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Water Quality  and  Health:   Current  Technology  and     Global  Applica:ons   Dr.    Asli  Aslan    

Michigan State  University     aaslan@msu.edu  


Water Quality  

Diarrheal diseases kill more children than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined, making it the second leading cause of death among children under five. 88% of deaths due to diarrheal illness worldwide are attributable to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene .

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CDC, 2012


Cholera outbreaks  reported  by  WHO  (2008-­‐2011)   Country   South Africa Kenya Togo Ethiopia Iraq Angola Guinea-Bissau Mozambique Zambia Malawi Congo Botswana Niger South Africa Zimbabwe Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria Pakistan Haiti Dominican Republic Congo

Cases 2348 1400 429 58 925 90 14228 10066 1759 370 119 5 35 68 46606 40468 99 60240   3  896   181  

Deaths 13 3

225 113 21 13 1 3 2482 1879 1415 265 6    

Report Date   11/1/2008 11/17/2008 12/1/2008 12/15/2008 12/17/2008 1/1/2009 1/2/2009 1/4/2009 1/6/2009 1/6/2009 1/7/2009 1/8/2009 1/11/2009 1/18/2009 6/09/2009 10/08/2010 10/25/2010 11/20/2010 07/20/2011 07/20/2011 3  


In the  United  States,  most  waterborne  disease  in  outbreaks  have  been  listed   as  AGI  with  unknown  eDology.       Viruses  are  assumed  to  cause  most  of  these  outbreaks  and  therefore  a   significant  porDon  of  outbreaks  due  to  viral  agents  are  neglected.    

Drinking waters

Recreational waters

CoullieMe, A.D.,  Aslan-­‐Yilmaz,  A.,  et  al.  (in  press).  Drinking  Water  Safety  in  the  21st  Century,  APHA  (Book  Chapter)        

Burlingame, G.A.,  Rose  J.B.,  Xagoraraki,  I.,  CoullieMe,  A.D.  and  Aslan-­‐Yilmaz,  A.  (2009).  Opflow  Online,  35,  5.    

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How do  we  measure  microbiological  pollu:on  in  water?   Enteric  bacteria  have  been  used  as   indicator  organisms  to  link  to  the   potenDal  presence  of  waterborne  pathogens.     Easy  to  enumerate   Fairly    inexpensive    


Total Coliforms   Late  1880 s   Fecal  Coliforms   1940 s-­‐50 s   E.  coli   1986   E.  coli   O157:H7  

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Disadvantages of    indicator  concept   • Do  not  correlate  with  viral  and  parasiDc  pathogens     • Re-­‐grow  in  the  environment   • Can  not  idenDfy  the  source  of  fecal  polluDon   • Time  needed    to  get  the  results:  18-­‐24  hours             (yesterday s  results)    

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Polymerase Chain  Reac:on  (PCR)   }  EnzymaDc  reacDon  that  makes  many   copies  of  DNA  from  single  molecule   }  2n  copies  of  DNA  from  single  molecule   where    n  =  #  of  cycles   }  So,  35  cycles  of  PCR  would  yield  235   copies  of  DNA  

CYCLE NUMBER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

AMOUNT OF DNA 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1.024 2.048 4.096 8.192 16.384 32.768 65.536 131.072 262.144 524.288 1.048.576 2.097.152 4.194.304 8.388.608 16.777.216 33.554.432 67.108.864 134.217.728 268.435.456 536.870.912 1.073.741.824 1.400.000.000 1.500.000.000 1.550.000.000 1.580.000.000


Quan:ta:ve PCR  

• Fast PCR  screening  without   gels.     • High  sensiDvity  and   quanDficaDon.   • Instruments  that  can  taken   into  the  field.   • BeMer  automaDon,  less  cross   contaminaDon.  


Advantages of  qPCR  :       Time  needed:  20  min  to  3  hours:  immediate   acDon  during  outbreaks,  beach  closures     Supplies:  5-­‐15$  per  sample     IniDal  set  up:  35K     Fully  automated  process,  less  cross   contaminaDon  and  human  error     Detects  source  of  polluDon  


What are  the  sources  of  fecal  pollu:on?   Human Sewage

Untreated wastewater

Livestock

Wildlife

Irrigation water

Diffuse pollution sources

Companion Animals

Treated water -Not treated efficiently? -The distribution systems malfunction

Microbial Source Tracking Microbial Source  Tracking  (MST),  is  a  method  used  to  determine  the  sources   of  fecal  microorganisms  and  establish  whether  they  are  being  introduced  into   water  bodies  through  human,  wildlife,  agricultural,  or  pet  wastes.     11  


Evalua:ng a  human  specific  MST  marker   Bacteroides  thetha0omicron  alpha  mannanese     abundant  in  human,  alpha  mannanese  presents  one  copy  in  a  cell        

Source (n)

B

. Bacteroides 16SrRNA B a c t e r o i d e s –

thetaiotaomicronal HF183

Prevotella 16SrRNA

pha mannanese Bovine (35)

0/35

7/35

35/35

Cats (6)

1/6**

2/6

NT*

Chickens (35)

0/35

4/35

NT

Dogs (1)

0/1

1/1

NT

Ducks (35)

0/35

6/35

NT

Geese (12)

0/12

4/12

NT

Gulls (25)

3/25**

11/25

NT

Horses (5)

0/5

2/5

NT

Sheep (35)

0/35

18/35

35/35

Swine (35)

3/35**

12/35

NT

Turkeys (6)

0/6

2/6

NT

Total (230)

7/230

67/230

70/70

S=1-­‐(a/b) where  a  is  the  false   posiDves  and  b  is  the  number  of   samples  for  each  animal  feces   tested.   Alpha  mannanese  0.97   HF183    0.71  

Aslan, A.  and  Rose,  J.B.  (under  review).  EvaluaDon  of  the  host  specificity  of  Bacteroides  thetaiotaomicron  alpha   mannanese  gene  as  a  sewage  polluDon  marker  (LeMers  in  Applied  Microbiology).  


Water Availability   >10000  m3   3000-­‐10000  m3     1000-­‐3000  m3   <1000  m3  

                         water  rich                              enough  water                              water  scarcity                              water  poor           (WHO,  2008)  

1000 500 0

Water stress zone <1000 m3

Ye a rs

2050

2030

2006

2000

1997

1990

1985

1980

1975

1970

1960

1965

(DSI, 2005)   1955

P er c apita  water  dem and   (m 3)/year*

The  per  capita  water    resource  is  decreasing⇓  ⇓     5000 8509  m3  (1955),     4500 3 4000 3626m  (1990),     3500 1500  m3  (2004)  and     3000 2500 1000  m3  (2030)     2000 1500  

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Turkey is  not  a  water  rich  country.   Country-Continent Averages

Water per capita

Syria Lebanon Turkey Iraq Asia Western Europe Africa South America World

1.200 m3 1.300 m3 1.430 m3 2.020 m3 3.000 m3 5.000 m3 7.000 m3 23.000 m3 7.600 m3

(WWF Turkey, 2006) 14


Wastewater   3325  municipality,  92  marine  oukalls   PopulaDon  connected  to  sewerage:  73%     69%  of  the  wastewater  is  treated  (was  44%  in  2004).   Out  of  3225  municipaliDes,  29  have  mechanical  treatment,     158  have  biological  treatment  and  32  have  advanced  treatment.  

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Black Sea KARADENİZ

K1 K2 K3

Deep Discharging Points

K0

Aktif Derin  De şa rj  Nokta la rı

B1 3 B1 2   BL1

B7 B5

B2 M1 MBC 1

MKC

M3

M8

M1 4

MARMARA DENİZİ Marmara Sea

M1 1 MY1 M2 3

MY2 M2 0

Pasalimani: 58.173  m3/day   Total:                      750.000  m3/day                      

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KO Date

Salinity

Fecal coliform (CFU/ 100 ml)

September 1996

21.8

1360

November 1996

23.2

3050

May 1998

25.7

2500

November 1999

21.9

2100

December 1999

23.0

34000

January 2000

20.9

2100 psu

-10

K0 Derinlik (m)

-20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1

2

3

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1

2

3

4

Okuş, E. Öztürk I., Sur H.I.,Yüksek, A. Taş, S. Aslan-Yılmaz, A., et al. (2008), Desalination 226, 1-3, 231-248.

CFU/100 ml

38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16

0 -100

100 -1000

1000 -2000

2000 -5000

5000 -10000

10000 -100000

100000 -1000000

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Microbiological Pollution Monitoring at the Coastal Areas of Istanbul n

K A R A D E N İZ

155

lc e

s

Ş ile

4 1 .0

135

132

G üz e

S iliv r

i

139

R iv a

144

4 1 .3

K ily o

K a ra

b u ru

4 1 .5

145 4 0 .8 M A R M A R A D E N İZ İ 2 8 .8

2 9 .3

2 9 .8

ener

i

2 8 .3

114

60

ba hç

e

105

P aşa

100 41.1 45

40

28.70

28.80

28.90

29.00

Aslan-­‐Yılmaz, A.,  Okuş,  E.,  Övez,  S  (2004),    Marine  PolluDon  BulleDn,  49  (11-­‐12),  951-­‐958.    

P end 5

T u z la

f A d a

ka da

a 29.10

S ede

131

B üyü

e lia d H eyb

azad

a

126

ik

l K a r ta

10

118

B u rg 28.60

pe

lı a d a K ın a

115

40.8 28.50

M a lte

a

24

B o s ta

ncı

35

Mod

A h ır k

a pı T opk

köy B a k ır

köy

74

Y e ş il

mece F lo r y a

K üçü

kçek

ar A v c ıl

kdüz

ü

68

B e y li

152  sampling  points   Twice  a  month  in  summer   Once  a  month  in  winter    

40.9

80

mece B üyü

kçek

41.0

90

a pı

K a ra

köy

94

64

A na d

S a r ıy

er

o lu F

63 41.2

1 29.20

29.30


1 5 /1 1 /0 2

November 2003  

2007 2003

2005

August 2007  

2004 2005

2006 2006

20

2 1 /1 1 /0 7

0

2 5 /1 2 /0 7

0

1 6 /1 0 /0 7

20

2 0 /0 6 /0 7 1 1 /0 7 /0 7 2 5 /0 7 /0 7 1 5 /0 8 /0 7 0 5 /0 9 /0 7 1 7 /0 9 /0 7

20

1 6 /0 4 /0 7 0 9 /0 5 /0 7 2 1 /0 5 /0 7

40

2 8 /0 2 /0 7

80

1 5 /0 1 /0 7

40

2 2 /1 1 /0 6 1 1 /1 2 /0 6

A v ru p vaalues  Y a k a s ı EU  guideline  

2 7 /0 9 /0 6 1 7 /1 0 /0 6

%

60

2 7 /0 4 /0 6 1 7 /0 5 /0 6 2 9 /0 5 /0 6 1 9 /0 6 /0 6 1 1 /0 7 /0 6 2 5 /0 7 /0 6 1 5 /0 8 /0 6

2 1 /0 6 /0 6

2 1 /0 2 /0 6

2006

2 6 /1 2 /0 5

2004 2005

2 5 /1 0 /0 5 1 6 /1 1 /0 5

2004

2 5 /0 4 /0 5 1 0 /0 5 /0 5 2 4 /0 5 /0 5 1 3 /0 6 /0 5 2 8 /0 6 /0 5 1 8 /0 7 /0 5 0 4 /0 8 /0 5 2 5 /0 8 /0 5 2 0 /0 9 /0 5

2 8 /0 2 /0 5 2 2 /0 3 /0 5

2003

0 1 /0 2 /0 5

2 9 /1 2 /0 4

% 80

1 1 /1 0 /0 4 0 2 /1 1 /0 4

0 2 /0 9 /0 4

2003

0 4 /0 5 /0 4 1 8 /0 5 /0 4 0 9 /0 6 /0 4 3 0 /0 6 /0 4 2 0 /0 7 /0 4 0 4 /0 8 /0 4

1 6 /0 3 /0 4 0 7 /0 4 /0 4

1 8 /0 2 /0 4

1 4 /0 1 /0 4

0 4 /1 1 /0 3

0 3 /0 9 /0 3 2 4 /0 9 /0 3 0 7 /1 0 /0 3

1 09 2002 1 08 1 07 1 06 1 05 1 04 1 03 2 10 10 1

0 3 /0 3 /0 3 2 6 /0 3 /0 3 1 3 /0 4 /0 3 2 4 /0 4 /0 3 1 4 /0 5 /0 3 2 9 /0 5 /0 3 1 1 /0 6 /0 3 2 3 /0 6 /0 3 1 6 /0 7 /0 3 2 9 /0 7 /0 3

2 0 /0 1 /0 3

2 3 /1 2 /0 2

C F U /1 0 0 m l

100 100

A s y a Y a k a s ı

Asian Side   60 2003:  4  sites        2007:  25  sites  

2007

2007 F e k a l k o lifo rm

F e k a l s tre p to k o k


Recreational Waters 28 provinces  have  shoreline.  Half  of  the  populaDon.     311  beaches  have  Blue  Flag.  

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OCEANOS

IMPACTS OF  HUMAN  USE  ON  THE  BIODIVERSITY  OF  MARINE  SPECIALLY  PROTECTED  AREAS  

-­‐Searching for  threats  on  biodiversity  and  water  quality   -­‐Over  1200  SCUBA  dives   -­‐34  species  introduced  to  the  literature   -­‐Problems  pointed  out:  aquaculture,  solid  waste,  human  health  

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Y ü z e y F e k a l  K o lifo rm  D a ð ýlým ý  ( C F U /1 0 0  m l)

Fecal coliform0(CFU/100 ml) 5 .0 7 .0 6 0 - 10 10 - 100 100 - 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 10000

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Climate Change  and  Health  

Drought Accumulation & Concentration Smaller scale risks

Heavy precipitation Transport Larger scale risks

Total economic loses in North America from weather-related events were $253 billion in the period between 1985-1999 (IPCC, 2007). 24


Flooding    

New York  Times,  Sep.  9th,  2009  

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Building Beach  Managers  Capacity  Using  Rapid  Tools   EPA  is  changing  the  criteria  (Enterococci)    for  recreaDonal  waters.       Great  Lakes  RestoraDon  IniDaDve  (GLRI)       Training  health  departments  in  the  use  of  qPCR  rapid  methods  for  beach  monitoring   and  enable  the  implementaDon  of  fully  funcDonal  molecular  laboratories  at  the  local   level     How-­‐to  manual  for  using  rapid  methods  for  beach  monitoring     Rapid  Methods  Workshop  at  USEPA  NaDonal  Beaches  Conference     Future  applicaDons:  source  tracking          


Healthier Great  Lakes  Beaches  Through  Improved   Communica:on   hMp://greatlakesecho.org/2011/08/26/ video-­‐beach-­‐monitoring-­‐faster-­‐more-­‐ accurate/  


Interna:onal Projects  on  Water  Quality  and  Sanita:on   INTERNATIONAL  COLLABORATORY  FOR  SEWAGE   Developing  a  toolbox  for   water  polluDon  diagnosDcs       Capacity  building    

http://www.cws.msu.edu/ic-sewage/


INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATORY  FOR  SEWAGE  

Level I:  Core  labs     Level  II:  Have  resources  to  upgrade   to  molecular  detecDon     Level  III:  Doesn t  have  resources   but  interested  in  capacity  building  


IC Sewage  Projects:  Capacity  Building  (Sibel  Zeki,  IU)      

• Develop water  quality  monitoring   programs  using  innovaDve  tools  in   selected  regions   • First  summer  study  has  been   done  with  a  graduate  student   from  Turkey  on  collecDon,  analysis   and  data  reporDng   • Training  on  sample  collecDon,   DNA  extracDon,  qPCR  analysis  and   data  reporDng   • Joint  project  on  the   bacteriological  polluDon  of  Golden   Horn  Estuary,  Istanbul  


GeneZ: Low  Cost  Hand-­‐held  GeneDc  Analysis  Plakorm  

Dr. Hashsham,  MSU  Civil  and  Environmental  Engineering   31  


Contact informa:on:     Dr.  Asli  Aslan     Michigan  State  University     aaslan@msu.edu  

Profile for Prima Civitas Foundation

Dr. Asli Aslan  

Water Quality and Health: Current Technology and Global Applications

Dr. Asli Aslan  

Water Quality and Health: Current Technology and Global Applications

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