Poetry frameworks Shape poem
A ‘string poem’ describes a key word. It follows the pattern below.
A ‘shape poem’ can also be called a ‘concrete poem’. The layout looks like the topic of the poem.
A likeness between things that are otherwise not alike: e.g. the heart and a pump
An unreal story of something magical and incredible. The characters sometimes have magical powers or supernatural abilities: e.g. ‘Cinderella’
A short saying expressing wisdom from long ago: e.g. Empty vessels make the most sound.
A story about a person’s life. It is written by another person.
A ‘cinquain’ is a ﬁve-line poem which usually describes something.
An ‘acrostic’ uses the ﬁrst letter of each line to make up the key word. Each line relates to the key word.
An informal way of describing a person, place, thing, feeling or object: e.g. barbie = barbecue Mainly used in spoken language.
A short story which depicts animals as characters with human traits. It usually has a moral to teach: e.g. ‘The hare and the tortoise’
There are two voices in writing: – active voice A way of writing where the subject is performing the action: e.g. Connor built the shed. – passive voice A way of writing where the subject is being acted upon: e.g. The shed was built by Connor.
A story from long ago which explains the creation of certain things. The characters in these stories often have supernatural powers: e.g. ‘Tiddalik the frog’
A ‘Haiku’ is a Japanese poem about nature or the seasons. Each poem is made up of three lines. The poem should have 17 syllables altogether.
A ‘pattern poem’ follows a set pattern. It can be used to describe people, animals or objects.
Use key words and phrases.
Mud Sticky mud Icky sticky mud Gooey icky sticky mud Oozy gooey icky sticky mud Smelly oozy gooey icky sticky mud Black smelly oozy gooey icky sticky mud
Present your notes in a useful way. This will depend on the text format you will be using.
• included enough detail?
Generate: • ideas and thoughts for your writing (These may be events, feelings, information, facts and so on.) • notes and facts that will help you in your writing
• full stops, question marks and exclamation marks • capital letters
Organise: • your ideas, thoughts and notes under the correct headings of your framework (You may ﬁnd it easier to present your ideas, thoughts and notes as a graphic organiser.)
• quotation marks • hyphens, dashes and brackets
• names of people, places, animals and technical terms
Grammar: • a variety of different verbs
Information Information Information Information
Consider the use of:
• commas, colons and semicolons
• made my writing interesting?
• draft paragraph(s) for each heading of your framework.You will be able to use your ideas, thoughts and notes as a base for your writing.
• a working title (This may change at the end.) • the form of text which best suits your purpose. Use the appropriate framework.
Be sure to include:
Topic Event 1
• checked that my information is accurate?
• used suitable language?
• chosen the correct framework for my purpose?
• spelling of any unknown words
Some ways of organising your information include:
Note down only the important facts or points.
Read through your notes soon after writing them to ensure they make sense.
Carefully check the:
• what you are going to write about (purpose) • who you are going to write for (audience)
The best notes are usually short.
Line 1: Full moon is shining; (5 syllables) Line 2: Alone in the night I stand (7 syllables) Line 3: To spy the warm moon. (5 syllables)
Delicious snacks in our backpack Adventure met at every turn Yawning in the evening light Settle down for a restless night
The style of writing that deﬁnes events in such a way that they are not past, present or future; they can be happening at any time: e.g. The whale swims in cold water.
Under the sun Make sure we put our sunblock on Mozzies buzzing round our ears Evening BBQs on the pier Riding our bikes along the track
timeless present tense
A popular story handed down by tradition from early times. The heroes have admirable qualities, such as courage, strength, wisdom and empathy: e.g. Robin Hood
Line 1: Rain (noun; one word or two syllables) Line 2: Cool, refreshing (adjectives; two words or four syllables) Line 3: Filling up my senses (what it does; three words or six syllables) Line 4: Cooling down the thirsty, dry land (feeling or mood; four words or eight syllables) Line 5: Invigorating (repeat line 1 or another adjective to describe line 1; one word or two syllables)
Raindrops falling—splishing, splashing; what an incredible sight!
A short verse or line used to attract attention or be memorable, often associated with advertising. May use rhyme or alliteration.
A poem which tells a simple story. Ballads are sometimes put to music and made into a song.
To say the same thing repeatedly in different words: e.g. The two twins looked identical.
A written work by a person about himself/herself.
dark and gloomy
Line 1: Kittens, kittens, kittens (The key word is written three times) Line 2: Fluffy, white, spotty kittens (Visual description) Line 3: Teeny, tiny, little kittens (Describes the size) Line 4: Playing, rolling, sleeping kittens (Describes what it does/they do) Line 5: Cuddly, cosy, friendly kittens (Describes something interesting) Line 6: Kittens, kittens, kittens (The key word is written three times)
Proofreading and editing checklist
6803RE writing.indd 1
• your work by following a proofreading and editing checklist • your work by sharing the draft with others. Read it aloud and make corrections where necessary.
• interesting adverbs • the correct noun–verb agreement • pronouns that correctly match the noun • interesting adjectives • a variety of suitable conjunctions and prepositions
• the correct tense
• your polished piece of writing to the audience.
• varied sentence lengths and patterns
8/12/05 9:57:56 AM
Line 3: She was often wet
Ice-cream Ice-cream looks like a smooth rainbow Ice-cream feels like ice cold snow Ice-cream sounds like slippery goo It smells so sweet Yummy; it tastes delicious too!
Line 4: But she didn’t fret Line 5: Until she was washed down the drain.
Girl gazelles gobbled gateau while gawkily dancing the gavotte.
Write what is going to be explained.
State what will happen in the end.
Present a series of events that relate to time or cause, or both.You might include diagrams or ﬂow charts, which you will need to comment on.
List any materials you will need to achieve your goal.
Rhyming words sound the same. bubble, trouble sight, height, night Rhythm is a natural beat. It affects the mood of the poem. ‘Are you hiding; one, two, three … Please come out and play with me!’
To describe non-human things in a human way. The tree waved its arms in the wild wind. The thunder growled angrily and the lightning ﬂashed sharply as the kitten hid under the bed.
Outline the steps needed to reach your goal in chronological order. You may wish to use diagrams to illustrate the steps. Additional material such as safety notes, explanations or other comments may be added at any time.
rhyme and rhythm
General and speciﬁc nouns (utensils, ingredients) Words which indicate time order Action/Command verbs Timeless present tense (mix the ingredients; turn the oven to 180 °C) Speciﬁc details (3 teaspoons butter) Speciﬁc instructions (cut carefully into squares)
When do I use it?
To persuade or argue a case for or against a particular point of view.
To tell what happened or to retell events.
Tell who, what, when, where and why.
Give the arguments for and rebut any arguments against. Back up arguments with evidence.
You might restate your position in the conclusion to help the reader make up his or her mind.
Nouns to name ideas, thoughts and opinions Technical terms relevant to the topic Verbs to show action, what is said and thought Timeless present tense Passive voice (am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been) Objective language Conjunctions (however, therefore, although)
Resolution Resolve the problems so things are back to normal even though changes have occurred.
Coda (Optional) Show clearly how the character has changed and what has been learnt.
Conclusion (Optional) You may want to make a personal comment about the subject of the report.
Use Verbs to show action, what is said, felt and thought Past tense (usually) Words which show time order Quoted speech Reported speech Descriptive language to paint a picture First or third person
General nouns (mountains, whales) Action and helping verbs Timeless present tense (are, grow, found) Technical terms which are factual and relevant to the topic Language which is free from personal opinion
When do I use it?
State the problem or your position on the topic.
Use paragraphs with topic sentences to organise the different bundles of information. Object–size, shape and features; dynamics; where it is used or found. Person–characteristics; where he/she lives; what he/she does; achievements. Animal–appearance; behaviour; habitat; breeding. Place–location; facts; features.
Introduce a situation that changes the normal run of events and causes a problem for one or more of the characters.
Orientation Sequence of events Present the events in time order.You may want to comment on the events as you write them.
Conclusion Give your opinion about what has happened in your recount.
Use Precise nouns and pronouns Past tense (made, used, rode) Action verbs Words which show time order Personal responses to events Interesting details
Hints and tips other words for ‘said’ When using direct speech, it is important to use a word which clearly describes ‘how’ the words were said. hollered whimpered yelled whispered called exclaimed cried asked questioned screamed
using conjunctions Most people use ‘and’ when joining sentences. It is more interesting if we vary the conjunctions we use. but because so if however while since until although
using adverbs By describing how something is done, we add interest to our writing. quickly quietly loudly slowly silently promptly gently thoughtfully peacefully faster energetically
using adjectives Using words to paint a vivid picture for the audience helps them to visualise what you mean. long, slender ﬁngers broad, round trunk cold, dark night warm, sunny days long, hot summer twisted, gnarly branches white, sandy beach clear, blue skies smelly, dirty rubbish
using technical terms Words that relate speciﬁcally to the topic are ‘technical terms’. It is important that you use the correct terms when writing factual texts. Sometimes technical terms can also add a sense of realism to your ﬁctional writing. mammals mechanic arid regions arteries
6803RE writing.indd 2
To compare one thing with another. We use the words ‘like’ or ‘as’. as cold as ice as quiet as a mouse as sly as a fox he ate like a pig she sank like a stone they ran like the wind
To tell how to make or do something.
When the sound of the word indicates its meaning. blast zoom splash pitter-patter whoosh crash
To compare two things by saying that one thing is the other. We do not use the words ‘like’ or ‘as’. The morning was a blanket of warmth wrapped around me.
To tell or explore how things work or how they came to be.
Using the same sound at the beginning of words. ‘ﬁve friendly ﬁsh’ Using the same vowel sounds in words which follow each other or are close together. ‘double trouble twins in bubbles’
When do I use it?
alliteration and assonance
Introduce the characters and describe the setting.
When do I use it?
General nouns (e.g. computers, CDs) Words which indicate time order (later, next) Cause and effect relationships (therefore, so) Action verbs Passive voice (am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been) Timeless present tense (are, spins, repeats)
Hints and tips
Introduce your topic. Tell what the object or animal is, who the person is or where the place is.
game player, homework helper, comrade communicator, music downloader, parent confuser, virus attractor!
To entertain, stimulate, motivate, guide or teach.
(Optional) You may want to include an evaluation or interesting comments on what you have explained.
My computer is…
To present information about an object, animal, person or place.
A ‘kenning’ is a literary device which names something using nouns or noun phrases and not its actual name. Anglo-Saxons often used kennings.
When do I use it?
A ‘tongue twister’ is made up of words beginning with the same letters or sounds. It does not need to make sense. It is meant to be said quickly and repeated several times.
When do I use it?
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher.
Line 2: Who loved to get caught in the rain
A ‘sense poem’ uses our ﬁve senses to describe something. Each line uses a different sense.
A ‘limerick’ is a nonsense poem. The sillier the better. It is made up of ﬁve lines. Lines 1, 2 and 5 rhyme and have the same number of syllables. Lines 3 and 4 rhyme and have the same number of syllables.
Line 1: There was an old woman from Spain
8/12/05 9:58:08 AM