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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505

Electronic Submission Coversheet TO BE COMPLETED BY STUDENT Important – choose one of the following statements (DELETE TWO THAT DO NOT APPLY):

This is my FINAL submission for this assignment.

By electronically submitting this work, I certify that:  This assignment is my own work  It has not previously been submitted for assessment  Where material from other sources has been used it has been acknowledged properly  This work meets the requirement of the University’s ethics policy

Student Name: Emily Mackin

Student Number : Q10197290

Faculty: FCIS Level of study: 5 Course title: Public relations and Communications Unit title: Research and Evaluation Assignment title: Research portfolio Assignment tutor: Catherine Sweet Word count: 3200 Learner request for feedback:

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Introduction Within public relations, research holds a valuable key to any successful campaign or communication plan that one may create. The process of research is something that happens at every stage of planning a campaign and this is why it holds such importance. Within this portfolio, six different items of both primary and secondary research were conducted and partnered alongside a critical analysis in order to demonstrate a repertoire and understanding of effective research skills. The following six entries make up the content of the portfolio: Literature search, document analysis, media content analysis, a survey, an observation and finally an expert interview and will be divided topically across two different research questions. The first three entries relate to the dissertation topic of the influence of social media on political persuasion techniques in the UK general elections and the second set of three relate to a live client brief about international students at Southampton Solent University. Considering the nature of these research questions, a positivist and interpretive conceptual approach was taken. Positivism is where in which a scientific research method is adopted, the data is quantifiable and comparable and correlations can allow the researcher to draw to conclusion. This method would be suitable for research considering international students at Southampton Solent University, as this conceptual approach also requires the researcher to be detached from what is being studied. In comparison to this, the three entries relating to political persuasion would more effectively be researched through an interpretive conceptual approach, made up of qualitative data, which explores thoughts, beliefs and feelings.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Entry One: Literature Search Bibliography Holmes, D (2005). Communication theory: media, technology and society. London: Sage. McQuail, D (2005). McQuail's mass communication theory.5th ed. London: Sage. McQuail, D (2010). McQuail's mass communication theory. 6th ed. London: Sage. Larson, Charles U (2013). Persuasion: reception and responsibility. 13th ed. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Baym, N ; Campbell, S W. ; H, Heather ; K, Sri ; O, Mary B ; Rothenbuhler, E; Weber, R ; Miller, K. (2012). Communication Theory and Research in the Age of New Media: A Conversation from the CM CafĂŠ. Communication Monographs. 79 (2), 256-267. Moloney, K (2006). Rethinking public relations: PR propaganda and democracy.. 2nd ed. Abingdon: Routledge. Pratkanis, A (2007). The science of social influence: advances and future progress. New York; Hove: Psychology. Parsons, P (2004). Ethics in public relations : a guide to best practice. 2nd ed. London: Kogan Page. Black, S (1995). The practice of public relations. 4th ed. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. Murray, L (2010). Politics and popular culture. Newcastle upon Tyne : Cambridge Scholars Dean, M (2012). Democracy under attack: how the media distorts policy and politics. Bristol: Policy Press Burton, G (2010). Media and society: critical perspectives. 2nd ed. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Open University Press.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Entry One: Literature Search Critical Analysis According to (Quinlan, C. 2011), following a literature search and review within the research process, the methodology appropriate to the research question is selected and a theoretical framework for the research project will be created. This displays the importance of searching all topic areas surrounding the research questions thoroughly, in order to successfully complete the research process and to demonstrate an understanding of the chosen topic and theories surrounding this. A lack of literature in appropriate topics will identify the gaps in research that could be explored by the researcher to fill in some gaps in knowledge when this specific topic is considered. Although within this literature search, both books and journals have been considered, a wide range of literature sources have been left unsearched. Other types of literature that could have been considered are as follows; government reports, NGO reports, conference reports, online and in the media (Quinlan, C. 2011,) which would provide a much larger body of knowledge in these topic fields. Furthermore, if other types of literature had been searched, the literature search would consist of a longer list of topical literature and contain an increased amount of information that would help with the consecutive steps in the research process. Comparatively to the negative critique of this literature search, it can be said that the vast majority of the literature found that supports this timely, modernist topic is not outdated. The oldest book within this bibliography is from 1995, and is of a topic that may have not aged drastically considering there is only a nine year difference. It is important that the literature and theories from the search used within one’s research project are not long outdated as this will effect and limit the entire research process; however, within this literature search, books have been used that are written by the same author and share the same title, yet show both an earlier and a later edition. This is an effective way to monitor the changing views on this particular topic over a period of time, in this case before the rise of social media and during, which should largely support the research process. The literature search conducted around the research topic of the use of social media and political persuasion techniques lacks a certain depth. Although it can be seen that a balanced mixture of relative topics and theories such as; communication theory, democracy, media and politics have been looked into, it leaves a vast range of PR theories and topics relevant to this research question unconsidered, which could lead to a larger than expected gap in research.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Entry Two; Document Analysis ‘Media policy brief five. Semantic Polling. The Ethics of Online Publication Opinion’, Ansted, N. and O’Loughlin, B. (2012) In the Policy brief, the researchers studied and reviewed the changing communication techniques that affected the 2010 UK general elections. Ansted and O’Loughlin found that because of these changing communication techniques, resulted by an increase in use of social media, semantic polling techniques were on the rise, changing the way the elections were fought. In addition to the research conducted on this subject, the document also suggests predictions for the future of semantic polling techniques. The policy brief was written in 2012, two years after the 2010 UK General Elections and both authors have a keen interest within the sector. The first author Ansted, N. was involved within the department of media and communications at The London school of Economics and Political Science and O’Loughlin, B. who was involved within the department of Politics and International Relations at Royal Holloway, University of London. The document is targeted to anyone with electoral, journalistic, commercial or academic interests in public opinion making the audience fairly vast. The purpose of the policy brief was to highlight the changes enforced by the growing use of social media and how the data from this social media was used towards the 2010 UK General Elections. In particular, the document focuses on semantic polling and the methodologies behind this, the key challenges raised by the emergence of semantic polling and the way in which the British Linguamatics, French Semiocast, Tweetminster, Meltwater Buzz, BBC and Channel 4 news all interpreted the same debates differently. The document reads ‘Semantic polling techniques are still at a very embryonic stage, and this makes it even more important that the methods and limitations of the data are properly understood by journalists and editors, and in turn, explained to the public.’ This is the reason in which the policy brief was written, to raise awareness of the methods and limitations of semantic polling as communication techniques are changing with different forms of social media usage on the rise, influencing effective political persuasion techniques in the UK general elections. Another Key message within the document is that the rise in social media use has led to a change in the way the UK General Elections are fought and will continue to do this in the upcoming UK general elections. The change in communication techniques has led to political parties being able to communicate with the public in two way symmetrical communication styles, through the use of social media channels. Grunig and Hunt’s two way symmetrical communication model suggests the organisation and its publics can communicate to negotiate, resolve conflict and promote mutual understanding between them. The rise in use of social media was the influence of this change from the publicity model of one way communication, which political parties would have previously adopted.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505

Entry Two; Document Analysis critical Analysis The document analysis conducted on the Policy brief ‘Media policies brief five. Semantic Polling. The Ethics of Online Publication Opinion’ Ansted, N. and O’Loughlin, B. (2012) was carried out in a qualitative research approach because the document did not handle numerical data, however, both qualitative and quantitative approaches can be used for gathering and analysing data in this method of research. The policy brief chosen was published in 2012, with the case study of the 2010 UK general elections. Not only does this mean that the document is an up to date source, the case study being in 2010 also displays the reliability of the document as this was also recent and timely. Another factor that increases the documents reliability is the authors and what their position is to the topic and study within the document. In this case, the document analysis states that both authors are involved within relating topics such as communications and political science. This makes the document more reliable as it is from a valuable source. It is important to display reliability of document within a document analysis as this is one method that helps develop a research proposal, so the data and messages drawn from the document need to be accurate. Within the document analysis, the range of stakeholders that the policy brief concerns is not clearly identified. This will lead to the document analysis audience being unclear. There is some evidence of the audience being identified, which was referenced directly from the document itself; however leaving the stakeholders unclear will leave a large amount of the audience unidentified. This could lead to non-accurate research gaps which would hinder primary research. It may also limit further secondary research concerning this topic as some stakeholder groups may be left unidentified and unsearched. Document analysis is a research method that helps to develop a research proposal, so it is integral to thoroughly identify all stakeholders. In contrast to this, the fact that the analysis includes the use of communication theory links the topic of the document back to PR. This makes the document suitable for use within the dissertation as it supports the research needed for this topic. A criticism of this document analysis is that there is a lack of references and quotes from the original document, an increase in the amount of these would make the analisation of the document more valid as there would be proof to back up the analysis where it is needed. Within PR, document analysis is a useful form of qualitative research . Not only may they contain information that cannot be spoken, they also endure over time, enabling the reader to be able to compare and contrast communication trends and response from the audiences over a period of time. (Daymon & Holloway,2011)

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Entry three: Media content Analysis Arthur,C. (2010). Election 2010: The first social media election. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/media/2010/apr/30/social-media-election-2010. Last accessed 04/04/2014. Wintour,P. (2013). Social media priceless in 2015 election campaign, says labour strategist. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2013/nov/22/socialmedia-election-campaign-labour. Last accessed 04/04/2014.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505

The two online newspaper articles, both from The Guardian online, focus on the topic of the influence of social media on the UK General elections. One article concerns the 2010 UK general elections and how social media impacted the elections in terms of a rise is number of votes, new voters and involvement within campaigns. The second article was written in 2013 and is about the importance of social media within political campaigns and how it is a tactic that should be focused on for the 2015 UK general election campaigns. Between both articles, Facebook and Twitter appear to be the most popular social media channels to reach out to an audience of political interest. These key words The articles both state that the age range of the audience using social media would be 18-24 year olds; most of this audience is likely to make up numbers of new voters within the elections. According to the article written in 2010, whilst people may find talking in a pub more influential than social media, the latter is having significant impact. As well as these channels, both articles talk of the success of the Obama campaigns due to the focus on social media. Within this campaign, downloadable apps were also a channel used to reach to the public as well as email campaigns. For the 2015 UK general elections, it appears that the importance of social media is on the rise considering the influence of newspapers and broadcasters are in decline. The ability for the public to react instantly on social media to the candidate’s appearance, words and policies is something that both articles deem a large part of the success of the Obama campaigns. Within the article written in 2010, it was said that during the third debate there were 154,342 tweets relating to various terms within the debate. This was the first ever ‘social media election’ as at the time of the previous UK General election in 2005, social media was not available. Facebook was still only available to American university students and Twitter was not launched until 2006. However, the second article suggests that even if a party has ‘deep pockets’ and a strong media environment, if they still do not have the voters behind them , social media will not help. In an environment that suffers lack of trust, people will look to trusted family, friends and neighbours for opinions on politics. Apart from the latter opinion on social media, the articles both correlate to idea that social media has a positive influence on the UK general elections and that is is a tactic that is integral to the campaigns.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Entry three: Media content analysis; critical analysis. Media content analysis is a form of primary research that deals with both qualitative and quantitative data. It can be used to identify and count key words to gain an idea of the frequency and emphasis over multiple media documents. This helps to understand what is being communicated through which type of media. Within the media content analysis conducted, two documents were compared. One online news article on the UK general elections in 2010 and one other concerning the 2015 UK general elections. This is an effective way to analyse media content as it allows the researcher to track changes over time and understand the key messages within this topic area. To ensure the change is measured accurately it would have been useful to have analysed a number of other media documents, for example one from the 2005 UK general elections in order to draw comparisons over the past ten years. However due to the topic area, the search for a media document concerning social media and the UK general elections may have been inconclusive. Furthermore, it may have been useful for research purposes to analyse different types of media. For example in this case social media posts from a variety of political parties, in order to study another angle of research on this topic. Through the technique of highlighting key words, key themes and key topics within the text, the articles were made more easily comparable and the key messages within the articles were easier to identify. For a media content analysis of further depth and accuracy when comparing the similarities and differences over a number of articles, the same articles could then be highlighted for any themes that have developed over time or themes that have remained the same. This would allow for the influence of social media on the UK general elections to stand out and some questions in the research gap filled. The media content analysis conducted, successfully portrays the messages that the stakeholders would take from the articles. It is important that the researcher understands what is being communicated from which type of media, in order to attempt to fill research gaps left from previous secondary research. To make the analysis more accurate, the stakeholders that this media is being communicated too should also be identified. This will help the researcher to understand the audience and affectivity of the communication as well as identifying what would be the most effective PR actions and responses. A disadvantage of media content analysis is that it relies heavily on researcher interpretation; this can be seen in this example as the analysis has been developed from what the researcher viewed as the key messages and important information. It also assumes that the audience that read this media are passive, however due to the topic opinions may differ so cannot give a true representation of what is being portrayed. Media analysis is an important qualitative research method within PR and communication, the benefits beings that it is low cost to get hold of media documents and can offer insight into the attitudes ,feelings, emotions and responses of people involved in specific information. (Daymon & Holloway, 2011.)

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Entry Four: Survey page 1 * Required Information * 1. Please enter your university email address to be entered into the prize draw! ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ * 2. What is your course title? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ * 3. What is your home country? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 4. Was you approached by any agencies concerning international universities? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 5. If so , was this process helpful? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ * 6. When choosing a university , how did you hear about Southampton Solent? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ * 7. Did you consider any universities in your home country if so what made you choose an international university? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ * 8. How did you apply for Southampton Solent university, or any other international universities? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505

* 9. How easy was it to apply for Southampton Solent University from your home country? (Select one option) Very Hard 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

10. Rank in order which of the following factors influenced your decision to come to Southampton Solent university over a university in your home country. [ Please rank all option(s). ] Influence from friends Opportunity to travel Schools and College Parents Wide range of Courses to choose from at SSU No universities in your area No Good universities in your area The course you wanted was not available in your home country Other

11. If other, please state what. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 12. Who helped you to apply for and gave you information on international universities. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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13. What could have made the application process easier? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 14. Did you make any contact with the international support team at SSU before you arrived in Southampton? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 15. If so, was the information provided from the international support team helpful or did you feel it was generalised? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

See Appendix 1 for survey results.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Entry four; Survey Analysis In order to investigate the research gap within the given client brief concerning international students at SSU, a survey was conducted. A survey is a non-experimental, descriptive research method, ideal in this case because this research gap cannot directly be observed. The gap to be researched further is the reasons in which international students do not apply for creative industry subjects at Southampton Solent University. This survey is a trend study as it is aiming to understand trends of a group of individuals. The survey was published on the Solent creative website in order to target international students on faculty of creative industry courses. Publishing on a website for students on creative industry courses meant that the survey was not limited to just one creative industry course, which should have returned a higher number of completed surveys. However, only one survey was completed, displaying that it would have been more effective to directly address international students on one course with the survey and this will have returned greater results. Yet, if the survey targeted only one course, more people would answer but experiences may be the same. As an attempt to attract more international students to answer the survey, an incentive was offered on the website, as well as a brief paragraph explaining what the survey was for. According to the Incentive theory of motivation ‘people are pulled toward behaviours that offer positive incentives and pushed away from behaviours associated with negative incentives’ (Bernstein, 2011). However, contrary to this, the survey still only received one completion, suggesting that the method of posting online is not a successful way to get surveys answered. The survey was created on a survey programme called So Go Survey, this method allows for the results to be analysed by different factors, such as male to female and age range. This provides more accurate findings than if it was analysed only by question number and participant. Throughout the survey clear questions were used, it is important that the questions are understandable by the participant. In this case, the participants were international students so the questions were simple, easily understood and double barrelled questions were avoided. All the questions within the survey are open, encouraging conversation in order to get the feelings and opinions of this topic. In order to put together accurate questions, the survey was created by two researchers; this was to come up with the most appropriate questions that could be read, understood and answered quickly. The survey was kept short to ensure that it would not take a long amount of time causing the participant to lose interest which may cause the answers to become short and lack appropriate information. Another method that makes the process of answering easier for the participant is the consistency of response methods, this familiarises the participant with the format making it easy to answer. As well as this, a professional image is carried throughout the survey.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Entry Five; Observation.

Observation on International Student Ravina Matheru. - Feels that information such as setting up a bank account and budgeting is useful to have on the website, not only when she first came but still uses now. - Says the website should be more interactive, although she commented on the different pages being useful, she did not click on any of the other pages. - Thinks that there should be more information on the webpage about the student life side of moving to Southampton as an international student, although there are pages about issues that concern the fundamentals of life in the UK nothing specific to student life in Southampton. - Feels there should be more information about Fresher’s events and links to buy tickets to make the thought of moving to the UK less daunting and more exciting. - Should have information about socials and groups that international students will be welcome into, this way she said that she would have felt more excited to get to Southampton Solent University rather than worried she would not be able to make friends. - She feels that the website should be able to be translated into different languages to make understanding the website easier before getting to UK. - When told about Facebook groups set up for each uni halls, she was surprised to hear about this. This should also be included on the international website to allow international students to have the same start as home students.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Entry Five; Observation analysis. According to (Quinlan, 2011.), observation is when a researcher engages in the method of observing, in order to gather data on the phenomenon under investigation. In this case, the research gap from previous study methods suggested that a lack of information on the international students webpage at Southampton Solent University was what needed improving in order to attract more prospective students. This led to the observation of an international student, in her first year at Southampton Solent University on the faculty of creative industry course of Fashion journalism, to look through the website and review the information on the website. The observation was carried out covertly, in order to get honest reactions and feelings on the subject. Although covert observation has the benefit that there would be no observer bias, it is ethically problematic. In order to avoid an issue with ethics, after the observation was carried out, the participant then was told and gave written consent that the observation notes taken could be used. See Appendix 2 for written consent. For a more extensive observation, it is effective to observe more than one participant. In this case, to have observed more that one international student, it would have highlighted correlations between the thoughts about the international website, pinpointing what it is that is exactly missing from the website. Another method of research that may have been more successful than an observation in primary research methods would have been a focus group. This would have encouraged conversation about the problems on the website and would have given a better insight into the phenomenon. Another way in which to have returned greater data from the observation carried out would have been for the observer to previously study the field before observation. This would have meant studying the website for missing information compare to the webpage for home students and spotting gaps in the information. This way ,at the time of observation, the observer would have had a better understanding of the website content and will have already formed an idea of what may be problematic. Although an observation can be recorded by taking notes on the activity being observed, for more extensive data collections, it would have been useful to record any conversation about the website as it was being said instead of interpreting in note form. This way all comments will be documented as data and no information would be lost. According to (Daymon & Holloway, 2011.) , within the public relations and communications industry, the research method of observation is not used regularly. However, they suggest that if used systematically it can be extremely useful as an insight into consumer behaviour and the way in which different groups act and communicate with each other.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Entry six; Expert Interview – Lynsey Watt Introduction Thank you for taking the time to answering these questions for me. The purpose of our interview is to establish your experience as a tutor and what your relationship with international students is like on the Public relations and communications degree. Informed Consent This interview and any information discussed will be used by 2nd year Public Relations & Communications students to be included in a research and evaluation portfolio and sent to a representative from the international office within SSU, your answers will also be saved as a word document. Questions 1. Within the Public relations and communication degree programme, what is the ratio of home students to international students? On the second year there are 15 international students and 25 home students. On the first year there are 7 international students and 9 home students. 2. Have you noticed a difference in the number of international students on the degree programme this year to previous years? The ratio has increased this year, but the cohort is much smaller. 3. As a tutor, what complications do you feel would affect international students when applying for this course? The international students need to have very good English speaking and writing skills to be able to complete the work required on this course, and to keep up with the information given in lectures and seminars. 4. In your opinion, do you feel that the PR degree programme is accommodating for international students? I think it is accommodating for international students – the students are offered plenty of opportunities for formative feedback and to practice their presentation skills for assignments, and I feel that subjects are explained clearly by all tutors. I hope that all students are made to feel welcome and that their contributions are valued during the course. 5. If so, Why or why not? As above – the international students are not treated any differently from the home students, and everyone can receive formative feedback and support for their work. 6. Why do you think that this degree programme is popular with international students? PR is an upcoming industry, with many opportunities for excellent careers both in the UK and overseas. I think this is a factor in the popularity of the course, alongside Solent’s excellent reputation for delivering this course. 7. From your experiences, what do you feel could be improved on the PR degree course to attract more international students? Further support in terms of academic English writing would be very useful for the international students. Thank you for answering the interview questions, as this research is ongoing would it be ok to contact you if further information is needed? I will also update you once the research portfolio has been completed. Many thanks.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Entry six; Expert Interview analysis Following the survey and observations, it was clear that the research gap was the lack of information on what international students may be unprepared with and find a challenge on arrival and starting the course at SSU. This is why the questions are directed at this subject. An effective expert interview helps find more specific information about a particular area of research and this exampled successfully does in which. The expert interview was conducted with the expert Lynsey Watt, who in which is a tutor of the faculty of creative industry course of PR and Communications. Lynsey made a valuable expert to interview as she has first-hand experience with international students on the faculty of creative industry course and has built a rapport with these international students. This relationship allows her to understand and have knowledge on how the students feel on this creative industry course, what they find difficult about being on the course. As well as this, Lynseys position enables her to know accurate figures about the ratio of international students in each year of the course. However, to return greater results it may have been effective to interview someone with wider knowledge on international students within a variety of different creative industry courses at Southampton Solent University; such as a person within the communications office or admin. This would have been effective to get a greater view of the overall situation with international students applying for SSU instead of those who have already applied. Adding to this , it is effective to do multiple interviews to get more extensive dataset with a variety of experts. This way, experts with different relationships towards international students, would have been able to share their knowledge making the findings more valuable and detailed. The interview was conducted asynchronous which allows the expert to have time to think over their response making it more detailed. Furthermore, if the interview had been conducted face to face, more lengthy detailed answers to the questions probably would have been gained as a rapport, this will also allow for the flexibility an interview can offer. An advantage of an asynchronous expert interview is that the conversation does not need to be transcribed, this means no information is lost between conducting the interview and analysing it, in addition to this they also have the advantage that there is no interviewer bias on the expert, this allows the results to be a true representation of the situation. By providing an introduction and explanation as to what the interview is for, before asking questions, provides a polite tone. This allows the expert to feel at ease and informed and will be happier to answer the questions. Herzberg’s two factor Motivational theory suggests that good interpersonal relations with another person will motivate to perform a better job. This supports the idea that a rapport should be built between interviewer and expert to get the most from the expert.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Conclusion The research portfolio has displayed a repertoire of six research method techniques, both primary and secondary research. The first three entries demonstrate a strong framework, in which to conduct primary research concerning the first topic of the influence of social media on political persuasion techniques. The final three entries display one of the answers to the research gap from the live client brief. From the results of the survey, observation and expert interview, it can be seen that one of the reasons in which international students are not applying to Southampton Solent University for faculty of creative industry courses is because of the lack of information about student life on the dedicated SSU website. As well as this, according to the expert interview, it seems that to be able to complete a course here at Southampton Solent University, the international student needs to have a high level of spoken English to successfully complete the course. This is another thing that may put international students off of studying at this university. On completion of the six research methods conducted, it can be seen that qualitative research is highly important in the PR and communication industry, many of the methods allow to track attitudes and feelings of an audience or person and responses to media. This can be tracked over time to identify changing communication methods and audience attitudes, making these methods extremely resourceful to PR.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 References Quinlan,C (2011). Business research methods. Hampshire: Cengage Learning EMEA. 59. Quinlan,C (2011). Business research methods. Hampshire: Cengage Learning EMEA.60. ‘Media policies brief five. Semantic Polling. The Ethics of Online Publication Opinion’, Ansted, N. and O’Loughlin, B. (2012) Daymon,C & Holloway, I (2011). Qualitative Research Methods in Public Relations and Marketing Communications. 2nd ed. Oxon: Routledge. 277. Arthur,C. (2010). Election 2010: The first social media election. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/media/2010/apr/30/social-media-election-2010. Last accessed 04/04/2014. Wintour,P. (2013). Social media priceless in 2015 election campaign, says labour strategist. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2013/nov/22/socialmedia-election-campaign-labour. Last accessed 04/04/2014. Daymon,C & Holloway, I (2011). Qualitative Research Methods in Public Relations and Marketing Communications. 2nd ed. Oxon: Routledge. 279. Quinlan,C (2011). Business research methods. Hampshire: Cengage Learning EMEA.193. Daymon,C & Holloway, I (2011). Qualitative Research Methods in Public Relations and Marketing Communications. 2nd ed. Oxon: Routledge. 258.

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 Appendix 1. Survey results

Response No : 1 1. Please enter your university email address to be entered into the prize draw! 01volak2@solent.ac.uk 2. What is your course title? MA PR 3. What is your home country? Greece 4. Was you approached by any agencies concerning international universities? No 5. If so , was this process helpful? 6. When choosing a university , how did you hear about Southampton Solent? It was suggested by a member of the British Council in Greece 7. Did you consider any universities in your home country if so what made you choose an international university? I did not consider any Greek Unis at all 8. How did you apply for Southampton Solent university, or any other international universities? Online? (how many ways there are?) 9. How easy was it to apply for Southampton Solent University from your home country? 8 10. Rank in order which of the following factors influenced your decision to come to Southampton Solent university over a university in your home country. Influence from friends:6 Opportunity to travel:4 Schools and College:9 Parents:7 Wide range of Courses to choose from at SSU:8 No universities in your area:5 No Good universities in your area:3 The course you wanted was not available in your home country:1 Other:2 11. If other, please state what. Weather - financial 12. Who helped you to apply for and gave you information on international universities. A member of the British Council in Greece

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Emily Mackin/ Q10197290/CCA505 13. What could have made the application process easier? 14. Did you make any contact with the international support team at SSU before you arrived in Southampton? yes 15. If so, was the information provided from the international support team helpful or did you feel it was generalised? generalised - I needed more info on the fresher's week - I never got to discover all the events at a place

2. I Ravina Matheru give full consent to let Emily Mackin use any data collected through my observation in her research portfolio. Ravina Matheru 27/04/2014

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