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THIS Atari version of the Zero 2 robot has been launched by Intergalactic Robots. It is an educational model designed to teach users the fundamentals of robotics and can be used as a Logo turtle. It costs £119.95.

the 8 bit market—just as we are to the 16 bit". Max Bambrldge pornts 10 the launching Of a new i°W 005" colour monitor for the 130XE as being an example of the company's on-going support "It is ourintention to see that the 130XE remains the leaderin its own sector of the market", he said. As part of this plan the Atari UK bOSS has pledged hiS support for companies wishing to develop projects for theBbit machines. ”We are eager to help anyone in this area, whether it be with the loan of development tools machines, programming said. or iUSt advrce ,.he ’That 5 the 8 how important b't market '5 to us _

this project with development

its heavy

costs which

set

Barry Krite thinking about investing in his own venture capital fund.

personal

Fl oun d er Remembering the problems had, he said: 'We realise how easy it could be even foran exceptional product to flounder if you did not have enough capital behind it. ”Really there is no one out there you can turn to if you do not have money available. ”That is why I decided to makethe offer, notjustforprofit for myself, but to help the

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ST TOOLBOX COMMAND line processor has been released for the SZOST by Paperlogic. Called the ST—Toolbox it is a productivity tool aimed at A

enhancing the machine's efficiency and performance. It costs £29.95.

industry

as a

whole”.

THIS

year will

witness

a

massive increase in the amount of software available for the Atari 8 bit machines, the 800XL and 130XE. An industry survey carried out by Atari User has revealed that the boom is already underway, with at least 100 new titles expected to come on to the market in the next few months. More programs and more outlets stocking them should end the longstanding complaint by Atari 8 bit enthusiasts that software for their machines is often hard to find.There are two —

main reasons for the brighter outlook. One is the deal with High Street giants Dixons and Currys which increased the 800XLuser base by 100,000 at Christmas. The second release here of a host of 8 bit titles from the United States. \ Software Express distri— bution director Ken Howells told Atari User: "A lot of software

companies have suddenly realised there is

a

big market for

products for the Atari

8

bit

range.

“Firms that previously wouldn't have bothered to

convert their titles for the Atari are now doing so in increasing numbers and programmers all over the country are being snowed under With conversion work. ”American software houses are licensing large numbers Of their Atari 8 bit programs to British firms. Some are even opening their own offices over here. “We are in the process of introducing 50 new titles to this country, many originating in the USA, and expect that total to be easily doubled by releases from other companies. I

'

“TWO or three new outlets a week are contacting “5 to order Atari programs. if any users have problems getting Atari 8 bit software these days they ShOUid change their retailer". Distributor Microdeal reports that all its Atari 8bit software is selling extremely well. A spokeswoman said: “We carry six titles at the moment. Perhaps we should be handling more there’s ObViOUSiY a big demand for them". Silica ShOD iS currently 30 new products, releasing —

manyofthem Americanimports

for Atari

8 bit machines.

— April 1986 ATARI USER

7


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T INSPIRED by years of listening to the electronic sounds of rock like Tangerine Dream and groups a Pink Floyd, I have written that syn?thesi:el:d:rogram e i activatest endepthsofthe Atari sound chip. It may not be up to the standard of Jean Michael Jarre, who uses electronic sound generating equip— ment costing many thousands of pounds, but the program is certainly fun to play with. For best results connect your Atari directly to your stereo system via the monitor output and suitable leads. Alternately use a television with an earphone output and connect this to your amplifier. Turn the volume up. Fortunately, you don't have to know a great deal about music or even computers to operate the program and produce a wide variety of sound ranging from the melodious to the cacophonic. have To control the program imitated Atari's big brother, the ST. Well admit that the program is not but quite as sophisticated as the ST, the principle is the same. The joystick acts as a poor man's mouse. Each screen display presents a number of options. The joystick moves a cursor to the chosen option and a press of the fire button activates that option. This user—friendly approach is an ideal way for those unfamiliar with to computers or the qwerty keyboard characInverse the program. operate ters indicate that an option has been activated. For example, go to the One Channel Sound page and you will find that the sound is pre-set to a 64kHz main base clock and pure sound. To switch on other sound attributes the cursor can be positioned anywhere on the line where the chosen option

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When the desired combination of sound attributes has been chosen box and place the cursor over the Play then Control press the ?re button. the of rows two middle the to passes

keyboard.

The display at the bottom of the sound pages shows how the musical

.


notes have been allocated to the keys in a similar way to the piano keyboard with the sharps positioned above the natural notes. The musical scale is true for the

preset sounds, but other sound options may give various degrees of discord. To exit from the play mode press the Select key and a keyboard music key at the same time. To return to the main menu go to the Return box. The ADSR section enables you to define a sound envelope. if you are unfamiliar with the ADSR envelope study Figure I which shows a graph of the sound envelope. Attack is the time taken for a note to reach full volume and Decay the time taken to reach the Sustain Level. Sustain is a measure of how long the note stays at the sustain volume level before the release when it fades to silence.

_

to 3 and addresses

1

if a single figure is entered. The program will not allow an invalid number to be entered in the ADSR envelope parameters. To demonstrate the ADSR sound envelope enter Attack 2, Decay 10, Sustain 40, Release 50 with a Sustain Level of 9 to produce a crisp piano type sound. To obtain a woodwind type sound try Attack 20, Decay 30, Sustain 50 and Release 50 with a Sustain Level pressed

Of 8.

A snare drum type sound is made by setting the 64kHz clock (option 1), the 1.79 mHz clock (option 4) the Distortion 3 (option 8) and the 9 bit poly counter (option 9), followed by Attack 5, Decay 5, Sustain 5, Release 10 and Sustain Level 6. In order to understand what each of the program options does it is useful to know something about how the Atari sound chip functions. (For a more detailed introduction to the

5376153763,

channel. For example,

With pure

a sound can be switched on using a command such as SOUND 0,90,10,10 or alternatively the same sound can be achieved by POKE 5376090 followed by POKE 53761 ,234. In the program the play mode runs

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53765 and 53767 affect the distortion and volume for each sound

When the cursor is over one of the ADSR labels at the bottom of the option menu and the fire button pressed the label will flash to prompt a keyboard input. For Attack, Decay, Sustain and Release, enter a value of between and 255. If the number is three figures press the less .than joystick button or the Return key to pass control of the program back to the joystick. The Sustain Level requires a value of between and 14 and only needs

generated using a 64kHz system. The lower the frequency Of the CiOCkth, the lower the. note that results. Therefore lowering the 64kHz clock to i5kHZ by choosing option 2 AUDCTL tO give notes ofa changes lower pltChThe 1.79mHz clock (Optlen 4) gives hOteS Of a very high frequency. The high bandpass filter (option 3) ?lters out lower frequency sound to give a higher tone. During the distortion options (5 to 8) the distortion effect is achieved by something khOWh as a poly-counter WhiCh merges random waveforms

subject see the May and June 1985 articles in Atari User by Pete Bibby.) In Basic there isjust one command to control sound called appropri— ately enough SOUND. As well as accessing the sound system by means of this command it is possible to work directly on the sound registers which are found at addresses 53760 to 53768. 5376053762 53764 and 53766 control the pitch of sound channels 0

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a machine code routine that detects which key has been pressed and allocates a pitch value which is stored in the sound channel 0 register at address 53760 and, in the case ofthe two channel sound, calculatesa pitch value an octave less which is put in the sound channel register at address 53762. This routine also handles the timing and volume controls during the ADSR section. Options 5 to 8 decide which distortion value is placed in the distortion and volume registers at address 53761 if the two channel mode is chosen a similar distortion and volume value is placed in address 53763. Address 53768 is known as AU DCTL and affects the sound channels in ways that cannot be accessed directly from Basic. Options to 4 and option 9 change the value contained in this address to give various effects. Normally the Atari sound is 1

1

Channel mode, but without the

9

bit

poly—counter. Enter the Play mode and press Key L. Exit from the Play mode and

switch on the 9 bit poly-counter. Again press key L in the Play mode and you will notice how the change of poly—counter speed affects the distorted sound. Of course when using pure sound the 9 bit poly-counter has no effect, and in other distortion and poly counter combinations, the change may be difficult to detect. Option 10, Repeat, is used only during the ADSR section and, as the name

implies, causes

notes to be

repeated rapidly. The best way to use a program like this is to experiment and see what you can find among the Atari's vast range of sounds. Have fun, but spare a thought for your neighbours. Note: The program will not run an a 76k machine. “a April 1986 ATARI USER

9


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Take advantage of our finger—saving offer on Page 44.


Have fun with the Nurds WHIRLINURDS

one of the latest releases from US Gold, who have a reputation for quality Atari software. This is ."0 exception. The plot behind the game is that the four Nurd brothers have run out of food and decide to raid their friend's house, a greengrocer called Squelch. He is on holiday and has boobytrapped his house and the Nurds have to avoid the traps and eat all the food. Whirlinurds is basically a game of exploring rooms, avoiding traps and getting prizes. it may sound all too familiar but is in fact signi?—

cantly different from other such

it

games

is for one to four players who can work individually or as teams.

it consists of 50 rooms, each with a different set of problems or traps. You can start at the beginning of any block of 10 rooms by selecting A45 at the start, However the last 10 rooms are known as the Ultimate Feast and can only be entered by means of a password, This is gleaned in four parts by

completing each of the previous groups of 10 rooms and is not easy, Each room covers an area equivalent to about six screens, and the area shown on the screen scrolls very smoothly as you approach the edge. You can imagine 50 rooms like this mean that the game is big and will not be exhausted

quickly. Your man

is a Nurd, a squat

plump figure with a stupid grin and a propeller stuck out of his head. The four players are known respectively as Haymish

Pupkin,NaplesYertz,Hooseby Nurd and Melvin Lugby. They are identical apart from the colour of their shirts. The control of your Nurd is quite novel. When walking it is standard he will walk left when the joystick is pushed left and right when thejoystick is pushed right. However —

"

unleash further hazards. Small boxes 0" the floor known as blast squares will give you the same effect 35 a super leap, but also use up your ability to perform these at will. The graphics are very 90°C]. if not spectacular especially the Nurds. They turn slowly in

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changing

direction. The sound effects are also good and add considerably to the feel Of the game.

9

The background music

m

eSpecially adds to the excite— ment. As the time limit for each room runs out the

music gradually quickens, a

instilling when the trigger is pressed the propeller starts to rotate and your Nurd will begin to rise. If you release the trigger or if he hits a wall or platform he will begin to descend slowly and will not rise again until he has had his feet on firm ground. He does have an emer— gency super leap which can be obtained by pushing the stick up. This is called a retro boost. You get only one leap per screen or life and here lies a small problem. It is far too easy to accidentally use this leap in the excitement of play and jump straight into disaster or

at the least be deprived of it for later use. Your man is manoeuvred around the room collecting food. Strange creatures, Nurds

—theyeat anythingfrompizzas to light bulbs and bicycles. The walls, platforms and floors are safe to land on or

bump into, but anything flashing is deadly. These hazards are exotically named and include slinky snakes, bug eyes, jump bugs, globs, spudniks and the Nipple of Death. In addition there are keys which can be used to unlock closed off areas of the rooms, but beware — they can also

sense of urgency in

your play. There is also a second level in which the rooms are invisible, except for the flashing obstacles. The Nurd has a torch illuminating onlya small area around him. Whirlinurds is certainly well worth the price of £9.95, or £12.95 on disc. It is novel and has a definite goal to achieve which I feel always keeps a game's interest alive.

lcertainly don't think I'lltire of this quickly. Some of the rooms are extremely difficult and will keep even the most exper— ienced player occupied.

Mike Rowe

-

,

L.IV'“

YOU don’t come across many fantasy role-playing games for home computers, and l don't class adventures as being in that category, so when one appears on the scene it's well worth taking a closer look at.

Alternate Realityissucha

game and is the best ofits kind I've seen. It has excellent graphics, bags of action and options and uses music to good effect. You've been kidnapped by aliens and dumped in a room with only one exit. At the start you are presented withaview of the exit gate through which the impressive city of Xebec's

an

erous

.

.

I“

e c.

Demise can be seen. Search me who Xebec was, but since he’s described as deceased you can draw your

conclusions about the city's safety. Near the gate, which is

own

itself barred by a force field, are a collection of revolving numbers. These relate to your

individual

characteristics

strength,

intelligence,

stamina, charm, wealth, wisdom,

skill and hit points.

y

As you pass through the gate the numbers freeze and those values then determine your character's

attributes.

The higher the numbers, the better your chances. The aim is to explore the city, increase the value of your attributes and above all sur-

vive. During the first few days (game time) you are very

. April 1986 ATARI USER

73


________—_——___—_

vulnerable to foul play so must take care_to build up your qualities gradually. Details of your status can be called up by pressing the

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hold clues the songs played in the taverns often provide important hints. The city is intended to be just the first in a linked series, and since you can save and later reload your character, this means you can retain any character for use in later can

”it”

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are the keyboard. position in the the top halfof lower portion

was:

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nr

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mOS?Y Single characters,

should be taken in moderation. Get drunk and your move— ments will be inhibited you may even black out.

text is presented in olde Englishtype scriptand musical effects are used throughout the game. Both add to the atmosphere while the latter

.;

'

Select key at any time. Movement through the maze— like city is controlled by joystick or keyboard. All other commands, entered through Your current city is shown in the screen, the being reserved forcommands, options and other text. Much of the city consists of walled avenues. Closerinspec— tion of any wall may reveal the entrance to a building or even a secret passage. When you enter a building the screen changes to show a hi-res picture, often animated, of the building’s inhabitants and interior. There are many buildings in the city. Some are for your rest and recuperation. lnns offer lodgings and give time and date information. Taverns, whose menus change hourly, sell food and

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releases. Future additions include the dungeon, wil-

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and take one of ?ve forms — you surprise a life form, it surprises you, you see each other at the same time, it sees you first or you see it ?rst. At an encounter you are either engaged or disengaged. Engaged means you do battle and options include Iunge, attack, parry and sneak attack. If disengaged you may try less violent means — charm or trick an opponent, for example. The use of magic cannot be

Sp

——

ruled out either. Other hazards include being poisoned from a variety of sources — like being clawed by a poisonous creature, and catching a disease — such as contact with bacterial spores of mold. Potions can be acquired and take four forms: benign,

advantageous, disadvantageous and dangerous. Each can be opened, examined for colour, sipped and used. All

ellbrea ker

.

derness, arena and palace. The game playsa bit slowly, mainly because it has to make so many accesses to the disc during play (the program and data is spread across four sides of two discs). That apart, it is very enjoyable. The atmospheric detail and presentation, the wide variety ofcontent and the planned expansion route make Alternate Reality an excellent buy at £19.95.

Bob Chappell .

s

somethm

Smithies,easilydetected

by

the sound of an anvil being

struck,

provide weapons.

Prices and quality may vary and you'll almost certainly need to haggle. You can earn interest on your money by leaving it in a bank and can exchange gems for cash. Shops sell avarietyof clothes and goods, mostly ornamental. lf you become ill or wounded visit a healer. Weapons can be magical (special or cursed) or just normal, and can be found or purchased. If you want to rid yourself of a cursed weapon try a Guild. There are many life forms in the city. Guards, gladiators, merchants, dwarves, mages, assassins and imps are just a few. All have their own specialities. The worst is reported to be the legendary Night Stalker, an extremely powerful creat— ure of the night. Encounters are common 74 ATARI USER

April 7986

ONCE upon a time when I was a mere apprentice necromancer to whom the word grue meant nothing, i had the good fortune to thrash the evil warlock Krill. He was an ambitious wizard, aspiring somewhat immodestly to rule the world.l managed to frustrate his little game, my inexperience succeeding where others more learned had failed. l For my efforts was admitted tothefamed Circle of Enchanters and regarded as second only to the great Belboz. Then Belboz himself landed in the newt soup and i had my work cut out trying to rescue him from the clutches of the odious Jeearr. That's how l came to be where l am today,

but

top dog of the Circle of Enchanters.

Having thus completed

two superb lnfocom adventures Enchanter and Sorcerer (rated as standard those

and advanced

level), it was

with anticipated pleasure and a touch of smugness that l took delivery of the thirdin the Enchanter trilogy, Spellbreaker. Those

obliging

people

at

Software Express waved their magic wand and sent a review copy of Spellbreaker winging towards me as soon as it arrived in the UK. Removing the usual glossy and handsome box from the sturdy packaging my eyes fell on two words which gave the old ego pause for thought — Expert level. Spellbreaker begins in the council chamber of Borphee where the Guildmasters are up in arms. You stand at the edge of the gathering, listening to the complaints. Snef?e the baker moans that he now has to make his butter pasties by hand. His usual method of casting a Gloth spell to fold the pastry 83 times is no longer reliable.

the brewer that his Spells are

Hoobly grumbles

not working either and as

a

result he's getting cherry flavoured liquid from his vats and the beer tastes like grues have been bathing in it. Gzornplatz the huntsman says wild animals are overrunning the town. The Fripple spell no longer keeps the animals outside the boun— daries and only recently one of his men was attacked by a troop of rat ants. The Guild think the Circle of Enchanters have a lot to answer for and many eyesturn contemptuously on you. Ardis the poet starts to speak about magic rhyming and spelling aids when, in the midst Of his Splendid peror— ation, just as he's sketching out a mythological skit in iambic hexameter, he turns

green (well, greener than usual). His chain elongates,his skin slimes up and he promptly turns into a newt. He's not alone — all the Guild have turned into frogs, salamanders or other amphib—

~


Th 2 ST d eserves ra h'CS better LANDS of Havoc was one of the first graphics games out for the ST. Not surprising though, as it is a translation of a program for the Sinclair QL which uses a cut down version of the 68000 microprocessor in your ST. This is a graphics adventure game boasting over 2000 screens. The theme is laid out in a small, attractively printed booklet. The land of Haven, which was cared for by a benign magician, High Vanish, has been turned into an evil land, Havoc, by the Dark Lords. 'You play the role of Sador, half man — half reptile and have to find your way around Havoc following clues and

instructions

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ages are colonised by various creatures including scorpions and ghosts who try to attack you, sapping your energy on contact. You havea gun but can only fire horizontally. The creatures move smoothly and are vividly

animated but unfortunately Sador flickers

badly.

In this

-

a sp

ellblnder

ians. All except you —-and one other, a shadowy ?gure in a dark cloak who slips out of the door. You pursue him to the town square where he dis— appears, engulfed in a cloud of orange smoke, leaving behind (once the amber fog has dis— persed) nothing but a featureless white cube. And so the battle of good against evil begins. Magic is going awry. it is your task to get to the root Of this paralysing blight that threa— tens to destroy the kingdom. Your journey will take you to strange places where you'll meet even stranger beings. Among the earlier curiosities you'll encounter is a tail-swallowingserpent whose mammoth body forms a huge loop through three tunnels ofa cave.

Another described

screen

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magician. The program is well packaged in a sturdy box which also contains nine colour maps. The game starts by setting out the nine areas these maps cover in a random pattern and you lay out the maps in the same pattern. Each map covers nine screens giving a total of 81 screens to explore in the opening section. The screens are similar, consisting of passages and junctions separated by walls. The walls in each screen are always made up by the same blocks of graphics characters in one colour only. screen

*

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is

a

beautifully

mountain ogre. He has brilliant purple carbuncles and hair matted down with something Slick and pungent. Watch out for a roc the

size of an elephant whose hatching egg is itself as big as a small wagon. As well asa knife and magic burin (engraving tool), you also start out with your indispens— able book of re-usable spells. Other spells can be added to the book by finding spell scrolls, of which there are many scattered around the kingdom, and then writing them into the book by using the special Gnusto spell. Some spell scrolls are too 90werful to be written in the book. These spells can be used directly from the scroll but will only work once. If you’ve played Enchanter or Sorcerer you'll be familiar with casting such spells as Yomin (mind probe), Rezrov (open a locked or enchanted object), Frotz (give light from an object) and Malyon (animate). There are plenty of new ones here—how about Caskly, Throsk and Girgol. This is lnfocom's 18th

'

adventure and the standard remains as high as ever—just how many companies can you

recall that have produced almost a score of ?rst—rate pieces of software in a row? They've even added a new command to their already sophisticated parser. If you type in a sentence

with

one

part of the game you must find the entrance to the following part by collecting or touching various items in a specific order. Instructions are given as you go along after ?nding the first item, the Book of Change, which is the most difficult to Spot.

word wrong, for

example ”Put the silver cubw in the green box" you can correct yourself simply by making your next command OOPS word (00ps cube). This saves you typing in a long sentence all over again. A gripping story, huge vocabulary—over 900words— vivid descriptive prose, tan-

talising puzzles and delightful humour. In a word, Spellbreaker. Don't hang about — Rezrov your cashbox, Malyon those legs down to the nearest phone and order Spellbreaker from Software Express or your local dealer now_

Bob Chappell

you find objects the

creatures chasing you get faster and more deadly. After the first 81 screens are completed YOU are trans— ported to the underground caverns, the Lair of the Trolls. The graphics and game is similar except that the walls are all in one colour. Here you must collect ?ve tokens and then touch the portal to the next section. By now the creatures are even faster and are difficult to avoid. The maze of corridors is challenging, as you can often see where you want to be but may have to traverse many rooms in a round-about fash— ion to get there. l suggest you make a map as you go along. On completing this task you enter the Keep of The Dark Lords. This is similar to the last section except more difficult still. You are told that here you must destroy the Lords by touching all nine of them in turn your gun has no effect on them. This is as far as l have been able to reach. The game is obviously considerably larger because when killed off I was told that I had only completed 8.5 per cent of the adventure, even at this stage. Overall the program is somewhat disappointing con— sidering the capabilities of the ST. Graphics are mediocre, sound consists of occasional hisses although the music is good. The flickering is not really good enough. On the plus side the plot is good, and it is quite playable, but with little variety. At £19.95 it is good value. Having said the game was a slight let down,,l did have the urge for one more go to get further on this is often the sign of a game with lasting appeaL —

Mike Rowe Apr/7 7986 ATARI USER

75


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THE Adrian Mole industry that up around the Sue Townsend books was certain to spawn a computer game. The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole arrived from Mosaic Publishing on tape for the Atari 48k range with a dogs head toothbrush and shaving kit depicted on the cover,accompanying the rather more impressive creden— tials of Level 9 as the programmers. The blurb to the game is predictably in Mole-ese, something will try to avoid. It comes in four parts and you have to assist Adrian in his quest to become more popular. has grown

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Each chunk of game covers three months of the unfortunate Mo|e'slife. You are presented with a scrolling diary in the normal Level 9 text fashion, below the now obligatory

throughout. The scoring routine adds little either, firstly because the remarks are rather wearing once into the second half ofthe year,and secondly because as it appears as a prompt during the diary you can not see how your actions are affecting the score. must stress that at times the game did make me laugh at the antics of Master Mole. The beauty of the books, however, was that the themes were developed throughout, with notable hilarious incidents woven around them. In the game the themes such as Mrs Mole leaving home and the red socks episode become small incidents that suddenly happen. The

graphics,

Occasionally you are asked to a course of action for Adrian to follow from the three orfourproyided, Sometimes you are given a percen— select

tage score and a comment as to your status, And that is about all that does happen. It is a shame that such 3 good idea has been wasted. The text is excellent not only, as you would expect from the best selling books, but also from the extra text added by Pete Austin. But the graphic screen at the top

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I've hadsome appealsforhelp. Craig Fippard offers his maps of Voodoo Castle, am I, Colossal Adventure and Feasibility Experiment. Quite a mixed bunch there andalthough weoffemoprizesfor such contributions, they are most welcome. Craig is trying to repair the lantern in Feasibility Experiment and wonders whether anyone else can help him. S. Goring has gone one better and sent his map of Colossal. However, this does notinc/ude the 70 location endgame ofLeve/S as it was taken from a DEC mainframe. The map is detailed and well drawn—obviously the culmination

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essentially a reader, without the benefit of real involvement. Often just as was getting into a route which appearedto be entertaining, up would come a screen full of text and the game would change direction once again. think this is a great shame. We saw what can happen to a comedy classic in Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galax y. Th e e ecret Diary of Adrian Mole had the same potential. Unfortunately it seems to be left peering contemplatively at itself in the bathroom mirror. .

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world of Atari.

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April 7986 ATARI USER

19


HERE is the second part of the Basic compiler program the compiler library. You should type it in using the Atari assombler/ editor cartridge or compatible assembler, and save it on a cassette by itself. Thiscassette, and the onecontaining the compiler program given last month, will be required every time you compile a program. You don't really know enough about the compiler to begin to write and compile your own programs yet, so for now let's try to compile the Basic program given as Program This is simply a demonstration program don't worry about how it works for now. It produces random sounds and patterns until a key is pressed. An equivalent program, written in Atari Basic, is given as Program lll. You can type this in to compare the speed ofAtari Basicwith Compiler Basic. Compilation is essentially a three —

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stage process. First you create your program this is called editing. Then —

compilation, where the pro— gram is translated from Basic into Assembly language. Finally comes comes

assembly and execution. assemble

the program and

Here you run it. If at

any stage you make a mistake you must go back to stage one. Let's go through the three stages with the example, Program ||_ _—_—_-————-——-

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For this you will need a text editor. you are using the Atari assembler

cartridge this is no problem since one is included in the cartridge. If using some other assembler program then you can probably use its text editor for this purpose. If not you will have to beg, borrow or stealatext editorfrom somewhere. Type in your program using the the NUM command of text editor the Atari assembler/editor cartridge can be used to supply automatic line numbering. Type in Program II in this way, making sure you have the assembler cartridge plugged in since Atari Basic will reject Compiler Basic with syntax errors. T ein the ro ram as given. Note not recognise thatyt‘hecomp?er%oes abbreviations such as POS. for POSITlON and ? for PRINT. When sure you have typed the program correctly save it on its own cassette. Use the LIST=H=C command of the —

Part TWO of the serles by FRAN K ' 0 DWYER that helps you speed up your programs .

20 ATARI USER Apr/71986

assembler cartridge. This saves the program in Ascii character form on the cassette and is the only form the compiler will recognise—so ifyou are using an assembler other than the Atari version you must use an equivalent command. The cassette you have just made will now be referred to as the source program or source file.

.

—f————"

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in the Basic cartridge and the compiler program given last month. Now insert the cassette containing the source program. Don’t forget to rewind the tape. RUN the compiler which will prompt you for the source file name. The correct response is C:for cassette. Press Play on the cassette drive, and Return on the computer as ”You were Ioadinga program. YOU 5h°U|d see Program “ being listed out on the screen and the compiler Wi” prompt YOU for the start address Of the Assembly language. The answer to this is really UP to you, but suggest 14336 for this example which is the address of the last 2k on a 16k Atari. NOW you Wi" be prompted for the start line number for the Assembly almost any number language greater than 1000 will do here, so just enter 1000 for how- Almost invariably you will enter 1000 in to this question other response are only required if you responses want to have more than one compiled program share the same compiler library, and this is a topic which will return to in a later article. The next question to answer is the Filename for the Assembly language. Assuming you are using cassette, the correct answer is C:. Before you respond you should insert a cassette ready to take the program which the compiler is about to generate. Press

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Returnwhen you hear the two beeps. The compiler will display each line number as it is compiled, and will finish by telling you how many errors it discovered in your program. If there were none you can proceed to the next step. If there were errors then you must go back to stage one. ————————'

m— Insert the assembler cartridge and the cassette YOU have JUSt Type ENTERtlEC to load the

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large assembly language proequivalent to the Basic program you originally entered. You must assemble this program and since it is to be large, You do 80 iiifeiv _sh°uid directly to cassette “Sing ASMrril‘CThis produces yet another cassette gram

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ma Before telling you how to execute must draw your your program, attention to a problem with the ASM,,:ll=C command in the Atari cartridge. It falls down badly when I

files are long. Since the assembler is quite slow in this circumstance a long leader is formed on the tape if the cartridge is left to its own devices (the leader iS the tone you hear prior to a tape file being loaded or saved). Press Pause on the drive, and tape. CtrI—l on the computer which freezes

the listing.

After a minute or two the cursor disappears, and you disengage the

the tape drive, and press that the listing begins to the screen. You can now leavethe computer to get on with the assembly. Any errors mean that you must go back to the first step. After the assembly process you are left with a cassette containing the machine code bytes foryour program. Typically this extends for 2k of machine language and so recommend 14336 as the start address of the Assembly language. Once you have chosen this address you are stuck with it and you must poke the bytes for the machine language to this location in memory since it will not run properly if it is placed anywhere else in memory— it is what is known as position—dependent code or non-relocatable code. The problem you are faced with now is how to get the bytes from the cassette into memory. Below is a Pause

on so appear on Ctrl—1

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short Atari Basic program which will trick (Program lV). To use this routine insert the cassette with the machine language and press Play on the tape drive. Run the program, and press Return when you hear the beep. Let the program run until it comes up with Error 136. This means, somewhat perversely, that the program was successfully

this will wipe the machine language program from memory. To invoke the machine language type X=USR(14336) in the case of the example, Program You should now hear random sound and see random patterns on a Graphics 3 screen. When you are tired of this, press any key, and you will be

do the

loaded.

DO ”01 press System ReSEt Since

||_

returned to Basic. You can return to the machine language any time _ provided you don't reset the machine by typing X=USR(14336). 0 That’s how to use the compiler. Next month/ will discuss the features of the Compiler language and begin to exp/afn how you can write your own programs in Compiler Basic. —

10 CLOSE #1: OPEN #1,4,0,“C:" 20 FOR N=1 T0 SiGET #1,C:NEXT N 30 POKE 106,48: GRAPH'CS 0: REM RESERVE SOME MEMORY FOR FROG RAM 40 FOR A=14336 TO 16384: GET #1,C: POKE A,C: NEXTA Program IV: Putting the bytes into memory

LISt’ng overleaf April 7986 ATARI USER

27


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METACOMCO PRESENTS ITS NEW RANGE OF SOFTWARE FOR THE ATARI ST: ASET OF POWERFUL PROGRAMMINGLANGUAGES FOR PEOPLE WHO WANT TO WRITE PROGRAMS FOR THE ST.

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999.99

A high specification macro assembler, complete with linker and screen editor. Assembler is a fundamentallanguage, useful for all kinds of programming particularly where speed and compactness are important.Essential for all serious programmers whowant -

to exploitthe ST’s full potential.

>M€0Fl4y?l41

£89.95

A powerful Pascal compilerdesigned to meet the exacting ISO standard. This Pascal is already widely used on the Sinclair 0L and the CommodoreAmiga. A fast, single pass compiler, generating native code. Full interface with GEMDOS libraries allowswindows, icons, menus, etc. to be programmed using Pascal. Complete with screen editor and an extensive user manual.

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MIT/01r 0

999.99 full The well known Lattice C compiler: Kernighan and Ritchie implementationwith libraries of UNIX and comprehensive utilityfunctionsand including acompleteinterface to GEMDOS features. C is the ideal language for program development. a

ALL METACOMCO’S LANGUAGES FOR THE ATARI ST INCLUDE METACOMCO’S POPULAR SCREEN EDITOR, AND A DETAILED MANUAL.

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Metacomco are leading suppliers of systems software for 68000 based microcomputers. AS well as these titles forthe Atari ST, Metacomco have avery successful range of programming languages forthe Sinclair 0L, now widely used throughoutthe world. Metacomco was also chosen by Commodore to provide the operating system and a suite of languages for the new Amiga computer. CD

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MORE INFORMATION

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CARD EXPIRY

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57 User April 7986————_——_

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TEIEHSEd in UK

CO WLEY reporting

MIKE

ATARI’S Big One the one megabyte ST has finally taken its bow in the UK and so too has its baby brother, the cut price version of the 5208T, the 5205TM. The news of the twin launch was greeted by rival manufacturers with all the enthusiasm of the local hard man finding himself matched against Frank Bruno and Barry McGuigan at one and the same time. For at their respective levels, the 104OST and the 5208TM are likely to prove -

to be knock out specialists.

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A stand-alone computer, it is really the unbundled version of the 5208T with built—in operating SYstem, mouse and internal modu'ator. Though the price. of this little bruiser had still to be fixed as we went to press—the weaknessof the dollar forcing last minute revision of calculations it is expected to flex its muscles in the region of £300.

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'———-——-—__—————A

tari ST User April 7986

Cash Trader

compatible with Mbasic. it costs £99.95. For the business user Quest has ported its Cash Trader program to the ST. Priced £99.95, the software offers Windows for entering, reporting and h<3|l3 screens.

* * * WORLDWIDE distribution of Atari ST software has been undertaken by Activision, who intend using their vast network to markedly increase the company's base. Versions of two of their titles, Hacker and Mindshadow will shortly be out for the ST.

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The first comes from A. Kassell of Plymouth who is having problems with his copy of Doodle. When you select the Save option to save a screen to disc, Doodle requests that you type in a ?lename. This filename must be entered in upper-case use either shift or shift-lock and must end with .DOO, so that Doodle can load it at a later date. lf this doesn't work you probably have a bad copy and should return it to the shop replacement. David Thomson of Paisley is having problems ?nding an RSZ32C lead for his Brother HRS printer, and N- Judge from Ashford finds it difficult to connect his Granada RGB monitor/TV to his ST. Leads for both of these can be had from 1).The monitor cable is Silica Shop (01-309 order number STA6700 and the printer lead is number STA7700. Each costs £19.95. Make sure that Silica Shop will allow you to return

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Basic's GOTOXY command. Program IV illustrates the problem perfectly. The Xs generated by the program are supposed to be next to each other. The problem is that GOTOXY doesn't use the correctXcoordinate. This makes positioning difficult. The only solution that have been able to find is using the TAB function instead of the X coordinate. The main problem with this method is that TAB writes over characters to the left of the cursor, With spaces. Therefore YOU have t0 place characters 0" the screen from right tO ieftProgram V ShOWS this SOiUtiOhSeveral of you have complained of the lack of software for the ST- This is a perennial problem. When new machines become available they invariably have little Ol' "0 software. At this stage, the only people who should buy them are computer freaks like myself who can have fun using a COl?DUtel’ WithOUt necessarily being able t° do any USGfUi work With it Wh0 to do some want Often, however, people are pulled by the hype work With the" in machlne and buy a machine that has very “the software actually 0" the shop shelves. the The SZOSTT Apple Maelntosh'before and from this“ The ST 't suffered ml?lht be heaVIIy With lts one of the eaSlest computers tolusez I

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g; a irezitzeiliiiznvliristl??tdflyolihiiovi§ p g iiué?zgg?g?i p g p slew. This means that the first few programs that have appeared have not used the Gem interface and have looked like they were running on a keyboard based IBM rather than a mouse based ST. It has taken several months for the software companies to come to terms With the STHopefully bY the time YOU read thiS. QOOd quality software will begin to appear in quantity. Programs such as Batteries Included's DEGAS show what can be done. If your enthusiasm for Your ST has waned during the last few months now is the time to restoke your tires and come out fighting armed with your ST. With the announcement from Atari of new ST machines on the way Mr Kowal of Melton Mowbray is wondering whether Ol’ h0t t0 wait before buylng an STLast month in Atari ST User we tOid YOU that Atari has announced a lmbyte version of the ST (104OST)for $1 ,000 B&W or $1,200 for colour and a TV modulator version of the 5208T for about $400. The current ST package sells in the States for $800 B&W and $1,000 colour. This ——-———————————-—Atari

that the 104OST is likely to cost £850 B&W and about £1,050 colour and the modulator SZOST will probably cost around £350 (without a much needed disc drive). don't think the basic modulator version will ever arrive in the UK, but the 5205T FM is much more likely with its built-in drive. The 5205T FM will probably cost around £450. The present 5203T will probably drop in price to around £600 for B&WShould you buy now or wait? First ask yourself

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0 The file selection section of most ST programs is easy to use. You simply point at the file that you want and then click on OK. The only problem arises when yourfile is on a different disc from the program. To read in the directory of another disc is quite easy. After the file selection box comes up on the screen change the disc in the drive and then click once on the top of the small window which contains the file listing. The new disc's directory will now be read in.

You must always use this method when changing discs as changing discs without rereading the directory might lead to your discs being corrupted and unusable. 0 The latest batch of free software from Atari comes on three discs. If you take a careful look at them you will notice that Megaroids, Doodle and DBMaster could easily fit on to one disc. If you move Megaroids and Doodle on to the DBMaster disc you can then erase the Megaroids/Doodle disc, and Atari has supplied you with a free blank disc. 0 If you are having problems with STWriter recommend to the new Atari word processor FirstWord. that you transfer It 3 far easier to use and can also be used to edit Basnc and C programs.

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whether or not you need 1mbyte of memory. The newer SZOSTs will have Gem in ROM and therefore have about 450k for programs. Only software developers and large businesses will need 1mbyte of memory, My advice is to wait until the new machines arrive, remembering that the SZOSTM is probablya non-starter,and then buy the machine that you think most suits your needs. You'll be able to add a monitor to the modulator STs if you should wish to. The B&W monitor costs around £150 and the colour around £400. If you should wish to upgrade to imbyte at a later date several companies are about to offer upgrades for the 5208T for about £150. 0 That’sit for now. Next month/ ’//be answering your problems and detailing my adventures at the Atari User Show. In the meantime I’d like to hear your opinions on the new ST machines. 37 User April 7986

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A GOOD computer needs good languagesto utilise all of its capabilities. The Atari 520 ST is one of the newest and best computers on the market today. Now TDI, a British software company, has released Modula—2 for the ST, and it is a fine example of what a good language should be. First let me explain what ModuIa-Z is for those that have not heard of it yet. Niklaus Wirth, the inventor of Pascal, also invented ModuIa—2. The language is an addition to Pascal and has these five added features: 0 The module concept, and in particular the facility to split a module into a definition part and an implementation part. 0 A more systematic syntax which facilitates the learning process. In particular, every structure starting with a keyword also ends with a keyword, so is properly bracketed. 0 The concept of process as the key to multi-programming facilities. 0 So called low-level facilities which make it possible to breach the rigid type consistency rules and allow you to map data with Module-2 structure onto a store with inherent structure. 0 The procedure type which allows procedures to be dynamically assigned to variables. TDl's Modula—2 compiler implements the full Modula-2 language as described by Wirth. lt includes separate compilation, opaque types, co—routines

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and

floating point routines. it is integrated into the Gem environment and will support all the Gem routines. It also promises to make compact code. As in all high-level languages the ModuIa—2 an editor, a package comes in three parts and a linker in a two disc package. compiler There IS no copy protection on any of the discs and can arrange the system to fit your you A good demonstration of the convenience. of Modula-2 is included. Since most power programmers do not spend much time with either the compiler or the linker, the editor is the most important part of the package. This one is very user friendly and powerful. Thefull screen editor uses both the mouse and

—-——-—_—__..._.____.____.Atari

ST User April 7986

the function keys. You can point the mouse to the spot where you want to work and click it. This will be the new spot where writing begins. Using the function keys you can move one word right or left, page up and down, and move a line up and down. The arrow keys areralso used to move around the screen. The deletion function works similarly as the movement functions with the ability to delete character right or left, word right or left, or line right or left. You can undeletewith the Undo. For large insertions or deletions,you can Mark and Cut or Paste text into the proper spot. These abilities are usable both with the mouse and drop down menus, as well as using the function keys. One more function is unique to this editor. After a program is written it is compiled. Most of the time there are errors in the compilation and with this compiler the errors are written to a file on the disc. When you return to the editor the error file and your original file are combined so that there arelittle @swhere the errorsoccurred. All the errors in the program are examined. There is even a special function key for locking for the next @. When the cursor is moved to this spot a message will be shown at the bottom of the screen with the error number. The error number can then be looked up in the table in the ModuIa-2 book. There are four pages of possible errors, and they are well defined so it is easy to correct them and continue. This listing of the error messages in a file that is merged into your ?le shows the time and effort that went into making this fine package. The editor was, of course, written in Modula—2.

shows "a sample program in Figure Module-2 and you can see the various differences between it and Pascal. Firstly, there are two parts to the program, a definition module and an implementation module. There is a difference between what a procedure does and what the outside world sees of the program. You must define what will come out of the module, 1

———__—_————_'n


of the implementation module. The only thing seen by the outside environment is the procedure Random, since it is the only thing that is DEFINITION

RandDmNumber-s

MODULE

EXPORTed out.

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EXPORTed from the module. A second difference is in the fourth from last line. The language uses very strong typing. To return a CARDINAL number from a function that uses a division between LONGCARDsyou must specify that the CARDINAL number is returned. All procedures and parameters must be typed so that the program will know what type of variable it is. There are severalsubtle pointsin the example module shown in Figure 1.0ne not seen is what can be done with this module. First, it can be compiled and when needed by any other program it can be IMPORTedinto that program. ModuIa—Z, unlike Pascal, can link together compiled code using the linker. This means that a library can be put together and used just like any

.

definition portion of the module. Also the fine details of a system do not need to be known at any higher level. two The same can be program written for different machines and each machine Will have specific |/0 thatwill be IMPORTedwhen needed. |n terms Of I/O YOU may jUSt WiSh to have them available, but do not need to know or rather do not wish to bother to learn how this works in detail. In many cases you may even wish to hide parts away from access to guarantee that they will work correctly. There are several extensions to ModuIa-Z proposed by Wirth. They includeachange in the CASE syntax, a new variable type called String, and two new variablesfor 32 bit machines called LONGCARD and mm. There .. optimisation for Boolean constants. The Set type is. supported by several new features. Also, you are allowed to have open array parameters. The most exciting part of the language is the combination of high level and low level implementation. For the low level portion there is a procedure CODE which allows for the insertion of machine language into the object code. There is SETREG to put values into one of the 68000 processor's registers as well as REGISTER to return values. On the high level end there is the TYPE PROCESS as well as procedure NEWPROCESS. There is lOTRANSFER to move to different peripheral devices as needed and procedure LISTEN for the interrupts servicing. The NEW PROCESS is used to produce concurrent programming. In all the time I've been using this language have found no bugs at all. There are some typos in the documentation, but none of these are have typed in several of the significant. programs from Wirth's book “Programming in Modula-2" and they have worked perfectly. The major weakness of the package is in the documentation of the Gem routines in the manual. It is expected that the Gem manuals be purchased and read. Without them many of the Gem routines can not be used properly. have no qualms Except for this one flaw recommending this language to anyone. It is a good way to move away from DRl’s C.

-

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BEGIN

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and other

types,

procedures can also be EXPORTed OUt- ObjeCts declared in other modules can be referenced in module M if they are explicitly made to be known in M. They are IMPORTed into M. The major strength of Modu|a_2 is that many parts of the program are hidden from other parts. It makes it easy to write and debug parts of programs smce yo,“ know exactly h°_w W?" W," ?t together, as this has to be specu?ed in the

other function. A second point is the interface between parts of the programs. The Definition module explains exactly what another part of the program will see

m———————————Atari

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——————-——-m


Midi message f the hills Of \X/EI|ES

In

Finding Midi software for the 520 is like looking for an atheist in a monastery. times by as Having been “foiled numerous I sources turned many despairingly to a vague contact in the remote Welsh hills by

the name of Adrian Wagner. It turned out to be a scoop. Adrian is developing something that will shake up the electronic music business from top to bottom he is using the SZOST as the brains of a 16 bit resolution sampling system. We looked at sampling in last month's Atari ST User. A sound is recorded through a microphone and stored digitally in the computer's memory. Dependingon the software, the sound can then be edited, using graphics, sent back to an instrument—usually a keyboard —

and played back at any pitch. A range of samplers use popular 8 bit micros. The Rolls Royces of sampling, however, are the Sinclavier and Fairlight, costing £55,000 and £35,000. They use 16 bit processors, which greatly increase the sound quality. An 8 bit system can only sample 256 levels of dynamic change. A 16 bit processor can sample over

65,000 characteristics of a sound. Adrian Wagner's system will use the full 16 bit capability of the SZOST to produce a sampler comparable to the Fairlight and Sinclavier—and cost less than the present 8 bit packages. According to Adrian, the sampling frequency to scanning rate is the same as that of a Philips Compact Disc. This means the quality of sound recording will be superb. The software will allow the sound to be displayed and edited on the screen. The wave form of the sampled sound will be displayed, ready to be edited with the mouse. For example you could record a thunderclap and decide you didn't like the high edge. Altering the wave shape on the screen will alter the sound played. There will be facilities to loop a note, to make it longer, L delay, reverberate and echo sounds. You will also be able to record a sound and play it backwards. d8 Adrian complained about the ST's operating system. “lt's full of bugs. Some of them make it difficult to talkto the ports. When it finds an error 100,000 toadstools appear on the screen". The operating system was probably written by an old hippy high on magic mushrooms. made a final My enthusiasm restored

Anthony G|nn hunts _

_

_

for Mldl software for the 520 an d f'I“ _

1

t h ere 3 “ct a -

lot

Of

lt about

m________———.

l

attempt to get in touch with island Logic which had claimed the previous week it no longer existed. This time was told it had now been reorganised and was busy preparing music software for the SZOST. Island's package is due “sometime this year". it is based on Island's Music System for the BBC Micro and Commodore 64, but will use the ST's 16 bit muscle to produce a much higher quality sound. Pull down menus and graphics environment will make the software easier to l

use.

The Music System will feature

a

keyboard

-

The quallty (If. sound recordmg .

WI" be superb emulator which allows you to use the 520's keyboard as a substitute for a musical keyboard. You play on qwerty instead of Steinway. Notes will appear as you play them on staves on the screen. The system will record your notes in real time, whether played on the ST keyboard or a Midi connected instrument. There are six parts to the program, including the keyboard emulator and instrument connector modules. An on-screen editor will display and record notes as they are played. You can then edit the final score using the mouse. Notes will be picked up and dropped on the chosen line: Music will be manipulated and edited in the way text is edited by a word processor program. One of the Music System’s most exciting features will be the synthesiser module. It will display a sound's characteristics graphically and allow the voice to be altered on screen by editing the ADSR graph and wave shape. The system will include a library of pre—defined voices which can be edited in the same way. Music System will also contain a mixing desk. This will enable tracks to be mixed, linked, and edited between different voices. island's Adrian Boot said there will be the potential to mix an almost infinite number of tracks. The only limitation will be the output system. The system will connect toa printer. This will

Atari 37 User April 7986———————————-—

,


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revnew. Apparently is releasing proper ACtlvlSlOH for the ST In America called package Sll'hl'af Musnc Studio, so Island had bettergettheir Midis out before the competition arrives. 300" these the told after discoveries Editor me he had 1let 90t a package 520_M|f1l mUS_lC_ from Holland. DUtCh ls 3 Mid! recorder The elSC It arrived on Friday, but had to get package: married, lt needs e megabyte Of memory, my car broke down, CaSIO Stlll haven't sent me C101 a

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ran out Of time, | had a headache and we had a CULSO | haven tbeen able to DPWef _

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play around With It yet.

The preliminary documentation indicates that

it works like a conventional multi-track recorder There are five PU” down With extra options. menus. One is entitled Midi and contains the ————————-————-—————Alari

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erase track, erase block, set delay, shift from and shift to.

delay info,

To recorder puts the ST into the recording mode. A new menu, recorder, lets you decide which tracks to record on. Clicking the right mouse button will start recording. Undo stops

recording and the recorded track will appear under the header Play. It wasn’t clear from the documentation whether the program will record 8 or 16 tracks. The block oftracks(mastertape) can be rewound or moved on by holding the mouse button down when the pointer is over the rewind or fast forward icon. Eight tracks are displayed simultaneously on the screen. Each has fast forward and rewind icons, and a digital counter to show where you are on the tape. The software turns the 520 into a digital recorder. Portraying the functions in tape recorder language makes it easy to understand digital recording and mixing. The package seems exciting and will be reviewed as soon as possible. It looks like two types of music software will appear over the next few months. Packages like Island's Music System and Activision’s Music Studio will be for the home user interested in making music. They will be inexpensive and do a

bit of everything recording, graphic editing of voices and scores, keyboard emulation and simple mixing. More specialised systems, like the Dutch recorder and Welsh sampler, will appear for professional musicians. They will use the full power of the micro to perform a specialised job. Many professional musicians and sound engineers will use the 520 as a dedicated digital ——

music

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enable musical scores to be dumped onto paper. It will also feature a simple word processor to add and edit lyrics with the score. Music System's modules will communicate with each other. A voice created on the synthesiser can be played on the keyboard emulator, or an external Midi instrument, the score recorded and edited on SCI’G 9h. lyrics added, and the final score

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system,AtariSTUserwill keep you

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An easy-to-use Spreadsheet enjoying the bene?ts of the user friendly GEM system with its mouse-driven icon selection multi presentation. and window

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:

This superb package turns the ST into an easy-to-use and configure terminal. Operating under the GEM environment, all the normal parameters can be changed very easily and subsequently saved permanently. Its impressive features include: Q Terminal Con?guring. . Options for Printer control. 0 Screen dump. 0 Input buffer dump and ”Break” transmission. 0 File handling. 0 Text ?le transfer/capture. 0 Xmodem ?le transfer with error checking. 0 On-line access to disc directory. 0 ”Teletype", VT—52 and VT-lOO emulation. O Baud rates from 75 to 9600 baud. O Odd, even or no parity, 7 or 8 bit with 1 or 2 stop bits. 0 can be used on the Xon/Xoff,cts/rts or none.

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The fast and easy-to-use (Sixty-eight K Assembler) assembly system for the generation and analysis of 68000 code programs, combining full use of the ST’s large RAM capacity with an impressive list of useful features. —

0 Editor Ascii compatible line editor. 0 68000 Macro Assembler—Up to 9 parameter, —

no nesting. 3000 lines/minute, absolute or relocatable code. Combines and relocates object ?les. O Linker O Disassembler. 0 Machine Monitor/Debugger Includes: Single step, breakpoints, memory inspect and modify. 0 Operatingsystem Tos. 0 Long labels In excess of 8 characters. 0 Size of SEKA 17 kbytes. 0 Screen/Printer Fully supported in all modes.

The ATARI ST Explored

b y John Bra g a

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_

O Conditional Assembly operators supported.

£29 . 95 inc VAT

RAM DISC

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_

AS the memory of Atari 8 bit computers (successively models 400, 800, 1200, 600XL, 800XL and 1 30XE) gets larger it seems that the manual supplied with them gets smaller. The old 16k Atari 400 computer came with two thick manuals describing the use of the machine. The latest 128k Atari 130XE has only a small instruction booklet which does little beyond revealing the permitted Basic key words. This is a pity, because some powerful capabilities are hidden within these machines which are not referred to by any of the manuals nor by the beginners' books supplied by other authors. The experienced Atari user will doubtless be aware that there are three well—documented text modes and 2) and a (in Basic, Modes 0, further six graphics modes (Basic Modes 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8). There are also three GTlA graphics modes (Basic Modes 9, 10 and 11) which can be found in the later models. The trouble with the text modes which print characters on the screen is that the background colour remains the same for each printed character, even though it is possible to alter the colour of the characters themselves. For example, you can print the letter A on the screen in four different colours in text Modes and 2, but the background remains the same for each. Any attempt to change the background colour equally alters the background of all the different coloured characters. Supposeyou want to make a chess board. This requires black and white pieces to be placed on, say, blue and red background squares. Clearly text Modes and 2 are not suitable for this purpose. However a poorly documented solution exists to this problem. The Antic graphics chip is responsible for all the graphics and text modes known in Basic, but also permits a few interesting extra modes. These were only accessible in the early Atari computers by writing a custom-designed displaylist—a short machine code routine which called the necessary extra Antic modes. Some of these extra options are now directly available to the Basic programmer who has a 600XL,

co

0

— ’

'.'

JO H N WHITE

demonstrates to brighten up your screen by “Slng Modes 12 and 13 _

the way

disp|ay

_

'

1

1

1

26 ATARI USER Apr/17986

_

800XL or 130XE computer. Text Modes 12 and 13 in Basic on the latter computers correspond to Antic Modes 4 and 5 respectively from the older Atari machines. They permit text to be printed on to the screen in any combination of four colours per character, with up to five colours available on one screen. Before going any further it is necessary to examine how the Ataris display characters on the screen. The main difference between the graphics and text modes is that the former display only a single byte of data by POKEing it onto the screen, whereas the latter takes the character code, looks up the corresponding eight consecutive bytes from the character set and POKEs all eight of the data bytes one underneath another on the

locations 224*256, 224*256+1, 224*256+7 224*256+2, Since A is the 33rd character and each character has eight data bytes, we must look for the data for letterA from positions 224*256 + 33*8 to 224*256 + 33*8 + 7. You can test this statement with program l. The results which are

printed out should agree with those displayed in Figure l. 1' F”

1“

7

I. met I

pmgmm,

try Programs H and “" NOYV watching the screen carefully. Program H puts the letter A on the

screen.

A character therefore comprises eight bytes placed vertically on the screen. Each consists of eight bits, each of which may be set, 1, which means that a Colour is shown in that pixel, or not set, 0, meaning that the background colour is assumed. The letterAis the 33rd character in the Atari character set. Figure shows exactly how the eight data bytes for the letter A are held in l

memory.

of the character set is location 224. Thus the first character in the set has its data bytes stored in memory The

head

indexed by memory

Figure I:Data bytes forletterA


“m .

in text Mode 0. Program lll develops and prints the same letterA in graphics Mode 8 by screen

placing

graphics data bytes taken from the character set for the letter A sequentially, one underneath each previous byte. 5 REM sen

holds the other;

i:“:?:::;;:':_::::';szflt"'

location of s‘r'“

Now return to Program ll and change line 10to read 10 GRAPHICS 12. Run the program. What has happened to the character? in Modes 12 and 13 the character data bytes are used differently to their role in Mode 0, although a full character of eight bytes is still

1

1. “11911105 , to senzpzsuuuugxpggxug, 3° F” I“ m 7 40 50

ms m

“x7

scannchzuzuussuxnu;

J=1 rii 2.0:IERT

I

We have seen that the letterAcan be poked to the screen with the code 33_ On 0010111. text screens (Modes and 2), the sixth and seventh bits of code are combined to show the 1

colour of the character. Since four combinations are avail— able by changing two bits, four colours can be permitted on the screen. Thus, repeatedly adding the value 54 to the original character code will change the colour up to four times. Try Program N and see.

“an“ mun“ “nun n-“n n-nn “nun “n“ “mum

3. F0. 1:0 to 3 u "a scan ‘ 1346“: so next I

.

Note that the characteris now only four pixels wide, whereas it was eight pixels wide in text Modes 0 and 2. lf you h °° '.I s h an d y .ave' colour in FigureOul’lng.penCl ll With the default Atari colours thus: .

1

00 01 10

=

0

00011000

=

24

00111100

=

60

01100110

=

102

01100110

2

102

01

10

=

126

01100110

=

102

00000000

=

0

1

1

1

Decimal

00000000

1

-

_

,

1

10

F'gu’e ”' Mode 72 ”ha’acfe' data bytes

Program IV

Binary

our regis t ers

affecte d

00

4

4

01 10

0

O

1

1

1

1

2

3

Tab/e ,

The

.

CP'Our reefsmrs ca" be m the ordinary way from changed Ba3ic With, for example, SETCOLQR 0,120: SETCOLOR 1,14,8 according to “mm“ The character set prowded by Ata n in ROM is designed for use with text Modes 0, and 2, and is rather useless in text Modes 12 and 13. However if the original character set is COPied into RAM: individual characters can be altered _t0 9'V9 interesting pictures. A machine code utility for copying the set into RAM is given in the Chess Board program at the end Of this article. There is one important disadvantage with this method of display— ing multi—coloured graphic characters on the screen. For each character byte which has been modified there is one less of the original character set .

1

1

1

20 StR=PEElun+26WEEN6?

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displayed.

different pair of bits in a data a separate colour register to described by the two pixel colour the bits. Again there are four permu— tations of two bits— 00,01, 10 and so four colours can be permitted 1” one character byte. Let's look at letter A again in the light of this information.

e,

data bytes on the colour registers used. Use SETCOLOR N to alter the colours, where N is the value of the colour register shown in the table.

byte tells

“ senzvzziuunzsméuan 3. out sen,“

Graphics

1

black

orange

-

green

-

dark blue

Compare the “?oured picture with the screen character. They should be similar, although colour bleeding on the screen tends to blur the colours. Now try changing line 30 in Program [I to 30 POKE SCR,

33+128.

One of the colours of the character

on the screen has altered. As was the case in text Modes 1 and 2 changing one of the top bits of the character code has affected a colour register, although in text Modes 12 and 13 only the top bit can be altered

Table illustrates the effect of the character code and the values of the

to be

t e origina ltlisa 13 part 0cflis'played. a et consudme store m pahsybto set that only garbage the character 89 Will be printed out in the text Window. lt is possible to divide a single chess piece. into four different characters which are then POKEd on to the screen in this order: .

.

A

c

.

.

B '

D

The character data for a chess rook shown in Figure ill. The rook is divided into four characters, each of is

WhiCh

has eight associated data havedrawn the pieces in SUCh a way that each byte is part of a twin pair of identical bytes. This saves space in data statements in the Chess Board bUt higher program, resolution cell“ be achieved by making each byte Of the pair different. The program places a Chess board on the screen in ?ve celours. When you have ?nished with it alter the GRAPHICS 12 in line 590 to

bytes.

l

I

M April 7986 ATARI USER

27

1


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A 11

GRAPHICS 13.Text Mode 13is much the same as Mode 12, but the board is stretched downwards to double its size. Using four characters to represent one chess piece exacts a heavy toll from the original character set. There are six types of black pieces, six of white pieces and one type of vacant

square, requiring 52 charactersofthe original 128 to be modified. Try typing into the text window and you will find that most of the lower case

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paid in the character set for this approach, Parker Chess displays no ordinary text on the screen at all all moves by the player are entered with

graphics. However in accordance with the high“ penalty multi—colour

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The program partly simulates human learning as the computer remembers positions which led it to lose, and then, given the opportunity, plays these back against its opponent The game is a simplified version of an Arabic game called Mancuna. chose this game for the exercise it is fairly while because challenging not being too complex and It may also

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This simple version is played by two players using eight counters on a 2 x 2 square board.The game begins with two counters on each square, and the players face each other across the board. Taking turns, each player picks up the counters from one square on his/her side of the board and moves them anuclockwnse round the board putting one counter on to each square in turn until they are exhausted. Thus if one player picks up three counters from the bottom left square he must put one counter on the bottom right, one on the top right, and the last one on the top left, leaving no counters on the original square. The winner is the first player to have all eight counters on his/her side of the board. The program allows you to play against the computer. On your turn move the joystick left or right to choose the square you want to move from, and then press the fire button. At the start the computer is totally naive, knowing only the rules of the game. Each time it loses, the computer remembers the position which led it into a losing sequence of moves. In future it will avoid getting into this position itself, but will put .

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to beat. Try playing it 'the ?rst one to 10 wins', and see who learns quickest.

The program works on the to principle of giving a code of positions which lead to losses, and2 to those that lead to wins. Initially all positions have a code of 0. Whenever it loses, the computer recalls the last position it created which had an unknown outcome, that 1

coded 0. That position is then given so that the computer code of knows not to create it again. Next, all possible positions from which that position can be created are computed. If it is found that all moves made from one of these positions lead to losses the position receivesa code of 2,50 that given the opportunity the computer will create the position,knowing that itleadstoa certain win. In this way, as the number of its losses increases the computer identifies moves leading to losing sequences earlier and earlier, and learns longer and longer winning sequences. If played against long enough it becomes a perfect player. is

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_—_—> April 7986 ATARI USER

37


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THOSE of us who started with DOS 3 and have subsequently changed to the new DOS 2.5 will at some time wish to have a printout of files contained on a disc. While this was possible with DOS 3 the option seems to be omitted on the newer operating system. You can however get a printout of disc files with Atari Writer but like DOS 3 this presents you with a not-too-neat three inch strip, a bit off if you have an 80 column printer. This disc index printout utility resolves these problems and allows you to neatly catalogue your disc directories on‘ standard A4 paper. In addition it allows the directory to be named, disc numbered, and side identified. The program also sumthe number of files, the used sectors, and the free sectors. The program was written on my marises

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However

the Miracle Modem offersso much more— . . . MicroLmk, bulletin boards, inter—computer communi— cation, and so on. Which unit you should buy on what you want to depends . use it for, and perhaps more importantly, what you may want to use in the future.

B es,t buy ‘

.

eo

and disc

an

d’iVe"

a

730XE

CUf’EM/YOWH

800 and ancient

470

cassette recorder. When / have bought this system 1 WOU/d like 1‘0 [MP chase a printer. Please could you tell me one Wh/Ch Wf” . to the f0//0W”79 "7an/7- UI? speed/cations: Be able to print 0" A4 size paper, have friction feed, have the ability to do screen dumps am not too concerned about "0139 0’ printing Speed.

-

/

'

Andrew Young, Mitcham. there are

a

Vllhy Ztans own l°°k7 "M1232“; printer.

at

it

Wig; Ataripcoretsugrsménigei has the advantage that it. is completely compatible wrth got my 300)“ at Christmas, your system. and was wondering if you

could please print the address of the nearestAtari Users Club to my home address. lwculda/so/ike to knowifit is possible to buy a cheaper printer than the Atari 7029 which costs f 7 97.90, and buy an interface lead to make it compatible with my 8OOXL. _

Jonathan Curie, Bath.

0 There are printers cheaper )than the 1029, the replacement for the 1025 which was never made available. However you'd need an

interface fer them which

searCh fOl’

'

an

Indus

IHAVE bought the newAtari 730XE, a cassette drive and a television. I now want to geta disc drive and have decided to buy the Indus G.7’. The problem is that / can't find any shop which sells the Indus in this country. / have

thought of importing it from America. Is there a shop which

plans I HAVE an Atari 400 with 76k memory «9le am to a 48k memorydesperate. expansron buy unit, partlyso that/can use my assembler written in Basic in hi—res graphics modes and also 30 I can play the latest memory—gobbling games. Atari no longer make the units and none of the dealers! have rung can 99? no“ Of one. Can YOU help? Someone In the country must have one to sell me! How about a privateadvertisers section in Atari User, then this sort of problem would be easy to solve. Also can you tell me of a flight simulator on cassette or ROM that / can use? ‘ S. .

DA n d r 6 W1! ' ey .

er|ng -

worrles

Holder, London SW16. We don't know Of any flight

.

/ USED to have an Atari 500x1_ and the computer to have just bought an 800XL and the cable to thaw has a small black box a little way along it. Do you know what this is for? Would an ordinary com— purer-TVcab/e work with my 1

computer? Also do you know if there is any di?erence between Atari Pole Position and the one imported by US Gold?— Peter

Goulden, Lincoln.

0 The black box in your cable

'

-

inde?d am}; ree—

television lead was l'USt a wire With 3 Phil] 0" each EHd-

version

a

E Xpal'lSIOIl

as: éségsi‘nfcrlgvzmei: p .

Atari's

'

very'

iiihtgggzs55:2“

produces

disc drive, but you Will find l "3“ lt Y In 0 bt ainingi 't great d'ff' and maintaining it in the UK. Before it went bankrupt, the Home Entertainment Atari Centre in Broad Street, Bir— mingham, imported a limited quantity, but the prices proved to be prohibitive (around £400), and service cover could not be rovided ' wozl d say your best bet would be to purchase an Atari 1050 drive for which there is . ll t d ft exag g" ?mfgfgogg)’ er anh_ w lh ,w a. on -' Wlli provrde you Wlth all of the d nsiti es th a t the Indus can 0 fef gK t th you d ’t 'I.S§t {g son th e0?ron9:3 pane,5 gretty ut are they really worth about £200 and no service cover? l h,ave d t h'IS’ d am °.ne an the happy '

picture

under licence while from the Atari one Datasoft, ,s basrcally a remnant from the old deal. The game is the same in both cases except for the Datasoft or Atari banners.

~—

[HAVE found that few

. I AM gaing to buy

andcostaroundeOOor/ess.l

printer ye

own

repairs the Indus in this Hardev Kambo, col/"UV? Mtddlesex. 0 Thelndus GT IS a superb ’

3

and US Gold's Pole Position is the same. Datasoft in the States bought the the rights to Atari relmqurshed tgrame‘when em ast ear. Thus yus Gold now

Simogrgirizpalclaafdzzsz.

'

core,

fmght ?nd that the

you

'

*

ferrite

a

which helps to reduce device into erence. You can use the old cable

res e 2 u

com—

simply

simulator that will run in 16k~ has found one, let us

|ifanyone now-

0" the memory point, the last price on 48k memory boards Atari 4008 was for_ 580 Even lf anyone had any left, it WOUld Stl" be cheaper to bUY a new 800XLfrom Dixons for which YOU W0U|d have a 64k maCh‘ne With a real keyboard, a new recorder, five games and a new lOYS?CkYOU can then recoup some of your expense by selling your Old 400/recorder/joystick to a friend, or via a local newspaper. —

April 7986 ATAR/ USER

37


Maze Munch

AWAQU Mailbag @§@@ .

score IENJOYED Maze Munch, your best game-listing to date. However the score does not increment on—screen (it's POKEd} when run on the GOOXL, whereas it works perfectly on an 800XL. Is this connected with a bug inAtariROM at PEEK (43234) which is responsible for

WE welcome letters from readers about your experiences using the Atari micros, about tips you would like to pass on to other users. and about what you would like to see in future issues. The address to write to is: —

.

.

Mailbag Editor

problems with

few other and commercial

listings

a

tapes?

Finally, here is a short routine for readers to experi— ment with, or add to a u m z:. to 255 1° m °‘“ '° “’“" " 10 sell-o o,zss,u,lo:snmlo l.zss,n.7 W“ “mm-E“

l

M.A. Phillips, Bristol. 0 Your problem is much more likely to be caused by lack of memory than by the error 9

bug. To the best of

our

knowledge, however, none of the UK 800XLs or 600XLs have Rev C Basic in them. This is only available on the 130X'E, or in cartridge form from main Atari dealers. If anyone has found differently, please let us know.

port Atari 400 and

am

thinking about buying the

130XE, but I am not sure if it has a cartridge Port Or not. 38001711 problem: I have a light pen made by Dams and WOm/ef thCh lOVStl'Ck part it wou/d connect to. —- Ross

Old?eld, Dunstable. 0

2,2?

bf“

Yes, the 13OXE does have

a cartridge port (at the back), and everything else that the 800XL has, plus 128k, of

38 ATARI USER April 7986

as TDK (3-50, to see if this is the 0359-

SUCh

If you Sti“ don't get anything take your recorder back for repair. it it does work, ”1 9" your QUGStiOH is answered. _

Pnce

And“

“May

_

Lnadlng pm bl Ems a

whistle, But on the Boots cassettes it does not make this

sound, Could you tell me which cassettes work and which do _

Chris Beard, Not-

tirigham. 0

if

your recorder

memory

AM pleased to see the efforts being made to increase Atari popularity, but feel that purchasers of the 600XL have been badly let down. The 800XL has become I

available for approximately

pack of C15 Boots cassettes, / typedinaprogramand saved it, but it wouldn't load. At the beginning oflaading the cassette noise through the speakers usually makes a

not?

Of

has

so far

program

K—Spread

theAtariSTin theMarchissue

OfAta" User, WOUIdI’ke to we make a few paints to known your readers regarding some Of

the comments

made.

“WWW”

was

39m g'Ve'B

rewew.

only been used to load games, YOU may find that VOW recorder is faulty and W3" "Gt save, although it W5” load correctly. Try saving to other tapes,

zfgizfgtiggxixur?obg?zstg?

the edge °-f your TV set. Use STICKlO) or STlCKlS) to for the pen button _check being pressed. .

For instance, I bought an

or

on older 4005, sometimes, port 4 — I don't know why. . You can PEEK locations 564 and 565 to 9 at thexand y , posmons. These range from 0 ‘0 may need a "me

IAM tired of Basic tapes. The problem is some just do not load at all.

cartridge HAVE

know? The light pen, assuming it works with the Atari, can be

_

Andre W'Ile.” however it being obwously_m missed the

_

I

ports, but then how many games do you

four-player

plugged into port 1'

program:

course. (See our review in issue 2.) It only has two joystick

,

HAVING just read the rewew Of our for

to

ofprogram control?

The value of this address on the 600XL is 96. It should be 234. Are there any 600XLs with the bug—free Rev C Basic available, as I have had

comments

0’ ”"3

Atari User Europa House 68 Chester Road Hazel Grove Stockport SK7 5NY

unnecessary Error 9 reports and worse still, causes key— board lock ups with total loss

K-Spread

£7 00 and yet the memory expansion for the 600XL is still priced at approximately f 90. Have Atari any plans to make the expansion cheaper for the people who supported the launch of the XL range? I think your magazine is superb and hope the standard set with the ?rst three issues is maintained. I would like, though, to make a couple of small points.

Please

include

memory

requirements when reviewing software and don’t spoil the letters page by including "my score is higher than your

score"

letters. S. Harrington, Runcorn, —

, mentioned Of our ST Copies app/1— 1.’ cations software now are protected, however ”7,3 does “low use“ to make a ba‘fk‘W’ cap y for dayrto—day use, It can be copied to a hard disc

“it;

wrtzout7problerzs. mentioned/rt; artyir‘lqsthgsearz routine Thegfirstgdoes nbt exist the second was on! resen t on a few earl disc: ?nd has since been ragtifie d 3. The version on sale checks for formulae when anemia” are made h. no I are presen t th,e h an_ formuae c_ yes are aCCEpted straight there are formulae the away. If user is presented with an option regarding changes. 4: We have an intensive deveIOpment pro ram under way and are workiigig onalarge number ofaddedfeatures. We have a positive upgrade policy whereby users of current

versions

will be able to

upgrade to new versions at minimal cost. 5: Business graphics wi/lbe available when the data com— patible program K—Graph is released towards the end of this quarter. I hope you will be able to make this information avail— able to your readers. We will of course keep you updated regarding new and improved products to our ST software

Jon Dav. Sales Manager, Kama Software.

range.

0 Andre Willey replies: I did get a new copy of the program — but the March issue contain— ing the review was already at the printers. As to Jon's points: 1zFair enough. if Kuma can protect software and still allow use of a hard disc without


—————————Moilbo

9

A ‘

needing to use the master disc again, great. Good luck to them. lt seems to work too. 2: The Give/Take bug does exist. lf you GlVE a file with long text items in it, the TAKE does not retrieve the same information. This has been corrected on later revisions. The same applies to the "Can't drag cell 0" to desktop" bUQ301“ Of these are present 0" a number of shop stock copies, although exchanges have "OW been arranged by Kurna. 31 GOOd- What else can '

,

-

,

'

say?

4: Also good. The new version contains a couple of nice new features, including headers/footers, minus sign or brackets, an option to turn off the coloured backing to text ?elds, and a few others. Well done to Kuma for listening to — "01 all their customers companies do! 53 Strange. that’sjust what said. My conclusions still stand, anyway, and we're grateful to Jon for giving us an update on

~

,

.

'

1

theisituation.

Memory '

mndule IN the February issue of Atari , .

.

User J.B. Giscott asked for on the 64k information memory module. Silica Shop (0 7-30 7 7 7 7 7 ) Wf” SUPP/V him wit/tone. I think the best game available for Atari micros at present is Chimera byFirebird. It is a 3—D room game in a 8 " only ,

~

zgé?rgzg278/35" '

'

.

.

lm sure any Atari owner would agree that the loading picture is better than anything ever seen before and the pause mode will shame even

,,

Co Iourspace. , I 3 rtposslble to useprctures 0" the At” raw” _

.

_

Anyone knows that the best way to cook a gerbilis to grillit for 10—20 minutes, put a slice of cheese on it and put it in between two slices ofbreadl— L. Wheelhouse, Shef?eld. PS: What is it about Rob Harding? He gets his picture in every issue.

Fortunately, I’m just

-

Reagan's Starwars

system just this type

proposes to use Of technology and, while there in hitting él‘e difficulties thousands Of f8$t moving warheads, a "surgical" ”31

a

Liberal voter so I ’ll be satis?ed if you print this letter to correct the matter. Brillig is equally wrong when he claims that any of Level 9’s own adventures are based on existing books. They aren't I do my damndest to avoid similarities when designing game worlds: However When writing the introductions to games / have occasionally listed my favourwishy—washy

G??d .

service

strike against a stationary target on the ground seems simple, given enough energy in the beam. The fact that SDI could be used offensively is one reason why it wouldbe so dangerous. I've not seen the exact idea used before in SF, but Larry

/

AM

not normally p to rone

puttlngpen topaperespeclal/y

to compliment a company. ' However my recent deal”793 Mt” Compumart Ltd have promptedme to do 50-143 lam aregularreader Of Ate“ User/t seemed best place to vale-9 the my comphmen ts. My initial dealings With Compumart was by way afan ,

Niven proposed something similar in "The Warriors" (‘Tales of Known Space’ from Orbit). — Peter Austin, Level

ite SF books on similar themes. For the benefit of

9

order for

a 7027’4‘3”. printer on special offer. On contacting

the firm / received some very and answers to my questions. The order was promptly dispatched and arrived within 48 hours. However within a few weeks it was apparent that the printer was defective. On contacting Compumart

Computing.

As Alex would no doubt be at pains to point out after such he does not a dressing—down,

0

readers, that’s all. To complete the list, Brillig describes the firing of par— ticIe-beam engines from an orbiting starship to destroy a

write

Brillig's adventure

column.

helpful BdViCE

Don’t be an

A P RI L F0 0 L Buy your 520 STM, 520 STFM or 1040 ST.

they Offered their apologies and an Immediate replacement printer, In addition they gave me the option of swapping the 1027 model with a 1029 dot matrix machine. On I e? e ctio n this shoal d have been my initial choice In doing this they will have'to refund me money from the initial order. It's so pleasant to find a company that really does have the customer at heart and the

N0 w ‘

292 London Road, Westcli?-on-Sea, Essex. Tel: Southend (0702) 332554

YGUR L0 AL ATARI SPE'G'IALI'QT ‘

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professionalism to match AS a new Atari use, ’ I am . , , yery confident_that With Atari Itself shops like Compumart and the quality of Atari User things could not look better. _

M.s. Allen, Havant, Hunts. generated Tab’e‘m Va‘” ownp’ag’ams‘ for WI ICSacczl'venwre rawn Ol‘l gameexaigrple grap3,7. the tablet? 30 . Lastly?! must say I was shocked to hear you say that a ! very annoyed person's gerbils should be sautéd lightly and served in a white sauce. I’M sure it must be libel/ous to

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target on the groundas being implausible. W0 ul 4 t h 8 t i f were

describe my politics as ”a little to the right of Genghis Khan" as Brillig, presumablyA/ex Bell hiding behind a pseudonym, did in the March Atari User. Conservative MPs have sued the BBC for saying less!

I

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April 7.986 ATARI USER

39


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Profile for Paul Rixon

Atari User Magazine Vol 1 Issue 12  

Atari User Magazine Vol 1 Issue 12 - magazine for Atari home computer users, published by Database Publications.

Atari User Magazine Vol 1 Issue 12  

Atari User Magazine Vol 1 Issue 12 - magazine for Atari home computer users, published by Database Publications.

Profile for prixon
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