Notes and Guidance (continued)
Assessment and Answers
• The activities on page 77 focus on words ending in ‘-al’, ‘-le’, ‘-el’ and ‘-il’, words with ‘o’ and ‘or’, apostrophes, and the suffixes ‘-ing’, ‘-er’ and ‘-ed’.
Ask the pupils to write a list of things they like and dislike about the legend. Would they recommend the legend to a friend? Why or why not?
Ask the pupils to explain why the following characters did what they did in the legend; i.e. what were their motives?
Introduction • Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to find the words ending in ‘-ed’ and circle them. (There are lots!) Development
Childe Wynd, the stepmother, Princess Margaret
• Explain that the /l/ sound at the end of words has several spellings. The ‘-le’ spelling is the most common; for example, apple, table. The ‘-el’ spelling is used after m, n, r, s, v, w and sometimes s; for example, travel, towel. Other spellings are ‘-al’ (animal, metal) and ‘-il’ (pencil, nostril).
• Ensure pupils are familiar with the term ‘apostrophe’. Explain that this punctuation mark has two uses:
~ contraction: to show that two words have joined and letters have been omitted; for example, are not = aren’t.
1. ugly dragon
2. (a) jealous (c) retreat
(b) repel (d) imp
• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ing’. Tell pupils that this suffix is used to express the action of a verb. Tell pupils that this suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. feeding. However, root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. having, coming.
telling, hiking, landing, seeking, dancing, bulging, calling, changing
• The ‘o’ and ‘or’ words in questions 3 and 4 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon.
~ possession: to show that something belongs to somebody or something; for example, ‘the queen’s spell’.
Write the following words on the board and have pupils place them into two groups, according to how the suffix ‘-ing’ is added.
• Discuss and list words which end with the suffixes ‘-ed’ and ‘-er’. Tell pupils that these suffixes are usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. walked, kinder. Root words ending in ‘y’ need to change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding the suffix; e.g. cried, happier. Root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. danced, nicer. • Discuss the word reading activities on page 77, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work
• Pupils should look at the ‘-ed’ words they circled for the ‘Introduction’ activity. They should write them onto the correct place on the table.
‘-ed’ suffix added after ‘y’ is changed to ‘i’
crawled punished returned happened ordered vanished hissed approached asked protected landed pretended entered touched
married worried tried
‘-ed’ suffix added after final ‘e’ is dropped lived named died changed raised
• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of ‘-ed’ words. Which list has the greatest number of words? • There are three words in the text (planned, grabbed, hopped) that change in a different way to those listed, as they double the final consonant before adding ‘-ed’. Can pupils say why they are different?
Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading
4. Answers will vary but will, hopefully, indicate that Childe Wynd would have killed his sister. Teachers should accept any answers from pupils which they can justify.
5. Answers will vary but may indicate that the king died or was killed by the witch queen.
6. A toad is considered ugly.
7. The phrases are commonly used in traditional tales such as this.
8. Answers will vary.
Word Reading 1. natural 2. (a) while/castle
• More able pupils should add extra words to the table. ‘-ed’ suffix added straight onto end of root word
3. Childe Wynd set foot on the land.
3. Answers may include words such as ‘other’, ‘mother’ and ‘nothing’. 4. work, world, worth 5. (a) Childe Wynd (c) his sister
(b) the queen
6. (a) planning, planner (c) grabbing, grabbed
‘y’ changed to ‘i’ before adding ‘-ed’
(b) shopping, shopper (d) hugging, hugged
‘e’ at end of word dropped before adding ‘-ed’
last consonant doubled before adding ‘-ed’