Page 1

e m pl sa in g ew Vi 2976IR

122/6.5


Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading (2nd Class) Published by Prim-Ed Publishing 2016 Copyright© Prim-Ed Publishing 2015 ISBN 978-1-84654-853-6 PR–2976

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

Titles in this series:

m pl

e

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading – 1st Class Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading – 2nd Class Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading – 3rd Class Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading – 4th Class Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading – 5th Class Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading – 6th Class

For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase.

sa

Name of Purchaser:

Date of Purchase:

School Order# (if applicable):

Signature of Purchaser:

Vi

ew

in g

Supplier:

Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

View all pages online

Website: www.prim-ed.com


Foreword

• Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading – 2nd Class

• Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading – 3rd Class

• Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading – 4th Class

• Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading – 5th Class

• Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading – 6th Class

m pl

e

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading is a six-book series written to support the teaching, learning and assessment of reading, comprehension and word reading concepts. The books give equal focus to the dimensions of comprehension and word reading, and the different kinds of teaching and learning experiences needed for each. Titles in this series are: • Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading – 1st Class

Contents

Format of the Books – Teacher and Pupil Pages ................................................................................................... v–vii Digital Assessment Tool ..................................................................................................................................... viii–ix

sa

Text Genres and Word Reading Concepts .................................................................................................................. x Curriculum Objectives and Codes ............................................................................................................................. xi Summative Assessment Units – Pupil Record Sheet ................................................................................................ xii Termly Formative and Summative Assessment – Pupil Record Sheet ...................................................................... xiii How Lightning came to Earth................................................................................................................................. 2–7 A Letter to a Brother ........................................................................................................................................... 8–13

in g

The Sword in the Stone ..................................................................................................................................... 14–19 The Hedley Kow ................................................................................................................................................ 20–25 Woodland Habitats ............................................................................................................................................ 26–31 Wally Woodlouse’s Adventure ............................................................................................................................ 32–37 Assessment: Hey, Tiny Fly! ................................................................................................................................ 38–41

ew

The Mermaid of Zennor .................................................................................................................................... 42–47 Whuppity Stoorie .............................................................................................................................................. 48–53 Continents and Oceans of the World .................................................................................................................. 54–59 The Fairy Flag of MacLeod ................................................................................................................................ 60–65 How to make Yorkshire Pudding ........................................................................................................................ 66–71

Vi

The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh ............................................................................................................. 72–77 Assessment: Little Red Riding Hood .................................................................................................................. 78–81

Leprechauns ..................................................................................................................................................... 82–87 The Luck of the Irish ......................................................................................................................................... 88–93 The Light Princess ............................................................................................................................................ 94–99 How to make a Daffodil ................................................................................................................................. 100–105 King Midas ....................................................................................................................................................106–111 Tattercoats ....................................................................................................................................................112–117 Assessment: Can Sharks Talk? .......................................................................................................................118–121

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

iii


e m pl sa in g ew Vi iv

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Format of the Books

Teacher Pages

There are 18 six-page units of work within each book, and three formal summative assessment units, one located after every six units. Each of the 18 units relates to a specific genre of fiction or non-fiction and follows the same format:

Suggested Reading includes fiction and non-fiction books and/or digital material that relate to the content of the unit.

Teacher Pages 2 and 3

in g

The Notes and Guidance provide detailed teaching points relating to each of the three pupil activity pages: text; comprehension; and word reading. There are also assessment activities and answers.

sa

Links to other Curriculum Areas lists any content relating to other curriculum areas. This section is omitted if no links are included.

Terminology for Pupils is a list of technical literary and grammatical terms included in the unit. Pupils need to understand and use the terminology to complete the unit’s activities.

e

The Definition of Terms section includes an explanation of technical literary and grammatical terms. They are provided as an aid for the teacher and not for pupils to learn, although teachers may wish to use the information to assist pupils to understand and complete specific activities.

Teacher Page 1

m pl

A table of Curriculum Links is provided, which lists the curriculum objectives covered by the text, comprehension and word reading pupil pages. Each objective has been allocated a code to aid identification. A table listing these codes and objectives can be found on page xi.

ew

The Teacher Information states the content of the copymaster activity and/or any materials the pupils may need.

The Introduction provides an activity for the class to complete before commencing the copymaster activity. It might involve a discussion, retelling the text in sequence or rereading the text in search of something specific.

Vi

Activities listed in the Development section might introduce or revise topics and/or suggest items to discuss, all with the aim of aiding pupils to work on the copymaster activity pages independently. The Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work suggests differentiated additional activities related to the pupil activity pages.

The Assessment table provides assessment activities.

All the Answers are provided for the comprehension and word reading activity pages.

The Review provides opportunities to discuss and/or share work to assess and conclude each activity. www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

v


Format of the Books

Pupil Pages

Pupil Page 1 The Text focus of the page is indicated.

The genre of the fiction or non-fiction text the pupils are reading is provided. A list of the text genres is on page x.

m pl

e

The artwork illustrates and supports the text.

The learning log provides an opportunity for pupils to self-assess their reading of the text.

Pupil Page 2

sa

The Comprehension focus of the page is indicated.

in g

Comprehension questions and activities relating to the text on Pupil Page 1 are provided. The comprehension questions may relate to text structure or language features as well as text meaning.

The answers are provided on Teacher Page 3.

ew

The learning log provides an opportunity for pupils to self-assess their completion of the activities.

Vi

Word Reading questions and activities relating to the text on Pupil Page 1 are provided. The main focus is the development of new vocabulary.

Pupil Page 3 The Word Reading focus of the page is indicated. A list of the word reading concepts covered is on page x.

The Mermaid of Zennor – 3 1. Which word from the text is a homophone for each word below? (a) here

(b) mist

(c) sea

(d) fete

(e) bean

(f) no

2. Circle the correct homophone in each sentence. (a) Kazim had a not / knot in his laces. (b) Do you know / no the man in the green cap? (c) Mum was sew / so happy to see / sea her son. 3. (a) Write the word missing from this part of the sentence. as he sang.

… another voice joined Matthew’s (b) The apostrophe shows that Matthew owns the

.

4. (a) What sound does the letter ‘c’ make in the word ‘voice’? (b) Underline the two words with the same sound. church

clothes

such

trace

crept

entrance

music

cave

5. The verb ‘hurry’ has been changed to ‘hurried’ by adding the suffix ‘-ed’ and changing the ‘y’ to ‘i’.

The answers are provided on Teacher Page 3.

Write a new verb for ‘hurry’ by adding the suffix ‘-es’.

The learning log provides an opportunity for pupils to self-assess their completion of the activities. vi

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I know which homophone to use. I can recognise the soft ‘c’ sound. I know to change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding suffixes.

www.prim-ed.com

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

47

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Format of the Books

Summative Assessment

Three summative assessment units are included in each book, for pupils to take after every six units, or at the teacher’s discretion.

The title and genre of the text are given.

m pl

e

Artwork to illustrate and support the text.

Word Reading Assessment

Each question is awarded a mark to a total of 15 marks across the two pages. Inferential questions and multi-part questions are awarded a higher mark than literal questions. Pupils’ scores can be recorded on the Pupil Record Sheet on page xii. Teachers should note that each test can be marked on the digital download which will automatically store the result.

ew

in g

sa

Comprehension Assessment

A Teacher Information page is provided to accompany each assessment unit.

The title and genre of the text are given.

Vi

The breakdown of question type/content and the mark allocation are provided in a table. Teachers might choose to photocopy this table for each pupil, ticking/circling the questions answered correctly and recording the marks gained in each assessment and overall. Answers are provided. Some questions are open-ended and will need to be checked by the teacher.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

vii


Digital Assessment Tool

Assessment

There is a digital assessment tool to accompany each book in the Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading series. This will enable teachers to monitor and track pupil progress. Teachers can download this assessment tool from the Prim-Ed Publishing website (www.prim-ed.com). The home page of the download has the following features: • Instructions for teachers; • Quick-glance curriculum objectives and codes; and

e

• Assessment by units in Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading.

Clicking the Quick-glance curriculum objectives and codes icon shows the comprehension and word reading objectives from the curriculum and the codes that have been assigned to them in the book.

Vi

ew

in g

sa

m pl

Clicking the Instructions for the teacher icon provides an overview of the features of the download.

Clicking the Assessment by units in Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading icon reveals an overview page allowing the teacher to click on the following options: • Units (each individual unit in the book can be clicked); • Formal Assessment (each of the three formal assessments can be clicked); • Term (the three terms can be clicked); and • End-of-Year (an overview of the pupil’s yearly achievement).

Three categories and colour classifications of pupil progress are used throughout the assessment download. These categories are: working towards expectations (red), meeting expectations (orange) and exceeding expectations (green). viii

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Digital Assessment Tool Units in Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

• Click Assessment by units in Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading on the home page.

• Type in pupils’ names.

(b) Click on FA1, FA2 or FA3, once the pupils have completed the relevant formal assessment. The following screen will be displayed.

Click each question the pupil got correct. A tick mark will be generated. Any questions that are not clicked (i.e. the incorrect ones) automatically receive an incorrect mark. The colour in the overall total bar at the base of the page indicates the pupil’s performance.

ew

(c) Click on TERM at the end of each term. An end-of-term overview will be displayed, showing a performance colour for both comprehension and word reading.

Vi

The pupils’ names appear down the left-hand side. For each pupil, click the colour that best matches their achievement in relation to that objective. On returning to the page, an average score for that particular unit is displayed (as red, orange or green).

sa

m pl

(a) Click on the required unit. For example, by clicking on Unit 1 the codes of the objectives to be assessed in that unit will appear at the top.

in g

e

Assessment

An overall average is also displayed, showing the combined progress in both comprehension and word reading. The results of the formal assessment for that term are also displayed on this screen. This screen can be printed for use in either pupil profile folders or parent-teacher meetings.

(d) Click on End-of-Year at the end of the school year. This will display each pupil’s overall progress for the entire school year. A breakdown of progress for each term is displayed, as well as progress in comprehension and word reading over the three terms. An overall average is also generated. This entire page can be printed out and passed on to the next teacher of this pupil.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

ix


Text Genres Unit 1.

How Lightning came to Earth

2.

A Letter to a Brother

3.

The Sword in the Stone

4.

The Hedley Kow

5.

Woodland Habitats

6. 7.

Fiction or Non-fiction?

Genre

fiction

fantasy

non-fiction

letter

fiction

poem folk tale report

Wally Woodlouse’s Adventure

fiction

narrative

The Mermaid of Zennor

fiction

legend

8.

Whuppity Stoorie

fiction

fairy tale/poem

9.

Continents and Oceans of the World

non-fiction

information text

fiction

legend

11. How to make Yorkshire Pudding

non-fiction

12. The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh

fiction

13. Leprechauns

fiction

14. The Luck of the Irish

non-fiction

15. The Light Princess

fiction

16. How to make a Daffodil

non-fiction fiction

18. Tattercoats

fiction

recipe

legend poem

newspaper report fairy tale

procedure myth

sa

17. King Midas

m pl

10. The Fairy Flag of MacLeod

e

fiction non-fiction

fairy tale

Word Reading Concepts How Lightning came to Earth

Unit 2:

A Letter to a Brother

Unit 3:

The Sword in the Stone

Unit 4:

The Hedley Kow

homophones

long ‘i’ sound

suffix ‘-ly’

syllables

‘wr’ words

‘wor’ words

suffixes ‘-ing’, ‘-ed’ and ‘-er’

suffixes ‘-less’ and ‘-ly’

in g

Unit 1:

homophones

‘kn’ words

‘il’ words

suffixes ‘-ly’ and ‘-er’

‘war’ words

‘-ey’ sounds

‘-ge’ sound

suffixes ‘-ful’ and ‘-est’

syllables

compound words

plurals

‘al’ words

apostrophes

‘le’ words

‘-ey’ words

suffix ‘-ing’

homophones

apostrophes

soft ‘c’ sound

suffixes ‘-ed’ and ‘-es’

‘qua’ and ‘wor’ words

syllables

contractions

root words

short ‘u’ sound

range of suffixes

syllables

‘al’ and ‘le’ words

homophones

suffix ‘-ing’

suffixes ‘-tion’, ‘-ful’ and ‘-ment’ suffixes ‘-ed’, ‘-er’, ‘-est’, ‘-ly’ and ‘-en’

suffixes ‘-ness’ and ‘-tion’

‘o’ and ‘or’ sounds

possessive apostrophes

suffixes ‘-ing’, ‘-er’ and ‘-ed’

soft ‘c’ and ‘g’ sounds

suffixes ‘-es’, ‘-er’ and ‘-ing’

apostrophes

homophones

silent ‘g’ and ‘k’

suffixes ‘-ment’ and ‘-tion’

suffix ‘-ing’

suffix ‘-ed’

suffix ‘-ed’

suffixes ‘-less’, ‘-ly’, ‘-ment’, ‘-ing’ and ‘-est’

‘al’ and ‘ar’ words

homophones

syllables

‘il’, ‘al’ and ‘le’ endings

suffixes ‘-ing’ and ‘-ly’

suffixes ‘-ed’ and ‘-er’

Unit 17: King Midas

words with similar meanings

common sight words

understanding word meanings

opposites

Unit 18: Tattercoats

‘ge’ sound

possessive apostrophes

‘all’ words

suffixes ‘-es’ and ‘-ed’

Unit 5: Woodland Habitats

Unit 7: Unit 8:

Whuppity Stoorie

Continents and soft ‘g’ and ‘c’ sounds Oceans of the World Unit 10: The Fairy Flag of soft ‘g’ sound and silent ‘w’ MacLeod Unit 11: How to make plurals and suffix ‘-es’ Yorkshire Pudding Unit 12: The Laidly Worm of ‘al’, ‘le’, ‘el’ and ‘il’ words Spindleston Heugh

Vi

Unit 9:

Wally Woodlouse’s Adventure The Mermaid of Zennor

ew

Unit 6:

Unit 13: Leprechauns

Unit 14: The Luck of the Irish Unit 15: The Light Princess Unit 16: How to make a Daffodil

x

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Curriculum Objectives and Codes The following tables show the relevant reading, comprehension and word reading objectives from the English curriculum that relate to the content of this book. Each objective has been assigned a code. These codes are used throughout the book to assist teachers in planning their work. They are also used in the Curriculum Links and Assessment tables of the Teacher Pages. Reading/Comprehension Develop reading skills through engaging with reading material appropriate to his/her stage of development.

C2

Adapt his/her reading style for different purposes.

C3

Read aloud to share a text with an audience.

C4

Find information and share it with others.

C5

Perform simple information retrieval tasks.

C6

Adopt an active approach to a text by posing his/her own questions.

C7

Develop comprehension strategies.

C8

Perform alphabetical order tasks.

C9

Predict future events and outcomes in a [book] that is being read aloud.

C10

Express a more formal response by giving a considered personal opinion of a [book] in oral or in written form.

C11

Continue to listen to and enjoy stories and poems being read aloud.

C12

Engage with a wide variety of text.

C13

Respond to characters and events in a story.

C14

Explore different attitudes and feelings by imagining what it would be like to be certain characters.

C15

Read a story and write it in his/her words.

C16

Read a narrative or expository piece and summarise it.

C17

Write a list of questions about a particular topic and prioritise them.

C18

Write about favourite moments, characters and events in stories.

C19

Explore new interests and perspectives through reading.

ew

in g

sa

m pl

e

C1

Word Reading

Learn about the sounds associated with the part of a word or syllable that allows it to rhyme with another word or syllable.

WR2

Learn about the sounds associated with the beginning of a word or syllable.

WR3

Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words.

WR4

Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words.

WR5

Continue to build a sight vocabulary of common words from [books] read and from personal experience.

Vi

WR1

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

xi


Pupils’ names

xii Date:

Date:

Date:

(

TOTAL /15)

in g

Word Reading ( /8)

Comprehension ( /7)

Hey, Tiny Fly!

ew

Vi Date:

Date:

TOTAL /15)

Date:

( Date:

Date:

Word Reading ( /8)

Can Sharks Talk?

e

Comprehension ( /7)

m pl

Word Reading ( /8)

sa

Comprehension ( /7)

Little Red Riding Hood

Summative Assessment

Date:

(

TOTAL /15)

Summative Assessment Units

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Pupil Record Sheet

The following table should be used to record pupils’ scores on the three summative assessment units.

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Termly Formative and Summative Assessment

Pupil Record Sheet

m pl

e

Summative

Date:

in g

Date:

sa

Formative Exceeding expectations

Pupils’ names

Date:

Working towards expectations

Red

Vi

Class:

ew

Meeting expectations

Green Orange

Term:

Brief Description of Assessments Used

The following table should be used to record pupils’ formative and summative assessments each term.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

xiii


How Lightning came to Earth

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C1 C3 C9

• • •

Develop reading skills through engaging with reading material appropriate to his/her stage of development Read aloud to share a text with an audience Predict future events and outcomes in a [book] that is being read aloud

Comprehension

C5 C16

• •

Perform simple information retrieval tasks Read a narrative or expository piece and summarise it

Word Reading

WR2 WR3 WR4

• • •

Learn about the sounds associated with the beginning of a word or syllable Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words

m pl

e

Text

Additional Teacher Information Definition of Terms

Fantasy

text

Links to other Curriculum Areas

phrase sentence sound suffix syllable

Suggested Reading

• A Practical Guide to Dragons by Lisa Trumbauer

• There’s No Such Thing as a Dragon by Jack Kent • The Egg Paperback by M.P. Robertson • The Knight and the Dragon by Tomie de Paola • How to Train Your Dragon by Cressida Cowell (a chapter book to read to the pupils) • Puff, the Magic Dragon by Peter Yarrow and Lenny Lipton

Vi

ew

• Geography – Natural environments – identify, explore and discuss aspects of some major natural features in the local environment

word

homophone

in g

A fantasy may be any text or story which is removed from reality. Stories may be set in non-existent worlds such as an elf kingdom, on another planet or in alternate versions of the known world. The characters may not be human (dragons, trolls etc.) or may be humans who interact with non-human characters.

fantasy

sa

Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

Terminology for Pupils

2

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• Dragons play a huge part in fantasy stories, and are still very popular today in films and games. Their history derives from two main sources—Western (European) and Eastern (Chinese) dragons. Traditionally, dragons are reptiles or serpents with or without wings, with two or four legs, sometimes breathing fire, and sometimes poisonous. European dragons were to be feared, while Chinese dragons were admired.

• Pupils might need a dictionary to complete question 3.

• Ask pupils if they have ever read, or have had read to them, a book about dragons, or with a dragon character. Ask them if they have ever watched a film about dragons. What did the dragons look like? What did the dragons do? What happened to the dragons? Development

Development

e

• Pupils take it in turns to retell the fantasy story in their own words, sequencing the events correctly.

• Discuss the comprehension activities on page 6, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. • Compare their answers to questions that may have varied answers, especially question 7. Pupils should tell why they chose their word, phrase or sentence. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

in g

sa

• Read the text with the pupils as a whole class, and discuss it with them to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

Introduction

m pl

Introduction

• Question 6 requires pupils to use their prior knowledge about dragons.

• During discussion of the text, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others.

• Pupils write a list of information the text gives about the dragons; for example, the sea dragons ruled the sea, both clans nested on the land, dragons have claws. • Pupils should share their lists in a small group. Review • As a class, compare pupils’ answers to questions 4 and 5, as their answers will vary and will be interesting to compare.

ew

• Discuss the themes in the story of greed, selfishness, sharing and friendship. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work • Imagine that the dragons didn’t listen to Dryhten, and the feud continued. What might happen next? • Less able pupils could write a few sentences and draw an illustration.

Vi

• More able pupils could write extra paragraphs that could be included in the story, to replace the final two paragraphs. Review

• Pupils should share their work in a small group.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

3


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers Assessment

Word Reading Teacher Information • The activities on page 7 focus on homophones, the long ‘i’ sound spelt ‘y’, the suffix ‘-ly’ and syllables.

C3

Have pupils come up individually and read a paragraph of the text. Note as part of the assessment how well they handle tone, intonation and word recognition.

C16

Ask the pupils to write a short summary of this fantasy tale in bullet points. Remind them to include the most important events, in the correct order.

WR4

Call out (or write on the board) the following words and have pupils place them in two different grids, according to the shared sound.

• Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to find the two words ending in ‘-ly’ and circle them (finally, sadly).

e

Introduction

sky, ugly, body, badly, reply, cry, greedy, dry, July, sadly, brightly, try

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ly’. Tell pupils that words ending in ‘-ly’ usually tell how or how often something is done. Explain that the suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. hourly, sadly. However root words ending in ‘-y’ with a consonant before it will need a spelling change; e.g. day/daily, happy/happily. • The long ‘i’ words spelt ‘y’ in question 3 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phoneme focused upon.

Comprehension

1. When Dryhten rebuked the dragons after Draca and Wyrm were nearly killed in battle, the sea and land dragons decided to end the feud. 2. Long ago

3. (a) nesting (c) champions

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

(b) clan (d) feud

4. No; Reasons may include that the dragon kings would not have chosen them to fight each other if they had known they were friends; No-one saw the friends when they met near the nesting field. 5. Yes; The land and sea dragons ended the feud so Draca and Wyrm would be able to see each other easily.

in g

• Discuss the word reading activities on page 7, then allow pupils to complete the page independently.

Answers

sa

• Ensure pupils are familiar with the term ‘homophone’. Give some examples (see, sea; there, their; maid, made). Elicit some examples from the pupils. Pupils suggest sentences for pairs of homophones, to be written onto the board; for example, son/sun = My uncle has a son called Sam./The sun is shining brightly.

m pl

Development

6.–7. Answers will vary.

• In pairs, pupils should find and list words with an ‘-ly’ suffix.

Review

ew

• More able pupils could then sort the words according to whether the root word changed before the suffix was added.

Vi

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of ‘-ly’ words. Who found the most words?

4

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Word Reading

1. (a) their (c) be (e) one (g) way

(b) two (d) sea (f) son (h) not

2. (a) wood (c) write

(b) bean (d) wear

3. (a) cry, fly, dry, reply, July (b) sky 4. sadly 5. (a) cham/pi/ons (c) dra/gon (e) some/times (g) a/cross

(b) a/shamed (d) sel/fish (f) moun/tains

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


How Lightning came to Earth – 1

Text

Read the fantasy.

m pl

There were two clans of dragons—sea dragons and land dragons. The sea dragons ruled the seas, oceans and the land where they nested. The land dragons ruled the inland and mountains. The two clans argued about who owned the nesting land.

e

Long ago, there were only dragons on Earth. The sun always shone and dragon flames were always hot.

sa

Eard, the king of the land dragons, lived in a cave with his son, Draca. In a cave near the sea, Flot, the king of the sea dragons, lived with his son, Wyrm. One day, near the nesting field, Draca and Wyrm met. They talked and played together and became close friends. The two clans still argued about the nesting land.

in g

Finally, the dragons decided to end the feud. They chose one champion from each clan. The winner would claim the nesting land. Draca and Wyrm were chosen. They were very sad. They did not want to fight each other but they had to do what the kings said. Claws ripped. Flames flashed across the sky. Tails lashed. From Heaven, Dryhten, the dragon god, watched sadly. The land and sea dragons were greedy and selfish. They would kill the friends. Thunder roared and the sky grew black. The champions fell to the ground. Sweat, blood and tears poured from their bodies.

ew

‘Look what you have done!’ roared Dryhten. ‘You almost killed something special. Draca and Wyrm are the only ones who know how to end the feud. Being friends and understanding each other is the way.’

Vi

The land and sea dragons felt ashamed. Dryhten was right. They had been greedy and selfish. They picked up Draca and Wyrm in their wings and took them home to look after them. The land and sea dragons agreed to share the nesting land. From that day on, the sun did not shine every day. Sometimes grey clouds flashed with flames like the breath of dragons fighting. The flashes remind everyone not to be greedy and selfish. They remind us to be friends and to try to understand each other. The flashes became known as lightning. When I read this fantasy text, I could read:

My learning log www.prim-ed.com

all of it. Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

5


How Lightning came to Earth – 2

Comprehension

1. Which event made the sea and land dragons decide to end the feud about the nesting land?

(a) use or build a nest: n

m pl

3. Write words from the text for these meanings.

e

2. Which words in the text are often used to begin stories and tales?

(b) a close group of interrelated families, especially in the Scottish Highlands: c

sa

(c) people surpassing all rivals in a sporting contest

or other competition: ch

in g

(d) a long, bitter quarrel or dispute: f

4. Do you think either of the dragon kings knew their sons were friends? No

Why?

ew

Yes

5. Do you think Draca and Wyrm were still friends after the battle? No

Why?

Vi

Yes

6. Write one thing about dragons you knew before reading the text.

7. Write words, a phrase or a sentence that you like from the text.

My learning log

6

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


How Lightning came to Earth – 3

Word Reading

1. Which word from the text is a homophone for each word below? (a) there

(b) to

(c) bee

(d) see

(e) won

(f) sun

(g) weigh

(h) knot

(a) The children went for a walk in the wood / would.

m pl

(b) Sam planted a been / bean in the garden.

e

2. Circle the correct homophone in the sentences.

(c) Kara wanted to right / write an email.

(d) Alex couldn’t decide which trousers to where / wear.

cr

fl

dr

sa

3. (a) Write and read words with a long ‘i’ sound at the end, spelt with a ‘y’ like ‘try’. repl

Jul

(b) Find and write another word in the text with this ending.

in g

4. ‘Sad’ + ‘-ly’ =

5. Divide each word into syllables for easier reading. (a) champions

ew

(b) ashamed (c) dragon (d) selfish

Vi

(e) sometimes

(f) mountains (g) across Write Yes or No.

My learning log

I know which homophone to use. I can read words ending with a long ‘i’ sound. I can divide some words into syllables.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

7


A Letter to a Brother

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C1 C12 C14

• • •

Develop reading skills through engaging with reading material appropriate to his/her stage of development Engage with a wide variety of text Explore different attitudes and feelings by imagining what it would be like to be certain characters

Comprehension

C7 C13 C18

• • •

Develop comprehension strategies Respond to characters and events in a story Write about favourite moments, characters and events in stories

Word Reading

WR2 WR3 WR4

• • •

Learn about the sounds associated with the beginning of a word or syllable Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words

m pl

Additional Teacher Information Definition of Terms

Letter A letter is a written conversation sent from one person to another. A letter usually begins with a greeting, contains the information to be related and concludes with a farewell signed by the sender.

letter

Statement A definite or clear expression of something in speech or writing. Story An account of imaginary or real people and events told for entertainment.

ew

Question A sentence worded or expressed so as to elicit information.

Links to other Curriculum Areas

information story word question suffix sentence

Suggested Reading

• The True Story of the Three Little Pigs by Jon Scieszka

• Touch It!: Materials, Matter and You (Primary Physical Science) by Adrienne Mason • What Is the World Made Of? All About Solids, Liquids and Gases (Let’s-Read-and-Find-Out Science, Stage 2) by Kathleen Weidner Zoehfeld • The Three Little Pigs and the Somewhat Bad Wolf by Mark Teague

Vi

• Science – Materials: Properties and characteristics of materials – begin to explore how different materials may be used in the construction of homes suited to their environments

statement

language feature

in g

NOTE: Teachers should ensure pupils are not confused with letters as pieces of writing and alphabetical letters (graphemes) to represent sounds (phonemes).

Terminology for Pupils

sa

Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

e

Text

8

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• The letters are based on the fairy tale ‘The Three Little Pigs’.

• Pupils might need a dictionary to complete question 4.

Introduction

• Question 8 requires pupils to use their prior knowledge about fairy stories. Introduction

Development

e

• Pupils take it in turns to retell ‘The Three Little Pigs’ fairy tale in their own words, sequencing the events correctly.

m pl

• Ask pupils if they have ever read, or have had read to them, a letter. Explain the format of a letter to pupils before commencing the text so that pupils have a reference base when reading the text. Refer to the ‘Definition of Terms’ section for details about letters. Look at the letters in the book ‘The Jolly Postman’ by Janet and Allan Ahlberg. • Discuss the letters and the fairy story they were inspired by. Can the pupils retell the story of ‘The Three Little Pigs’? Have an illustrated copy of the fairy tale available to read with the pupils.

• Discuss the comprehension activities on page 12, then allow pupils to complete the page independently.

Development

• Compare their answers to question 7, as this will have varied answers. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

• Draw pupils’ attention to the letter opening salutations. What word does each letter start with? (Dear). Explain that most letters start with this greeting word, but what might come after it? What might they write for a letter to: their teacher? (Dear Mrs. Smith); a close friend? (Dear Sam); a family member? (Dear Uncle John); someone whose name they don’t know? (Dear Sir/Madam).

sa

• Read the text with the pupils as a whole class, and discuss it with them to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

in g

• During the discussion of the letters, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

ew

• Imagine that their mother writes a joint letter to the three little pigs. What might she write? What advice might she give? How might she feel? • Less able pupils could write a few sentences and draw an illustration.

• Draw pupils’ attention to the letter closing salutations. They all start with ‘Your loving …’. Research other closing letter salutations and write a list; for example, Yours sincerely, Regards, Thank you, Best wishes, Yours faithfully. Are some more formal than others? • Pupils should share their lists in a small group. Review • As a class, compare pupils’ lists of closing salutations. Sort them into formal and informal salutations and discuss who they might use different salutations for.

• More able pupils could write a complete letter, ensuring a paragraph is written to each little pig.

Vi

Review

• Pupils should share their work in a small group.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

9


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers Assessment

Word Reading C14

Ask the pupils to write a letter of apology from the wolf. What might he say to each pig in turn? Do you think he learnt his lesson?

C18

In the third letter, the oldest brother invites his younger brothers to come and visit him.

• The activities on page 13 focus on ‘wr’ and ‘wor’ words, and the suffixes ‘-ing’, ‘-ed’, ‘-er’, ‘-less’ and ‘-ly’. Introduction • Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to find and circle words with the suffix ‘-ing’ (writing, managing, loving, slaving).

Pupils should explain whether they think the brothers will visit or not. They should write a list of reasons the two younger brothers might want to visit.

Development

• Discuss the word reading activities on page 13, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

wrap, write, word, work, world, worry Answers

Comprehension

1. (a) youngest brother

2. (a) and (b) should be ticked 3. (a) and (b)

4. (a) success over time; good luck; money (b) strong thread or string (c) an annoying person or thing (d) able to resist bad weather such as rain 5. The oldest brother caught and cooked the wolf. 6. Yes, because they have lost their homes and the oldest brother has a strong house made of bricks. 7. Answers will vary.

in g

• Pupils should reread the text and list words with ‘-ed’ suffixes. There are four (arrived, joined, searched, completed). Which two words dropped the ‘e’ before ‘-ed’ was added?

Write the following ‘wr’ and ‘wor’ words on the board and ask pupils to word build.

m pl

• The ‘wr’ and ‘wor’ words in questions 1 and 2 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon. Explain that not many words begin with ‘wr’ or ‘wor’. Use a dictionary to find and list some. Some of the words could be used in a word building exercise; for example, ‘work’ is the root word of workbook, workday, worker, working, workout, worktop etc.

WR3

sa

• Discuss the words that pupils circled during the introductory activity. Did any of the pupils circle the word ‘nothing’? Explain that although this word does end in ‘-ing’, the ‘-ing’ part is not a suffix. Every word the pupils should have circled had a letter dropped off the end of the root word before the ‘-ing’ was added. What letter was this? Explain that this happens when adding any suffix starting with a vowel; for example, ‘-ed’, ‘-er’, ‘-est’ and ‘-y’.

e

Teacher Information

• Give pupils a list of verbs ending in ‘e’; for example, give, love, write, dance. Pupils should write the words with the ‘-ing’, ‘-ed’ and ‘-er’ suffixes into a table like the one below, remembering to drop the ‘e’.

ew

• More able pupils could also explain if there is an alternative word when one of the suffixes is not appropriate; for example, ‘gived’ and ‘writed’ are not words, but ‘gave’ and ‘wrote’ are the correct forms in the past tense.

-ed

-er

giving

giver

loving

loved

lover

Vi

-ing

writing

writer

dancing

danced

dancer

8. The Three Little Pigs. Word Reading

1. (a) writing (b) write, wriggle, wrestle, wrong, wrap, wreck, wrist 2. (a) worth, work (b) word, worm, world 3. (a) manage, write, love, have (b) e 4. (a) arrive, complete, wise (b) e 5. (a) Homeless (c) -ly

(b) without a home (d) Teacher check

Review

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of words. Can they use them in sentences? For example, The dancer loved dancing, and once danced for the Queen.

10

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


A Letter to a Brother – 1

Text

Read the letters. Dear Brother,

Letter 1

m pl

Then, the wolf came to call. That wolf sure has a set of lungs! He blew my sturdy home away! Nothing was left except a pile of broken twigs! I am writing to our oldest brother tonight to see if he is managing better. I hope he chooses the strongest material possible. He is always such a good planner. I am sure he will be very careful. But that wolf is a huge nuisance!

e

Thank you for your letter. Unfortunately, it arrived too late. Having found my own perfect place, I chose sticks to build my home. Of course, sticks are much stronger than straw, but harder to bend and shape. I joined them together with twine and thought I had built the perfect home.

Your loving older brother

Letter 2

Dear Brother,

sa

It has been some time now since Mother sent us out to seek our fortune. I am writing to give you some important information so you can learn from my mistakes.

in g

I found the perfect place to build my home so I searched for the perfect material to make it. Straw was cheap, light, easy to find and easy to bend to shape. I could make my home very quickly. After I had completed it, the wolf came to visit. In a huff and a puff, my beautiful home was blown away and I was homeless. Straw was not a good choice after all! Please use a stronger material to build your home. Your life depends on it!

ew

Your loving younger brother

Letter 3

Dear Brothers,

Vi

After slaving hard for many weeks, my beautiful brick home is completed. It is strong and weatherproof. It was worth all the work! Please come and visit soon. I’ve made a tasty wolf stew. Your loving older (and wiser) brother

When I read these letters, I could read: My learning log

www.prim-ed.com

all of them.

Prim-Ed Publishing

most of them.

parts of them.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

11


A Letter to a Brother – 2

Comprehension

1. Which brother wrote Letter 2? Underline the correct answer. (a) youngest brother

(b) oldest brother

(c) middle brother

2. Tick the correct statements. These letters: (a) tell a story. (b) give information about materials.

e

(c) try to persuade the reader about a point of view.

m pl

3. Which language feature is included in all three letters? Circle the answers. (a) a greeting

(b) a farewell

(d) a list of ingredients

(e) Once upon a time …

(f) … and they lived happily ever after

sa

4. Write a meaning for each word.

(c) steps

(a) fortune (b) twine

in g

(c) nuisance (d) weatherproof

ew

5. How was the oldest brother able to make wolf stew?

6. Do you think the two younger pigs will visit their older brother? No

Why?

Vi

Yes

7. Write a question about something in the text that needed more information.

8. What fairy tale are the letters about?

My learning log

12

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


A Letter to a Brother – 3

Word Reading

1. (a) Find and write a word in Letter 1 that starts with ‘wr’. (b) Underline the words that start with ‘wr’. week wrong

write wrap

worth wolf

work wreck

wriggle wrestle wrist war

2. (a) Find and write two words in Letter 3 that start with ‘wor’.

d w

m w

ld

m pl

w

e

(b) Complete these words with the same ‘or’ sound.

3. (a) Write the words before ‘-ing’ was added. managing writing

loving having

sa

(b) What letter at the end of each word was dropped before ‘-ing’ was added?

4. (a) Write the words before ‘-ed’ or ‘-er’ were added. arrived completed wiser

in g

(b) What letter at the end of each word was dropped before ‘-ed’ or

‘-er’ were added?

ew

5. (a) ‘Home’ + ‘less’ =

(b) What does ‘homeless’ mean?

Vi

(c) What ending is added to ‘unfortunate’ and ‘quick’ to make

‘unfortunately’ and ‘quickly’?

(d) Write a sentence using one of these words. Write Yes or No.

My learning log

I can recognise words starting with ‘wr’. I can read words containing ‘or’. I know how to add ‘-ing’ and ‘-ed’ to words’.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

13


The Sword in the Stone

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C2 C11 C16

• • •

Adapt his/her reading style for different purposes Continue to listen to and enjoy stories and poems being read aloud Read a narrative or expository piece and summarise it

Comprehension

C8 C9 C14 C19

• • • •

Perform alphabetical order tasks Predict future events and outcomes in a [book] that is being read aloud Explore different attitudes and feelings by imagining what it would be like to be certain characters Explore new interests and perspectives through reading

Word Reading

WR2 WR3 WR4

• • •

WR5

Learn about the sounds associated with the beginning of a word or syllable Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words Continue to build a sight vocabulary of common words from [books] read and from personal experience

m pl

e

Text

Additional Teacher Information

Poem A piece of writing in which the expression of feelings and ideas is given intensity by particular attention to diction (sometimes involving rhyme), rhythm and imagery.

Terminology for Pupils

sa

Definition of Terms

poem word phrase

homophone letter

in g

sentence suffix

Suggested Reading

• The Sword in the Stone by Walt Disney (DVD) • Knights (Penguin Young Readers, L3) by Catherine Daly‑Weir

Vi

ew

• The Story of King Arthur and His Knights (Classic Starts) by Howard Pyle

14

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• Pupils will need to know the meaning of the following words to fully understand the poem: squire, knight, task, ancient, monument, sword, anvil, lord, king.

• Pupils may need a dictionary to complete questions 1 and 3.

Introduction

• Ask pupils to tell things that they learnt about squires, knights and kings as a result of reading the poem.

Development

e

• Remind pupils how to use a dictionary efficiently; i.e. alphabetical order and retrieval by 1st, 2nd and 3rd letters. Give each pupil, or pair of pupils, a dictionary. Write words from the text onto the board for pupils to find. • Discuss whether the pupils think that Arthur found the sword by accident, good luck or destiny. Discuss what is meant by the word ‘destiny’, and what the destiny of the person pulling the sword from the stone in this legend was. • Discuss the comprehension activities on page 18, then allow pupils to complete the page independently.

sa

• Read and discuss the poem with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

Development

m pl

• Show pupils pictures of King Arthur and his famous sword. Explain the legend that only the true and rightful king could pull the sword from the stone (or anvil). Note that the Sword in the Stone is different to Arthur’s famous Excalibur sword, which he received from the Lady of the Lake.

Introduction

in g

• During discussion of the poem, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the poem with others they have read or listened to.

• Look at and discuss the poem’s rhyming pattern. For each stanza, lines 1 and 2, then lines 3 and 4 rhyme. Write the rhyming word pairs on the board and read them with the pupils.

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work • Pupils should share ideas to tell what might have happened to Arthur after he showed his father the sword. • Pupils should use these ideas to continue the poem’s story. More able pupils should be encouraged to write more stanzas for their poems than less able pupils. Review • As a class, pupils can share their poems.

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

ew

• In groups, share ideas for rhyming words that could be used in a different poem about King Arthur finding the sword. List the following words to start pupils off: sword: bored, lord, broad, roared, soared king: thing, ring, bring, ping, sing stone: alone, moan, bone, cone knight: night, light, fright, might, alright, bright, sight

Vi

• Pupils should use these words to write a different poem about Arthur finding the sword. More able pupils should be encouraged to write more stanzas for their poems than less able pupils. Review

• Pupils should present their poems neatly and share them with the class.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

15


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers Assessment

Word Reading C2

• The activities on page 19 focus on homophones, words starting with ‘kn’, words ending in ‘il’ and the suffixes ‘-ly’ and ‘-er’. Introduction • Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to find the two words ending in ‘-il’ and circle them (until, anvil).

Present the following list of words to the pupils and ask them to write a definition for each. squire, knight, king, sword, ancient, monument, lost, brave

C16

Ask the pupils to write a short summary of this legend in bullet points. Remind them to include the most important events, in the correct order.

WR3

Write the following word starts on the board. Pupils have to decide whether an ‘il’, ‘el’ or ‘le’ ending is needed to complete the word. They should create three lists.

Development

e

Teacher Information

il: penc, unt, foss, nostr le: tab, app, bott, litt, midd

Answers

Comprehension

1. (a) squire – a young nobleman attending to a knight before becoming a knight himself (b) monument – a statue, building or structure erected to commemorate an important person or event (c) ancient – something that has existed for a very long time (d) anvil – a heavy iron block on which metal can be hammered and shaped 2. Britons were natives or inhabitants of Great Britain./Celtic inhabitants of southern Britain before and during Roman times. 3. worried/anxious/upset/troubled 4. squire, knight 5. He got lost in the wood.

in g

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-er’. Tell pupils that this suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. kinder. Root words ending in ‘y’ need to change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding the suffix; e.g. happier. Root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. nicer.

m pl

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ly’. Explain to pupils that words ending in ‘-ly’ usually tell how or how often something is done. Explain that the suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. hourly, sadly. However root words ending in ‘-y’ with a consonant before it will need a spelling change; e.g. day/daily, happy/happily.

el: cam, tunn, squirr, trav, tow

sa

• Ensure pupils are familiar with the term ‘homophone’. Give some examples (see, sea; there, their; maid, made). Elicit some examples from the pupils. Pupils suggest sentences for pairs of homophones, to be written onto the board; for example, son/sun = My uncle has a son called Sam./The sun is shining brightly.

• The ‘kn’ and ‘il’ words in questions 2 and 3 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon. • Discuss the word reading activities on page 19, then allow pupils to complete the page independently.

ew

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

7. Answers may include: Arthur kept the sword to use; The sword was kept on display in the anvil. 8. Answers will vary. Word Reading

1. (a) knight (d) to

(b) knew (e) so

(c) through (f) wood

2. (a) kn-

(b) knew

(c) Teacher check

3. (a) il

(b) until

(c) Teacher check

4. (a) quickly

(b) suddenly, proudly

5. (a) muddier

(b) happier, lazier, heavier, funnier

Vi

• In pairs, pupils should find and list words that start with ‘kn’. Less able pupils could write some of the words in simple sentences. More able pupils could write homophones for some of the ‘kn’ words; for example, knead/need, know/no, knew/new, knight/night. They could then use the homophone word pairs in sentences; for example, To make bread you need to knead the dough.

6. No; Arthur was meant to find the sword in the stone so that he could become the king of the Britons.

Review

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of ‘kn’ words. Share some of their sentences.

16

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


The Sword in the Stone – 1

Text

Read the poem.

m pl

On this day, Arthur’s task was clear To fetch Kay’s sword and bring it near. But the path through the woods twisted and turned Until Arthur began to feel concerned.

e

One day a squire young and good Was lost while walking in the wood. Arthur was squire to his brother, Kay, A knight, so brave, most would say.

sa

He followed a muddy track in his search And, suddenly, came to an ancient church. At the front of the church, on a monument, stood A sword in an anvil as proudly as it could.

in g

Thinking that no-one around would care Arthur pulled out the sword as quickly as he dare. A nearby path looked quite familiar So Arthur raced back to Kay with a gift to deliver.

Vi

ew

When Kay and his father set eyes on the sword, They knew at once that Arthur was the chosen lord. So with one mighty tug of his squire’s hands Arthur became the true king of all the Britons’ lands.

When I read this poem, I could read: My learning log www.prim-ed.com

all of it. Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

17


The Sword in the Stone – 2

Comprehension

1. Match the words to their meanings. •

a statue, building or structure erected to commemorate an important person or event

(b) monument

something that has existed for a very long time

(c) ancient

a young nobleman attending to a knight before becoming a knight himself

(d) anvil

a heavy iron block on which metal can be hammered and shaped

m pl

e

(a) squire

3. Another word for ‘concerned’ is

sa

2. Britons were

. .

4. Which two occupations from the past are not jobs in the present time?

in g

5. What happened to lead Arthur to the sword in the stone?

6. Do you think it was just good luck that Arthur found the sword? No

Why?

ew

Yes

Vi

7. What do you think happened to the sword afterwards?

8. Write a word or phrase from the poem you really like.

My learning log

18

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


The Sword in the Stone – 3

Word Reading

1. Write a homophone for each word. (a) night

(b) new

(c) threw

(d) two

(e) sew

(f) would

2. (a) What do the words ‘knight’, ‘know’, ‘knock’ and ‘knee’ have in

m pl

(b) Find another word in the poem with these letters.

e

common?

(c) Write a sentence with two of these words.

3. (a) What do the words ‘anvil’, ‘pencil’, ‘fossil’ and ‘nostril’ have in

sa

common?

(b) Find another word in the poem with these letters. (c) Write a sentence with two of these words.

in g

4. (a) ‘Quick’ + ‘-ly’ =

(b) Which two other words from the poem that end in ‘-ly’?

ew

5. (a) Add ‘-er’ to the word ‘muddy’. (b) Add ‘-er’ to these words.

Vi

happy lazy heavy funny

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I can recognise homophones. I know words with ‘kn’ and ‘il’. I can add ‘-ly’ to ‘-er’ to words.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

19


The Hedley Kow

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C5 C7 C10 C15

• • • •

Perform simple information retrieval tasks Develop comprehension strategies Express a more formal response by giving a considered personal opinion of a [book] in oral or in written form Read a story and write it in his/her words

Comprehension

C9 C14 C16 C18

• • • •

Predict future events and outcomes in a [book] that is being read aloud Explore different attitudes and feelings by imagining what it would be like to be certain characters Read a narrative or expository piece and summarise it Write about favourite moments, characters and events in stories

Word Reading

WR3 WR4

• •

WR5

Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words Continue to build a sight vocabulary of common words from [books] read and from personal experience

m pl

e

Text

Additional Teacher Information

Folk tale A folk tale is a story passed from one generation to the next by word of mouth rather than being written down. A folk tale may include sayings, superstitions, social rituals, legends or lore about the weather, animals or plants.

Character A person in a novel, play or film.

folk tale phrase word text character letter

in g

Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

Terminology for Pupils

sa

Definition of Terms

sound sentence suffix adjective

Links to other Curriculum Areas

ew

Science – Materials: Properties and characteristics of materials – identify and investigate a range of common materials used in the immediate environment

Suggested Reading

• Listen to a version of the story at <http://www.highlightskids. com/audio-story/hedley-kow> • Hans in Luck by Paul Galdone

Vi

20

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• This folk tale is also known as ‘The Fairy Cow’. A similar tale is ‘Hans in Luck’ by the Brothers Grimm.

• Question 1 requires pupils to use their prior knowledge about fairy stories and folk tales.

• The village of Hedley is in Northumberland, northern England. The Hedley Kow was a mischievous sprite who could transform himself into any shape, including a cow, goat, horse, donkey, kindling, straw and so on, in order to play strange or funny tricks on people.

• Pupils might need a dictionary to complete question 2.

Introduction

Development

• Ask pupils to list the items the old woman saw in the bottom of the pot, from the first item to the last item. Write them on the board. Do the items increase or decrease in value?

• Pupils complete the comprehension activities on page 24 independently.

e

• Compare their answers to questions that may have varied answers, especially questions 5 and 6. Pupils should tell which four words they chose for question 6 and why they chose them. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

• At the end of the folk tale, the Hedley Kow was busy looking for someone else to play tricks on. Pupils should write about the Hedley Kow’s next trick using bullet points.

sa

Development

• Pupils take it in turns to retell ‘The Hedley Kow’ folk tale in their own words, sequencing the events correctly.

m pl

• Discuss the character of the old woman. What opinion of her do the pupils have? Do they think she is foolish for being so happy every time her find diminishes in value? What moral might there be to the tale? For example, To be content with what you have, That possessions don’t buy happiness.

Introduction

in g

• Read and discuss the text with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

• Less able pupils should write five or six bullet points and more able pupils at least twelve. • Pupils should share their ideas and/or stories in a small group. Review • As a class, compare pupils’ answers to question 5 as their answers will vary and will be interesting to compare.

ew

• During discussion of the text, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the text with others they have read or listened to.

Vi

• ‘Hans in Luck’ is a similar story. The character swaps his items for items of lesser value, but he too is happy; for example, he starts with a lump of silver which is too heavy, so he swaps it for a horse but he falls off, and so on. Read a version of this story to the pupils (there are several online). Discuss the similarities between the stories. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work • Pupils should write a story following the same pattern of items of a higher value changing/swapping to items of a lesser value. • Less able pupils could write a few sentences, with one sentence about each item, and draw illustrations. • More able pupils could write a story of several paragraphs, with each paragraph telling about the new item. Review • Pupils should share their work in a small group.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

21


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers

Word Reading

Assessment

Teacher Information • The activities on page 25 focus on words with ‘s’, ‘ar’, ‘ey’ and ‘ge’, and the suffixes ‘-ful’ and ‘-est’.

C9

Using their bullet-pointed ideas in the ‘Differentiated Work’ section, write a story about the Hedley Kow’s next trick.

C16

Ask the pupils to write a short review of the folk tale. The review needs to include a short synopsis of the tale and give the pupil’s opinion of it.

WR3

Call out (or write on the board) the following words and have pupils place them in two different grids, according to their ‘-dge’ or ‘-ge’ ending.

• Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to find the words ending in ‘-ful’ (cheerful) and ‘-est’ (luckiest).

e

Introduction

village, age, badge, huge, change, edge, bridge, fudge, charge, bulge, dodge, page

Development

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ful’. Tell pupils that this suffix means ‘full of’. Explain that the suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. careful, playful. However root words ending in ‘-y’ with a consonant before it will need a spelling change; e.g. plenty/plentiful, beauty/beautiful.

Comprehension

1. Once upon a time 2. (a) vessel

• Discuss the word reading activities on page 25, then allow pupils to complete the page independently.

(b) stout

(c) iron

(d) pennies

3. gold, silver, iron, stone

4. Answers may include: cheerful, grateful, content 5.–6. Answers will vary.

7. The Hedley Kow was able to change shape at will. 8. The materials were becoming less valuable in monetary terms. Word Reading

1. s

2. warmth, towards

in g

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-est’. Tell pupils that this suffix is used when comparing more than two things. Tell pupils that this suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. hardest. Root words ending in ‘y’ need to change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding the suffix; e.g. happiest. Root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. finest.

Answers

sa

• Explain to pupils that the letter ‘j’ is never used at the end of words, but the ‘j’ sound is spelt ‘dge’ or ‘ge’. After short vowels, ‘-dge’ is used; for example, badge, fudge, bridge. After all other sounds, ‘-ge’ is used; for example, change, village.

m pl

• The ‘s’, ‘ar’, ‘ey’ and ‘ge’ words in questions 1–4 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon.

3. key, chimney 4. (a) village

(b) Teacher check

5. (a) cheerful

(b) cheer

(c) Teacher check

6. (a) finest, busiest, luckiest, weariest

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

(b) Teacher check

ew

• In pairs, pupils should find and list words with the ‘-est’ suffix; for example, meanest, prettiest, nicest. They should then sort them according to how the suffix was added and place them in a table.

• Less able pupils should try and find five words for each column of the table, whilst more able pupils should find a lot more. Root words ending in ‘y’ change ‘y’ to ‘i’

Root words ending in ‘e’ drop the ‘e’

kindest, tallest, coldest, darkest, cleverest

luckiest, funniest, scariest, prettiest, happiest

nicest, wisest, whitest, strangest, finest

Vi

‘-est’ added straight onto end of root words

Review • Pupils should discuss their list of words. For which column of the table did they find the most and least words?

22

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


The Hedley Kow – 1

Text

Read the folk tale. Once upon a time, there was an old woman who was very poor. She had to work very hard in the village to earn a little silver to buy tea and food, but she was always cheerful.

m pl

e

One summer evening as she went home, she spied a stout, black pot lying by the side of the road. Thinking that it must have a hole to have been thrown away, she decided it would make the perfect vessel to hold her flowers. When she looked inside, gold coins gleamed brightly in the bottom of the pot. She felt very lucky to find a pot that had been thrown away. She continued on her way, dragging the pot. It didn’t take long, however, before she grew tired. When she set the pot down, and checked her treasure, the gold had changed into silver.

sa

‘Silver is much less trouble than gold’, she said to herself, ‘I’m still as rich as I need to be. Yes! Silver is fine instead!’ So she went on her way. In a short time, when she stopped to rest, the silver in the pot had become a chunk of iron.

in g

‘I am so lucky! No robbers will worry me now!’ said the old woman. ‘Iron is much better. It will sell for some pennies.’ In the dark, she went on her way. Soon she was weary again. She set the pot down and noticed that the chunk of iron had changed into a stone.

ew

‘This is such a fine stone’, she stated cheerfully, ‘I can use it to hold my door open!’ Finally, she reached home. She set the pot down and opened the gate. Suddenly, the Hedley Kow burst out of the pot and ran away laughing and dancing.

Vi

‘I am the luckiest creature to see such a sight!’ she said. By the warmth of her fire, she thought about how fortunate she was. The Hedley Kow, of course, was busy looking for someone else to play tricks on! When I read this folk tale, I could read:

My learning log

www.prim-ed.com

all of it.

Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

some of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

23


The Hedley Kow â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2

Comprehension

1. Which common phrase begins this folk tale?

2. Which word in the text means: (a) a hollow container for holding liquid or other materials? v s

e

(b) strong and thick?

(c) strong, hard, grey metal? i p

m pl

(d) small sums of money?

3. In the correct order, write the materials as they appeared in the pot.

sa

4. How would you describe the character of the old woman?

in g

5. What do you think happened to the pot?

ew

6. Write four interesting words from the text.

Vi

7. What unusual talent did the Hedley Kow have?

8. How were the materials in the pot changing each time?

My learning log 24

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


The Hedley Kow – 3

Word Reading

1. Underline the letter in the middle of each word that has the same sound as the other words. treasure

television

usual

2. Circle the two words with the same sound spelt ‘ar’ after ‘w’ like ‘towards’ and ‘war’. who

work

towards

woman

away

e

warmth

3. Underline two words that end with the same sound spelt ‘-ey’ like ‘Hedley’. cheerfully

key

chimney

lucky

m pl

busily

4. (a) Which word in the text, ending in ‘-ge’, has the same sound as ‘age’ and ‘changed’? It means ‘a group of houses smaller than a town’.

sa

(b) Write this word in a sentence. 5. (a) ‘Cheer’ + ‘-ful’ =

’.

in g

(b) The word ‘cheerful’ means ‘full of (c) Write the word ‘cheerful’ in a sentence.

ew

6. (a) Add ‘-est’ to these words to make new adjectives. Read the new words.

Vi

fine busy lucky weary

(b) Write one of these ‘-est’ words in a sentence.

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I can read words with ‘ar’, ‘ey’ and ‘ge’. I know how to add ‘-ful’ to words. I can add ‘-est’ to words to create adjectives.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

25


Woodland Habitats

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C2 C4 C12

• • •

Adapt his/her reading style for different purposes Find information and share it with others Engage with a variety of texts

Comprehension

C6 C8 C19

• • •

Adopt an active approach to a text by posing his/her own questions Perform alphabetical order tasks Explore new interests and perspectives through reading

Word Reading

WR2 WR3 WR4

• • •

Learn about the sounds associated with the beginning of a word or syllable Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words

m pl

Additional Teacher Information

Links to other Curriculum Areas

• Geography – Natural environment: The local natural environment – identify, explore and discuss aspects of some major natural features in the local environment

Vi

ew

• Science – Living things : Plants and animals - observe, identify and explore a variety of living things in local habitats and environments

26

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

report word

phrase text syllable singular noun

in g

Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

Terminology for Pupils

sa

Definition of Terms Report A report is a written document describing the findings of an individual or group. A report may take the form of a newspaper report, sports or police report, or a report about an animal, person or object.

e

Text

plural suffix letter sentence sound compound word

Suggested Reading • The ABCs of Habitats (ABCs of the Natural World) by Bobbie Kalman • Habitats, Grades 1–3 by Jo Ellen Moore (This workbook provides a variety of interesting information and activities for pupils and teachers.) • The Woodland Book: 101 Ways to Play, Investigate, Watch Wildlife and have Adventures in the Woods by Tessa Wardley

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• Woodlands and forests make up about 10% of the land area of Ireland. Each one is unique, being influenced by the soil, climate, geology and history.

• Question 1 on page 30 requires the pupils to summarise the main information provided in the text, so they can see how they relate to each other. • Pupils may need a dictionary to complete question 2.

• Provide colour images of woodland habitats and the plants and animals found in them. Have the pupils seen any of these plants or animals in the wild? • Is there a woodland near the school? Have the pupils visited it? What did they see and do there? Development

• Pupils talk about any woodland experiences they have had. Discuss whether they have seen any of the plants or animals listed in the four bullet points. • Talk about why woodlands are important. What would happen if woodlands disappeared? Development

• Remind pupils how to use a dictionary efficiently; i.e. alphabetical order and retrieval by 1st, 2nd and 3rd letters. Give each pupil, or pair of pupils, a dictionary. Write words from the text onto the board for pupils to find.

in g

sa

• Read and discuss the text with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

Introduction

e

• Diagrams are important ways of relaying information that pupils should become familiar with. Discuss the diagram included with the text. Do the pupils think that it aids understanding of the text? Why/Why not?

m pl

Introduction

• During discussion of the text, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the text with others they have read or listened to.

• Discuss the comprehension activities on page 30, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work • Pupils create a glossary for some of the more technical vocabulary in the report; for example, habitat, natural, environment, woodland, seashore, ocean, rainforest, conifer, broadleaf, shelter, canopy, insect, aphid, fungi, understorey, shrub, mammal, invertebrate, field, bramble, gorse, bee, butterfly, moss, decay, caterpillar, herb, mushroom. • Less able pupils could create a glossary for six words, more able pupils for all the words. Review

• Pupils should choose one of the animals listed in the four bullet points.

• As a class, compare pupils’ definitions of the words. Which words were the hardest and easiest to define?

ew

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

• Less able pupils could draw a picture of the animal and label the names of its main parts.

Vi

• More able pupils could draw a picture of the animal and provide more detailed annotation. Review

• Pupils should share their work in a small group.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

27


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers Assessment

Word Reading C2

• The activities on page 31 focus on syllables, compound words, plurals and words containing ‘al’ and ‘all’.

ocean, shelter, insect, fungi, bramble, motorway

C4

Ask the pupils to research more information about the animal they drew in the ‘Differentiated Work’ section. Using nonfiction reference books and the Internet, ask them to find some facts about this animal to present as a short report. For example, what food the animal eats, whether it is nocturnal, if it hibernates or migrates for winter, whether it lays eggs or has live babies, how long it lives for.

WR2

Present the following list of words to the pupils and ask them to sort them according to the number of syllables they contain.

m pl

Introduction • Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to find and underline words containing ‘al’ and ‘all’ (natural, animals, special, mammals, tall, smaller, small, fallen). Development

information, text, describe, layer, plant, animals, caterpillar, variety, bees, destroyed, habitat, small, different, underneath, environment, farming

• Ensure pupils are familiar with the term ‘compound word’. Give some examples (football, handbag, sunglasses). Elicit some examples from the pupils. Pupils should present the compound words as addition sums with illustrations; for example, butter (

) + fly (

) = butterfly (

Answers

)

• Discuss how singular nouns ending in ‘y’ need to change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding ‘-es’. Find a singular noun in the diagram, ending in ‘y’, and make it plural (canopy). Pupils should be told that words ending with the /i:/ sound spelt ‘-ey’ always have their plurals formed by adding an ‘-s’. For example, it is ‘understoreys’ rather than ‘understories’.

1. Answers may include: a definition/explanation of a habitat, a definition/explanation of a woodland, the layers of a woodland, the plants and animals that live in the layers of a woodland, differences between woodland habitats, what is happening to woodlands. 2. … a natural environment (home) for a variety of plants and animals. 3.–5. Answers will vary.

in g

• The ‘al’ and ‘all’ words in questions 4 and 5 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon.

Comprehension

sa

Present the following list of words to the pupils and ask them to write a definition for each.

e

Teacher Information

• Discuss the word reading activities on page 31, then allow pupils to complete the page independently.

6. (a) Answers may include: damp, wet, dark, muddy

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

7. The plants and animals might disappear.

• Pupils should find and list words from the text with the following amounts of syllables: one, two, three and four.

Review

ew

• Less able pupils should find three words for each syllable count. More able pupils should find between five and ten.

Vi

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of words. Which of the syllable counts has the greatest number of words?

28

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

(b) The plants and animals need the conditions provided by the layer to survive (find food, breathe etc.)

Word Reading

1. (a) en/vi/ron/ment (d) un/der/sto/rey

(b) hab/i/tat (c) can/o/py (e) in/ver/te/brates

2. (a) woodlands (d) butterfly

(b) toadstools (e) wildflowers

3. (a) canopies

(b) varieties

4. (a) al

(b) special, natural

(c) rainforest (f) seashore

5. (a) tall, smaller, small, fallen (b) Teacher check

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Woodland Habitats – 1

Text

Read the report. A habitat is a natural environment or home of a variety of plants and animals. There are a variety of different habitats like woodlands, seashore, ocean or rainforest. Each one is special.

e

A woodland is a habitat made up mostly of trees. The two main types of woodland habitats are those made up of conifers (fir trees) and those made up of broadleaf trees.

m pl

Woodland habitats have a number of layers that provide food and shelter for many different animals. • The top layer is a canopy of tall trees that overlap and link together. Many birds, insects like aphids and leaf miners, and fungi are found in the canopy.

in g

• The field layer has wildflowers, grasses, brambles and gorse. Small animals, bees, butterflies and other insects can be found in the field layer.

Top Layer

sa

• The understorey, or shrub layer, is made up of smaller trees. Nesting birds, small mammals, insects and other invertebrates (animals without a backbone) are found in the shrub layer.

Understorey

Field Layer Ground Layer

ew

• The ground layer is made up of mosses, liverwort, ferns, grasses, herbs, mushrooms and toadstools, fallen and decaying wood, and leaf litter. Insects, caterpillars and other invertebrates are found in the ground layer.

Vi

The layers, plants and animals in a woodland are different. The amount of light coming through the canopy affects the plants that can grow in the layers underneath. Sometimes the canopy is very widespread so more plants can grow down below. The more plants there are, the more animals can be found. Woodlands have been neglected or cleared for farming, cities and motorways. Many woodland animals have lost their habitats. It is very important to save these very special habitats. When I read this report, I could read:

My learning log

www.prim-ed.com

all of it.

Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

29


Woodland Habitats – 2

Comprehension

1. In words or short phrases, write three pieces of information from the text. • • •

e

2. The word ‘habitat’ means .

m pl

3. Write a list of six plants and/or animals you knew before reading the text.

sa

4. Write a list of four plants and/or animals that you did not know before reading the text.

ew

in g

5. Choose one plant or animal from question 4 and write a question that will give you more information about it.

6. (a) Describe what it would be like in the ground layer.

Vi

(b) Why would plants or animals like living in this layer?

7. What might happen if woodlands were destroyed?

My learning log

30

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


Woodland Habitats – 3

Word Reading

1. Write each word with a slash (/) to separate the syllables. (a) environment (b) habitat (c) canopy

e

(d) understorey

m pl

(e) invertebrates 2. Join the pairs of words to make compound words.

(b) toad + stools =

(c) rain + forest =

(d) butter + fly =

(e) wild + flowers =

(f) sea + shore =

sa

(a) wood + lands =

3. (a) Change the singular noun ‘canopy’ to plural (more than one) by

adding ‘-es’. (You need to change a letter.)

variety

in g

(b) Add ‘-es’ to this other word from the text.

4. (a) What two letters are used to spell the sound ‘l’ in ‘animal’ and

ew

‘mammal’?

(b) Find and write two other words in the text that end in these two letters.

5. (a) Find and write four words in the text with the ‘or’ sound spelt ‘all’.

Vi

(b) Write a sentence using two of these words.

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I can divide some words into syllables. I know what a compound word is. I can read words containing ‘al’ and ‘all’.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

31


Wally Woodlouse’s Adventure

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C1 C3 C15

• • •

Develop reading skills through engaging with reading material appropriate to his/her stage of development Read aloud to share a text with an audience Read a story and write it in his/her words

Comprehension

C5 C7 C17

• • •

Perform simple information retrieval tasks Develop comprehension strategies Write a list of questions about a particular topic and prioritise them

Word Reading

WR3 WR4

• •

WR5

Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words Continue to build a sight vocabulary of common words from [books] read and from personal experience

m pl

Additional Teacher Information

Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form. Title The name of a book, composition or other artistic work.

Links to other Curriculum Areas

word phrase sentence title

apostrophe contraction text suffix

Suggested Reading

• Woodlice (Creepy Critters) by Sian Smith

• Archie’s Lucky Escape – Woodlice World by Patrick Caruth • Archie and Pam’s Flying Adventure (Woodlice World) by Patrick Caruth

Vi

ew

• Science – Living things : Plants and animals - observe, identify and explore a variety of living things in local habitats and environments

narrative

punctuation mark

in g

Contraction A shortened form of a word or group of words; e.g. ‘they’re’ is a contraction of ‘they are’.

Terminology for Pupils

sa

Definition of Terms Narrative A spoken or written account of connected events; a story.

e

Text

32

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• This narrative provides information about woodlice in a microhabitat (a very small habitat such as under stones, logs or leaf litter). Teachers should question pupils about what they learnt about woodlice while reading the story.

• Pupils might need a dictionary to complete question 7.

Development

• Discuss the comprehension activities on page 36, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Compare their answers to questions that may have varied answers, especially question 8. Pupils should tell why they chose their phrase or sentence. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

• Pupils write a list of information the text gives about woodlice; for example, woodlice have smooth, grey heads, woodlice sleep during the day. • Pupils should share their lists in a small group.

sa

• Read and discuss the text with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

Development

e

• Ask pupils if they have ever seen or held a woodlouse. What did the woodlouse look like? How big was it? Could they see its segmented body? How did it feel on their hand? Where did they see the woodlouse? Was it alone or with other woodlice?

• Pupils take it in turns to retell the narrative in their own words, sequencing the events correctly.

m pl

Introduction

Introduction

• As a class, share their lists of information about woodlice. What else do they know about woodlice, not in the text, that could be added to the list?

in g

• During discussion of the text, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others.

Review

• List the dangers that Wally faced during his night-time adventure. What might have happened to him if he had been unlucky? Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

ew

• Write a poem about woodlice, using the information in the narrative and information they already knew. • Less able pupils could write a few words or phrases about woodlice in an outline shape of a woodlouse. • More able pupils could write a poem of several stanzas, perhaps including rhyme.

Vi

Review

• Pupils should share their work in a small group.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

33


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers Assessment

Word Reading C3

Have pupils come up individually and read a paragraph of the text. Note as part of the assessment how well they handle tone, intonation and word recognition.

C17

Ask the pupils to write a short report about woodlice, based on the information in the narrative and other known facts. The report should include information on what woodlice look like, where they live, what they eat and dangers/predators they face.

WR4

Write the following words on the board and have pupils write their contractions.

• The activities on page 37 focus on apostrophes, contractions, words with ‘le’ and ‘ey’, and the suffix ‘-ing’. Introduction • Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to underline any words or phrases that tell what a woodlouse looks like. Development

e

Teacher Information

are not, have not, could not, he will, you will, they will, it is, you are, where is, they would, we had, we are

m pl

• Ensure pupils are familiar with the term ‘apostrophe’. Explain that this punctuation mark has two uses: ~ possession: to show that something belongs to somebody or something; for example, Wally’s adventure. ~ contraction: to show that two words have joined and letters have been omitted; for example, are not = aren’t.

• Pupils should be told that words ending with the /i:/ sound spelt ‘-ey’ always have their plurals formed by adding an ‘-s’. For example, it is ‘donkeys’ rather than ‘donkies’. • Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ing’. Tell pupils that this suffix is used to express the action of a verb. Tell pupils that this suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. feeding. However, root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. having, coming.

Comprehension

1. At night-time, it was cool, dark and damp, so Wally was able to come out and feed.

2. If Wally came out during the day, he would dry out in the sun and die, or be eaten by predators.

sa

• The ‘le’ and ‘ey’ words in questions 4 and 5 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon.

Answers

3. If Wally did not keep his body damp, he would not be able to breathe and he would die. 4. A woodlouse is grey. It has a smooth, rounded head and a body made up of a head, thorax and abdomen. It has seven pairs of legs and two pairs of antennae. 5. nocturnal 6. night-time, Suddenly, After a short time, Every time, Sometimes, Soon

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

7. (a) micro-habitat (b) antennae

in g

• Discuss the word reading activities on page 37, then allow pupils to complete the page independently.

ew

• Pupils should find and list words with an ‘-ing’ suffix; for example, decaying, hiding. Then they should sort them according to their ‘-ing’ ending.

• More able pupils should produce a longer list than less able pupils. The ‘e’ is dropped before adding ‘-ing’

decaying, feeding, bothering

having, breathing, hiding, coming

Vi

‘-ing’ added to root word with no spelling change

Review

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of ‘-ing’ words.

34

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

8. Answers will vary. Word Reading

1. Teacher check 2. (a) apostrophe (b) The apostrophe shows that the owner of the adventure is Wally Woodlouse. (c) Wally’s 3. (a) are not

(b) couldn’t

4. (a) They all end with the letters ‘-le’ for the ‘l’ sound. (b) impossible, little, nibble (c) Teacher check 5. (a) journey, mousey

(b) ey

6. (a) hurrying (c) carrying

(b) venturing (d) coming

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Wally Woodlouse’s Adventure – 1

Text

Read the narrative text. Wally Woodlouse poked his smooth, grey head out from under the leaves and looked around. The dark, damp, dead leaves and decaying matter provided a cool place to live and a good food source.

e

It was night-time. The air was cool and damp. It was the best time for feeding and having adventures.

m pl

Wally came out from his micro-habitat. Seven pairs of legs carried his smooth, rounded body over the ground. Wally’s two pairs of antennae wiggled in the dark. They helped him feel and smell his way around.

Over squishy berries, under a log and around a stone, Wally clambered. He stopped frequently to dampen his body in dew and wet leaf litter. It was important to keep damp because otherwise breathing would be impossible. A woodlouse who dried out died very quickly.

sa

Wally’s head, thorax and abdomen formed a smooth outline as he moved carefully from one hiding place to the next. Woodlice aren’t the only nocturnal creatures active at night!

in g

Suddenly, a nasty toad lumbered out from a nearby shrub. Wally stopped and slid quietly beneath a rock. Pesky toads! They were always bothering innocent woodlice when they venture out at night! Life in a woodland could be very dangerous for a little woodlouse having a night-time adventure.

ew

After a short time, the toad jumped away and Wally moved on. Ground beetles, centipedes, spiders and a mousey shrew passed close to Wally. Every time, Wally crept into a hiding place until they had passed by. Sometimes, Wally stopped to nibble on leaves and mangled fruit. He needed to continue his journey.

Vi

Soon, the darkness lightened and Wally knew morning was coming. He hurried back to his home in the undergrowth to sleep and think about his adventure. He couldn’t wait for the next one!

When I read this narrative, I could read: My learning log

www.prim-ed.com

all of it.

Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

35


Wally Woodlouse’s Adventure – 2

Comprehension

1. Why did Wally come out of his hiding place at night-time?

e

2. What would happen to Wally if he had to feed during the day?

m pl

3. What would happen if Wally did not keep his body damp?

sa

4. What does a woodlouse look like?

5. What word describes an animal who sleeps during the day and feeds at night?

in g

6. Copy three phrases that describe when or how events happened.

ew

7. Which word means:

(a) a very small habitat? (b) long, thin sensory organs on the heads of creatures like woodlice?

Vi

8. Copy a sentence or phrase that you like from the text.

My learning log 36

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


Wally Woodlouse’s Adventure – 3

Word Reading

1. Circle the ‘tricky’ parts of these words. passed

his

he

every

was

grey

nasty

2. (a) The punctuation mark in the title is called an

.

(b) What does it do?

the same reason?

m pl

e

(c) What other word from the text has the same punctuation mark, for

3. (a) Write the shortened word ‘aren’t’ as two words. (b) Write another shortened word from the text. 4. (a) What do the words ‘wriggle’, ‘beetle’ and ‘mangle’ have in common?

sa

(b) Find and write three more words in the text that have this.

in g

(c) Write a sentence using two of these words.

5. (a) Underline the two words in the box that have the same sound at the end as ‘valley’ and ‘monkey’.

ew

journey quietly

by grey

way every

they mousey

always nearby

(b) What do these words have in common?

Vi

6. Make other words like ‘hiding’ by adding ‘-ing’. (a) hurry

(b) venture

(c) carry

(d) come

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I can recognise apostrophes for ownership and contraction. I can read words containing ‘le’ and ‘ey’. I know about ‘-ing’.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

37


Hey, Tiny Fly!

Assessment

m pl

e

Read the argument.

Hey, tiny fly, hopelessly caught in my trap! You’re my next meal so don’t bother to flap!

Fly

I’m begging you with all my energy! Please don’t eat me! I have many babies and they all need me you see!

Spider

That’s a huge lie! Everyone knows that flies don’t care. They’re annoying pests that get tangled in your hair.

Fly

I’m begging you with all my energy! Please don’t eat me! I’m way too small to make a nice mouthful or be tasty!

Spider

You may be a little small while I am much bigger. But flies are an important part of my usual dinner!

Fly

I may be pesky but I have my worth. I have my uses. Every day I clean up everyone’s garbage and messes.

Spider

No-one I know will utter a cry if I swallow you. I’ve seen the droppings left behind when you’re through.

Fly

In the insect kingdom, I’m a sight to behold. My wings are beautiful and my eyes unusual, I’m told.

Spider

That may be the case, but I have heard it said. That the buzzing of flies’ wings is really annoying instead.

Fly

I think you’re forgetting how special flies are! With my sticky feet, I can hang upside down from a bar.

Vi

ew

in g

sa

Spider

We’ll leave the story there before it ends. Should the spider eat the fly? Who will you defend? 38

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Name:

Class:

Date:

Hey, Tiny Fly!

Assessment – Comprehension

e

1. Why was the fly arguing with the spider?

1 mark

3. Tick the fact about flies that is NOT true.

m pl

2. Look at the two lines beginning ‘That’s a huge lie …’. Find and copy a word from the two lines that means ‘irritating’.

1 mark

sa

(a) Flies have sticky feet so they can hang upside down. (b) Flies care for their young after the eggs are laid. 4. Circle the correct answer.

1 mark

in g

The arguments between the spider and the fly are written as: (a) a story.

(b) a poem.

1 mark

5. Find and copy a word that rhymes with each word below.

ew

(a) care

(b) you

1 mark

6. The word ‘behold’ means: see

Vi

insect

carry

1 mark

7. Do you think the spider will eat the fly for dinner? Yes Explain your answer.

No

Total for this page www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

1 mark

/7 39


Name:

Class:

Date:

Hey, Tiny Fly!

Assessment – Word Reading

1. Tick a box below. The word ‘energy’ has one

two

syllables.

three

.

4. The ending on the word ‘sticky’ is: -es

-ly

1 mark

m pl

3. One fly. Many

e

2. Find a ‘kn’ word that makes the ‘n’ sound.

-ed

1 mark

1 mark

-y

1 mark

sa

5. Match the shortened word to the two words that make it. (a) you’re •

• I have

(b) I’ve

• you are

1 mark

in g

6. Circle what needs to be added to ‘mess’ to make ‘more than one mess’. -y -es -ing -ly

1 mark

7. Tick the word that is closest in meaning to ‘energy’. power

ew

kingdom

insect

1 mark

8. Which words, in the last four lines, are homophones for: (a) eye?

Vi

(b) bee?

(c) herd?

1 mark

Total for this page 40

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

/8

Total for this assessment

Prim-Ed Publishing

/15

www.prim-ed.com


Assessment – Teacher Information

Hey, Tiny Fly! Genre: Poem Breakdown of question type/content and mark allocation Comprehension

Word Reading 1 mark

Q 1. Syllables

1 mark

Q 2. Understanding words

1 mark

Q 2. ‘kn’ words

1 mark

Q 3. Recognising facts

1 mark

Q 3. Singular and plural

1 mark

Q 4. Understanding genre features

1 mark

Q 4. Suffix ‘-y’

1 mark

Q 5. Recognising rhyming words

1 mark

Q 5. Contractions

Q 6. Understanding words

1 mark

Q 6. Suffix ‘-es’

Q 7. Predicting

1 mark

Q 7. Word meanings

1 mark

Q 8. Homophones

1 mark

1 mark 1 mark

m pl

Sub-total

e

Q 1. Inferring

Sub-total

Assessment Answers

sa

Record the pupil’s total result for this assessment.

Assessment – Hey, Tiny Fly! Comprehension .................................................................... Page 39

Word Reading ...................................................................... Page 40

1. three

2. annoying

2. knows

in g

1. The fly was trying to convince the spider not to eat him or her. 3. (b) Flies care for their young after the eggs are laid.

3. flies

4. (b) a poem

4. -y

5. (a) hair (b) through 6. see

(b) I’ve – I have 6. -es 7. power 8. (a) I (b) be (c) heard

Vi

ew

7. Answers will vary.

5. (a) you’re – you are

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

41


The Mermaid of Zennor

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C1 C3 C9 C18

• • • •

Develop reading skills through engaging with reading material appropriate to his/her stage of development Read aloud to share a text with an audience Predict future events and outcomes in a [book] that is being read aloud Write about favourite moments, characters and events in stories

Comprehension

C8 C14 C15 C16

• • • •

Perform alphabetical order tasks Explore different attitudes and feelings by imagining what it would be like to be certain characters Read a story and write it in his/her own words Read a narrative or expository piece and summarise it

Word Reading

WR3 WR4

• •

Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words

m pl

e

Text

Additional Teacher Information

Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

Links to other Curriculum Areas

event word phrase text

apostrophe sentence sound letter verb suffix

Suggested Reading

• The Mermaid of Zennor by Charles Causley • Magic and Mischief: Tales from Cornwall by Shirley Climo

Vi

ew

• Geography – Natural environments – identify, explore and discuss aspects of some major natural features in the local environment

legend

homophone

in g

Legend Legends are told as though the events were actual historical events. Legends may or may not be based on an elaborated version of an historical event. Legends are usually about human beings, although gods may intervene in some way throughout the story.

Terminology for Pupils

sa

Definition of Terms

42

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• Zennor is a village and parish in Cornwall, England. A wooden bench, with a beautifully carved image of a mermaid on the end, can be seen in the church of St. Senara in Zennor. The bench is believed to be the same bench where the mermaid sat (while in human form) to listen to Matthew sing. It is often referred to as ‘The Mermaid’s Chair’.

• Pupils might need a dictionary to complete question 3.

Introduction

Development

• Help the pupils to locate Zennor and Pendour Cove on a map. Use Google Maps™ to allow pupils to view the church of St. Senara in Zennor.

• Discuss possible answers to questions 5–8 as they may vary.

e

• Remind pupils how to use a dictionary efficiently; i.e. alphabetical order and retrieval by 1st, 2nd and 3rd letters. Give each pupil, or pair of pupils, a dictionary. Write words from the text onto the board for pupils to find. • Discuss the comprehension activities on page 46, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

sa

• Read the legend with the pupils as a whole class, and discuss it with them to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

• Reread the legend. Ask pupils to focus on the sequence of events. Ask them to discuss the order of events in the legend.

m pl

Development

Introduction

in g

• During discussion of the legend, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the legend to others they have read or listened to.

• Pupils summarise the legend using bullet points. • Less able pupils could summarise the legend in six bullet points, whilst more able pupils could summarise in ten bullet points. Review

• As a class, compare pupils’ answers to question 7, as their answers will vary and will be interesting to compare. How do they know these things about mermaids? Have they read books or seen films? Which ones?

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

ew

• Pupils continue the legend. Perhaps the mermaid became entangled in a fishing net; perhaps Matthew came back to visit Zennor. Pupils should share ideas as a class before writing. • Less able pupils could write a few sentences and draw an illustration.

• More able pupils could write several paragraphs, in the style of the legend.

Vi

Review

• Pupils should share their work in a small group.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

43


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers Assessment

Word Reading Teacher Information

C9

• The activities on page 47 focus on homophones, the soft ‘c’ sound and the suffixes ‘-ed’ and ‘-es’.

Ask the pupils to state whether they think the mermaid and Matthew lived happily ever after. They should support their answer with evidence from the text.

C18

Ask the pupils to write a list of things they know about mermaids, drawing on the text and things they already knew. They should include what they look like, where they live and what they do.

WR4

Write the following homophone pairs on the board and have pupils write a sentence containing each.

• Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to find words with the soft ‘c’ sound and circle them (voice, voices, entranced, trace, entrance).

e

Introduction

here/hear, see/sea, blue/blew, sun/son, be/bee

• Ensure pupils are familiar with the term ‘homophone’. Give some examples (see, sea; there, their; maid, made). Elicit some examples from the pupils. Pupils suggest sentences for pairs of homophones, to be written onto the board; for example, son/sun = My uncle has a son called Sam./The sun is shining brightly.

m pl

Development

Answers

Comprehension

1. Answers may include meeting the young woman or hearing her voice for the first time. 2. beautiful, voice of an angel, sweet, glorious 3. (a) pew (c) bond

• The soft ‘c’ sound is used before the letters e, i and y; for example, race, city, fancy. There are some exceptions.

4. Long ago

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-es’. This suffix is added to nouns and verbs. Explain that root words ending in ‘-y’ with a consonant before it will need a spelling change; e.g. hurry/ hurries, baby/babies.

5. The villagers could see they had formed a special bond. 6. Answers may include: Matthew was concentrating on his singing./He had not heard the young woman sing before./The young woman sat at the back of the church and crept away. 7. Answers may be similar to the following but may also include additional information from the pupils: Mermaids are beautiful young women who live in the sea. They can become human and walk on the land. They can sing beautifully and can entrance humans.

in g

• Discuss the word reading activities on page 47, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

• In pairs, pupils should find and list words with the soft ‘c’ sound.

(b) entranced (d) alarmed

sa

• The soft ‘c’ words in question 4 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phoneme focused upon.

8. … happily ever after. Word Reading

1. (a) hear (c) see (e) been

(b) missed (d) fate (f) know

Review

2. (a) knot (c) so, see

(b) know

3. (a) voice

(b) voice

4. (a) soft c

(b) trace, entrance

ew

• More able pupils could look at their lists of words and see if they can make up a rule for when the sound is soft (i.e. when the ‘c’ is used before the letters ‘e’, ‘i’ and ‘y’).

5. hurries

Vi

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of soft ‘c’ words.

44

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


The Mermaid of Zennor – 1

Text

Read the legend. Long ago, in the village of Zennor, there lived a handsome young man with a beautiful voice. His name was Matthew Trewhella. Every Sunday evening, when he sang in church, everyone loved listening to his voice. They said he had the voice of an angel.

m pl

e

One spring Sunday evening, while Matthew was singing, a beautiful young woman dressed in fine clothes slipped silently into a pew at the back of the church. After the singing finished, she slipped just as silently away. Every Sunday evening, the young woman returned to the village church. She stayed to hear Matthew sing, and then crept away.

sa

One evening, while Matthew was singing, another voice joined Matthew’s as he sang. The two voices filled the church with such sweet music that everyone was astonished. Finally, Matthew turned to see who was singing. When his eyes met those of the young woman, he became instantly entranced. When the singing ended, the young woman left the church. Matthew quickly followed. Eventually, by the banks of a stream, the two met. The villagers, realising that the two had formed a special bond, left them alone and went home.

in g

The following morning, the villagers were alarmed to discover that Matthew had not returned home. They carefully searched the bogs and woods, but no trace of Matthew was found.

Vi

ew

One day in spring, the following year, a fisherman came to the Trewhella family to give them news. He told how he had been fishing off Pendour Cove when a mermaid called to him. She asked him politely if he could move his anchor because it was blocking the entrance to the cave. In the cave her baby and beloved Matthew were waiting for her. After moving his boat, the fisherman hurried back to the harbour at Zennor. He was eager to share with Matthew’s family what he had learnt about Matthew’s fate. Although Matthew was greatly missed by all, everyone was pleased to know he was so happy. Sometimes, in the evening, the villagers believe they can still hear two glorious voices floating along with the sound of the wind and waves. When I read this legend, I could read: My learning log

www.prim-ed.com

all of it.

Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

some of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

45


The Mermaid of Zennor – 2

Comprehension

1. What event changed Matthew’s life?

2. Using words and phrases from the text, describe Matthew’s singing.

p

(b) filled with wonder and delight?

e

(c) feelings that join people?

b

(d) frightened, scared?

a

4. Which phrase or words begin this legend?

m pl

(a) a long bench in a church?

e

3. What word means:

sa

5. Why weren’t the villagers worried when they saw Matthew talking to the young woman after church?

in g

6. Why didn’t Matthew notice the young woman when she first came to the church?

ew

Vi

7. Using information in the text, and other information you know, describe mermaids.

8. Matthew and the mermaid probably lived . My learning log

46

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


The Mermaid of Zennor – 3

Word Reading

1. Which word from the text is a homophone for each word below? (a) here

(b) mist

(c) sea

(d) fete

(e) bean

(f) no

e

2. Circle the correct homophone in each sentence.

m pl

(a) Kazim had a not / knot in his laces. (b) Do you know / no the man in the green cap?

(c) Mum was sew / so happy to see / sea her son.

3. (a) Write the word missing from this part of the sentence. … another voice joined Matthew’s

sa

as he sang.

(b) The apostrophe shows that Matthew owns the

.

4. (a) What sound does the letter ‘c’ make in the word ‘voice’?

in g

(b) Underline the two words with the same sound. church clothes such crept

entrance

music

trace cave

ew

5. The verb ‘hurry’ has been changed to ‘hurried’ by changing the ‘y’ to ‘i’ and adding ‘-ed’.

Vi

Write a new verb for ‘hurry’ by adding ‘-es’.

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I know which homophone to use. I can recognise the soft ‘c’ sound. I know to change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding ‘-ed’ or ‘-es’.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

47


Whuppity Stoorie

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C2 C12 C16

• • •

Adapt his/her reading style for different purposes Engage with a wide variety of text Read a narrative or expository piece and summarise it

Comprehension

C7 C8 C9 C10

• • • •

Develop comprehension strategies Perform alphabetical order tasks Predict future events and outcomes in a [book] that is being read aloud Express a more formal response by giving a considered personal opinion of a [book] in oral or in written form

Word Reading

WR2 WR3 WR4

• • •

Learn about the sounds associated with the beginning of a word or syllable Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words

m pl

e

Text

Additional Teacher Information

Fairy tale A fairy tale is a short story usually featuring fantasy characters such as elves, dragons, hobgoblins, sprites or magical beings. It is often set in the distant past. A fairy tale usually begins with the phrase ‘Once upon a time …’ and ends with the words ‘… and they lived happily ever after’. Charms, disguises and talking animals may also appear in a fairy tale.

Vi

ew

Contraction A shortened form of a word or group of words; e.g. ‘they’re’ is a contraction of ‘they are’.

48

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

fairy tale poem phrase question event word sound

in g

Poem A piece of writing in which the expression of feelings and ideas is given intensity by particular attention to diction (sometimes involving rhyme), rhythm and imagery.

Terminology for Pupils

sa

Definition of Terms

letter sentence syllable contraction apostrophe verb suffix

Suggested Reading • Rumpelstiltskin (Folk Tale Classics) by Paul Galdone • Whuppity Stoorie by Carolyn White • Tom Tit Tot by Evaline Ness

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• ‘Whuppity Stoorie’ or ‘Whippitie Stourie’ is a Scottish fairy tale. Other tales which are very similar include English and Irish tales such as ‘Rumpelstiltskin’ and ‘Tom Tit Tot’.

• Pupils may need a dictionary to complete questions 1, 2 and 3.

Introduction

• Ask pupils to discuss whether they like the poem. Which part of the poem is their favourite and why?

• Discuss the meaning of some of the trickier vocabulary in the poem: possession, chubby, sow, claim, widow, quarry, spinning, precious, prize, worthy.

Development

Development

e

• Discuss the comprehension activities on page 52, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

• Ask pupils to imagine what might have happened if the widow had not guessed Whuppity Stoorie’s name. What would have happened to the baby? How might the widow have been able to stop this happening?

sa

• Read and discuss the text with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

• Remind pupils how to use a dictionary efficiently; i.e. alphabetical order and retrieval by 1st, 2nd and 3rd letters. Give each pupil, or pair of pupils, a dictionary. Write words from the text onto the board for pupils to find.

m pl

• Ask pupils to retell each stanza of the poem in their own words.

Introduction

in g

• During discussion of the poem, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the poem with others they have read or listened to.

• Look at and discuss the poem’s rhyming pattern. For each stanza, lines 1 and 2, then lines 3 and 4 rhyme. Write the rhyming word pairs on the board and read them with the pupils.

• Less able pupils could write a couple of sentences. More able pupils might prefer to write more stanzas for the poem, adhering to the rhyming structure. Review • Pupils can share their new endings for the fairy tale in a group.

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

ew

• Pupils should write a summary of the poem.

• Less able pupils should aim to write one sentence for each stanza, whilst more able pupils should aim for a paragraph per stanza. Review

Vi

• Pupils should share their summaries in a group.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

49


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers Assessment

Word Reading Teacher Information • The activities on page 53 focus on words with ‘a’ and ‘w’, syllables, contractions and suffixes.

C8

Ask the pupils to write the following list of words in alphabetical order. They should then use each word in a sentence that shows the meaning.

C10

Write a list of things that they like and dislike about the poem. What is their most and least favourite thing? Would they recommend the poem to a friend?

WR4

Write the following words on the board and have pupils write the two words that make each contraction.

• Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to circle words with three syllables (possession, cheerfully, Whuppity, happily).

e

Introduction

aren’t, haven’t, couldn’t, he’ll, you’ll, they’ll, it’s, you’re, where’s, they’d, we’d, we’re

• The ‘a’ and ‘w’ words in questions 1 and 2 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon.

m pl

Development

Answers

Comprehension

• Explain that ‘a’ is the most common spelling for the ‘hot’ sound after ‘w’ and ‘qu’. Write the following words on the board and say them: want, watch, wander, quantity, squash. Listen to the sounds.

1. … something a person has or owns.

• Ensure pupils are familiar with the term ‘apostrophe’. Explain that this punctuation mark has two uses:

4. Once upon a time, … lived happily ever after.

~ contraction: to show that two words have joined and letters have been omitted; for example, are not = aren’t. • Discuss the word reading activities on page 53, then allow pupils to complete the page independently.

6. Answers will vary.

7. The widow saw Whuppity Stoorie in the forest singing her name. 8. The woman’s husband died or disappeared. 9. Answers will vary but may include that the widow would not have had to worry about Whuppity Stoorie. 10. Answers may indicate that the baby stayed with its mother and grew up happily. 11. Answers will vary.

• In pairs, pupils should find and list contracted words that include ‘not’, ‘will’ and ‘have’. • More able pupils could also search for contracted words that include ‘had’, ‘would’, ‘are’ and ‘is’. Contractions using ‘will’

Contractions using ‘have’

aren’t can’t couldn’t didn’t

he’ll she’ll I’ll it’ll

you’ve would’ve they’ve might’ve

Word Reading

1. (a) short ‘o’

(b) quad, quality

2. (a) worm, world

(b) Teacher check

3. (a) 3 (c) 3

(b) 2 (d) 3

4. (a) I will, do not, that is, I am (b) It replaces letters. 5. (a) try (c) spin (e) cheer/cheerful (g) worry

(b) die (d) screech (f) live (h) happy

Vi

ew

Contractions using ‘not’

Review

5. Answers may include: She had been eating a lot of food OR she was having piglets.

in g

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

3. … an adult female pig.

sa

~ possession: to show that something belongs to somebody or something; for example, the widow’s baby.

2. … a woman whose husband has died and has not remarried.

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of contracted words. Which of the lists has the greatest number of words?

50

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Whuppity Stoorie – 1

Text

m pl

e

Read the fairy tale written as a poem.

sa

Once upon a time, there was a woman whose husband went to a fair. Sadly he never returned and the woman had a baby in her care. Her only possession was a chubby sow that was close to dying. The widow was very worried then a fairy woman heard her crying.

in g

‘I’ll heal your sow’, the fairy said, ‘if you can guess my name. But if you don’t, in three short days, your baby is mine to claim!’ The widow thought all night about what the name could be. On the second day, in the forest, what a sight she happened to see!

Vi

ew

In a quarry, the fairy woman sat spinning and singing cheerfully, ‘Whuppity Stoorie is my name. Whuppity Stoorie! That’s me! In one more day, I’ll ask my question and claim my precious prize. The widow will never guess my name no matter how hard she tries.’ The fairy arrived to question the widow. ‘Take me instead, Although I’m not worthy to tie the laces of Whuppity Stoorie!’ she said. Whuppity Stoorie went, screeching away, and no-one ever found her. But the widow and her baby, as best they could, lived happily ever after. When I read this poem, I could read:

My learning log

www.prim-ed.com

all of it.

Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

51


Whuppity Stoorie – 2

Comprehension

1. A possession is

.

2. A widow is

.

3. A sow is

.

5. Why do you think the sow was chubby?

m pl

e

4. Which phrases begin and end a fairy tale like this one?

sa

6. If you could ask Whuppity Stoorie a question, what would it be?

in g

7. Which event solved the widow’s problem?

8. Which sad event changed the widow’s life?

ew

9. What would have happened if the sow had not got sick?

Vi

10. What happened to the baby?

11. (a) Copy an interesting word or phrase from the text. (b) Why did you choose it? My learning log

52

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


Whuppity Stoorie – 3

Word Reading

1. (a) What sound does the letter ‘a’ say after ‘qu’ in ‘quarry’? (b) Underline the two words with the same sound. quad

quack

quail

quality

quake

2. (a) Which two words have the same sound after ‘w’ as ‘worthy’? Underline them. worm

world

widow

what

m pl

(b) Write a sentence using both of these words. 3. How many syllables in each word?

(c) possession (d) cheerfully

sa

(a) Whuppity (b) precious

whose

e

window

I’ll

in g

4. (a) Write the two smaller words that make up each contraction.

ew

that’s

don’t I’m

(b) What does an apostrophe do in a contraction?

5. Write each verb before the suffix was added.

(b) dying

(c) spinning

(d) screeching

(e) cheerfully

(f) lived

(g) worried

(h) happily

Vi

(a) tries

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I can recognise the ‘or’ sound after a ‘w’. I am able to count syllables in words. I know the two words that make up contractions.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

53


Continents and Oceans of the World

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C4 C6 C12 C19

• • • •

Find information and share it with others Adopt an active approach to a text by posing his/her own questions Engage with a wide variety of text Explore new interests and perspectives through reading

Comprehension

C5 C8 C16

• • •

Perform simple information retrieval tasks Perform alphabetical order tasks Read a narrative or expository piece and summarise it

Word Reading

WR2 WR3 WR4

• • •

Learn about the sounds associated with the beginning of a word or syllable Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words

m pl

Additional Teacher Information Definition of Terms

Information Facts provided or learned about something or someone.

Terminology for Pupils information

sa

Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

e

Text

text word letter sound sentence phrase suffix syllable

Suggested Reading

• Beginning Geography: Continents and Oceans by Evan‑Moor • The Seven Continents by Wil Mara. (Although taken from a North American viewpoint, this book provides facts about each continent suitable for this age group.)

• Explore Earth’s Five Oceans by Bobbie Kalman (There are also books available by the same author about all the continents.)

Vi

ew

in g

apostrophe

54

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• Maps are visual texts that relate information. Pupils need to see information structured and presented in many different ways. The map gives information about the size, location and names of the continents and oceans of the world.

• Pupils may need a dictionary to complete questions 2 and 4.

Development

• Pupils take it in turns to summarise each paragraph in their own words. Development

• Remind pupils how to use a dictionary efficiently; i.e. alphabetical order and retrieval by 1st, 2nd and 3rd letters. Give each pupil, or pair of pupils, a dictionary. Write words from the text onto the board for pupils to find. • Discuss the comprehension activities on page 58, then allow pupils to complete the page independently.

sa

• Read and discuss the text with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

e

• Look at a large map of the world with the pupils, either as a poster or in atlases. Ask pupils to identify the seven continents and five oceans. Explain how each continent is split into different countries. Ask the pupils in which country and continent they live. Do they have friends or relatives who live on other continents?

• Discuss the meaning of some of the trickier vocabulary to be found in the text: continuous, landmass, continent, separated, oceans, expanses, surface, currents, circulate, temperature.

m pl

Introduction

Introduction

in g

• During discussion of the text, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the text to others they have read or listened to. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

• Pupils create a glossary for some of the more technical vocabulary in the procedure; for example, continuous, landmass, continent, separated, oceans, expanses, surface, currents, circulate, temperature. • Less able pupils could create a glossary for four words, more able pupils for all ten words. Review • As a class, compare pupils’ definitions of the words. Which words were the hardest and easiest to define?

ew

• As a class, look at a map of the country in which they live. Locate where they live, and where big cities are located. Talk about and locate other countries or oceans that border their country.

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

• Write a report to inform others about their country. Include where they live, the names of big cities and bordering countries or oceans. • More able pupils could add additional information; for example, the names of rivers, lakes, mountains.

Vi

Review

• Pupils should share their work in a small group.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

55


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers Assessment

Word Reading Teacher Information • The activities on page 59 focus on the sounds soft ‘g’, soft ‘c’ and short ‘u’, apostrophes, suffixes and syllables.

C6

Ask the pupils to write a list of things they learnt from the information text. Were there any facts in the text that they already knew? Have them tick these.

C8

Ask the pupils to write the following list of words in alphabetical order.

Introduction

world, land, ocean, continent, water, current

landmasses, large, continuous, earth, separated, seven, important, water, continents, interesting, world, other

Development

• The soft ‘c’ and ‘g’ sounds are used before the letters e, i and y; for example, race, city, fancy, gem, magic, energy. There are some exceptions. • Look at the phrase ‘the world’s surface’ with the pupils. Discuss why the apostrophe has been used. Practise saying phrases using possessive apostrophes using classroom items; for example, Sam’s pencil, Priya’s ruler. Write these on the board so pupils can see the position of the apostrophe. • Discuss the word reading activities on page 59, then allow pupils to complete the page independently.

Answers

Comprehension

1. (a)–(b) Answers will vary.

2. a large body of land unbroken by oceans or seas

3. The seven continents are separated by the five oceans. 4. (a) (b) (c)

expanses – wide continuous areas surface – the outside part or upper layer circulate – to move continuously or freely through a closed system or area

sa

• The soft ‘c’ and ‘g’ words in questions 1 and 2 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon.

Present the following list of words to the pupils and ask them to sort them according to the number of syllables they contain.

e

WR2

m pl

• Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to underline words that are the names of continents and oceans. Explain that as these are names of places they should always start with a capital letter.

5. Answers may include any of the following: lakes, streams, rivers, ice caps, bogs, ponds, glaciers and ice sheets. 6. Answers may include: the coastline 7. Africa

8. Southern

in g

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

• Pupils should find and list words from the text with the following amounts of syllables: one, two, three and four. • Less able pupils should find three words for each syllable count. More able pupils should find between five and ten.

ew

Review

Word Reading

1. (a) ge

(b) huge, change

2. (a) soft c or /s/ sound

(b) Teacher check

3. (a) o

(b) nothing

4. the surface belongs to the world 5. (a) -y (d) -ed

(b) -est (e) -ing

(c) -es (f) -est

6. (a) Ant/arc/ti/ca

(b) In/di/an

(c) Aus/tra/li/a

Vi

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of words. Which of the syllable counts has the greatest number of words?

9. Answers may include: The continents may increase in size as more land is exposed by receding ocean waters.

56

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Continents and Oceans of the World – 1

Text

Read the information text. Our world is a very large place made up of land and oceans. The largest, continuous landmasses in the world are called continents.

e

The seven continents of the world are Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe and Australia. The largest continent in size is Asia, followed by Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica and Europe. Australia is the smallest. The continents are separated by five oceans.

m pl

An ocean is a connected body of salty water. Like continents, oceans are very large expanses. They cover nearly three-quarters of the world’s surface. The five oceans of the world are the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern and the Arctic Oceans. The oceans in size from largest to smallest are the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern and the Arctic.

sa

The five oceans are connected to each other by ocean currents which circulate sea water all over the world. Oceans are important because they affect the weather and temperature of the earth. Our world is such a large, interesting place.

EUROPE

ew

NORTH AMERICA

in g

ARCTIC OCEAN

ATLANTIC OCEAN

ASIA

AFRICA

SOUTH AMERICA

INDIAN OCEAN

Vi

PACIFIC OCEAN

ANTARCTICA

AUSTRALIA

SOUTHERN OCEAN

When I read this informative text, I could read: My learning log www.prim-ed.com

all of it. Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

57


Continents and Oceans of the World – 2

Comprehension

1. (a) Which continent do you live on? (b) What ocean is the closest to you?

e

2. Explain what is meant by a ‘continuous landmass’?

sa

4. Which meaning goes with each word?

m pl

3. What is the connection between the continents and oceans of the world?

• the outside part or upper layer

(b) surface

• to move continuously or freely through a closed system or area

(c) circulate

• wide continuous areas

in g

(a) expanses •

5. If oceans are bodies of salty water, what bodies of water are made of fresh water?

ew

6. What part of each continent borders an ocean?

Vi

7. Which continent is the second largest? 8. Which ocean is the second smallest? 9. What would happen to the continents if the oceans became smaller in size?

My learning log 58

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


Continents and Oceans of the World – 3

Word Reading

1. (a) Which letters in the word ‘large’ and ‘largest’ are used

to show the soft ‘g’ sound?

(b) Underline the two words with the same soft ‘g’ sound. huge

girl

big

plug

change

‘surface’ and ‘circulate’?

m pl

e

2. (a) What sound does the letter ‘c’ make in the words ‘Pacific’, ‘place’,

(b) Write a sentence using two of these words.

3. (a) What letter is used to show the short ‘u’ sound in ‘other’?

ocean

over

sa

(b) Underline the word with the same short ‘u’ sound. nothing

open

south

in g

4. What does the apostrophe mean in the phrase ‘the world’s surface’?

5. What suffix has been added to each word? (a) salty

(b) smallest (d) followed

(e) interesting

(f) largest

ew

(c) landmasses

6. Divide each word into syllables using a slash (/) for easier reading.

Vi

(a) Antarctica (b) Indian (c) Australia

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I know words with the soft ‘c’ and ‘g’ sounds. I can recognise the short ‘u’ sound. I can divide words into their syllables.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

59


The Fairy Flag of MacLeod

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C1 C7 C9

• • •

Develop reading skills through engaging with reading material appropriate to his/her stage of development Develop comprehension strategies Predict future events and outcomes in a [book] that is being read aloud

Comprehension

C5 C8 C16 C17

• • • •

Perform simple information retrieval tasks Perform alphabetical order tasks Read a narrative or expository piece and summarise it Write a list of questions about a particular topic and prioritise them

Word Reading

WR2 WR3 WR4

• • •

Learn about the sounds associated with the beginning of a word or syllable Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words

m pl

Additional Teacher Information

Links to other Curriculum Areas

word phrase text question letter suffix

homophone suffix

Suggested Reading

• The Complete Book of the Flower Fairies by Cicely Mary Barker (Other fairy stories are also available.)

• Scottish Fairy Tales: Unabridged in Easy-To-Read Type (Dover Children’s Thrift Classics) by Donald A. Mackenzie (These tales are for slightly older pupils so should be used with discretion.)

Vi

ew

• History – Story: Stories – listen to, discuss, retell and record a range of myths and legends from different cultural, ethnic and religious backgrounds in Ireland and other countries

legend

sound

in g

Legend Legends are told as though the events were actual historical events. Legends may or may not be based on an elaborated version of an historical event. Legends are usually about human beings, although gods may intervene in some way throughout the story.

Terminology for Pupils

sa

Definition of Terms Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

e

Text

60

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• The fairy flag of the MacLeods of Dunvegan is one of the treasured possessions of the clan. It can still be viewed in Dunvegan Castle in Skye. It is said that, during the Battle of Britain, the chief of the clan offered to bring the flag to Dover to wave at the Germans if they attempted to invade. It is also said that the chieftain snipped off and gave scraps of the fairy flag to carry during the Battle. No MacLeod was shot down during the aerial battle.

• Pupils might need a dictionary to complete question 1.

Introduction • Illustrations of Dunvegan Castle on the Isle of Skye and the fairy flag could be viewed on the Internet. • The song ‘The Cradle Spell of Dunvegan’ is available to listen to on YouTube®.

• Discuss possible answers to questions 4–7 as they may vary. Pupils need to justify a Yes or No answer for question 5. • Remind pupils how to use a dictionary efficiently; i.e. alphabetical order and retrieval by 1st, 2nd and 3rd letters. Give each pupil, or pair of pupils, a dictionary. Write words from the text onto the board for pupils to find.

sa

Development

Development

m pl

• The song sung to the baby, as heard by the nurse, is still sung on the Isle of Skye. It is called ‘The Cradle Spell of Dunvegan’.

• Reread the legend. Ask pupils to focus on the sequence of events. Ask them to discuss the order of events in the legend.

e

• Many clan members believe in the legend. Many MacLeod servicemen carried a picture of the flag in their wallets during World War II.

Introduction

in g

• Read and discuss the legend with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words. • During discussion of the legend, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the legend with others they have read or listened to.

ew

• Tell the pupils to imagine that the MacLeod clan had to raise the fairy flag for a third time. What might have happened? Why did they need to raise it? Share ideas for alternative endings on the board. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work • Pupils write an alternative ending to the legend, to tell what happened when the fairy flag was raised for the third and final time.

• Pupils take it in turns to retell the legend in their own words, sequencing the events correctly. • Discuss the comprehension activities on page 64, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work • Pupils summarise the legend using bullet points. • Less able pupils could summarise the legend in six bullets points, whilst more able pupils could summarise in ten bullets points. Review • As a class, compare pupils’ answers to questions 5 and 7, as their answers will vary and will be interesting to compare.

• Less able pupils could write a few sentences and draw an illustration.

Vi

• More able pupils could write several paragraphs, in the style of the legend. Review

• Pupils should share their work in a small group.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

61


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers Assessment

Word Reading Teacher Information

C16

• The activities on page 65 focus on words with ‘wr’, ‘le’, ‘al’ and the soft ‘g’ sound, the suffixes ‘-ful’ and ‘-ment’ and homophones.

Ask the pupils to write a short summary of this legend in bullet points. Remind them to include the most important events, in the correct order.

C17

Ask the pupils to write six questions they would like to ask the fairy princess.

Introduction

Call out (or write on the board) the following words and have pupils write down the root words. enjoyment, joyful, beautiful, merriment, careful, playful, plentiful, movement, agreement, entertainment

Development

• Explain to pupils that the ‘w’ in ‘wr’ is silent, and probably reflects pronunciation from hundreds of years ago. • Discuss and list words which end with the suffixes ‘-ful’ and ‘-ment’. Explain that these suffixes are usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. careful, enjoyment. However root words ending in ‘-y’ with a consonant before it will need a spelling change; e.g. plenty/ plentiful, merry/merriment.

Comprehension

1. (a) leader/chief (c) wrap/blanket

• Discuss the word reading activities on page 65, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

ew

• In pairs, pupils should find and list words with ‘-ment’ and ‘-ful’ suffixes; for example, enjoyment, playful.

• More able pupils should sort them according to whether the root word ends in a ‘y’ and therefore changes to an ‘i’ before the suffix is added.

3. The fairy princess heard her son crying and no-one came to look after him. 4. The shawl/flag gave the MacLeods assistance during difficult times. 5. Answers will vary.

6. The fairy bridge was used to move between the realm of the fairies and the land of the mortals/humans. 7. Answers will vary. Word Reading

1. (a) -dge

(b) g

(c) g

4. (a) al

(b) al

(c) le

5. (a) joyful

(b) beautiful

(c) Teacher check

6. (a) -ment

(b) y

7. (a) night (d) their (g) would

(b) son (e) him (h) hear

2. wr 3. motion, station, nation

(c) through (f) made

Vi

Review

(b) family/tribe/group

2. Long ago, One year later, When she returned, When the child grew older, Hundreds of years later, Years later

in g

• Ensure pupils are familiar with the term ‘homophone’. Give some examples (see, sea; there, their; maid, made). Elicit some examples from the pupils. Pupils suggest sentences for pairs of homophones, to be written onto the board; for example, son/sun = My uncle has a son called Sam./The sun is shining brightly.

Answers

sa

• The soft ‘g’, ‘wr’, ‘le’ and ‘al’ words in questions 1, 2 and 4 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon.

e

WR3

m pl

• Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to circle the two words that start with silent letters—one with a silent ‘w’ and the other with a silent ‘k’ (wrapped, knights).

Pupils should then swap lists of questions and write answers to their classmate’s questions.

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of ‘-ment’ and ‘-ful’ words. Which of the suffixes has the greatest number of words?

62

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


The Fairy Flag of MacLeod – 1

Text

Read the legend. Long ago, a handsome chieftain of the MacLeod clan and a fairy princess wanted to marry. The fairy king refused to let them marry, unless, after one year and a day, the princess returned to the fairies.

m pl

e

One year later, a son was born to the chieftain and his fairy wife. On the fairy bridge, the princess said goodbye to her son and husband. Before leaving, she made the chieftain promise never to leave their young son alone, crying. If he did, she would hear him crying in the fairy kingdom and feel sad.

sa

The chieftain’s heart was broken without his wife, so his friends gave him a party to cheer him up. The singing, dancing and music were so joyful that the baby’s nurse went to view the merriment. The baby woke and cried for a long time. When she returned, the nurse saw a beautiful woman singing to the child and rocking him in her shawl. When the baby calmed, the woman placed him, still wrapped in the shawl, in his cradle, and vanished.

in g

When the child grew older, he told his father about the night his mother had visited him. He said the shawl was magic and could be used by the MacLeods when they were in danger. It would call the fairy knights to their aid. However, it could only be used three times. The chieftain placed the fairy flag in a special casket and carried it with him all the time.

ew

Hundreds of years later, the McDonalds, an enemy clan, raided the island of the MacLeods. They attacked a church, setting fire to it and killing the people inside. The remaining MacLeods were greatly outnumbered so they fled to the beach and got out the flag. Magically, the MacLeods seemed to multiply to ten times their size. The terrified McDonalds fled in fear and never returned. The fairy flag was packed safely away in its casket.

Vi

Years later, a plague swept through the islands, killing cattle and sheep. A famine almost destroyed the MacLeod clan. The flag was waved again. A host of fairies appeared and touched the animals with their swords. The animals instantly became healthy again and the clan was saved from starvation. The fairy flag has not been raised for a third time. When I read this legend, I could read:

My learning log www.prim-ed.com

all of it. Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

63


The Fairy Flag of MacLeod â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2

Comprehension

1. What is another word (or words) for: (a) chieftain? (b) clan? (c) shawl?

m pl

e

2. Which phrases in the text are used to tell the passing of time?

sa

3. What happened to make the fairy princess return to her son?

in g

4. How did receiving the shawl affect the MacLeods?

5. Do you think the MacLeods will ever wave the fairy flag for a third time? No

Why?

ew

Yes

Vi

6. What do you think the fairy bridge was used for?

7. If you could ask the fairy princess a question, what would it be?

My learning log 64

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


The Fairy Flag of MacLeod – 3

Word Reading

1. What letters are used for the soft ‘g’ sound in each word? (a) bridge

(b) magic

(c) danger

2. The sound ‘r’ is shown by the letters

in the word ‘wrapped’.

3. Underline the words with the same ending as ‘starvation’. motion

station

nation

again

chieftain

(b) animal

(c) cradle

m pl

(a) special

e

4. What two letters are used to show the ‘l’ sound in the words?

5. (a) Which word in the text has the suffix ‘-ful’ and means ‘full of joy’?

(b) Find and write another word in the text with the suffix ‘-ful’.

sa

(c) Write one of these ‘-ful’ words in a sentence.

in g

6. (a) What suffix was added to the word ‘merry’ to make the word ‘merriment’?

ew

(b) What letter changed when the suffix was added?

7. Write a homophone from the text for each word below.

Vi

(a) knight

(b) sun

(c) threw

(d) there

(e) hymn

(f) maid

(g) wood

(h) here

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I can read words with the suffixes ‘-ful’ and ‘-ment’. I can recognise the ‘l’ sound spelt ‘al’ and ‘le’. I know about homophones.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

65


How to make Yorkshire Pudding

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C2 C7 C12

• • •

Adapt his/her reading style for different purposes Develop comprehension strategies Engage with a wide variety of text

Comprehension

C5 C6 C8 C19

• • • •

Perform simple information retrieval tasks Adopt an active approach to a text by posing his/her own questions Perform alphabetical order tasks Explore new interests and perspectives through reading

Word Reading

WR3 WR5

• •

Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Continue to build a sight vocabulary of common words from [books] read and from personal experience

m pl

Additional Teacher Information Definition of Terms

Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

Terminology for Pupils procedure recipe

sa

Recipe A recipe is a procedure or set of instructions for preparing a particular dish, including a list of the ingredients required. A procedure tells how to make or do something. It uses clear, concise language and command verbs. A recipe is an informational text.

e

Text

word text

suffix plural noun verb

in g

adjective Links to other Curriculum Areas

Suggested Reading

• Pudding Town by Jean V. Hanson (a chapter book to read to the pupils)

• The Tale of Samuel Whiskers or The Roly-Poly Pudding by Beatrix Potter

• 101 Uses for a Yorkshire Pudding by Ian McMillan

Vi

ew

• SPHE – Myself: Taking care of my body: appreciate that balance, regularity and moderation are necessary in the diet; recognise and practise good hygiene when dealing with food

66

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• Adult supervision is needed if the pupils are going to use the recipe to make the dish. Care should always be taken with hot equipment.

• Pupils might need a dictionary to complete question 4.

• It is thought that serving Yorkshire pudding first before the main meal helped fill up diners with an inexpensive dish before the main, more expensive meat dishes were served.

Introduction • Discuss the structure of the recipe. Talk about why the ‘You will need’ section is useful, and why these things need to be collected before making the recipe. Discuss why the steps make it easier to follow the recipe.

Introduction

Development

m pl

e

• The naming and origin of Yorkshire pudding are unknown, but it is known that the first record of the recipe, then called ‘A Dripping Pudding’, appears in a book titled ‘The Whole Duty of a Woman’ in 1737. The name Dripping Pudding comes from the fact that it is cooked underneath the dripping coming from the spit-roast meat.

• Colour photographs of Yorkshire pudding (from the Internet) or homemade Yorkshire pudding could be shown (or tasted!) by pupils prior to reading the text. Some pupils may already be familiar with Yorkshire pudding. Development

• Discuss possible answers to questions 8 and 9 as they may vary.

sa

• Read and discuss the text with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

• Remind pupils how to use a dictionary efficiently; i.e. alphabetical order and retrieval by 1st, 2nd and 3rd letters. Give each pupil, or pair of pupils, a dictionary. Write words from the text onto the board for pupils to find.

in g

• During discussion of the text, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the text to others they have read or listened to. • Discuss the meaning of any new or unfamiliar words and phrases. Some vocabulary is subject-specific relating to recipes.

• Discuss the comprehension activities on page 70, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work • Write a list of ingredients and cooking equipment on the board, as below. Ask pupils to write the words in two lists – one for ingredients and the other for cooking equipment. eggs, sieve, saucepan, whisk, flour, icing sugar, butter, wooden spoon, spatula, milk, salt, bowl • More able pupils could add extra ingredients and cooking equipment to their lists.

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

Review

• Give pairs of pupils the nine steps of the recipe, cut up into nine separate sections, without the number labels. Ask them to place the nine steps in the correct order.

• As a class, compare pupils’ answers to questions 8 and 9, as their answers will vary and will be interesting to compare.

ew

• Discuss the layout of the procedure/recipe with pupils so they can see how numbered, concise steps make it easier to follow the instructions. The instructions usually begin with an imperative (command) verb.

Vi

• Less able pairs could just be given steps 1, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9 to sequence. Review

• As a class, discuss whether any of the steps were difficult to place in the correct order. Why was this?

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

67


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers

Word Reading

Assessment

C7

Ask the pupils to write instructions to explain how to perform a simple task; for example, tie a shoelace, brush their teeth. Remind them to use command/imperative verbs and list their instructions in the correct order.

Introduction

C8

• Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading the ‘Steps’, ask pupils to underline the first word in each step. Explain that these are command or imperative verbs that give commands or instructions.

Ask pupils to write the following list of words in alphabetical order and to then place each word in a sentence which best shows its meaning.

WR3

Present the following words to the pupils and ask them to write down each root word.

e

• The activities on page 71 focus on a variety of suffixes.

wishes, giving, silliness, served, happening, kindness, instruction, usually, cooled, frozen

Development

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ing’. Tell pupils that this suffix is used to express the action of a verb. Tell pupils that this suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. feeding. However, root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. having, coming.

Comprehension

1. A little oil must be poured into the baking tray and then it is heated in the oven. 2. oven, Yorkshire pudding/muffin baking tray, bowl, whisk, tablespoon, teaspoon, cup 3. oil

4. (a) batter – a runny mixture of flour, eggs and milk or water (b) traditional – part of a tradition; something done by habit (c) muffin – a small, domed spongy cake (d) section – a part something is divided into (e) well‑risen – grown very high out of the baking tray 5. Answers may include: They will get cold; They will not taste as nice if not eaten immediately. 6. Yorkshire puddings can be defrosted and heated in the oven for a few minutes.

in g

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ion’, specifically the spelling ‘-tion’. This spelling is used if the root word ends in ‘t’ or ‘te’; for example, invention, injection, action, hesitation, completion. Sort the words according to whether the root word ends in ‘t’ or ‘te’. There are some exceptions; for example, the words ‘attend’ and ‘intend’ both end in ‘d’, but add the ‘-tion’ suffix to become ‘attention’ and ‘intention’.

Answers

sa

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-es’. This suffix is added to nouns and verbs. Explain that root words ending in ‘-y’ with a consonant before it will need a spelling change; e.g. hurry/hurries, baby/babies.

m pl

Teacher Information

• Discuss the word reading activities on page 71, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

7. Answers may include: Whisking keeps the mixture light and airy; Whisking is one way to mix the ingredients together. 8.–9. Answers will vary. Word Reading

1. dishes

• Pupils should use these verbs to give instructions on how to complete an art activity. Less able pupils should give four instructions, whilst more able pupils should aim for at least eight.

4. (a) smoothness

Vi

ew

• In pairs, pupils should find and list command or imperative verbs that they might use in an art activity; for example, cut, paint, shade, sketch.

Review

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of command/imperative verbs.

68

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

2. (a) baking

(b) placing

(c) serving

3. (a) steadied (b) steadier (c) steadying

(d) giving (d) steadiest

(b) thinness

5. instruction 6. No, because if ‘-ing’ is taken from the word, a proper word is not evident (pudd) as is normal when you add a suffix. 7. (a) (b)

-ly: usually, lightly, steadily, evenly, immediately -ed/-d: served, whisked, combined, browned, cooled -ing: making, baking, dividing -en: eaten, risen, frozen dropped the ‘e’

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


How to make Yorkshire Pudding – 1

Text

Yorkshire pudding is a traditional batter dish. It You will need: is usually served with roast meat and gravy for 1 Sunday lunch. Sometimes Yorkshire pudding is • 2 cup vegetable oil eaten by itself before the main meal. • 3 cup plain flour 4

Read the recipe which gives instructions for making Yorkshire pudding.

• 300 mLs milk •

1 2

teaspoon salt

e

• 2 eggs, lightly whisked • tablespoon

m pl

• bowl

• whisk • oven

Steps: 1. Preheat oven to 200 ºC.

sa

• six-hole Yorkshire pudding or muffin baking tray

in g

2. Pour 1 tablespoon of oil into each section of the baking tray. 3. Place in oven for 5 minutes or until oil is hot. 4. Whisk flour and salt together in bowl. 5. Add eggs and whisk until combined.

ew

6. Add milk steadily in a thin stream. Mix until smooth. 7. Pour mixture into baking tray, dividing evenly between the sections. 8. Bake for 20 minutes in oven until browned and well-risen.

Vi

9. Serve immediately with roast meat and gravy or beef Wellington. How did you do? Do you think you could follow the instructions to make this dish? Do you think it will taste delicious? Yorkshire pudding may be cooled and frozen for up to one month. When I read this recipe, I could read: My learning log www.prim-ed.com

all of it. Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

69


How to make Yorkshire Pudding – 2

Comprehension

1. What must be done to the baking tray before making the mixture?

4. Match the words to their meanings. (a) batter

m pl

3. Which ingredient in the list is used first?

e

2. Which items listed in the ‘You will need’ section are equipment and not ingredients?

• a small, domed spongy cake

• a runny mixture of flour, eggs and milk or water

(c) muffin

• part of a tradition; something done by habit

(d) section

• grown very high out of the baking tray • a part something is divided into

in g

(e) well-risen •

sa

(b) traditional •

5. Why do Yorkshire puddings need to be served immediately?

ew

6. How do you think you get the frozen Yorkshire puddings ready to eat?

Vi

7. Why is the mixture whisked a number of different times?

8. Write one or two interesting words that you like from the text.

9. What other puddings have you eaten that are delicious?

My learning log 70

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


How to make Yorkshire Pudding – 3

Word Reading

1. Add the suffix ‘-es’ to ‘dish’ to make a plural noun. 2. Add the suffix ‘-ing’ to the words to make a new verb like ‘make/making’. (a) bake

(b) place

(c) serve

(d) give

(b) -er

(c) -ing

(d) -est

m pl

(a) -ed

e

3. Write new words by adding the suffixes to the word ‘steady’. You may need to change a letter.

4. Add ‘-ness’ to the words to make a noun from an adjective. (a) smooth

(b) thin

sa

5. Which word ends with ‘-tion’ and means ‘a direction or order’?

6. Is the ‘-ing’ in ‘pudding’ a suffix? Yes

in g

Why?

No

7. (a) Complete the suffix table using words from the text. -ed/-d

-ing

ew

-ly

Vi

-en

(b) What happened to the ‘-ing’ words before adding the suffix? Write Yes or No.

My learning log

I know how to add the suffix ‘-es’ to make plurals. I can change the spelling of words before adding suffixes.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

71


The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C9 C10 C14

• • •

Predict future events and outcomes in a [book] that is being read aloud Express a more formal response by giving a considered personal opinion of a [book] in oral or in written form Explore different attitudes and feelings by imagining what it would be like to be certain characters

Comprehension

C5 C8 C16

• • •

Perform simple information retrieval tasks Perform alphabetical order tasks Read a narrative or expository piece and summarise it

Word Reading

WR3 WR4

• •

Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words

m pl

Additional Teacher Information Definition of Terms

Legend Legends are told as though the events were actual historical events. Legends may or may not be based on an elaborated version of an historical event. Legends are usually about human beings, although gods may intervene in some way throughout the story.

Terminology for Pupils legend

sa

Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

e

Text

phrase word author text letter vowel

in g

sound Links to other Curriculum Areas

Suggested Reading

• Listen to and view a version of the tale at <http://myths.e2bn. org/mythsandlegends/story527-the-laidly-worm-of-spindlestonheugh.html> • The Loathsome Dragon by David Wiesner

Vi

ew

• History – Story: Stories – listen to, discuss, retell and record a range of myths and legends from different cultural, ethnic and religious backgrounds in Ireland and other countries

suffix

72

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• The words ‘laidly worm’ loosely translate to ‘ugly or loathsome dragon’.

• Pupils might need a dictionary to complete question 2.

• The rowan tree is a sacred tree in Scottish tradition. It is believed to have magical powers that can protect believers from misfortune and evil spirits such as witches and sorcery.

Introduction • Reread the legend. Ask pupils to focus on the sequence of events. Ask them to discuss the order of events in the legend. Development

• Illustrations of dragons could be shown to the pupils. Pupils could discuss what they already know about dragons, and how they know these things (books, films etc.). Development

• Remind pupils how to use a dictionary efficiently; i.e. alphabetical order and retrieval by 1st, 2nd and 3rd letters. Give each pupil, or pair of pupils, a dictionary. Write words from the text onto the board for pupils to find. • Discuss the comprehension activities on page 76, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

sa

• Read and discuss the legend with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

• Discuss possible answers to questions 4, 5 and 6, as they may vary.

m pl

Introduction

e

• This tale is believed to have been based on an ancient ballad.

in g

• During discussion of the legend, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the legend with others they have read or listened to. • Tell the pupils to imagine that in paragraph 5, when Childe Wynd kissed the dragon, he had instead decided to fight it. What might have happened next? Share ideas for alternative endings on the board.

• Pupils summarise the legend using bullet points. • Less able pupils could summarise the legend in six bullet points, whilst more able pupils could summarise in ten bullet points. Review

• As a class, compare pupils’ answers to questions 5 and 6, as their answers will vary and will be interesting to compare. • Also compare pupils’ answers to question 8. How many stories do they know with a wicked stepmother?

ew

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

• Pupils write an alternative ending to the legend, to tell what happened if Childe Wynd had fought the dragon. • Less able pupils could write a few sentences and draw an illustration.

Vi

• More able pupils could write several paragraphs, in the style of the legend. Review

• Pupils should share their work in a small group.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

73


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Teacher Information

Assessment and Answers

Word Reading

Assessment

• The activities on page 77 focus on words ending in ‘-al’, ‘-le’, ‘-el’ and ‘-il’, words with ‘o’ and ‘or’, apostrophes, and the suffixes ‘-ing’, ‘-er’ and ‘-ed’.

C10

Ask the pupils to write a list of things they like and dislike about the legend. Would they recommend the legend to a friend? Why or why not?

C14

Ask the pupils to explain why the following characters did what they did in the legend; i.e. what were their motives?

Introduction • Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to find the words ending in ‘-ed’ and circle them. (There are lots!) Development

Childe Wynd, the stepmother, Princess Margaret

• Explain that the /l/ sound at the end of words has several spellings. The ‘-le’ spelling is the most common; for example, apple, table. The ‘-el’ spelling is used after m, n, r, s, v, w and sometimes s; for example, travel, towel. Other spellings are ‘-al’ (animal, metal) and ‘-il’ (pencil, nostril).

WR3

• Ensure pupils are familiar with the term ‘apostrophe’. Explain that this punctuation mark has two uses:

~ contraction: to show that two words have joined and letters have been omitted; for example, are not = aren’t.

Answers

Comprehension

1. ugly dragon

2. (a) jealous (c) retreat

(b) repel (d) imp

sa

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ing’. Tell pupils that this suffix is used to express the action of a verb. Tell pupils that this suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. feeding. However, root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. having, coming.

e

m pl

telling, hiking, landing, seeking, dancing, bulging, calling, changing

• The ‘o’ and ‘or’ words in questions 3 and 4 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon.

~ possession: to show that something belongs to somebody or something; for example, ‘the queen’s spell’.

Write the following words on the board and have pupils place them into two groups, according to how the suffix ‘-ing’ is added.

in g

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffixes ‘-ed’ and ‘-er’. Tell pupils that these suffixes are usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. walked, kinder. Root words ending in ‘y’ need to change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding the suffix; e.g. cried, happier. Root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. danced, nicer. • Discuss the word reading activities on page 77, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

ew

• Pupils should look at the ‘-ed’ words they circled for the ‘Introduction’ activity. They should write them onto the correct place on the table.

‘-ed’ suffix added after ‘y’ is changed to ‘i’

Vi

crawled punished returned happened ordered vanished hissed approached asked protected landed pretended entered touched

married worried tried

‘-ed’ suffix added after final ‘e’ is dropped lived named died changed raised

Review

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of ‘-ed’ words. Which list has the greatest number of words? • There are three words in the text (planned, grabbed, hopped) that change in a different way to those listed, as they double the final consonant before adding ‘-ed’. Can pupils say why they are different?

74

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

4. Answers will vary but will, hopefully, indicate that Childe Wynd would have killed his sister. Teachers should accept any answers from pupils which they can justify.

5. Answers will vary but may indicate that the king died or was killed by the witch queen.

6. A toad is considered ugly.

7. The phrases are commonly used in traditional tales such as this.

8. Answers will vary.

Word Reading 1. natural 2. (a) while/castle

• More able pupils should add extra words to the table. ‘-ed’ suffix added straight onto end of root word

3. Childe Wynd set foot on the land.

(b) repel

(c) until

3. Answers may include words such as ‘other’, ‘mother’ and ‘nothing’. 4. work, world, worth 5. (a) Childe Wynd (c) his sister

(b) the queen

6. (a) planning, planner (c) grabbing, grabbed

7.

‘y’ changed to ‘i’ before adding ‘-ed’

(b) shopping, shopper (d) hugging, hugged

‘e’ at end of word dropped before adding ‘-ed’

last consonant doubled before adding ‘-ed’

married

died

hopped

worried

changed

planned

tried

raised

grabbed

lived named

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh – 1

Text

Read the legend.

e

Once upon a time, at Bamborough Castle, there lived a king with a beautiful wife and two children—a son named Childe Wynd and a daughter named Margaret. Childe Wynd left home to seek his fortune, and while he was away, his mother died. The king married again but his new wife, although very beautiful, was a witch. She was jealous of Margaret’s beauty.

m pl

One night, the queen cast a spell over Margaret that changed her into a laidly worm (ugly dragon). The dragon crawled away to a rocky cliff at Spindleston. It ate everything it could. The villagers were very worried until a warlock told them who the dragon really was. He told them they would be safe from the dragon if they fed it milk from seven cows each day. He also said that Princess Margaret could return to her natural form and the queen punished, if her brother returned.

sa

When Childe Wynd heard what had happened, he ordered his soldiers to build a ship from a rowan tree. He planned to return home, rescue his sister and punish the queen.

in g

As the prince and his soldiers approached, the queen sent imps to destroy the ship but the rowan tree protected it. The queen cast a spell on Princess Margaret to make her repel the invaders at the harbour entrance. Each time Childe Wynd’s ship tried to land, the dragon grabbed the ship and sent it back out to sea. Finally, Childe Wynd pretended to retreat and landed safely on another part of the shore. As he set foot on land, the queen’s power over the dragon vanished.

ew

As Childe Wynd raised his sword to kill the beast who had tried to prevent him landing, he heard his sister’s voice telling him to kiss the dragon three times. Childe Wynd did as the dragon asked and it magically changed into Princess Margaret.

Vi

Princess Margaret and her brother entered the castle, seeking the queen. Childe Wynd touched the queen with a twig of a rowan tree. She instantly changed into an ugly toad that hissed and had bulging eyes. The toad hopped from the castle. Childe Wynd became the new king and he and his sister lived happily ever after. An ugly toad, however, can still be seen in the land around Bamborough Castle.

When I read this legend, I could read: My learning log www.prim-ed.com

all of it. Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

75


The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh – 2

Comprehension

1. What does the phrase ‘laidly worm’ mean?

j

(b) drive back or away?

r

m pl

(a) feeling envious of someone?

e

2. Which word means:

(c) to move back or away?

r

(d) a small, mischievous sprite?

i

sa

3. Which event stopped the witch queen’s power over the dragon?

in g

4. What do you think would have happened if Princess Margaret’s voice hadn’t spoken to Childe Wynd when he was about to strike the dragon with his sword?

ew

5. What do you think happened to the king?

6. Why do you think the queen was changed into a toad?

Vi

7. Why did the author of this text use the phrases ‘Once upon a time …’ and ‘… lived happily ever after’?

8. What other story do you know that has a wicked stepmother?

My learning log 76

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh – 3

Word Reading

1. Which word ends like ‘animal’, ‘metal’ and ‘capital’? finally

natural

laidly

land

2. Find words in the text that end with the following letters. (a) le

(b) el

(c) il

e

3. Write any word that has the same vowel sound for the letter ‘o’ as ‘brother’.

m pl

4. Circle the words with the same ‘or’ sound after ‘w’ as ‘worm’. work

world

worth

5. Who owns:

form

shore

sa

(a) the ship in the phrase ‘Childe Wynd’s ship’?

(b) the power in the phrase ‘the queen’s power’? (c) the voice in the phrase ‘his sister’s voice’?

6. Make new words by adding new suffixes to the words. -er

(b) shop: -ing

-er

(c) grab: -ing

-ed

(d) hug: -ing

-ed

ew

in g

(a) plan: -ing

7. Find words in the text which follow these suffix rules.

Vi

‘y’ changed to ‘i’ before last consonant doubled ‘e’ at end of word dropped before adding ‘-ed’ adding ‘-ed’ before adding ‘-ed’

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I can read words ending in ‘al’, ‘le’, ‘el’ and ‘il’. I know about possessive apostrophes. I know about rules for adding suffixes.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

77


Little Red Riding Hood

Assessment

Read the fairy tale. Once upon a time, there lived a little girl who wore a red cloak and hood everywhere she went. Everyone called her Little Red Riding Hood.

m pl sa

A wolf saw Little Red Riding Hood and wanted to eat her. He greeted her and asked where she was going. When she told him, he told her to pick wild flowers as a gift for her grandmother. Then the wolf quickly ran ahead to Grandmother’s house.

e

One day, Little Red Riding Hood was walking through the forest. She was taking a basket of food to her grandmother.

in g

When the wolf reached Grandmother’s house, he knocked on the door. Noone answered, so he went in. He put on Grandmother’s clothes and got into her bed. Not long after, Little Red Riding Hood entered the house and saw the wolf. She thought Grandmother looked different. ‘Grandmother, what big ears you have!’ she said to the wolf.

ew

‘All the better to hear you with’, replied the wolf. ‘What big eyes you have!’ said Little Red Riding Hood. ‘All the better to see you with’, replied the wolf. ‘What a big nose you have!’ said Little Red Riding Hood.

Vi

‘All the better to smell the flowers you brought’, replied the wolf. ‘What large white teeth you have!’ said Little Red Riding Hood. ‘All the better to gobble you up!’ yelled the wolf as he leapt from the bed. Just then, Grandmother returned home from the market and saw what was happening. She grabbed the axe from the woodpile and struck the wolf with it, killing him instantly. Little Red Riding Hood and her grandmother lived happily ever after.

78

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Name:

Class:

Date:

Little Red Riding Hood

Assessment – Comprehension

1. Why was Little Red Riding Hood walking through the forest? 2. Look at paragraph 3.

m pl

Find and copy a word from the text that means ‘a present’.

e

1 mark

1 mark

3. Tick one. Before she went to her grandmother’s house …

sa

(a) Little Red Riding Hood picked flowers.

(b) Little Red Riding Hood went back home.

(c) Little Red Riding Hood lived happily ever after.

1 mark

in g

4. The three main characters in the text are .

1 mark

5. Find and copy four words that begin every fairy tale.

ew

1 mark

6. An axe is used for:

chopping wood.

eating. 1 mark

Vi

moving a bicycle.

7. Do you think Little Red Riding Hood will walk in the forest by herself again? Yes / No Explain your answer.

Total for this page

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

1 mark

/7

79


Name:

Class:

Date:

Little Red Riding Hood

Assessment – Word Reading

1. The word ‘grandmother’ has two

one

syllables.

three

1 mark

e

2. What suffix has been added to the words ‘answered’, ‘carried’ and

1 mark

3. What is the root word of ‘killing’?

1 mark

4. The suffix on the word ‘instantly’ is: -ed

5. Match the homophones. •

• here

(b) hear •

• flour

in g

(a) see

-ly

(c) flower •

1 mark

sa

-ness

-ment

m pl

‘grabbed’?

• sea

1 mark

6. Circle the suffix that could be added to the word ‘smell’ to make an adjective. -ful

-y

ew

-ness

-est

1 mark

7. Then the wolf quickly ran ahead to Grandmother’s house.

Vi

What belongs to Grandmother? 1 mark

8. Circle ‘one’ or ‘more than one’ for each word. (a)

(b)

one

more than one

clothes

one

more than one

nose

1 mark Total for this page

80

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

/8

Total for this assessment

Prim-Ed Publishing

/15

www.prim-ed.com


Assessment – Teacher Information

Little Red Riding Hood Genre: Fairy Tale Breakdown of question type/content and mark allocation Comprehension

Word Reading 1 mark

Q 1. Syllables

1 mark

Q 2. Understanding words

1 mark

Q 2. Suffix ‘-ed’

1 mark

Q 3. Finding information

1 mark

Q 3. Root words

1 mark

Q 4. Finding information

1 mark

Q 4. Suffix ‘-ly’

Q 5. Understanding genre

1 mark

Q 5. Homophones

Q 6. Understanding words

1 mark

Q 6. Suffix ‘-y’

Q 7. Predicting

1 mark

Q 7. Apostrophes for possession

1 mark

Q 8. Singular and plural

1 mark

1 mark 1 mark 1 mark

m pl

Sub-total

e

Q 1. Identifying the main idea

Sub-total

Assessment Answers

sa

Record the pupil’s total result for this assessment.

Assessment – Little Red Riding Hood Comprehension .................................................................... Page 79

Word Reading ...................................................................... Page 80

1. three

2. gift

2. -ed

in g

1. She was going to visit her grandmother and take her some food. 3. (a) Little Red Riding Hood picked flowers.

3. kill

4. Little Red Riding Hood, Grandmother, the wolf

4. -ly

5. Once upon a time

5. (a) see – sea (b) hear – here (c) flower – flour

6. chopping wood

6. -y (smelly) 7. the house 8. (a) one (b) more than one

Vi

ew

7. Teachers should use their discretion to award marks for Yes/No answers and appropriate explanations.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

81


Leprechauns

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C3 C11 C14

• • •

Read aloud to share a text with an audience Continue to listen to and enjoy stories and poems being read aloud Explore different attitudes and feelings by imagining what it would be like to be certain characters

Comprehension

C6 C7 C8 C12

• • • •

Adopt an active approach to a text by posing his/her own questions Develop comprehension strategies Perform alphabetical order tasks Engage with a wide variety of text

Word Reading

WR3 WR4

• •

Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words

m pl

Additional Teacher Information Definition of Terms

Poem A piece of writing in which the expression of feelings and ideas is given intensity by particular attention to diction (sometimes involving rhyme), rhythm and imagery.

poem noun

Verse A group of lines that form a unit in a poem or song; a stanza. Story An account of imaginary or real people and events told for entertainment.

adjective question text word phrase story sentence letter

Information Facts provided or learned about something or someone.

verb

ew

Question A sentence worded or expressed so as to elicit information.

vowel

Links to other Curriculum Areas

Vi

• History – Story: Stories – listen to, discuss, retell and record a range of myths and legends from different cultural, ethnic and religious backgrounds in Ireland and other countries

82

verse sound

information

in g

Contraction A shortened form of a word or group of words; e.g. ‘they’re’ is a contraction of ‘they are’.

Terminology for Pupils

sa

Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

e

Text

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

suffix adjective contraction homophone

Suggested Reading • That’s What Leprechauns Do by Eve Bunting • The Story of the Leprechaun by Katherine Tegen • The Leprechaun’s Gold by Pamela Duncan Edwards • The Night Before St. Patrick’s Day by Natasha Wing

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension Teacher Information

• In Irish folklore, a leprechaun is a small, mischievous sprite.

• Pupils may need a dictionary to complete questions 1–3.

Introduction

Introduction

• Teachers should point out to pupils that the poem is a text that imparts information, as well as being entertaining. Non-fiction texts may be structured in many different ways. Write a list of things that pupils know about leprechauns as a result of reading this poem; for example, his job, his clothes, his hobbies.

• Ask pupils to tell things that they learnt about leprechauns as a result of reading the poem.

Development

• Remind pupils how to use a dictionary efficiently; i.e. alphabetical order and retrieval by 1st, 2nd and 3rd letters. Give each pupil, or pair of pupils, a dictionary. Write words from the text onto the board for pupils to find. • Discuss the comprehension activities on page 86, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

sa

• Read and discuss the poem with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

• Assist pupils to identify the rhyming pattern of the poem. List the rhyming words; for example, see/he, trade/made.

m pl

• Have pictures of leprechauns, from books or the Internet, to show to pupils.

Development

e

Teacher Information

in g

• During discussion of the poem, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the poem to others they have read or listened to.

• Pupils write an acrostic poem about leprechauns. • Less able pupils could use the word ‘gold’ or ‘rainbow’ and more able pupils ‘leprechaun’. Review

• As a class, pupils can share their acrostic poems. • Which letters did they find the hardest to use?

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

ew

• In groups, share ideas for words that could be used in a poem about leprechauns; for example, fairy, elf, rainbow, pot of gold, green clothes, red hair, wishes.

• Pupils should use these words to write a shape poem in the shape of a rainbow. The poem will need seven lines, as there are seven colours in the rainbow.

Vi

• Less able pupils could just write one or two descriptive words per rainbow line, whereas more able pupils could write whole lines/ sentences. Review

• Pupils should present their poems neatly, using the different rainbow colours for each line, and share them with the class.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

83


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers

Word Reading

Assessment

Teacher Information

C6

• The activities on page 87 focus on the /l/ sound at the end of words and the soft ‘g’ and soft ‘c’ sounds, a range of suffixes, contractions, apostrophes and homophones.

Ask the pupils to write a list of information that this poem gives about leprechauns; for example, where they live, other names they have, what they like doing, their work.

C8

Ask pupils to write the following list of words in alphabetical order and to then place each word in a sentence which best shows its meaning.

WR4

Write the following words on the board and have pupils write their contractions.

Development • The soft ‘c’ and ‘g’ and ‘al’ and ‘le’ words in questions 1–4 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon.

did not, would not, should not, she will, I will, they will, he is, they are, why is, you would, they had, you are

m pl

• Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading the third stanza, ask pupils to find the four words with apostrophes and circle them (rainbow’s, you’ll, he’ll, you’ll).

e

Introduction

Answers

Comprehension 1. fairy, elf

• The soft ‘c’ and ‘g’ sounds are used before the letters e, i and y; for example, race, city, fancy, gem, magic, energy. There are some exceptions.

2. A person who makes (and fixes) shoes.

3. A text with rhyming words at the end of the lines. 4. ‘tap’, ‘tap’, ‘tap’

sa

• Explain that the /l/ sound at the end of words has several spellings. The ‘-le’ spelling is the most common; for example, apple, table. The ‘-el’ spelling is used after m, n, r, s, v, w and sometimes s; for example, travel, towel. Other spellings are ‘-al’ (animal, metal) and ‘-il’ (pencil, nostril). • Ensure pupils are familiar with the term ‘apostrophe’. Explain that this punctuation mark has two uses:

in g

~ possession: to show that something belongs to somebody or something; for example, leprechaun’s gold. ~ contraction: to show that two words have joined and letters have been omitted; for example, are not = aren’t.

5. He will vanish.

6. Answers will vary but may include: little, old man; tricky elf; solitary fellow; handsome fellow; some shiny, buckled shoes; little, pointed cap; bushy beard; rainbow’s end; hiding place; those three magical wishes. 7.–9. Answers will vary. Word Reading 1. g 2. c 3. al 4. le

• Discuss the word reading activities on page 87, then allow pupils to complete the page independently.

9. the rainbow

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

11. Teacher check

ew

• Ensure pupils are familiar with the term ‘homophone’. Give some examples (see, sea; there, their; maid, made). Elicit some examples from the pupils. Pupils suggest sentences for pairs of homophones, to be written onto the board; for example, son/sun = My uncle has a son called Sam./The sun is shining brightly.

5. -es 6. trickier 7. (a) hide, give

(b) hiding, giving

8. (a) you will

(b) he will

10. (a) to (d) wears

(b) him (e) some

(c) made (f) need

Vi

• Pupils should write pairs of sentences using the homophones in question 10. • More able pupils should write sentences using the homophones to/too/ two and there/their/they’re. Review • In groups, pupils should share their sentences.

84

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Leprechauns – 1

Text

sa

m pl

e

Read the poem.

in g

If you go to Ireland, a fairy you may see. A little, old man and tricky elf, a solitary fellow is he. Although he likes to play a joke, he is a cobbler by trade. He stores up all the gold he gets for the shoes that he has made.

ew

A more handsome fellow no-one has ever seen. He wears a coat with many buttons that is the colour green. He wears some shiny, buckled shoes and a little, pointed cap. A bushy beard covers his face. Can you hear his ‘tap’, ‘tap’, ‘tap’?

Vi

A leprechaun always hides his pot of gold At the rainbow’s end—or so I have been told. If you want to catch him, you’ll need to be very fast, Then he’ll tell you its hiding place and you’ll be rich at last. Now should you ever catch one, this warning I give to you. Never take your eyes off a leprechaun no matter what you do! Make sure he gives you those three magical wishes And hold on very tightly, or you’ll see how a leprechaun vanishes! When I read this poem, I could read:

My learning log www.prim-ed.com

all of it. Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

85


Leprechauns – 2

Comprehension

1. What two nouns in verse one could be used instead of the noun ‘leprechaun’? 2. What is a cobbler?

e

3. What is a poem?

m pl

4. What sound tells you that a leprechaun is near?

5. What will happen if you take your eyes off a leprechaun?

sa

6. Write the adjective and noun group that you like the best.

7. Write a question to get more information from the text.

in g

8. Choose the best word or phrase to complete the sentence. possible

not likely

It is

impossible

likely

that a person will see or catch a leprechaun.

Vi

ew

9. Use the box to write any other information you know about leprechauns or any stories you have read about them.

My learning log 86

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


Leprechauns – 3

Word Reading

1. The ‘soft g’ sound in the word ‘magical’ is made by the letter 2. The ‘s’ sound in the word ‘face’ is made by the

.

before the vowel ‘e’.

3. The two letters that make the ‘l’ sound in the word ‘magical’ are 4. The two letters that make the ‘l’ sound in the word ‘little’ are

. .

e

5. What suffix has been added to the noun ‘wishes’ and the verb

m pl

‘vanishes’? 6. Add the suffix ‘-er’ to ‘tricky’ to make a new adjective. 7. (a) Write the verb that the suffix was added to. hides

gives

sa

(b) Add ‘-ing’ to the answers above to make new verbs.

8. Write each contraction as two words.

in g

(a) you’ll

(b) he’ll

9. What owns the ‘end’ in the phrase ‘the rainbow’s end’? 10. Find and write the homophones for these words in the text.

ew

(a) two

(b) hymn

(c) maid

(d) wares

(e) sum

(f) kneed

Vi

11. Write a sentence using each homophone. (a) sure

(b) shore

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I can add a range of suffixes to different words. I know the two words that make up the contractions ‘you’ll’ and ‘he’ll’. I can recognise homophones.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

87


The Luck of the Irish

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C1 C9 C12 C13

• • • •

Develop reading skills through engaging with reading material appropriate to his/her stage of development Predict future events and outcomes in a [book] that is being read aloud Engage with a wide variety of text Respond to characters and events in a story

Comprehension

C7 C16

• •

Develop comprehension strategies Read a narrative or expository piece and summarise it

Word Reading

WR2 WR3 WR4

• • •

Learn about the sounds associated with the beginning of a word or syllable Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words

m pl

Additional Teacher Information Definition of Terms

Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

Terminology for Pupils newspaper

sa

Report A report is a written document describing the findings of an individual or group. Reports may take the form of a newspaper report, sports or police report, or a report about an animal, person or object.

e

Text

report word letter

sound suffix verb

in g

text

Suggested Reading

• The Luckiest St. Patrick’s Day Ever by Teddy Slater

Vi

ew

• Green Shamrocks by Eve Bunting

88

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• A shamrock is a common, clover-like plant with leaves divided into three leaflets.

• Pupils may need a dictionary to complete question 2. Introduction

Development • Discuss the parts of the newspaper article: name of the newspaper, headline, photograph with caption, opening paragraph, remainder of story. Why is each part important?

Development

• Remind pupils how to use a dictionary efficiently; i.e. alphabetical order and retrieval by 1st, 2nd and 3rd letters. Give each pupil, or pair of pupils, a dictionary. Write words from the text onto the board for pupils to find. • Discuss the comprehension activities on page 92, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

• Pupils write a definition for some of the words in the newspaper article: fortune, shamrock, hound, discovery, jagged, antler, elk, treat, tunnel, treasure, limousine, gnaw.

sa

• Read and discuss the newspaper article with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

• Pupils take it in turns to summarise the newspaper article in their own words.

e

• Provide colour images of shamrocks (clover). Ask pupils if any of them have ever found one with four leaves. Do they know what a four-leafed clover is supposed to give the finder? (It is supposed to bring good luck.)

m pl

Introduction

in g

• During discussion of the newspaper article, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the newspaper article with others they have read or listened to.

• Less able pupils could write a definition for five words, whilst more able pupils could write definitions for all twelve of the words. Review

• As a class, compare pupils’ definitions of the words. Which words were the hardest and easiest to define?

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

ew

• The final paragraph states that Mr Kelly and his hound were last seen going to Dublin in a shiny black limousine. Ask pupils to write another paragraph after this, to tell what Mr Kelly planned to do in Dublin. • Less able pupils could write a sentence explaining what Mr Kelly planned to do in Dublin. They could include an illustration.

Vi

• More able pupils could write two or more paragraphs explaining what Mr Kelly planned to do, including some quotes from him. Review

• Pupils should share their work in a small group.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

89


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment

Word Reading

• Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to find the words starting with ‘gn’ and ‘kn’ and circle them (gnawing, knew). Development • The ‘gn’ and ‘kn’ words in question 1 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon.

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ed’. Tell pupils that this suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. walked. Root words ending in ‘y’ need to change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding the suffix; e.g. cried. Root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. danced.

• Discuss the word reading activities on page 93, then allow pupils to complete • Explain to pupils that the ‘g’ in ‘gn’ and the page independently. the ‘k’ in ‘kn’ are silent, and reflect Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group pronunciation from hundreds of years Work ago.

Based on the final paragraph, write a list of things that Mr Kelly might do when he arrives in Dublin in his limousine.

C12

Ask the pupils to describe the key features of a newspaper article: headline, photograph, caption, opening paragraph, concluding paragraph.

WR2

Call out the following words and have pupils write them with either a silent ‘k’ or ‘g’ at the start. knight, gnome, knot, knitting, know, gnaw, gnat, knee, knock Answers

Comprehension

1. low-growing clover 2. (a) fortune – luck (b) attention – notice (c) jagged – rough 3. There was movement in the clover. 4. Answers may include: a leprechaun, a rabbit or other animal. 5. Answers will vary: The elk could have died there; The bone could have been carried there by another animal. 6. the four-leafed clover 7. Answers may include: It was a reward for helping Patrick find the pot of gold by accident. 8.–9. Answers will vary.

sa

• Discuss and list words which end with • In pairs, pupils should find and list words with an ‘-ed’ suffix; for the suffix ‘-ment’. Explain that this example, searched, chased, tugged. suffix is usually added straight onto Then they should write them onto the the end of most root words without table according to how the suffix has any spelling change; e.g. enjoyment. been added. More able pupils should However root words ending in ‘-y’ aim to find more ‘-ed’ words than less with a consonant before it will need a able pupils. spelling change; e.g. merry/merriment.

C9

e

• The activities on page 93 focus on words beginning with ‘gn’ and ‘kn’ and the suffixes ‘-ment’, ‘-tion’, ‘-ing’ and ‘-ed’. Introduction

usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. feeding. However, root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. having, coming.

m pl

Teacher Information

Assessment and Answers

• More able pupils should reread the text and find an ‘-ed’ suffix that follows a different rule. They should attempt to explain this rule. (‘worried’ and ‘tried’ – the ‘y’ is changed to ‘i’ before the ‘-ed’ is added).

in g

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ion’, specifically the spelling ‘-tion’. This spelling is used if the root word ends in ‘t’ or ‘te’; for example, invention, injection, action, hesitation, completion. Sort the words according to whether the root word ends in ‘t’ or ‘te’. There are some exceptions; for example, the words ‘attend’ and ‘intend’ both end in ‘d’, but add the ‘-tion’ suffix to become ‘attention’ and ‘intention’.

Review

ew

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of ‘-ed’ words. Which of the lists has the greatest number of words?

Vi

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ing’. Tell pupils that this suffix is used to express the action of a verb. Tell pupils that this suffix is

‘-ed’ suffix

‘-ed’ suffix

‘-ed’ suffix

Just add ‘-ed’ to end of root word

Drop ‘e’ at end of root word before adding ‘-ed’

Double last consonant before adding ‘-ed’

landed covered looked ended

90

sniffed started pulled discovered

celebrated raced chased imagined danced

Word Reading 1. (a) gn, kn (b) gnome, knock, knight, knee, gnat 2. -ment 3. motion 4. (a) popping (b) tugged 5. just add ‘e’ at end of root last consonant ‘-ing’ words dropped doubled before adding ‘-ing’ before adding ‘-ing’ tugging celebrating finding taking searching chasing gnawing having trying hurtling being aching flying imagining heading

hugged popped slipped tugged hopped dipped jagged

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


The Luck of the Irish – 1

Text

Read the newspaper report.

IRELAND’S HERALD TIMES

IRISHMAN FINDS LUCKY SHAMROCK

Mr Patrick Kelly and Conall, the hound dog, with their lucky find.

sa

Patrick Kelly, from Ireland, is celebrating his good fortune today after finding ‘a field of lucky shamrocks’.

m pl

e

of a large elk. Conall was having a lot of fun with it, but I was worried he would hurt himself on the sharp edges. I tried tugging it out of his mouth. Conall, of course, did not want to let go of his new treat. He pulled backwards with all his might. Now, I tell you, Conall has a mind of his own. I let go of the bone. I knew he would just pull harder if I kept on trying to take the bone from him.

in g

Yesterday morning, while taking his hound, Conall, for his daily walk, he made a great discovery.

ew

The hound, Conall, raced ahead over the hills, chasing rabbits. Then he saw movement in a patch of wet, green clover.

Vi

‘Conall sniffed the ground searching’, Mr Kelly said. ‘I thought he had found another rabbit. Suddenly, he popped his head up out of the clover. In his mouth he had a jagged bone, covered in shamrocks. He immediately started gnawing on the bone. ‘When I looked closely’, said Mr Kelly, ‘the bone looked like the antler

‘Being the contrary hound that he is, as soon as I let go, he did too! I ended up flying backwards into the field of wet clover where he had discovered the bone. ‘I slipped on the shamrocks and felt myself hurtling downwards into a deep hole. When I landed, I saw a long, dark tunnel. My head was aching so I thought I was imagining things. There, ahead of me, was a pot of gold. Of course, it took some time to drag myself and my treasure back to the top. But I’ll always consider shamrocks the luckiest plants in Ireland!’ When last seen, Mr Kelly and his hound were heading to Dublin in a shiny, black limousine. Conall was still gnawing on his bone.

When I read this newspaper report, I could read: My learning log www.prim-ed.com

all of it. Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

91


The Luck of the Irish – 2

Comprehension

1. What is a shamrock? 2. Match each word to its meaning. (a) fortune

• notice

(b) attention

• luck

(c) jagged

• rough

m pl

e

3. What attracted Conall to the field of wet clover?

4. What do you think the movement in the clover was?

sa

5. How do you think the elk bone got there?

in g

6. What clover is considered to be lucky?

ew

7. Why do you think Patrick let Conall keep the bone?

Vi

8. What do you think Patrick and Conall will do in Dublin?

9. What do you think would have happened if Patrick hadn’t fallen backwards?

My learning log 92

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


The Luck of the Irish – 3

Word Reading

1. (a) Which two letters begin each word and say one sound? gnawing

knew

(b) Circle the other words with this sound. gnome knock kettle king knight kite garden knee gate gnat

‘movement’?

m pl

e

2. What suffix has been added to the word ‘move’ to make the word

3. Which word has the same ending as ‘attention’? Underline it. motion

limousine

backwards

heading

4. (a) Make a new verb by changing the suffix in ‘popped’ to ‘-ing’.

sa

(b) Make a new verb by changing the suffix in ‘tugging’ to ‘-ed’.

in g

5. Find and write words with these suffixes in the text. ‘e’ at end of words dropped before adding ‘-ing’

last consonant doubled before adding ‘-ing’

Vi

ew

just add ‘-ing’

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I know about silent ‘k’ and ‘g’. I can add a range of suffixes to root words.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

93


The Light Princess

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C12 C13 C15 C16

• • • •

Engage with a wide variety of text Respond to characters and events in a story Read a story and write it in his/her words Read a narrative or expository piece and summarise it

Comprehension

C5 C7 C18

• • •

Perform simple information retrieval tasks Develop comprehension strategies Write about favourite moments, characters and events in stories

Word Reading

WR3 WR4

• •

WR5

Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words Continue to build a sight vocabulary of common words from [books] read and from personal experience

m pl

Additional Teacher Information

word character verb suffix text adjective

paragraph sound homophone

Suggested Reading

• The Light Princess by George MacDonald • Gravity by Jason Chin

Vi

ew

Character A person in a novel, play or film.

fairy tale

sentence

in g

Fairy tale A fairy tale is a short story usually featuring fantasy characters such as elves, dragons, hobgoblins, sprites or magical beings. It is often set in the distant past. A fairy tale usually begins with the phrase ‘Once upon a time …’ and ends with the words ‘… and they lived happily ever after’. Charms, disguises and talking animals may also appear in a fairy tale.

Terminology for Pupils

sa

Definition of Terms Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

e

Text

94

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension Teacher Information

• ‘The Light Princess’ is a Scottish fairy tale, published in 1864.

• Pupils may need a dictionary to complete question 1.

Introduction

Introduction

• Ask pupils if they have ever read, or have had read to them, a fairy tale. Ask them the names of the fairy tales and list them on the board. What features do fairy tales have in common? Do pupils have a favourite fairy tale?

• Pupils take it in turns to retell the fairy tale in their own words, sequencing the events correctly. They should also try to explain why Princess Makemnoit placed such a horrible curse on the royal baby.

Development

Development

• Read and discuss the fairy tale with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

• Discuss the comprehension activities on page 98, then allow pupils to complete the page independently.

m pl

e

Teacher Information

• Compare their answers to questions that may have varied answers, especially questions 4 and 7–9. Pupils should justify whether or not they think the couple would live happily ever after. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

sa

• Imagine you could only move around by floating in the air. It could be fun! What things might you be able to do that you can’t do now? For example, float up to a tree and pick an apple off it.

• During discussion of the fairy tale, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the fairy tale with others they have read or listened to.

in g

• Discuss the themes that this fairy tale has in common with many other fairy tales: wicked family member, curse, princess falls in love with a prince who breaks the curse, punishment for wicked family member, good characters live happily ever after.

• Less able pupils should write a list of five or six things they would be able to do, whilst more able pupils should aim for a list of twelve or more things. Review • As a class, compare pupils’ lists. Which things sound the most fun?

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

ew

• Look at cartoon strip versions of fairy tales. Discuss how text is minimal, and spoken or thought text is in speech or thought balloons. Ask pupils to split the text into six main parts. Pupils should create a cartoon strip, to retell the fairy tale.

• Less able pupils could create a cartoon strip with four parts, whilst more able pupils should aim to have eight parts for their cartoon strips.

Vi

Review

• Pupils should be encouraged to create their best work and share it with their group or class.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

95


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers

Word Reading

Assessment Write a list of words and phrases to describe the kind of person the princess was whilst the curse was on her, and how she was after the curse was lifted. Pupils should use evidence from the text to back up their answers.

Introduction

C16

• Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to find and circle any words that could be used to name people; for example, king, queen, baby, daughter, sister, princess, woman. Discuss these words. Can some words only be used for males or females, or are some of them for both genders?

Ask the pupils to write a short summary of this fairy tale using bullet points. Remind them to include the most important events, in the correct order.

WR3

Call out (or write on the board) the following words and have pupils write down each suffix:

• The activities on page 99 focus on a variety of suffixes, the ‘a’ sound and homophones.

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ed’. Tell pupils that this suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. walked. Root words ending in ‘y’ need to change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding the suffix; e.g. cried. Root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. danced.

Answers

Comprehension

1. (b) a Christian ceremony where a baby is baptised

2. Princess Makemnoit was annoyed that she wasn’t invited to the christening ceremony; She was a mean, nasty person.

sa

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-est’. Tell pupils that this suffix is used when comparing more than two things. Tell pupils that this suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. hardest. Root words ending in ‘y’ need to change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding the suffix; e.g. happiest. Root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. finest.

enjoyment, joyful, cried, heartless, kindly, hopped, swimming, funniest, sadder, happiness

m pl

Development

e

C13

Teacher Information

in g

• The ‘al’ words in question 4 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phoneme focused upon. • Ensure pupils are familiar with the term ‘homophone’. Give some examples (see, sea; there, their; maid, made). Elicit some examples from the pupils. Pupils suggest sentences for pairs of homophones, to be written onto the board; for example, son/sun = My uncle has a son called Sam./The sun is shining brightly.

ew

• Discuss the word reading activities on page 99, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

• Provide pupils with pairs of homophones. They should write a definition for each word in the pair. Suitable homophones include: pair/pear, son/sun, bare/ bear, night/knight, week/weak.

Vi

• More able pupils could also write the homophones in sentences. Review

3. courage

4. king, queen, prince, princess, evil character 5. Answers may include: she was sad because she could not walk like everyone else. 6. Answers should state that she loved him. 7. A happier, less serious person. 8. Yes; Answers should indicate that all fairy tales have the main characters living happily ever after at the end. 9. Answers will vary. Word Reading 1. (a) try (d) marry

(b) dried (c) married (e) Teacher check

2. (a) -less (d) -ed

(b) -ly (e) -ing

(c) -ment (f) -ly

3. bravest 4. (a) walk

(b) water

5. (a) night (d) through (g) way (j) die

(b) rain (e) hole (h) made

(c) where (f) would (i) him

• As a class, compare the sentences. Did any of the pupils write one sentence with both homophones in it? For example, The knight rode off into the night.

96

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


The Light Princess – 1

Text

Read the fairy tale.

m pl

Princess Makemnoit was a mean, unhappy woman. She decided to get her revenge by placing a curse on the baby. The baby had no gravity. She was so light that she could not walk. She could only move around by floating in the air. Even the wind could carry her away.

e

Once upon a time, a king and queen had a baby daughter. Everyone was invited to the baby’s christening, except the king’s sister, Princess Makemnoit.

As the princess grew, she never cried. She became a serious, sad person. The only thing that made her happy was swimming. When she swam, she was no longer weightless. Many thought that if the princess could cry, the curse would be broken. Nothing, however, made her cry.

sa

Meanwhile, a prince from another kingdom was searching for a wife. One day, while riding through the forest, the prince encountered the princess swimming. Thinking she was drowning, he dived in to rescue her. When they emerged from the water, the prince and princess floated up into the air. She scolded him and he fell instantly in love with her.

ew

in g

Princess Makemnoit, however, discovered how much the princess loved swimming. She decided to dry up all the water. The lake was drained, all the springs were stopped and no rain fell. As the lake dried, it was discovered that the only way to stop the water disappearing was to block the hole where the water drained out with the body of a living man. Unfortunately, the man would surely die completing the task. The prince agreed to stop the water if the princess joined him.

Vi

The prince battled bravely. The lake filled up but he almost drowned. The courageous princess dragged his body from the water. She took him to her old nurse who was a wise woman. They looked after him through the night. When morning arrived, the prince awoke—battered but alive. The relieved princess fell to the floor and cried. The curse was broken! Princess Makemnoit was angry that her evil plans had failed, but she did not escape punishment. Water flooded her house and she drowned. The princess learnt to walk and married the prince. They lived happily ever after.

When I read this fairy tale, I could read: My learning log www.prim-ed.com

all of it. Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

97


The Light Princess – 2

Comprehension

1. Which meaning matches the word ‘christening’? (a) an anniversary of a baby’s birth (b) a Christian ceremony where a baby is baptised

m pl

e

2. Why did Princess Makemnoit put a curse on the baby princess?

3. What word does the word ‘courageously’ come from?

4. Which characters in this tale are common in fairy tales?

sa

5. Why do you think the princess was quiet and sad?

in g

6. How did the princess feel about the prince after he almost drowned?

ew

7. What sort of person do you think the princess would be after the curse was lifted?

8. Did you think the prince and princess would live happily ever after at the end of the tale? No

Why?

Vi

Yes

9. Write your opinion of this fairy tale.

My learning log 98

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


The Light Princess – 3

Word Reading

1. The word ‘cried’ is a verb made by adding a suffix to the word ‘cry’. (a) What verb does the verb ‘tried’ come from? (b) Add ‘-ed’ to ‘dry’ to make a new verb. (c) Find another word in the text ending in ‘-ied’.

(e) Write a sentence using two of these words.

m pl

e

(d) What verb does this word come from?

2. What suffix has been added to make each word?

(b) bravely

(c) punishment

(d) stopped

(e) swimming

sa

(a) weightless

(f) happily

3. Make a new adjective from the word ‘brave’ that means ‘the most brave’ by adding a suffix.

in g

4. (a) Which word in paragraph two has the same sound for ‘a’ before ‘l’ like ‘almost’ and ‘talk’?

(b) Which word in paragraph four has the same sound for ‘a’ like ‘warm’ and ‘towards’?

ew

5. Find and write the homophones for these words in the text. (b) reign

(c) wear

(d) threw

(e) whole

(f) wood

(g) weigh

(h) maid

(i) hymn

(j) dye

Vi

(a) knight

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I can recognise a range of suffixes. I can identify homophones.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

99


How to make a Daffodil

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C2 C4 C6 C7

• • • •

Adapt his/her reading style for different purposes Find information and share it with others Adopt an active approach to a text by posing his/her own questions Develop comprehension strategies

Comprehension

C8 C12 C19

• • •

Perform alphabetical order tasks Engage with a wide variety of text Explore new interests and perspectives through reading

Word Reading

WR2 WR3 WR4

• • •

Learn about the sounds associated with the beginning of a word or syllable Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words

m pl

Additional Teacher Information Definition of Terms

procedure

instruction word step syllable sentence suffix

in g

Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

Terminology for Pupils

sa

Procedure Procedures tell how to make or do something. They use clear, concise language and command verbs. A list of materials required to complete the procedure is included and the instructions are set out in easy-to-follow steps.

e

Text

root word

Links to other Curriculum Areas

Suggested Reading

• From Bulb to Daffodil (Scholastic News Non-fiction Readers) by Ellen Weiss

• Wales (Enchantment of the World, Second Series) by Ann Heinrichs (teacher reference) • Daffodil by Emily Jenkins

Vi

ew

• Science – Living things: Plants and animals – recognise and describe the parts of some living things

100

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• Information can be relayed in many ways. The diagrams illustrate that information may be imparted using this structure.

• Pupils might need a dictionary to complete question 1. Introduction

• Teachers should show pupils a daffodil and explain that this flower is the national flower of Wales. They should explain that daffodils are traditionally worn by Welsh people on St David’s Day (1 March).

• Discuss the structure of the instructions. Talk about why the ‘You will need’ section is useful, and why these things need to be collected before making the daffodils. Discuss why the instructions are written in steps. Why do pupils think some of the steps have illustrations? How do these help?

e

• Teachers may wish to have the pupils locate Wales on a map of the United Kingdom.

m pl

Introduction

Development

Development

• Remind pupils how to use a dictionary efficiently; i.e. alphabetical order and retrieval by 1st, 2nd and 3rd letters. Give each pupil, or pair of pupils, a dictionary. Write words from the text onto the board for pupils to find. • If the pupil’s answer to question 8 on page 104 is ‘No’, ask them to explain why. Discussion may elicit the response that a particular piece of information would have helped make the text easier for that reader to understand. Discuss in relation to the diagrams. Would the text have been understood without the diagrams?

sa

• Read and discuss the procedure with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

in g

• During discussion of the procedure, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the procedure to others they have read or listened to. • Discuss the meaning of any new or unfamiliar words and phrases. Some vocabulary is subject-specific relating to art and craft activities.

• Discuss the layout of the procedure/instructions with pupils so they can see how numbered, concise steps make it easier to follow the instructions. The instructions usually begin with an imperative (command) verb.

• Discuss the comprehension activities on page 104, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work • Ask pupils to draw illustrations for the steps where illustrations have not been provided in the text. • In pairs, or individually, have pupils attempt to make the daffodils by following the instructions. Review

• Pupils write a procedure for completing an everyday household chore; for example, washing up a cup, emptying the bin, dusting and polishing an ornament.

• As a class, discuss whether any of the steps were difficult to illustrate. Why was this?

ew

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

• Less able pupils could work in pairs to write their instructions.

Vi

• More able pupils need to have at least five steps to complete their task.

• When the pupils were following the instructions to make the daffodils, were there any that caused confusion? Which ones? How would they improve the wording of these confusing instructions?

Review

• Pupils should read their instructions to their group. The group should act them out. Do the group think the instructions are well-written?

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

101


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers Assessment

Word Reading Teacher Information

C8

Ask pupils to write the following list of words in alphabetical order and to then place each word in a sentence which best shows its meaning.

C12

Ask the pupils to write a procedure, using steps, to explain how to complete a simple personal hygiene task. For example, how to brush their teeth or wash their hands.

WR2

Present the following list of words to the pupils and ask them to sort them according to the number of syllables they contain.

• The activities on page 105 focus on syllables and a range of suffixes.

• Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading the ‘Steps’, ask pupils to underline the first word in each step. Explain that these are command or imperative verbs that give commands or instructions.

e

Introduction

• The ‘il’, ‘al’ and ‘le’ words in question 2 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon. • Explain that the /l/ sound at the end of words has several spellings. The ‘-le’ spelling is the most common; for example, apple, table. The ‘-el’ spelling is used after m, n, r, s, v, w and sometimes s; for example, travel, towel. Other spellings are ‘-al’ (animal, metal) and ‘-il’ (pencil, nostril).

Answers

Comprehension

1. (a) instructions – directions or orders; steps (b) half – one of two equal parts (c) petal – coloured segments of a flower (d) marker – a felt-tip pen with a broad tip (e) straw – a hollow tube for sucking up liquid 2. the stem

sa

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ing’. Tell pupils that this suffix is used to express the action of a verb. Tell pupils that this suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. feeding. However, root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. having, coming.

m pl

daffodil, strong, fold, between, other, instructions, straw, national, marker, similar, petal, glue

Development

in g

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ly’. Tell pupils that words ending in ‘-ly’ usually tell how or how often something is done. Explain that the suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. hourly, sadly. However root words ending in ‘-y’ with a consonant before it will need a spelling change; e.g. day/daily, happy/ happily.

• Discuss the word reading activities on page 105, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

3. Fold the square in half. 4. Roll the petals around the marker over the first sheet of paper. 5. Placing the daffodil in a vase to display. 6. Tissue paper is soft and light (it makes it easy to fold). 7. The water will wet and destroy the paper. 8.–9. Answers will vary. Word Reading 1. (a) tissue, marker, display, flower, paper, scissors, upright, between, gently (b) daffodil, similar, national, instructions, rectangle, carefully

• More able pupils should aim to create a longer list than less able pupils.

2. (a) daffodil, national/petal, rectangle (b) Teacher check

ew

• In pairs, pupils should find and list words with an ‘-ly’ suffix.

‘-ly’ suffix

(The ‘y’ changes to ‘i’ before adding ‘-ly’)

carefully kindly badly

happily merrily prettily

Vi

‘-ly’ suffix

(Added onto end of root word)

3. (a) making, hanging, holding (b) e (c) gently, carefully (d) e 4. (a) -ing, -er (b) -ing, -ed, -er (c) -ing, -ed, -er

Review

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of ‘-ly’ words.

102

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


How to make a Daffodil – 1

Text

The daffodil is the national flower of Wales. Read the instructions for making a tissue paper daffodil. You will need:

e

• strong glue • scissors • yellow tissue paper • green ‘bendy’ straw • thick marker or round object of similar width

m pl

Steps:

ew

in g

sa

1. Cut out paper square (13 cm x 13 cm). 2. Fold square in half and cut along fold to make two rectangles. 3. Take one rectangle and roll paper around marker. (About half of paper should hang over.) 4. Twist paper hanging over around marker. 5. Take other rectangle, fold in half and then fold in half again. 6. Holding folded rectangle upright, cut petal shape. 7. Unfold and make a small cut between each petal. 8. Roll petals around marker over first sheet of paper. Twist ends around marker again. 9. Cut off short end of ‘bendy’ straw. 10. Drop glue onto inside of straw and gently push in flower. Allow to dry. 11. Slide marker carefully out. 12. Bend straw down and gently fold out each petal. 13. Display in an empty vase with others.

Vi

How did you do? Do you think you could follow the instructions to make daffodils?

When I read this procedure, I could read: My learning log www.prim-ed.com

all of it. Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

103


How to make a Daffodil – 2

Comprehension

1. Match each word to its meaning. • coloured segments of a flower

(b) half

• a hollow tube for sucking up liquid

(c) petal

• directions or orders; steps

(d) marker

• one of two equal parts

(e) straw

• a felt-tip pen with a broad tip

e

(a) instructions •

m pl

2. What part of the daffodil is the ‘bendy’ straw?

3. What must you do to the tissue paper just before cutting two rectangles?

sa

4. What must you do right after making small cuts between each petal?

5. What is the last step in the procedure?

in g

6. What sort of paper is tissue paper? Is it stiff and hard or soft and light?

ew

7. Why does the vase need to be empty of water?

8. Are the instructions clear enough that you think you could easily make a No

Vi

daffodil? Yes

9. What other craft objects have you made using paper?

My learning log 104

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


How to make a Daffodil – 3

Word Reading

1. (a) Circle the words with two syllables. (b) Underline the words with three syllables. daffodil display paper between

tissue flower scissors gently

similar national rectangle carefully

marker instructions upright

-al

-le

m pl

-il

e

2. (a) Find and write words in the text with the following endings.

(b) Write a sentence using two of these words.

sa

3. (a) Find and write three words in the text with the suffix ‘-ing’.

in g

(b) One of these words dropped a letter before adding ‘-ing’. Which letter?

(c) Find and write two words in the text with the suffix ‘-ly’.

ew

(d) One of these words dropped a letter before

adding ‘-ly’. Which letter?

Vi

4. Tick the suffixes that can be added to the following root words. (a) read

-ing

-ed

-er

(b) twist

-ing

-ed

-er

(c) fold

-ing

-ed

-er

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I can count syllables in different words. I can recognise words ending in ‘-il’, ‘-al’ and ‘-le’. I can add suffixes to root words.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

105


King Midas

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C3 C13 C14

• • •

Read aloud to share a text with an audience Respond to characters and events in a story Explore different attitudes and feelings by imagining what it would be like to be certain characters

Comprehension

C7 C16 C18

• • •

Develop comprehension strategies Read a narrative or expository piece and summarise it Write about favourite moments, characters and events in stories

Word Reading

WR3 WR4

• •

WR5

Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words Continue to build a sight vocabulary of common words from [books] read and from personal experience

m pl

e

Text

Additional Teacher Information Definition of Terms

question word phrase letter

Suggested Reading

in g

Legend A legend is told as though the events were actual historical events. Legends may or may not be based on an elaborated version of a historical event. A legend is usually about human beings, although gods may intervene in some way throughout the story.

text

sa

Myth A myth is a story which explains a belief, practice or a natural phenomenon. Myths do not always have a basis in fact or a natural explanation.

Terminology for Pupils

• King Midas and the Golden Touch by Al Perkins

Links to other Curriculum Areas

• King Midas (Silver Penny Stories) by Kathleen Olmstead

Vi

ew

• History – Story: Stories – listen to, discuss, retell and record a range of myths and legends from different cultural, ethnic and religious backgrounds in Ireland and other countries

106

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Text

Comprehension

Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• This Greek myth is the story of King Midas, the rich king who wanted gold, at any price. He was granted a wish and wished that everything he touched turned to gold. He quickly realised that this was not as good as he first imagined.

• See the information under the ‘Text’ section. Introduction

e

• Pupils take it in turns to summarise each paragraph in their own words.

Introduction • Ask pupils if they have ever made a wish. What was it? Did it come true? Explain that there is a myth from Ancient Greece that tells us about one man who got his wish, but that he soon came to regret it. Ask the pupils if they have ever heard the expression, ‘Be careful what you wish for’. Explain to them that this story is an example of this saying.

Development

Development

• Discuss the comprehension activities on page 110, then allow pupils to complete the page independently.

m pl

• Compare their answers to question 5 which asks pupils to discuss the character of King Midas.

sa

• Read and discuss the myth with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

• Discuss the sequence of events in a story. Photocopy the text again and this time cut it into paragraphs. In pairs, have the pupils rearrange the story so the correct sequence is shown. Remind them to constantly reread their paragraphs to see that the story makes sense.

in g

• During discussion of the myth, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the myth with others they have read or listened to. • Discuss the character of King Midas. Did he regret his wish? Would he do the same again?

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work • Have pupils represent this myth as a cartoon comic strip. Have them divide a page into 6 boxes. They need to think which events will go into each box. The pictures will need to be in the correct sequence. More able pupils could divide their page into 8 or 12 boxes. They should also include a caption or speech bubbles in each picture, explaining the action. Review • Display the comic strips on a class noticeboard. At an assembly, have the pupils take their pictures and orally recount the myth of King Midas.

ew

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

Vi

• Ask pupils to work in pairs to think of a wish they would both like. Then ask them to think of all the good things that would happen if the wish came true. Ask them to think about any negative things that might happen. They should write the wish they discussed on top of a page and then they should divide the page in half and use the headings ‘Good things’ and ‘Bad things’. They should write down as many things as they can think of under the different headings. • Ask pupils to write a simple diary entry from the point of view of King Midas, explaining his feelings about what happened. More able pupils could also try writing a diary entry from the point of view of King Midas’s daughter. Review • Ask some of the pairs to discuss what wish they came up with and the positive and negative things that could happen. Other members of the class could volunteer other possible negative/positive consequences that the pair did not think of.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

107


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers Assessment

Word Reading Teacher Information • The activities on page 111 focus on words with similar meanings, common sight words, understanding the meaning of words and opposites.

C3

Ask pupils to come up individually and choose their favourite paragraph to read aloud.

C18

Ask pupils to write about their favourite part of the myth. Why is it their favourite part?

WR5

Present pupils with the following list of words and ask them to put each one in a sentence which shows its meaning.

Introduction

Answers

m pl

Comprehension Comprehension

• The words in question 1 have been chosen to help pupils develop an idea of synonymous meanings. For example, the words ‘selfish’ and ‘greedy’ are synonymous. Have the pupils come up with other synonyms that they know of. • Question 2 requires pupils to search for and identify common sight words. • Question 3 focuses on pupils understanding the meaning of the selected words. The teacher can discuss the meaning of each word and ask the pupils to orally come up with alternative sentences for each word.

2. a table and a chair

3. King Midas turned his daughter into a gold statue. ____(3)____

Everything he had touched changed back to normal. ____(5)____ King Midas asked for a wish to turn everything to gold. ___(2)___ King Midas lived in a big castle with his daughter. ____(1)____

King Midas washed his hands in the river. ____(4)____ 4. (a) True (b) False (c) False (d) True (e) True 5. Teacher check Word Reading

1. (a) beautiful (b) afraid (c) greedy (d) curse (e) instantly (f) generous

in g

• Question 4 asks pupils to locate the opposites of some words. The words required can all be found in the text.

1. It says he was very rich in the first line and he lived in a wonderful castle.

sa

Development

• Discuss all the word reading activities on page 111, then allow the pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

2. daughter (5)

could (2)

thought (1)

everything (5)

3. (a) castle (b) perhaps (c) eager (d) idea (e) statue 4. (a) beautiful (b) better (c) afraid (d) generous (e) grateful (f) king 5. true…false; clever…silly; everything…nothing

ew

• Pupils could work in pairs to make up sentences with opposites from question 4 in them. For example, The ugly witch tried to destroy the beautiful princess. Review

e

daughter, could, thought and everything

• Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to circle the word ‘idea’. After reading, discuss this word and point out to the pupils that when we say this word we say three of the four letters. Which letter is not said? (e)

Vi

• As a class, compare pupils’ list of sentences. Which sentences were the most creative?

108

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


King Midas – 1

Text

Read the myth.

m pl

One day, King Midas found Silenus asleep in the garden. Silenus was the servant of Dionysus, the wine god. King Midas invited Silenus to stay in the palace until he was able to continue his journey. Dionysus was so grateful to see how well his servant had been treated that he granted Midas one wish.

e

King Midas was a very rich man. He lived in a wonderful castle with his beautiful daughter. He loved riches almost as much as his daughter.

‘I want everything I touch to turn to gold!’ said King Midas. ‘Are you sure?’ asked Dionysus.

‘Yes!’ replied King Midas. ‘What could be better?’

sa

Dionysus promised that the following day, his wish would come true.

in g

The next day, King Midas rose early, eager to see what would happen. He touched a table and a chair. They turned to gold! It was true! His wish had come true! Everything he touched turned to gold! King Midas was very happy. He sat down to eat breakfast but as soon as he touched the food, it turned to gold. He could not eat or drink anything! Everything was cold, hard gold! ‘Perhaps this wish was not such a good idea after all!’ he thought. He began to feel afraid. If he couldn’t eat or drink he would die!

ew

At that moment, his beloved daughter came into the room. Without thinking, he hugged her. Instantly, she became a gold statue. ‘What have I done?’ cried King Midas. ‘I have been a greedy, silly man! The thing I loved most has been taken from me! Help me, Dionysus!’

Vi

Dionysus felt sorry for King Midas. He told him to wash his hands in the river and the curse would be removed. King Midas ran to the river and washed his hands. Then he ran back home. Everything he had touched had changed back to normal. He hugged his daughter happily. From that day, King Midas was a kind, generous man. He was very grateful for everything he had—especially his lovely daughter. When I read this myth, I could read:

My learning log www.prim-ed.com

all of it. Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

109


King Midas â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2

Comprehension

1. How do we know that King Midas was rich?

e

2. What were the first things that King Midas turned to gold?

3. Number these in the correct order (1 to 5).

m pl

King Midas turned his daughter into a gold statue.

Everything he had touched changed back to normal.

King Midas asked for a wish to turn everything to gold.

sa

King Midas lived in a big castle with his daughter. King Midas washed his hands in the river. 4. True or False?

in g

(a) King Midas turned his food into gold.

(b) King Midas wanted more gold because he was poor. (c) King Midas washed his hands in a bucket of water.

ew

(d) King Midas was very grateful for his lovely daughter. (e) King Midas became a generous person. 5. Do you think King Midas is a nice person?

Yes

No

Vi

Say why you think this.

My learning log 110

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


King Midas â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 3

Word Reading

1. Find the words in the story that mean the same as: (a) pretty

(b) scared

(c) selfish

(d) bad spell

(e) straight away

(f) very giving

could

thought

everything

m pl

daughter

e

2. Find how many times these words are in the story.

3. Write in the correct word into its sentence. eager

perhaps

idea

(b) I might go to the cinema or instead. (c) I was

castle

on top of the hill is haunted.

sa

(a) Some people say the

statue

I will go to the shop

to open my surprise birthday present. became rich.

in g

(d) The man who came up with a brilliant (e) In the town there is a

of a famous person.

4. Find the opposite of these words.

(b) worse

ew

(a) ugly

(c) brave

(d) greedy

(e) ungrateful

(f) queen

Vi

5. Colour each pair of opposites the same colour.

true

clever

everything

nothing false silly

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I can find words that mean the same. I can find the opposites of words. I can put words into correct sentences.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Comprehension and Word Reading

111


Tattercoats

Teacher Information

Curriculum Links

Activity

Code

Objective

C1 C3 C10

• • •

Develop reading skills through engaging with reading material appropriate to his/her stage of development Read aloud to share a text with an audience Express a more formal response by giving a considered personal opinion of a [book] in oral or in written form

Comprehension

C9 C13 C15 C16

• • • •

Predict future events and outcomes in a [book] that is being read aloud Respond to characters and events in a story Read a story and write it in his/her words Read a narrative or expository piece and summarise it

Word Reading

WR2 WR3 WR4

• • •

WR5

Learn about the sounds associated with the beginning of a word or syllable Learn about common word endings, word families and roots of words Use knowledge of letter-sound relationships (grapho/phonic cues), grammar and syntax (syntactic cues) and surrounding text (contextual cues) when attempting to identify unfamiliar words Continue to build a sight vocabulary of common words from [books] read and from personal experience

m pl

Additional Teacher Information

Character A person in a novel, play or film.

in g

Fairy tale A fairy tale is a short story usually featuring fantasy characters such as elves, dragons, hobgoblins, sprites or magical beings. It is often set in the distant past. A fairy tale usually begins with the phrase ‘Once upon a time …’ and ends with the words ‘… and they lived happily ever after’. Charms, disguises and talking animals may also appear in a fairy tale.

Terminology for Pupils

sa

Definition of Terms Text A book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form.

fairy tale character word phrase text opinion story sound letter singular noun

apostrophe suffix

Suggested Reading • Tattercoats by Margaret Greaves • Cinderella by Marcia Brown • Tattercoats, and other Folk Tales by Winifred Finlay

Vi

ew

Singular Denoting or referring to just one person or thing.

e

Text

112

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Notes and Guidance

Comprehension

Text Teacher Information

Teacher Information

• ‘Tattercoats’ is an English fairy tale. Similar tales include ‘Cap O’ Rushes’ and ‘Cinderella’.

• Pupils may need a dictionary to complete question 5. Introduction

Development

Development

• Discuss the comprehension activities on page 116, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. • Compare their answers to questions that may have varied answers, especially questions 4 and 6–9. Pupils should justify whether or not they think the goose herder’s music was important to the story.

sa

• Read and discuss the fairy tale with the pupils to gauge their understanding of what they have listened to or read. Encourage pupils to utilise phonic knowledge and skills while reading so that decoding becomes automatic and reading more fluent. Correct inaccuracies during reading and question pupils to ensure they are making sense of the text. Highlight common exception words so pupils become more familiar with these, which will aid fluency. While reading, observe to see how pupils use phonic skills and knowledge to decode words. Assist those having difficulty decoding words.

• Pupils take it in turns to retell the fairy tale in their own words, sequencing the events correctly. They should also try to explain why the rich, old lord hated his grandchild, why the servants were unkind to the child, and why the nurse wanted Tattercoats to meet the prince.

e

• Ask pupils if they have ever read, or have had read to them, ‘Cinderella’. Ask pupils to tell the story of Cinderella in their own words.

m pl

Introduction

• During discussion of the fairy tale, encourage pupils to employ courteous listening skills such as turn-taking and listening to the points of views of others. Pupils may like to compare the fairy tale with others they have read or listened to.

in g

• Read the story of ‘Cinderella’ to the pupils. Discuss the similarities and differences between ‘Cinderella’ and ‘Tattercoats’. List them in a table on the board. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work • Pupils should write a fact file about the characters in the story. • Less able pupils should write a fact file just on Tattercoats, whilst more able pupils could also produce one on the goose herder, the old lord and the prince. Review • As a class, compare pupils’ answers to questions 6 and 9 as their answers will vary and will be interesting to compare.

• Pupils should decide which story they prefer – ‘Cinderella’ or ‘Tattercoats’.

ew

• Less able pupils should write a sentence to say which story they prefer and why.

• More able pupils should write a paragraph about each story, saying what they like/dislike about each and why. Review

Vi

• Pupils should share their work in a small group.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

113


Notes and Guidance (continued)

Assessment and Answers Assessment

Word Reading C9

• The activities on page 117 focus on the soft ‘g’ sound, the suffixes ‘-es’ and ‘-ed’, apostrophes and the ‘or’ sound.

Ask the pupils to predict what happened to the goose herder. What part did he play in the tale? Why was his music important? Where might he have gone and what might he do in the future?

C16

Ask the pupils to write a short summary of this fairy tale using bullet points. Remind them to include the most important events, in the correct order.

Introduction

WR2

Call out (or write on the board) the following words and have pupils place them in two different grids, according to the ‘g’ sound.

e

• Reread the text, but first explain to pupils that the focus will be on words. While reading, ask pupils to find the apostrophes in paragraphs 3 and 5 and circle them. They can discuss why the apostrophes have been used.

germ, gang, gem, goat, ghost, giant, giggle, magic, giraffe, leg, gas, energy, gym, gap

m pl

Teacher Information

Answers

Development

Comprehension

• The soft ‘g’ sound is used before the letters e, i and y; for example, gem, magic, energy. There are some exceptions. • Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-es’. This suffix is added to nouns and verbs. Explain that root words ending in ‘-y’ with a consonant before it will need a spelling change; e.g. hurry/hurries, baby/babies.

2. villain/evil person; king; handsome prince; poor, beautiful girl/heroine; helper/friend of heroine (goose herder plays a part similar to fairy godmother) 3. Once upon a time, … lived happily ever after 4. Answers will vary.

5. (a) increased, grew up

ew

• Discuss the word reading activities on page 117, then allow pupils to complete the page independently. Differentiated Individual/Paired/Group Work

Vi

• In pairs, pupils should find and list words with an ‘or’ sound spelt ‘a’ before ‘l’ or ‘ll’; for example, ball, call, walk, talk, already. • More able pupils could group words according to rhyme; e.g. all, ball, call, fall. Review

(b) tattered

(c) mourn

(d) herder

6.–7. Answers will vary.

8. Answers will vary but may include: kind, sincere etc. 9. Yes, Answers should indicate the music made Tattercoats feel happier and the music helped the prince see the ‘real’ Tattercoats despite the tattered clothes. Word Reading

in g

• Discuss and list words which end with the suffix ‘-ed’. Tell pupils that this suffix is usually added straight onto the end of most root words without any spelling change; e.g. walked. Root words ending in ‘y’ need to change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding the suffix; e.g. cried. Root words ending in ‘e’ need to drop the ‘e’ before adding the suffix; e.g. danced. Root words ending in a short vowel and consonant need to double the final consonant before adding the suffix; e.g. begged.

1. His daughter died giving birth to her.

sa

• The soft ‘g’ and ‘or’ words in questions 1 and 4 should be spoken out loud, so pupils can hear the specific phonemes focused upon.

1. (a) soft ‘g’

(b) scrounge

(c) ge

2. (a) lady

(b) worry

(c) y

3. (a) Tattercoats, hand

(b) son, bride

4. (a) ball

(b) Teacher check; e.g. tall, wall

5.

‘e’ at end of word dropped before adding ‘-ed’

‘y’ changed to ‘i’ before adding ‘-ed’

last consonant doubled before adding ‘-ed’

lived beloved died decided hated danced refused invited continued increased

bullied

travelled begged

• As a class, compare pupils’ lists of words. How many words were found altogether?

114

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com


Tattercoats – 1

Text

Read the fairy tale. Once upon a time, there lived a rich, old lord. His beloved daughter had died giving birth to his granddaughter. For this reason, he hated the child and swore to have nothing to do with her. All day and night, he mourned his dead daughter.

e

The granddaughter grew up wearing torn clothes and scrounging food scraps from the kitchen. The servants bullied her and called her ‘Tattercoats’. Tattercoats spent her days in the fields with a goose herder. He played his pipe and Tattercoats danced among the geese, trying to forget her worries.

sa

m pl

One day a king travelled through the land. He wanted to give a grand ball and invite all the ladies. One would become his son’s bride. When the old lord heard this, he decided to meet the king. The old nurse begged him to take Tattercoats with him, but he refused. All the servants laughed at the idea. So the lord went to meet the king taking many gifts. Tattercoats remained behind. Sadly, Tattercoats went to the goose herder. He suggested they go to town to see the king. The two friends danced and played merrily down the road.

in g

Before they had gone far, they met a handsome, young man dressed in rich clothes. He asked for directions to the castle. The goose herder played his pipe. The young man saw how lovely Tattercoats was despite her tattered clothes. He fell in love with her and begged her to become his wife. She refused because a rich man could not marry a goose girl. To prove how serious he was, the young man invited Tattercoats to come to the ball like all the other young ladies.

Vi

ew

At midnight, Tattercoats and the goose herder appeared at the ball. The young man took Tattercoats’ hand and presented his bride to his father, the king. The goose herder played his pipe and the clothes Tattercoats wore became beautiful robes. The king was very happy that such a lovely, young lady would marry his son. The sad, old lord, who was at the ball, saw his granddaughter for the first time. His grief and anger increased. The goose herder was never seen again. The old lord went home and continued to mourn his daughter, but Tattercoats and the prince lived happily ever after. When I read this fairy tale, I could read:

My learning log www.prim-ed.com

all of it. Prim-Ed Publishing

most of it.

parts of it.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

115


Tattercoats – 2

Comprehension

1. What happened to make the old lord hate his granddaughter?

2. Which of the characters are commonly found in fairy tales?

e

3. What words and phrases are commonly found in fairy tales?

m pl

4. Choose a word or phrase from the text that you like and write it below.

5. Which word means:

sa

(a) ‘grew bigger’? (b) ‘torn, old’? (c) ‘to show sadness’?

in g

(d) ‘a person moving animals in a group’?

6. What do you think happened to the goose herder?

ew

7. Write your opinion of how the old lord treated his granddaughter.

Vi

8. What kind of person was the prince?

9. Was the goose herder’s music important to the story?

My learning log 116

Yes

No

Why?

While doing these activities: I found Q

easy.

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

I found Q

tricky.

I found Q

Prim-Ed Publishing

fun. www.prim-ed.com


Tattercoats – 3

Word Reading

1. (a) What sound is made by the letter in bold in the word ‘scrounging’? (b) What word does the word ‘scrounging’ come from?

sound as the one in (a) now?

m pl

2. What is the singular noun for the following words?

e

(c) Look at your answer for (b). What letter or letters make the same

(a) ladies (b) worries

(c) What letter changes to become ‘ies’?

(a) Tattercoats’ hand: (b) son’s bride:

sa

3. What does the apostrophe mean in each phrase?

owns the

owns the

in g

4. (a) Find and write a word from the text with the ‘or’ sound spelt ‘a’ before ‘ll’, like ‘all’ and ‘call’.

(b) Think of another word ending in ‘-all’.

ew

5. Find and write words with these suffixes in the text. ‘y’ changed to ‘i’ before adding ‘-ed’

last consonant doubled before adding ‘-ed’

Vi

‘e’ at end of word dropped before adding ‘-ed’

Write Yes or No. My learning log

I can change words from plural to singular. I know about the possessive apostrophe. I can add a range of suffixes to root words.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

117


Can Sharks Talk?

Assessment

Read the explanation. People talk to each other. Can sharks? Sharks are quite intelligent animals. Although they like to live alone, they still communicate with other sharks, but they do this without making a noise.

m pl

e

Sharks use their bodies in different ways to talk. They have excellent hearing so they use this sense to help them communicate. They can sense vibrations in the water. They can hear very low sounds like other sharks moving in the water.

ew

in g

Sharks use their bodies in other ways to talk. They send out vibrations to each other by swimming in different ways and moving their bodies in different ways. This way of communicating is hard for humans to understand.

sa

Sharks talk a lot by fighting or being aggressive. When a shark finds prey, other sharks come to eat it too. They fight to see who keeps the food. For this reason, sharks usually only kill something big enough to swallow immediately. However, some shark fights are friendly and no sharks are hurt or killed.

When males are looking for females to mate with, they talk in another way. They do not make any sounds like whales and dolphins. Instead, male sharks bite female sharks on the back to keep them from moving away. Male sharks can be very aggressive during the mating season.

Vi

Mother sharks are not like humans and other animals. When baby sharks are born, mother sharks do not communicate with them at all. The babies swim away and look after themselves. This makes it hard to find out about how they talk to each other. Scientists donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know a lot about sharks because they live mostly by themselves and are hard to watch. We can only observe them when they come in contact with each other. We do know they talk to each other somehow. Total for this page

118

Reading â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Comprehension and Word Reading

Prim-Ed Publishing

/7

www.prim-ed.com


Name:

Class:

Date:

Can Sharks Talk?

Assessment – Comprehension

1. Tick the word that means almost the same as ‘talk’. noise

vibrations

communicate

1 mark

• movement sharks make in the water.

• an animal that sharks eat.

m pl

Prey is •

3. Sharks have: excellent friends.

e

2. Draw a line to match the start of the sentence to the correct ending.

excellent houses.

excellent hearing.

1 mark

1 mark

word ‘they’ refers to 5. Tick two correct statements.

sa

4. In the paragraph beginning ‘Sharks use their bodies …’, the .

1 mark

(a) Sharks use their bodies to communicate.

in g

(b) Sharks are friendly to each other. (c) Mother sharks do not look after their babies.

1 mark

ew

6. What do you think might happen to baby sharks after they leave their mother?

Vi

1 mark

7. Why is it hard to find out about how sharks talk to each other? Give one reason.

1 mark

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Total for this page

/7

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

119


Name:

Class:

Date:

Can Sharks Talk?

Assessment – Word Reading

1. The word ‘don’t’ is made up of two small words. What are they? will not

2. There are

do not

1 mark

syllables in the word ‘communicate’.

(a)

babies

(b)

sounds

m pl

3. Circle ‘one’ or ‘more than one’ for each word.

1 mark

e

can not

one

more than one

one

more than one

1 mark

-er

-est

sa

4. Tick two suffixes that can be added to ‘low’ to make new adjectives. -ed

-y

1 mark

5. Draw a line to match the homophones. •

(b) buy • (c) here •

• by

in g

(a) for

• hear • four

1 mark

ew

6. What is the root word of ‘moving’? mum

moved

move

humans

1 mark

Vi

7. What suffix has been added to the words ‘swimming’, ‘mating’ and ‘fighting’? -ment

-ing

-less

-ly

1 mark

8. What suffix is the same in ‘friendly’, ‘mostly’, ‘immediately’ and ‘usually’? 1 mark

Total for this page

120

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

/8

Total for this assessment

Prim-Ed Publishing

/15

www.prim-ed.com


Assessment – Teacher Information Can Sharks Talk?

Genre: Explanation Breakdown of question type/content and mark allocation Comprehension

Word Reading 1 mark

Q 1. Contractions

1 mark

Q 2. Understanding words

1 mark

Q 2. Syllables

1 mark

Q 3. Finding information

1 mark

Q 3. Singular and plural

1 mark

Q 4. Understanding pronouns

1 mark

Q 4. Suffixes ‘-er’ and ‘-est’

Q 5. True or false

1 mark

Q 5. Homophones

Q 6. Predicting

1 mark

Q 6. Root words

Q 7. Concluding

1 mark

Q 7. Suffix ‘-ing’

1 mark

Q 8. Suffix ‘-ly’

1 mark

1 mark 1 mark 1 mark

m pl

Sub-total

e

Q 1. Understanding words

Sub-total

Assessment Answers

sa

Record the pupil’s total result for this assessment.

Assessment – Can Sharks Talk? Comprehension .................................................................. Page 119

1. do not

in g

1. communicate

Word Reading .................................................................... Page 120

2. Prey is an animal that sharks eat.

2. 4

3. excellent hearing

3. (a) more than one (b) more than one

4. sharks

5. The following should be ticked:

(a) Sharks use their bodies to communicate.

(c) Mother sharks do not look after their babies.

ew

6. Answers will vary: They might be eaten by bigger sharks./They might fight with other sharks./They may grow up and become big, aggressive sharks.

5. (a) four (b) by (c) hear 6. move 7. -ing 8. -ly

Vi

7. Sharks are difficult to observe.

4. -er, -est

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing

Reading – Comprehension and Word Reading

121

2976IR Reading Comprehension and Word Reading 2nd class  
2976IR Reading Comprehension and Word Reading 2nd class