping the nations maritime heritage

and history alive, they donated the parts to keep the ship in steam. However despite this kind donation, sadly Waverley has currently been withdrawn from service and will require new boilers to sail again. Without urgent support she will never sail again. Please help us Save The Waverley and donate to their Boiler Refit Appeal to ensure Waverley sails again in 2020.

PLEASE DONATE NOW AND HELP SAVE THE WAVERLEY. Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Fieldbus and the Future The challenges and opportunities presented by IIoT, Edge computing and big data are complex, but at their heart lies a simple truth. The flow of materials throughout the process industries will all be expressed as data with ever increasing granularity. Where there is data, that data can be used and manipulated. Once everything is measurable, and data security and internet reliability issues are fully addressed, as they will be, then new ways of using that data will emerge. At the same time, more will be expected from sensors and other elements of the control infrastructure in terms of local control and remote management. Actuators, because they are present throughout any distributed flow process, will be key enablers in the data revolution to come.

Flowrox CF-S centrifugal pump is fit for various pumping applications of corrosive and abrasive slurries. Flowrox has launched a new heavy-duty CF-S horizontal centrifugal pump that is designed for continuous pumping of highly abrasive and dense slurries. The CF-S pump is ideal for grinding mill discharge, hydrocyclone feed, minerals processing, tailings, sugar processing and other industrial applications. The CF-S pump provides ideal duty points with flows from as low as 2.3 m3/h to over 4 000 m3/h. A single Flowrox CF-S centrifugal pump can reach heads in excess of 76 m and provides a good balance between efficiency and wear. The construction of the Flowrox CF-S pump is based

on a split-case and has available a range of liner material options for optimal performance. Flowrox Digital Services (supporting Industrial Internet of Things, IIoT) are optional features which increase Flowrox CF-S pump’s productivity through optimization and online predictability. The horizontal CF-S pump is the first in a range of highquality centrifugal pumps which Flowrox is launching. For further information contact: Flowrox Oy Tel. +358 (0)201 113 311 Fax. +358 (0)201 113 300 info@flowrox.com www.flowrox.com


Pumps & Valves focus

New D4PMO Mix Proof Valve Promises to be a Winner for US Dairy Applications SPX® FLOW has announced that it will soon be launching a new valve within its highly successful D4 Series double seat mix proof portfolio. Due for release over the next few months, the new D4PMO valve has been designed specifically for the US dairy market in line with the latest 3-A sanitary standard 85-02 for Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). The D4 range took SPX FLOW mix proof valve technology into a new generation. The valves, which have been very popular since their release, are now well proven in processes across the beverage, brewery, food, dairy, personal care, and other sanitary applications around the world. They offer reliable separation of dissimilar products during continuous processing, with assured separation of clean-inplace (CIP) fluids. The D4PMO is based on the already proven design of the core D4 mix proof range with additional features to meet PMO standards,

such as maintaining zero pressure within the vent cavity and the impingement of CIP fluid during seat lift operation. To manage seat lift detection, the D4PMO valve includes the advanced CU4plus control unit as standard. This unit has an innovative fully integrated position and seat lift detection with internal sensors, which eliminates external wiring to avoid damage during handling or washdown. This smart control unit, combined with the clever design of the valve unit, make the overall D4PMO solution ideal to meet the high integrity demands of the US dairy market. The D4PMO valve is competitively priced and offers dairy businesses a budget-friendly solution to provide reliable processing, excellent cleanability and ease of maintenance. It has a fully balanced design for flexible flow direction without slamming and integrated flow channels for flushing the upper balancer during seat lift

movement without the need for full actuation or additional external piping. For ease of installation and service, the valve is light weight and uses a common seal kit across multiple size ranges. Based on a combination of expertise and experience from the SPX FLOW Waukesha Cherry-Burrell® and APV® brands and proven performance of the standard D4 valve model, the D4PMO promises to be a reliable, efficient and safe workhorse for the dairy industry. It is manufactured in the USA, at the SPX FLOW state-of-theart facility in Delavan, Wisconsin and supported by a close network of sales and service partners across the USA. For further information contact: Scott Dillner Director, Marketing Services - Flow Food & Beverage SPX FLOW, Inc. scott.dillner@spxflow.com T: +1 262-728-4934 www.spxflow.com

Hidrostal mixers mitigate site downtime Hidrostal has provided a catchment of 46,850 people with years of maintenance free waste water treatment by replacing the previously installed in-tank propeller mixers at the Waste Water Treatment Works with their HidroMix external mixing pumpsets. An important stage in the waste water treatment process is to keep the solids in suspension in the sludge holding tanks, a process which is often managed using in-tank propeller mixers. The downside to this method of mixing is that solids can build up in the tanks.

Hidrostal’s HidroMix external mixing pumpsets 31

This had been the case for the WwTW which had resulted in a periodic shut down of the site in order to dig out the accumulated solids. Hidrostal supplied two of their E08R standard mixers with bearing frame pumps on mounted baseplates to replace the propeller mixers. The HidroMix system supersedes the traditional method of mixing with an external mixing capability which employs a very simple system of pumped recirculation. Unlike other mixing systems the Hidrostal concept does not require structural steelwork within the tank. The system is mounted at ground level and fixed to the outside of the chamber. Large diameter nozzles are installed externally through the tank walls resulting in minimal friction

losses with maximum energy imparted to the fluid. The beauty of the HidroMix concept is that maintenance problems are vastly reduced due to the complete elimination of static and moving parts within the tank. Good compliance with CDM regulations reduces Health & Safety risk and mounting the pump outside the tank at ground level ensures it is easily accessible for installation, inspection and maintenance. For further information please contact Lucy Ogden, Marketing Manager for Hidrostal Ltd. Tel: 01234 339724 Email: lucy.ogden@hidrostal.co.uk Website: www.hidrostal.co.uk Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

www.jbj.co.uk/gear-pumps.html 0.25 - 0.5 Series Micro Gear Pumps Extensive range and very high performance of these pumps integrated in to micro power packs make them ideal for many applications from aerospace to marine, medical to automotive.

1P Series Gear Pumps High production rates, performance consistency and absolute reliability ensure this a benchmark product for the hydraulic power pack market.

ALP Series Gear Pumps This product range includes pumps of displacements (up to 200cc/rev) in a full aluminium configuration, able to withstand medium to high pressures and using different versions of flanges (European, German and SAE), porting and shafts. Mono-directional as well as reversible.

GHP Series Gear Pumps

The GHP series offer identical configurations to the ALP series and guarantees extreme reliability in very high pressure applications. Ideal for mobile applications from agricultural to construction machines as the cast iron allows more flange, cover and port options.

ELIKAÂŽ The low noise, low pulsation helical gear pump. Groups 2, 3, 4 and multiple pumps.

ALP/GHP Series Multiple Modular Gear Pumps Modularity and flexibility are the characteristics of these pumps. They allow the assembly of pump modules of the ALP and GHP (from 0.25 to 4) enabling solutions to a wide range of application requirements.

ALM Series Gear Motors

GHM Series Gear Motors

The GHM series offer identical configurations to the ALM series but more robust thanks to the cast iron front flange and rear cover.

High/Low 2-Pass Gear Pumps Ideal pump for applications which require a fast approach and/or return of the actuator at low loads and slow motion of the actuator at high loads. e.g. log splitters, compactors & presses. Volumetric and mechanical efficiencies as well as low noise levels are further benefits of this range.

ALPC/GHPC Series Short Multiple Gear Pumps For reduced axial layout. Available with both flanges and covers in aluminium or cast iron.

Reduces the noise level by up to 20 dBA.

For medium to high pressure rates the ALM series is ideal for mobile and industrial sectors. Mono-directional and bi-directional with internal and external drain available.

jbj Techniques Limited, UK distributor for

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www.jbj.co.uk A range of products ATEX certificated to directive 94/9/E requirements

Pumps & Valves focus

help treat hydrodemolition water in latest EcoClear machine EcoClear machines from Aquajet rely on WMFTG pump technology Accurate, reliable chemical dosing provided by trio of Qdos pumps Reliable sludge handling provided by rugged APEX hose pump

Qdos and APEX pumps from Watson-Marlow Fluid Technology Group (WMFTG) are providing the processing power behind the latest generation EcoClear, a treatment system developed by Aquajet in Sweden for filtering hydrodemolition water. EcoClear enables users to safely discharge blast water back into the

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

environment or recycle it accordingly. Aquajet has standardised on Qdos and APEX pumps from WMFTG since the original machine’s launch two years ago. Hydrodemolition is a technique that uses highpressure water jetting for the removal or controlled demolition of concrete. The process is proving

increasingly popular as it is 100% free of vibration, which is not only good for the operator, but for the surrounding structure. However, the process produces large quantities of waste water that must be treated for disposal or recycling. Removing sludge EcoClear works by treating the


Pumps & Valves focus

hydrodemolition water in different internal chambers, working with flocculation technology to remove the maximum amount of sludge from the water. The latest generation EcoClear offers a number of important software enhancements to users. Most of the new software functions relate to higher levels of automated dosing in line with flow rates and stability levels within the water. Dosing is facilitated by three Qdos chemical metering pumps. “We use a Qdos 30 to dose coagulant into the reaction tank, and a second Qdos 30 to pump neat flocculent to the reservoir, where it mixes with water to provide pre-activation,” explains Ronnie Hilmersson, Aquajet’s Research and Development Manager. “A third unit, a Qdos 60, pumps the mixed flocculent into the reaction tank. All of the pumps are controlled automatically.” Delivering flow rates that remain constant up to 7 bar, Qdos chemical metering pumps give users several advantages over diaphragm metering pumps. Not only do Qdos pumps cut chemical costs through higher accuracy metering, but simple drop-in installation eliminates the need for ancillary equipment. To ensure the correct dosage of chemicals within the EcoClear


machine, an automatic magnetic flowmeter is connected to the Qdos pumps. The purpose is to improve the settlement characteristics of suspended solids whenever chemicals are introduced to the reaction tanks. Optical turbidity sensors and pH probes continuously monitor and record water quality, ensuring that only clean water is discharged back into the environment. If the water exceeds its required limit, the feed pump automatically shuts down to prevent dirty water from escaping. To improve settlement characteristics, blast water is pumped into the inlet chamber and mixed with a flocculating agent. Carbon dioxide is automatically introduced via an internal diffuser to create micro bubbles that reduce the pH level of the blast water. Lamella clarifier Flocculated blast water passes through a lamella clarifier where the suspended solids settle, leaving solids-free water. This lamella clarifier is produced by Siltbuster and is where the primary function of EcoClear – the separation of water from sludge – takes place. “We are not a water treatment specialist per se, so we rely on supporting technologies provided by partner suppliers, such as Siltbuster and WMFTG,” says Mr Hilmersson.

Indeed, the single APEX hose pump located within EcoClear is used for pumping out the settled solid sludge from the storage hopper. APEX pumps use precision machined hose elements and optimised hose compression for flow stability. Their directcoupled drives deliver the most reliable pump design in a compact footprint. The pump rotor is supported by its own sealed bearing hub, isolating and protecting the gearbox from integral forces. Clear water EcoClear is marketed under the strapline ‘Clear water, clear conscience’, and it is easy to see why.

We use a Qdos 30 to dose coagulant into the reaction tank, and a second Qdos 30 to pump neat flocculent to the reservoir, where it mixes with water to provide preactivation,”

“In essence, dirty hydrodemolition water enters the machine, with clean water emerging at the other end where it can be discharged as groundwater or sewer water, or used as part of a closed-loop recycling process,” says Mr Hilmersson, who goes on to summarise the important role played by the WMFTG pumps in fulfilling this function. “The pumps are maintenance-free and we’ve not had any issues in the field since EcoClear machines were launched in late 2016. Qdos and APEX are good pumps and provide high levels of reliability, which is exactly what our customers need in this application.” www.wmftg.com

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article

By Fabrice Hoenig Lifecycle Services Business Development Consultant, Emerson, Europe

The benefits of Valve Condition Monitoring Unscheduled downtime is responsible for significant costs in global process industries. For example, ARC Advisory Group estimates that around $20bn, or 5% of annual production, is lost as a result of this downtime every year.

They further estimate that around 80% of those losses are preventable. It is essential to understand the condition of critical assets within the process to avoid unplanned shutdowns. The vast amount of data that is generated about equipment condition and performance offers a great opportunity to engineers, but it can be overwhelming to collect and analyse, especially in a time of decreasing workforces and expertise. Studies have shown that professionals spend around 60% of their time managing data before being able to focus on more critical, value-added work such as analysis and decision-making. The quantity of this data continues to increase with time. While new and valuable technology is responsible for creating the influx of data, properly applied technology can also provide an effective solution. Furthermore, it allows engineers to take full advantage of the information collected, generating significant Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

benefits for industry in terms of efficiency, safety and reduced costs. Valves are a critical final control component for any flowbased process and play a key role in overall availability and variability. This makes valves an essential asset requiring inclusion in any predictive maintenance-enabling condition monitoring solution. What is Valve Condition Monitoring? Valve Condition Monitoring involves the seamless collection and interpretation of valve condition data by valve diagnostics experts. Valve Condition Monitoring is an activity that can be carried out by plant personnel or a service provider. However, it is estimated that most industrial plants use less than half of their diagnostic capabilities. Expertise and technology, delivered by an expert service provider can help close the consumption gap between the functionality that is available, and the functionality that is actually utilised.

The result is that plant operators can have increased confidence in their valve health status, allowing any required work to be easily planned and carried out at a convenient, scheduled time, avoiding expensive unplanned downtime. In addition, any spare parts required can be identified and ordered in advance, which both reduces the need to keep large amounts of replacement parts in storage and avoids the problem of repairs being delayed by shortages or supply problems. The benefits of Valve Condition Monitoring Critical valve assets can have a significant impact on processes, so these are often the primary focus of a Valve Condition Monitoring solution. A malfunctioning or failing critical valve can reduce yields and efficiency and cause product contamination. It may lead to fluctuations in process flow, poor control response, or even total loss of control. There is also the risk of severe valve cavitation, asset damage, and complete unit shutdown. 36

Feature Article Condition monitoring avoids these negative impacts, safeguarding production levels and product quality. By following critical assets – the ones with the most impact on production – downtime and loss of production can be minimised, creating sizable cost savings and increases in revenues. The insights generated from monitoring supports more efficient shutdowns, turnarounds or outages (STOs), which can amplify savings. For example, it costs about $5,000 on average to pull a valve, yet in an STO where valves are maintained to a schedule rather than using data-driven decisions, around 30% of the pulled valves are found to not need repairs. Even for a small, 30-valve outage, this means Valve Condition Monitoring could result in a $45,000 savings. Often, the maintenance savings involved in one STO can cover the cost of an entire condition monitoring service contract. An extended STO can often be as costly as unplanned downtime. Valve Condition Monitoring allows STO maintenance to be planned and executed using actual valve data, making it more cost-effective and time-efficient. Also, repair parts can be ordered early, avoiding the high cost of rushed orders. The benefits of Valve Condition Monitoring, then, are clear. It identifies problems between maintenance events, and detects equipment degradation, which allows planning for necessary equipment repairs, while avoiding the costly mistake of taking the wrong assets out of the process. How Valve Condition Monitoring works The core principle of Valve Condition Monitoring can be summarised as: see, decide, act. See: Smart devices are used to collect the asset data and transmit it to valve experts that carry out the analysis. Decide: Using equipment data and decades of experience and knowledge, these valve experts will provide their insight on valve status and the likelihood of failure, making recommendations as to what actions should be taken. 37

In-service valve analysis provides additional insight that complements existing maintenance programs and provides earlier information of an impending asset failure. It is extremely uncommon for a final control asset to fail suddenly. Such failures are far more likely to be a long-term process which can be identified by detecting mechanical degradation before failure occurs. Regularly reviewing valve operation and understanding the normal operation of a valve provides a much better estimate of when degradation will reach a point where it noticeably affects control, reliability, or safety. It does not mean that 24/7 monitoring is required; instead recurrent tests and data recording are triggered for the effective tracking of all key device parameters. If urgent issues are identified during regular review of valve data, the customer will be informed quickly. On a

specified frequency a formal report is created to provide an overview of asset health, with recommended actions and expected outcomes. Act: The end-user and Emerson are able to work together to create a plan to implement the actionable recommendations. Implementing an effective Valve Condition Monitoring solution A Valve Condition Monitoring system starts with the selection of critical valves and applications. This may require expert assistance to identify the key assets, through a formal criticality analysis. Effective monitoring solutions are scalable, so it is typical to start by studying the critical valves first, then expanding coverage as requirements and budget dictate. End-users can start small and expand the service as internal business cases are proven. Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article Next, a service technician visits the site to implement the solution. This starts with a walkdown of the plant to visually inspect assets and collect valve construction information.

Emerson’s Valve Condition Monitoring enables plants to focus on strategic priorities, rather than spending valuable resources on developing in-house diagnostic expertise.

The technician will then configure the monitoring equipment, and schedule diagnostic tests to ensure accurate data is collected.

Emerson’s certified experts will help customers harness the full power of technologies that have been deployed but not fully utilised. They’ll design a secure data communication infrastructure that allows a global network of analysts to gather, study and interpret data from valves and other assets.

Following this, the monitoring period will begin. Data is collected and a first-findings report is issued. As more diagnostic data and valve performance history is collected, increasingly effective maintenance and scope-of-work plans can be made. Conclusion Production demands and ceaseless reactive maintenance make it

difficult to introduce a predictive maintenance philosophy, even though the efficiency, safety and cost benefits are clear. To create a significant business impact, existing work practices must change.

Actionable, data-driven recommendations will enable plant operators to deploy a more predictive maintenance approach, minimising cost and process variability while improving plant reliability.

Trivalve Non-Return Valves – Compact, Food Grade, Low Cost, Easy Install

Trivalve non-return valves combine the design of a Tri-clamp gasket and a nonreturn device, combining them into a single-piece, easy-to-install, in-pipe nonreturn component. Trivalve offers a compact, low-cost alternative to expensive, multi-component non-return valves that are often used in hygienic piping systems. These unique, UK-designed valves are new to the market and are currently available for purchase directly at www.trivalve. com. They are available in three sizes (1”, 1.5” & 2”) and fit into pipework designed to common industry standards such as ASME BPE &

BS4825-3. At present the valves are supplied in two magnetically susceptible, Food Grade elastomers; silicone (red) and EPDM (black) – elastomer material Certificates of Conformance are available. Trivalves are purely passive in operation and respond to the pressure / flow gradient within the pipe in a similar way to a flap-type nonreturn valve, i.e. forward flow will push the valve open, the larger the flow the greater the extent of opening and reverse flow will cause the valve to close, providing a barrier against continued flow in the reverse direction. Each Trivalve model is available with two hardness options; soft (which is approximately 60A Shore at room temperature) and hard (approximately 80A Shore). Having different hardness

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

values allows the end user to select the most suitable valve for their application. At identical flow rates a softer valve will exhibit a lower pressure drop than a hard version, because it is more easily pushed open, but the harder valve will ultimately be able to withstand a higher pressure in the reverse flow direction.

nozzles, vessel vacuum breakers and even simple pressure relief devices.

Installing or removing a Trivalve is as easy as installing or removing a Triclamp gasket. They can be installed in any orientation and, once installed, the valves are no larger than the flange in which they are fitted.

At Trivalve we’re committed to improving and developing our products and we’re always happy to discuss any potential options such as different elastomers, harder or softer grades etc. Due to the level of interest, a single-piece 1-inch dispensing nozzle is under development, which will also be a one-piece item for Triclamp fittings.

Although new to market, a broad range of potential applications exist for this novel design – we have even had enquiries about using the valves as dispensing

More information regarding Trivalve non-return valves, including data sheet downloads, is available at www.trivalve.com, or email info@trivalve.com


Pumps & Valves focus

The new Alfa Laval ThinkTop revolutionises valve sensing and control units, reengineered to meet customer needs Alfa Laval has unveiled a refreshed, rethought version of the Alfa Laval ThinkTop®, the company’s bestselling valve sensing and control unit for hygienic valves used in the dairy, food, beverage, brewery and pharmaceutical industries. The Alfa Laval ThinkTop V50 and V70, the second-generation of premium control units, have been reengineered to meet customer needs while incorporating the latest advances in technology.

“We have listened carefully to what customers want from a valve sensing and control unit,” says René Stietz, Product Management Valves & Automation, Hygienic Fluid Handling, Alfa Laval. “The changes we’ve made to the ThinkTop are highly responsive to customer needs and therefore highly relevant – for instance, faster and more intuitive setup without compromising durability and reliability.” Reengineered to meet customer needs For the first time, the rethought Alfa Laval ThinkTop offers customers fast and intuitive setup and commissioning; enhanced 360° LED visual status indication, a repositioned Gore Vent, a more compact and aesthetic design, burst seat clean functionality, and a QR code for easy online access to support materials and direct support. Fast and intuitive The new auto setup feature offers manufacturers quick, easy commissioning – up to 90% faster than the previous generation. Plus, the live setup feature coupled with true valve recognition ensures the perfect match during anyand-all setups. Adaptable and smart The new ThinkTop fits on any Alfa Laval valve, making it perfect for all retrofits. What’s more, it is smart. It features 24/7 self-diagnostics, 39

checking and remedying operations when required, and an enhanced 360° LED visual status indication so that operators can clearly see the valve status no matter where they are on the production floor. Durable and reliable The new ThinkTop is as longlasting and dependable as the first generation. However, repositioning the Gore Vent makes the ThinkTop more durable and more reliable than before, equalising the enclosure pressure in the unit while eliminating the risk of water ingress. Aesthetic design Highly practical, the new minimalist industrial exterior with its strict lines, no cover screws and uncompromising geometry is 30% more compact than the previous version yet has the same height, making the new ThinkTop suitable for tight installations. Inside one sensor target control board packed with functionality handles all valve functions and communication; no adapter is required. Burst seat cleaning Take advantage of the highly effective burst of CIP liquid during the opening moment of seat lift and seat push. These optimised valve activations drastically reduce water consumption during Cleaningin-Place and save up to 90% in cleaning agent costs.

Evolutionary thinking The Alfa Laval ThinkTop was launched in 2000 as a technological breakthrough that revolutionised hygienic valve sensing and control technology. Nearly 20 years on, Alfa Laval has now incorporated evolutionary measures to a proven workhorse, radically changing its appearance and functionality to meet customers’ changing needs and demanding requirements. The new Alfa Laval ThinkTop V50 and V70 series cover all valve requirements and are selected based on the number of solenoid valves required. The ThinkTop V50 series matches the requirements of the Alfa Laval DV-ST, butterfly, single seat and double seal valves while the ThinkTop V70 series matches the requirements of all these valves plus Alfa Laval double seat and special valves. In addition, the new Alfa Laval ThinkTop V50 and V70 meet the protection class IP66, IP67 and IP69K.

To learn more about the Alfa Laval ThinkTop V50 and V70, visit www.alfalaval.com/ thinktop. Watch these videos to discover even more... See how the new ThinkTop® is intuitive and fast to set up.

See how the new ThinkTop® is smart and adaptable to all our valves.

For more information, contact: René Stietz Product Portfolio Manager, PM Valves and Automation, Alfa Laval Kolding A/S Phone: +45 289 54305 E-mail: rene.stietz@alfalaval.com

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article

By Brian Tait, Head of Pumps Division at Houghton International

The positive impact of

adopting condition monitoring for your pump Rotating equipment such as pumps and motors can be a costly asset, they are not immune to failure and can unexpectedly break down at any time if not properly maintained. When things are running smoothly, it is easy to overlook common maintenance tasks and justify that it is not worth the time to regularly inspect and replace parts. In spite of this, the failure of such critical assets must be mitigated if not eliminated because it often impacts safety, regulatory compliance, operational throughput or cost. Therefore, it is vital to ensure that such equipment has a programme of maintenance to ensure the longevity of the pump. By adopting a maintenance programme for a critical pump for instance, a business can prevent costly downtime and improve performance. A good maintenance programme will help identify a problem in its infancy stage, allowing you to put a plan in place to do the repair during your next shutdown period. It also lets you maintain pumping capacity to ensure the pump is running as efficiently as possible and reduce future costs by prolonging the life of the pump. A detailed record of preventive maintenance performed and required repairs should be kept, helping diagnose problems and to minimise any future equipment downtime. Routine preventative maintenance practices should include the

monitoring of bearing temperature, vibration, bearing lubrication, amps (power) readings, suction and delivery pressures. These readings and figures will help identify mechanical and hydraulic problems in the early stages. By comparing them to the test and commissioning data, you can set a predetermined level of internal wear which is acceptable to the process and the pump, to use as the basis of your maintenance plan. It is also worth noting that during the annual assessment of a pump’s performance, any changes in the benchmarks should be recorded and used in determining the level of maintenance that may be required to get the pump back to operating at its Best Efficiency Point (BEP).

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

When planning the maintenance of a pump as part of a predictive maintenance programme, it is worth considering condition monitoring. Condition monitoring is performed to show the pump decreasing in performance, as opposed to predefined scheduled intervals. It is a maintenance approach that monitors the actual condition of a pump to decide what maintenance needs to be done on certain pump components when the set level is reached. Other benefits to adopting this maintenance approach is that it is performed while the pump is running which reduces the disruption to normal operations, reduces the cost of pump failures thus increasing reliability and

minimises the overall time spent on maintenance due an ad-hoc approach. Also, this method will identify when the pump is running left of the BEP and therefore running less efficient. Another reason to consider condition monitoring is because when it is carried out on the pump, data readings can be digitally stored reducing the need for manual input via the probe fixed on the bearing housing in the pump which is connected to the computer. When performed, condition monitoring will show signs of decreasing performance, increasing vibration and temperature variation. Brian Tait, Head of Pumps Division at Houghton International, commented: 40

Feature Article “There are many different types of condition-based monitoring services that can be carried out on pumps. By monitoring vibration, temperature, flow, head both suction and delivery will allow planned preventative maintenance to rectify the problem prior to the machine failing.” Techniques such as vibration analysis, probably the most widely applied method of condition monitoring for rotating machines, can help detect many serious problems at an early stage, allowing maintenance engineers to undertake remedial work at a time that suits. All rotating electromechanical equipment exhibit a varying degree of vibration but by utilising a vibration sensor, you can detect the how excessive the vibration is. The amount of vibration depends on a number of factors – the exciting force; closeness of frequency of these exciting forces is to structural resonances or their multiples (harmonics); and the restraints the pump structure imposes to vibration. Vibration can be measured in three basic quantities: displacement, velocity, and acceleration and should be measured when the pump is at its normal steady state operating condition. It is a nonintrusive, fast response, preventative maintenance solution, designed to locate a potential problem and rectify it before it causes further damage to the machinery. It would be carried out at the time the pump is originally commissioned and at every shutdown period at a minimum. A probe fitted and installed correctly to the pump will signal issues identified during operation and trigger an alert when it hits a predetermined level, at which point it would 41

be time to diagnose the problem. Failure to do so will cause the probe to go past the threshold level and cause the pump to cut out causing a trip in the system. Laser alignment is another key part of the overall condition monitoring process and gives you a firm printed report which is unchangeable. As with vibration analysis, laser alignment detects the smallest deviations in the shaft to give accurate warning of possible breakdowns. The correct alignment is crucial to the smooth running of rotating equipment. Pump and motor misalignment are a common problem that will cause a variety of issues including reduced bearing life, coupling defects, mechanical failure, as well as excessive vibration. Typical alignment errors are parallel misalignment, angular misalignment and combined parallel-angular misalignment. Simple to identify and resolve, the correct alignment of machinery couplings is crucial to prolonging the life of a pump and motor. Oil and lubrication analysis on the other hand is one of the easiest and most effective condition monitoring tools to identify the condition of a machine. By analysing the results and identifying any changes, any corrective actions and ongoing maintenance can be carried out as required. Trending particle counts can be an early sign of bearing and seal wear long before vibration analysis can be effective. Oil and lubrication analysis is a simple condition monitoring technique that can underline anything from standard particle counts to viscosity changes and instruct you when oil and lubricants in a pump and motor ought to be replaced.

Brian Tait added: “I remember a problem with a stripper circulation pump at the Wilton site for DuPont quite a few years back. This particular pump was critical to the production at the plant and responsible for pumping acidic acid at approx. 240 ºC. For years, a shutdown took place approximately every six months because the white metal bearings in the pump would be completely wiped which in turn would cause the double mechanical seal to leak and wear of internal clearances. This would require the pump to be removed and repaired and a spare pump put into production, which was costly to the business. “To improve operational throughput and reduce such downtimes, vibration analysis probes, temperature probes and proximity probes were fitted as part of programme of condition monitoring for the pump along with the installation of other additional modifications. A clean acid flush was fitted to the stuffing boxes, to keep the product away from the seal faces and the white metal bearings were scraped in with slightly increased clearance. “After running for the first six months, the top half bearings were removed for inspection and found to be in perfect condition. There were also no problems with mechanical seals and pump performance was similar to when it was commissioned. Due to the modifications and condition monitoring that was carried out, the pump did not come out for repair for five years and saved the company near £200k over that period.” There are however a few points to consider when planning to implement

condition-based monitoring as part of your maintenance programme. The initial investment cost of the measuring equipment and sensors as well as the subsequent installation needs to be taken into consideration and even then, on older equipment for example, you might have to make modifications to allow monitoring equipment to be retrofitted correctly. Consequently, there is also the investment in time and money of upskilling maintenance staff to ensure that they can use the condition-based monitoring equipment correctly and safely, and more importantly understanding the readings. This may mean it is only suitable in certain circumstances and an appropriate plan should be developed depending on the criticality of the pump. All things considered, the benefits of adopting a predictive maintenance system such as conditionbased monitoring has become so well accepted by many companies and industries and can prevent costly downtimes, ensure pump efficiency and reduce overhead costs. There are the costs to consider getting this maintenance system in place, however, as this form of maintenance can be carried out in tandem with a pump still in running, it is minimally disruptive to a business’ operation and if carried out correctly, can save the higher investment costs of a brand-new pump.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Pumps & Valves focus

AxFlow introduces new mixing technology to Finnish dairy products plant good look at emerging mixing technologies.

MBE 750 mixer in a new aseptic mixing/buffer tank. Valio Oy, Finland’s largest producer of dairy products has become the first company in the world to install the latest development in mixing technology from Lightnin Mixers, namely the magneticcoupled MBE Series mixer. Working with AxFlow Finland, distributor of SPX Flow Lightnin products, Valio Oy is now operating the MBE 750 mixer in a new aseptic mixing/buffer tank (Fig.1) at the company’s factory in Turenki. Owned by 16 dairy cooperatives Valio Oy is Finland’s largest food exporter (source Valio.com), its products accounting for 25% of Finland’s total food exports. As the only dairy company in the world with a heritage in Nobel prize-winning innovation, it is hardly surprising that when it came to designing and installing a replacement production line for the aseptic manufacturing of UHT-based products at its Turenki factory the company’s engineers took a

Back in 2017 it was the in-house engineering department that identified the potential of the new, yet commercially untried, Lightnin magnetic-coupled MBE mixer. Constantly looking at new technologies that can contribute to product and production improvements, the team recognised the advantages of a bottom entry, shaft and seal- free mixer for the aseptic production line. Bringing in AxFlow Finland to evaluate the potential of the new mixer was easy. As the distributor of Lightnin’s products, AxFlow had previously worked on many projects at Valio’s plants throughout the country. Aseptic production line project “The project has been undertaken to replace the existing production line for UHT products such as cooking creams, whipping cream and vanilla sauces,” explains Valio’s project engineer Juuso Pulli. A key element of the new production line is the role of the 10,000lt buffer tank between the sterilising plant and the packaging line. The buffer holds the products in continuous suspension at 1 bar over pressure and requires constant agitation of the products on their passage from the sterilisation plant to the carton filling line. The original tank was replaced by the new one. Full cleaning of the tank and mixer element has to be carried frequently in order to ensure the integrity of the products making maintenance a frequent and costly procedure.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

The magnetically agitated impeller is located within the tank on a plate welded to the tank the magnetically agitated impeller is located within the tank on a plate welded to the tank. “The attraction of the magnetic-coupled mixer that the magnetically agitated impeller is located within the tank on a plate welded to the tank (Fig.2), thereby removing the need for a shaft and sealing system”, reports Ilkka Harkonen, project sales engineer at AxFlow Finland. “The alternative was a top entry mixer which would require steam quench mechanical seals, making it very expensive and harder to control. There was also concern that the mixer would run too fast, damaging the product resulting from foaming and thickening of the creamy product.” Magnetic performance The MBE Series utilises a magnetic coupling to drive the impeller. There is no shaft that penetrates the tank or a requirement for a shaft seal, so the risk of leakage is removed and the risk of contamination reduced. It provides high torque capacity with optimum cleanability and with bottom mounted magnetic agitators is ideal for low/medium viscosity blending and solids suspension. The MBE uses

Lightnin A281 3-blade hybrid axial/ radial impellers that contain strong magnets in an open construction that maximises product flow. Controlled by a variable frequency drive the MBE Series covers a wide power range from 0.09 kW to 7.5 kW, with operating speeds between 200 and 1000rpm (Fig.3). A wide range of options including different bearings,) rings, drive and body material make this a highly flexible mixer for fluid viscosities up to 500 cP.

Controlled by a variable frequency drive the MBE Series covers a wide power range from 0.09 kW to 7.5 kW. 42

Pumps & Valves focus The mixer operates in a sequences to meet the demand of Valio’s the production process. It is a gentle, slow speed rotating blade that keeps the fluid in constant suspension so that the product is maintains is consistency right through to the packaging lines. The mixers stops automatically when the level of the product in the tank reaches a preset level. When cleaning the inside of the tank, the paddle is left in place. Everything is done automatically and the time varies according to the fluid that has been processed. The strong, oversized ceramic bearings that are lubricated by the slightly greasy product have a reduced risk of breakage and furthermore, they produce exceptional mixer stability, reliability and performance. The mixer also contributes to lower maintenance as the bearings can be replaced on site and here is not need or a spare impeller. Magnetic lifting of the impeller reduces the load on

the surface of the bearings and enables the mixer to continue running until the vessel is completely empty. This improves formulation mixing right until the last drop has left the mixer. “The rule in an aseptic line is ‘keep it as simple as possible’”, say Juuso Pulli and Timo Saarenpää. “The problems that had been experienced over years were the trigger to investigating new technology. As there were no reference sites for us to look at, so nobody with any experience of using their mixer, it was a very big step to take and a risk. We knew what the problems were with the old technology and had to weigh these up against the uncertainty of the new technology.” AxFlow, working in conjunction FS-Dynamics Finland undertook an indepth 3D modelling program of the new mixer using CFD procedures in order for the customer to evaluate the performance against the existing system. This

clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of the mixing process. Conclusions “AxFlow were very professional in respect of this project and showed a willingness to understand the processes involved in dairy products production”, continues Juuso Pulli. “Together we worked on the 3D modelling for at least a month. We found many questions and they were able to work with us in finding solutions. Making the magnetic coupling was the challenging part of the installation process. It was also a gamble for AxFlow. The whole purchasing process including the modelling and pre-processing took almost a year.” Valio Oy has high expectations for this system and is looking for the long term as opposed to short term reductions in costs. It’s the life cycle costs that are important. “We know that maintenance is much faster than the old system, but it is too early to evaluate any costs savings. There are no wearing parts with

the magnetic mixer which is why we chose this system, so maintenance and spare parts holding are reduced. It has been a high initial investment, so it is hoped that life cycle costs will achieve long terms savings,” comments Juuso Pulli. For AxFlow Finland, this project has been a great success, demonstrating its willingness to investigate, evaluate and recommend SPX Flow’s latest development in mixing technology. Being the first commercially operating Lightnin Mixers’ MBE Series in the world is a considerable accolade for AxFlow. For further information contact: Olga Krejci Halkovova Marketing and Communications Director AxFlow Holding AB Sveavaegen 151, floor 5 SE-113 46 Stockholm, Sweden Phone: +46 8 545 476 79 Mobile: +46 76 146 36 37 www.axflow.com

σ Modular approach minimises on-site time

and system costs, improves health and safety

σ Improve control and protect assets with

variable speed, minimise water hammer and linearise flow

σ Mount actuator controls locally or remotely

from the gearbox and valve for accessibility

σ Pre-build subassemblies to reduce site time σ Manage assets better and plan maintenance

with remote diagnostics.



σ Reduce data cabling costs using inbuilt


Contact AUMA to discover more...

Fieldbus capability

σ Certified ACE training for expert support

Tel: +44 (0) 1275 871141 mail@auma.co.uk www.auma.co.uk

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Pumps & Valves focus

By Ronak Shah Market research writer at Fact.MR

Key Components to Succeed at Industry 4.0 Pumps and Valves Just when the realisation hits that technology couldn’t get any better, it does get better. And the shifting paradigms from the Third Industrial Revolution to the Fourth Industrial Revolution stand as a testament to the fact. The Fourth Industrial Revolution has come a long way in the process industry and is moving just as fast, taking over drudgery and inefficiency, like any other trend with profound impact. As manufacturers begin

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

realising the potential of automation to future-proof their businesses, the sudden switch from manual to digital process does leave them overwhelmed. However, a granular approach taken to inch towards digitalisation with a component-by-component and blockby-block movement strategy can catapult the leap of manufacturers on the bandwagon, right at the time when there’s still room left for consolidation. Critically, to succeed at Industry 4.0, and to do so at scale, manufacturers

need to zoom in their focus to a minuscule level, which, as a lot of process engineers would agree, are pumps and valves. As simple as their functions may sound, these components are viable to embrace automation, and any irregularity or deformity in their structures can severely impact the efficiency, safety, and profitability of a process. That being said, pumps and valves can directly be linked to the operational performance of a manufacturing process. It, therefore, becomes crucial


Pumps & Valves focus for process engineers and manufacturers to offer a fresh eye to these components and their evolving nature to complement the automation trend. Controlling the Controllers The Valve Technology The valve technology tends to develop at an evolutionary pace rather than a revolutionary one, on account of fewer variables (i.e. material and design) to experiment with for value addition. For instance, plastic is deemed suitable for the production of valves on the scale of ideal material, since metals are associated with corrosion and cost-prohibitive nature. On similar lines, tweaking design of a gate valve can lead to the development of a butterfly valve, which offers effective opening and closing functionalities. However, the issue with the traditionallymanufactured and extant valves is that they aren’t viable for long-term use, as industrial revolution doesn’t only imply automation of equipment, but of even a microscopic component used in the development. Automation in the valve technology, though at infancy, holds enormous potential to tune the process industry to the frequency of industry 4.0. Though the proportion of automation required in the valve technology is directly linked to the appetite of end-use industry, a generic approach for the development of a valve can be to consider the leakage rate and safety implications. What Should be the ‘Valve Approach’ of Manufacturers? Since an ideal movement towards industry 4.0 narrows down to the optimum use of resources, the modern process industry requires valves that offer proven precision benefits, while simultaneously keeping a check on the labor and maintenance cost. This further increases the relevance of smart technology in the valve industry. A smart valve can eliminate hysteresis and 45

improve the response to sensitivity, which can improve efficiency and precision aspects in a manufacturing process. Besides this, a smart valve delivers various actuation options from analog to digital fieldbus interface. What’s more is that it is factory set and, hence, installation is convenient with a ‘plug and use’ design and its scope of application extend beyond merely monitoring process variables to allowing the real-time transfer of information including control instructions. With the realtime information transferred by a valve, process engineers can accurately pinpoint maintenance issues, which otherwise requires labor to maintain strict scrutiny on the process and yet have a high error probability. By utilising the smart valve technology, manufacturers can essentially drift towards ‘wireless actuators’, which eliminates a vast network of wires, and offers complete control even from remote locations. Leveraging another aspect of automation, which is simulation, process engineers can determine the MVPs of valves, and test these solutions using 3D simulation software to cut down the time and resources invested in the physical development of valves and their modifications. Pumps - Moving Beyond Just Being an Assembly Component Unlike valves, pump technology has been heralding innovation at a relatively rapid pace. One of the crucial driver propelling this advancement is its multifaceted use in numerous industries. As found by Fact.MR, the dual quest of automotive manufacturers for achieving fuel-efficiency and distinguishing their product offerings will drive innovation in automotive pumps, and their volume sales will record a CAGR of 5.3% during 20172026. On similar lines, heavy lifting done by pumps in power generation sector will drive

their adoption at a CAGR of 3.7% during 2018-2028. With the use of a pump being unavoidable to distribute media from the hub to industrial and residential areas, ensuring safety during transmission becomes crucial. However, with the well-established network of traditional pumps in the scenario, the blip of leakage never really moves away from the radar of manufacturers, which encourages them to leverage the prowess of technology. And pumps meet sensor technologies to forego drudgery and waive off high labor costs. That being said, smart pumps are developed to exceed their standard competencies to offer end-to-end monitoring and safe distribution through the use of computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis. However, only recently, manufacturers of pumps have found their interest in pumps integrated with microprocessors to develop intelligence using special software. With manufacturers expending efforts towards the development of intelligent pumps that can operate with a competency to adjust to changes without manual intervention, low error probabilities can be achieved. However, the already costprohibitive nature of pumps and additional software and sensors may make it sound extravagant for the process industry. How to Optimise the Cost of Pumps without Driving Away the Focus from Efficiency The opportunity to costreduction in a pump lies in its design. The pump manufacturing cost varies with the volume capacity, and hence, to control overhead costs, the pump diameter is to be reduced to increase the head coefficient. Besides the reduced cost through alteration in the design, process engineers can also achieve an efficient design with now-reduced diameter to develop a compact unit.

Critically, in cases where requirements are simple with minimal and specific functionalities, process engineers can seek a customised pump and save on features they can go without, in the process. However, if pumps are the last components of a fully-operative unit, retrofitting can help minimise the downtime and optimise the performance of the system. Since technologically-driven pumps can be harsh on pockets, process engineers should consider the cost saved by foregoing labor charges, and consider investing in the latest pump technology as a way to catch up with the pace of industrial revolution at an accelerated speed. How Does the Future of the Processing Industry Seem Like from Lenses of Industry 4.0? Though predictive and assistive technologies can enrich features of pumps and valves, material and design will continue to remain prominent parameters to enhance their functionalities, including the tolerance level. This fact not only puts enormous pressure on valves and pumps manufacturers to develop sustainable materials and efficient design, but the stress also extends to the technology companies to come up with components that complement the overall functionality of the equipment. Going forward, the integration of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) will become a new business norm and it will be difficult to point traditional and modern system out, with black and white clarity. With every component, including pumps and valves, of a manufacturing unit speaking for itself, process engineers will have a lot of data to analyse, which will be gathered through cloud computing. To remain competitive in the process landscape, data will play a pivotal role of an asset to help businesses be more liable towards catering to the evolving need of end users in the least possible time.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article

By Christoph Pauly Senior Press Officer at KSB


for Biofuels Production Aggressive acids, high temperatures, high-viscous media and legislation encountered in biofuels production are imposing significant requirements on pump technology. The design, materials, drives and seals used for pumps are crucial for the economic efficiency of production plants. Christoph Pauly at KSB discusses the various pump systems suitable for the most diverse fluids pumped and ambient conditions. the feedstock. Standard chemical pumps, or pumps with standard hydraulic systems designed for water applications can be used for this purpose. Both pumps function in the same way for this application and the pump type selected is mostly based on the biodiesel plant operator’s ‘background’: Operators from the chemical sector are most likely to opt for a standard chemical pump while investors with no chemical history will rather choose a lower-cost pump with standard hydraulic system for water applications.

In biodiesel production, pumps tailored to the particular requirements of the individual process stages are used. Standard water pumps or standard chemical pumps are used for handling vegetable oils, seal-less pumps for transporting the methanol, and non-clogging impeller pumps for the removal of glycerine.

Numerous biodiesel production facilities have been built in Europe over the past few years and KSB has been a key supplier, with several thousand pumps being installed. The different processes employed to produce biodiesel all involve transesterification of oils and fats. In principle, the overall process for the production of biodiesel can be divided into three stages. The Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

whole process takes place without any pressure and at low temperatures, but each stage requires pumps specifically tailored to the particular requirements of the process. Standard water pumps and standard chemical pumps In the first stage metal pumps with shaft seals are used to handle

No emissions – seal-less pumps For the second stage, special pumps are required to handle/recover methanol. In Germany this process has to comply with the German Clean Air Act (TA-Luft).Therefore, pumps used must feature a high level of tightness to prevent larger amounts of methanol or catalyst leakage to the outside. Standard chemical pumps – if provided with a double mechanical seal – may also be used at this stage, but this involves higher costs and more maintenance. Leakage can be avoided by using seal-less pumps, with mag-drive pumps being commonly employed because their concept gives the advantage of having only 46

Feature Article two static seals, which ensures a high degree of security against leakage. Pumps in duplex steel design for aggressive fluids High demands are placed, in particular, on the materials of the pumps in the purification columns section. Depending on the process, aggressive acids are used to separate water and glycerine from biodiesel with the pumps being partly exposed to pure hydrochloric acid. Special high-quality material must be used for the pumps because plain cast iron will not exhibit sufficient resistance to acids over the long term. In comparison, pumps made of cast super duplex stainless steel are resistant to even the most aggressive of fluids. The pumps installed in the corrosive environments of the purification columns section are therefore made of duplex steel. This material is resistant to all kinds of fluids containing chloride and, therefore, to hydrochloric acid. Non-clogging impeller pumps resist abrasion The third stage in the biodiesel production process, the removal of glycerine, is yet another significant challenge to the pumps’ technology. At this stage, salts with a concentration weight of 35 percent, and partly present even in crystalline form, are separated from the fluid. In order to resist the abrasion caused by the crystalline solids, non-clogging impeller pumps are used. These centrifugal pumps in closecoupled or back pull-out design are specially designed for the handling of corrosive and abrasive fluids containing slurries. If necessary, the duplex steel used for the pumps can be subjected to a subsequent heat treatment to further increase their wear resistance. Growing market for bioethanol Over the past few years there has a been a significant growth in the number of bioethanol refinery plants being built. Basically, the process can be divided into the actual ethanol production (fermentation) itself, the ethanol purification and the stillage treatment – a process which principally takes place in any brewery. 47

Several thousand KSB pumps are currently in operation worldwide in plants producing bioethanol and biodiesel. Europe’s main feedstock for bioethanol production is cereals and sugar beet which are ground and mixed with water. The mixture is then pumped to the mash columns where the fermentation takes place. At this stage, non-clogging impeller pumps are again used to ensure safe handling of the solids-laden fluid. Because of the fluid’s high viscosity, the pumps require large impeller passages and correspondingly robust bearings. Keep noise emissions low Once again standard chemical pumps are used once more for the process following fermentation. They are designed to withstand temperatures up to 180°C encountered at this stage, whereas standard water pumps can only be used up to approximately 120°C. Water plays an important role throughout the process with between 1.5 and 2 tons of water per ton of cereals is produced on average by evaporation. That is why mainly pumps with standard hydraulic systems for water applications are used. To provide for the large flow rates required for cooling, cooling water pumps are also used. These are pumps normally designed for the handling of cooling water in power plants. They deliver up to 2,800 m³ of water per hour, allowing for sufficient and fast cooling after the distillation phase. In Germany seal-less pumps with mag drives are typically used for the alcohol storage tanks as ethanol also falls under the provisions of the German Clean Air

Act (TA-Luft). Moreover, thanks to their drive concept, the seal-less pumps are particularly quiet when running, which is a great advantage given that ethanol production equipment is usually installed in the open air. With a view to applicable emission control regulations, it must therefore be ensured that noise emissions are kept low. Food approval A special characteristic in the production of bioethanol is that the plants must, at least in part, meet applicable food contact regulations. This means that the pumps also have to comply with the standards of the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA), i.e. they must be food-approved, which is why they are made of stainless steel. Another characteristic is that many operators wish to install the pumps mounted on feet made of stainless steel so that the floor underneath can safely be hosed down with water without affecting the pumps. Pump technology for the fuel of the future As developments take place that allow a wider range of biomass feedstocks to be used for biodiesel or bioethanol, new processing technologies are emerging that are a challenge to the pump industry. The high temperatures and aggressive fluids place special requirements on the materials used for the pumps, and to meet these pump manufacturers such as KSB are developing products to meet these demands. Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article

By Ronak Shah Market research writer at Fact.MR

Modern Power Production Practices to Herald Growth Opportunities for the

Liquid Ring

Vacuum Pump Market Despite the rapid infiltration of highly-efficient dry ring vacuum pumps coupled with the cost-prohibitive nature of the liquid ring vacuum pumps, the market is projected to advance at a CAGR of ~5% during 20192029. The spurt in the market growth is projected to ascend from the growing demand for liquid ring vacuum pumps from chemical and general process industries. The market majors operating in the liquid ring vacuum pump market are observed dedicating their efforts towards enhancing their portfolios by developing products with unique properties and capacities. Increasing investments in oil and gas industry, particularly in the downstream sector, ensure profitable growth opportunities for market players. However, a profound impact on the market growth is also highly likely to be exerted by the power industry. As the power industry is instigated to move away from fossil fuel-based energy production processes, towards the natural- and bio-based energy production practices, the switch will create new avenues for the adoption of the Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

liquid ring vacuum pump in this industry. All-in-all, market players can anticipate sales of liquid ring vacuum pumps tantamount to ~US$ 3.5 Bn by 2029. Efficiency and Low Water Usage - Key Competitive Parameters to Advance in the Market With regulations regarding water wastage turning stringent, end-use industries such as power, general process, and oil & gas are hard pressed to make economical use of the resource. This serves as an opportunity for manufacturers operating in the liquid ring vacuum pump landscape to differentiate their product in a way that solves a critical issue for their end users. Following the parameters of efficiency and water conservation, several market players are marching towards consolidation. For instance, the market goliath, Dekker Vacuum Technologies, announced the launch of TiTan single- and double-stage liquid ring vacuum pumps with a competency to dwindle the amount of sealing liquid by over 50%. Besides this,

the company introduced Vmax and Vmax LT systems with air and oil separators to eliminate the use of water. Partnerships with General Process Industries to Unlock Long-term Growth Opportunities The general process industries accounted for an investment tantamount to ~US$ 784 Mn in 2018, which makes it the leading end-use industry in the landscape. A quest for high productivity and output in textiles, food and beverages, pharmaceutical, sugar processing, and pulp & paper industries has been leading to a high uptake of these pumps. Also, as protocols regarding the energy-efficient manufacturing operations are likely to hardhit these industries, players of liquid ring vacuum industries feel the pressure to prevent the energy dissipation by enhancing the functionality of their products. It is, therefore, deemed profitable for market players to partner with general process industries to continue gaining revenue influx. Attractiveness of Asia Pacific Market to Grow at an 48

Feature Article

Exponential Rate Asia Pacific is expected to hold a significant market share in terms of value. The presence of key market players in the region and merger, acquisition, and collaboration activities are major factors governing the growth odyssey of the liquid ring vacuum pump market in Asia Pacific. Since liquid ring vacuum pumps are extensively used in the electric power generation industry across various applications, such as condenser exhausting, hogging, desulfurization, fly ash conveying, vacuum de-aeration, and primping, demand for pumps that align with the capacities of power plants has been increasing. Also, given the wide populace in the region, the high impact of urban sprawl, and industrialization, the requirement for power is only likely to advance in the coming years. As a result, the energy production from power plants is projected to increase significantly in Southeast Asia, India, and China, thereby creating


sales opportunities for liquid ring vacuum pumps. However, the market in Middle East & Africa is expected to witness exponential growth in the global liquid ring vacuum pump market during 20192029. The high adoption of these pumps in the well-established oil and gas industries that adhere to the water conservation regulations for oil excavation activities is likely to upkeep the steady stride of the market in MEA region. Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump Market: Vendor Insights Some of the prominent market players identified to have a significant hold on the market are Busch Vacuum Technics Inc., Dekker Vacuum Technologies Inc., Tsurumi Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Flowserve Corporation, Graham Corp, Tuthill Vacuum & Blower Systems, Atlas Copco Airpower N.V., and Gardner Denver Nash LLC. Among these, Gardner Denver Nash LLC, Flowserve Corporation,

and Atlas Copco Airpower N.V. hold a global position in the market with a collective share of ~24%. These players follow Innovation is the only constant - mantra and expend heavily in research and development activities to enrich their product portfolios. The rich experience of this batch of players stands out from their regional and local counterparts, which helps them sweep a large number of contracts from end-use industries. Prominent global players in the liquid ring vacuum pump manufacturing landscape are focusing on acquisitions, with the objective of adding new technologies to their product portfolio, improving economies of scale, and reducing operational costs. For instance, in June 2018, Busch Vacuum Pumps and Systems acquired NSB Gas Processing, a Swiss-based engineering company to improve its overseas exposure.

Key Areas for Market Players to Focus On An emerging trend in the liquid ring vacuum pump market is the increasing expansion of small- and medium-sized LRVP manufacturers, particularly in Asia Pacific, and high gains are anticipated from this region during 20192029. The liquid ring vacuum pump market of China is projected to be an opportunistic market in terms of sales, given the growing number of power plants that require eco-friendly pumps. Also, a partnership with stakeholders of the oil & gas sector to offer products that can increase the productivity of industrial processes will lead to a consolidated position in the liquid ring vacuum pump market. To add to that, collaborations coupled with technological innovations, and merger and acquisition activities will aid in expanding the right mass to grow in the landscape.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Pumps & Valves focus

A Problem Less for

Vacuum Gas Oil

When a major manufacturer of fuels and lubricants presented Borger with the challenge of an extremely difficult high temperature/ high viscosity application, the family-owned pump manufacturer saw a golden opportunity to put its OnixLine to the test. The basic requirement was for a new in-line injection pump to be used to test a new process on the manufacturer’s tank farm. The product being processed was described as ‘Vacuum Gas Oil’, so they set to work on the specification – only later to be informed that the liquid in question from the company that supplies directly to the domestic, farming and light industry markets, was waste cooking oil. “Not only did they face a tricky application”, “but the deal was to provide a pump for a six-month trial in a very short timeframe. All of this is fine, but they wanted to get it

right of course with a pump specifically for purpose. They don’t just take one off the shelf that’s the closest to the application”. For a flow of 7 m3/h, the new pump (situated outdoors) would have to deal with viscosity and discharge pressure both of 14.5 cP – at a temperature of 70C. The company proposed its OnixLine BJ 090 ATEX Fitted with Primus rotors and Mounted Thermosyphon System, which later at a key site meeting was met with the approval of the site’s engineers. “Questions were raised about the need for a double FC Seal and Thermosyphon”, “but working with this temperature and viscosity, nothing can be left to chance. This fuel and lubricants business had faced problems in the past with reliability issues from other pump manufacturers, which were always inevitable because the pumps simply weren’t designed for such an environment”.

The clients customer also required an over-pressure PRV (pressure relief valve) and by-pass, as well as ANSI 300lbs flange connections. Performance and hydrostatic testing would also have to be witnessed – and due to the coastal location of the site, increased surface protection was essential. So the customer prepared a 22kW motor OnixLine BJ090 pump with cast iron casing and a stainless-steel inner ring. The cover and axial plates were all made with hardened steel, whilst all holding brushes were made with stainless steel. Choosing the right dimension of rotors was crucial to achieving the required 16bar. Initially there was a small issue with vibration, but this it was worked closely with the customer to find the solution, which in the end was simply to move the PRV. “This installation is proving how efficiency and reliability can be achieved with

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

the right pump in applications that involve high temperatures and highly viscous products”. “OnixLine has also shown its capability at a chemical manufacturer for pumping Titanium Oxide Slurry from Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ), which increases the brightness of plastics, paper, coatings and paints. It is very difficult to pump without problems, but we’ve managed it with extremely gentle, almost pulsation-free pumping”. This was explained that for this arduous application, stainless- steel rotors are essential. The pump’s casing, liners, steal- bushes and flange connections are also in stainless steel. “The chemical firm were using a circumferential piston pump” he added, “but on top of breakdowns and downtime, the problem was made worse by the pump manufacturer’s lack of available spares, which eventually arrived – at what can only be described as a hefty price”.


Pumps & Valves focus

The required temperature for this tankto-process application was also 70C, but with a viscosity of 2000 cP and a flow of 28 m3/h. Seal-less Magnetic (Mag) drive pumps had been considered because of their non-leaking design and capability for high temperatures – but for viscous fluids, a non-starter. Durable and low-maintenance Twin Screw Pumps were also in the frame at one point, but it didn’t take a huge amount of research to see that this type of pump couldn’t deal with solid particles.

Also benefitting from a very small footprint and mountable in any plane, this was also stressed that the OnixLine has no wearing parts and is designed with MaintenanceIn-Place (MIP), requiring only simple tools for servicing. Low pulsation also came to the fore with a Borer installation earlier this year for a manufacturer of plant protection products. Handling a medium with a viscosity of up to 150,000 mPas and temperatures up to 140 °C, the OnixLine removes the ‘melt’ being formed in a thinfilm evaporator and then pumps it to a disperser.

“In all of these installations we have been able to demonstrate very clearly how far more cost-effective it is to replace, rather than continuing to pay out for repairs. Customers may be more discerning these days, but the hassle and cost of downtime is simply unnecessary when the right pump is available for the right job – including those high temperature/high viscosity applications, which until now were very problematical”.

“For such a highly viscous media application stainless-steel” rotors are essential. The medium needs to be cooled during the pumping process, so we added a heater cover for the pump so that the pump chamber maintains a constantly high temperature of the medium.


01772 323 529 • dixoneurope.co.uk • sales@dixoneurope.co.uk

The Dixon Family of Quick Release Couplings offers complete Interchanges to all major manufacturers • Sizes from 1/8” to 21/2” • Full Interchange Guide Available

©2019 Dixon Group Europe Limited



Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article

By Rens Geskus, Group Sector Business Development Manager at Watson-Marlow Fluid Technology Group

Improving Dosing Accuracy Offers ROI In Just 4 Weeks Can chemical dosing accuracy contribute to reductions in water usage, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the papermaking industry? Yes, is the answer, says Rens Geskus, Group Sector Business Development Manager at Watson-Marlow Fluid Technology Group; the secret to success is the choice of pumping technology.

Drying consumes most of the energy in the manufacturing process, and contributes 68% of the total greenhouse gas emissions for the sector. However, better performance at the dewatering stage can deliver the potential for less water to be heated and evaporated.

Process problems Papermaking uses large volumes of water, 90% of which is used for cooling and 10% as process water. To make paper, fibre is first mixed with water at the stock preparation stage of the process in order to create pulp. This step is followed by forming and dewatering stages, where vacuum is applied to drain the water. Any water that remains in the product is evaporated in the drying section, most often by gas-heated ovens or steam-heated drying cylinders. Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

To enhance the benefits that dewatering brings, additives are introduced that help increase the drainage properties of the paper fibres, while the calcium carbonate content of the raw material also has a significant influence on the dewatering process.  In order to evaluate the feasibility of this thinking, comprehensive trials took place at Huhtamaki OY, a Finnish multinational and global leader in moulded-fibre technology for food and drink packaging. Full scale industrial trials were undertaken at the company’s central research facility in the Netherlands. The lime factor At Huhtamaki, an important aspect of production is to ensure neutral pH of the paper pulp through the addition of lime. Introducing lime contributes to lower bacterial growth and decreases the 52

Feature Article

presence of fatty acids in the pulp, which in turn translates into less slime in the system and lower odour of the end product. The addition of lime also helps to counter a further issue, in that closed-loop water systems, common in paper manufacturing, struggle with a high calcium load. Water evaporates at the drying section, but calcium remains in the system, causing scale formation. Introducing lime at the wet end means that the calcium will be enclosed in the paper floc (substrate). As a result, the calcium load will be lowered as it leaves the manufacturing process via the end product. Dewatering is also enhanced, resulting in lower drying section temperatures and reduced gas consumption.   Although the benefits of adding lime are numerous, there is a caveat. Lime is challenging to work with, largely because it tends to settle, forming lumps in suspension. Diaphragm pumps, which are often used to dose lime, can cause difficulties as ancillary foot valves tend to get blocked by lime dispersion. Even after removing the foot valve and pressure-holding valve on the discharge side, diaphragm pumps do not deliver constant flow. As the accuracy of lime dosing has a significant impact on process performance and end-product quality, it is critical to select the optimal pump for the task. Qdos pump provides the solution For the trial at Huhtamaki, our Qdos 120 peristaltic chemical dosing pump was used to deliver lime prior to dewatering the paper pulp. Qdos pumps deliver accurate flow, despite changing process conditions, and do not require additional ancillaries like inlet and pressure-holding valves. This factor lowers the cost 53

of maintenance and process downtime due to clogged valves. Huhtamaki recognised the issues with diaphragm pumps some years previously, and actually participated in the development of Qdos peristaltic dosing pumps. The trial project was instigated to optimise the calcium load in its system and reduce CO2 emissions. By accurately dosing lime, Huhtamaki succeeded in achieving complete control over its pH levels. The trial proved that the dewatering stage was far more effective than it had been, resulting in an increase of 2.5% dry solid content at the entrance of the drying section. Moreover, less water required heating to 100°C for evaporation. There is a direct correlation here between the dry solid content at the entrance to the oven and the required oven temperature. By accurately metering lime to the pulp, Huhtamaki lowered the average oven temperature over the course of the trial. Four-week ROI Due to the nature of the

operation at Huhtamaki (24/7 for more than 350 days a year), the relatively modest temperature decrease had a significant impact. A lowering in oven temperature of 15°C correlates to a 3% reduction in gas consumption and, consequently, a 3% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. These outcomes equate to a reduction of 18,000kg in carbon emissions per oven, per year, delivering a return on investment in just four weeks. Additional benefits associated with the addition of lime include: higher machine throughput (estimated at 5%) due to lower equipment pollution levels; less product shrinkage thanks to lower oven temperatures; and lower product odour and odour emissions.   As can be seen, since the adoption of Qdos chemical dosing pump technology, several process enhancements have been achieved at Huhtamaki, delivering increased efficiency, improved product quality, safer maintenance and significant savings on chemical usage. Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

PREDICTIVE VALVE MAINTENANCE & DIAGNOSTICS Real-time, actionable information on the performance of your valves and equipment.

kentintrol.com/services info@kentintrol.com | +44 (0)1484 710311 KOSO Kent Introl Ltd. Armytage Road, Brighouse, West Yorkshire HD6 1QF

Downtime can be expensive in many ways, but is inevitable for most equipment. Taking the data-driven approach can help you plan maintenance work for when it’s really needed, allowing you to maximise the service life of your assets during their service. Our field engineers will use our proprietary valve diagnostics equipment to document and inspect key performance data from a process control valve. This can be done ‘on bench’, or while the valve remains in service. They will explain and interpret this data for you and give recommendations as to the maintenance strategy for the equipment. By tracking the data over a period of time they can pro-actively monitor for degradation in performance of the valves and equipment. It may also highlight more minor maintenance work that can be carried out on-site without needing to take the equipment out of service.



A poor performing control valve operating

Three tests were performed: the profile test,

on a leading European oil refinery had long

the resolution test and the sensitivity test.

term operational issues following overhauls by a third party service provider. Within three months of the valve being returned to service,

The first diagnostics testing was completed when the valve was in service and performing

problems would occur and the unit would require further maintenance.

positioner calibration was out and there were

We were approached by the client to discuss working towards a long term solution for this problematic valve - amongst other poor

badly. The Profiler confirmed that the high levels of stiction. These results validated that the valve required an overhaul and trim replacement.

performing critical valves in application.

The valve was then taken out of line and


another profile check to compare to the initial

We suggested that we visit the site to carry out control valve diagnostics and create a detailed report that would inform our long term solution. The client agreed with our proposed plan and we went on to profile the valve while in situ and temporally bypassed. The valve had been seizing in position due to a build-up of Crystalline Salt between the plug and the guide. As such, an upgraded trim design was required which mitigated the areas in which the salts could form. The Profiler confirmed the additional load generated within the trim as a result of this buildup. The process medium is highly toxic so traditional intrusive maintenance methodology wasn’t an option.

shipped to us for its upgrade. We completed on-site report, then carried out the overhaul and upgrade. This was followed by our third diagnostics test, which confirmed that the valve was now fit for purpose and ready to be reinstalled. The valve was returned to service and underwent its final diagnostics check. Now back in service the valve continues to perform perfectly with no unplanned outages. ONGOING SUPPORT Our client could see the value in our diagnostics work and continues to work with us for further projects. This in turn has boosted our credibility within the site and opened many doors for us, including kickstarting a dialogue with another major refinery.

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Feature Article

Nikita Chaurasia, Technical Writer at GM Insights

Pumps Market USD 91 Billion By 2025 Over the past few years, the global pumps market has emerged as one of the most lucrative spheres in the industrial sector. Powered by the fast-paced industrial expansion across the globe and rising investment in oil and gas exploration activities, the global pumps industry has registered appreciable momentum lately, and is endorsed by a widespread application landscape. A research report by Global Market Insights, Inc. claims that pumps market will accrue more than US $91 billion by the year 2025, in terms of revenue. Speaking of rising O&G exploration programs, recently, oil and gas giant Chevron Corporation has doubled its stake in burgeoning US oil & gas sector by announcing that it would purchase shale generator Anadarko Petroleum Corp for USD 33 Billion. This deal would make Chevron Corporation the world’s second biggest producer of crude. The new entity will produce an anticipated 3.9 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, only following publicly traded company Exxon Mobil Corporation. Undeniably, the high consumption of pumps in oil & gas extraction plants will positively influence pumps market trends in the approaching years.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Other key factors driving pumps industry share include increasing usage of pumps, owing to their lucrative advantages, across a slew of sectors like building & construction, industrial, municipal, oil & gas, and other domestic activities. Technological advancements in the construction sector owing to the massive requirement of residential and commercial infrastructure across the globe will certainly propel pumps market forecast and positively influence the product demand. For example, dewatering pumps are widely used in construction applications for the purpose of reducing the water level of construction sites, excavated areas, and sediment basin located below the groundwater level to enhance operational proficiency and abrasion resistance. Analysing the competitive terrain of pumps market The noteworthy players transforming pumps industry outlook include Gardner Denver, MultiQuip Generac, Flowserve Corp., Magnum, Xylem Inc., Gorman Rupp, Atlas Copco, Schlumberger, Baker Hughes, Shimadzu Corp., Sulzer Ltd., Grundfos, Wacker Neuson, and Ebara Corp.

Enumerated below are a few vital instances that have served to provide an impetus to the global pumps industry trends in recent times. Atlas Copco completes WEDA electric submersible dewatering pumps portfolio Atlas Copco is slated to strengthen its position in pumps market in the coming years by giving tough competition to other leading contenders. According to recent reports, Atlas Copco Power Technique has completed its WEDA electrical submersible dewatering pumps product range, with a full line of on-site pump requirements. Newly expanded ranges include WEDA S range for sludge and WEDA D range for dewatering together with the entirely new WEDA L range which is capable of handling semi-liquid slurry. The S and D series pumps are enriched with WEDA+ features, encompassing rotation control, phase failure protection, thermal switches, and a 20 meter cable. These pumps also have a phase shifter plug for three phase versions; moreover, all WEDA+ features are available for the L range pumps as an option. Also, the decreased weight of pumps makes


Feature Article

them easier to handle and transport, making them particularly attractive across the construction equipment rental market. Ebara Corporation launches new air-cooled dry vacuum pump model for general industrial users Ebara Corporation has reportedly introduced a new lightweight, small sized air-cooled dry vacuum pump Model EV-PA that creates a cleaner vacuum atmosphere in varied evacuation applications for medical equipment, analytical instruments, as well as for the coating and food industries. Such innovative, lightweight, and easy-to-manage industrial equipment contribute to the enrichment of industrial infrastructure and thus are in high demand worldwide. This product has been developed by EBARA to satisfy intricate customer requirements in the food, analysis, medical, and coating industries, by deploying the one of its kind dry vacuum pump technology. Incidentally, this technology is an outcome of its years of experience in the semiconductor industry, where the need for vacuum quality, pump maintenance, and cleanliness are stringent.


The features of the new models namely EV-PA50, EV-PA 250, and EV-PA 500 are listed below: 1. These models support a pumping speed from 50 to 500 L/min. 2. The product weighs only 9 to 21 kg, making it easily portable, and increasing its attractiveness for a broad range of applications. 3. The back current of oil or water does not occur. 4. The product has low seal replacement requirements as it uses a non-contact seal. In view of the immensely competitive business space, EBARA will continue to develop products and services that contribute to enhancing customer productivity and decreasing costs, in a bid to establish a unique position in pumps industry,

Submersible pumps market is projected to grow with a CAGR of 2.1 percent in the ensuing years due to high demand from mining applications.

Gorman-Rupp expands its line of solids-handling submersible pumps The Gorman-Rupp, a market leader in high performance pump systems, has lately introduced four new entrants SF6F, SF6E, SF4F, and SF4E as a part of the expansion of its solids-handling SF SeriesÂŽ submersible pumps. These new addons to the portfolio offer flows to

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article 1580 GPM and heads to 114 feet in HP configuration ranging from 15 to 30 horsepower. Given the single-vane impeller design of the new models, they need lower horsepower for providing enhanced flow and head. The new range of SF Series® products is now available with more than 24 models in 8”, 6”, 4”, and 3” flanged discharge sizes & horsepower configurations ranging from 3 to75 HP. This line of solids-handling submersible pumps is available in dry pit, slide rail, and construction/trash versions for deployment in most liquidextraction applications. Virtually all models belonging to SF Series® pump contain CSA C-US consent for standard applications, and CSA C-US and FM approval for hazardous sites. The Gorman-Rupp is projected to expand its pumps market share in the approaching years, on account of technological advancements and introduction of a vast array of user friendly and revolutionary products. Submersible pumps market is projected to grow with a CAGR of 2.1 percent in the ensuing years due to high demand from mining applications. To combat the most intricate construction and mining applications Xylem launches new Godwin S Series dewatering pump Xylem Inc, a world leader in water technology dedicated to resolving the most challenging water issues prevailing globally, has recently declared the launch of its latest smart pumps under its popular brand Godwin S Series. The newfangled range of Godwin CD150S Dri-Prime dewatering pump has been specifically

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

designed to counter the toughest construction and mining applications, allowing European customers to dig deeper and erect bigger. The new pump system has been completely redesigned with enhanced hydraulic efficiency, superior fuel economy, and streamlined serviceability to offer about 20 percent greater uptime, 15 percent improved fuel economy, and 40 percent less service time. The interchangeable impellers of the Godwin CD150S would empower customers to tackle a complete range of solids handling operations, while Xylem’s new generation of FST provides customers full control of the pump from anywhere on the planet. It also complies with EU Stage 5 emission standards, giving customers a more sustainable solution to intricate water challenges. The unique feature laden pump variants of Xylem Inc will fuel product demand and enhance the company’s share in pumps market. Analysing the regional landscape of pumps industry The Asia Pacific is touted to be the world leader in pumps market and is followed by Europe and North America. The Asia Pacific presently holds the biggest share of the global market and has been valued over US $36 billion. Moreover, the region is projected to demonstrate a CAGR of 3 percent over 2019 - 2025. The growth of Asia Pacific pumps market is majorly driven by factors like increasing industrialisation and building & construction activities in the region. For instance, China has recently revealed plans to construct 30 logistics hubs by the year 2020 and increase it to 150 by the year 2025. The new plan

has been jointly publicised by the nation’s fiscal planning agency, namely the National Development and Reform Commission and the Transportation Ministry of China. Emerging economies of the region such as Indonesia, China, and India are the key contributors for regional development. Also, increasing footprint of the oil and gas exploration market players in the Asia Pacific is positively impacting pumps market size. Some mature oil & gas reserves are found in India and China, and certain areas of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. At present, new oil frontiers are under development in other nations such as Myanmar and the Philippines, offering lucrative growth prospects to pumps industry contenders. European and American oil & gas titans have started ramping up their business in the Asia-Pacific, with a focus on capitalising on the region’s rapidly growing industrial arena. In addition to this, exploration of unconventional oil & gas reserves in deeper and remote waters is markedly gaining traction across the APAC belt. In a nutshell, pumps market is estimated to traverse alongside a highly lucrative growth trajectory in the approaching years, on account of burgeoning consumption across an array of industries. Given the considerable increase in LNG demand across the APAC, the oil and gas exploration end-use segment of pumps market is slated to secure sizable proceeds in the future. As per credible estimates, in 2017 Chinese LNG demand spiked by a record 8 million tonnes and is projected to further escalate in the coming years. View the full report here


Feature Article

By Nigel Stanley, CTO at TUV Rheinland

Managing in Smart Valve and

Pumping Technology

For decades, pumps and valves have been the main stay of many industrial processes, be it moving and controlling fluids, gasses or slurry. Technology may have advanced, but the core function of this basic but critical hardware has remained the same. Recently we have seen “smart” technology and the Internet of Things (IoT) permeate pumping systems with pumps that can be connected to smartphones and valves controlled remotely using mobile phone networks to provide continuous positional feedback.

normally be addressed from a functional safety point of view as part of a HAZOP study or a functional or safety case assessment during the planning and design phases of plants or systems.

Failure or poor performance of these often critical components can disrupt or degrade plants impacting production schedules and outputs. In some cases, safety critical systems will rely on valves closing or opening in a safe failure mode within a predetermined time. Pumping systems can provide crucial cooling or firefighting services, the failure of which can lead to catastrophic loss. Performance of such safety critical systems would 59

But as more and more of these systems rely on “smart” computerised control (via industrial control systems), they are impacted by cybersecurity threats that could undermine the safety and reliability of these control systems, pumps and valves. Such cyber-attacks could cause physical damage due to rapid device cycling or degradation in system performance. In extreme cases, safety critical systems could be undermined causing harm to people and environmental damage that may in turn result in regulatory fines or prosecutions.

At a first glance, smart pumps and valves may not appear to be at risk, but by virtue of their use they are often difficult to secure. Securing a pump that is physically remote and may utilise a mobile network (GSM, 3G or 4G) or VHF link to connect to a corporate industrial network can be a challenge. The simple act of blocking this radio connection could disrupt a process. Physical access to insecure USB ports on control systems or access to engineering control workstations via a remote, hacked connection can be enough to switch off or compromise a plant. Smart valve or pump technology could be used as a pivot point during a larger-scale attack, where a poorly secured smart pump could act as an entry point into other systems more interesting to an attacker. With these valves and pumps being placed on the edge of networks (often physically

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article isolated) and often not going through the same, rigorous security tests as traditional enterprise systems, it is possible to use them as the gateway or foothold into the network. By compromising a potentially insecure, unmonitored edge computer device, like a smart valve or pump, attackers could gain access to systems and data that they otherwise would not have had access to. If these devices are connected to a network, whether via mobile router, wireless or wired local area network (LAN) that, in turn, connects to a larger network, they become likely targets within the organisation for the initial attack. Hackers are already taking an interest in pumping technology and how this could be subverted. In one case, a researcher demonstrated that it was possible to reduce the flow to a pumping system remotely by partially closing a valve, thus inducing cavitation and systemic vibration. Such a degraded system performance would likely cause physical damage if left unresolved.

Another infamous example is the Stuxnet attack on Iranian nuclear facilities, which was made public in 2010 and included an attack on motor control systems in the uranium centrifuge. So, how should these smart valve and pump control systems be secured? »» Equipment manufacturers should include cybersecurity risk management as part of their product design and manufacturing processes. Remote monitoring (for, example, predictive maintenance) needs to be undertaken in a way so that cybersecurity risk isn’t increased. »» Operators should undertake a business led cybersecurity risk assessment of their plant and operational systems. There are a number of accepted methods and frameworks, but consider the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) cybersecurity framework or the IEC 62443 set of standards as a good starting point.

»» Plant operators should look at how smart pumping systems and valves can be monitored on a regular basis for cybersecurity issues. Non-invasive monitoring of industrial networks is now a possibility and there are a number of solutions available in support of this. »» Educate staff to understand cybersecurity risk and have in place a well-rehearsed cybersecurity incident response and recovery plan. In this way, when an event or incident occurs you can manage it quickly and effectively. »» Work with experienced cybersecurity experts that understand the world of industrial processing and can help take you on a journey through your cybersecurity risk. The good news is that by taking some basic cybersecurity measures a lot of the risk to smart valve and pumping systems can be addressed, allowing more time to focus on other aspects of running a profitable business.

Kalic HS and Kalic HSD Liquid Lime, approved for use in the treatment of drinking water, for pH correction, from Tarmac Buxton Lime are the ultimate alkali additives for both water and waste treatment systems. This quality assured innovative lime, is chemically stabilized and more effective at phosphate removal than caustic. It’s non-toxic and non-corrosive, safer for operators to handle compared to other liquid alkalis, such as caustic soda and has the additional benefits of being cheaper and readily available.

For further information: enquiries@tarmac.com

01298 768 444 Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019



Pumps & Valves focus

Network control for valve actuators Intelligent supervisory control and monitoring

for valve actuators and plant equipment

Reliable and comprehensive data communications are essential elements in the modern process plant. Plant managers today demand access to more information, more quickly than ever before. Process operators must have the ability for full control at all times, 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year. Maintenance managers need the information required for efficient asset management. To meet these requirements, design engineers incorporate field communication networks to enable critical plant equipment to be controlled and monitored by a Distributed Control System (DCS). The DCS often controls multiple systems that are assigned to management, operational and maintenance tasks, exchanging data about the equipment and process under their control. To assist the DCS and relieve it of some its workload, sites often use a master station. A master station provides the essential link between field devices and the site DCS or Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The latest generation of Rotork’s innovative system controls and monitors valve actuators and plant equipment. 61

The Rotork Master Station can control up to 240 actuators across three separate field networks to allow the optimum network to be used in specific plant areas. As well as being suitable for use in all industries, the Rotork Master Station now supports Modbus® RTU protocol with third party device integration and Pakscan™ Classic, Rotork’s own standard two-wire loop system, which has more than 170,000 existing devices installed in networks around the world.

through a hot standby configuration. This function allows a replica unit to assume control of the network in the event of an error in the primary unit. All network communications are also secured with fault tolerance, allowing for plant operation to continue even if a fault occurs. Through continuously monitoring itself, field networks and field device alarms, the Rotork Master Station is able to alert operators to the exact nature of a fault, should one occur.

It provides a high integrity link between the Distributed Control System and field devices, enabling the control and monitoring of devices including mixers, pumps and transmitters, as well as valves and actuators, through the thirdparty device connection mechanism.

Installation is low cost and simple through the use of a single twisted pair cable instead of expensive multicore cabling. Each wired control loop can operate on lengths up to 20 km without using external repeaters, further reducing labour, installation and commissioning costs. All wiring is easy to access from the front panels and either 19-inch rack or panel mounting options are available with the Rotork Master Station.

A large intuitive touch screen user interface and web pages include the same menu structure to provide quick device set up, interrogation and issue resolution. All configuration can be fully carried out using the touch screen or web interface meaning no additional software is required.

For further information please contact Rotork PLC Sarah Kellett Group Marketing Communications Manager Telephone: +44 (0) 1225 733492 Email: Sarah.Kellett@rotork.com

The Rotork Master Station includes many other features to enable efficient management of plant assets connected to a network. Multiple host connectivity is included and multiple databases allow the Rotork Master Station to maximise the efficiency of data transfer, enhancing asset management and predictive maintenance capabilities. The Rotork Master Station is available with built-in redundancy support

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Pumps & Valves focus

The right choice for the Chemical and Pharmaceutical industries


t: 01933 674777 e: sales@cdrpumps.co.uk Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019


Pumps & Valves focus

retrofit benefits Design changes for new applications and improved durability Pumps have a hard-working life, especially in the petrochemical and oil and gas industries, where some of the fluids can be very corrosive. Specifying the most suitable materials for pump casings, impellers and seals is essential for durability in service. However, changing applications can often leave pumps ill-equipped for their new task. Retrofitting new components or upgrading materials is a cost-effective method of meeting performance and reliability expectations.

Even though most people will never see them, industrial pumps are a crucial part of everyday life. They move water for municipalities, deliver irrigation for our crops and enable large scale construction projects. Pumps provide power stations with water for cooling and steam production, ensuring electricity is generated to keep us moving. Oil, gas and chemical facilities use pumps for transportation and processing; these vital pieces of rotating equipment help keep our lives flowing. Rickie Nelson, Sales Representative North West Region for Sulzer, looks at the potential benefits that can be achieved when retrofitting pumps.

Pumps are used for a wide variety of applications, and their designs are tailored to meet individual specifications. A great amount of time and effort is invested in achieving the best possible performance and reliability from a pump design. Over time, the specifications may change, or production targets may alter, and this means that the operation of some pumps may no longer be as efficient or as effective as desired. Improving performance Increasing production levels is a common objective but all too often this requires design changes to some pumps to ensure they continue to operate efficiently. In many cases, a retrofit will offer a more cost-effective solution, especially when the alternative is to replace the complete pump. Altering the impeller design whilst retaining the outer casing offers many advantages and this can be achieved with a relatively short lead time. Recent innovations such as additive and hybrid manufacturing have led to huge time savings when creating casting moulds as well as the components themselves.

Sulzer created the custom stainlesssteel casing and installed the seals and impeller


In addition to performance upgrades, the original mechanical design can

also be modified to achieve improved reliability and an extended service life. Legacy equipment can benefit significantly from design improvements that have been fully assessed and modelled to ensure the equipment runs smoothly. Upgrading materials The materials used to create pump components are instrumental in their durability and when an application changes it may be necessary to upgrade these. For example, the operator of a gas processing plant needed to upgrade two amine pumps to have 316L stainless steel casings to reduce corrosion in the pumps. In this case, the customer wanted to retain the impeller and driveshaft and upgrade the casings. Sulzer, as the pump original equipment manufacturer (OEM) was able to create these custom casings using the original design drawings and its extensive manufacturing facilities. The new stainless-steel casings were delivered a week ahead of schedule and Sulzer also provided technical support in reassembling all of the pump components so that they could be installed and commissioned. By retaining the original dimensions, the customer was able to keep the stock of pump spares, such as seals, bearings and impellers, minimizing the costs associated with the retrofit project.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Pumps & Valves focus Re-engineering In fact, the pumps could have been made by any manufacturer because Sulzer’s reverse engineering expertise enables it to not only manufacture exact replica parts but also optimize them for each application. Even heavily worn or eroded components can be remade as new using hybrid engineering, which combines additive manufacturing and precision machining, to rebuild existing parts back to their original dimensions. Thanks to the latest in 3D laser scanning equipment, a new drawing for a complex object, such as a pump impeller, can be created in a matter of minutes. Better still, improvements can be made to the original design; upgrading materials, applying modern coatings or increasing efficiency by applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models to optimize performance and durability. Worldwide benefits Retrofit improvements offer advantages to many different industries and is important that those delivering the projects have an in-depth knowledge of the industry and the application. This should be supported by extensive design and manufacturing capabilities to ensure optimum performance as well as local points of contact for enhanced project communication.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

The original pump casing needed to be changed due to a change in application

Of course, this can be applied not only to those pumps supported by the OEM. In situations where original designs are not available or original manufacturers no longer offer support, independent maintenance providers can deliver a valuable service. Companies, such as Sulzer, offer retrofit services that can rejuvenate legacy equipment and even develop new parts to improve performance and efficiency. With such a diverse range of pump designs, it is important to find appropriate expertise

that can deliver improvements in design through reverse engineering and precision manufacturing. For further information contact: Jennifer Cardillo Marketing and Communications Manager Sulzer Tel: +1 713 567 2706 Fax: Web: www.sulzer.com Email: jennifer.cardillo@sulzer.com


Feature Article

Inside Three Common Froth

Pumping Challenges For Mine Operators Weir Minerals offers advice for dealing with froth pumping’s key challenges, maximising pump availability and minimising maintenance in operators’ flotation circuits. To counteract declining ore grades, more and more mine operators are investing in techniques to increase the minerals reclaimed from froth pumping. However, when these techniques are deployed without making allowances for the design of the mine’s froth pumping equipment, it can result in the loss of valuable minerals and profits.


Froth pumping remains one of the most complex engineering challenges in minerals processing, as air management issues in the hopper, sump and pump itself lead to inefficient pumping, increased maintenance and even lost product. “We’ve started to notice a pattern among our customers who’re having trouble with their froth pumps,” says Les Harvey, Regional Product Manager for Slurry Pumps at Weir Minerals. “By using more flocculants and other chemicals designed to improve mineral recovery, they’re Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article exacerbating existing problems in circuit design and reducing the returns they’re looking for.” Close examination of the froth’s makeup and physical qualities is often needed to resolve issues. Ensuring operators’ froth handling equipment adheres to best design practices is an important first step in resolving problems. Maintaining pressure in the pump The key challenge in froth pumping is dealing with air in the pump itself, as it tends to naturally centrifuge into the impeller’s eye, where it builds up into an “air lock” which impedes the movement of slurry through the pump. In addition to reducing the pump’s efficiency, the air build up in the pump will reduce the flow through the pump and increase the slurry level in the suction hopper. The increased slurry level may push the pocket of air through the pump, causing surging and excessive vibration which can damage the pump bearings, impeller and shaft. “The best way to manage air in a froth pump is to invest in a froth pump with a Continuous Air Removal System (CARS), which we have in our Warman AHF, MF and LF pumps,” says Harvey. CARS allows air to move from the pump’s impeller eye to an air collection chamber in the back through a vent hole in the impeller. From that chamber, a flow inducer removes the air from the pump through a vent pipe. “It’s also important to position the pump’s discharge pipe at the top of the pump, or at a 45 degree angle as this will give air trapped at the top of the casing a way to escape the pump.” Solving problems in the sump and hopper “A persistent problem we see is when hoppers designed to meet the demands of slurry pumping are used in a froth pumping application. Slurry hoppers require turbulence to prevent the mineral content from settling, while turbulence in a froth pump prevents the air from escaping and Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

leads to blockages,” says Harvey. Tanks designed for froth pumping promote continuous circular movement, where solids and liquids are sent to the outside of the sump for further transport while air centrifuges into the centre where it can be removed. This ‘whirlpool’ movement can be encouraged by introducing the slurry from the top of the tank at a tangential angle. Conical designs, rather than those with a flat or rounded floor, further improve the flow of minerals and froth into the pump. Smooth sailing from the tank to the pump To prevent blockages, the intake pipe which links the tank to the pump should be large diameter and slope downwards towards the pump. This design allows escaped air to separate and travel back up the pipe where it can escape from the sump, rather than building up into blockages. “The shorter your intake pipe, the harder it is for blockages to build up. However, in addition to a maintenance spool and isolation valve, it’s a good idea to leave enough space for a water injection port, which is useful for flushing out any solids build up,” says Harvey. “To make maintenance easier, a dump valve can be included on the suction side of the pump, between the pump and the isolation valve. This will allow

you to drain slurry from the pump and discharge pipe system when stopping the pump for maintenance.” Understanding tenacious froths Froths are often classified as either brittle, with large air bubbles that break easily, or tenacious, where air forms tight bubbles around minerals and is difficult to separate. Froth being more tenacious than was accounted for is a frequent cause of blockages as air cannot effectively be removed. “Two things are happening in the market today. On one hand, mine operators are grinding the product much finer than before to liberate more from the waste rock. They’re also using flocculants that produce much smaller bubbles which lock up the air a lot more than brittle froths,” says Harvey. “We’re working together with customers to find ways to manage these more tenacious froths, by looking at their circuit design and dealing with areas where the air could accumulate and block the system, paying particular attention to their pumps, pipes and sumps.” Weir Minerals has extensive experience with froth pumping and our specialist engineers can help mine operators resolve issues in their flotation circuit. Tenacious froths particularly benefit from the CARS system available with our Warman® froth pumps for managing air accumulation. 66

Feature Article

By Kevin Wheeler, Managing Director WES Ltd


Dosing System The accurate, controlled delivery of chemicals is a fundamental part of many industrial and water treatment processes. For system owners though, selecting appropriate, often automated, chemical dosing equipment can present a significant challenge. WES Ltd’s Managing Director, Kevin Wheeler, explains the process.

system pressures and site conditions, is matched by the large number of original equipment manufacturers and the hundreds of product variants available.

Water and wastewater treatment, textiles, pharmaceuticals and many other industrial processes fundamentally rely on precisely controlled delivery of chemicals. However, while the requirement for dosing equipment is clear, making the right choices to specify and install the appropriate system that will deliver accurate dosing, reliability and long-term service is challenging. Part of that challenge is the scale of equipment choices available. The wide range of industries and applications with their differing output volumes,


System owners must select the right equipment for their application, site and process conditions, to achieve the required functionality at optimum CapEx and OpEx. Considering chemical dosing Alongside dosing pumps, components and accessories associated with the balance of system equipment such as storage tanks, valves, pipework, manifolds and control and instrumentation systems must also be considered. A number of key criteria must be assessed when specifying chemical dosing system components. Each application will use specific chemicals at particular concentrations, so it is important that the system is specified

to include materials that are capable of handling such chemicals in the concentrations to be used. Some materials used in storage tanks, pumps and pipes can perform adequately at low concentrations but suffer greatly when exposed to higher concentration chemicals. It is also important to consider the complete system. Even small elements with the system equipment, such as the seals and diaphragms within valves, pressure gauges and pumps, can rapidly degrade under particular conditions and thus impact reliability.

solids and the system may operate at either high or low temperatures. Some chemical reactions are exothermic or perhaps produce gas which must be accommodated. In addition, specific requirements for flow volumes and system pressures will form part of the determination of the pipework diameter, for example, and specifications of components such as tank sizes. Any pump selected must be able to generate a sufficient head of pressure for the required lift given the

Alongside chemical concentrations, other physical properties also have an impact on materials selection. In some instances, there may be very viscous liquids or suspended

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article

physical limitations of the actual site. Dosing pumps may have to be installed high above the storage tanks.

diaphragm, peristaltic and progressive cavity. Each has particular characteristics, advantages and drawbacks.

It is also necessary to evaluate environmental conditions and constraints. For instance, storage tanks may be located externally and exposed to UV, and there are often mandatory regulatory considerations associated with chemicals, such as the need for additional spill containment.

For example, basic mechanical diaphragm pumps typically offer the lowest capital purchase cost and the simplest control and installation. Such pumps use a reciprocating action to move a flexible diaphragm, pushing a known volume of chemical into the distribution pipework in a series of pulses. The diaphragm may be driven by an electrical solenoid, a stepper motor, or a mechanical linkage from a standard electric motor.

Many processes, for instance in the domestic water supply sector, require continuous operations and redundancy in chemical metering systems. Even the availability of skilled operations and maintenance personnel should be considered and accommodated at the system design stage. Chemical metering pumps At the heart of the chemical dosing system are the metering pumps that are designed to deliver precisely measured quantities of chemical. The pump extracts the chemical from its storage location and imparts sufficient pressure to transport the required volume through the distribution pipework to the required points of use. There are three broad types of metering pump,

However, while solenoid pumps produce high discharge pressures, they typically have relatively low peak flow rates and can be noisy in operation due to their rapid oscillation. Solenoid pumps in particular also tend to have a shorter operational lifespan than higher cost alternatives. Peristaltic pumps feature a rotor moving over a flexible tube which squeezes the chemical out. As there is no reciprocating motion the chemical flow is continuous while the absence of valves make peristaltic pumps more tolerant of liquids containing suspended solids or those which liberate gases such as the sodium

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

hypochlorite commonly used in water treatment. Advanced peristaltic pumps use stepper motors to produce a wide range of output capacities. Robust and easily designed for tolerance to the pumped chemical, peristaltic pumps do however produce limited discharge pressures and require periodic replacement of the pump tube. Using a helical rotor in a specially-shaped stator, progressive cavity pumps work well with slurries, viscous materials and chemical products that are sensitive to shear. But, progressive cavity pumps have a limited range of capacity adjustment and the complex geometry and requirement for extremely precise manufacturing tolerances means high capital and maintenance costs. Hydraulic diaphragm pumps are very accurate and have a long operating life as the diaphragm is supported by hydraulic fluid rather than a mechanical linkage. Diaphragm pumps are good with hard-tohandle materials such as slurries, but hydraulic diaphragm pumps are also expensive and have limited lift capacity. Such systems also have additional maintenance requirements associated with the

hydraulic components and fluid. Alongside the selection of the basic pump design, factors such as the turndown ratio must be considered too. This can vary considerably across different models and between manufacturers. In addition, system designers and owners must consider instrumentation and controls. Increasingly, chemical dosing systems are automated and controlled via a networked SCADA system via WiFi or bluetooth interface. Given the broad range of design choices and the multitude of suppliers and models available, developing a complex chemical dosing system is challenging. Developing a chemical dosing system which is optimised to the required process in terms of size, capabilities and costs places huge emphasis on making the right design choices and the need to gather independent advice of the kind provided by WES Ltd and others. With the right support, the choice of the technologies, approaches and chemical dosing solutions that best meet the unique process needs can be relatively straightforward in even the most complex and demanding applications. 68

Magnetic Separation

MAGNETIC SEPARATOR FOR LARGE PRODUCT FLOWS Automatically cleanable magnet removes metal and stainless-steel particles from powders

The automatically cleanable ‘Easy Clean flow’ magnet from Goudsmit Magnetics of Waalre recently underwent a redesign. This magnetic separator removes metal particles and weakly magnetic stainless-steel particles from powders as fine as 30 µm in the food, chemical, ceramic and plastic industries. The Easy Clean flow magnet is suitable for large product flows and distinguishes itself by the very high magnetic flux density of over 12,000 gauss at the contact surface of the bars. These bars come into direct contact with the product and have a deeply penetrating magnetic field that effectively makes powders and granulates metal-free at high flow rates. The magnet is dustproof to an overpressure of 0.5 bar and has a simple electro-pneumatic controller. The user-friendly cleaning requires 6 bar air and 24 VDC start signals. High separation yield The thick, Ø50 mm magnetic bars

provide a very high separation yield, have a deep holding field and a high flux density. This ensures that even grade 316 stainless steel particles are captured. To make sure that all particles touch the bars, a deflector is fitted. The large space between the bars results in a significant increase in capacity of the passage, which is particularly beneficial when it comes to poorly flowing powders. Automatic cleaning Cleaning takes place during a production stop. The product chute must be depressurised. The pneumatic magnetic bars simplify the cleaning process. The guide takes the magnetic bars outside the product channel, after

which the magnets in the bars are blown outwards. A plate then retains the captured metal particles, after which they fall into a collection tray. Sensors detect the position of the magnets. After cleaning, the magnets return to their original position and the product flow can be restarted. With the help of a connection box, it is possible to connect and control the magnet via the central control room. A control box with PLC is optional. Redesign The modified design is dustproof towards the outside. At the top, a cover plate with gasket ensures that no product can escape to the outside. The side of the magnet has a standard terminal box which simplifies the connection of sensors and cables. Both sides are equipped with inspection hatches for maintenance. For more information, please contact: Goudsmit Magnetics  Waalre, The Netherlands Tel.: +31 (0)40-2213283 info@goudsmitmagnets.com www.goudsmitmagnets.com


Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article Content courtesy The Timken Company, a world leader in engineered bearings and power transmission products Nigel Los, Application Engineer Specialist at Timken

What Everyone Should Know About Proper Selection, Installation and Lubrication Rolling element bearings must manage broad ranges of speed and many combinations of loads while resisting damaging environmental conditions such as extreme temperatures, dust and debris, compromised lubrication, moisture and unusual mounting conditions. With so many factors affecting bearing operation, it is important for design engineers, plant technicians and service professionals to understand bearing basics from selection and installation to lubrication. Timken has been a leader in the advancement of bearing technology for over a century with expert craftsmanship, world-class production facilities and a continuing investment in programs that ensure our products are synonymous with quality and reliability. This guide to bearing fundamentals is not intended to be comprehensive but can serve as a useful resource for those who want to improve the performance and reliability of their machines. Selecting Bearings There are many types of bearings, each having a unique internal design with inherent

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

advantages and disadvantages. All bearings consist of a cone (inner ring), cup (outer ring), rollers (rolling elements) and cage (roller retainer), with all components having different sizes and geometries based on the needs of the application. Some common bearing types include: • Tapered Roller Bearings: Rollers having tapered angles allow bearings to efficiently control a combination of radial and thrust loads. In this design, the extensions of the raceways and the tapered surfaces of the rollers come together at a common point on the axis of rotation, providing true rolling motion. • Spherical Roller Bearings: These bearings utilize two rows of barrel-shaped rollers and a cup raceway that is spherical in form to tolerate misalignment and high loads in heavy-duty equipment. Like tapered roller bearings, they can handle a combination of radial and thrust bearings. Critical stresses are often present when managing high radial loads, and spherical roller bearings can

outperform other designs where a stronger solution is needed. • Cylindrical Roller Bearings: Contoured cylindrical rollers give these bearings the ability to handle higher radial load capacity for a given size compared to other bearing types (their ability to handle thrust loads is limited, however). There are full-complement and one-, two- and four-row designs to meet various application requirements. • Thrust Bearings: Thrust bearings include ball, crossed roller, cylindrical, tapered and spherical designs for managing thrust (heavy axial loads) in industrial and automotive applications. All types have large rolling elements for maximum capacity, and for some thrust bearings, contoured rollers are used to ensure uniform, fulllength contact between the rollers and raceways under heavy loads. • Ball Bearings: Ball bearings are used extensively in auxiliary applications that have light loads and/or highspeed conditions. There are radial, thrust and angular contact ball bearings to suit


Feature Article

Table 1 – Relative operating characteristics of various bearing types

different demands as well as precision ball bearings for applications where very tight tolerances and running accuracies are required. In general, ball bearings cannot handle the higher loads rolling element bearings are designed for. Table 1 ranks different bearing types on various performance characteristics and can help you narrow down your options. A qualified friction management expert can also assist you in building an application model that identifies the most appropriate bearings for your specific challenge. The next step is to assess bearing size constraints including the bore, outside diameter (O.D.) and width. This is done by defining the minimum shaft diameter, maximum housing diameter and available width for the bearing in the application. At this point, bearings may be selected that fit within the defined size envelope. To ensure smooth operation, it is also important to evaluate known environmental conditions (e.g., ambient temperature and the cleanliness of the environment) as well as application


requirements (e.g., bearing setting, lubricant type, flange arrangements). Again, seek out an expert who can perform bearing life calculations that account for all these factors and more, and who can provide you a comprehensive analysis of your bearing requirements. As many equipment owners have learned, an optimal bearing solution can save thousands of dollars a year by avoiding frequent repairs and replacements. Installing Bearings Mounting, fitting, setting and installation procedures must be carefully followed to achieve proper bearing performance. Practices differ for different bearings, but there are many similarities that apply to all bearings. These similarities are summarized below.

Mounting Most bearings are mounted on a shaft and into a housing, wherein the shaft and housing have shoulders to back the rings. The purpose of the shoulders is to positively establish the axial location and alignment of the bearing. Figure 1 shows various types of backing shoulder designs with the conventional method using a shoulder that is machined on a shaft or in the housing. Other times, snap rings are used as the shoulder. It is essential that a shoulder be square with the bearing ring and of the right diameter to provide adequate backing of the bearing raceway. Note: When you receive a bearing shipment, do not remove products from their packaging until they are ready for mounting, so they do not become corroded or contaminated.

Figure 1 – Common backing designs

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article Fitting Generally, bearing rings mounted on a rotating shaft or in a rotating housing should have an interference fit (also known as a press fit, where the friction between two parts serves as the only means of fastening). A loose fit may allow the ring to creep or turn, leading to premature wear of the mating surface and backing shoulder that can result in damage to the bearing, shaft or housing. In most cases the stationary ring can be a loose fit to facilitate installation. Fitting practices vary according to several other factors including the precision class of the bearing, bearing configuration (e.g., single- or double-row bearings), type and direction of load (e.g., continuous or alternate rotating), operating conditions (e.g., shocks, vibrations, overloading and high speeds), shaft and housing section and material, as well as ease of mounting/dismounting and setting conditions among other considerations. Figure 2 shows roller bearing shaft and housing fit selection that conforms to accepted industry standards. The bars designated g6, h6, etc.,

represent shaft/housing diameter and tolerance ranges to achieve various fits required for different load and ring rotation conditions. Setting Often in the manufacture of bearings, it is standard practice to assemble rings and rolling elements with a specified internal clearance that compensates for the effects of interference fits and thermal expansion of bearings, shafts and housings. For some bearings, this can also provide the desired internal contact angle after mounting. Internal clearance is measured by either gauging radially or axially. Radial internal clearance (RIC) is accepted as the typical setting characteristic for most bearings because it is more directly related to bearing fits. Meanwhile, tapered roller bearings and angular contact ball bearings are the exception as setting is usually measured in the axial direction. Achieving the correct setting is important to meeting anticipated bearing operating conditions, thereby providing optimum system performance. A qualified professional can help you specify setting requirements for your bearings. Installation Cleanliness is essential for bearing installation. Always ensure that shafts are clean, free from nicks and burrs, straight and of proper diameter to avoid bearing performance issues. Adequate tools must also be used to properly fit the bearing inner rings onto the shaft and outer rings into the housing to avoid damage— consult your manufacturer or supplier about tools and kits that can facilitate fast, precise installation of bearings.

Figure 2 – Shaft and housing fit selection Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Note: When installing a new bearing, do not remove the lubricant or preservative

applied by the manufacturer. The preservatives used on almost all bearings are fully compatible with commonly used oils and other lubricants. Leaving it in place will protect the bearing from corrosion. Lubricating Bearings With so many options, it can be difficult to choose the best lubricant for your bearings. The successful use of bearing oil or grease depends on the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant as well as application and environmental conditions. At the design level, the first consideration is whether oil or grease is optimal for the application. Most bearings (roughly 80%) use grease, which in general is easier to use than oil. Bearings that are initially packed with grease require only periodic relubrication to operate efficiently. Meanwhile, in applications where heat must be carried away from the bearing or in very high-speed applications, oil must be used. There is no simple, all-inclusive guideline to follow for proper lubricant selection given the countless combinations of bearing types and operating conditions that can be experienced. It is advisable to consult your lubricant supplier or equipment/bearing maker for specific questions about lubrication needs for a certain application. Table 2 can help you understand which grease types may be optimal for your bearings (this information is not intended to replace the specifications by the equipment builder, however). Talking to an expert about grease selection is also a good time to review proper lubrication practices and ensure your employees have received appropriate training and education.


Feature Article Where to Turn While there is much to know about bearings, keeping the simple things in mind can often avoid problems that lead to downtime, delays and equipment damage in the worst-case scenarios. By understanding the basic bearing requirements of your machine, you can have a more productive conversation with an expert who is more likely to lead you to a successful outcome. Many companies offer training programs and helpful resources that can boost your knowledge of bearings and hands-on maintenance. For those wanting to continue their education, a call to your local bearing supplier is a great place to start.


Table 2 – Typical bearing lubrication scenarios

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article

By Guillermo MoralesEspejel, Principal Scientist, Research and Technology Development, at SKF

bearing life a reality check

lower operating temperatures. They also have a higher resistance to surface damage from particulate matter and they avoid the possibility of steel-to-steel surface welding. In addition, they have other useful properties such as high electrical resistance and low weight. The range of uses for hybrid bearings has expanded, partly due to the lowering of costs as manufacturing technology has advanced, but they remain a higher-priced option. Engineers considering their use need to know whether the extra cost will be justified by performance benefits.

Hybrid bearings, combining ceramic rolling elements with steel raceways, have proved superior in many applications, but how can you predict their suitability for yours? The answer is a new bearing life model that assesses and compares bearing performance in real-world conditions. Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Rating life is a key factor – although not the only consideration – when choosing bearings. Over the last 50 years and more, hybrid units have been shown to outperform and outlive all-steel bearings in many situations. For instance, they have become an obvious choice for use with high-speed machine tool spindles. Ceramic materials are particularly useful under demanding lubrication and contamination conditions. Their lower boundary-lubrication coefficient of friction enables greater efficiency when lubrication is poor, and they tend to exhibit

Conventional bearing life modelling limitations Traditionally, engineers enter information on their application’s expected loads and speeds into an equation which determines the bearing design’s rating life. The dynamic load rating (C) of a bearing principally indicates its performance in relation to sub-surface fatigue. Over millions of loading and unloading cycles, fatigue accumulates and the bearing eventually fails. For hybrid bearings however, this bearing life model’s focus on subsurface fatigue presents problems. Ceramic rolling elements are stiffer than steel ones, so they deform less under load. The result is a concentration of loading over a smaller area, which increases stress and


Feature Article

accelerates sub-surface fatigue. This can give an unfavourable impression which is often at odds with evidence of hybrid bearing performance in the field. SKF’s real-world experience shows that most bearing failures in service are actually due to problems at the surface rather than in the body of the material. This is true for both steel and hybrid bearings. Damage caused by poor lubrication or by contamination is usually the root cause. Modern standards such as ISO 281 attempt to accommodate these effects with correction factors but they still fail to reflect the real-life behaviour of bearings. The new approach To address these calculation deficiencies, a team at SKF was assembled in 2012 to develop a new model. The aim was to build on the existing sub-surface fatigue model but also embrace modelling for failure at the surface and use data from endurance tests. The team’s research has drawn on decades of experience in materials science and tribology – the science of interacting surfaces in relative motion. Every aspect of the behaviour of bearing surfaces has been studied in detail, from their friction characteristics to the way they are indented by dirt particles under load.


Generating the data required to calibrate and validate the model involved testing hundreds of bearings, including both all-steel and hybrid types. Operating life was measured over a wide range of loads and surface conditions, and for bearings in poorly lubricated or contaminated conditions. To build behaviour curves, around 30 bearings needed to be tested for each point – with several of them failing in each case. The outcome of this work, in 2018, was a new Generalised Bearing Life Model for hybrid bearings. It has since been tested and approved by a distinguished group of application engineers. Prototype versions of the model were applied alongside conventional methods for bearing life estimation and outputs were compared against the engineers’ real-world project experience. Application in real life To demonstrate the kind of insight made possible by this model, SKF’s team recently applied its method to four typical real-world scenarios. Rating life for a hybrid pump bearing, lubricated by an oil bath whose diluted oil resulted in poor lubrication, was eight times longer than an equivalent steel unit. In addition, a hybrid screw compressor bearing running with contaminated lubricant was

modelled and shown to give a hundred times the rating life of a conventional steel product. Calculations for two electric motor applications were also modelled, under varying loading regimes but with clean and well-lubricated conditions in both cases. Similar rating lives were indicated for hybrid and steel bearings. In such cases, it should be remembered that other hybrid properties – such as electrical resistance or extension of grease life – may still justify the price difference. A version of the model has been incorporated into SKF Bearing Select – a web tool offered to customers online and through dedicated software applications. Meanwhile, SKF engineers are supporting customer projects by applying a more sophisticated version of the modelling tool. In general, bearings operating under lighter loads but with problems of poor lubrication or contamination are good candidates for replacement with hybrid alternatives. If loads are heavy but the bearing’s environment is clean and well-lubricated, steel’s resistance to sub-surface fatigue may have the advantage. Whatever the situation, the new model will not only identify the option with longer life but will quantify the difference.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019


BRAMMER BUCK & HICKMAN WINS CONTRACT WITH GAS TURBINE ENGINE COMPANY A substantial new contract with Trac Precision Machining Ltd., for the supply of tools and consumables, and other associated products, has been awarded to Brammer Buck & Hickman, one of the UK’s leading suppliers of industrial maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) products and services.   Trac Precision Machining is part Chromalloy, which delivers innovative solutions designed to reduce manufacturing and operating expenses and extend the life of gas turbine engines.  It works with OEMs, commercial airlines, the military, plus oil, gas and power companies.   The new contract awarded to Brammer Buck & Hickman covers Trac Precision Machining’s site at Crewe, with the opportunity to expand to four further UK sites.  For maximum convenience and cost-efficiency, the cutting tools, consumables, abrasive

belts and PPE products are being dispensed at the site via nine Invend™ vending machines. Invend™ provides 24/7 availability of the right industrial consumables at the point where they are needed, delivering up to 40% savings on consumption and improvements in productivity as staff no longer need to visit stores to restock.    As part of the Invend™ service, Brammer Buck & Hickman supplied the industrial tool and PPE vending machines, software and the initial stock fill, as well as ongoing monitoring of re-order levels and automatic restocking when required.   Chris Lowe, Procurement Manager at Trac Precision Machining,

comments: “Brammer Buck & Hickman are a key integrated service provider to Trac Crewe & Chromalloy Alfreton. Although the relationship is still in its infancy, the level of support & transparency has enabled both sites to increase efficiencies, and reduce down time.”    For more information, please go to www.bbh-rubix.com

ESAB launches metal cored welding wire with very low diffusible hydrogen for high-strength steels ESAB, a world leader in welding and cutting technologies, is launching Coreweld 69 LT H4, a metal-cored welding wire for high-strength steels. Benefiting from very low diffusible hydrogen, this new wire achieves a yield strength of 690 MPa or greater and excellent sub-zero toughness down to -60°C. Suitable for manual, mechanised or robotic welding, Coreweld 69 LT H4 performs extremely well when fabricating components for applications such as cranes and lifting equipment, mobile machinery, chassis and bodywork for commercial vehicles, load handling equipment, hoppers and containers. A key advantage of Coreweld 69 LT H4 is its very low diffusible hydrogen, which is vital for avoiding hydrogen-induced cold cracking.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Indeed, this new consumable meets the requirements of AWS H4 and EN ISO H5, even after exposure to high temperatures and humidity. The wire is also CE marked to indicate its compliance with EN ISO 18276-A: T 69 6 Mn2NiMo M M 2 H5.

in wire diameters of 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6 mm; customers can order 16 kg wire baskets or Marathon Pac™ bulk packs. For more information, visit www.esab.com

In common with other ESAB metalcored wires, Coreweld 69 LT H4 is characterised by smooth arc transfer, resulting in minimal spatter and silica on the weld surface, as well as a wide arc that reduces the risk of defects caused by a lack of fusion. Coreweld 69 LT H4 is suitable for spray arc transfer welding in downhand PA and PB positions using an argon/CO2 gas mixture with 5-15% CO2. ESAB Coreweld 69 LT H4 is available from stock or to order



Bearing solutions and dynamic motion systems for robot-based automation Industrial robots have established themselves in the competition for efficient automation solutions for a wide variety of handling and machining tasks. This development has been accelerated by increasing quantities and the associated fall in purchasing costs and by technical progress with regards to rigidities and possible loads. Articulated arm bearing supports play a decisive role in the load carrying capacity, dynamics and precision of robots. Schaeffler offers solutions for each of the six axes with their specific requirements.

Articulated arm bearings for robots: Schaeffler offers solutions for each of the six axes with their specific requirements.

INA XSU-series crossed roller bearings: ideal for narrow design envelopes due to their high load carrying capacity and rigidity with a small bearing crosssection


Swivel joint bearing supports for articulated robots The lower swivel bearing support for axes 1 and 2 of a robot supports the entire weight and the largest tilting moments. What makes things even more difficult is the fact that tilting in the bearing support is multiplied as far as the tool centre point (TCP). This is where

Schaeffler offers INA ZKLDF double-row axial angular contact ball bearings with very high tilting rigidity, which are well known in the machine tool sector. Their solid bearing rings are screw mounted to the adjacent construction.

be very flexibly integrated into the available installation space between the robot’s gearbox and the housing due to their small cross-section and diameter graduations.

Axes 3 and 4 still support a significant proportion of the robot arm’s weight, however, the installation space in the joint is already significantly restricted. This calls for a high load carrying capacity and rigidity with a small bearing cross-section. Schaeffler’s engineers have optimised INA XSU-series crossed roller bearings specifically for the increasing requirements in this application. A particularly high filling level with cylindrical rollers ensures increased rigidity.

A so-called 7th axis is frequently used to extend the working area of industrial robots or enable them to move greater distances. The robot is moved between individual machine tools or stations and the magazines and palette systems on a table of the linear axis. The INA KUSE six-row monorail guidance system in X-life quality is particularly suitable as a guidance system here. It offers a very high nominal rating life, reduced lubricant requirement, and extremely small stroke pulsation. In a compressive direction, this six-row monorail guidance system has a particularly high load carrying capacity and is therefore ideally suited for combination with direct drives. In order to maximise the availability of the entire production cell with X machine tools, Schaeffler offers DuraSense as an option for its monorail guidance systems. DuraSense’s integrated sensor system enables automated lubrication or monitoring of the lubrication condition of carriages. The risk of unplanned downtime due to wear and

Double row bearing supports, particularly those in an ‘O’ arrangement, offer major potential for bearing supports with very high tilting rigidity due to their very large support distance and small axial design envelope. FAG SGL-series angular contact roller bearings also have a very rigid roller contact. Schaeffler recommends a combination of both types, particularly for axes 5 and 6 with small articulated arm diameters. SGL bearings can

The 7th axis – the extended arm

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019


FAG SGL-series angular contact roller bearings have a very rigid roller contact and can be flexibly integrated into the available installation space between the robot’s gearbox and the housing due to their small crosssection and diameter graduations.

lubrication failure is significantly reduced. Cartesian systems: costeffective, dynamic and precise It is not always necessary to use an expensive robot for handling workpieces and tools. These tasks can still be frequently performed by cartesian axis systems, which are constructed from linear actuators that can be combined. Schaeffler offers an extensive range of INA linear actuators and driven linear units in this field. Linear actuators with special functions expand the range of applications. MTKUSE telescopic actuators, for example, allow a handover in areas behind protective barriers or in separate workspaces. For more information contact Schaeffler on info. uk@schaeffler.com, or visit www.schaeffler.co.uk

INA linear actuators and driven linear units can be combined from an extensive range to form cartesian systems. INA MTKUSE telescopic actuators are suitable for transport and handling tasks in workpiece and tool magazines, for example.

New NSK deep groove ball bearings for electric motors boost energy efficiency The new NSK deep groove ball bearings contribute to the energyefficient operation of electric motors

The low energy consumption of electric drives is an important target in many industrial applications, and rolling bearings can play a role in delivering this ambition. NSK demonstrates this effect with a new series of deep groove ball bearings that generates up to 80% less energy loss, a factor that has a positive effect on the energy efficiency of electric motors. Before this development, NSK conducted an intensive investigation into the parameters influencing the energy loss of bearings, drawing a number of interesting conclusions. As a result, the new bearing series uses new grease that has been specially developed for friction reduction, while the grease filling level has also been optimised. In comparison with a conventional deep groove ball bearing, the new NSK

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

high-efficiency bearings demonstrate 60% less friction when using a steel cage. If a plastic cage is used, internal friction is reduced even further, by almost 80%. As a further benefit, service life with the new grease is increased by a factor of 2.7.

For further information contact: Marie-Dominique Pilath NSK Deutschland GmbH Tel: +49 2102 4811280 E-mail: pilath-m@nsk.com www.nskeurope.com


Consultancy and Short courses for the Process Industry: Bulk solids handling technology

We support industries that are seeking to resolve process problems, develop design schemes for plant expansion, or simply improve product quality.

Consultancy services

Some of our Consultancy services include advising on: Storage and Discharge of bulk materials Pneumatic Conveying of bulk solids Spoiling of materials in storage and in transit Plant and Equipment design/redesign Ship Unloading/ quayside operations Control of plant wear Dust control Bulk Materials characterisation ATEX/DSEAR compliance Expert Witness services

• • • • • • • • • •

Short courses for Industry

We also provide a range of short courses to help delegates identify potential bulk materials handling problems and advise on how to avoid and/or overcome these issues.They fall under 4 main categories Pneumatic conveying:

storage of bulk materials:

•Pneumatic Conveying of Bulk Materials • Pneumatic Conveying System Design • Rotary Valves; Design, Selection and Operational Issues • Commissioning and Troubleshooting ‘Hand’s On’ Pneumatic Conveying Systems

general bulk materials handling:

• Storage and Discharge of Powders and Bulk Solids • Design of Equipment for Storing and Handling Bulk Materials • Biomass Handling, Feeding and Storage (can be adapted to

other materials such as waste, recycled goods, pellets)

sPecialist areas of concern:

•Overview of Particulate Handling Technology • Dust Explosions - How to demonstrate DSEAR/ATEX Compliance • Port and Terminal Operations for Bulk Cargoes Measurement of the Properties and Bulk Behaviour of Particulate Materials • Introduction to Processing Dry Solid Materials

• Caking and Lump Formation in Powders and Bulk Solids • Undesired De-blending and Separation in Processes and Equipment • Electrostatics in Powder Handling • Numerical Modelling of Solids Handling and Processing • Dust Control in Processes Powder Handling and Flow for Additive Manufacturing



Hydrogen as an energy carrier for the future Compression of water vapour saturated gases: Oil-free, dry-running compressors can ensure sustainable storage and use of “green” hydrogen

As a gaseous form of energy storage, hydrogen is playing an increasingly important role in numerous industrial applications – e.g. as an important feedstock in the chemical industry or for the CO2-free desulphurisation of diesel fuel in refineries. Hydrogen or synthesised gases represent a long-term alternative for all sectors in which natural gas, petroleum products or coal are currently being used. As a manufacturer of electrolysers for the production of green hydrogen or synthesised gas, it is the intention of Sunfire GmbH to promote such alternatives and produce electrolysers that can generate green hydrogen from steam and green electricity. For the purposes of storing and efficiently using the energy source in the long

term, Sunfire sought out two compressors and decided on using the TRZ 200 model from Mehrer Compression GmbH. This is a two-stage, oil-free compressor, which can dry-compress hydrogen saturated with water vapour by progressively separating the water vapour particles without any difficulties. Because of its compact and modular design, this compressor can also be integrated into any container. High system availability is ensured through Mehrer’s after-sales service which offers rapid delivery times. Sunfire has been using two hydrogen compressors from Mehrer at different locations since mid-2018: In Karlsruhe, the company uses the compressor at an H2 filling station for fuel cell vehicles.

In Duisburg, the compressor was integrated within the infrastructure of a research institute. “We decided on the TRZ 200 model from Mehrer, because these compressors can work with little or even no prepressure,” stated Klaus Ullrich, Head of Sales for Electrolysis at Sunfire GmbH. “In addition, the model’s low flow rate of 0-6 Nm3/h was important to us for the small demonstration units.” Individually manufactured hydrogen compressors In the run-up to the order, Mehrer’s sales team visited Sunfire’s energy specialists to determine what was required for the two different locations. A standard product can only fulfil this directly in exceptional cases. “We have extensive knowledge in this area because of our broad portfolio of hydrogen compressor solutions that can operate up to 1000 bar

at various volume flows, as well as carrying out on-site meetings so we can perfectly meet all our customers’ needs,” said Luis Tändler of Sales & Marketing at Mehrer Compression GmbH. “Particularly in the area of critical process gases – e.g. hydrogen – compressors must always be designed individually due to the varying requirements of our customers, for instance the highly fluctuating process parameters.” After coordinating all the most important information, the Mehrer team then began producing the two hydrogen compressors at their plant in Balingen/Southern Germany. All essential components were manufactured inhouse so the quality of the individual components could be guaranteed. The TRZ 200 is a two-stage, oil-free process gas machine that ensures

The TRZ 200 is a two-stage, oil-free process gas machine that ensures toxic and combustible gases are compressed without any difficulties

As a gaseous form of energy storage, hydrogen is playing an increasingly important role in numerous industrial applications. It represents a longterm alternative for all sectors in which natural gas, petroleum products or coal are currently being used

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

“We have extensive knowledge in this area because of our broad portfolio of hydrogen compressor solutions that can operate up to 1000 bar at various volume flows, as well as carrying out on-site meetings so we can perfectly meet all our customers’ needs,” said Luis Tändler of Sales & Marketing at Mehrer Compression GmbH. “Particularly in the area of critical process gases – e.g. hydrogen – compressors must always be designed individually due to the varying requirements of our customers, for instance the highly fluctuating process parameters.”



Sunfire has been using two hydrogen compressors from Mehrer at different locations since mid-2018: In Karlsruhe, the company uses the compressor at an H2 filling station for fuel cell vehicles. In Duisburg, the compressor was integrated within the infrastructure of a research institute

toxic and combustible gases are compressed without any difficulties. Like all compressors made by Mehrer, the TRZ 200 is designed for continuous operation (heavy duty) while offering a lownoise operation at the same time. Before completing the production, Mehrer subjected all gas-contacted and pressurised parts to a hydrostatic pressure test and a full performance test. The compressors were then provided with a test certificate combined with a batch number to document the guaranteed performance data. Progressive separation of water vapour saturated H2 A particular challenge in the project with Sunfire was

the high saturation of the hydrogen gas with water vapour due to the steam electrolysis process that was employed. “This is based on a solid oxide cell technology, which is a cost-effective way to produce hydrogen due to the high electrical efficiency compared to previous solutions,” explains Ullrich. “That is why it was necessary for the compressor to compress the gas while at the same time removing the water vapour particles.” To prevent the compressor from being damaged by the saturated gas, the TRZ 200 progressively separates the water particles contained within it. “This separation process creates a vortex flow due to centrifugal forces, which then allows a separation of the gas and water particles,” explains Tändler. “As a result

of the vortex, the gas-side water vapour molecules are released and discharged through automatic condensation traps. This happens both on the suction side of the compressors as well as after each compression stage.” The pressure-free hydrogen created by the electrolysis at the compressor input contains up to 10% moisture by volume and can be safely compressed using this process-reliable design of the compressor package. After-sales service with short delivery times To enable Sunfire to carry out smaller maintenance jobs on its own, Mehrer provides the efficient Mehrer Easy Maintenance (MEM) service system including the typical wear components. This includes, for example, seals or

other service parts. “Whenever this is not sufficient, we can of course continue to serve our customers within the scope of our after-sales service,” says Tändler. “Thanks to our large warehouse, a rapid delivery time is possible.” Mehrer can guarantee a system availability of at least 97 percent for all its hydrogen compressors. Further information can be obtained from Sunfire GmbH Tel.: +49 (0)351 896797-0, Fax: +49 (0)351 896797-831 E-Mail: info@sunfire.de Web: www.sunfire.de Mehrer Compression GmbH Tel.: +49 (0)7433 2605-0, Fax: +49 (0)7433 2605-41 E-Mail: sales@mehrer.de Web: www.mehrer.de

EXPERTLY PACKAGED SOLUTIONS Benefits of Fulton’s skid mounted and plant room heat transfer solutions include: · Higher productivity · Reduced construction timescales and year-round construction (not constrained by weather) · Increased build and quality assurance · Design flexibility · Minimised on-site disruption · Reduced wastage · Improved Health & Safety · Built in a controlled environment with designers and fabricators under one roof · High cost benefit against site work

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+44 (0)117 972 3322 sales@fulton.co.uk Process Industry Informer • October - 16/01/2019 November13:41 2019

Feature Article

By Dr. Alex Mardapittas, CEO of Powerstar

Counting the cost of energy-related failures in the process industry The cost of an interruption to operations as a result of an energy-related failure can be huge for any organisation to bare, especially as the number of power failures is predicted to increase. For the process sector, in particular, the need to protect against such outages is even more significant as Powerstar’s CEO Dr. Alex Mardapittas explains.

Companies often have good procedures in place for planned outages or scheduled maintenance, but for businesses reliant on a constant supply of electricity – with most process industries operating 24/7 – dealing with unexpected power outages poses a large risk and avoiding them is a crucial part of ensuring operational efficiency.

Given that any power interruption or outage in industry, be that food processing, chemical processing, pulp or paper, can leave any organisation reeling from the cost of unexpected equipment failures and damage, costly interruptions in process flow, product losses and even downtime due to personnel

being diverted for maintenance duties, the ability to respond or even negate any unplanned disruptions to operations can be extremely valuable. This is particularly pertinent when you consider that downtime cost UK manufacturers £180bn a year in 20172. Whilst, if the West Midlands alone lost power for four hours on any working day, the cost to manufacturers would be around £25 million3. Energy intensive industries Organisations within the process industry are facing ever more complex challenges from escalating energy costs to tighter budgets and the management of critical equipment throughout growing demands for sustainability, presenting the sector with issues that demand timely and effective solutions. Rising energy costs, compounded by volatile energy markets, are having a particular impact. With prices predicted to rise by as much as 50% by 20204, this is a major concern for the high consumption process industry as it can

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019


Feature Article seriously affect their ability to stay competitive. According to Gazprom Energy5, companies that process chemicals, food, non-metallic minerals, rubber, plastics and paper are amongst the top ten consumers of energy in the UK and as high energy users, such companies are likely to feel the largest impact from price rises. Advancing with Industry 4.0 Industry 4.0, with its focus on automation, connectivity, realtime data and machine learning provides the process industry with a genuine opportunity to tackle many of the challenges it currently faces with demanding supply chains. However, its evolution has also increased the need for energy reduction and improved energy resilience resulting in many organisations modernising and expanding plant equipment and the energy assets that power them. Increased reliance on electrical equipment is carving the way for proven smart energy solutions, such as voltage optimisation, energy storage and smart distribution transformers, to deliver substantial energy savings, enhanced security of supply and lower carbon emissions as factories transform. The value of voltage optimisation An established technology, like voltage optimisation (VO) (see video below), presents considerable advantages, especially as part of a wider smart energy strategy. Power from the National Grid is generally supplied at a higher than necessary voltage in UK, providing an opportunity for VO technology to deliver significant energy savings by optimising the incoming supply. By reducing the voltage to a level that is optimal for on-site equipment whilst regulating, cleaning and conditioning incoming power, significant 83

benefits will be experienced both to electrical consumption and costs. Additionally, by resolving overvoltage, it reduces the excessive strain that shortens the lifespan of electrical equipment and thus prevents the need to purchase costly replacements due to premature failure. Some VO solutions dynamically reduce and stabilise inbound fluctuating voltage profiles to provide a constant and consistent output at the correct voltage maximising the benefit and lowering consumption, costs and carbon emissions for unstable voltage profiles, which would otherwise be vulnerable to voltage dips or spikes. Whilst voltage optimisation offers its own distinctive benefits, when integrated alongside multiple smart energy solutions, such as energy storage and distribution transformers, a comprehensive energy strategy for large-scale manufacturing and processing companies can be achieved and value can be maximised. Added value of energy storage An effective way to improve power resilience is through the utilisation of leading-

edge energy storage technologies that provide full Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) capabilities. This technology has been specifically designed to ensure all critical equipment remains uninterrupted should an energy-related failure occur. This is achieved by utilising locally stored energy to support the load within milliseconds so that even sensitive equipment remains unaffected. As a bespoke solution, this technology can be manufactured to cover a full site opposed to only safeguarding specific systems, such as IT which is the case for traditional UPS systems, servers giving peace of mind across an entire facility and eliminating the risk of costly power failures. Furthermore, energy storage can be integrated with new or existing generation technologies, including solar (PV), wind, Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants or biomass solutions, enabling generation to be maximised and utilised more effectively. Transformer transformation Many process companies

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article

operate transformers onsite and understand their importance within the high voltage (HV) infrastructure. Often, transformers are energised 24/7, even when they are not being used to carry an electrical load, to ensure the sites electricity supply is safe for the operation of electrical equipment. Therefore, if they are not monitored or replaced as they age, a site can experience significant losses which adds up to inflated electricity bills. However, such problems can be easily overcome by a simple upgrade to a new transformer with a highly efficient core material, such as an amorphous alloy, and the condition of the equipment can be monitored remotely if it is manufactured with smart capabilities.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Smart distribution transformers provide essential data for processing environments, presenting valuable Grid information, conditional performance and energy efficiency reports. Capable of displaying detailed information, they can generate reports on amps, core temperature, harmonic distortion, oil analysis, phase to phase metrics voltage, power factor, real power, system kVA, system kWh to give useful insights into asset performance and operation whilst detecting opportunities for further optimisation. Such platforms give processing companies a greater understanding of their energy usage, enabling them to optimise and discover where additional savings can be made.

Importantly, they also monitor system health, identifying issues that could lead to costly downtime so that they can be addressed before failure occurs. Today’s smart energy solutions provide a wide range of benefits. Their ability to reduce consumption helps processing companies to cut energy costs; they mitigate the potential for downtime and prolong the lifespan of expensive equipment whilst enabling organisations to make significant reductions to their carbon emissions. As a result, companies can be more competitive, secure and better placed to deal with environmental regulations.


Protecting Your Plant Before

Rotech Motion Sensor’s can be used whenever information or monitoring of shaft rotation, position, direction, speed, slip etc is required! Rotech Motion Sensor’s can be used for indication, control, interlocking, protection, sequencing, alarm initiations and many more functions! Rotech Motion Sensor’s can be used wherever materials are transported or processed By conveyors, elevators, screws, mixers, etc!





RELIABILITY Web: rotechsystems.co.uk Email: sales@rotechsystems.co.uk Tel: +44 (0)151 356 2322

Monitoring the world

Control & Automation

Emerson Launches Most Advanced Industrial Wireless Network Solution Industrial networking solution combines Emerson’s expertise in industrial automation and applications with Cisco’s innovations in networking, cybersecurity and IT infrastructure Emerson is partnering with Cisco to introduce a next-generation industrial wireless networking solution that fundamentally transforms data management to improve plant productivity, reliability and safety. The new Emerson Wireless 1410S Gateway with the Cisco Catalyst® IW6300 Heavy Duty Series Access Point combines the latest in wireless technology with advanced WirelessHART® sensor technology, delivering

reliable and highly secure data, even in the harshest industrial environments.

environments, network performance and security are critical for success.

To help enable new digital transformation strategies, this industrial networking solution combines Emerson’s expertise in industrial automation and applications with Cisco’s innovations in networking, cybersecurity and IT infrastructure. Driven by the demand for greater productivity, lower maintenance costs and improved worker safety, industrial manufacturers are accelerating investment in robust IoT sensor networks combined with scalable operational analytics tools to improve organisational collaboration and decision-making. In these

This next-gen wireless access point provides enhanced wifi bandwidth necessary for real-time safety monitoring, including Emerson’s Location Awareness and wireless video. These applications enhance personnel safety practices, improve plant security and help ensure environmental compliance. A reliable and fast connection between devices and people streamlines decision-making by providing real-time analytics. It also enables a mobile workforce to virtually come together, collaborate and resolve critical issues in a timely manner.

The new wireless access point supports mobile applications that offer instant access to process control data, maintenance information and operation procedures, enabling improved plant productivity and worker safety. For more information on this solution, please visit this page.

New stoplog installation video helps clients manage river control assets ECS Engineering Services has released an informative video on how to safely install stoplogs into a watercourse, a key method for isolating water control equipment for installation and refurbishment work. The video is of particular relevance to those working on penstocks, radial weirs and sluice gates. Through carrying out major works for water boards, government

institutions and private contractors in the water sector – ECS has exceptional experience in working with water control assets of all shapes and sizes. The business has recently been awarded its ninth consecutive Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA) Gold Award in recognition of its exceptional health and safety policy implementation. The new video draws on this experience to offer concise guidance on isolating water control equipment in an effective, safe manner. The video addresses documentation, inspection requirements, minimisation of hazards and proper seating of stoplogs. Each is

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

explained in chronological order, serving as a handy checklist to ensure that stoplogs are not only installed properly and safely, but that subsequent operations on site can continue promptly and effectively. ECS also offers stoplogs as part of its comprehensive range of water control solutions. Along with steel variants, ECS also offers composite InfraCore® stoplogs manufactured from fibre reinforced polymers (FRP), which offer excellent environmental resistance, increased strength and reduced weight compared to traditional materials. For further information contact: ECS Engineering Services Ltd Clark Williamson Contracts Director Tel: +44 (0)1773 860001 Fax: +44 (0)1773 810003 Web: www.ecsengineeringservices.com Email: cwilliamson@ecseng.co.uk


Materials Handling

Konecranes launches three new lifting products Konecranes has announced the launch of three new lifting products to reinforce its comprehensive range of material handling equipment. The new products are aimed at industrial customers in a broad range of sectors, including general manufacturing, automotive and various process industries.

The S-, C- and M-series represent the next generation of Konecranes’ products, bringing new technology and innovation to areas including motor drives, rope, reeving systems, clutches and brakes to deliver safer equipment which performs better, lasts longer and delivers greater operational savings. All new S- and M-series cranes are equipped with sensors and the capability to collect and send data. Every customer purchasing an S- or M-series crane will have access to

KONECRANES’ S-SERIES The S-series overhead crane sets new standards with innovative features, including variable speed control for all movements and adaptive speed range, which adjusts the maximum lifting speed to the weight of the load for safer and more productive use, A new synthetic rope, with a revolutionary reeving arrangement, reduces wheel load impact by up to 45%. It also incorporates Konecranes’ smart features, such as ‘follow me’, ‘hook centre’ and ‘snag prevention’, which improve operational safety. The S-series also has access to the yourKONECRANES customer portal and value-added digital services, including Konecranes’ leading crane usage and operating data platform, TRUCONNECT. 87

the yourKONECRANES portal, which is a digital service for operators, technicians and management, allowing customers to take full advantage of their crane. Konecranes has a total of 20 patents, either awarded or pending, for the three new series of products. These capabilities reflect Konecranes’ investment in the growing opportunities of data. The company has established a data science laboratory in Lyon, France, as part of its continuing drive to digitalise products, services, and operations. Konecranes has 21,500 connected cranes across

the world and digital lifecycle records from over 1.1 million customer assets.

KONECRANES’ M-SERIES The M-series crane represents a new dimension in heavy lifting, featuring Konecranes’ most compact and modular heavy-duty winch. With high-performing and reliable ‘core of lifting’ components and modular design, it can easily be configured to meet the needs of various production processes. A new approach to the winch’s component layout and machinery support system also eliminates alignment errors that may occur in traditional winches. Smart features and state-of-the-art user interfaces, including ‘remote operating station’ are available to increase productivity and maximise safety.

KONECRANES’ C-SERIES ELECTRIC CHAIN HOIST The new C-series is Konecranes’ most advanced electrical chain hoist to date. Built with robust, precise and reliable ‘core of lifting’ components, the hoist now features a redesigned motor cooling system, which offers up to 50% longer runtime versus the previous generation and a brake designed for over a million operations. Safety features such as operating limit switch and safety clutch have been enhanced for improved performance and reliability.

Konecranes contact details: Konecranes Demag UK Ltd Beaumont Road Banbury OX16 1QZ

The new products feature improved component design and materials, in keeping with Konecranes’ goal of significantly reducing the environmental impact of products throughout their life span. A strong focus on component durability and predictive maintenance reflects the company’s commitment to helping customers achieve the highest lifecycle value of their equipment.

Tel.: 01295 676100 Email: sales.uk@konecranes.com Website: www.konecranes.co.uk Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Feature Article

By Bethany Morris, who writes for the Immigration Advice Service, an organisation of UK immigration lawyers.

SECTOR STILL AT RISK AS MORE ROLES ARE ADDED TO THE SHORTAGE OCCUPATION LIST review, the SOL had not been updated since 2013, therefore the recommendations are vital to ensure that the list reflects the UK’s current economy and labour market. Although a variety of roles from various sectors have been flagged up, those in the engineering sector are the most common across the board, making up to 50% of those on the list.

Despite the government announcing that 2018 would be the ‘year of engineering’, the sector is still struggling to plug the skills deficit which will need a predicted 186,000 people a year until 2024 to fill. If this target is not met, the sector risks being left with a shortage of around 1.8 million engineering and manufacturing workers by 2025. This May, the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) released its review of the Shortage Occupation List (SOL) and recommended that it be updated to include new roles throughout the engineering sector, as well as extending existing ones. Prior to this

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Although the civil and mechanical engineering sectors have been experiencing skillsshortages at a consistent rate, other sub-sectors in the industry such as process engineering appear to be struggling the most. These areas are typically filled with older workers who are close to retirement, and with a steady reduction in the number of students enrolling in engineering degrees – particularly in less popular and more specialised area -there are few adequately qualified graduates to replace them. The Institution of Mechanical Engineers believes that the failure of the education system to engage children with engineering is partly responsible for the shortage of workers too, as this has a knock-on effect on the number of students choosing to study STEM subjects at a more advanced level.

The Shortage Occupation List The Shortage Occupation List assesses the need for overseas recruitment from areas outside the European Economic Area (EEA). When a role is added on to the Shortage Occupation List the cost of visa fees are reduced (from £610 to £464 per applicant), applicants do not have to meet a minimum salary threshold to attain settled status after five years, and occupations also get priority to gain Tier 2 Visas. This ultimately makes the process easier for employers and employees alike, particularly as the Resident Labour Market Test (RLMT) which requires a job advertisement to be live for a minimum of 28 days before it can be offered to an applicant outside of the European Economic Area (EEA), can be by-passed when on the SOL. However, as Peter Finegold, iMeche’s head of education and skills has said, ‘despite contributing £1.23tn to the UK’s total turnover, the engineering industry retains a persistent skills shortage.’ The sector also relies on migrant labour to stay afloat which currently accounts for just under 10% of the engineering workforce. What has not been discussed in the MAC’s review is how the end to free-movement’s steady 88

Feature Article

flow of migrant labour will influence the landscape of the engineering sector post-Brexit. An increase in the vacancy ratio of such roles has already been observed, standing as high as 27% in the construction industry. The Centre for Economics and Business Research estimated that the engineering sector generated 25% of the UK’s total GDP in 2015, so if skills-shortages continue at the rate predicted, the recruitment deficit could prove fatal to the UK’s economy and detrimental to an industry already in crisis. Process engineers Chemical, or process engineers, are one group particularly at risk of enduring the backlash of free movement’s bitter end. Many in the sector fear that the ‘skills-based’ approach which was laid out in the


Immigration White Paper will only aggravate the worker shortage further, as only ‘skilled migrants’ will be prioritised. This may mean that those who don’t possess an adequate level of education but who wish to enrol in education in the UK that would enable them to qualify as an engineer, face being rejected. EngineeringUK discovered that the UK risks losing out on around 22,000 graduate engineers every year which are crucial for replenishing the work force. With a general estimated shortage of between 83,000 and 110,000, the future appears bleak for an industry which was formerly celebrated for its stature as a pillar of economic stability. Concerns continue to grow as the UK’s Visa System, and the associated costs with applying for certain Visas, may prove expensive and unattainable for thousands of talented

applicants. When free movement ceases in the UK, all new engineers coming from the EEA will need to meet the same criteria as applicants from outside the EEA. This will mean that the need to apply for a Work Visa, along with a Dependent Visa for any additional family members, will become compulsory. Those wishing to enter a more permanent role in the industry will then need to apply for British Citizenship and/or Indefinite Leave to Remain. Applications for British Citizenship currently stand at £1,330 and an extra £1,330 for each family member or dependent in the family unit. Costs for Indefinite Leave to Remain, or ILR, (the form of settled status needed to gain citizenship) are £2389 per applicant, with a further £2389 for each dependent. Whenever a role is listed on the Shortage Occupation

List the Work Visa application fee is reduced, but even with this, the ILR and British citizenship fees remain at full price. Whilst free movement remains intact, European process and chemical engineers are likely to apply for roles in these areas where they will be eligible to access a multitude of opportunities without restriction. The engineering sector is responsible for around half of the UK’s exports and an estimated 3.6 million jobs. The end to free movement could prove a harsh blow to the engineering sector. Although the Migration Advisory Council’s addition and extension of many roles on the Shortage Occupation List is a promising move, further action is needed to ensure the survival and growth of an industry which is a pivotal part of the UK economy.

Process Industry Informer • October - November 2019

Coming up in our December issue... IIoT

SHAPA Supplement:

Preventative Maintenance

Mixing & Blending

Temperature Control

Dust Control



Security Systems


Industry Focus: Chemical

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Process Industry Informer October 2019  

In this Issue: - Pumps & Valves Special - Functional safety and SIL analysis - Immigration Advice Service - Counting the cost of energy-rel...

Process Industry Informer October 2019  

In this Issue: - Pumps & Valves Special - Functional safety and SIL analysis - Immigration Advice Service - Counting the cost of energy-rel...

Profile for process1