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A research paper on the

Conservation Philosophy of Green Park Station, Bath Submitted by

Priyanka Talreja Towards the degree of Master of Science in the Conservation of Historic Buildings At the University of Bath, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Session 2013-14 Student number: 139392887 Unit code: AR50148


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Synopsis The scope of this paper is the exploration of the issue of regeneration with the help of the value system created by Bernard Feilden: the father of architectural conservation. The Bath Green Park station has been chosen as the vehicle of study as it is a much frequented public space within the heart of the historic city of Bath, with a function which is not the original one, as anticipated. The ‘values’ of Green Park Station, structure this essay into tracking the evolution of issues associated with the space for about over a century. Feilden explains that the ‘significance’ of a historic entity can be defined through the analysis and synthesis of its values. The discussions of historical and philosophical ideas have been carried out under the ‘titles’ of values, however, with a freedom to express them as related to the subject-not always literally. Sub titles are elaborate and they facilitate the understanding of how different aspects –cultural, functional and emotional- deal with the overall merit of the erstwhile station of Green Park and this in turn can help people make decisions for its future.


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Contents TITLE PAGE NO. Abstract.........................................................................................................................................2 Acknowledgements.......................................................................................................................4 List of Illustrations.........................................................................................................................5 CULTURAL VALUES:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7 1. Documentary..............................Introduction to Green Park Station......................................8 2. Historic.......................................Tracing the Past....................................................................9 3. Architectural &Aesthetic............Design proportions and Engineering...................................11 4. Townscape..................................Spatial Organization within the urban fabric......................12 5. Archaeology and age..................The love for Details..............................................................12 6. Ecological....................................The shadow of Decline........................................................15 7. Technological..............................Deterioration and the Realization......................................16 USER VALUES:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..18

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Political…………………………………….The Beeching report and its implications…………………….…...19 Functional…………………………………Options for proposals…………………………………………..………….20 Social………………………………………..The present scenario………………………………………………………..21 Economic…………………………………..The loss and gain of values……………………………………………...26 Educational……………………………….Examples of re-use elsewhere………………………………………….26

EMOTIONAL VALUES:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..28 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Respect and veneration...............Why not to demolish.........................................................29 Continuity ………………………………..Whether to abandon or adapt………………………………………….29 Wonder........................................What are the options........................................................30 Identity ........................................How not to intervene........................................................30 Symbolic and spiritual……………….Who is the winner………………………………………………………......30

Bibliography..................................................................................................................................32 Appendix 1…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………34 Appendix 2…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………36


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Acknowledgements

I would like to affectionately acknowledge the support provided to me for this study by: Staff at the Bath Central Library, the Bath Chronicle Archives. Staff at the Bath Record Office, Guildhall Archives. Staff at the University of Bath, Library. The data made available to me and the permission to reproduce them as appropriate is a gratifying gesture and I hope the work stands up to expectations. This study has been an consequence of my interest in the new and the old, always encouraged by my very dear Professor Mustansir Dalvi and if I manage to convince the reader, it will be his achievement –more than mine. Three important though inanimate things that have stayed with me through the research: Picasa Inc. (for the mind), Coffee (for the body) and Hindi songs (for the soul): thank you! And lastly, no matter how much I show gratitude for, it will never be enough, love you mom.


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List of illustrations Serial No.

Title Of The Image/Sketch/Map

Reference/Source of illustration

Fig. 1: (Pg.8)

Plan of the historic city of Bath with Green Park/ Queen’s Square Station highlighted.

Fig. 2: (Pg.8)

East side Palladian façade of Green Park Station

Abercrombie, P., Owens, J. and Mealand, H. A.1945. A plan for Bath: report prepared for the Bath and District Joint Planning Committee Bath and District Joint Planning, Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd., London Jackson, Neil. 1991. Nineteenth century Bath. Architects and Architecture. Ashgrove Press, Bath.

Fig.3: (Pg.9)

Site Plan of the old Green Park Station complex, Bath

Owen, J. 1989. Life on the Railway. Millstream books, Bath.

Fig. 4: (Pg.9)

Steam engine below the beautiful iron shed-nostalgia

Owen, J. 1989. Life on the Railway. Millstream books, Bath.

Fig. 5: (Pg.10)

Plan of Green Park station Main Building: Original Function

Owen, J. 1989. Life on the Railway. Millstream books, Bath.

Fig. 6: (Pg.12)

Drawings of the North Side Elevation and Transverse section of the roof, Green Park Station, Bath

Berry Geomatics, 2013. Sainsbury’s Green Park Road, Bath Sheets: 9 [Online] Available from: http://idox.bathnes.gov.uk/WAM/show CaseFile.do?appNumber=13/02574/FU L [Accessed on 8 January 2014] (Drawing)

Fig.7: (Pg.13)

Sketches of detail elements of the old building, Green Park Station, Bath A:Cresting, B: Column Capital of the porch, C: Gas light, D: Door mould, E: Stanchion connection Ornamental decoration, Green Park Station, Bath

Coard, Peter.1971. Vanishing Bath. Vol 2. The Pitman Press, Bath

Fig. 9: (Pg.14)

Ticket window and train indicator board, Green Park Station, Bath

Maggs, Colin. 1992. The Mangotsfeild to Bath Branch. The Oakwood Press, Oxford.

Fig. 10: (Pg.15)

Direction board, attic rail memorablia, Green Park Station, Bath

Maggs, Colin. 1992. The Mangotsfeild to Bath Branch. The Oakwood Press, Oxford.

Fig. 11: (Pg.16)

Bath Chronicle News-article Titles for Green park station #

Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives. [Accessed on 18 January 2014]

Fig. 8: (Pg.14)

Maggs, Colin. 1992. The Mangotsfeild to Bath Branch. The Oakwood Press, Oxford.


6 | 38 Fig. 12: (Pg.17)

Restoration of the Roof Glazing , Green Park Station

Owen, J. 1989. Life on the Railway. Millstream books, Bath.

Fig. 13: (Pg.19)

Bath Chronicle News-article Titles for Green park station # 2

Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives. [Accessed on 18 January 2014]

Fig. 14: (Pg.22)

Concert Hall Proposal for Green Park station

The Bath Record Office: ’Planning History Sheets’ file

Fig. 15: (Pg.22)

Shopping hub proposal for Green Park station

The Bath Record Office: ’Planning History Sheets’ file

Fig. 16: (Pg.23)

Proposals for Green Park station : L-R: Cycle route, Car park B: Hotel

The Bath Record Office: ’Planning History Sheets’ file

Fig. 17: (Pg.24)

Latest Proposal by Sainsbury, 2013: withdrawn

The Bath Record Office: ’Planning History Sheets’ file

Fig. 18: (Pg.25)

Change in the accessway: towards Green Park Station, Bath

Maggs, Colin. 1992. The Mangotsfeild to Bath Branch. The Oakwood Press, Oxford., Author.

Fig. 19: (Pg.26)

Permanent retention of stage after track filling,Green Park Station, Bath

Author, 15 January 2014

Fig. 20: (Pg.27)

Steel Additions to the stone building on either sidePorte cochere and iron trussed roof,Green Park Station, Bath

Author, 15 January 2014

Fig. 21: (Pg.29)

Transition spaces between the old and the new structures

Author, 15 January 2014

Fig. 22: (Pg.31)

Re-use of the Green Park Station

Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives. [Accessed on 18 January 2014]


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Cultural Values


8 | 38 Conservation Philosophy: Green Park Station, Bath Site Visits (Dec 26, 2013, 5 January,2014)

1. DOCUMENTARY Introduction to Green Park Station, Bath. Originally known as the Queen Square station by Bradshaw’s Railway Guide, this station for the Midland Railway1 is seen as a masterpiece of mid-Victorian railway architecture built by architect J.H. Saunders and chief engineer J.S. Crossley.2 This contribution to Bath’s mainly classical landscape3 has had an interesting history with the running of steam locomotives in its heydays and still continues to be in limelight for its presence, an enigma staying put. (Fig.1)

Fig.1. Plan of the historic city of Bath with Green Park/ Queen’s Square Station highlighted.

1

Maggs, Colin. (1992) p.58. Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives 3 Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives 2

Fig.2. East side Palladian façade of Green Park Station


9 | 38 2. HISTORIC Tracing the past.

Fig.3. Site Plan of the old Green Park Station complex, Bath

Fig.4. Steam engine below the beautiful iron shed- nostalgia


10 | 38 Listed below are glimpses from important events during the age-old times since the opening of the Green park Station: 4th august 1869: The Green Park Station Building opened. 1870: The Midland Bridge was built. 1874: Somerset and Dorset railway arrived at the station. 1925, Feb.: A parcel train crashed through the buffers. 1942: Air raids damaged glazed roof which was repaired later in 1980! 18th June 1951: The Green Park suffix was added 1958: The station fell under the Western Region of British Railways and trains began to be rerouted elsewhere. 1962: Only local stopping service remained. 5 march 1966: Final journey was at 4:25 pm. 1970’s: The derelict station had suffered considerable damage when the Bath City Council purchased it for development. 1982-4: Restored by Stride Treglown Partnership December 1982: Reopened by H.R.H Princess Margaret after 44 weeks of work and 1.5 million pounds cost.

Fig.5. Plan of Green Park station Main Building: Original Function


11 | 38 3. ARCHITECTURAL AND AESTHETIC Design Proportions and Engineering. The imposing Georgian facade of the Green Park Station building is typical of the classical architectural tradition, flaunting a symmetrical, well-proportioned grace.4 A passenger used to be dropped off under the glazed iron porch or porte cochere5 form where the rusticated ground floor of the lime ashlar structure is visible. The intricate canopy runs through five centre bays and is covered with lattice beams carried on two slender shafted cast iron columns. 6 On the upper storey of this handsome elevation are six Ionic columns flanked by pilastered pavilions.7 As one enters into a booking hall, the high coffered ceiling adorned with ornamental plasterwork radiates volume and the effect is enhanced by two large and elegant chandeliers.8 The glass arrangement in booking hall is installed so as to prevent the noise of the engines penetrating into it. The floor of the booking hall comprised of large rectangular flagstones. 9 Inside the station, there is a wide central concourse with aisle on either side10-the south platform was for departing trains while the north for arrivals.11 But the most interesting part is hidden behind Sander’s Palladian facade12 - the 65 ft (20m) cast –and wrought iron vaulted glazed roof with small trusses over the platforms to either side. 13 ‘The train shed is plain but effective; a symbol of the modern technology of the day14’.The trussed roof spans 66 feet between rail level and is supported by 15 slightly tapered octagonal piers for 14 bay. The outer face of the pier was set back from the platform edges.15 The arched iron ribs of the main portion of the roof above the tracks were surmounted by three stepped top light smoke ventilators glazed on the tops but open at the sides.16 Both platforms are 450 feet long and covered in for a distance of 220 ft. 17 At intervals along the platform face, small barred windows belonging to vaults beneath the platform are visible. The cellers below are notable, if hidden feature of the station, underlying all rooms of the main buildings, most of the arrival platform and half the departure platform. It is here that the station coal was stored 18 New building types during the late 19th century providing justification for new materials- use of cast iron at the Green park station-and new attitudes provided opportunities for fresh solutions19

4

Owen, J. (1989) p.7 Forsyth, M., Bird, S. (2003)p.11 6 English Heritage (2010) 7 Foyle, A., N. Pevsner, M. Forsyth and S. Bird.2011. p.136. 8 Maggs, Colin. (1992) p.58. 9 Owen, J. (1989)p.11 10 English Heritage (2010) 11 Ethical Property. [Online] 12 Morris, R., Hoverd, K. (1993) 13 Foyle, A., N. Pevsner, M. Forsyth and S. Bird.2011. p.136. 14 Morris, R., Hoverd, K. (1993) 15 Owen, J. (1989) p.12 16 Owen, J. (1989) p.15-16-17 17 Owen, J. (1989) 18 Owen, J. (1989)p.18 19 Jackson, Neil. (1991) 5


12 | 38 4. TOWNSCAPE The spatial organisation of the structure in the urban fabric.

Fig.6. Drawings of the North Side Elevation and Transverse section of the roof, Green Park Station, Bath

The site of the station structure is adjacent to the Avon River in Bath and hence, it is subject to severe flooding after prolonged rain or a thaw of snow. It was supposed that the construction of a railway embankment would intensify this trouble as it would prevent floods spreading laterally and as a result, they would be deeper. In addition, bridge abutments would narrow the river to its ordinary width and increase flooding. 20 And yet, the Green Park Station links the parts of the city separated by the river with the Midland Bridge being one of the most used bridges in the city of Bath. Charles E. Davis, the Bath city architect, considered any station however striking in itself, to be a sad eyesore to the beautiful locality of the city. 21 But the Green Park Station has an outstanding merit of a well proportioned faรงade that is in harmony with the other surrounding buildings on the street. Its original architect produced a high quality design for unit facing into city, a train shed of usual candid pattern, with much delicate detailing in structural ironwork.22 It is a welcoming visage as one stands on the traffic junction touching five roads that touch the building.

5. ARCHAEOLOGY AND AGE Details that make the patina of the structure. The Green park station-one to reach the central part of the city came much later than the main city station-the Bath Spa Station, but its appearance was far more in keeping.23 Known for its fantastic design, ornamental boarding and ironwork24, the romance of the structure did not just lie with what was easily visible. There were numerous things that related with its functioning first, and then became a part of nostalgia. These are important because they help us gauge historic nuances lost in time and the significance of these elements in the reality of comprehensive conservation.

20

Maggs, Colin. (1992) p.6-7 Maggs, Colin. (1992) p.6-7 22 English Heritage. (2010) 23 Morris, R., Hoverd, K. (1993)p.112 24 Owen, J. (1989) 21


13 | 38  One feature of note on the departure platform for a great many years was a working model of Stephenson’s rocket. Housed in a glass case and mounted on a metal stand, its aim was to raise money for railway charity at derby. 25  Ornamental display was a feature of the station concourse in the 1930’s.26  A public address system was installed on the platforms about 1954, first as a temporary measure for summer use then as a permanent feature. About 5 minutes before a train arrived, wooden barriers were pulled across the platform and porters collected passengers’ tickets. 27  Throughout the station’s 97 year life, the platforms were lit by gas. The original lamps consisted of a cast iron post surmounted by a large square tapered glass case whose ventilator was decorated with a spiked finial. In 1953/4, they were replaced by the ubiquitous hemispherical glass lamp cases with enameled caps. 28  The best room in the building is the ladies ‘first class waiting room where the chandelier is colored blue, white and gold and the chimney piece is of white marble.29  The walls of the cellars are coated in places with a dark film, resulting from the alcoholic vapors which permeated the air for several decades due to presence of gas pipes and control valves. Even today, the rails along which the barrels were run also remain insitu.The station coal was stored in the cellar beneath the station masters office with a trap door and shute at the back of the platform, while oil lamp was kept in an adjacent vault.30

25

Owen, J. (1989) p.15-16-17 Owen, J. (1989) p.19 27 Maggs, Colin. (1992) p.69 28 Owen, J. (1989) p.15-16-17 29 Maggs, Colin. (1992) p.62 30 Owen, J. (1989) p.18

Fig.7. Sketches of detail elements of the old building, Green Park Station, Bath

26

A:Cresting, B: Column Capital of the porch, C: Gas light, D: Door mould, E: Stanchion connection


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Fig.8. Ornamental decoration, Green Park Station, Bath

Fig.9. Ticket window and train indicator board, Green Park Station, Bath


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Fig 10.Direction board, attic rail memorablia, Green Park Station, Bath

6. ECOLOGICAL A morph of decline. Abercrombie in his report on Bath has said that the coming of the railway in 1840 and 1869 did not bring prosperity to the city, but rather the contrary. 31 This may be true as it is observed that the Green Park station would eventually drop into the shadows of abandonment. The reasons for this decline are listed as follows:

31

Until end of 19th century, the battle of the gauges was being fought out and by 1910, the impact of changing patterns of industry and the alternative sources of transport culminated in the wide ranging post 2nd world war cutback in the railway network of the entire country.

There was a surplus of railway companies in the beginning which were forever struggling against each other, approaching economic failure and the often difficult environment. Superimposed upon these were the railway giants; the great western, with its attempt at supremacy in the area, and its rival the midland railway.

Apart from the costs of private legislation, the myriad demands on company capital took their toll; things such as station buildings, track maintenance, staff training and wages, rolling stock and repairs.

In particular at the Green Park Station, platforms were short for an important station and coaches excess of nine were on the river bridge. This caused confusion as passengers wishing to alight from

Abercrombie, P., Owens, J. and Mealand, H. A.(1945) p.4


16 | 38 the rear had to struggle along coach corridors to reach the platform meeting others pushing in the opposite direction hoping to find vacant seats.32 

The river prevented any further extension so that even the long platform was only able to accommodate nine bogie coaches and a tender engine. During 1944, a plan was drawn up to extend the departure platform across the river and so increase its capacity. War-time pressures and the cost of modifying the bridge meant that it was a hopeless case.33 In due course, the years of endeavor and engineering initiative were bound to become worthless.34

7. TECHNOLOGICAL Deterioration and the realization.

Fig 11.Bath Chronicle News-article Titles for Green park station # 1

32

Maggs, Colin. (1992) p.66 Owen, J. (1989) p.12: 34 Grimshaw, J. (1978) 33


17 | 38 This station started its life with a bang- an explosion due to a gas leak, a day before the grand opening, which caused windows to be blown out and a door to come off its hinges .35Many more dramatic things were soon to follow. As an expected consequence of the railway decline, the station closed its doors to passengers for the last time in March, 196636 and remained unused until 1983. 37 In many places throughout the country, disused stations became scenes of neglect and creeping decay and for a time it seemed as though the fate of Green Park Station would be no exception.38 After the closure, the station was uncared for and unfortunately fell into a wretched state of disrepair, sporadically being used as car park.39 The disgraceful state consisted of: glass broken, billboards with posters, graffiti covered stonework, vegetation growing in crevices, rubbish dumped outside, an infamous hideout for hippies!40 It was the deterioration and local pressure which culminated in demonstrations being made to the Department of the Environment and thus, the acquisition of Grade 2 listing Gave rise to the hope that it might arrest any plans for demolition.41 As cities grew and populations increased, the pressures of road traffic directly threatened the stations continued existence and it became urgent to work towards the preservation of the generic Georgian identity of the city centre. Professor Buchanan in his 1966 report to the Bath City Council suggested a demolition of the station in order to build a dual carriageway feeder road into a vast interchange on the site of the Midland Bridge Goods Yard and motive power depot (linked with a tunnel under the city centre). 1978: the council was stuck with the decaying loss-making shell and applied for listed building consent to enable them to pull it down.42

35

Ethical Property. [Online] Owen, J. (1989) 37 Forsyth, M., Bird, S. (2003) 38 Owen, J. (1989) 39 Ethical Property. [Online] 40 Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives 41 Owen, J. (1989)p.19 42 Owen, J. (1989) 36

Fig 12.Restoration of the Roof Glazing , Green Park Station


18 | 38

User Values


19 | 38 1. POLITICAL The Beeching report and its implications. As detailed in the ‘morph of decline’, the Green park station remained solitary in a derelict state like many other stations in the UK due to a political suggestion by Dr.Richard Beeching in a report named, ‘The reshaping of British railways’. The railways emerged from the war at a fairly high level of activity, but in a poor physical state and sustained themselves until 1952 with annual losses later. In a study conducted, it was found that the cost of more than half of the stations is greater than the receipts from traffic which they originate. (p.22) Facing evidence that a rail service does not pay, may people ask- why not close some stations? Confronted with a dilemma arising from the impossibility of assessing future profitability, The Railways Board has put forward proposals for reshaping the system- which are conservative with regard to closures and speculative with regards to new developments. The Bath line was listed for passenger service withdrawal in the 1963 Beeching Report, the freight side being healthier.43 Arguments raged for years over the merits and demerits of the scheme and in the meantime the council had turned much of the site into a car park.

Fig 13. Bath Chronicle News-article Titles for Green park station # 2

43

Maggs, Colin. (1992) p.22


20 | 38 2. FUNCTIONAL Options for proposals. The station closed in 1966 as a consequence of Dr. Beeching’s reforms and almost immediately it was earmarked for pulling down or create different kinds of co-existing uses.44 Following is the list of the recent history of the Green Park station indicating the different types of offers which were thought of for its prospective future use. RECENT HISTORICAL RECORD 1973: The Roof started to shower debris on the former platform and the need to find a new use became urgent. 1975: Proposal for use of the former booking hall for the storage of building materials and plant. (No objection) 1976: Tesco made a development proposal. (Proposal unsuccessful) June 1977: J. Sainsbury submitted a scheme in partnership with C.H.Peare and Sons. 1977: Alterations to the main building and demolition of outbuildings. (Until 1980) Demolition of ironwork and roof of train shed (Withdrawn) 1977: Change of use from a railway station to retail food store and provision of parking spaces for 400 cars 1977: Conversion of existing station buildings and erection of a single storey 100 bedroom hotel with amenities and car park. (Proposal unsuccessful) 1978: Use for storage and dismantling of cars. 1980: Erection of a 2 storey building: supermarket and museum and car parking for 184 cars, new vehicular access to timber yard. (Proposal unsuccessful) 1980: Conversion of station buildings to a hotel including erection of a new 6 storey building and car park (Proposal unsuccessful) 1980: Conversion of existing building into a superstore and conference/arts hall and car park for 400. 1980: Restoration and conversion into a coach station with tourist facilities, erection of a hotel, supermarket and multi-deck car park. (Proposal unsuccessful) 1982-84: restoration work undertaken by Stride Treglown Partnership Demolition of midland cottage, range of stables, air raid shelter, and three timber storage sheds and sawmill sheds and offices. 1981: Strengthening of existing train shed arches by direct horizontal tie rods. 1982: Construction of a pedestrian footbridge adjacent to existing railway bridge over river Avon 44

Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives : Cathryn Spence


21 | 38 1982: Erection of floodlights to main facade of existing station building. 1982-84; restoration work undertaken by Stride treglown Partnership 1983: Erection of temporary toilet units within train shed. 1984: Use of former station building: As a cafe/restaurant, public meeting room, offices; Craft workshop with ancillary retailing/ bank/ estate agency; Exhibition space, concert and entertainment area 1986: Use of centrally paved area as an antique market. (Approved until 1991) 1986: Display of 3 hanging signs on front elevation, 2 fascia signs over doors on platform elevation, 1 fixed to blank window with menu box below. 1987: Levelling of internal sunken area. 1987: Erection of a floodlight sculpture (Approved) 1988: Re-siting of market stalls on to South platform. 1989: Construction of external staircase to provide a fire escape from the cellars to the highway. 1989: Conversion of south cellars to offices with communal administrative facilities. 1990: Installation of rubber paving on top of wooden boarding on part of south platform. 1991: Display of illuminated projecting box sign (Refused) 1991: Permanent retention of stage between north and south platforms. 1992: Change of use of south platform cellars to form photographic gallery and dark rooms. 1996: Extension of Sainsbury with additional 40,000 sq.ft, car park, landscaping, petrol filling station, road, bridge and highway provision.(Appeal withdrawn and filed away) 1996: Installation of satellite antenna for business/data. 1997: Construction of a ramp and installation of a lift to provide access for disables persons (1997) 1998: Display of two non illuminated freestanding totem signs (part refused/ part consent) 2000: Erection of pedestrian walkway / trolley bay covers. 2001: Display of new fascia signs to store and petrol filling station. Replacement of existing signs. (Part permit) 2003: Provision of 4 nos. Internally illuminated free standing signs. 2010: Sainsbury plans to expand store. Two planning applications principally for the retail use of the site were made to the Bath City Council, but the council expressed a preference for a hotel (retaining at least a main station building) on the site, whilst not precluding consideration of other uses, appointed consultant valuers to market the site for this purpose.45

45

Worskett, R., Redston, R.V., Gunton,H. (1975)


22 | 38 New schemes suggested that concert hall plans were expensive and so a number of more options were suggested and schemes were prepared for the same such as a renovation and conversion of main building for newspaper production, new housing for 200, etc. 46(1983: Bryan Little) Another option was to turn the tracks into a walkway and cycle track for pedestrians, cyclists and wheelchair users. The geometry of a railway is generally ideal for it. The gradients are easy and the width adequate sub base sometimes requires cuttings and drainage work. 47 A special feature of sponsored sculptures was suggested to be placed at points of interest serving a dual purpose as seats or drinking fountains as well as being works of art. 48

Fig 14. Concert Hall Proposal for Green Park station

46

Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives

47

Grimshaw, J. (1978)

48

Maggs, Colin. (1992)

Fig 15. Shopping hub proposal for Green Park station


23 | 38

Fig 16. Proposals for Green Park station : LR: Cycle route, Car park B: Hotel


24 | 38

Fig 17. Latest Proposal by Sainsbury, 2013: withdrawn


25 | 38 3. SOCIAL Present Scenario. ‘The smallest actual good is better than the most magnificent promises of impossibilities’ Macaulay. 49 In a trade off for permission to build the adjacent superstore, J.Sainsbury‘s reached an agreement with the Bath City Council and British Rail Property Board in 1979. Part of the deal involved the restoration of the station buildings and train shed (1981-2) the task was both extensive and expensive, but the result was splendid – with the stonework cleaned, the shed reglazed50The station is now regenerated- the booking hall is a brasserie with a public meeting room upstairs, shops flank the platform and the former tracks serve as a car park and farmer’s market.51 The lofty booking hall is divided into 2 floors to house 85 diners meeting room for 150.52 This encouraging partnership between planners and a supermarket chain is now an example of how buildings have been renovated by generating new uses for them through ‘adaptive reuse’.53 David Marval, the job architect designed the new store which is a compact R.C.C. 2 storeyed building with staff and sales at the bottom. The dark brown brickwork of the podium contrasts well with the pale yellow of the cladding panels made of a Swiss material called aleucobond. curved canopy of tinted glass links the vertical walls up to the steeply sloped roof covered with grey asbestos slates.54 Following track lifting in 1967, various rooms in the station have been taken over by small shops, while the train shed is used for open air events needing cover. Twenty new stalls built to launch market and sixty can be installed in the covered area and dismantled after hours. Former lines removed and platform well raised to common floor level, the station rejuvenated on the 9th of June 1961, when it was used as a venue for the ‘eleven o’clock special’ an event organized by the Bath Festival. Four years later, Green Park as a typical 19th century terminus was used for filming scenes from R.L.Stevenson’s comedy, ‘the wrong box’.55

49

Worskett, R., Redston, R.V., Gunton,H. (1975) Owen, J. (1989) 51 Forsyth, M., Bird, S. (2003) 52 Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives 53 Morris, R., Hoverd, K. (1993) 54 Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives 50

55

Maggs, Colin. (1992) p.68

Fig 18. Change in the accessway: towards Green Park Station, Bath


26 | 38 4. ECONOMIC The ‘loss’ and ‘gain’ of values Feilden in his book has explained that interventions practically always involve a loss of a ‘value’ in a cultural property but are justified in order to preserve the objects for the future. This economics of additions must relate in form and scale and be less noticeable than the original material, but at the same time, being identifiable by a skilled observer. After its change of use, the Green Park station building has retained many of its original features including vaults, iron and glass station roof and signature bath stone facade. 56 This can be counted as a ‘gain’ (+) So continuing this way, one may be able to reach a conclusion as to whether there are more losses or gains of values and hence determine the path of conservation! According to architectural correspondent of the Bath Chronicle in 1982, Bryan Little, the covered walkway is the ‘least attractive element’ (-) of the new Sainsbury buildings, whose exterior as a welcome addition to the townscape of a city much in need of good modern architecture.(+) 57 Even allowing for inflation, it is a sobering thought that a station which cost less than 16000 pounds to build from scratch in the 1860’s cost something like 1 ½ million just to restore in the 1980’s.58 (-)As well as the station gaining a new lease of life, the other parts of the railway have been brought back to use. 59 (+) Bath’s long neglected Green park station is a hive of activity60today as it was in the era when 20 expresses a day steamed in, the platform once again echoes to the sound of footsteps-albeit to shoppers walking to and fro from their cars rather than trains!61 (+)

5. EDUCATIONAL Examples of re-use elsewhere. Even though economic factors dictate the hope that a building remains in use, the principle approach to conservation of a building must be to prevent decay without any destruction or falsification of historic evidence. Some technical points to be carried out during conservation of a station building: (as mentioned in the conservation plan drawing) i.

ii. iii.

Cellars and voids below stone buildings to be retained and where accessible used for possible service routes, storage Voids and basements below platforms to be filled for structural reasons where necessary The train shed to be used in part of car parking, at present platform level- the whole

56

Ethical Property. [Online] Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives 58 Owen, J. (1989) 59 Ethical Property. [Online] 60 Owen, J. (1989) 61 Owen, J. (1989) 57

Fig 19. Permanent retention of stage after track filling,Green Park Station, Bath


27 | 38 iv.

to be surfaced with macadam incorporating areas of decorative paving to reflect original layout. The area of the platform within the confines of existing building to be restored in the original form with the wall finished with cobbles or other way.62

An approach to starting a proposal for re-use of an abandoned station is attached in Appendix 1. It is an inspiring example of how proactive attitude can achieve wonders. A few examples of extraordinary results of restoration of disused railway stations are attached as Appendix 2. These are possible to achieve through imagination and a sensitive appraoach. They may be debatable with regards to feasibility, so the idea is to remain contextual as well as flexible.

Fig 20. Steel Additions to the stone building on either side- Porte cochere and iron trussed roof,Green Park Station, Bath

62

Stride Treglown & partners: Proposed rationalisation plan


28 | 38

Emotional Values


29 | 38 1. RESPECT AND VENERATION Why not to demolish? The bath branch built via the Green Park Station marked a prestigious addition to the Midland Railway company’s network. 63 Because of easy access to Bath from all parts of the kingdom, the city became an educational centre, with 5 large boarding schools.64 The obvious architectural merit and aesthetic value possessed by both the station buildings and train shed means that Green Park has a story beyond closure.65 Historic buildings are flexible in meeting a wide range of uses if minor changes are accommodated. Refurbishing buildings in a city is generally a better plan than demolition and rebuilding as it is more sustainable and culturally insightful to do so.

2. CONTINUITY Whether to abandon or adapt? So after one realizes that demolition is not the solution, what is the next step? How does one continue to look at the history and significance of a structure without connecting it with blind romanticism? The Bath Green park station has stood through a century, unmoving through flood or war. Most of the glass on the roof of the building was destroyed in the blitz of April 1942 when a stack of bombs fell on Seymour Street. Continuity was chosen despite the terrible condition of the building and many proposals of demolition. Infact, restoration was a prerequisite to any new development on site. And hence it is understandable why Tesco lost out on Sainsbury. As part of the renovation of the station undertaken on behalf of the firm of J. Sainsbury in 1981/2, the roof was restored to its former glory.66 The argument of conserving buildings as they are is complicated because it is not simply a question of aesthetic quality.67 There is a story to a structure and patina helps continue the narration over time.

Fig 21. Transition spaces between the old and the new structures. 63

64

Owen, J. (1989)

Maggs, Colin. (1992) Owen, J. (1989) p.19 66 Owen, J. (1989) p.15-16-17 67 Madsen, Stephan Tschudi., (1976) p.7-8 65


30 | 38 3. WONDER What are the options? ‘Our stability is but balance and wisdom lies in the masterful administration of the unforeseen.’ Testament of Beauty. To wonder about a decaying structure like Green Park Station will lead to three course of ways that one can take: 1. To preserve them as museum specimens. 2. To destroy them ruthlessly as antiquated structures. 3. To seek to adapt those are capable of it for various modern uses. There is no case of an exhibition town dressed up as a show piece nor will demolition- the loss not only be a material but an artistic one as well.68 Hence, the best way of preserving buildings as opposed to objects is to keep them in use- practice which may involve what the French call ‘mise en valuer’ or modernization with or without adaptive alteration. It is often the only way historic and aesthetic values can be saved economically and historic buildings brought up to contemporary standards.

4. IDENTITY How to know what not to do? Restoration helps in preserving values of a building, hence keeping it structurally as well as culturally sound. When a building becomes derelict and neglected, it tends to lose values in the physical and the intangible plane, which can affect its identity multifold. A bunch of people, young and old were surveyed by the author on a weekday, passing through the station building for regular grocery shopping at Sainsbury. They were asked how often they visited the place and what they thought was the use of the old building. About 80% of the people visited the place twice a week, but only 32% were aware that it used to be a functioning train station 100 years ago! After the station was restored in 1982, the old third class booking hall became the main pedestrian entrance to the building and it now houses an exhibition explaining the history and restoration of Green Park Station over the years.69 However, it is a sad fact that not many people wait to go through it and hence miss out on the trivia surrounded by a place.

5. SYMBOLIC AND SPIRITUAL Who is the winner? In 1980 at the Bath City Council; Mr Leslie Ridd questioned: are we getting the best deal for the

city? The society feels it will be a good example if the central and local government conservationists and commerce works towards a striking amenity conservationist success of national importance.70

68

Abercrombie, P., Owens, J. and Mealand, H. A. (1945) p.18-23 Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives 70 Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives 69


31 | 38 Interventions must not hinder later access to all the evidence incorporated in the building and allow maximum amount of existing material to be retained. Fabric preserved, new spatial values created, the Bath Green Park Station today stands true to itself and others with a glorious past that only a lucky few get to hear, or see.

Fig 22. Re-use of the Green Park Station


32 | 38 Bibliography Books GREEN PARK STATION Abercrombie, P., Owens, J. and Mealand, H. A.1945. A plan for Bath: report prepared for the Bath and District Joint Planning Committee Bath and District Joint Planning, Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd., London Forsyth, M., Bird, S. 2003. Pevsner Architectural Guides: Bath. Yale University Press, New Haven & London P 251. Jackson, Neil. 1991. Nineteenth century Bath. Architects and Architecture. Ashgrove Press, Bath. Morris, R., Hoverd, K. 1993. The Buildings of Bath. Alan Sutton Publishing Ltd. Owen, J. 1989. Life on the Railway. Millstream books, Bath. Maggs, Colin. 1992. The Mangotsfeild to Bath Branch. The Oakwood Press, Oxford. Coard, Peter.1971. Vanishing Bath. Vol 2. The Pitman Press, Bath

CONSERVATION PHILOSOPHY Feilden, B. M.2003.Conservation of historic buildings. Oxford Madsen, Stephan Tschudi., 1976. Restoration and Anti-Restoration. A study in English restoration philosophy. Edgar Hogfeldt, Norway 2nd ed. Jokilehto, J. 1999. A history of Architectural Conservation. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. Worskett, R., Redston, R.V., Gunton,H. 1975. Conservation Study Stage 2: Final Report. Bath City Council. Beeching, R.1963. The Reshaping of British Railways. British railways Board. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. Grimshaw, J. 1978. A study of disused railways in Avon and North Somerset: A report for the Countryside Commission, John Grimshaw & Associates, Cyclebag Bristol. Vol. 2.

Cresswell, P. 2006. Bath in Quote: A Literary View from Saxon Times Onwards. Bath Crucible Publishers.

Internet references English Heritage, 2010. Green Park Railway Station (Disused). List entry description [Online] Available from: http://list.english-heritage.org.uk/resultsingle.aspx?uid=1396267 [Accessed on 3 January 2014] Jenkins, M. Building Conservation Philosophy [Online] Available from: http://conservation.historicscotland.gov.uk/summer-school-conservation-philosophy.pdf [Accessed on 17 December 2013] Ethical Property. [Online] Green park station: Travel through time. Available from: www. greenparkstation.co.uk. (Insitu panels) [Accessed 10 January 2014]


33 | 38 Other references The Bath Record Office: ’Planning History Sheets’ file no; 36: 69- Shakespeare avenue to south down road. (Accessed on 8 January 2014) Berry Geomatics, 2013. James Street West, Bath: Street Scene/Cross Section Sheets: 6. [Online] Available from: http://idox.bathnes.gov.uk/WAM/showCaseFile.do?appNumber=13/02574/FUL [Accessed on 8 January 2014] (Drawing) Berry Geomatics, 2013. Sainsbury’s Green Park Road, Bath Sheets: 9 [Online] Available from: http://idox.bathnes.gov.uk/WAM/showCaseFile.do?appNumber=13/02574/FUL [Accessed on 8 January 2014] (Drawing) Stride Treglown & partners: Proposed rationalisation plan: Green Park Station. Proposal for development for Sainsbury and Stonechester ltd. (Accessed on 8 January 2014) Bath Central Library. The Bath Chronicle Archives. [Accessed on 18 January 2014] The Bath Record Office: ’Planning History Sheets’ file


34 | 38 Appendix 1 Stations Community Regeneration Fund Transport Scotland and First ScotRail launched a 1 million Pound Scotland-wide scheme in April 2009 to make use of disused railway station buildings. The Stations community Regeneration Fund (SCRF) flows from the decision in April 2008 to extend the ScotRail franchise contract. The fourth round of funding resulted in four successful applications, a café/youth hub at New Cumnock, a café/exhibition centre at North Queensferry, a holiday letting/exhibition centre at Helmsdale, and a multi-purpose meeting room at Ladybank. The fund is now closed to allow evaluation of submitted applications. AIM: This scheme aims to make use of disused station buildings as either:  a business meeting passenger or community needs  a community project which contributes to the local community. The SCRF will create conditions where passengers will benefit from improved facilities at stations, redundant buildings will be brought back into use, and new opportunities for job creation and community involvement will be opened up. HOW TO APPLY FOR FUNDING: If you have an idea that would make use of a disused station building you can apply to the fund for a contribution towards set-up costs. Further information, including an application form are available here. WHAT IS THE FUND FOR? The fund can be used in two ways:  to carry out structural repairs to buildings not covered under the Network Rail / Train Operating Company lease agreement  to meet up to 50% of fit-out costs of the building for its intended use. IS THERE A FUNDING CAP? The total budget for the Fund is capped at £1 million, but there is no upper limit for individual schemes. The scheme would not expect to be used for proposals which require less than £5k. Any application seeking funding of £75k or more must be supported by a feasibility study which will be assessed for its strengths and weaknesses but which will not be included in the evaluation process. Approval of requests for funding on this scale will be put to Scottish Ministers for a final decision. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Applications will be assessed against specific criteria which have been informed by responses to our recent consultation. Applications will be assessed against the following criteria:  Proposal details – ensuring a fit between the proposed project and the building  Local fit – giving assurance the proposal works in partnership with or complements other local organisations  Market – showing that an evidence base exists and there is a need or market for the proposal  Outcome – targets and benefits expected as a result of the proposal. WHO TO CONTACT ScotRail will manage and administer the scheme and should be contacted in the first instance. You can contact ScotRail by email at SCRF@firstgroup.com or by contacting 0845 601 5929. A paper version of the application form is also available on request from ScotRail.

Source: Stations Community Regeneration Fund [Online] Available from: http://www.scotrail.co.uk/content/scrf.html [Accessed on 18 January 2014]


35 | 38 Appendix 2 Regeneration of Historic Railway Stations (Illustrations from examples across the world) 1. Gare d’Orsay: Parisian Beaux-Arts Railway Station Transformed into Art Museum

Patras, 1900. [Online] Gare d’Orsay, Paris railway station and hotel Available from: http://www.photorail.fr/sites/default/files/imagecache/product_full/VDR20110218_3779.jpg [Accessed 20 January 2014].


36 | 38 2. THE HIGHLINE PROJECT: Proposal for a Park on site of a derelict Trolley Terminal, Manhattan, U.S.A.

David, J., staff at Friends of the High Line. 1999. [Online] The High Line Park Project, Manhattan’s West Side, City of New York, U.S.A. Available from: http://www.thehighline.org/galleries/images [Accessed 20 January 2014].


37 | 38 3. Redesign of Flinders Street Station, Melbourne, Australia

http://www.bustler.net/index.php/article/hassell_herzog_de_meuron_win_flinders_street_station_competition (Accessed 20 January 2014)


38 | 38 4. Madrid: former Atocha railway station converted into tropical garden.

http://www.urbanghostsmedia.com/2013/10/madrid-old-atocha-railway-station-converted-tropical-garden/ (Accessed 20 January 2014)


UoB 2 History and Theory B