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1988

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how Atari

Basic

interprets your programs. s and

explains its uses.

15

D’r80rt

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further look

The author of AtarI Users programmer Muddled disc directories? We

"

Vol.

bit Atari.

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335": Revealed

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All the latest from the ever-changing world of the

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Programmer’s Challenge that tests

MANAGING EDITOR:

Derek Meakin

in our series

The second

GROUP EDITOR: FEATURES EDITOR;

24

Enjoy more amazing exploits with our resident Atari adventurer.

EDITOR/Al. ASSISTANT:

We take

NEWS EDNOR.

products deS|gned for your Atari.

3

_

Our evaluation team assesses the latest software

Pam Turnbull EDITOR:

36

Prize-winning mini programs

GER:

on ADVEJRT'I‘SEllgENT o n now liz‘ANA

sent in by our clever readers.

38

Game of the month

.

ADVERTISING SALES,

1

releases.

.

.

Five Liners

André Willey

Help to save mankind in our fast-action arcade shoot- em-up.

Nora Lawton

41

isles...

ire o typing istings. st h.is fhgfw‘fksqmlBystflr

32323332313 Telex: 26571 MONREF G Quoting Ref. 72:MAG()01 Telecom Gold: 72:MAGOOt preste| Manbox: 514563383 Fax: 0625 879966

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superb game of strategy to put your powers of logic to the test.

49

Solutions

Software

Published by: Database Publications Ltd, Europa House, Adlington Park, Adl' mg t °" ,M 3“ lesf' 'e Id, SK10 4NP

_

a

look at some US

Re ”3 W5

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COORDINATOR:

TECHNICAL

23

Hardware

Fawcett

Mike Cowley REVIEWS

25

Rouloc

Peter Glover

Neil

~

your skill at problem solving.

Peter Davidson PRODUCT/ON EDITOR:

1

nationwide online database for micros.

News about Britain's

2

_

_

MlcroLlnk

Alan McLachlan

routine to sort them.

Our resident expert helps to solve your programming problems.

51

.

.

Hints and Tips

Get more fun out of the t0p games with help from our readers.

33.573 January-June, 1986

52

-

Subscription rates for 12 issues, post free:

E asy P rogramm!ng_

E15_ UK £18 Europe (incl. Eire) £33 Overseas (Airmail)

Mailbag

Learn more about Atari

Basnc:

_

This month we look at animation. _

57

_

-

This is your chance to get your news, views and name in print.

lSSN 0266-545X “Atari User” welcomes program listings and articles for publication. Material should and prefbe typed or computer-printed, erably double-spaced. Program listings should be accompanied by cassette tape or disc. Please enclose stamped, self~ addressed envelope, otherwise the return of material cannot be guaranteed. Contributions accepted for publication by Database Publications Ltd will be on an all‘rights

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A” major listings are accompanied by QhGCksums overcome typing to_ help of h°w m'Stakes' For full data"? e on artic the see they WOTk, 1987 November the of 23 page issue Of Ata” User -

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Zirrigyofrftgginggfetshsiyifomm News trade distribution: Europress Sales

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‘More

110

NEWS

”rates

the Atari

.

under ?re ATARl has been showing

Far East

as

"Serious programs such word processors, spread-

and pro-

databases

sheets,

gramming languages are being overlooked in favour of cheap cartridge and cassette-based games", he

for £29.95, the FynCalc spreadsheet at

processor

£49.95 and the FynFiIe dataalso at £49.95. balse Even though the prices are relatively cheap compared to other full function programs, sales are very ‘

low indeed”,

said Keith.

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saidwe Il' seh

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grea

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capable'o app ications

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Software EXpreSS (OZL 328 3585) produces a number Of packages for the Atari such as the Xlent word

“The problem may be that to the many newcomers Atari just don’t know that it is more than a games machine. “If they could only look beyond the joystick they would get a lot more out of their micro”.

ON THE SERlOUS Sle users who want more than entertainment

ATARI

from theirmachines have a new source of serious software. Valar Software has just completed development of a desktop publishing and circuit board CAD program for Atari 8 bit machines, and wants to hear from p ros p ective users.

Richard Prangnell of

-

-

further than games. "I am sure a lot of Atari

are interested in more from their

getting machine and we would like to hear from them. ”If the response is enou 9 h then we ood 9. WI” set upacreative user .

group" ‘

from

the USA

of acclaimed bit programming aids from American company 088 is to be made available in the UK.

grammers, includes the

FrontierSoftware (0423 67140) is importing them in its role as distributor for ICD Inc of Illinois, which recently took over OSS’s product line. An alternative to Basic,

disc £19.95.

THE range

Atari

8

the fast

programming language Action! blends the best elements of Pascal and C. It is available on cartridge for £49.95, and toolkit disc for £19.95. Macro assembler and editor Mac/65, for serious

assembly language pro-

powerful DDT

screen-

oriented debugging program.The cartridge costs £49.95 and the toolkit Downward compatible with standard Atari Basic but with an additional 45 commands, Basic XL supports all Atari 8 bit micros. The cartridge is £39.95 and the toolkit disc £19.95. Basic XE has all the commands and, is

designed for the Atari

130XE to make better use of the memory but still retain compatibility with Atari Basic. The cartridge costs £49.95.

ATARI Corporation's com— puter activities continue to prosper. The company has iust reported net sales of $1475 million fal- the last up 59 per cent quarter from the previous year's $925 million. Income was 53 per cent _

up at means

copyright and design}

patents.

The move follows the recent inclusion of com-

puter software under copyright Singapore laws Atari has also seized a large consignment of g games cartridges oriinatin g in Taiwan and destined for European

V

-

markets.

N ew

games group

formed AMAJOR international publisher has iomed forces With .

.

.

.

new software house to launch an exclusive enterAtari. tainmentslabelforthe combines the Mand?mn marketing muscle Of the a

————————

Fresh

it? ?gcee firmf?zlglzged

-

-

Valar (0273 417370) told Atari User: ”We believe the aspirations of the average 8 bit user extend owners

software pirates

that it means business. The company has obtained court injunc-g, tions against six Singer

— .THE capabilities of the Atari 8 bit micro are not being fully utilised, according to Keith Mason, general manager of Software Express.

are

This

$313 million. net salesfortheyear

stand at

a

fecord $3638

million __ a rise of 41 per cent over the previous year. Income was up49 per cent at $72 million.

Atari President Sam Tramiel said: “The computer segment of our business continued to grow ata record pace, contributing over 51 per cent of our net sales for the year”.

EUFOPFGSS

Group, parent

company Of

Database

Pill?“-

cations, In a series Of 10mt ventures With some of'the UK’s top programming teams. _

first title _to' be released by Mandarin is an Time And adventure trilogy, 9. Magik, from Level “We believe that 'Level 9 s The

_

,

programming skills, _together With Mandarin s _marknowledge of the ketplace, abilities In printing and packaging, and its understanding of the need out on time, to_get products Will be an unbeatable comTum to Page 7 > April 7.988 Atari User 5


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NEWS

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l

R EV IEN

r

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gs l- 5

Show 3 the place for bl savm s -

'

space

provided

by Alexandra Palace further the increasing emphasises

popularity of products

the Atari. Previous

bination”, of Level

venues

on

have

says Pete Austin

9.

Mandarin’s involvement with the innovative games software house is the first of a series of joint ventures. “We find ourselves in the position that, unlike many other publishers, we don’t have to rush out titles to maintain cash flow”, says Chris Payne, spokesman for the new venture. couldn’t be “Mandarin more sound

have

£1

financially

we

million in the kitty—

so we are in a

5

TITLE

55

(Software House) LEAGUE CHALLENGE

superb

pos-

PANTHER

A

Mastertronic

I

B

A

B

FEUD

Mastertronic DECATHLON Firebird

A

I

HENRY'S HOUSE

v

Mastertronic

houses.

Centre stage at the show will be leading Atari dealer Silica Distribution with a massive 66 square metre stand.

lt will be displaying the largest ever range of software and hardware at the show. The company is also offering free registration to its Atari user groups.

v

TRANSMUTER Code Masters

A

SPACE

games for the Atari. And what better way to startthan with Level 97”. The first game to be released, Time And Magik, has up to 60,000 words of text, 700 locations and a 10,000 word book condetailed play guide taigin? an s ort story. To help players who get bogged down with the intricacies of the game,

9 to to be choose not only our part- hensive clue sheets free of charge. The game costs ners, but also just what products we decide to “$14.95 on tape or disc.

ON CUE M astertronlc .

180

V

m

m

SPEED ACE

Zeppelin

A ,

release. it is our aim that our label will become synonymous with quality, providing the Rolls Royce of software

SHUHLE Firebird

.

UK's

m

POSINON

POLE.

Atari

.

One of the many special attractions to be seen in the West Hall will be the games arcade. A large bank of machines will be available for playing the very latest titles from leading software

ATARI User has received many letters pleading for a version of the top-selling game Star Wars. Despite interest shown by Atari User readers, Domark says it will not be releasing an Atari 8 bit version.

=

Atlantis

proved too small for the ever increasing numbers of exhibitors and visitors.

"0 star wars

J

===::==

I l-

I

EXHIBITORS are forecasting record savings on hardware and software at this month’s Atari User Show. It takes place April 22 to 24 at Alexandra Palace, London, and a survey conducted by Atari User reveals that potential savings to visitors should total well in excess of £100,000. The event will also be the launching pad for a number of exciting new Atari 8 bit products. Red Rat Software will be unveiling its latest bargain price compilation games packs, which include the popular titles Mad Jax, Dreadnought, and Space Wars. Seen at the show for the first time will be the new quality games publisher Mandarin Software. The company has produced an excellent adventure for the Atari 8 bit—Time and Magik. The move to the larger

exhibition

pw

2@

A=T=A=R=|=S=I=F=T=W=A=R=E

,

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Mastemonic

A

BMX SlMULATOR Code Masters

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PLATFORM PERFECTION us Gold

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GHOSTBUSTERS Ricochet SOCCER

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April 1988 Atari User 7


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HAVE you by now managed to digest last month's somewhat technical delve into the inner secrets of Atari Basic? It’s not really as complex as it first seems, is it? This time we'll be continuing from where we left off and taking a look at the way program

encoded

lines are

or

-

Looking back for

a

’ '

tokenised.

moment you will

remember the example program

we

'

were using last time: 5 LET NUMBER=120 10 PRINT NUMBER

Line 5 tokenised to give us the codes 5, 0, 15, 75, 6, 128, 45, 74, 65, 18, 0, 0, 0, 10 gave us the 0, 22 and line somewhat shorter sequence 10, 0, 7,

7133

7231 .22-

qu1ck reminder, the first two each line represent the line number in standard 6502 low high format and the next two give us the total number of bytes contained in the tokenised line. The final 22 is a marker has reached the end °f to tell Basrc As

,

.

.

a

_'t

use

decnde to

USITtime we ” be conS|der|ng This _

,

slightly more complex program W'th the shown

versnon

as'List1ng m Figure

tokenised

|

l-

a '

h

a

contains number Of features we haven tllooked strthe most important being at yet, |ngs and multi-statement lines. The ?rst thlng to note IS that there are four variables in the program TEXT$, A, Band C. These are given the first four variable name tokens, so TEXT$ is referred to by the number 128,/4 by 129, Bby 130 and finally be -

131, This is, of course, the order in which the variables were first referred to ~

_

1121111511111 35 PRINT A: 45 REE THE

'

PRINI

B:

PRINT

C

END

,

, .

Listing

I:

Simple example program

.

.

.

digits of

the current line.. A” the bytes, 'h between represent the program lines themselves, W'th refernng to numbers °f128 and over 583“? as Stored by '"_the “Gables tokenised variable name table. These lines W'" be used whenever you run the program, and are only ever conwhen you verted back into text form

_

_

hls contlnues Of the ln-depth examlnatlon way Atarl BaSIC ls StrUCtured

ANDRE WILLEY -

-

when the program was typed into memory. Line 10 is easy to work out and dif— fers little from the lines we have seen before. The token 20 refers to the word DIM, and 59 and 44 are the open and close bracket symbols. As we have already seen, TEXT$is given the token 128, and the number 20 is coded somewhat lengthily as a numeric constant in binary coded decimal. See last month's article for more information on BCD coding.

Line 20 contains something the string assigncompletely new ment TEXT$="HELLO”. Once token—

ised, it looks like this: 20 0 15 15 54 123 46 15 5 72 59 76 76 79 22

know by now that the first four numbers— 20,0, 15 and 15 — mean that the line number is 20 and it is 15 bytes long. But the rest of the YOU Sh0U|d

codes are new.

-

replaced by

the normal token for

The digit 128 tells Basic we want to variable (TEXT$), and 46 represents the equals sign. The number 15 signifies the start of a string constant in much the same way as the number 14 always precedes a BCD numeric constant. The string is coded very simply as a single byte to indicate the length of the string—in this case five characters and then the text in standard Ascii form. Finally the line is terminated with the normal 22. Line 30 gets a little more complex since it contains three different statements, each separated by a colon. This line tokenises to: use the first

30 015

732129201132130201532

13122 which in turn breaks down into these four segments: .

FifSttY: the token 54 means LET because what we meant to type was LET TEXT$="HELLO", even if we This use of token 54 is referred to as an implied LET— if we typed in the full version of the line all that would change would be that the 54 would be

a 6,

LET.

30 0 15 7 32 729 20 _

113513153 _

The

_

first'part

_

leisumple

enough to

égrr:ng hifh’ijeirlo?gthfegebefofgeqhtes 0 give the line number (30) and the

the 10 0 16 16 20 128 59 14 64 32 o o o o 44 22

10

BM TEXT$l20l

iniagvfgkgigli,??,§2'_“§$2$;h°;§£§§

20 0 15 15 54 128 46 15 5 72 69 76 76 79 22

20

TEXT$=”HELLO"

(13311; figsgf die; ti'iee?‘ilrké‘é’mih?rf

30015 40

013

Figure

7 32 129 20 11 32 130

2015 32

13 0 84 72 69 32 69 78

I: The

68155

131 22

30 PRlNT A: PRlNT B: PRlNT c 40 REM THE END

131

are

31321413333053“ tsri‘tf‘p?gvabrfg?l The token

22 Signifies

the end of the

Turn to Page 10 b

tokenised structure of Listing!

I

April 7988 Atari User 9


Finally the last statement on a line will always contain the same offset value as the total line length byte—the offset to the next statement being the same as the offset to the next line. This is why the Special cases we have locked at so far—in which there is only one statement on a line—always have the same number for the line offset as they do for the statement offset. The last line of our sample program is probably the simplest of them all. After the line number and the two identical length bytes comes the single token zero meaning REM. This is followed by the rest of the Ascii text — terminated in this case with a carriage return byte (155) instead of the normal code 22. This is done so that you are able to use a ControI+X — Ascii code of 22 in your text. A DATA statement would be coded in exactly the same way, but with a token value of followed by the Ascii

‘ F’°’" Page 10 line, so it's not too difficult to see that 20 must indicate the end of a statement within a multi-statement line — rather like the colon in the original text version. This just leaves us with the numbers 7, 11 and 15 at the start of each successive statement to explain. In the same way that Basic stores the total length of the line, so it must also keep track of the length of each statement within that line. So far we have seen only a single statement on a given line, so we see two identical length values — the distance to the end ofvthe line being the same as that to the end of the first (and only) statement. However, in this case we see that the second length byte in fact refers to the length of just the first statement. To be more accurate, it provides an offset to the beginning of the next statement. The value of 7 in the tokenised version of PRINTA gives thetotal number of bytes that must be counted to take you from the start of the line to the last the very byte of that first segment next byte will be the start of the following statement. Similarly the number 11 at the start of the second statement tells us that the third statement will begin 12 bytes in from the start of the line since the second one finishes at byte 11. '

1

text. It would obviously take far too long to give examples of all the individual tokens used by Atari Basic, but you should by now understand the general format of a line.

For furtherinformation Figures II, III and IV give a complete breakdown of all the available tokens and their meanings. The first token of any statement will always come from Figure ll, and it may be followed by either some Ascii text—such as in the case of REM,

—-

.

,

t

4

9

{$90} ,

Return) DATA INPUT

A,

$301)

Z?fn}; 3603) ?at“;

(as

for REM)

6($96)

7ma7;

1531303}

121m}

raises;

“EQEQE;

ENTER LET

35 ($231

NEXT GOTO GO TO GOSUB TRAP

_

y

1? ($11? 18($.12)

CLOSE CLR DEG

42 ($2150,

43 ($23; 4d ($2C) 45 ($20),

(same as DIM) ,

22i$16l

NEW

z’f23‘lii?i7)?’

OPEN

24 ($18) 25519) 23f$1Ai 2?

($1518):

LOAD SAVE STATUS

Pop

POSITION

48 ($30) 49 ($531) 5a ($32): 51 ($33)

DRAWTO

($35) 54 ($36)

556371

SOUND LPRINT

CLOAD

(implied LET) *ERROR (followed by the

"5605i

text and

a

Carriage Return) a

is;

Figure ll: Keyword tokens used by Atari Basic (always the first token ofa statement} 10 Atari User April 1988

"HELLO”. It can also be used for comparison of either strings or numbers such as IF TEXT$=”N” THEN —

END or

IF

A=MAX THEN 100.

Similarly the open brackets cha-

racter can be used within a mathematical formula to access a substring, inside a DIM statement or as part ofa function call such as PRINT CHR$(A). Each usage of the character has its own unique token, and these various special cases are listed alongside each

token.

One other point of interest concerns the useful trick of abbreviating commands when you are typing in a pro— gram. I’ve no doubt that many of you prefer to use GR. instead of the much longer GRAPHICS, or L. instead of LIST. But how does Basic know that typing S. means SAVE rather than The answer lies in the structure of Figure II. When Basic discovers a dot within a command, it scans through the table starting at the top, until it finds a match for the few characters it has been given. Thus, since SAVE comes before any other word starting with S, this becomes the first match and the command is read as SAVE. If you just type the dot without any other characters the match will be made on the very first token in the table giving you a very quick way to enter REMs. This technique works with any command, but not with functions. Thus there is no way to'shorten PADDLE, for example, because it is a function call, as listed in Figure IV. Also some abbreviations have dubious advantages such as POK. instead of POKE. It can’t be shortened any further because using P. or even PO. would result in the command POINT being generated. Unfortunately we are stuck with the command table order as defined by Atari in the Basic rom. —

($343 CSAVE

53

(same as PRINT) GET PUT GRAPHICS PLOT ?

SETCOLOR LOCATE

NOTE

a;

STOP

DOS

512 ‘

-

RAD READ RESTORE RETURN RUN

46 ($251

54:7 ($2F)‘

END

($35).

35, ($24),

38 ($26) 39 (527) 49. ($282. 41 ($29)

(same as GOTO)

3353514} DIM an

PRWT

(5522?

&7§$25)

BYE

CONT COM

3$i$€¥3l

ON POKE

£5”)

34

t?f?Fi

T?ls‘i?i

3,9 (5153

LIST

FOR

team;

PO'NT X|0

32 ($203 33 ($21)

IF

gj?s}; 9699)

28 ($1C} 29 ($10) “3,1

COLOR

1§5¥F“~(3585Y

,

f,

(f°'|°W9d by text terminated with a Carriage REM

DATA or ERROR lines — or more normally by a mixture of the tokens listed in Figures III and IV plus various numeric or string constants. You will notice from the list of arithmetic and string operations given in Figure IIIthat some characters seem to have more than one possible token. This is especially notable in the case of the open bracket and the equals signs, and is due to the fact that they can be used in a variety of functionally quite different situations. For example, the equals symbol may be used to assign a value to a numeric variable — as in LET A=10, or to a string with LET TEXT$=

0 Next month 17! conclude this tour of Basic’s inner workings withaprogram which will enable you to see these tokens in aCt/O" for yourself. .


“mm 3-135;

1425012} Numeric constant

(next six bytes hold

5

"i

T4?

5;

15

(SOP)

it’s BCD

t “

17

value)

String constant (next byte is length, then contents) string "

71 $16

($10)

(dummy for Start of Expression)

“(33:11:15

38 ($12) 1201”~?(4$14§5

21715157 22135151

2

(Carriage Return)

2313111 GOTO

GOSUB

24 13181" 25 {$19}

TO STEP THEN

26t$1?€i 27-1513};

<= <> >= < >

23,131,132;

361$1E§

31f$1Fj 132111:

33t$21§ 3413227

/

(Arithmetic comparison o p erators)

($29)?

OR

($2A)

AND

($28)

(

(QC);

)

($331;

($34) ($35) ($361

69

H” 7

(Arithmetic assignment)

=

(String assignment) -

,

+ -

( ( 7

($301

(String comparison

operators)

(in mm statement) (for function call, eg: in ‘CHR$(...')

,1 '

'

(array/substring element separator)

~

,

'

Darg

395

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Henry's House......................1.95

Masterchess.........................1.95 R

kt ° rd

2 95

9°.

'

D’°'d 295 0" (3119295 Panther 295 Transmuter195 Universal Hero 195 M'SS'"9 °"e

“DE"

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~

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tittle Win

ngilshtggg s a

I

.

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Flight Simulator

7515415 80

ABS INT

8?

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83

($537

PADDLE ST|CK PTRIG STRIG Unused Reserved

82($52)

,

8542? 128255 ‘

‘ A

‘ '

for

variables

........t......39.95

lI

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1275 Leaderboard1275 Knight Orc

Toumament....g.gg tetadeéboard e evl Living Daylights..................12.75 .

l

ulraxoifzforcenégg

ice gkghrtgares mares PlaifornrtnPar'fme?ku"mum..."8.50 Nimitt g .

RND FRE EXP LOG CLOG SQR SGN

I

Ace of Aoes 850 Arkanoid 795 Atari Aces 850 Four Star Games II .............695 Basil: Mouse Detective ........8.50 Colossus Chess IV...............8.50 Druid 850 Football Fortunes ...............12.75 Four Star Games ...............6.95 Deeper Dungeons

f“

Figure IV: Function tokens used by Atari Basic

I

130295

9”

84 ($54)

l

PO BOX 78 MACCLESFlELD CHESHIRE SK10 3PF Telephone (0625) 25228

BMX Simulator.....................1.95 Boulderdash 295 Boulderdash ii 295

71: ($477

7215437

77 ($407 78 ($45)

(unary plus) (unary minus) (for substrings) (for arrays)

,

ATARI BUDGET CASSETTES

COS PEEK

75 ($451

Figure Ill: Operator tokens used by Atari Basic

Robotron.............................12.95 Tennis...................................9.95

ATN

69“ ($45) 70 ($457

7615154131

~

Final Legacy 1295 JoUst 1295 Moon Patrol 1295 Ms Pacman1295

LEN ADR

63, ($447

73‘ ($397 74 ($4171)

=

($33;

59

(within arithmetic expression)

=

(

A

ASC VAL

(

57 ($391 53 ($3131?

k

’~

1

ATARI ROMS Defender...............................9.95 Donkey Kong Jnr ...............12.95

STR$ CHR$ USR

($3972,

1

<= <> >= < >

($30) ($31) ($32),

43 49 50 53 52 53 54

=

35 {$23}

61",

6291335)

63 ($3F) 64 ($40) 31,655: ($41) 66 ($42) 67 ($437

NOT

551153732 55 ($387

#

28 131C}

St

($27) ($28):

($29

437

(end of statement)

g.

-

‘45 ($20) 46 ($25)

$ :

,

+

433

(parameter separator)

,

1913135

32

37 38 39 40 4“! 42 43

—m

*

($24) ($25) ($26)

36

Unused

8.95 .

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“M

A April 1988 Atari User

71


M

\~ \\

.

MICK RANDLE gives full details Of the At ar' U ser

Atari XE computers are arguably the best 8 bit home micros available and are certainly the best value for money. Even the ST ran e is inferior to the XE in some wags lust ask a machine 00“ programmer. it is amazing, that [the internal design of the XE hasremained virtually unchangedsince 1979, when the first Atari 400 was introduced. Unfortunately, some areas of its performance do tend to betray its ancient origins. For example, Atari .

.

Programmer

inventive lot, Atari Being enthusiasts frequently write utility programs to make up for' Basic's deficiencies, and lots have been published in Atari User. The snag is that although each admirably ful?lls a requirement, it normally has to be loaded into memory as it is required. This means that it can take programmers a relatively long time to perform straightforward tasks. The problem is not that Atari

O

*

of it being incomplete. Even essential program development commands like line renumbering and deletion are conspicuous by their absence. True. you can go out and buy alternative versions of Basic but they cost nearly as much as the computer itself, and you run the risk of your programs being incompatible with standard a case

machines.

minimum of typing and without having to remember complicated commands. We also have to retain as possible as much memory a

i\\\\

\

.

bytes of user memory and it even leaves Page 6 — memory addresses 1536 to 1791 free. —. All the Toolkit commands are useful and are easy to. remember and use and several, like line renumbering, can be leihd lh Other COmputers as builtin utilities. But of the new comsome mands are excluswe to the Atari

community. Toolkit loads into memory via _

an aUtObOOt file on tape or disc. When it has loaded YOll can begin your programming sessl0h_<’='nd forget abOUt it U"""_ You need It- As previously mentioned, the total cost in terms of user memory IS only 128 bytes. This iS achieved by placmg the main code in the unused ra_m beneath the Basic rom Chip, and SWitching between the two banks as requrred. The code which handles this switchIS 128 resides in long

I

l

,

'

"j w? -.C> %( %

,

x.

/

\

\\

Atari User Toolkit

r,

\

NV ‘

\\l

Q

additional

f.\

s

..

?//////////’

,

offers 10 BaSic commands and is With standard totally compatible Atari BaSic. It consumes only 128 THE-

J

///////

Q

\'

I'“9 OW memory. bytesigure Iand explains the computer’s memory allocation. Notice that we have effectively squeezed 16k

Of code into the 8k area from $AOOO to $BFFFThe are called Toollkit_commands from Basrc 3 direct command mode they execute _when you type them rather than during DrOQram execution. _

,

You may renumber lines from base line April

©

.\ '

7/\

/§>‘“f

\/

1

large Basic language is

not much use ifthereisnot enough memory left for a program.

12 Atari User

I

w,

\,

z

.’/’7/ 55377 /_z

“I 5:

J

\’3/

of 10, by typing REN. All ?ne references, such as GOTO 100, are automatically altered to reference the new line number. You can vary the base line and the line increment by entering them after the command, ments

separated by

a

comma.

Toolkit checks to see if your newline numbers are acceptable before altering your program, so there is no chance of ruining your work. Variable

line references, such as GOTO LlNE, cannot be renumbered because

Toolkit cannot determine how

a

vari-

able may change.

Similarly, references to non-existent lines cannot be renumbered because they are programming errors. Toolkit

continues to renumber the program,

displaying alert messages where

appropriate.

As an aid to legibility, all nonexistent line references are set to 99999 so that you can easily identify the offending statement.

_

What we need is an extended Atari Basic which is com atible with the standard one, bu'; with additional program development functions. We want the functions to execute quickly, with the

because

\/

\/

O

an

Basicisabadlanguage—“ism“?

.

'

4

8

T00|klt

Basic is notably lacking when compared to other versions of the lan ua e used b y other com-

putgrs.g

1

“ “\

'

I

s“

E]

_'.‘

,/ 4 /i%% %’\\\\

_

;

\

your program incre-

10, in line

.

.

Deleting lmes The line deletion command is an important and long overdue addition to Atari Basic. Just type the DEL command followed by two line num— bers separated by commas, and all lines within the specified range will be

removed from your program. The first line number should obviously be lower than the second one, but again if you make a typing error Toolkit will tell you rather than ruin your program. Make sure that the

1988 .

,


remainder of your program makes no reference to the missing lines, as no checking is performed by Toolkit. A good way to find such references is to renumber the program with the REN command, which will expose any references to the now non-existant

Every time Y°.U_ press .a key YOU WI” the familiar Cth hear. through the monitor loudspeaker, WhiCh can drive to distraction. A many programmers poke can switch it off, but I don’t know anyone who can remember either the memory address or the number to _

lines.

Strip utility

_

full-line REMs. Their removal makes

trouble. The funny thing

programming practice never to GOTO a REM line, although many programmers do it. Test for such referenusmg the REN command as

shiv?

-

Changmg vanables or later every programmer the stage where a variable no longer appropriate to its

pjgzolrs

'

is

rom

Operating system ($0000 to

$FFFF)

-

PerfeCt L'Stmg

routine more

gmgtbgjgbggggggag“csaegggfetge 8k Basic

displaying more 5223152373ligggfviisys'tzeiereztioo; is capable

reaches

Tum to Page 14 P .

that many peepie actually miss the sound when it has gone, 30 if YOU find YOU want it back jUSt type CUCK again. -

a

31331253 r?12381?!3535233} 312

S ooner

Not any more. Just type VAL and the decimal number for an immediate

POKE in itThe CLICK command saves you the

The STRIP command is a sort of selective line deletion utility. It deletes all REM statements from the program whether they are short REMs at the end of multiple-statement lines, or

-

number to its hexadecimal or binary equivalent. This usually means a frenzied search for the calculator or a book containing conversion tables. decimal

_

_

Removmg Cth

characters

than

a

($A000to

of printing. The prinprinter ter interprets many characters as print as

a

room,

mm

$BFFF} .

“$2 thitétl‘e ggxg’ufgfesihqsrzlgltl?

troI+Clear combination

mm and 3,

Screen memory

screen

control code. It is no coincidence that the Control Shift key is so-called. That is why you sometimes find that when listing a program with the command LIST “P1", a machine code string may make your printer perform a dozen line feeds and print the rest of your listing

.

.

(Size var/es W'th .

.

graphics mode)

_—'_—————'

Free memory for programs .

.

(Size var/es)

'

'

'

Suppose you are usmg X to reprenumber of remaining lives in a game program. As the program grows you deCIde that LIVES would have been a more d_escrlptlve name, but you leave it as X because you don’t feel like altering 36 occurrences of the variable. The CHANGE command allows you to change the X to LIVES simply and quickly, and all occurrences of the variable will be altered automatically. Full checking is performed by Toolkit to prevent you from making a mess of your program by duplicating an existing name, or Changing the variable to a different type such as converting a string variable to an array. .

sent the

.

m Greek. .

,

.

728-byte Toolkit hand/er (addressvaries w1th system) .

Intermediate gramvmers

to

often

.‘

Operating system and Bastc .

(Size

advanced proto convert a

.

————_—'—

Changing bases Figure

ram

varies)

How the Atari allocates memory

I:

need

Purpose _

'_

Listing variables You may find that you receive a duplicate name error when using the CHANGE command, and you are not sure exactly what variables you are using. Find out by using LVAR, which not only lists each variable in memory, but also displays every line number it appears in. Unused variables are indicated and are wasteful of memory, so rather than invent a new one you could change the name of a redundant variable with the CHANGE command.

________

T°°|klt s P'STING. command gives you a full printed listing Without any of the above pro bl ems on any E pson or Epson-compatible printer with bitimage graphics capability.

CHANGE old,new

CHANGE X,LIVES

Change variable name

CLICK

CLICK

Toggle key.c?ck

DEL line1,line2

DEL 100,266

Delete line range

DIR drive

DIR 2 or DIR 3

Disc directory

GlRl

GlRl

View GIRI listing

LISTlNG start,end

LISTING or LISTING 10,300

Full Atascil listing

LVAR

LVAR

Variable X-reference

REN start, step

REN or REN 1,1

Renumber program

STRIP

Remove REM statements

li

.t

.

Figure ,,_. The Too/kit’s 10

STRIP

new Basic

VAL number

"

VAL

2

-

or VAL $3F

Number conversion

commands April 7.988 Atari User 13


4 From p age

them. This is due to the fact that SpartaDos uses the ram beneath the computer's operating system in a similar way to how Toolkit uses the ram beneath Basic.

13

_

_

_

trianslatlon lhto hexadeClmal and binary hOtatIOh- HexadeClmal or mayschoné/erted tbrlnary1nugnbers e ot er ases ustng an enteretg by preflxmg the number With the °/o signs respectively. .

.

.

BBC Micro chums start talkin about thelr BaSIC. At a fraction of the cost, you have better program development commands. _

, . .

_

.

;_

a;

.

$ or ’

_

~'1;::;-.

,

The DlFl command is aimed, not surprisingly, at disc drive owners. Type the command followed by the drive number for a disc directory Iisting. Using Dos 2.5, the only restriction

imposed by Toolkit is that the system must be configured fora maximum of two disc drives (plus the ramdisk if used) and three file buffers.

Realistically speaking, being limited to two drives is no great hardship since most people only need one and two drives are a luxury most of us cannot afford, However, if he uses SpartaDos he can still use Toolkit and access all of ,

A

/

e”val/ed writing Toolkit for Atari Nowadays it is fashiOna b/ eto knock BESIC asaprogramming la”guage, and Atari Basic in particular because it is does not conform to the Microsoft standard, / have a great affection for our V6f_$/On of Basic: It is easy to Use qurte powerful for its size and it only costs 8k of memory, The enhancementsprovided by Too/kit enable You to spend more time PfQQfammingand less waiting for

-

User.

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pmmm 595 395 Shoo, 'em ups 595

Flam-"m

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Battle 01 Antietam Kamigruppe

2599 25.99 35.00 17.00 17.00

Pnntshop

Graphics Disc G rap hics D‘ts c ll Beer g DWPZOHG I

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Most Atari User readers adOpt the good habit of using GIR! to check their typing and the latest version, in the November 1987 issue of Atari User, is much qutcker and eaSler to use than the originalToolkit lncorporatesGlRl to make Its operation even eaSIer—tust type GIR! for the checksum hStan- The Ohhl other dlfference is that YOU can “0 longer send i110 your printer bUt think of how much paper you will save! Finally, not only does Toolkit offer 10 great utilities as extensions to Atari Basic, but it also provides English error messages to complement the computer’s error code number. With Atari User Toolkit you need no longer feel embarrassed when your

AUTHORS NOTE

;.

Checksums

,

Dlrectory enqulrtes

I

"

.

.

'

.

..

‘695

Dine “3-95 ‘2-95 Disc 17.95 18,95 1695 ‘6'95 Disc 12.95 Disc 8.95 8.95 8.95 8.95 8.95 8.95 8.95 8.95

HARDWARE 5993 system '“°'“d'"9 "99 0mm" 29935 N'"'°“-°° sys‘e'“ ”59° Atari 52057 FM 5250 LXBOO £249.00 Epson Ferguson CM805 Monitor/TV 220990 XC12 cassette unit £3430 0x77 TOUCh Tablet £4930 FOR LATEST PHONE ST

PR'CES N" "n of ST Software no our adv-rt the Mad ST User For

ln

Allpdcnmeofn?lttlrmoiool "l' to W“ Accm or Vis- or?m "icon PI ““ m 5‘ P" "" ' "mm” °"’°" PM“ mm C’W‘” °' PM“ °"’°" P'Y'b“ '°: 11

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comprehend” stock

and ST software

WHlLE

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list

hardwar-

E

ior


f

noticed

endearing features of the

.

'

-

-

g» b

b‘ x

.

. b.

-

.

a:

.

direc

disc

H

.

~

.‘

,

.

grams-you've written yoliill'sglfprgtyped In fl’Om Atari User you mar have one of the less it's very messy. tolfyYOU'Ve got a aCked out if a particularpfile is

"

l

lF you have a lot of discs

.

(ilscitfl/rilglirlg

'

-

'.

,

.

.

j;

I

, _

,

..

’5

involve looking carefully throu h th e entire directory. But, wouldn't a b e‘a lot easier if the directory Wa 3 In order? alprl'gabetical IS would mean that i number of files concernefdyevlitl?ac(>jn: t0 program, all of which had the sam e fliename but a different extensio now appear together onn furth Corruption is very unlikely but met/dwould isc a vital it’ S her. etter tO be safe than sorry really directory. lt’snot f aCI eTlty, bUt lt makes |t a lOt easier t Also once a disc has been Isoned ’ Irdeleted files cannot be unerased Us' keep-track of Where files are And Do Sort is just the program to do it even if the disc has 1:23 DISKFlX._COM, Work on Dos 20 or DDS 2 5 been written since the file w to llt WE“ discs in Single of enhanced den SI't. deleted. So make sure you W0n't as yj Although it ignores deleted want'ng to recover any deleted met; it may under unugtrlal sort the disc. UPC|Osed files, beforelyou to sort commercial Circumstances crash if a file has discs, try Don_t if they seem to have normal corrupted, This has never even t gecome directories. Some discs store pro ram appenedto me yet, but lfyou sus a in the direCtOFV seetorsgand file to be faulty, use the Verify géck date? Option in the DlSKFIX,CQM muff SOrting this would be fatal with Dos 2.5 to make su rat Ihye 'f YOU'Ve got an assembler t VP e m sEJDDIied disc is safe, Program H and the” type: Y0u don’t have access to Dos 2 5

,

,_

,,

.

ALAN CRAWFORD can brlng order that Cluttered u P d-Isc directory .

.

-

'

make a an lcfjare backUp ofStylclqujsclllsgl: 122? bad t e disc file causes DirSort to corru PEssie '

'

if?

_ _

about understand how you go it’s useful to directory the sorting Dos 2.0 and understand just how disc. on files store Dos 2.5 the file When you save a file, FMS management system about it in the stores information in sectors directory. This is stored each of and disc 361-368 on your holds the direc— these eight sectors for eight files, tory information of 64 files. maximum a giving and Each record is 16 bytes long which consists of a flag byte locked, To

— indicates the file status, each deleted or unused. Two bytes sectors of number the are used for on the disc the in the file and where 11 bytes another with ?le begins, for the ?lename and extension. involves So sorting the directory sectors into directory the reading into order memory, sorting them the disc

and writing them

on to

a simple insertion again. I’ve used involves sort algorithm which directory the through searching

which and finding the record

ASM”#D:D'RSORT-B'N

to produce a binary file on o Ur d'ISc,| used MAC/65 to assemb|y e the Code

.

but it h be easy to mod|fy it 50 ,S O_UId that It W'” assemble On the Atari Assembler Editor cartridge, Wh0_d0n't have an assembler S hThOSG ould typ? m PrOgram I. Remember to use Get it Right! to check it and save a CODY to disc before running it When is OK_ Run it are ‘sure eVefY’thing 223 produce a binary file which e can Swill exchted from Dos. lf you.th'nk the PrlnCipals of disc Storage mte’esmg and want to find OUt more about it’ Atari's TEChnica/ _

Hgference Nores and compme's MapbOth contain a |°t Of In fAtari ?lsneaul-h'e Ormat'

b°°k

by‘glll pup'is‘h InSIde Atari 005. a

_

.

wcfikrin‘l‘élfcaailiz

Turn to Page 17 >

count machine code programmers file the If one. not should be last in the directory. with from zero, its place This record is then swapped number in the sector and is the the process and different, record are last the in the directory we time this repeated, only FMS reports an error. of records to redecrease the number However, since we havenumlast the file the sort by one, ignoring ordered the directory, those in the record. bers no longer match situation the reach necessary we Eventually directory, which makes it in each records to numbers file the where the number of to alter all we have sort is one, which means file. a all finding particularly finished. This isn’t We do this by first of is it but starts from the inforfile fast or clever algorithm the where record. and since we are easy to implement mation in the directory the next code it is still to machine in working Using the pointers we in each sector of the file, sector pretty fast. face the an seem through our way that may While have to thread the the of it to be all there is to sorting each file on the disc, changing we a are as things values in reality new directory, numbers to their is because rather a long time as little more complex. This stores the go. This takes Dos which sector on the in of the way we have to read every data program contains files themselves. that disc consists of file a of out sector it again. Each and then write to the next of the pro125 data bytes, a pointer That’s a rough outline the of a count in, sort file, directory the the in sector gram. We read the sector then thread and out number of bytes used in it again it, write The each file, and a note of the file number. file way through our to verify used The first three number. its ?le number is changing a few seconds but integrity. stages only take in first of 10 the of file So all the sectors the last can take upwards zero as their file disc. have full directory a the minutes on really that number and so on remember —

April 1988 Atari User 15


“W“

PAGE 6 has been supporting Atari computers for 5 years — coverage now includes both 8-bit and ST. Get the latest copy from your local newsagent or by su b scrt .b.mg.

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U?lit y

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'

100 110

REM

DIRECTORT BASIC

REM

BY

115

REA

(c)ATARI

ALAN

LOADER

CRAWFORD USER

120 REM Save this loader just in case. 130 RESTORE 500 140 PRINT Treating D:DIRSORT.BIN" 150 OPEN #1,8,0:D:DTASDAT.DTA~ 160 FOR L=0 T0 597 170 READ D:PUT #1,D 100 NEXT L 190 CLOSE 200 500

#1

END

DATA 255,255,0,64,251,64,186,142,6 3,66,169,1,141,1,3,169 510 DATA 238,141,68,3,169,65,141,69,3, 32,166,65,32,20,65,32 520 DATA 53,64,32,29,6S,173,60,66,240, 3,32,174,64,169,20,141

530 , '

68,3,169,66,141,69,3,32,187,6 DAZA 5,96,3 73,60 ,70,64, 540 DATA 66,240,8,72,32,96,64,104,141, 60 I 66 I 96 I 32 I 255 I 64 I 160 550 DATA 0,140,60,66,177,203,240,13,32 I 0 I 65 I 238 I 60 I 66 I 173 I 60 560 66,201,64,144,239,96,32,255,6 4 I 165 I 203 I 133 I 205 I 165 I 204 I 133 570 DATA 206,169,1,141,61,66,160,5,177 DATA

,205,209,203,176,10,165,203 DATA 133,205,165,204,133,206,144,7

580

I 208 I 5 I 200 I 192 I 16 I 208 I 233 I 173 590 DATA 61,66,205,60,66,240,8,32,8,65

,238,61,66,208,215,160 600 DATA 15,177,205,170,177,203,145,20 5 I 133 I 145 I 203 I 136 I 16 I 243 l 206 I 60 610 DATA 66,208,179,96,32,255,64,162,0

9,255,141,252,2,173,252,2 790 DATA 201,43,240,12,201,35,240,2,20 I 243 I 169 I 255 I 141 I 252 I 2 I 96 800 DATA 174,63,66,154,76,0,64,162,0,1

8

69,9,141,66,3,141,72 3,141,73,3,32,86,228,96,73,78 ,83,69,82,84,32,68

.TITLE "DT'rSort Directory Sor

1300

;Main Program Loop.

A:

1310 1320

; DIRSORT

.SET

TSX 1330 ck postion.

54000 .0PT OBJ,LIST

1010 1030 1040 1050

3,0

»

; DIRSCT

$0169

=

;Directory start

sector. 1060

=

CURRENT

SCB

;Pointer

to curre

1070

GREATEST so

est record 1080

;

1090 1100 1110

;Systel

1120 1130

DcDMND

=

060110

=

1140 DBUFNI

=

1150

DBYTLO

=

1160 1170 1180 1190

DBYTHI

=

1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250

=

SCD

far.

Equates.

;Pointer

to great

00011

=

DAUX1

=

MUXZ

=

$0301

50302 30304 $0305 $0308 $0309 $030A

$0300 DSKINV = $E453 ICCOM = 30342 = $0344 ICBAL ICBAH = $0345 10011 = $0348 ICBLH = $0349

STACK

1350

LDA

0501

1360

STA

1370

LDA

DUNIT # <INITMESS

;Use

f

1

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(50925 It .

11“ 11“

D35 “RD

(C)

55“ 09V (0) 56” GUR (T) 57“ 27L (F) 530 FNH (0) 59“ 37" (U)

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(4)

600

375

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61” ZJE (J) 62” 37P (F) 630 2K“ (N) 640 ZKG (”1 65” 14“ (F) 66” CVO (L) 67” 2°“ (8) 681 PSY (K) 69“ X69 (U) 700 ”T5 <0) 71“ VN3 (A)

540

1M“ (4) 7k” (5) PU1 (1) "28 (K) DZ? (7)

‘F’

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OGJ

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(F) (0) (5) (0)

CUS CYS

115 D95

12“ 13“ 14” 15“ 16“ 17“ 18“ 19” 20” 50“ 51“ 52“ 53“

ét/

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(”SU"

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GVM

LINE

(G)

790 391

330 965

1580

;

1590

SORT

drive

iles

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;Point to sta

JSR

on

FINDMAX ;ET'nd

1610

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y? 1620 1630

BEQ

EXTSRT

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JSR

SHUFFLE ;Then

PLA sTA

MAX

1420

JSR

GETDIR

;Get

150

SORT

1440

JSR

uATDTA

1670 1680 1690

EXTSRT

1430 1450

LDA

MAX

directory. ;Sort it. ;Put it back. ;Is directory emp

1700 1710

FINDMAX

BEG

FINISH

;If

JSR

TRACE

;Reurite iile

so then

finTs

.

1480

FINISH

1490 prompt.

LDA

STA

# <REDOMESS

;Display reru

sort it. ;Restore MAX. ;Return

R18 ; JSR

FRSTREC

;Set pointer to

#S00

;No

ICAX1

=

$034A

ICAXZ

=

30340

1530

1270

12101!

SE456

1540

RTS

1200

cu

$02FC

1550 ;

LDY

records

found

yet. 1730 1740 1750

:

311 MAX FINDLOOP LDA

(CURRENT),Y

BEQ EXTEND ;11 reached the end.

;check

flag

its zero, to next

b

th rec

JSR

NEXTREC

;Move

INC

MAX

;Increase fiLe 60

0rd.

;Return.

;Directory Sorting

f

irst record.

1760 en we've 1770

ICBAL

LDA

'

MAX.

yte.

71

1560

of

1720

#’s

f

not, preserve

1640

PHA

value

nunberof

the disk émpt

1650 1660

1460 h. 1470

,

disk.

;Hait for return

ty?

(R)

84“ “VT (1) 55” “LJ (U) 36” KP6 <6) 870 5PR (A)

RETURN

1400 1410

<9)

31“ “63 (V) 31” "30 (K) 320 R“? (2)

STA

LDA

(“5”"

72“ “4° (R) 730 1VX (X) 74“ °FX (4) 750 26“ (N) 76” VTC (L) 77“ ZHR (P) 73” 3“X (V)

JSR

STA

1260

=

224,2,225,2,0,64

DATA

ICBAL # >INITMESS ICBAH

1380 1390

# >REDOMESS ICBAH STA JSR vssno

1290 ;

sta

uessage.

1500 1510 1520

=

5,0,0,0,0,0,0 870

1600

STX

V

tory.

initial

key.

;

820 DATA 73,83,248,65,65,66,75,32,84,7 9,32,83,79,82,84,32 830 DATA 84,72,69,78,32,80,82,69,83,83 ,32,82,69,84,85,82 ‘040 DATA 78,155,80,32,69,83,a3,32,89;31 2,84,79,32,82,69,82 850 DATA 85,78,44,32,78,32,84,79,32,83 ,84,79,80,155,68,73 860 DATA 83,75,32,69,82,82,79,82,33,15

1570 ;Routines to perform an T’nsertio??f sort on the memory image of the direc'

;Save

1340

rting

nt record.

74,63,66,154,76,0,64 770 DATA 32,221,65,169,255,141,252,2,1 73 I 252 I 2 I 201 I 12 I 208 I 249 I 169 780 DATA 255,141,252,2,96,32,221,65,16

"00 1020

4

I 32 I 132 I 65 I 96 I 152 I 72 750 DATA 138,72,32,83,228,48,5,104,170 I 104 I 168 I 96 I 169 I 48 I 141 I 68 760 DATA 3,169,66,141,69,3,32,221,65,1 3

810 DATA

ter"

,

I 169 I 66 I 141 I 5 I 3 I 173 I 64 740 DATA 66,141,10,3,173,65,66,141,11,

,160,0,177,203,48,21,160 DATA 3,177,203,153,61,66,200,192,5 ,208,246,138,10,10,141,62

620

'

630 DATA 66,32,216,64,32,8,65,232,236, 60,66,208,220,96,32,38 640 DATA 65,160,125,185,66,66,41,3,13, 62,66,153,66,66,32,47 650 DATA 65,185,66,66,41,3,141,65,66,1 85,67,66,141,64,66,13 660 DATA 65,66,252,64,247,65,208,218,9 6,169,194,133,203,169,66,133 670 DATA 204,96,165,203,24,105,16,133, 203,144,2,230,204,96,169,82 680 DATA 141,2,3,32,56,65,96,169,87,14 1,2,3,32,56,65,96 690 DATA 169,82,141,2,3,32,106,65,96,1 69,87,141,2,3,32,106 700 DATA 65,96,138,72,162,8,169,194,14 1,4,3,169,66,141,5,3 710 DATA 169,105,141,10,3,169,1,141,11 ,3,32,132,65,173,4,3 720 DATA 24,105,120,141,4,3,144,3,238, 5,3,238,10,3,202,208 730 DATA 233,104,170,96,169,66,141,4,3

Module.

1780

Tum to Page 18> April 7988 Atari User 17


Utilit Y

—-

_——————

2330 2340

‘ F’°’" Page 17 unt. 1790

LDA

MAX

files? 1800

CMP

1810

etc FINDLOOP

#$40

;If

back.

p

1820 EXTFND 1830 RTS 1840 ; 1850 SHUFFLE 1860 JSR FRSTREC

not then

loo

;Return.

#’R

STA

oconno

m

NOVDIR

3010

RTS

JSR

TFECTOF)’

record.

2360

LDX

2370

TRCLOOP1

;Set pointer to

CURRENT

#$00

LDY

es00

LDA

(CURRENTLY

2400 2410

EN!

SKIPFILE $803 ;Point

LDY

(CURRENTLY to SECT.

LDA

2440

STA

2450

NY

TXA

rent

Letter with greatest

LDA

;Compare cur

1970

CNP

(CURRENT),Y

1980 1990 make

003

EQUAL

LDA

CURRENT

so

;Branch

CPX

if

2560 2570

<=.

greater current record the greatest.

2000

STA

GREATEST

2010 2020

LDA

CURRENT+1

STA

GREATEST+1

BCC

EXTSNF

;Try

EXTSHF

;If it’s

2030 2040 2050

so

BNE

next record.

2060 y next 2070 2080

character. CPY

#$10

BNE

SNFLOOPZ

then tr

LDY

#$7D

2630

LDA

SECBUF,Y ;Get

2640

AND

£303

;Preserve sector

2650

ORA

MASK

2660

STA

SECBUF,Y

2670

JSR

URTSCT

fiLe #;Put it back. ;And write the SE

;Last character? ;If not, then lo

2680

CNP

MAX

859

SUAP

;Is this

the Last

record? 2110 2120

;If

JSR

NEXTREC

INC

POS

BNE

SHFLOOP

so, then swap

;Neu record. ;Increase count.

Th

STA

reatest. 2230

;Retrieve

TXA

haracter. 2240

STA

current.

2250 2260

(CURRENT),Y

BPL SHAPLOOP DEC

it

;And put

;If not,

SHUFFLE

;If

-

2290 2300 ;

;Return.

RTS

;FiLe Modification Nodule. ;Routines to thread through

file

78 Atari User

and

April

change

file

a.

a

lin

# <DIRBUF

STA

DBUFLO

LDA

3280

STA

# >DIRBUF DBUFHI

3290

LDA

#

3300

STA

DAUX1

LDA

# >DIRSCT

3320

STA

DAUXZ

3340

JSR

3350

LDA

DBUFLO

;Nove

buffer

;Next

sector.

DBUFLO

339|

BCC

DIRNXT

INC

DBUFHI

ORA

SECTt1

next sector

0

3420

INC DAUX1

;If

3430 3440

DEX

not, then loo

BNE

3450

PLA

'

RTS

3460

;

;Point to the

2790

STA

CURRENT

280! 2810

LDA

# >DIRBUF

STA

CURRENT+1

RTS

; NEXTREC LDA

record

3490 3500 r

;DOHE? DIRLOOP ;No, so

;Return.

RTS

MOVSCT LDA

# <SECBUF

buffer.

;Hove

pointer

on

(16 bytes).

2860 2870

ADC

em

2830

STA

CURRENT

CLC

STA

LDA STA

# >sscgur DBUFHI

3540

LDA

SECT

;Point to

INC CURRENT” EXTREC RTS

;

2940 ;Disk I/O Hodule. 2950 ;Routines to read and write direc tory or single sectors. 2960 ; 2970 GETMA

3550

STA

DAUX1

3560

LDA

sec1+1 nauxz

3570

s“

3580

JSR

;Point to secto

oeurto

3510

3520 3530

sector. CURRENT

Loop.

;Restore X-reg.

TAX

3470 3480 ; S

b

#$80

;Is

directory buffer.

on

y 128 bytes. 3360 cm

2730

2920 2930

one

SECT+1

the

sector

;Nove

STA

of

;Point to disk

ONESCT

to/from disk.

STA

tart

;Point to start

3330 DIRLOOP

3400

2900

<DIRSCT

3310

3410 omnxr

i

so, then Loop

LDA

to uri

;8 sectors

directory buffer.

SECT

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it.

;Add new

# <DIRBUF

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#$08

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LDA

X

LDX

3380

FRSTREC

;Save

FHA

3370

2770 2780

sector.

3240

SECBUF+1,Y

2750 2760

a

directory sectors.

SECBUF,Y ;Use

(End Of file). 2740 BNE LINK

command.

;Nove

3230

STA

2850 by one

left

TXA

LDA

c

then lo

;Any sorting

NAX

to do? 2280

saved

g

HOVSCT

2710 2720

2820 2830 2840

;Finished?

DEY

2270

;Put it in

(GREATEST),Y

JSR

;wri‘te

AND

nter in sector

P-

2160 SNAP 2170 LDY #$0F ;16 characters. 2180 SUAPLOOP 2190 LDA (GREATEST),Y ;Get charact er from greatest. 2200 TAX ;Save it in X. 2210 LDA (CURRENT),Y ;Get characte ' r from current. 2220

#

?

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forward poi to SEleCt next sector#$03

LDA

2690 2700

greatest with current. 2130 2140 2150

2310 2320

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data.

#’U

stack.

3260 3270

byte.

equal

sector.

a

MOVDIR

3250 of

LINK GETSCT

less the

EXTSNF POS

to

;

2620

LDA STA

te.

;Return.

ctor to disk again. LDA

3210

record?

;Finished? TRCLO0P1 ;If not, then

RTS

;Nove

RTS

3220

JSR

next record.

0p, 2090 2100

t

HAX

BNE

2590 2600 2610

;If

INY

;Next

command.

;Read

3200 ; through

on NEXTREC

directory.

HRTSCT

3170 3180 3190

INX

002580

EQUAL

try

n

JSR

far.

2540 2550

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#

;Nove

;

3150 3160

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command.

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1

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GETSCT

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SHFLOOPZ

HOVDIR

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1950 1960

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3120

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3060

3130 3140

2470

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CURRENT+1

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3040 3050

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1890 1900 1910

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STA

MS

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HRTDIR

3100

CPY

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3110

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5

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GREATEST

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to start

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3020 3030

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1880

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2380

2430

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2420

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.

3600 3610 3620

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pm

3630 3640

TXA

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A s k a bo u t our tape 5 h ow l ng all different software

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number between 0 and N So to get our roulette value we use the expression INT(RND(O)*37) Having spun the wheel we need to see if the number generated is a red number in otherwords have we won? The redlnumbers are' '

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This month we present you with a plain English description of how to translate the betting strategy into a program. You can refer to the March issue to compare the techniques here with the original problem. In the next edition of Atari User we will give you a no-frills program that will do the iob, along with suggestions for further improvement. You can check this against your own efforts and perhaps sort out any points you had difficulty with. Remember, as far as a program is concerned there are as many right answers as there are wrong ones, but the solutions I favour are simple and readable. I will avoid, as much as possible, using fancy tricks or so-called clever programming techniques, as most of the time they are not necessary. So, without further ado, I present the hints for the casino problem...

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computing that writing nearly yourself whenyou _find there is an lines code, of identical to do it. eaSier way In this case the answer is to use an array to how the red number data, so that we need only have one IF statement InSIde a loop. enter the loop we must Before. we set a variable WIN would be a good name. Then if one of our array values matches the spin we change its value to something else. However, we need to initialise the array at the start of the program by reading the red numbers from a data statement. Having found out whether we have won, appropriate action can be taken There is a rule in

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many bets we have placed. That should be easy,'simply increment a and look for counter_every time some criteria for when to stop, other than Iosmg all our money. For example, we could_ stop when or we have doubled our initial pot, when a_certain number of bets have been laid. It would also be useful to keep track of the largest bet we have —

had

to place. to

.

the program looking boring when it 5 running, after each bet let’s print Its value and what's In the pot as well as the bet number every spin of the wheel. 0 Well, what are you waiting for? Get tapping away at that micro and I’ll see you next month with a solution. Finally

stop

April 1988 Alari User 21


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out there has found disaster recenty turning into a crisis, there could be a silver lining to their

.

troubles.

MAJOR improvements to MiCl‘OI-i?k have been announced, following the successful outcome of prolonged negotiations with

Telecom Gold. The enhancements

are based on speeding up connect time on the system, with the aim of bringing down the cost to subscribers. ”With the vast increase in telex traffic in particular over

'

WIll

costs be cut

the last few months, one of our top priorities has been to simplify the sending of messages”, said the head of MicroLink, Derek Meakin. “Our programmers have achieved a significant breakthrough which we are now

implementing. We are also completing the switch to our new Prime 9955 computer which provides more than

four times more power than has been available to MicroLink subscribers so far. ”The other big development is the opening of 2400 baud access to the MicroLink computer — doubling the speed at which users can transmit and receive data”.

——————————————————— ,

.

Now d|sa bled study at home PHYSICALLY disabled people in London are being helped toward employment with the aid of MicroLink. Over the next three years 60 h'ousebound residents of the Borough of Greenwich

will be given the chance to study computing and information technology in their own homes.

Aim of the scheme, funded by the Urban Aid Programme and Greenwich Council, is to

enable trainees to

eventually

either gain employment as outworkers for businesses or to become self-employed in computer-related activities such as programming, word processing or desktop publashing. Each

DIAL FOR A DEMO COMPUTER users who haven’t yet seen the massive range of facilities MicroLink has to offer can now Iogon directly for a free interactive demonstration —and all from the comfort of their own home or office. All they need is a 1200/75 baud modem and telephone connection to 01-583 1275. Once online, at the >PAD prompt Simply key CALL 72 then Return. When asked to sign on, key ID MAG111 then 24 Atari User April 1988

Return. The password DATABASE, followed by Return, will bring up the menu. There are four sections to browse through — communication, information, services and leisure—each describing a different aspect of the system. “This free demo vividly illustrates that MicroLink has lots to offer everybody from hobbyists to business executives", said head of MicroLink, Derek Meakin.

trainee is being provided with a computer, modem and printer. A tutor

will regularly visit each trainee to sort out any problems and to check on their progress.

eornpany 0” MinOLfnk "7 3P90’3/'3/"9 prowd/ng locatrons for ”(775 and ?ll/Photography IS ask/ng ohter A

users

ff?

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help. ‘

9“ a stinker Of a iOb", says spokesman K9“ V9

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Gatherer,

“Our b”9f’$ to ?nd a loca“on for a photo to Illustrate _

an advert for a smoke detector. “We need a recently burntout detached house whose roof timbers are charred and standing out against the sky— we're so desperate, any part

“We’re offering a small reward to any MicroLink user who finds the building we eventual/y use”.

L3y in g it on the [me -

WHISPER it if Mary Whitehouse is about, but MicroLink subscriber Keith Channing is looking for people who like to take their clothes off. Not that there’s anything naughty going on. Keith is

”But there will also be a constant 24 hours a day computer link to the base at Greenwich lTeC through MicroLink", said IUIOF Marion

sure

Robeson.

camping,

”The first 20 students start this year and should be fully

trained after twelve months. "During the year we hope employers will be found who are willing to provide work experience for the trainees”.

'

_

.

membership

secretary of

CORAL—standing for Clothes Optional Recreation and Lei'-

WhiCh and

a beach, general out59»

door naturist group. At present he is trying to bring together all those MicroLink subscribers who are naturists so that they can chat about their pastime via

electronic mail.


Adv e of or i ng

-———-—-—————

IT is immensely pleasing, though as we adventurers would stoutly maintain, unsurprising and only natural, to see that adventures are still very much up there with the other types of

entertainment software when it comes to the inevitable round of soft-

-

ware award ceremonies.

One of the accolades recently

dished out at such a prestigious software industry awards binge was for

the adventure of the year. lf you take a quick peep back at the

January issue of Atari User, you’ll see that my vote for the best adventure went to |nfocom's Stationfall, which marked the welcome return of Fjoyd the mischievous, scatterbrained, but ultimately loveable Chatterbox of a robot. To my mind, Stationfall has one of the most engaging and teasing plots, with superb writing, imaginative puzzles and, without a shadow of a doubt, the most dramatic ending ever written for a computer adventure game. And, the piece de resistance, Stationfa“ has Floyd. Now | don't like to boast about my undoubtedly fine judgement, but the aforementioned prize for best adventure of the year was awarded — you’ve _. to none other guessed, of course than StatiOhfa|L

-

Runner-up was Rainbird’s Guild of Thieves which, if you look once more at my list in the January issue, was also my second-placed favourite. So there you are. Any unbiased observer simply has to be forced to the conclusion that either the judges ?rst read Rouloe's column and decided that his impeccable assessment was good enough for them and

-

know about The Guide, the making of the different series radio, book, TV, and so on -the characters and the life and times of the original author, Douglas Adams, is here. And there's 'a whole chapter on the famous com-' puter game, hence it’s relevance to this column. Neil Gaiman has written the whole thing in a witty and light-hearted style that blends perfectly with the material itself. There are bags of quotes, interviews, anecdotes and insights. it really makes you want to go back to

just followed his lead, or that they all

have the

same

unquestionably

——

excellent taste as myself. Well, that’s my opinion and i'm sticking to it! Looking back just once more — promise to my list of best adventures you'll notice that in third place is the very funny and innovative HitchHlker’s Guide to the Galaxy. This leads me neatly,.and qute coincidentally, to my "9X1 plece Of news. Aithough it's not Just about adventures, l simply must tell you about a that my good smashing paperback Of ST User fame — has B?ulg friend_ lUSt klndly loaned me. DO YOU know, once | P'Cked UP this bOOk With my hot little hands, ljust COUidnlt put It down until l had read every one of its 182 —-

Tum m Page 26 b

.

highly entertaining pages. The paperback has the words Don’t Panic wrltten ln large friendly letters 0" 5“? front GOV? and iscalled The Off'C'?” H'tCh‘H'kefs Gu'de to the Galaxy Companlon. it. has been W?tten bY NeIi Galman, IS DUbilShed by Titan Books Of 58 St Giles High Street, London WC2H 8L“ and 00533 measly

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The OHHGTl‘GC _ l can't type that title out again in full or I’ll be here all day and there are still «(in plenty of trolls to be trounced /» f” before nightfall - charts if”? , Albiston’s Here 5 'a the complete history of it ”scgvgfttgieezjalthough ”if; {it favourite 5: match mine—but wh0’s the famous series and “ that includes many extracts not -rigidies reflect the point (333? "it previously published, mainly taste 3. Thanks f' everyone has different because they were cut from Wendy. final versions. s? Everything you ever wanted to Stationfall (lnfocomi the Galaxy 1 to Guide 2 Hitch Hiker’s ,

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4 From Page 25 the original ‘books and read them

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THE PAWN:

Solution

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Part three

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chamber With the dragon shine w Inhthe ite at the shadows. Point at the have said about German 5 book. shadows then go North. Throw the ,, -_ potion bottle at Kronos and press the rCertgmlzzhethSth‘étnStvai/cgtggzgé?t o. a " nozzle. Look inside the top hat, examGo ethis mornin lantHl-(IEG ine the rabbit and the rack. it settlesdrgzvinwith 3 Pan galactic inhuéy Get the pointy hat wand and cloak Gargle Blaster and enjoy. We r Finally, there's just room whzréhfhcelozkei?d altifsndgal? {1:2 tomentior} tWO Of your aerosoul to the devil. Go to the u ‘9 Iettekrs.Soanésinlgoan‘tegentrance by the small cave near the Wolverton fsmcd'nh ca rt 'd e and “IW- He has oun t laboratory open the doors. Go "mi crate South and and the manual bUt can no 13 knock on the door. Say Can open ork or get the ’:no", then go South and examine the anyone OU" C?mp?t?fshi?qy e p listing. Type in the word DEBUG and lt lm ste Iere rea td The secon etterisa ry. y_ Return. press takes the form ofa diary recording the Go to the cavern near the lava river in levels different on encounters and move the pedestal to get at the Alt ern ate Realit y —and is signed Alien. Go to the snowman and melt him key. Accompanying it were some enorwith white G0 to the store and get the mus hand-written maps covering the spiky boots and wear them. Get the first four levels of that adventure. 0c k the p ri 801 an d door on the u’n don’t know who you are ' Alien but Thats all I’m telling! landing. as heck sure documents our .

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COMPAN|ES in the USA have been producing 8 bit Atari products for many years, but their products always had the disadvantage of being rather expensive in this country. UK dealers had to order their stock directly from US wholesalers, giving rise to some pretty hefty shipping and customs charges. Recently, however, one or two UK Atari distributors have struck deals to supply US products at very reasonable prices. There are still only a few

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It also keeps most of its code locked away under the operating system so you get more free memory for your programs. Even with the most powerful configuration (version 3.2) you will still have 32,501 free bytes available to Basic, and the smaller versions can leave as much as 36,176 available. These figures should be set against

24~°

(Sll‘lQ'el

Format only (Double) Fo_rmat (Single)

available and in future issues of Atari User we’ll take a look at some of them, but for the moment let’s consider the SpartaDos range of products by lCD, now released by Frontier Software. SpartaDos is probably the most sophisticated disc operating system for the 8 bit, and knocks spots off Dos 2.5 and the happily how extinct Dos 3. It supports multiple sub-directories (known as folders on the ST), full time/ date stamping of files, full random access to any byte within a file, batch command files, hard disc access, and a whole host of more specialist fea-

The SpartaDos range

Format °"'V

Atarl

your

W% “is Ag?jm?x?j? 192552???

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some

+ write Dos

37.5

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write

10,000 bytes, CLOSE (Single) '

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saga-$5,510,000 (Double) 10.7

[JOSENbrEgdSéQOOO _es, (Single)

Dos 2.5 Double density ?gures refer to enhanced density mode. True double density is only available with a US Daub/er I: 1050

tridge. have tried it with every cartridge I’ve got Actionl, Mac/65, Basic/XE, AtariWriter and so on and it seems completely transparent to everything. l

OPEN, read 10,000 bytes, CLOSE (Double)

Figure

If you also use lCD’s R-Time 8 battery backed-up clock cartridge the correct time and date will always be available, and they will be stamped on each new created. The clock file_ module plugs into the standard cartridge port and has a replacement socket on the top for another car-

Speed comparison table (in seconds)

28 Atari User April 7988

-—

1135; 31:23;1377? Igsrfolsaizggsat?é Basic.

However, where SpartaDos really


into its own

-

is in

conjunction with another ICD product the US Doubler. This comes in the form of two new plug-in le for your 1050 drive which not only give it the ability to work in true double density but also speeds up the data transfer rate considerably. The installation instructions are comes

'

Dos

.

SpartaDos A

are so well constructed you'll virtually need a can opener—you must remove the two existing ICs from their sockets and install the ICD replace-

Disc d),drive (Dos 2.x Go to c:g,?g:}?fy Copy filels) liUltip‘ierejscgs) ggESYéXCOPY Del

3

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PROTECT UNPROTECT n/a

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The increase in speed of writing is slightly less at roughly twice as fast for full benchmark see Figure timings. The other major feature of the US Doubler is to give access to true double density, giving 180k per disc as opposed to 90k in single or 130k in enhanced density. Double density actually uses 720 sectors per disc, as with single

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density, but each sector contains 256 bytes of data rather than 128. This does mean that you'll have to rememher to format and write in standard mode if you want to give a disc to someone without a US Doubler, but this is very simple since SpartaDos is intelligent enough to detect what type of disc it is using. SpartaDos has so many features that it’s impossible to describe them all in full, but Figure II will give you some idea of its amazing power and

Turn inter Set

'

.

'

menagz'gaggd03vggg? no DOS

present on disc

MOdify hard disc drive number Give current disc stat' taccess ms Change time/date sta's 0? ?lels) Change volume nam mpf 0 disc Make new sub-directs change default path dZa'l's f or current drive Set -

system date Delete sub-directory (must be , empty) Show ath Disc directors)! fgxefelztejgdsi‘btd'ref’tf’fv t'[ma/d"rm/bytes) Print file as Ascii + h (format. to screen -

'

erasure Remove erasure prgfgcttj'emaf“ ?lels) rom Write Dos ?les (handledlgn uring format bY XiNlT) Format disc (see l AIN'T) Duplicate whole ($80 Save binary file (SISC l Load binary file (see also APPEND) Run machine codeeeta5:0 0FF_LOADl address Create MEMSAV Os 's always in (Samara/En memory) Copy filelsl (Single‘dri ve ) (see also SPCOPY) Format (Single den Dos 2:0 Save binary ?le at as”); n Of exmng file Select batch ?le t 0 run when Reset is pressed

Type-ahead buffer one; Istflts Protect whole disc from worite Operations h‘éCK/UNLOCK UMP As for DUMP, but to print M Show current Dos lomem/irtmemory contents imem

SpartaDos master disc the old bleep, bleep, bleep sound is replaced by a stacatto burst of machine-gun fire. Reading data from the disc is roughly four times faster than with a standard 1050, but after allowing for seek time —-the time taken to move the head around the disc — the average speed increase is nearer three times.

.

.

Protect file(s) frorrit

dee)

383m N/OFF

33W PASS CHKDSK CHTD CHVOL CRED'R

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situation. Once installed, and it is only the work of half an hour once you've read the instructions, your drive is superUpon booting your charged.

i

format)

_

APPEND

ments. Some older 1050 drives were fitted with slightly different chips — and if you have the wrong type you have the option of chickening out and sending off for the matching US Doubler le, or of making a very simple adjustment to two jumper leads on the board. This second option does require the use of a soldering iron, so think carefully if you do happen to find yourself in this

'

.

.

E F

clear and concise, but you will need to take your 1050 apart to get at the motherboard. Although there is no reason why a complete novice shouldn’t be able to fit the chips — it's not a difficult task — some caution should be exercised since opening up the casing invalidates your guarantee. Once you’ve got into the drive — and

,

DlRS CAR

B

232“D

H ename

H

sename n. Figure

II:

Values Load menu system (ma b 6 set as defau'” Binary load ?le with offy Wait for a key to be resetd batch ?les) Change the RS-232 cangse (in ECho screen output to a lgurr‘ation deVice [Ike P: or C: Add run address to binanot?er e ' Set up ramdisC . (many Test disc drive rotation s ee%“rati0ns available) Load RS-232 driver for 850 module/HR; connection Set system time Load time/d .

.

-

-

cg?'

.

-

-

Turn time/dgtt:

if: (13:3:efliounne-

Show all sub-directories/fii;s

TDL'NE)

a phabeticai) l?quwes Show Ascii ?le contents 0 n screen

Turn disc write verify on or ff Turn off l/O redirection (disagle pan Activate 2: for time/date handl‘ T/batcr? mode) mg f rom Bas'c Execute batch command file l =

BAT) = (exfxtender COM) default drive n um bender er, n

EXGCUte machine

Select new

code ?le

Dos 2.5 and SpartaDos features comparison

flexibility when compared with

Dos

2.5.

particularly liked the time/date stamping of files and the excellent sub-directory facilities—and also their ease of use from Basic and other Ianguages. prefer to use command I

l

processors rather than menu systems for ease of use, but that said, a very comprehensive menu system is available for beginners. Whichever of the many configuraTurn to Page 30 > April 7988 Atari User

2.9


4 F’om Page 29 tions you decide to use, the manual provides clear instructions for every feature, even down to such things as file formats and fully documented machine code access. SpartaDos can also read, write and format Dos 2 discs automatically, so you need never worry about which type you currently have in the drive. it can even handle a hard disc if you

file containing a single line of text and you try to read in two lines while in update mode, the file will quickly be extended to fill all available space on the disc. The moral is never read beyond the end of a file in update mode. would thoroughly recommend both SpartaDos and the US Doubler, and at £49.95 they’re a give-away compared to the import prices — you’d have paid £79.95 for the US Doubler

happen to have one. I've come across a couple of minor quirks, but nothing too serious. One thing did find was that files opened for access in update mode will be extended in size if you try to read a byte beyond the current end-of—file marker. This is acceptable when writing additional data, but when reading feel you should receive an error mess— age. For example, if you have a disc I

l

I

alone. The R-Time 8 is also quite useful, but by no means essential unless you are using a mass storage device such as a hard disc — after all you can always use the TIME and DATE commands at the start of a session. Otherwise it's still a little pricey at £49.95. However, if you are still using an unmodified 1050 with Dos 2.5, now is the time to move up to the power and

|

flexibility of SpartaDos. Products: SpartaDos £29.95 US Doubler £29.95 £49.95 SpartaDos + US Doubler R—T/me 8 cartridge £49.95 Supplier: Frontier Software, PO Box 113, Harrogate, North Yorkshire, HGZ OBE. Telephone: 0423 67140

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THtS is a game of manage— ment that allows you as a football critic to take the hot seat and prove your worth by taking charge of a league team. You have the chance of aiming for Division One, and maybe even completing the double by being voted Man— ager of the Year.

League Challenge is loaded in two parts the main program followed by a short amount of data. Once loadedyou are asked to sign on the clotted line and select your team. There are 64 names available to choose from or you can use your oven 14 character name. The screen displays are mainly text but there are some graphics during

,

-—

,

,

,

'

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matches. You start the actual game with the mid-week options— looking over your playing staff as welt as your club’s statistics. You can load and save data here to allow you that mid-season break to relax.

'

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The

save

option only

saves the necessarydata,so thegmain program has to be

,

loadedfirst. Mid-week decisions lead you into the preparation for your first league match. Your earlier training choice may well determine your fate on Saturday: Do you -

5

7

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j choose an easy session ,

,

I

management Simulation

of training increases with

Challenge

,

;

-

On-the-ball

-

or

do you put your players through their paces? it's up to you. but the cost

your level of choice. No“! K s on to tear" selection time. The ratings for defence, midfield and attack

jgz,

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are shown along with both teams’ fitness rating allowing comparisons to be

5

starts afresh.

So be careful when you buy players. But make sure you have the money in the

bank before writing that cheque because it won't bounce you will right back to the start. Players -—

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individual players have both a skill and a fitness level which vary from one to nine. The former remains the same throughout the season but, fitness will fluctuate depending on whether a player is resting or playing. You can change your team's formation by selecting and removing players to field a combination which best matches your opponents. League Challenge then switches to a very basic graphics mode which is, however, sufficient for playability, So sit back and watch the action as the goalmouth highlights are shown. Once it is all over, the match result is displayed along With any injuries incurred. The results of the other matches in your ”division are also shown with a.full league table. Your weekly turnover is shown at the end of each match you can go into debt, but only to the amount of £250,000. Pass this and the club is declared bankrupt and the game

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available for transfer are shown from time to time and as a maximum of 15 players is allowed in a squad at any one time remember to leave a space for that star signing. There are 15 league matches to be played in

season

together with

a knock—

out cup matches. An important consideration for cup matches is fitness. if a replay is necess— ary the °pti°“ for team reselection is not available, so it may be advisable to use players with a high fitness

rating.

When the season is over you receive a bonus payment which depends on your league position. The top three teams are) promoted while the bottom three are relegated.

You keep the same players for the start Of the followmg season, but their skill and fitness levels may

change. All In all it isa good game not an original theme, but it does have variations on _

_—

_

other srmilar ones. it _

_

,

3

very;

easy to use and offers enter? tainment for both novrcef; and expert.

The

screens

change?

quickly and only the match;

highlights-are shown, so. theresnotimefortedlumto/f; set In. Sound could have been used to add atmosr-ji: the motel-rid phere to highlights: it would haveigt; been nice to hear the roar of the crowd when a goal

was;

scored.

-

-

The graphics area little on: the weak srde and the gamejf' deserved more time and; effort being devoted to this But overall playability; area. is the mostimportantfactoro Everyone likes 9|°S_5Y2 graphics and sound b”? lf?gh as In this case—the gamete“: addictive and enjoyable? then that's what counts

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April 1.988 Atari User 37


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combat

how long each play turn

p “terAmbUSh 5212715753571 ,

lasts. These will affect the game: 59 Choose W'S?'YAs With all 38! Simula-

Supplier: 531/05 Gold, Units 2/3 Holford Way, Holford, Birmingham 35 7AX. Tel: 021-356 3388

tions, the game

g; zs

is

-—

results and save a game.

village b eAdma'p 02the at any time (Ban ut isp aye

uote doingkso: ta en rom The Art ofciNar by Sun Tzu around 500 BC which makes referenceto the tactical deployment of troops in a

too large to be shown in its entirety. When this option is chosen you are asked which row of

Strategic Simulations

were: and only

the full map

SSl _ is a wargame based on this theme and one that superbly captures the nervetingling excitement and fear of war. The game puts You in —

ferent scenarios.

You can select from various options such as sound on or off, whether you can see the enemy or not, and "

'

soldier can

be

given

form.

For example PB means prepare bayonet and HH is the order to engage in

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w... A. the any time game during any soldiers status report be can called givmg, for

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M followed by parameters

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involved, but'are explained great detail in the manual. Three-types Of .weapons are fire type? available action in

and automatic rifles), exploswes (hand gre(POM

nades) and hand-to-hand

weapons (knives‘ and bayonets). Here again, the rules are involved, but they are well covered in the

reading. The American soldiers have what can only be

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soldiers on both sides. I particularly liked this as it made for interesting and amusing

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against a squad of German soldiers in a small village. You can choose whether you want a computer or human opponent, and depending on your choice you are offered a list of dif-

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segments shown. Because the game is based on the individual

command of a troop of American Gls in France during World War li pitted

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which affect his actions within a given scenario very similar to characters created in fantasy roleplaying games. The players’ characteristics include rank, name, body weight, physical strength, dexterity and so

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they are known entering commands for the deployment of troops, allowing the computer to resolve the battle situations, receiving reports on the

This is a

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split into different sequences of play,

“THUS those unable to understand the dangers inherent in employing troops are equally unable to understand the advantageous ways of

29:1. we

a.

called Yankee names such as Sergeant J.C. “Buck" Padooka, Corporal Rodney "Rich-Boy” Richfield and P.F.C Aloysius “Gunner" Garrity. The same applies for the Germans, with names like

Ob'ergefreiter Lwa'g Lover Schneider. was left '." no dOUbt who ' was fighting. [and

l

The

.

.

's superb.

packaging. The box contains

a

rule

bOOk’ game disc, M9 mapboards, grease penCils and

two

squad cafds'5 qUite a

Th's

cated game to get

.

°°m9"' to grips

W'”) b”! once you have achieved a 9°°d working knowledge of_the rules the Simulation Will flow qmte smoothly~and_you do have the help Of qu'Ck reference .

sheets.

The computer

.

interpretation of the mapboard is well done and very easy to follow. And the map you CE?"

draw on is an invaluable aid and a very good idea. I

found it very easy to

totally immerse myself

in

this challenge and there was

more than one occasion when was panicking when the Germans had me cornered. Even though it carries quite a hefty price tag—£19.99—it’swellworth I

every penny. Neil Fawcett Documentation.................

10

Graphics..............................7 Playability.........................10 10 Overa Value’flarmoney...............10

_


Flight of fant ‘

SILVE Program: Space Shuttle Price: £199 Supp/ier: Firebird, 64-76 New Oxford Street, London WC1A 1Ps. Tel: 01-379 6982

will be aborted; After a successful lift off you must keep the engines the at the right power sion

'

the title sounds familiar '

'

,

9

g;%a::egg'f?:zzts£2353)?“

shuttle Discovery on its 101st mission and your target is an orbiting satellite miles abovethe

gl?zautical

There are three levels to pursue: The first is Autosimulator, where the shuttle flies practically by itself, and all you have to do is dock with the satellite. The second is Simulator, which is a simulation of the, flight controlled by you and the computer. Here you have to use most of the available keyboard commands and life turns out not to be quite the bed of roses you thought. Finally STS 101 is a

stfb1?§;"jf;§eg°uohzj§r}° p g 3 b car adjust yam pilgmggfo 32“ have visual contact with by ?ozgrgg‘?.' 522225123

like.

is for fast 12 pairs of

This level thinkers with

qualified NASA

astronauts, reviewers

*‘

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Yourflight beginsWiththe

7:7;

ce?sfyu?ndésszigoizdzli‘fh

know what

shuttle planes, the shuttle becomes a glider. Before you reach the runway you must deploythe landing gear. Once the wheels touch, keep the nose slow to a stop. down and, wasn ttoo difficult was That

-

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.

numeric value showmg made or, what mistakes you if you didnt make any which seems extremely unlikely the number of dockings you successfully a

at'the

course.

booms have

Once sonic

landing

comis. plete,the_computerd‘sP‘?YS

correct setting and tight turns must be made to keep

the shuttle on

.

When

and set the correct pitch and course for re-entry._ last, the landing! The _At be pitch must

still

1

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been made by your and the chase

doing. Once all this insanity lS complete you must turn the shuttle around, fire the engines and decelerate to leave orbit. Don t forget to close the cargo bay doors are

¢:

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,

accomplished. For a title1 that was released four years? ago, I’d say this has done very well indeed. r; Onthe negative sidethe’re— are too many commandsftggf handle at once. knotir'it’sf} supposed to be a shuttle; but this is going a bit too fat; Also the evaluation mesh at the end of yourjmisé ages COU'd have “39“ snon written on screen rather; than you havmg to rewrite/3,3 the instructions for enlighti?fjif '

77

i

;

enment.

63,3;

Talking of the instrucei: tloris, the acronyms are fat nuisance, as you have it? keep |°°k"_‘9 UP what TAEM means Wh'le burning UP "1 re-entry! Apart from some bad pomts Space Shuttle per» The graphics» f°fm,s WP“m'"d‘.3“?“e""9' and tagent e sound "m'ted t° VP")? and bangs, bUt it ‘s bias e“l°Yat?'e and at a very _

,

7

it 3,

a

.

7

,_

fully

?edged shuttle flight where every key command is available to you, and you have the ability to abort all functions when and where you

hands,-

e.

”Qt"

the

775

-

your mission.

_

,..,

a; iii,

~

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time you dock with the satellite its orbital path becomes more and more erratic. Your success in coping with this aberration is evaluated at the end of

»

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.

the satellite All this involveshmajor xgnttgimzasfelaitcyiznz:§ keyboard use, major joystick using minimum fuel. of use and constant reading There is one snag _ every the instructions that you so

.

,

'

Your mission is to launch, rendezvouswith the satellite

6 H UTTLE 4

_

the digital course

Eigacrohtrolof the fanczjizrlzese

8 PA C E

,

11

liii’riii‘f?r‘g'siéié’rf‘g?f’fé fgfdfd'fw has

from Activision. Firebird snapped up all Activision’s old titles, so we can lookforward to seeing some old

277:

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ATAR'

‘96 “N‘s;

launch. You have to activate the engines and ignite them at the right time or the mis-

m g

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Graphics..............................6 4 Sound ,

galyab’flity--n---------.......-......A; a ue 0, money................. Overall...6 ,

April 7988 Atari User 33


St

ictly for you

Producr' Ace ofAces Price: £9.99 Supplier: ssws Gold, Units 2/3, Ho/ford Way, Holford, Birmingham BS 7AX. Tel: 027-356 3388

aces chosen you will

_have

receive

f

your intelligence

Wh'ch W'“ 9'Ve You

"from.rt

ft

details of your target. the weather, recommended weapons you will need and

your orders.

Once these have been

CHOCS away Ginger, and it’s out into the wide blue

;

and France which shows yourlocation—mid-Channel the position of the your target and all major cities.

German ME109 fighter as we play Ace of Aces, the new World War II flight

'_——""'__—_“‘

T“

“F

—-——

taken in you go on to take a look at a map of England

yonder blasting the odd

7

,

,S

5

"?

|

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;I

was";

Aiii'fo’seoy uoAi‘rer‘l’o'isYo‘r’r‘r‘romr‘oi‘yé‘r’ri‘ri Sgt“; Littemzzztsz"2.‘s Britain indicates airspeed, dm 132182! 32:13th ILgengzwégnbnoor:bss?é?gkfzz radar, After the initial loading

meeuroe-uuo

This

indicated by a series of black and white freeze-frame photos of a klaxon, running feet «oresumoory yours»

moo-m

piz'rq?zt'nicely animated

I

and then you

Finally, after nearly

% <1

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34 Atari User April 1988

j—

:

go;

A“figs,

Ms

to

as

e O?'

yolu’prepire ts a s ame tark t at suc h a potentially'good game has

the

will ml.“ .3’

There

nice use.of

is a

betweerl; or s View engineersh 0 t e ' omfba?ier smg aircra the sarne technique you can also we“, the map you saw

Grlo t at? Lo tPoptewa‘n os oryzro ed as, t e soun d er; re, an you 9 Off ls you

eaSyfon. n ortunate y,t h‘'5 way

mtg;

Of

sound m Lthrguglgo’ult ranging

kl'axons when y

take '

"n"? (lenftented't vera v_ery f d-l time rustratmg.Thmlm _e_oa mg from tape Is rldlculous far _

to

fodlonig

sustain i'r'tterest. flyingwygtri Egg'tlysalilysttgg .

-

.

up by pressmg the spacebar the Germans can still fire at you and you can do nothing about it. Also some joysticks have

difficulty responding to the double click, so it would have been better if Accolade had the keyboard controlling this function. found this a very hard, if not impossible game to play as no indication of your status is available to you without viewing the appropriate screen. Accolade could have at least displayed a short message when your plane catches fire or your navigator gets killed Having said this the I

,

,

still-frame photographs

screen

at/txhe 00 wrongktgme.“ ere d ,at syou th ese unwan t e (fwf VIeWS or at the status screen brought

_

men's";

styles, from cartoon figures the briefing room to the in_

a

.

;,_

‘e

fire

swrtch

saute.

El}:

2131112”; thirfirgatintég

..

v :_

j‘r‘

,

f

55z;

25

'.

,

9mm button the

selecting V'ews can pose some P'°b'e’.“s- When in a dog ?ght. mm a German

7

g

displayed

moves too_.

I

.

l

SUCK

.

minutes, you get airborne. The game uses a split screen with the view from the cockpit showing white . . clouds rolling m the wmd at the top.

bombers. After

“5

waving good-

tedious.

.

or

on-screen

Next comes another boring loading sequence, which when you have a tape version is exceptionally

it to enable you to become accustomed to the controls. Mission offers you the chonce of train, U-boat, V-1

bombs

joystick, the

bye from the cockpit. This very original idea adds considerably to the atmosphere.

strongly recommend

.

is

Eiyxinzmzrmiiggazxgs

room you are faced with the choice ofa real mission or a practice flight. This is indicated by the Group Captain pointing at a board with a stick. Using the joystick you move the stick to your selection and press fire to make your choice. The practice option offers you dogfight, train or U-boat

briefing

-and

compass, altitude and artifielal horizon. A nice feature is that as you. move your

prepare to take off

you are presented with a very attractive title screen and the strains of Land of Hope and Glory with sequence

r

L.»

Sh?

2:3 23:2? alarms:

fire at hiym However, the game s h ows potentia an d “t is always nice to see American software in Britain. It would be good to have more trans— atlantic made games available. As simulators go, Ace of Aces is one of the best have seen and definately up there with the leaders. If you have the patience of a saint and a very low blood pressure this is the game for you. All said and done it is well worth the price. y

ou can’t

'

-

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|

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I

Ruth James

Sound7 Graphics..............................9

Clalyalzflity...g

aue ormoney 0verall................................. 8


0

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Class“”7941 ad v

.

Under ti, a

-

Has upgradlng your computer glven you hardware you no longer need? Or have changing interests left you With unwanted software? Then THIS ls the place to advertise your surplus items. Atari User readers are always . on the lookout for a bargam and this . . ls the ?rst place they look! n

n

.

This

.

e"739”16'1103: w'”I

fulIOWI' "y '

Se

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be ’

“Opmd

conditions

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private 2,23ers. EXCLUSlVELy f or the No trade

e

0 To av Will be .

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no software carefully v9 efted before Dirac they

chepted,

of

°Wedo

all;

only be accepted phostCBH o of

8" ads

on this form (0, .

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.

use

.

a There agony S to the nu Words Yoz°.m'axrmum m b er Of lnc ude '" YOur ad' if lDSUf?cient TOOm there '3 °" the Separat form ' of Paper. Co"tinue on a . The 003?18:3? D per Word 10 ' W'th a C We m"llf'l‘turn of -

'

.

.

bonus,

An added

.

II also

displayed bea uto matically rvice .

-

-

.

,

_

Gold. Th’s , . rare wit on ssocla tion s of co mputer by operate?l response. thousangm M be seen an ms mean3 '’t C an send the

eIeCtmnlclrmTleecsgm Yaux?edvegn‘z' in;

£7513)? ANTE E

-

enthUSlas

who

ts

C For sale 800XL with free

plus Mini Office II. Buyer collects. Tel: 0502 717285. program recorder £10. 0 Atari 600XL to 64k Separately on disc £5. upgrades £25 + P&P Alternate Reality, Drop- makes 100XL perform zone, Beach Head, Mer- exactly like 800XL. A.Mclncenary cassette £3.50. tyre, 14 Antrim Avenue, SOlOflight, Mr D0, Blue Stranraer, Wigtownshire, DG9 7AZ. Max, Rescue, Fractalus, Elektraglide, Smash Hits 4, 0 Wanted Atari penpals Bounty Bob, Goonies. Tel: between 11yrs and 16yrs 0775 60306 (daytime). old. own 800XL and 1050DD. If interested contact QBOOXL,1050 drives (two) with US-Doubler. xc11 Terence Maguire, Oliver recorder, 850 interface, Plunkett Street, Oldcastle, touch tablet, cemtronics, Co Meath, Ireland. printer lead, Atariwriter, O 800XL, 1050 drive, XCII Superscript, Mini Office ll, cassette, 1029 printer, joy— Flight Simulator ll, Basic sticks, user mags lots of XL, Timewise, Filing Man- software including latest ager and more £300. Tel: games (originals) boxed 06286 62545. value £800+ £300 secures. 0 Atari 800XL, 1050 disc Tel: 0268 754043 evenings. drive, 1027 printer. 1010 e 800XL, 1050 drive, four recorder Atariwriter Rom, joysticks, two disc boxes, 75 discs many games and 160 software, discs, £200 ST programs + joystick E295 utilities o.n.o. Tel: 04955 3004. exchange. Tel: 0705 0 Wanted urgently 1050 730050. disc drive and 1029 printer OAtari 800 and 800XL, 800 software

next

£50 and

XC11

I

-

and 1050 drives, 1029 printer, 1010 cassette, 50+ disc

programs, plus Commodore 1701 monitor and leads, no reasonable offer refused. Tel: (Hayes) 01 5617325. QAtari1050 drive £60 plus discs and cassettes from 50p to £5 send s.a.e. for price list to Wayne Bunn, ,

10

Seymour

Fl"

'

III

for the next IIOW -

ISSlle

778

01

6033.

0 Atari hyperdrive ver.2 disc drive enhancement for

1050 hardware/software enables true package, double density, faster read/ write, backs-up protected software similar to lazer/ happy archiver compatible £40. Tel: 01 508 2671. 0 Atari 130XE, xc12 recorder and joystick £80. 1050 disc drive £90. 1029 printer £90. AII as new and boxed. Tel: 01 302 0589 after 6.30pm. O Fidelity CM14 colour

E

Z]

| Z]

Terrace,

London SE20. Tel:

—------_------------

'

.

availableissuzour ad w,” appear OfAtar/ Us el'. ,

.

"7 1“he

monitor for Atari XL/XE

II,

£90. Tel: 01 736 1686.

basket ball. cartridge. The lot worth £300, sell for E150, Will Split. Tel: 01 461

O 800XL 1050 drive, cassette, over 50 discs including original software boxed as new £165. Tel: 0284 61238.

O130XE requires two keys repaired E80 1050 plus software £90. Touch Tablet £28, cartridges £8 each, 20 budget games £25. Full price games £5 each. Tel: 0592 269482 evenings. e 1029 printer + Font lV character rom+ software, nine months old, excellent £95. Tel: 0747 870409. 0 800XL, 1050 drive, 1020 plotter MAC—65, 15 classic games on cartridge and 22 latest games on disc. Also books and prof, joystick £250. Tel: Mr Levien Telford: 660262 (work). O Graphix-AT Centronics .

printer interface, voice

master complete, Microsoft Basicllcartridge. APX-PASCAL, Mini Office

E

XIent wordprocessor,

4869 eves. _

V‘mwasfgfisv'aL?Chatagf; g Will copier. £25 Tel" svgkefigld (0924) 498248 ask for David .

.

.

tape—to-disc a

I

to

u

'

0 Atari

.

800, 410 recorder

plus Space_3hut?e SimuIator,Chuckle Egg.£50.TeI: 0256 770055 evenings. . Wanted 1050 disc drive about £70. Tel: Mark on Darlington 718382. . 800XL d'SC dr'Ve + US doubler, tape deck, games, magazmes efC- f200- Tel: “keston 305756Q130XE + 150 disc drive + Atari 1029 printer, as new, sottwareincluded and tractor feed paper. Sell for E199. Tel: Wes on 0462 _

_

731801.

I:

|

Ezszzmm

I l [I] E] [II 2:20“... 1:1 [I] Szzsm | CI] l_—__l SEE: | C11 certify that not copy original l for Address__—_# S'g"e"——— I T0: I

sale is

any software and

offered a

N

a...

mo mo Chm“ "do,“

m r__._

ame_—__——___.

.

POST

Atari User Classifieds, Europa House, Adlington Park, Adlington, Macclesfield SK10 4NP

h-----—--———————-—-d

| l

| | I I


VAR'ABLES

FONT LOADER from Gary Hudson

,

10

font if you acciinstalls the character set Reset. dentally press System to do is To use it all you have to the 20 line in change FONT.SET load. to wish set new you the name of this within The routines contained be removed and easily can program used in

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IT is the year 2521 and mankind is in dire straits. After the Great Destruction control of the world was seized by evil dictators. This catastrophy was detailed many years after in the Book of Wisdom.

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April 7988 Atari User 39


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The cheapest will Telex machine. and buy a dedicated also need a will way You conventional Cheetah). You could go the a total outlay dearest £2,892 (the That's the rental. Whisper), a cost you £1,604 (the to install, plus £404 year costing ElOl line, include VAT.) a separate telephone of £2,l09. (All prices micro to double as of a minimum over the first year are doing — use your users Atari

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.

.

'

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communication between means of instant more than 2 million — in Britain and Because it's a standard as use in machines Telex communications —just of there are l50,000 up business speed hard copy a dramatically used to because you have Worldwide. It's more efficient, the phone but far as using quick for your records. for Telex that the every “conversation" when you use MicroLink get bonus you But there's a big doesn‘t offer. receive Telex conventional way of?ce to send or a portable). HAVE to be in your don’t at home (or even — With MicroLink you use your computer waiting for you can just as easily You messages Telex messages. are any there check whether business efficiency? So now you can How's that for your anytime. anywhere, .

“9 Fage6;;


Feature

————————

‘MANY of you have written in praising our new Get It Right! II checksum program, and one reader from Berkshire added a comment which set us

ec

thinking. If each line can generate its unique checksum, why is it not

to reverse

sible

the process

own pos-

and

re-

generate the original line from the special checksum value? After all, the fourchecksum bytes exactly represent the original line, don’t they? After some thought we can now bring you a program which at least goes partway to solving this problem.

Since Atari Basic usesasmall number of fixed tokens to make up all its lines, it is qmte pOSSibIe to re-generate a program except for the contents of strings, DATA statements and REM statements. These could obviously contain any text and since they are processed separately by GIR! in any case (see my source code listing and flowchart in the November 1987 issue of Atari User 1987 for information) there just isn’t enough information to recreate them reliably. .

.

.

.

.

checksum, so once you have created the final program file you should load it into memory and correct the string and data contents from the full listing REMs may safely be ignored. You should make sure that the normal GIR! tape or disc was loaded when you turned on the computer because this new program will access some of its internal machine code routines to save time and space. .

.

.

.

10 RBI GIR II EXPANDER PROGRAM 29 RE! HRITTEN BY ANDRE HILLEY 3ii REH (C) mm ussn, APRIL 1988

CURR=1

9B POSITION 2,9:? "Enter " ode on a new Iine':?

foruat ABC X” 1M ? :? ~then press ave

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II

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RETURN

to

twice

s

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”ENTER

CODE:

";

12O INPUT #16;INP$ 130 IF INP$=”" THEN 233 iiii IF LEN(INPS)<A OR LEN(INP$)>5 229 150 FOR I=1 T0 LEN(INP$) ' 165 IF 1:1. AND INPS(I,1)=" NP$)=5 THEN 182 170

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To use it, simply type in the program and run it. Be careful with the DATA statements because they contain machine code to access the Basic rom which might crash the computer if mis-typed. When you run the program you Will be asked to enter checksum values one by one, and you should hit Return on its own to finish. To start with try entering just the first 10 or 20 checksums to see how the system works before going on to attempting a full program. You should then enterafilename to save the newly generated program C: for cassette or D:FILENAME.BAS for disc. Once the program has finished writing you should rewind and .

.

.

.

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TO

SAVE

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if

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ADD

THEN

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0 Next month, I’ll show you how this program works, and other applications of the same principle. In the meantime, reading the article on tokenisation on page 9 will give you

some clues.

ASE

RETURN

460

um

104,104,104,10,113,101191175,1

169,11,157,66,3,169,0,157,73, 3,169,226,157,72,3,32,86,228,132,212 48A om 169,0,133,213,96 ; AM DATA 0,5,9,1,199,1,110,1,142,1,191 ,‘l,212,1,32,32,32,32,32,32 DATA SOB 32,32,32,32,32,32,72,111,33,3 2,72,111,33,32,72,111,161,32,32,32 516 DATA 32,32,32,32,32,6B,6D,6?,32,65 ,SO,82,73,?6,32,70,79,79,76,33 SZR DATA 32,62,62,19B,32,89,111,117,32 ,1BD,1DS,1M,115,39,116,32,82,69,65,76 530 DATA 76,89,32,192,97,108,1D8,32,1R 2,1l1,114,32,‘ll5,116,32,46,46,66,174,3 2

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DATA 32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,66 ,46,46,46,46,32,68,73,68,32,121 SSE DATA 111,117,191,9,0,B,0,?,0,0,0,?

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THIS is an adaptation of the traditional game played on a board with 64 squares. The objective is to obtain the most counters at the end of the game — when all 64 squares are coloured in. The players, in this case you and the computer, take alternate turns to placeacounter on the board. You have green counters and the

computer red. They can only be placed on the board sandwiching one or more of the computer's counters in between two of your own. They must be in a horizontally, vertically straight line or diagonally. No counters can ever be taken off the board, and no player can have consecutive turns unless his opponent cannot move. —

The game starts with four counters two for in the centre of the board each player — and the game expands from there. It is worth noting that counters in the centre of the board are not much of an asset as they can be —

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vice versa by reversing the colours. This is a useful feature if you are in a sticky position. Pass allows you to pass your move over to the computer. This must be used if you can’t go, but at times it can be to your advantage. You can also quit at any stage or use the Judge function which will assess the state of play at any time by giving a percentage result as to who is in the stronger position. The game ends when all the positions on the‘board are occupied or either player has no counters left and is therefore unable to win. Rememberto use Get it Right! when you type the program in and be extra careful with the data statements: They are part of a short machine code routine and could crash the computer if entered incorrectly. run, to page 45 > April 1988 Atari User 43


.

A LL 1050

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,


Programming

Your programmmg problems solved by ANDRE WILLEY LET'S get cracking straight away with a letter from Philip Carter from Frome in Somerset who is having a few problems with his 800XL. While I was playing around with my micro / decided to write a Basic trigonometry program. When I got round to the tangents, Sines, cosines and inverse tangents I came across the problem that my machine did not seem to accept the trig statements correctly. Instead it gave ERROR 9 AT LINE 127, which was

6

simply: 127

LET

A=TAN(B)

,

Th/s for the smes also happened cosmes and the Inverse and tangent. Since or Error9 means an array string error, and/musing neither, something wrong W’th my micro? _

51779”,

Firstly don't think that there’s anything much wrong with your computer your problems stem from a slight misunderstanding of how Basic handles trig operations, To be strictly accurate, Atari Basic only supports three fundamental trigonometry operI

ations

sin, cosine

to provide a command for them? Luckily trigonometry is entirely Iogical, and just about any function can be calculated from the main three we’ve seen so far. You will also need to use some other mathematical operations most notably natural Iogarithms and square roots, both of which are readily available. You don't require the base 10 logarithms given by CLOG(number),but those based on powers of the mathematical value of e, or 2.71828. These are given using the LOG function, and antilogs are given by using EXP, which returns a result given by raising the number to the power of e. For example, if you think back to your school days and good old Pyth— agoras, the tangent of an angle is calculated using the very simple formula of sine divided by cosine. In computer terms, the tangent of the variable X WOUId be given by: —

check out Appendix»

of Your Atari Computer manual, or consult your local books on library for

her), COSlnumber)and ATNlnumber), so your use of the command TAN was not recognised. However, Basic still tried to make sense of the statement by assuming you were talking about an array variable called TAN. Since you had obviously not DIMmed such an array, it finally gave up and resorted to giving out an Error 9 — for an

undimensioned array reference.

suspect that the other errors might have been caused by your using I

COSlNE(number)

LET

Slow clock? Next we have an international enquiry from Mr A. Griinbauer from Holland. It's nice to see so many letters coming in from abroad, and the standard of the English rather puts us Brits to shame when it comes to learning foreign languages the nearest thing I come to a second language is Action! Anyway, Mr Grijnbauer writes: —-

6

/

must ?rst tell you that you are

selling the best English Atari

magazine I have ever read. Keep up the good work. As I was reading my manual line:

I

discovered

(CLock

ANSHER=SIN(X)/c05(x)

Isn’t that Don’t forget that some values for

various trigonometric formulae are there is no tangent of the illegal angle 90° for example because cos 90° —

equals zero.

zero, and you can't divide by

You should also decide whether you want to work in degrees or radians selected by using the DEG or RAD commands. There is obviously no point testing for an angle of 90° when you you’re working in radians shouldinstead checkforavalue of 77/2. The panel on the following page —

C

trigonometry.

Processor

it is more

The commands to use are SINlnum-

or

have been interpreted as undimensioned arrays. So how do you work out such things as tangents when Basic doesn’t seem

lists some of the more common trig functions and how to derive them, but make sure you test for any illegal values or you’ll have another error on your hands. Don’t forget there are lots more formulae if you need them

and inverse

tangent (or arc-tangent as commonly known).

SINElnumber)

instead of the shortened SIN and C08 which are required. These too would

a

Speed

the

following

6502c 1-79 Mhz)

little slow for

a

great

like this? For instance, the MSX 280 processor has a clock speed of 8.0 Mhz. As I know nothing about this I would like to know1ust what the clock speed is used for and if it has anything to do with the calculation

computer

speed of my

130XE.’ _

In order to function, a CPU chip like the 6502 must be able to work in close association with all the other chlps inside the computer. This means that

rm" to Page 50> April 7988 Atari User 49


Programming

11,6,

, ,

.

it must regulate its own tasks to match the speeds Of the ram Chips, the V0 devices and, in the Atari’s case, the special graphics and sound chips. lf all they did “P” i” nisation t e micro wou instant y perfiegtisynchro

”it

crash. ln orderto keep to this strict timing a tiny CfVSta' “Side the casing Of the micro sends out a very fast stream of pulses which are then used by all of the major chips to time their various activities. Thus the 6502 knows exactly when to ask the ram for information, and also when POKEY will be ready to accept a byte of sound data. The crystal inside a European Atari oscillates at 3 Mhz T three million times a second. The display chip Antic needs nearly half ofthese cycles forits own use, so the 6502 gets left With' as the message says, 1.79 million clock cycles every second.

The MSX machine you mentioned

has a clock speed of 8 Mhz, or 8 mi|~ Iion cycles per second, but you won’t find it runs that faster than your

final letterthis month comes in by electronic mail from a Dave on MicroLink’s Atari section:

THE

/ use my Atari and a modem to talk to the MicroLink system, and l want to prepare electronic mail and om” te’“ While Offline 30 that ’ ca” transmit my messages in a b/OCk and /09 offagain. lam unable to get Mini Office II to upload text to the bulletin board, or to use the WPMA/L feature. When I’m trying to upload, the text appears about two inches in from the left ofmy TV screen, and this means that the MAIL command is not detected by MfoOthk- /0'0h't khOW why / cannot Upload to the 33/ but maybe it's a

AtlE-“liri'lst?rtti\¢e08rrl\1llah2 (Eleoacskocvisll also have

cyycles“stolen” by special display chips S'm'lar to, bl“ nowhere near as powerful as, our very own

some

.

althou A’gle'ciindly

the are both 8 bit microprbcessorg the £30 and the 6502 function quite, differently interna ll y. Th e f

set

Of

iorme

h

h as a

r

mor

eipo

w e rf u

l

"39m?“ for_calculatio'ns and many more instructions, bUt lt often

use?) up; “In

more

cycles

0“er tozdg svaoculdjctakenthgrzreetg £35“?st gs many cycles as a 6502 to perform a given task. 80 overall there will be little difbetween a 6502 running at 2 Mhz and 280 running at 8MhZ. Any differen‘

-

mgtggf [hfzfilslés‘eictgre?rftcih te?rwnlgi

ieiters _gat 10 characteprs This; means that each line of text inithe disc file starts with 10 blank spaces and so the mail commands are not tecognised MicroLink does not strip spaces off the start of each line in the same way that Basic does because you might wish to use 3 aces to offset some portion of y our lgtter A“ ou heed ‘to do is to reset your Minigfficell left mar in to zero which

can be done with Embedded commands or via the menu s stem Then save the document as an Xscii file and 9 oto the communications ro ram Lo on to the remote s seen?(such as M?croLink)and 0 to the mail section You Shouidgthen t 8 Con_ tro|+'Shift+T _ or use the 37/1an_ in order to select the filename to transmit. The filternmode should be set to Standard Ascu.

related problem?

"7 hOth cases / save my word processor ?les in Ascii text format, but the commands do notseem to register when I try to Upload the file- Any help WOU/d be much appreciated.

”WC“

.

in standard Ascii text form, with any commands at the start of the line. You am le, use th command n, f r cSaENDo toexpostp your letteer on to the system, or .EDIT if you decide you wish to do some online editing or .QUIT to abort the current mail item. What has happened in this case is --

.

Ema" uploading

4 From Page 49

.

5

As this was an electronic mail question have obviously also sent an online answer to Dave, but the solution may well interest other Email I

users. When. you edit a document using the Mini Office II word processor you have the option of savmg the text in internal format which stores all the embedded control codes and formator of storing a ting commands straight Ascii text version. —

MicroLink like most other Email services requires its messages to be —

When you’re ready to send, press the Start button and off it will go. This method should allow you to prepare text off iine and then transmit it with the minimum of fuss to almost any electronic mail system —all from your humble 8 blt.Atarl. 0 Well, that/ust about wraps It up for this time. Keep those letters coming in especially if you’re still struggling with your first few programs on your new Atari 8 bit computer. .

a

zeszifzvzfsgt'xgpsf:mister22 be due to the skill .

of the writers of the used on the machine

.

.

anaZ'Lft-Elgttiili'lpreter ..

is

:

.

.

.

If}? gaf?s'ga?f ?gadfi'yBiaei'ng/f?'gz

age in the operating system. This means that overall Atari Basic is nowhere near as fast as such machines

machine code comparison you’d see little or no difference. 50 Atari User April 7988

TangentiX)

SIN‘X)/COS(X)

rvrrrsrrrrxr

”Miser-err» X+lll+90

givterse 02388“) oangen

gggg??h?

ecant Isnversixtangemm ihCi-Ohié?igo inverse secanth)

ATN((SQR(X*X-1)l+SGNlX)—1l*90

?csecanth) verse cosecant(Xl

AT A—rJ/Slellél W8 (X*X “MSG NX 90 ( h 1* )

Derived trigonometric

functions


M

e rc e n a

ry

T h e Se c

:

LAST month we published a map to this superb science-fiction adventure game. To complement it here is a useful checklist to the keys and objects you will find: Just tick them off when you get them-

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LIGHTSPEED SOFTWARE All ordon cont within tho UK post tron and normally domtchod within 24 hours, but pblu allow 1 days. Alllilu mbjocttnavlillbiily

Are you tired of waiting for cassette games to load? Would you like to transferthem to disk for faster, more reliable and convenient loading? You may have heard or read that this is not pos5ible. Well, not only is it possible, but there is a program, Transdisk IV, that will do it all automatically, you require no knowledge of cassette protection techniques! To put it simply,Transdisk iv willread ANY Atari cassette, (single, multistage, non-standard format, 64K— no probleml), removethe protection, then place it on to disk tor you. Plus, to load and run the new disk version of a cassette program requires just one keypress from a convenient, .

.

.

.

The cost of this, the most powerful tape to disk utility forthe Atari is just, £24.95 inclusive of ?rst class delivery. Also comes complete with comprehensive instructions which were specially written with the cassette upgrader and ?rst time disk user in mind.

Requires:Atari 800XL or 130XE Computer with disk drive and cassette recorder.

Remember, that not only will you save money on upgrades to disk (it they are available) but many games are only available on cassette anyway so Transdisk IV has to be a worthwhile investment! Send an SAE or phone for more details of this utility.

Make Cheque or PO. payable to DIGICOMM and send your order to:-

DIGICOMM

170 Bradwell Common Boulevard, Milton Keynes, BUCKS MK13 sBG. Tel: (0908) 663708. Demonstrations arranged for callers by appointment A 'For your convenience from the original cassette only. ,

April 1988 Atari User 51


x

'

o

S a movm

0

g

.

-

.

Simple

. .

. . .

animation facilities PM notably Player-Missile

— —

graphics. We’ll get on to these in due course, but they are quite difficult to understand and usually require machine code to make them work, so we'll steer clear for the present. it's relatively easy though, to produce fast animation using ordinary keyboard characters, and this month we show you how to do it. We’ll encounter the lF...THEN command, together with the joystick functions STlCK and STRIG. We’ll also take our first look at subroutines, using the commands GOSUB and RETURN. Armed with these new techniques you will be able to write your first joystick-controlled games, and we've listed one to demonstrate the basic principles behind arcade action. In order to create the illusion of movement you must first print your then quickly erase it and character, print it again in an adjacent position. '3 "0 background to 5.0 long as there disturb, this is very easy. Try this:

. the screen

.

‘ . 52 Atari User April 1988

0 0

we've

seen how to produce text displays and static pictures anywhere on screen. The next step is to make the images move around — computer animation in fact. All arcade games use movement in one form or another, and the Atari computers have some very sophistiSo far

.

0

-

techniques

animation

cated built-in

.

0

introduces

LEN GOLDING

series

I

Contmumg his Basnc programming

. .

.

o

experience

o .

l

iii PRINT CHR$(125):REM Clear 23 FOR H=l? T0 35 35 POSITION H,1?:PRINT cumummen

Print the ball M FOR H=1 T0 SG:NEXT ll:REH Short delay 5G POSITION H,lli:?CHR$(32):REll Blank space erases ball an

NEXT

This

H

prints

a

small

ball which

across the screen from left to right. The cursor is also printed, which is rather distracting, but you can turn it off by POKE 752,1 followed by a PRINT statement, as we'll see shortly. We can make the program more interesting by using a joystick to con-

apparently

moves

5,

I

g

1

l

.

I

trol the movement.

Ajoystick

is

justa

switching

simple

device which can generate numbers between 5 and 15, depending on the stick position—see Figure I. lfyou plug a stick into port 1, the number which

. .

14

. 70

6

. 77

7

.

5

9

.

73

Figure

15

Numbers Pdeuced byajoystick

shows its current

position—5t015—is

automatically stored

in

a

.

function

called STICK(0). This behaves like an

ordinary variable: 9xcept that the. computer’s operating system sets it up for you it automatically everyfif— and updates

tieth of a second. All you have to do is check the current value storedinit, for example by: PRINT sncmn

. . '

and this will reveal the joystick's cur-

rent position.There’s alsoafunction—

. I


_

______—_________

Q

Q

.

which reads a joystick STICK“) plugged into port 2.‘ Two other functions STRIGlO) and STRlGi?—read the state of the trigger buttons. When no button is pressed both contain the value 1. lf you press the button on a stick plugged into port 1, STRlGlO) will go to the value 0. STRIGH) behaves in exactly the same way for a fire button operating through port 2. You can check the action of all four functions using this little program: —

‘ ‘ ,

. .

10 PRINT “mm” 20 POSITION 2 , 10'PRINT

t

sumo)”

.

Ham’snw 50m 2.

3g

.

1]...

, sr

.

_

Plug yourjoystick into port 1 2' move ‘t around, press the and watch what happens.

or port trigger

Program | ShOWS _one technique for joystick control usmg the IF-"THEN _

.

.

Th's command. mid "

.

every game you_ encounter, so it’s worth taking the time to understand it thoroughly. Basrc starts by looking at the lF part to see whether that condition is true or

'3 extremely come across it in

YOU

useful, almost

,

. ,

1:

”$201???ng“

.

T“°'d”e°“°”al _

,

1°”

20 POKE 752,1zPRINT CHR$<125):REH ch cursor off and clear screen 30 H1=20:REH

Current

horizontal

sm co-ord

inate

.

40 H2=20:REM

will

.

as new

horiz

ontal co-ordinate

. . .

.

in

i l

i

i

.

.

{

i

' ! 2

1

. '

.

, ,

a

‘Qn?fed-

_

prints

“lrlmlll” current p051tion,

POSITION

232555

H

“E” by

any

irate

”mung

1m POSITION H2,1‘l:PRINT curuzmmsn Print ball at new horizontal position 120 Hl=H2:REH Update current cursor po sition, ready for next cycle 130 FOR li=1 To 30: NEXT H: REM Short d elay slows dOHn movement “5 G°T° 6“

.

Program I: Joystick control

.

not. if it is the rest of the program line is executed, but if not, Basic ignores

i

5

. 3

from the prints the

— thereby erasing it screen _ then ?ne 110 reball at its new co-ordinates

mam-so

pOSItlon H2 now

holds

fmm

°”e

0

the cursor's current

b“?

.

There is nothing '” thls program to stop the ball moving off screen, so if you allow the ball to reach a screen border you’ll get an error message. You can avoid this by using a second IF...THEN statement to prevent further _

'

.

'

'

. ,

can omit this line if you want to move at full speed. Finally, line 140 loops t° Sta” the process 3” °Ver

again.

1

.

blank space at the

a

position which the ball currently

horizontal position, and line 120 transfers this value into H7 ready for the next cycle. Line 130 introduces a short delay which makes the movement slow enough to handle easily you

9“ GOTO 602REH take no action for Other StiCk DOSitiOflS

.

process without affecting H1 or H2. The “e‘ mu" ‘S that 3” JWS‘EC" 9°5" trons other than left and ”9m are

39 1|: STICK<0>=11 THEN 0:REM New co-ordinate

H2=H2-1:GOT0 in is one column le

.

:

to 15 —- stick centralised - the program stays there. If STlCKlO) is not equal to 15, Basic moves on to line 70 where it checks to see whether the stick value is7—pointing right. if so, it adds 1 to the current value held in H7, stores the new value in H2 and jumps to ?ne 100. |f the stick value is not 7 the program skips to line 80. This line sets H2 to H1-1 if STICKlO) is equal to 11 _ pointing left Any value other than 15, 7 or 11 will take it to line 90 which loops back to start the checking

t° Jump ma?a"toappears the other.

ht

I

.

STlCKlO) is equal

occupies (H1,11)

P

324132582:zzzztlsizsrrm°°

1“

;

action let's examine Program in detail. Two main variables are involved H7 and H2. The former holds the character's current horizontal position and the latter is the position it has to move into. H2 will have the value H1+1 if the character has to move one space right, or H1-1 if movement left is required. The remains constvertical'position at 11' Wh’Ch means that the be“ ar." will not move up ordown, jUStSlde to Slde on the 12th line down the top line is line 0, remember. Now look at line 60. If the value of

m u sucmm=7 rm H2=H1+1:GOT0 um :REll New co-ordinate is one column rig

it

_

and skips to the next

line in sequence. To see the IF...THEN statement

Line 100

be used

5“ POSITION “1,111PRINT CHR$(25):REM Pint ha“ at initial D°Siti°n

o

ated by colons

.

.

55mm)

"

,

.

everything else on that program line— including any other statements separ—

. . .

_

. .

mm m Page 54 ’

‘ April 1988 Atari User 53


.

O

o

‘ .

don’t understand, go back and re-read the earlier parts of this series all the information there for you. The scenario involves a young lady who is frightened of spiders and must mothballs at them to detef the." _hur| inexorable advance. The herome '3 represented by a heart CHR$(0) at the top of the screen yes, know it’s couldn’t find a macho sexist, but

4 From Page 53

.

if the ball

movement

hits

either

't°‘

boundary.

The least complex way of doing this to nest the second IF...THEN statement inside the first. Change lines 70 and 80 to read: is

.

‘ . j

—.

i

I

-“

.

I

STICK(B)= 2=H1+1iG°T° 1“? 7G

IF

7

ll

ifiéf?léii‘ili

Hi<39

IF

THEN

”N

THE"

THEN

H

THE”

H

symbo| in the character Set The mothball missiles are represented by the ball character—CHR$(96). The spiders are asterisks a mutant variety with six legs. As the game starts our heroine is at the to!) centre Of the screen and the line of spiders is near the bottom. Use the joystick to move from side to side and the fire button to hurl a mothball. If the missile hits a spider it will obliterate it, but after every shot the abominable arachnids Will advance one line up the screen. Your task is to eliminate as many as possible before they reach the top “he-

'

,

The symbol < means is less than and > means is greater than. So line 70 will now update H2 only if the stick is pointing right AND if the character has not yet reached the right-hand border. Similarly line 80 will update H2 only if the stick is pointing left and the character has not reached the left border. Once you understand, how this program works you’re ready for Program II — our first game. It’s called Spider Attack and uses most of the techni— ques you’ve learned so far_ If, when you type it in, there's anything you

. .

. ‘

.

nghtr

ider Attack

S

ame

.

iiake 23 POKE 753,1zPRINTpCHRSHZS):RE: cursor invisible and clear screen

.

.

Pro ram 2:

REM

“he's

"heart"

6“ IF

SWIG”)?

7'

.

IF 80 IF

ChataCt”

STICK(O>~\15

THEN

15”

GOTO

GOTO

THEN

60

STICK(B)=7‘THEN IF H1<38 . =H1+l:GOT0 110 IF H2>1 9a IF STICK(0)=1,1 THEN

THEN

H2

THEN

H2

.

41-1

:GOT0 11a 100 GOTO 60 110 POSITION H1,E:PRINT

.

"

";:REll

ONE

3

PACE

.

'

“21017 CHRSWWHMIZ

?g 2833213" .

lé’g $3: gag?otgzthm"

.

lé? POSITION 17g Fog

u=1

H1,ROH:PRINT TO

15945”

tall poslTION Hl,ROU:?

.

198

NEXT

2M

SHOT=SHOT+1:IF

ON

54 Atari User April 1988

,.

.

scrolls

POSITI

THEN

0VER”=END

”it”

pitaeii 212 ”V151 'bl curs“ .e line so this PRINT

COU

'

1

command

the scteen upwards one Line 50 //:

Spider attack game

work?

:‘

.

.

.

,

5

i

.

Line 20

. .

.

. . .

.

new ”Shim“ Line 200 keeps track of the number Of mothballs thrown and ends the game when it reaches 22. The command END does precisely what you'd expect it to — it terminates pro-

‘ '

i

' . '

.

'

's "°“

.

on bottom

Program

CHR$(96)

H

SHOT=22

15rl?=PRINT”GAl‘lE

220 com

.

_

Row

gi?sggiiif

Mthbau'

it

; 1

.

.

30 H1=20:H2=20:SHOT=E FOR 2:POSITION ST 1.0 STAR=2 TO 38 STEP AR,22:PRINT ”*”:NEXT STAR:REM Print li ne of spiders 50 POSITION H1,?:PRINT CHR$(O):REH Her

.

does

turns off the cursor so that it doesn’t interfere Wlth the action. Unless YOU do this the little white square will be zipping around all over the screen with every POSlTlON command. lt's still there of course but the POKE .’ . °°n?ma"d makes 't ”W'S'me' 30 sets up the .Line variables Wh'Ch Will be used to control horizontal movement and to keep track of the number of shots. Line 40 prints a row of nineteen asterisks near the bottom of the screen, and line 50 prints the heroine’s heart character at top centre. Lines 60 to 130 read the joystick and move the heroine one s p ace left or right usmg the technique we explainedin Program |- Line 60 Checks to see if the fire button is pressed and, if it is, control passes straight to line 150 which handles the mothball movement. Since the mothballs have to move vertically down the screen, the horizontal co-ordinate remains'constant and the vertical co-ordinate increases according to the FOR...NEXT loop which starts at line 150. As before, each move prints a blank Space at the character’s current IocaQ tion, then re-prints the character at its

. 1

hOW

.

. .

I


_—-_———.

0

.

Q

C

0 gram execution and returns control to you W'th a READY message. The

‘ . .

using

a

command to PRINT

Vertical [00

POKE

5”

0”

stick in port

70 IF

. .

195 SOUND

. .

. . . .

So much

movement. NOW take a look at Program homer it This one uses familiar techniques but allows you to move a character in any direction under joystick control. n has to be a l0t more complex, since instead of just two directions there are now eight to worry about — up, down, right, left and four diagonals. And there must be a boundary

check for each direction. This leads to an annoying amount Of repetition in the program, 30d each diagonal direction needs two separate lines Of IF...THEN statements—one for the horizontal and the other for the vertical component. YOU'd be right in thinking that there must be a better way, and in fact there are several, but the one we'll look at just now is the

.

subroutine. This is a sort of mini programwithin-a-program. It usually handles a clearly defined and self-contained task, especially if that task has to be executed more than once during the

.

point using the command GOSUB followed by the line number at which

.

main program. It can be called at any

.

joy

4

for

I

nothing

Do

i

.

the ball

p

THEN

I

V2=Vl'1=G

4

Y

.

_

133 i; 232 1:3: i: Ni>gaTNHgNVHEYHT1P ' GOTO ZIOFREM Diagonal<uplright '

l

.

120 IF

s=7

THEN

Hl<38 only IF v1<22

THEN

v2=v1+1

THEN

IF

THEN

H2=H1+1:

THEN

IF

l

H2=H1+i:

THEN

21mm Right

130 IF 140 IF

s=5 s=5

H1<38

S=9

THEN

IF

V1<22

S=9

THEN

IF

H1>i

om 21mm Diagonal down/left

NEH{sz 190 IF 260 IF REM

5

H1>1

H2=H1-1:G

THEN

H2

ZJIIJHEN

s=m

THEN

S=1?

THEN

IF IF

Diagonal

up/left

POSITION

H1,Vl:?

Old

ZZZ

IF

be“

bY

POSITION

v1>1 H1>1

rm THEN

2”

for next 60m oil:

.

V2=V2-1 H2=HT-‘l:

.

CHR$(32):REH

printing

a

Space

Eras °Ver

H2,V2:?lCHR$(26):REH

it

.

Prin .

CICIe REM

Next

.

1'

H1

n 538151235-liii§?;2ldl23§§2 n eady

.

V2=V1+1

THEN THEN

I

_

210:REM Diagonal down/right 150 IF 8:13 THEN IF v1<22 THEN v2=v1+1 :REH Down only

160 IF 170 IF

l

I

GOTO

2M

fortwo-directional joystick

of

.

;

i

0,519,“

Find next position

i

_

And don't forget to switch the sound off when VOU've finished with it:

;

position

g$01213=géMTEEN 0”If

or, for greater variation, make the pitch 10times the value of ROWas in:

0’R°"*m’"'8

.

CUl‘

1

V1>1

155 SOUND 0,ROH,1?,8

155 SOUND

and

Turn

to be printed:

.

_

l

,

man 6070 6?:REM

s=15

REM

GOTO

.

horizontal

New

I

Horizontal

if stick centralised an

example! '

to

method

CO'OFdinates 752,12? CHRSHZSIHIEM and Clear

60 S=STICK(?):REH Read

into oblivion, of course, but the final jump to line 50 immediately restores her to her rightful position. You might like to improve the game by adding sound to it. Try linking the pitch of a SOUND statement to one or more Of the eX'St'W var'ab'es ' for .

Cumbersome

fcree”

that the heroine

means

ascends

3:

PROGRAM

30 H2=H1:V2=V1:REH

way So PR'NT Statement W'“ "°W make the whole screenful of characters scroll Upwards by one line.

This

REM

8-directional joystick control

28 H1=l9zV1=11:REH Current and Vertical co-ordinates

nothing. It works because the invisible cursor must inevitably be on the bottom line after tracking a mothball

.

'

r

_

screen

.

10

clever b't ls at line 2103 Th'5 controls the spider’s movement up

.

cycle

Program Ill: Cumbersome method

for joystick control

.

your subroutine starts, for example: GOSUB 1” And as long as the subroutine ends with a RETURN command, Basic will automatically jump back to the next statement after its point of departure, In the example below we have used a subroutine to produce a short bleep when you entera value for eitherXor Yfrom the keyboard.

;3 3153; 528535 20

30 GOTO ill. 45 SOUND 0,100,10,8 50 FOR u=l 70 4g ”4ng u 60 SOUND a,o,0,a,;RETURN

Turn to Page 55 >

. ‘ . . ‘ . April 1988 Atari User 55


O

0

0 O

Q

call move diagonally up—left we simply — both routines one after the other GOSUB 220:GOSUB 280. Using this chatechnique it's easy to move a the of possible eight racter in any

10), Basic will 20. After the

return to second call (line 20) it will more obviouslyalot line 30. GOSUBis versatile than GOTO, which can only in ever jump to a single, fixed point

'

directions. The code for our joystick control routine is now shorter and much lines easier to understand 7 compare to 90 to 160 in Program IV with lines 90 lll. 200 in Program Because the subroutines can be — called more than once from different — there's very the in program places do. You can to little repetitive typing write subroutines to handle any they repetitive chores of this kind, andmore make the program structure

your program. if there are any further statements on the line containing your GOSUB command, Basic will return to the next unlike statement after GOSUB the to need skipto lF...THEN,itdoesn't —

.

next line. Note the GOTO 10 at line 30. Without this Basic would crash section through into the subroutineRETURN and, when it encounteredthe it'wouldn’t know where to

2

.

command, 16 ERROR go. You’d then get a corres— without RETURN indicating pending GOSUB. can use Program lV shows how you subroutines to avoid much of the lll. There repetitive typing in Program are four subroutines controlling movement up, down, right and left its respectively, and each contains vertical If check. own boundary we upward movement is required

. . ‘

-

After the first call (line automatically go to line

.

j

Page 55

“rm"

instruct the computer to GOSUB 220. To go left it’s GOSUB 280, and to

. .

-

W

"06W “i

REM

Oystick controt, Hl=l9le=ll:REM 2G

"UV“?

POSITION

Sill

balt bi! '

5:12 illirstick centralised REM

SE

PM“

echo

o

Do

GOSUB

.

220:eoro

s=7 THEN

GOSUB

:

Eli

H

56 Atari User April 1988

GOSUB

160 IF

5:10

240:GOT0

GOSUB

THEN

Up/left

eady

i l

. l

.

l l,

.

5

1

.

l

,.

.

i

. 1 i

. .

1mm

28lil:GOl0 22ltzeosua

.

28m

,

cHRS<32 ) : a Space

vm

E rés over 1; Pr'ln

REM

for

and

H1

V1

.

,

1

'

next cycle

22a IF Vl>‘l 0 move up,

i t

THEN

it

there’s

i

P

start here: 2223igios??routines vz=Vl-l:REM prepare

ll

room

.

1

V2=V1WREH Prepare

253 iiTiJ/‘iizzTHEN the” ‘f '

zsmo H

zsmo l70:RE

Down only

Eganguwnr 2“

1;

’5

room

H2=Hl+l:

“143mm right, if thy“

REM

Prepare

.

room

to move

is“;

2223

THEN

t H2=H‘l-‘l:REll Prepare

‘i the” '

agaoamaatr

'5

.

room

£1 '

‘i .

movement iOYS?C" Program IV: Elegant b

.

ba

.

ZWGOSUB

t 6°33? Down/rig THEN

10)’

26mm nut

tonl MYTH“ 133692; 2:13 2291712

1:

17mm

eosus 22lll:GOSUB

liiii (£2054mu T0 WHEN Up/right

on”

THEN

POSITION co-ordinates t ball at neu update 19g H1=H2le=V2zREM-

nothtng

'

.

r

18m

.

blizREH

: intengxt

110 IF

f

the posttion tor

THEN 93°12e5224

.

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.

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0 Next month we’ll demonstrate how in eight you can move characters a disturbing without directions look background picture, and start to attheuseofco/ourin GraphicsModes Zand 3. Until then try these routines and write some of your own. Remember,

)

Current Horizonta

°°'°”?nates

“mm

.

1

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-

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and New Bil H2=Hl:V2=Vl:REM

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Mailbo 9

________————

,

bought a 65XE system. My ?rst attempts with the micro have been quite frustrating

I

Put

m

'

boot

the

I

to say the least, and I have

several questions. Firstly, I have

been

difficult); t egames ilexpjriencing 03 mg someogrief

the

soon.

ted, but make sure sou have a Dos disc in the

got with the computer. It appears that it is not sufficient to just simply type CLOAD. What else dolhave

Most games written for Atari the old style micros 400 and 800 — will work on your XE system. However,

to do? Is it pose/bis to expand the micro's memory, and what is the best disc drive to use with it? Finally, will old games like Oral and Conan the Barbarian run on my computer? — A. White, Yorkshire. ost o t e tapes you got gamsley,nguth contain with ine corgputer co e programs. mac ryour You can't load these direct so you must from Basic BOOT them. You do thisby holding the Start and Option keys down as you switch the micro on. You will hear a beep, and at this point insert the tape and press Return. Then just wait a while and the program W'“ load. |t IS DOSS!b|e to upgrade the memory of your 65XE, the 64k of memory it has but ‘S enough to run any SO?'

some

'

currently Madame”. (“SF Any Of. the Ata”. With it

ware

Will work although, at the moment, there is a slight problem obtaining one. Atari plans to release a new disc drive drives

differenCes

in

operating systems between the new and old machines mean certain software will not work — but this is only a minority.

and Conan the Barbarian will work perfectly. Drol

.

D'splay

FOUND the article on modems in the January issue very interesting: It doesn’t seem that long ago that it was almost impos— sible to buya modem for an Atari. However, despite this

improvement,

we

Atari

owners fora long time were still lacking in communi— cations software that would allow the use of teletext mode and support split baud rates. Part ofthe trouble was the Atari 850 interface box that f

TENNER’ '

So now there's mor reason than ever to conetribute to our lively mail ' bag Pages.

pens

-

W|dth pOke

Mailba Edit or Atari uzer

HAVE just bought a book for my Atari cal/ed Software for the XL. There’s a program in itca/led Omniopo/y, and every time I try to type in the Iistinglgetan errorat line 605“ the I ”St thfs line When

Ad|ington Adlington

,

.

I

.

how to enter~ th's lme? Derek Goring, Leeds.

to Y?“ attempt POKE

enter the listing type

82’0 followed by Return.

This will increase the width of the display and allow you .

comms

and

OWN an Atari 130XE and 1050 disc drive and I am

/

very happy with it except for

Park

smallproblem concerning the cartridge socket one

to enter more characters per Iine. use all

possible abbreviations for commands —for example: 6 fOf —

and enter the line spaces, as Basic

without any

will automatically insert them for YOU-

MicroLink/

Telecom Gold and can now access Prestel and 1200/75

bulletin boards to their Peter heart’s content. Boulter via MicroLink. _

the

s

5,9,"

is

located onzn desk/makes it very difficul); to plug and unplug cartridges without having to move the com~ puter Apart from the annoyance atmovingitl’m also worried about the wear and tear on the socket. Would it be possible for your gadgets expert Len Golding to design something to over— my problems? ;_ Robbie James, Warrington.

come

Saving

was fora long time the only way of connecting anything to an Atari. Then Miracle Technology brought out its interface and cable and Multiviewterm software which allows the use of split baud rates and the viewdata modes. Now Atari users are not restricted to 300/300 bulletin

boards

gadget

The we

GOTO

"

cartrldge

Maccles?eld SK10 4NP

Also

an

'

Europa House

program

0"

'

'

I

'

.

end is always "71351179, and try as I may I can’t get it to go m‘ Can youplease tel/me 0 Before

out

converted picture Atari 1029 printer.

_

-

.

drive. In the January 1988 issue of Atari User there was a program to convert Paint picture files to a 52 sector uncompressd?le, and in the same issue there was also a utility to print the newly»

EACH month we win award £10 prizes for the most interesting letters ' sent to us.

-

for Atari

I

W,” A

Get your

filename

rom

start could virétIZiear? ?g win ners. The address,

W

Boost

when

which should be available

-

.

tell m? ’f GOULD you please _

to

[

. Although it would be possuch ten wor. outto sibledfor aga get it coutoddeSigkn

With pamt ”fs possm/e

,

saveowf?nf

pictures from the Paintartist package? I have an Ata” 730XE' ,7050 disc drive and 7029 printer. _

l have drawn 30m? qutte ’t 0 us SW’{iC 2705; 232551737??? lose them. system the and _

Michael Simons, Crowborough, East Sussett. 0 You can save pictures created u5ing Paint by entering the disc menu from the menu and _main Se'ectlng Save Flle' Enter

and ,.

be We. mm, mistakes ”5 construction

m “remade n could

any

damage your Slime u

S

a

computer

badly. SO regretfully, non-starter. -

Reelpe for success .

IN the October 7987 issue Of Atari User there wasaletter for from John Upton asking

information about astrology run, to page 53 >

April 7988 Atari User 57


___—-——-—I—__—_—_—

4 Fm" P899 57 and cookery programs for the 8 bit Atari. I know of a couple of proavailable on grams astrology, one from The Catalog, 544 Second Street, San Francisco, CA U.S.A and one from Astrocalc, 67

Panscroft Road, Heme/ Hempstead, Herts HP3 BER. A good cookbook/recipe Program is available from New Horizons, P.O. Box 180253, Austin, TX 78718 U.S.A. It is called The Computer Gourmet and is very useful and informative. —R. Burnaby, Canada.

Lussier,

s u b h u“ t'lng for errors COULD you please tell me if there is anything missing

from the listing of Submarine Hunter that appeared in the January 1988 issue Of Atari User? I am convinced I have entered it correctly, but w... hhhh score appears at the bottom of the screen. M. Fitzgerald, Darlaston, West Midlands. 0 The “Sting we Published was complete and works

?les whose size is set by the variable CAP, so a little jingle occupies the same size as a symphony. The following changes to the program will remedy these slight discrepancies:

“0

CAP=5?W=REM

"GT” 14” ”I”

MAX

TUNE

LE

K$”8)'NREF$(27)'KSG

$2573”, PICK$(2B)

SCALEMZ?) TUNE$(CAP§ ' TEMP$(255

166 MM

mum,

52g KSG$-”DEFGABCDEFGABCDEFG 530 RESTORE

65thFOR

A=1

T0

151171191221232612

DATA

2316234; 542153562 86?B 8

121

,128,144,16§,1éz,193,217' 805 7" SIZE ";SlZE;"/”;CAP 3m "0K to write ":GET# 7

1,A:IF 3882

RETURN

THEN

CHRSHZS) 35W IF Y=1? OR Y=37

THEN

Y—

”mm“

THE”

?ngéf?Y'lkg’ “30 1; D13

“USN”

THEN

ND+VDT

5

1

SCRN-OFS)

B=Y:9:NTE=ASC(SCALE$(B,

Bl) 4395 6165

£10

_

LETTER

The MQIOdy ?ngers on -

marvellous program Melody Maker by Bruce Wood/and is (February 7.988). /typed it in and have through/y enjoyed playing What

repeats.

Also tunes are stored in 58 Atari User April 1988

Vlntage MAY/congratulateyou and

all your staff for the excellent February issue of Atari User. There was a superb variety of programs andarticles which made this

;,‘ ,

.

input. ‘

Evenabooklhave—Map— ping the Atari never gave me any hintiof what the values of the registers signify. So thanks for a superb and fun-to-use -

,,

"

’~ ‘

~

program. lhave also been waitinga

long time for

,

music playing program combining an on-screen editor, and getting Melody Maker in the same

”sue

a

was

a

~

'

"9.3!

bonus' May ’ also congratulate you on your excellent Get It Right! program, which has saved mealifetime's specuIation on what went wrong with my programs. More ofthe sat-nepleeser Richard Martin, Acton, London.

'

1‘. ,

'

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9

,

Y

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1

TUNENMP)

9$gg_;g:?$g£2£m ész—TRAP 9486:0PEN#2,6,E,FN $:INPUT#2 TEHP$:SIZE=VAL(TEM

P(lS,17))gSIZE=SIZE*125:CLOS 5ng

_

T0_aV0’d problems W’th .

notes in o e po anhef?!) important memory, you will ?nd that they will not be shown but the correct note Will be played. Well that 5, my part done, Does anyona know how we st?eglgge? a elng

introduce pofvphony? Any ideas? M. holland, Lower Penn, South Staffordshire, can

In the February 1988 issue we published a letter from Martin ' Osborne of Wimbledon who criticised the lack of software available for Atari users. Here is a selection from the we have responses received over the last few weeks.

.

IHAVE just typed in the program to customise the default screen from the February issue ofAtari User and checked it with Get it Right! The checksum for line 260 didn’t match the one pub-

IiShed.

After creating an autoboot

Shortage

WHY is it that 8 m Owners a/ways ; ftAtar/i get out When games like 06 Ut are released? / Bun haVe to many of the m _ertten SO?. Ware companies' Isa/or “t to ”0 avail. [f games l/ke out Run and .

,

IAM also annoyed about the sad lack of software avaiIable for the8bitAtari. In my home town of Barrow in Furness are 5 ops. tlgee ne computer there7

doesn’t stock any games for the Atari and the other two keep very few and most Of them are only £199 budget titles. lam certain plenty ofAtari users would buy more games if they were readily available and of a higher quality than a lot of the '

screen

are

.

.

customlsed

saw

present ones. It is quite frustrating that owners of computers like the Commodore and Spec— trum have vast numbers of games when those of us

With the better machine have to Sit out in the cold 3. White, Barrow in Fumess, Cumbria. _

*

* *

,

-

W'th

??m’ tgféggggefzerstt eems .

thatallofa sudden softwar have forsaken the; bit Atari com ute rs for th e new 16 bit STp / visit Atari W0” d "7 Manch t or at I east oncea week 35 early December 6: t sgtce ave only been three 8756 8 bit releases. L' —. gnfgu': it s, Boarshaw, M'd' d!"eton. houses

.

* * AFTER reading the February *

issue

of Atari User/was left

M .

SIZE=VAL(TEHP$(15,17)):

seam...

,

3;

,

m

a

tunes on it ever since. However, as it stands it is not suitable for playing guitar music, which needsa greater range of notes anda larger memory store — the third movement of Barrios' La Catadral needs 4125 bytes to store including its

_

edition extraordinarily inten esting and informative. I was intrigued by the technique, exempli?ed by the Graphic Equaliser proof reading the gram, digitised values of cassette

SIZE=T+DUR

9m M=INT(SIZE/256):L=SIZE-

5

m'};

2m 15 240 4 175 43'2 ' ' 261

?

3“?

451g

8

month

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A<>89

240

2m 13, '’32 ' i 76 ' 54 ' 265 ' 16 ' 7'

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wrong information or none at all to be d splayed

.

m WA

2

perfectly. Check the lines of but could cause the

bits of data were lost from the end of line 260. The line should read:

ABCDEFGAB“

data very

game

computer had locked up. Can you please tell me what is wrong with the proD. Bill, Rednal, gram? Birmingham. 0 Unfortunately, several —-

carefully, as a mistake there may not crash the

cassette / attempted to load it by holding down Start and switching the computer on, followed by Return. When the tape stopped the screen had not changed and the


———-Moilbog "f

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you please tell me which shops are polled by Gallup? al live in London and yet in sochl?a Vast expanse of commercial retailing I still have problems ?nding Atari

f

2

1.

ware houses Atari computers are ?ghting an uphill battle. It would be a crying shame If the popularity of the machine was marred because of Ignorance. Pierre Chenier, London. 0 The Gallup chart IS compiled from 3.3"35 figures taken from various shops around the country. It may be that when the charts are compiled the shop that you mentioned was not polled.

question: Every

monthGa/lup‘prowdes you with rmformatron of games sales which enables you to compile a chart of the top 20 selling Atari games. Could

k,

L;

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with

P

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TRY GANGSTERS VII-LE PLAYABLE WITH ATARI LIGHT GUN INCLUDED ALSO A BOARD GAME!

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0432 50836

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Th ese are

a f ew of 1 ust the lette rs ro II'”79 ”7 hi 9 h/i 9 htin 9 rh 6 / ac k 0 f software f Of 8 b ’ ‘t UsersPerhaps ’f W8 moan of 19" and enough

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”anaemic", B 0432 50836

TRANSFER GAMES TAPEs To msxm Thought it was impossible? Not so! Many commercial cassette games can indeed beconvenedlo disk successfully with THE ALCHEMIST tape to disk transfer system! The utility is entirely non-technical to use, so why endure slow and error prone cassette loads send Ior a copy today! THE ALCHEMIST@ONLY 219.95 Post Free REQUIRE DISK BACKUP? The DISK-TO-DISK PLus offers disk backup, including disks that use CRC-error BAD-SECTORS Ior protection! Features also include: Tape to Disk Transfer Disk to Tape Transfer and a Tape to Tape Copier. ousx-ro-msx PLus@ ONLY £16.95 Post Free REDUCE TAPE LOADING 11MES! As well as aulcmallc backup of casscna games, function —TURBOSAVE! The utility will also cl'lars an additional TURBOCHARGER XUXE duplicate game tapes to an ordinary blank cassette, and the duplicated game will LOAD FASTER THAN THE ORIGINAL! The original game tape is una?ocled. TURBOCHARGER XUXE@ ONLY29.95 Post Free THE BINARY TAPE EDITOR offers automatic backup of your game tapes, and in addition will enable you to LOOK at the aaual program that you are copying! Searches adventure tapes Ior clues and locations, and works with both machine-code and Basic commercial games. The utility will even allow you to edit text elc. within the program you are duplicating, and save the cuslomised version to a blank cassette! When the duplicate version of the game is loaded, your own text will appear within the game! BINARY TAPE EDITOR @ ONLY £9.95 Post Free SEARCH COMMERCIAL GAME DISKS lor clues and locations! THE SECTOR that can dump the contents of any sector of a disk, INSPECTOR is a disk investigation tool onscreen! Enables you to read any hidden text that a disk contains. and alter it to your own fun comments if you wish with the Editor! SECTOR INSPECTOR @ ONLY £7.95 Post Fm TAPE-TO-DISKIMENULOADER 3 SPECIAL OFFER package ol two useful utilities at a new LOW PRICE! The TAPE-TO-DISK utility will transler all slngleslags machine-code cassette games to disk. MENULOADER is a menu disk creator that will place TEN games onlo ONE disk the games are then selectable from a menu screen. TAPE-TO-DlSK/MENULOADER @ ONLY £12.95 Post Free DO YOU PROGRAM IN BASIC? If you do, why not give your completed programs a touch ol class with BASIC AUTOLOADER! The utility will convert any Basic program that requires you to CLOAD and RUN it. into a boot-load version -jusl like commercial cassette games! Jusl hold down the START key and SWITCH ON to load and run your own Basic programs! BASIC AUTOLOADER @ ONLY £7.95 Post Free THE PROGRAMMERS U11LITYPACK is a suite oI powerful ulililles designed to assist in or Basic games. ll your programming requires: the creation cl either machine—code Mullicoloured Animated Players Background Music —Multicolour9d Play?elds created directly onscreen with an Editor Vertically Scrolling Backgrounds plus many more helplul militias and demo liles, the P.U.P. could be just what you have been looking for! PROGRAMMERS UTILITY PACK @ ONLY 222.95 Post Fru ____________ FOR FURTHER DETAILS OF xuxs GAMES - vcs 2500 cows. ST sorrme & HARDWARE —

36"

“M

, ‘

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O'Malley, North Yorkshire. 0' The new light gim will work on your 130XE, but the only game currently available for it is Bug Hunt on rom cartridge. In the February 1988 issue of Atari User we published a game written to work with the gun, and this listing should show you the techniques needed to incorporate, theagun into your oWn programs.

a

.

.

.

“antagonism

T0 "

,

GI!

*

XE systems and I send my thanks to Bob Gleadow who has done a great job since he arrived at Atari.

THE SAME GAME?... .

~

.

,

,

-

'

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0 There are a lot of games and business programs available in America that haven t been released in the UK. Unfortunately, a lot of UK software distributors believethat the market for 8 bit Atari software is dead,

~

.

.-

g,

*

have not been. released in England. Is this true, and why aren’t they available to people in the UK? Glenn Wilkinson, North Preston,

.

15"

* *

sell very well. At the show I saw the new Atari light gun for the XE games system: Will it werk on my 130XE computer? Jackie Harrogate,

com-

IN November I went to the Atari User Show at the Novotel In London. It was the best show that l have been to and l was pleased to see the amountofinterestin Atari products. Unfortunately there was a lack of new software for the 8 bit Atari and this was a great shame. There were a lot of people there looking for new games for their. trusty 8 bits and it was a shame that they had to go away unhappy. On a lighter theme, I was very pleased to see that Atari IS supporting the new

are a lot of good Atari soft— ware titles In America that

,

.

long life for Atari 8 bit puters in the UK.

A FRIEND told me thatthere

Court Road branch started to sell other formats of comtputeiggamesIts supplytof 8, digit Atari software and hardware has dwrndled dramatically. It does. appear that even, though software houses are producmg games for the Atari» there are no shops E’iiiéiirrcgirozierair than, With this poor attitude from shops and certain soft-

release its old cartridge games again at a budget price as I think that they will

is a mistake on their part. . We receive an inbredible number of letters about this subject and we can see a

.

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Whether you Ilke games or prefer more serious pursuits there s something here for you and you can also learn a great deal from_examin|ng and modlfylng the Basrc Ilstmgs.

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Atari User Magazine Vol 3 Issue 12  

Atari User Magazine Vol 3 Issue 12 - magazine for Atari home computer users, published by Database Publications.

Atari User Magazine Vol 3 Issue 12  

Atari User Magazine Vol 3 Issue 12 - magazine for Atari home computer users, published by Database Publications.

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