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Water, Water Everywhere … A


 ork in pairs. List as many ways and places you can in W which water is used for fun or entertainment. Use a dictionary if you like. In pairs, speculate about why people generally love activities involving water.

Unit In this unit you will: •  describe a place of business

•  describe the business of water •  discuss water use and other environmental issues •  suggest alternatives •  explain reasons for and purposes of things



Grammar: the passive


Reading: inferring

A Language in context Read this description of a restaurant. Would you enjoy eating there? Why or why not?

“Inferring” means looking for the meaning behind what we hear, read, or see. By thinking carefully about what you're told in a piece of writing, you can “read between the lines.”

A Read this text about bottled water. Do you think the writer has a positive or negative opinion of Bling H2O? Why? Would you enjoy having dinner surrounded by crystal-clear water while you watch exotic fish swim by your table? Then you might be interested in the world’s first underwater restaurant “Ithaa” in the Maldives. The restaurant was built as part of a luxury resort and offers guests one of the world’s most unusual dining experiences. It was opened in April 2005; four months after much of the area had been destroyed by the December 26th tsunami. The whole restaurant had been constructed in Singapore before it was transported to the Indian Ocean. A mix of Western and Asian food is served, and be ready to be surprised because the menu is currently being updated. Naturally, a lot of the food on the menu has been taken straight out of the water!

Designer Water OK, so selling water is not a new idea, and there are lots of ways people can make money from this precious natural resource, but last week I was told about a company, Bling H2O, that’s selling one liter of water for $40.00. No, that’s not a mistake—it’s not flavored, and I am not making this up. A case of twelve 750 ml bottles sells for $419.40, and the “Baby Bling” case of twenty-four 375 ml bottles has a retail price of $480. If you’re really looking for value, they sell a case of twenty-four 16.9 oz plastic bottles for $24. Unbelievable, eh?

13  |  JUNE 30

B Notice Look back at the article and complete the table with the correct passive form for each tense. Form


Simple present passive

am/is/are + past participle

… Asian food is served …

Simple past passive

was/were + past participle

The restaurant was built …

Present progressive passive


… the menu is being updated.

Present perfect passive


… the food on the menu has been taken straight out of the water!

Past perfect passive


… the area had been destroyed …

C Practice Complete the sentences with the correct form of the passive and the verb in parentheses.

2  Diners 

  (design) by a company in New Zealand in 2004.   (serve) theme cocktails when they arrive.

3  The restaurant 

6  The windows  and sharks.

  (not affect) by the restaurant.   (build) in Singapore, it was transported to its present location.

  (rebuild) since the tsunami in 2004.

8  A complete underwater hotel 

  (construct) right now in the Middle East.

N  ow you do it Work in pairs. Read the

1  Which phrase in the text tells us that the writer is surprised that one liter of Bling H2O can sell for $40? a) that’s not a mistake b) it’s not flavored 2  What does the underlined sentence tell us about the writer’s opinion? a) He is likely to buy Bling H2O. b) He is unlikely to buy Bling H2O. 3  Who do you think might have written the text? a) the head of a city water company b) someone whose job is selling bottled water

C Vocabulary: the business of water.  Complete the statements with the correct form of these words and phrases from the text. refill  retail price  charge  shipping  profit  source  tap water  deliver

The average (1)  can (2) 

  for bottled water in stores is way too high. The amount stores   for it should be regulated.

It’s silly for people to buy bottled water if they have clean (3) 

information below about the world’s largest swimming pool. Take turns telling your partner something about it using the passive.

Built in: Algarrobo, Chile Open since: December 2007 Filled with: seawater Named: world’s largest swimming pool by Guinness Book of World Records Attracted: thousands of visitors per month since it opened

B Read the text again and answer the questions.

  (clean) every six weeks to allow guests a clear view of the fish

7  Most of the resorts near Ithaa 



T he aquarium was opening by the mayor.

Adapted from

  (give) a number of awards since it opened.

4  Experts say that up to now, ocean life  5  After the restaurant 

T he aquarium was opened by the mayor.

According to the World Health Organization, one person in six—more than one billion of our fellow human beings—has little choice but to use potentially harmful sources of water. When you consider that some people are prepared to pay $40.00 per liter for “designer” water, it really makes you wonder about people having money to burn.

no need to pay for containers and (4) 

; then there’s !

Bottled water companies should be required to give part of their (5)  city areas that don’t have a natural (6) 

  of clean water.

It’s possible that some companies just (7)  (8)  San Alfonso del Mar Resort


  to inner

  their bottles with tap water and

  it to stores to be sold for high prices.


1  Ithaa 

Watch out!

Just for fun, I thought I’d compare how many times a one liter water bottle could be refilled using tap water for the same $40.00. The city water company charges $1.86 for 748 gallons. For $40.00, you get 16,082 gallons of some of the finest water there is. And shipping is included! Right to your faucet, 24/7, water is delivered for all your household, commercial, and industrial needs, all for four gallons per penny. And any profits made by the city go right back into improving water quality.



Work in groups. Discuss whether you agree or disagree with the statements in Exercise C. 49



Language use: contributing to an online debate

Grammar: expressions of purpose

A Read this subject for an online debate. What’s your opinion on the issue?

A Language in context Read these FAQs about water. Do any facts surprise you?

Welcome to News 24/7 online. The online news service. This week, in response to last week’s news item about water poverty, we’re asking you to contribute your thoughts to the following debate:

Q: How long can humans survive without water? A: Well, not for very long! Because we need water to control all of our body’s functions, scientists estimate we can survive for only about three or four days.

“Water companies should limit the amount of water we can use in our homes.”  Monday 27 March 17:40 GMT

Q: How much water does the average person use per day? A: The average U.S. citizen uses between 80 and 100 gallons of water daily. Not surprisingly, most of that water is used for washing and flushing the toilet!

B Now read these contributions to the debate. Circle whether each writer agrees or disagrees that water companies should limit the amount of water people use.

b) disagrees

I’m amazed that the system we have hasn’t been adopted everywhere. Here in Chile, about 96% of people have metered water. That means every house has a water meter and we pay for what is used. It makes people more careful about not wasting water and it works. Otherwise a lot of people would use water without even thinking about it.

August 29, 0:11

a) agrees   b) disagrees

posted by: bebe12

Q: Are there any animals that don’t need to drink water? A: Yes, a few. The kangaroo rat, for example. So that it can survive in the desert, it gets all the water it needs from the plants it eats.

B Notice Complete each blank below with an example from the text in Exercise A. We use expressions of purpose to say why a person or thing does something.

Expression of purpose

I agree with Adrian that having water meters is a good idea. But that’s not really the issue. My feeling is that the government, in cooperation with environmental groups, should decide how much water we can use—not water companies. They’re only interested in charging as much as they can for water and maximizing their profits. And if they limit our water usage, it’s not like that water is being delivered to people who really need it, is it?

a) agrees   b) disagrees



posted by: yoda

I don’t think it’s a perfect solution to the problem of water poverty, but it is a step in the right direction. Putting limits on water consumption is a good idea. It might encourage people to make use of alternative sources of water much more, too. Our water is metered, so we use rain water as much as possible and it saves us a lot of money!

 rite your own paragraph to contribute to the debate. Mention at least one more argument to W support your opinion on the issue. Then compare your ideas in small groups.

Pronunciation: /r/ A

L isten to these words. Notice the pronunciation of the sound /r/ is the same although it is spelled in different ways. Practice saying the words in pairs.

r: resource, refill, meter, water, deliver, Thursday rr: carry, currently, arrive, surrounded wr: write, wrinkle, wrist, wrong rh: rhythm, rhino, rhyme


Now say these sentences. Listen to how you say the /r/ sound. Then listen and check.

On Thursday, Rick delivered three red water meters. Randy arrived with a broken wrist! I’m writing a rhyme about the rhythm of rain on the roof.



used to show the purpose of a thing or material


used to say why a person or animal uses or does something


so (that) + (pro)noun + clause

used to talk about purpose


in order (not) to/ so as (not) to + base form

used to talk about purpose (more formal)


for + gerund to + base form

September 2, 18:42



C Practice Complete the sentences with an appropriate expression of purpose and the verb in parentheses. There may be more than one correct answer in some sentences. Watch out! 1  We did an experiment in class  is used by plants.

  (understand) how water

2  They add a special chemical to the water in the pool 

  (keep) it clean.

I went swimming for relax.

  (avoid) getting sick in foreign countries, drink only bottled water.


4  Water therapy is great 

  (help) stressed-out people to relax.

5  Feed houseplants regularly with water 

  (they / will not die).

6  Some companies claim bottled water has health benefits  7  I use tap water  8  Try using less water 


I went swimming to relax.

  (charge) a higher retail price.

  (refill) my reusable water bottle when I go to the gym.   (wash) and 

  (cook). It makes a difference!

Now you do it Work in pairs. Discuss these questions. Use expressions of purpose.

1  How much water do you drink a day? Why? 2  Do you prefer drinking bottled water or tap water? Why? 3  How many different uses for water can you think of?


a) agrees  

posted by: adrian


August 28, 12:34

Q: Is it dangerous to drink too much water? A: Yes, very! Obviously, in order to be healthy we should drink plenty of water, but drinking too much can cause death. So as not to suffer the effects of “water intoxication,” don’t drink more than about 30 cups of water a day.


Language use: listening to an appeal by a non-profit organization A

L ook at the picture and listen to the first part of the appeal. What is the main goal of Water Watch?


L isten to a radio interview with the spokesperson for Water Watch. Complete these notes with the numbers you hear.


Speaking: suggesting alternatives When you want to help someone make a decision about something or offer them advice, you can use certain phrases to suggest different alternatives to them.

A Look at these pictures from ad campaigns for different non-profit organizations and match them to the texts. Say what environmental issue each ad aims to address.

1  Hours women can spend per day looking for water:  2  Amount of money needed by Water Watch:  3  Suggested amount of donation per household:  4  Number of volunteers who work for the charity Water Watch: 



C Vocabulary: environmental issues.  Work in pairs. Match the words and phrases in bold from the charity appeal to their correct definitions a–h. Use a dictionary if necessary.   We’re committed not just to preventing water poverty ...


  ... but also to improving hygiene, education, and the livelihoods ...


  ... because of diseases caused by water pollution.


  ... no child should die from a disease that’s easily preventable.


  Climate change has made a bad situation much worse.


  The length of droughts has been affected by rising temperatures ...


  Another season without rainfall is likely to cause a major famine.


  In areas which do experience a regular rainy season there have been floods ... a) the practice of keeping yourself, and the things around you, clean b) the process of damaging water with chemicals and other kinds of waste c) the situation of not having access to clean drinking water d) a serious illness that affects people or animals e) large amounts of water that cover areas that were dry f) a serious lack of food so that many people become sick or die g) long periods without rain h) the change that affects the world’s weather so that it is becoming warmer


In pairs, discuss which environmental issue(s) from Exercise C exist in your country and where. What do you think the government should do to help? Do you think there are things that individuals or groups can do?



Humans can’t survive without water. Or with too much. To help fund research into the effects of climate change, call

1-800-CLIMATE or 1-800-254-6283


In order to prevent water pollution/ disease/drought, etc., I think the government should … Individuals can donate money/ volunteer so that … 52



keep Said and his family alive. With your help it still can be. A donation to Food for Thought of just $5 per month could help prevent famine in Africa.

to give what you can.

How to say it In some parts of the country, there are often floods that …

This farmland was used to

You wouldn’t give this water to a child to drink. But millions of people worldwide have to … Please give generously to support Water Aid and help prevent the spread of diseases caused by water pollution.

L isten to this discussion about helping one of the non-profit organizations above. Check the phrases used for suggesting alternatives.   What if we do … instead?

  I’d suggest (verb + –ing) …

  There’s always …

  Another option/idea would be to …

  We could try …

  Have you considered giving … a try?



Work in pairs and follow the instructions. Then report to the class.

• Choose one of the non-profit organizations above that you’d like to support. • Discuss things you could do to help support it. • Suggest different alternatives as necessary. • Give reasons for your choice.





Critical thinking: developing empathy A

 ork in pairs. Make a list of all the different ways W you use water during a day. Then try to estimate how much water you use per day in liters. The following information might help. Compare your water usage with your classmates.

Empathy is the ability to understand how someone feels because you can imagine what it’s like to be them. When you empathize with someone, it makes it easier for you to communicate with them, even if their experience of something is very different from yours.


 ead this information about R Shartati and her family. Work in pairs to estimate how much water you think she and her family use per day.

liters per minute for taking a shower = approx. 25 s for having a bath = approx. 150 liter minute for brushing teeth = six liters per liters for flushing the toilet = approx. six load for washing clothes = 50 liters per five liters per day for cooking and drinking = approx.


This is Shartati and one of her daughters. She has five children ranging in age from six months to nine years old. They live in a village in the north of Ethiopia. Shartati’s husband is a farmer.

In groups, discuss what kinds of water problems you’ve experienced. Say how you felt.


L isten to Shartati talking about her daily routine. How accurate were your guesses about her family’s water usage?


Work in groups. Discuss the questions below.

1  Think about the water problems you discussed in Exercise B. How do your problems compare with Shartati’s problem in seriousness? 2  Look back at the water usage you calculated in Exercise A. What things would you need to give up to bring your water usage in line with Shartati’s? 3  With your answers to 1 and 2 in mind, now take a minute to imagine yourself in her situation. How would you feel? 4  How might the world be different if people took more time to put themselves in other people’s shoes?

Our drinking water isn’t very clean, so we have to … It’s not easy being without water because …

Reflect … Do you find it easy to empathize with people   you don’t know? Why or why not?


Last spring/summer, etc. we had a drought/flood and …


How to say it

When the water gets cut off, it means (that) … 54


Language Wrap-up 1

Vocabulary A Complete the ad with appropriate words. You have been given the first letter. (5 points) 8–10 correct: I can use words to describe the business of water and environmental issues.

0–7 correct:

• You won’t find lower (2) p

  anywhere else!

• We don’t (3) c Latin America.

  for delivery within the U.S. and

• All bottles returned to us are (4) r

Look again at Sections 2 and 6 on pages 49 and 52.


At Water 2U we aim to (1) d   bottled water to your door, when you need it. Below are a few reasons why our customers come back for more:

• Our (5) s

  at the source, saving on waste.

  costs to the rest of the world are highly competitive.

Call us with your order today at (1-800) 235-2667.


B Circle the correct answers to complete the text. (5 points) After the tsunami in Indonesia in 2004, many villages in coastal areas were washed away by the (1) floods / drought. But the disaster had other consequences: (2) water poverty / diseases spread rapidly because of the number of people who had died. It was also difficult to find clean (3) sources / resources of drinking water because of (4) climate change / water pollution. Volunteer doctors struggled with poor levels of (5) famine / hygiene because of a lack of medical supplies. However, many areas have now recovered thanks to worldwide help.


Grammar A Rewrite what these people have said in the passive voice. (5 points) 1  “Climate change has seriously affected the environment.”

8–10 correct:

2  “The water company cut off our water supply last week.” .”

“Our water supply  3  “Before we bought the house, a flood damaged the basement.”

0–7 correct: Look again at Sections 1 and 5 on pages 48 and 51.



“The environment 

I can use the passive voice and expressions of purpose.


“Before we bought the house, the basement  4  “They’re charging me $10 for this bottled water!”


“I  5  “They limit water usage in some areas.”


“Water usage 

B Complete each sentence with a suitable expression of purpose. (5 points) 1  I use tap water  2  So  3  Take an umbrella  4  5  We use rain water  56


  cooking, but not drinking.   avoid wasting water, turn off the faucet when you brush your teeth.   you don’t get wet!   not to have hygiene problems, shower regularly.   clean the deck.

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