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Science (Book 3)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing® 2013 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2011 ISBN 978-1-84654-579-5 PR– 6695

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

Titles in this series:

Science Book 1 (Ages 5-6) Science Book 2 (Ages 6-7) Science Book 3 (Ages 7-8) Science Book 4 (Ages 8-9) Science Book 5 (Ages 9-10) Science Book 6 (Ages 10+)

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Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

View all pages online

Website: www.prim-ed.com


Foreword Science – Books 1-6 is a comprehensive series of science books for primary schools. Science literacy texts introduce concepts and are supported by practical hands-on activities, predominantly experiments. Science investigative skills, and the requirement for pupils to work scientifically, underpin all topics. Science is a complementary resource to the previously released Prim-Ed Publishing series, Primary science. Science – Book 1 (Ages 5-6) Science – Book 2 (Ages 6-7) Science – Book 3 (Ages 7-8) Science – Book 4 (Ages 8-9) Science – Book 5 (Ages 9-10) Science – Book 6 (Ages 10+)

Contents

Science investigative skills overview ....................................... vii

Report format ....................................................................... viii

Experiment format ................................................................. ix

Curriculum links ........................................................... x – xvii

How can changing materials from solid to liquid be useful? ........................................................................ 38–40

Investigating harmful solids and liquids .................................41

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Teachers notes ................................................................. iv – vi

Earth and space sciences .............................................. 42–49

What are Earth’s resources?............................................. 42–44

Investigating Earth’s resources ............................................... 45

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Titles in this series are:

What are living things ? ....................................................... 2–4

How do we use Earth’s resources?................................... 46–48

Space junk or proof of life? ..................................................... 5

How is butter made?............................................................... 49

How do animals change as they grow? ............................... 6–8

Physical sciences .......................................................... 50–81

What will it look like? .............................................................. 9

Where does sound come from?......................................... 50–52

What is the life cycle of a butterfly? ................................. 10–12

Make a simple guitar.............................................................. 53

The life cycle of a silkworm moth ...........................................13

How is sound made? ........................................................ 54–56

Chemical sciences ........................................................ 14–41

See sound vibrations .............................................................. 57

What is it made of? ......................................................... 14–16

What is sound like? .......................................................... 58–60

Which material makes the best plane? ................................... 17

Coathanger experiment .......................................................... 61

What can different materials do? .................................... 18–20

How do scientists use what they know about sound? ........ 62–64

What do the recycling symbols mean? ................................... 21

Make a simple hearing aid ..................................................... 65

How can materials be combined? ................................... 22–24

What is heat and how is it produced? ............................... 66–68

Jelly crystals and water: a great combination ......................... 25

Handy experiments ................................................................ 69

Why are materials combined? .......................................... 26–28

How does heat travel? ...................................................... 70–72

Just add water!....................................................................... 29

Spoonfuls of experiments ........................................................ 73

What is the difference between a solid, a liquid and a gas? ........................................................... 30–32

What is a thermometer? ....................................................74–76

What’s the temperature? .......................................................... 77

Do solids, liquids and gases have weight? .............................. 33

How can heat affect us and things around us? ...................78–80

What happens when solids and liquids are heated and cooled? ..................................................................... 34–36

Magic balloon trick ................................................................ 81

The chocolate experiment ..................................................... 37

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Biological sciences ......................................................... 2–13

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SCIENCE – Book 3


Teachers notes Each book is divided into three or four sections, divided by shaded tabs down the side of each page. The four sections are: biological sciences, chemical sciences, Earth and space sciences and physical sciences. Activities to enable pupils to appreciate the work of scientists are included in all sections. Science investigative skills are included in all units. The skills utilised are listed on each teachers page. Each section is divided into a number of four-page units, each covering a particular aspect and following a consistent format. The four-page format of each unit consists of: • a teachers page • pupil page 1, which is a science literacy text about the concept with relevant diagrams or artwork • pupil page 2, which includes comprehension questions about the literacy text • pupil page 3, which involves a hands-on activity such as an experiment. FOUR-PAGE FORMAT Teachers page

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The first page in each four-page format is a teachers page which provides the following information:

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• A shaded tab gives the section.

• The title of the four-page unit is given.

• The content focus (the particular aspect of the unit covered in that set of four pages) is given.

• The investigative skills focus covered within the four pages is set out.

• Answers and explanations are provided where appropriate for pupil pages 2 and 3 (the comprehension questions relating to the text and the final activity in the set of four pages).

• Preparation states any material or resources the teacher may need to collect to implement a lesson, or carry out an experiment or activity.

• Background information, which includes additional information for teacher and pupil use and useful websites relating to the topic of the section, expands on the unit.

SCIENCE – Book 3

• The lessons provides information relating to implementing the lessons on the following pupil pages.

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Teachers notes FOUR-PAGE FORMAT (continued) Pupil page 1 The second page in the four-page format is a science literacy text which introduces the topic. This page provides the following information:

• A shaded tab down the side gives the section.

• The title of the unit is given. This is in the form of a question to incorporate science investigative skills and overarching ideas. • Instructions are given for reading the text.

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• The science literacy text is provided.

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• Relevant diagrams or artwork enhance the text, or are used to assist pupil understanding of the concepts.

Pupil page 2

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The second pupil page consists of a series of questions or activities relating to the literacy text. They aim to gauge pupil understanding of the concepts presented in the text.

• The title, which is the same as the text page, is given.

• A shaded tab gives the section.

• Questions or activities follow. These relate to the text on the previous page.

Where relevant, a question relating to the work of scientists may be included as the final question on this page. This question is indicated by the icon shown to the left. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE – Book 3


Teachers notes FOUR-PAGE FORMAT (continued) Pupil page 3 The third pupil page provides a hands-on activity. It may be an experiment, art or craft activity, research activity or similar.

• A shaded tab gives the section.

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• The title is given. This will be different from the previous two pages, but will be related to the concept focus of the unit.

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• An adapted procedure for an experiment, craft activity or a research activity is given.

The work of scientist units and questions

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Some four-page units are related to the work of scientists.

Where the work of scientists questions occur within other units, they are indicated by the use of the icon. Explanations and answers relating to these questions are given on the appropriate teachers page.

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Science investigative skills overview Biological sciences PAGES

Questioning and predicting

Processing and analysing data and information

Planning and conducting

Evaluating

Communicating

Evaluating

Communicating

2–5 6–9 10–13

Chemical sciences PAGES

Questioning and predicting

Processing and analysing data and information

Planning and conducting

14–17

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18–21

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22–25 26–29

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30–33 34–37 38–41

PAGES 42–45 46–49

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Earth and space sciences

Questioning and predicting

Planning and conducting

Processing and analysing data and information

Evaluating

Communicating

Evaluating

Communicating

Physical sciences

PAGES

Questioning and predicting

Planning and conducting

Processing and analysing data and information

50–53 54–57 58–61 62–65 66–69 70–73 74–77 78–81

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SCIENCE – Book 3


Report format Title Classification What is it?

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Description

Conclusion What I think about it.

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Experiment format Title Goal Materials

Results

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Steps

Conclusion

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pp2 – 5

• explain how sounds are heard using results of any comparative tests, and the scientific idea that sounds are made by vibrations that travel from a source and through materials (solids, liquids and gases) to the ear

pp10 – 13

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• develop understanding of patterns of pitch and volume, and explore varying sound systematically

• explain that sound travels away from sources and gets fainter as it does so

• identify and name a variety of sources of sound that we can hear with our ears, and how the sounds are made • compare the variety of sources of sound, using simple comparisons, comparative vocabulary and superlative vocabulary

Sound

• compare and group together different kinds of rocks on the basis of their simple physical properties

Rocks

• based on testing, explore differences between materials, including attraction to a magnet, and floating or sinking

Everyday materials

• explain that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition, and that they cannot make their own food; they get nutrition from what they eat

Animals including humans

• identify the requirements of plants for life and growth (air, light, water, nutrients from soil and space) and how they vary from plant to plant

Plants

Year 3 ~ Science

England pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp14 – 17 •

pp18 – 21 •

pp22 – 25 •

pp26 – 29 •

pp30 – 33 •

pp34 – 37 •

pp38 – 41 •

pp42 – 45 •

pp50 – 53 •

pp54 – 57 •

pp58 – 61 •

pp62 – 65 •

pp70 – 73 •

pp78 – 81

pp74 – 77

pp66 – 69

pp46 – 49


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• describe the use of electricity to power common appliances

Electricity

pp2 – 5 •

pp10 – 13

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• explain that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and measure the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celcius (˚C)

• compare and group together materials according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases

States of matter

• describe how plants and animals, including humans, resemble their parents in many features

Evolution and inheritance

• identify and name a variety of living things (plants and animals) in the local and wider environment, using classification keys to assign them to groups

Classification of living things

Year 4 ~ Science

England pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp30 – 33 •

pp34 – 37 •

pp38 – 41 •

pp78 – 81

pp74 – 77

pp70 – 73

pp66 – 69

pp62 – 65

pp58 – 61

pp54 – 57

pp50 – 53

pp46 – 49

pp42 – 45

pp26 – 29

pp22 – 25

pp18 – 21

pp14 – 17


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• explore the effect of heating and cooling some everyday substances

pp14 – 17 •

pp18 – 21 •

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pp10 – 13 •

pp22 – 25

• explore ‘How can we influence change?’

• explore ‘What kind of changes happen, have happened or might happen?’

• explore ’How do things change?’

Change over time

• explore the use of electricity as an energy source and the importance of using it safely

• explore ‘How and why are they used?’

• explore ‘What sources of energy are in my world?’

• explore ‘How do things work?’

Movement and energy

• explore sounds in the local environment

• explore the range of materials used in my area

• explore ‘What is in my world?’

Place

• explore the variety of living things in the world and how we can take care of them

• •

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pp2 – 5

• explore how we grow, move and use our senses, including similarities and differences between ourselves and other children

• explore ‘How do living things survive?’

Interdependence

Key Stage 1 ~ The World Around Us

Northern Ireland pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp26 – 29 •

pp30 – 33 •

pp34 – 37 •

pp38 – 41 •

pp42 – 45 •

pp46 – 49 •

pp50 – 53 •

pp54 – 57 •

pp58 – 61 •

pp62 – 65 •

pp66 – 69 •

pp70 – 73 •

pp74 – 77 •

pp78 – 81


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• begin to investigate how materials may be changed by mixing

• •

pp18 – 21 •

pp22 – 25

• explore the effects of heating and cooling on a range of liquids and solids

• group materials according to their properties

• begin to distinguish between natural and manufactured materials

• describe and compare materials, noting the differences in colour, shape and texture

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pp10 – 13 •

pp14 – 17

• identify and investigate a range of common materials used in the immediate environment

Materials

• identify some household appliances that use electricity

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• measure and compare temperatures in different places in the classroom, school and environment

• know that temperature is a measurement of how hot something is

• become aware of different sources of heat

• design and make a range of simple percussion instruments

• explore ways of making different sounds using a variety of materials

• identify and differentiate between high and low sounds, loud and soft sounds

• recognise and identify a variety of sounds in the environment

Energy and forces

• become familiar with the life cycles of common plants and animals

• appreciate that living things have essential needs for growth

• group and sort living things into sets according to certain characteristics

• recognise and describe the parts of some living things

• develop some awareness of plants and animals from wider environments

pp2 – 5

• observe, identify and explore a variety of living things in local habitats and environments

• recognise that physical growth has taken place since birth

• recognise that all living things grow and change

Living things

1st/2nd Class ~ Science

Republic of Ireland pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp26 – 29 •

pp30 – 33 •

pp34 – 37 •

pp38 – 41 •

pp42 – 45 •

pp46 – 49 •

pp50 – 53 •

pp54 – 57 •

pp58 – 61 •

pp62 – 65 •

pp66 – 69 •

pp70 – 73 •

pp74 – 77 •

pp78 – 81


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pp14 – 17

pp22 – 25 •

pp26 – 29 •

pp30 – 33 •

pp34 – 37 •

pp38 – 41

pp18 – 21

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• describe and compare materials, noting the differences in colour, shape and texture

• recognise that materials can be solid, liquid or gaseous

• identify and investigate a range of common materials in the immediate environment

Materials

• explore the effect of friction on movement through experimenting with toys and objects on various surfaces

• identify ways in which homes, buildings and materials are heated

• understand that the sun is the Earth’s most important heat source

• measure and compare temperatures in different places in the classroom, school and environment and explore reasons for variations

• measure changes in temperature using a thermometer

• recognise that temperature is a measurement of how hot something is

• learn that heat can be transferred

pp42 – 45

• design and make a range of simple string instruments using an increasing variety of tools and materials

pp46 – 49 •

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pp10 – 13 •

pp50 – 53

• understand and explore how different sounds may be made by making a variety of materials vibrate

• recognise and identify a variety of sounds in the environment

• learn that sound is a form of energy

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• become aware of some of the basic life processes in animals

Energy and forces

• develop an increasing awareness of plants and animals from wider environments •

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pp2 – 5

• observe, identify and investigate the animals and plants that live in local environments

Living things

3rd/4th Class ~ Science

Republic of Ireland pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp54 – 57 •

pp58 – 61 •

pp62 – 65 •

pp66 – 69 •

pp70 – 73 •

pp74 – 77 •

pp78 – 81


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• examine a number of ways in which the local environment could be improved or enhanced

pp2 – 5

pp10 – 13

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• recognise and investigate human activities which have positive or adverse effects on local and wider environments

• come to appreciate the need to conserve resources

• become aware of the importance of the Earth’s renewable and non-renewable resources

Environmental awareness and care

• explore some simple ways in which materials may be separated

• investigate how materials may be changed by mixing

• explore the effects of heating and cooling on a range of liquids, solids and gases

• group materials according to their properties

• distinguish between raw and manufactured materials

Materials (continued)

3rd/4th Class ~ Science (continued)

Republic of Ireland pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp14 – 17 •

pp18 – 21 •

pp22 – 25 •

pp26 – 29 •

pp34 – 37 •

pp38 – 41 •

pp42 – 45 •

pp46 – 49 •

pp78 – 81

pp74 – 77

pp70 – 73

pp66 – 69

pp62 – 65

pp58 – 61

pp54 – 57

pp50 – 53

pp30 – 33


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pp2 – 5

• take appropriate action to ensure conservation of materials and resources, and consider the impact of my actions on the environment

pp10 – 13

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• make and test predictions about solids dissolving in water, and relate my findings to the world around me

• explore properties and sources of materials, and choose appropriate materials to solve practical challenges

Materials

• compare generations of families of humans, plants and animals, and begin to understand how characteristics are inherited

Biological systems

• experiment with different ways of producing sound from vibrations, and demonstrate how to change the pitch of a sound

Forces, electricity and waves

• show awareness of different types of energy around me, and show their importance to everyday life and my survival

• distinguish between living and non-living things, and sort living things into groups and explain my decisions

Planet Earth

First Stage ~ Sciences

Scotland pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp14 – 17 •

pp18 – 21 •

pp22 – 25 •

pp26 – 29 •

pp30 – 33 •

pp34 – 37 •

pp38 – 41 •

pp42 – 45 •

pp46 – 49 •

pp50 – 53 •

pp54 – 57 •

pp58 – 61 •

pp62 – 65 •

pp66 – 69 •

pp70 – 73 •

pp74 – 77 •

pp78 – 81


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• know how different sounds are produced and the way that sound travels

• learn about forces of different kinds

How things work

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pp2 – 5 •

pp10 – 13

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• consider what waste is and what happens to local waste that can be recycled and that which cannot be recycled

• understand how some materials are formed or produced

• know about the properties of materials relating to their uses

• compare the features and properties of some natural and made materials

The sustainable Earth

• learn about the plants and animals found in two contrasting (local) environments

Interdependence of organisms

Key Stage Two ~ Science

Wales pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp14 – 17 •

pp18 – 21 •

pp22 – 25 •

pp26 – 29 •

pp30 – 33 •

pp34 – 37 •

pp38 – 41 •

pp42 – 45 •

pp46 – 49 •

pp50 – 53 •

pp54 – 57 •

pp58 – 61 •

pp62 – 65 •

pp66 – 69 •

pp70 – 73 •

pp78 – 81

pp74 – 77


What are living things? The lessons

Defining living things

• Pages 3 and 4 should be used together.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Communicating

• Show the pupils the living plant and the artificial plant. Ask them to describe some of the ways they are the same, then some of the ways they are different. Discuss how one of them is alive or living and the other is not. Discuss what the pupils think defines the real plant as being living. • Read page 3. Discuss and check for understanding. Pupils complete page 4.

Background information

• Early finishers could colour the living things on page 3 in a single colour.

• The things around us can be classified as either living or non-living. The major difference between living and non-living things is that all living things are made up of one or more cells. Living things show the following main life functions at some time:

• The aim of the activity on page 5 is for pupils to use their knowledge of the characteristics of living things to determine if the unidentified objects from space are living or not. Discuss their answer to item 5 and why some pupils may have different answers.

−− Growth: Living things increase in size and can repair some damaged parts. −− Movement: Living things can change their position in their environment by themselves. Plants, while slower and more limited in their movement, can also move.

Answers

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Content focus:

−− Reproduction: Living things create similar organisms to themselves.

1. (a), (c), (d), (e) 2. Living: duck, frog, plant, grass, bee/wasp 3. Teacher check. Answers could include changes such as a plant grows taller, wider, changes colour, grows or drops flowers or fruits, loses leaves, grows leaves, changes shape. 4. Answers could include plants don’t appear to move, eat food or have ‘babies’. 5. Two of the following: butterfly, grass, bird, tree. 6. Teacher check. The work of scientists question Use and influence of science An ecologist is a biologist who studies the relation between organisms and their environment.

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−− Sensitivity: Living things can sense and respond to stimuli in their environment.

−− Respiration: Living things convert energy from the environment (food) for use, a process usually requiring oxygen.

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−− Elimination/Excretion: Life functions create wastes which must be removed from the organism.

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Biological sciences

−− Feeding/Nutrition: All living things need to take in food for the nutrients required for growth and energy.

• Non-living things do not reproduce. They may change and increase in size due to certain natural processes, but do not develop or adapt to the environment. They do not respond to stimuli, require air, food or water. The term ‘non-living’ is introduced to pupils at a later stage in the science curriculum. • Things that were once part of a living thing, such as wood, fruit and cut grass are usually classified as ‘once living’. • Useful websites: −− <http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/characteristics.html> has pictures and descriptions of the seven characteristics of living things.

Page 5 1. Item 1: No. Item 2: Yes. Item 3: No. Item 4: Yes. Item 5: Was probably living since it appeared to be able to move to escape. Discuss this with the pupils. 2. Teacher check: using air, changing food to energy, responding to cold 3. Teacher check: e.g. by putting the item near a fire, by shining a torch on it

−− <http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.colt. alive/> contains a video where pupils look at a variety of images and decide if they are living or non-living. Preparation • Obtain a living pot plant or flowering plant, and an artificial plant.

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Read the text. You know that you are alive. What about the things around you? Which things around you are living, too? Look at the picture below and read what makes something a living thing. The animals were born, have grown and will one day die. Without food, water and air, they will get sick and die. The big rabbit has had babies (offspring) that look similar to it. They can move by themselves in different ways.

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Animals are living things.

The tree started as a seed. It grew and is now a plant that looks like its parent plant. Things around it, like light and heat, can make it change. Parts of the tree can move very slowly. It uses water, air and nutrients. Without these things, it will die.

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Plants are living things.

The children were born, have grown and changed. They need to eat, breathe and drink, otherwise they will get sick or die. When they are adults, they will be able to have babies. They can move by themselves. People are living things. People, plants and animals are living things. We know they are living things because they can grow; change and move by themselves; use food, air and water; use food to make energy; have offspring; and react to the world around them. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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Biological sciences

What are living things? – 1


What are living things? – 2 1. Circle what most living things can do. (a) grow

(b) run on batteries

(d) use food and water

(c) have offspring

(e) breathe air

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2. Look at the pictures below. Decide which things are living. Write the name of each living thing in the box. Living

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3. Living things change. Write two ways a plant can change.

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Use the text on page 3 to complete the following.

4. Why might some people think a plant is not a living thing?

5. Write the names of two living things in the picture on page 3 (other than the children, rabbits and tree) below. 6. Look around you. Write two living things that you can see. Use a dictionary or the internet to find out what an ecologist does. SCIENCE – Book 3

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Astronauts have brought back some items from their space mission. Help them work out if anything is living. They have done some tests and recorded the results in a table. 1. Read the astronauts’ notes in the table. Work out which things are living. Write your answer in the last column.

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It fell when we knocked Item it off the 3 table.

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Yes. It had Item to be kept in 2 a cage.

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Moved when Item the wind 1 blew on it.

Offspring Using food Growth or Respond Living? or seeds or water change to light or (Yes or heat. No) Not that we It didn’t It changed No, not could see. use food or when we even to water. bent it. move from fire. It grew It ran Not that we Tried to bigger. away from could see. eat an astronaut’s fire. finger. A small Not that we It only No. bit broke could see. changed off when when it it was broke. dropped. Had small Used water. It grew It slowly seeds. taller. followed light.

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Movement

Moved very Item slowly. 4 It escaped Item before 5 testing.

2. What else could the astronauts have tested to help work out if the items were living? 3. How might the astronauts have tested for ‘respond to heat or light’? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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Biological sciences

Space junk or proof of life?


How do animals change as they grow? Content focus:

Answers

Animals grow and reproduce, with offspring similar to the parents

Page 8 1. Teacher check. Answers should include an animal that is born alive, such as those mentioned in the text (cow, dog, cat, horse, lion, whale). 2. Hatch from an egg: butterfly, snake, swan, turtle. Born alive: cow, cat, goat, dog, whale. 3. Answers could include two of the following: should indicate that the elephant calf will grow taller and heavier, will lose much of its hair, will become stronger, will grow tusks and will learn. 4. Teacher check. A lamb (baby sheep) has four legs, wool, a similar body shape, and most of the other basic physical features of its parents. 5. Teacher check

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Communicating Background information • Animals come into the world in different ways, but all grow, change and develop into creatures that closely resemble one or both of their parents. This process might take a few weeks or many years. • As an animal grows, it changes in size and shape. Some animals, such as moths and frogs, go through a complete metamorphosis. Others go through an incomplete metamorphosis.

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• A kid is a baby goat. Different goat types have different colourings. A male goat is called a buck or billy and a female adult a doe or nanny. Teacher check final column.

• Useful websites:

Preparation

• A tadpole is a baby frog. The adult is called a frog. Teacher check final column. • For the last section of the chart, pupils should draw and write the name of a baby animal of their choice, then draw and write the name of the adult of that animal. They should also complete the last column. Teacher check all sections.

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• Obtain picture books or pictures of animals and their offspring.

• A poult is a baby turkey (or the young of the pheasant or a similar bird). A male turkey is called a tom and the female a hen. Teacher check final column.

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−− Watch baby chicks hatching at <hhttp://www.msichicago.org/ online-science/videos/video-detail/activities/the-hatchery/>.

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−− <http://www.peepandthebigwideworld.com/about/games. html/> Scroll down to ‘Round and round’ and click to explore examples of different life cycles.

• Pupils will need access to nonfiction books about animals or the internet to complete page 9. The lessons

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Biological sciences

• Pages 7 and 8 should be used together.

• If possible, complete pages 2 to 5 of this book before this lesson. Reflect on the ways the pupils have grown and changed since they were little babies. Ask them if they think animals grow and change in the same way or differently. Ask the pupils to share things they know about how different animals are born, grow and change. • The aim of the activity on page 9 is for the pupils to investigate some unusual names of young animals, and to investigate and record some of the ways an animal’s features change as it grows into an adult. They will also observe how some animals take a long time to go through these changes, while others take a relatively short time.

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How do animals change as they grow? â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1 Biological sciences

Read the text. Most animals have two parents. Some animals start their lives growing inside the bodies of their mothers. They are born alive and usually look like their parents. Cows, dogs, cats, horses, lions and whales are born this way.

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Some animals go through big changes in the way they look. These animals usually hatch from eggs. Frogs and many insects (such as flies and butterflies) change the way they look a number of times before finally looking like their parents.

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Some animal mothers lay eggs. Their babies grow inside the egg and later hatch out. Some animals, like turtles, snakes and lizards, look like their parents. Others, like chickens and swans, change as they grow to look more like their parents.

Animals do different things as they grow. Tiger cubs are playful, but they become fierce, dangerous hunters. Puppies drink milk when they are born but eat meat when they get older. Some chicks are looked after by their mothers but learn to take care of themselves.

No matter how animals look and act when they are born, they all change and grow to become like one or both of their parents. For some animals, like flies, this takes just a few weeks. For others, this takes many years. Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ www.prim-ed.com

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How do animals change as they grow? – 2 1. Write the names of two animals that start their lives the same way as you do. 2. Sort these animals into the table below: butterfly

cow

cat

snake

goat

dog

swan

turtle

Born alive

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3. Write two ways this baby elephant will change before it becomes an adult.

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Hatch from an egg

whale

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Use the text on page 7 to complete the following.

4. Write two ways a baby sheep (lamb) looks like its parents.

5. Draw a line to match each baby animal to its parent.

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Use the internet or books to help you find out what kind of animals these babies are, and what they will look like as adults. 1. Colour each baby animal in the chart correctly. 2. Write what each parent is called, then draw and colour one parent for each animal. 3. Write some changes each animal will go through, and about how long those changes will take, as it grows and changes into an adult. 4. Fill in the last section with an animal of your choice.

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Adult/Parent

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Baby

What changes? How long will the changes take?

poult

tadpole

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Biological sciences

What will it look like?


What is the life cycle of a butterfly? Content focus:

The lessons

Life cycle of a butterfly

• Pages 11 and 12 should be used together. Discuss what the pupils think the term ‘life cycle’ means before reading the text. Ensure they understand terms such as ‘larva’, ‘moult’, ‘pupa’ and ‘chrysalis’.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Communicating

• Pupils should observe, discuss and record the stages of the silkworm moth, using brief notes. Ask them to predict and verify questions you ask and they think of; e.g. Will the silkworms crawl out of the box/ tray? Are silkworms of the same age the same length? Can the adult moth fly? Do silkworms ever rest? How many times do they moult before spinning a cocoon? How long are the silkworms’ cocoons (pupas)?

Background information • Most insects completely change their size, shape and colour during a life cycle of four stages from egg, larva, pupa to adult. This is called complete metamorphosis. These insects include butterflies, moths, flies, ants, bees and beetles.

Answers Page 12 1. 4 – butterfly, 2 – lava, 1 – egg, 3 – pupa/chrysalis 2. Most eating occurs at the larva (caterpillar) stage. 3. It has to moult because it grows so much and needs a larger skin, which doesn’t grow with it. 4. The egg and pupa stages both involve growing inside something, and the insect doesn’t eat during these stages. 5. The eggs are a similar colour to the leaf so they blend in and are harder for other animals to find and eat. 6. Adult butterflies do not eat, so they can’t be eating the farmer’s vegetables. The butterflies do lay eggs onto the leaves that hatch into caterpillars that eat the vegetables. So the vegetables are probably being eaten by caterpillars. The work of scientists question Use and influence of science Possible answers: Butterflies help pollinate flowering plants; as caterpillars and butterflies they provide food for birds, people enjoy watching butterflies.

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• Some insects, such as grasshoppers, mantises, cockroaches, termites and dragonflies, have three stages—egg, nymph and adult. This is called incomplete metamorphosis. There is no pupal stage. The nymph (larva) looks similar to the adult. Moulting takes place as the nymph grows and wings develop externally during this stage. • Insects such as silverfish, springtails and lice have no metamorphosis. They hatch from eggs looking like miniature adults, and grow larger over time as they moult.

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• Useful website:

Preparation

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−− <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hZCAgDBv-CU> Using time lapse photography, this video shows the life cycle of a silkworm moth.

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• Reference books or the internet will need to be available for pupils to answer the last question on page 13.

• Silkworms eat only fresh mulberry leaves. (They can survive on lettuce leaves but will not produce good quality silk.) Pupils who have access to mulberry trees may be able to provide silkworm moths/eggs. School science supply stores or pet supply stores are other sources. An easy way of keeping them is to provide a large cardboard box or a tray lined with newspaper or similar. They need to be kept at room temperature, but not in direct sunlight. Silkworms do not need water, just fresh supplies of mulberry leaves daily. Their home must be cleaned daily to remove droppings and old leaves. Silkworms’ skin is easily damaged, so they should not be overhandled. If it is not possible to have silkworms in the classroom, the above website could be viewed.

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Page 13 Brief description of each stage (in total, about two months): Egg – Adult female moth lays hundreds of tiny, sticky, pale yellow eggs in neat rows on mulberry leaves. Larva – Newly-hatched silkworms look like tiny threads. Take four to six weeks to grow into smooth, creamy, fat worms about six to eight centimetres long. Shed skin (moult) four times. Do not crawl away. Just eat and eat. Stop eating when mature and spin a soft white cocoon around themselves, from one continuous thread of silk. Cocoon hardens in air. Pupa – This stage takes two to three weeks. Adult – This stage lasts about two days. A wet, crumpled moth emerges. Dries to pearly white colour. Cannot fly as body is too heavy in relation to wings. Does not eat. Flutters a bit to find a mate. Males die soon after mating. Females die after laying eggs.

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Read the text. Butterflies, like many insects, have four stages in their life cycle. Each stage they go through changes how they look and what they do. EGG

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An adult female butterfly lays many eggs, usually on the underside of a leaf. The eggs are often a similar colour to the leaf so they are hard for spiders or wasps to find and eat. Inside each egg, a larva begins to grow.

LARVA

ADULT

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The butterfly comes out of the chrysalis. Its wings are wet and crumpled and at first it cannot fly. When the wings dry and harden, the butterfly can fly away. Most butterflies don’t eat – they only

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When the larva (caterpillar) is ready, it hatches out. The caterpillar feeds on the plant and grows. It eats lots, and grows so much that its skin becomes too small and the caterpillar has to moult (its skin splits off). Caterpillars moult several times.

drink.

PUPA When the caterpillar is fully grown it attaches itself to a leaf or twig. It moults one last time. Underneath is a hard case called a chrysalis or pupa. The chrysalis does not move, eat or drink. The butterfly grows inside the chrysalis. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE – Book 3

Biological sciences

What is the life cycle of a butterfly? – 1


What is the life cycle of a butterfly? – 2 1. Number the stages of a butterfly’s life cycle in order from 1 to 4.

butterfly

larva

egg

pupa/chrysalis

2. At which stage does the most eating happen? 3. Why does a caterpillar need to moult?

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4. How are the egg and pupa stages similar?

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5. Why are butterfly eggs a similar colour to the leaf they are laid on?

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Use the text on page 11 to complete the following.

6. A farmer has a problem. Something is eating his leafy vegetables. He thinks it might be adult butterflies. Write what you could say to the farmer to explain why it is not adult butterflies, and what is really eating his vegetables. Scientists who study butterflies are called lepidopterists. Find out ways they have discovered butterflies are helpful in the garden. SCIENCE – Book 3

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The life cycle of a silkworm moth Biological sciences

Like butterflies, silkworm moths have four stages in their life cycle. Observe the changes that happen during each stage. Draw or photograph each stage, record the date, record any measurements and write brief notes about your observations in the table below.

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Egg

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Larva

Pupa

Adult

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SCIENCE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Book 3


What is it made of?

Content focus:

Answers

Definition of ‘materials’ Identification of materials in everyday objects

Page 16 1. (a) bricks (b) plastic and metal 2. (a) Teacher check. Desks are probably made using metal and plastic or wood. (b) Answers should indicate what it looks like, how it feels etc. (c) Answers should indicate that the materials used to make the desk are strong and hard, while a table made from glass would not be. 3. wood: bookcase; paper: books; fabric: toy. 4. The mobile phone and the table on page 15 are similar because they are both made from plastic and metal. 5. Answers will vary. Examples include windows, bottles, drinking glasses, spectacles (glass); doors, furniture (wood). 6. Answers will vary. Pupils might suggest a very durable toy or furniture. The work of scientists question Use and influence of science Answers will vary

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Communicating Background information

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• Materials scientists study materials. They test different properties of materials and explore how these properties can be used to create new things.

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• Materials can be used as they occur naturally, or created by people; for example, oil is used to make plastic and sand is heated to make glass.

Page 17

• Useful websites:

Teacher check

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−− <http://www.crickweb.co.uk/ks1science.html#materials2d> is an interactive activity where pupils can label everyday materials.

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−− <http://www.whystudymaterials.ac.uk/pupils/fun/scanbot.asp> is an interactive game where pupils can search a house looking for objects made from plastic, glass, metal and wood. Preparation

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Chemical sciences

• A material is any substance with specific properties that goes into the makeup of a physical object. Objects can be made of one or more materials, such as paper, wood, glass or metal.

• Obtain the objects listed below to introduce the lesson. The lessons

• Pages 15 and 16 should be used together.

• Collect a number of objects made from the everyday materials discussed on page 15 (paper, plastic, wood, cardboard, glass, fabric, metal). Show the pupils these objects (such as a wooden spoon, wooden ruler, plastic cube or counter, plastic drink bottle, metal spoon, soft drink can or set of keys, glass jar, glass bottle, cotton shirt, woollen jumper, exercise book, empty cereal box, newspaper) and discuss what they are and what they are used for. Then discuss the materials they are made from before reading page 15.

• The aim of the activity on page 17 is for pupils to understand that, because of their properties, different materials are better suited to some jobs than others. An aircraft, for example, needs to be made of materials that are both strong and light. The lesson should be taken outside or in a large, undercover area. The sheets of different materials need to be the same size. This activity could be done in small groups to save resources. • Pupils should compare results and discuss any different observations and results at the completion of the activity.

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What is it made of? – 1 Read the text. The objects around you are made of different things. The things they are made of are called materials. There are many different kinds of materials. People use different materials to make all sorts of things. Look at some materials in the picture below. fabric

glass

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plastic

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wood

metal

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cardboard

Often, a number of materials are used to make an object. Scissors are made of plastic

and metal.

A lead pencil is made using wood

and a substance called graphite. A jacket can be made from fabric,

metal

and elastic. A mobile phone can be made from metal

and plastic.

Some materials, like wood, cotton and wool, are found in nature. Others, like plastic and cardboard, are made by humans. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE – Book 3

Chemical sciences

brick


What is it made of? – 2 Use the text on page 15 to complete the following. 1. In the picture on page 15, which materials were used to make: (a) the wall? (b) the desks? 2. (a) Which materials is your desk made from?

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(c) Why do you think it is made from these materials, not from glass?

wood •

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3. Draw a line from the material to something in the picture made using that material.

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(b) How do you know it is made from these materials?

paper •

fabric •

4. How are the mobile phone and the desk (on page 15) similar?

5. Name one object in your home made with these materials; (a) glass

(b) wood

6. Imagine you have discovered a new material. It is strong (like metal or wood) and soft (like silk or wool). What could you make with it? On the back of this sheet, draw one item you have at home. Write what it is made of and why you think that material was used. SCIENCE – Book 3

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Which material makes the best plane? Materials: • tape measure • A4-sized sheets of different materials, such as aluminium foil, paper towel, thin cardboard, photocopying paper and tissue paper Procedure: 1. Make one plane from each material, each exactly the same way: b

a

(a) Fold the sheet in half lengthwise to make a crease.

Chemical sciences

(b) Open it up. Fold the two outside top corners to the middle crease. d

e

(c) Do the same fold again, folding the top edge to the centre crease.

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(d) Fold the plane in half on the centre crease so the folds are on the inside.

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(e) Fold each side down to make wings.

Plane (material) Distance flown

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the furthest?

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2. Which material do you think will fly

3. Throw each plane exactly the same way from a ‘starting line’ and measure how far it flies. Record the distances in the chart opposite. Results and conclusions:

1. (a) Which material made the plane that flew the furthest? (b) Was your guess right?

Yes

No

(c) Why do you think this material helped it fly the furthest? 2. (a) Which plane flew the shortest distance? (b) Why do you think it didn’t fly very far? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE – Book 3


What can different materials do?

Content focus:

• The aim of the experiment on page 21 is for pupils to understand what some of the symbols they might see on packaging mean. This can help them to make informed choices about the products they choose. Pupils should compare their results in small groups after completing this activity.

Properties of a range of everyday materials

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and Answers information Communicating Page 20

1. Plastic is good for use in water bottles because it is transparent, waterproof, strong and flexible. 2. Answers could include: (a) any item of clothing, paper, eraser, book, pencil case, power cords, posters (b) tables or other furniture, wall, board, computer, scissors (c) table, water bottle, plastic desk mat, window 3. Recycling means using old things to make new things. 4. Glass and rubber are both waterproof. Some pupils may also say they are both strong. 5. Answers may vary but should indicate that because paper is absorbent, weak and flexible, a chair made from it might not be strong enough and could collapse. 6. Answers will vary. The work of scientists question Use and influence of science Answers will vary.

Background information • Materials have properties—basic or essential attributes that can distinguish them from other materials and which can be detected using the senses.

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• There are many other properties, including malleability, magnetic abilities or the ability to conduct heat or electricity or insulate. These are not covered at this level.

• Many materials have properties that allow them to be recycled.

Page 21

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• An object can be made of several different materials; e.g. a toy car can be made of metal, plastic and rubber.

1.–3. Teacher check

−− <http://www.strangematterexhibit.com/properties.html> and <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/5_6/ sorting_using_mate_fs.shtml> are both interactive activities where pupils can learn about and test the properties of certain materials.

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• Some common properties include hardness (resistance to scratching and pressure), strength (the amount of force needed to break the material by pushing or pulling down), toughness (resistance to breaking by cracking), elasticity (ability to return its original shape when a force is removed), absorbency (ability to soak up a liquid) and how waterproof (resistance to liquids) they are.

−− < http://www.recyclenow.com/why_recycling_matters/ recycling_symbols.html> and <http://grn.com/library/symbols. htm> give further information on symbols used for recycling. Preparation

• For the activity on page 21, teachers might want to collect a box of products displaying recycling symbols. Pupils could be asked to bring products from home to add to the box, or be given this activity to complete for homework. The lessons • Pages 19 and 20 should be used together. • Teachers could allow pupils to play a game of ‘rock, paper, scissors’. Discuss the properties of paper, scissors and rock. Explain that all materials have different things they can do that make them better for some uses than others. Ask the pupils to share some ideas about the uses different materials around them can be put to.

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What can different materials do? – 1 Read the text. Some materials are strong, others are soft, and some can bend. Some can be used again and others cannot. These things a material can do are its properties. Most materials have many properties. The table below gives information about some properties materials can have. Examples

Opposite property

wood gold

plastic wax

Strong - hard to break or squash

steel concrete

paper towel cotton (fabric)

Weak, brittle or flimsy – easy to break

tissue paper glass (thin)

Rigid or inflexible – does not bend or twist

brick bone china

Absorbent – soaks up water

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Waterproof - does not let water through or soak up water

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glass Opaque Transparent - it lets light through (you cellophane - cannot be seen through can see through it) water

Examples

wool Flexible - can bend or be twisted rubber easily, without breaking leather

Some materials have properties that allow them to be used more than once. For example, some planks of wood are strong and last a long time, so they can be taken from old furniture or houses and used to make new products. A piece of paper cannot be written on again once you’ve used both sides, but it can be quite easily shredded, mixed with water to make a pulp, and made into new paper. Used glass and plastic can also be broken down then remade into new glass or plastic in factories. Using materials more than once means less new materials are used up. Using old things to make new things is called ‘recycling’. You can find out if the products you are using are made from recycled materials, or can be recycled, by looking for the recycling symbol (also called the möbius loop). Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE – Book 3

Chemical sciences

Property


What can different materials do? – 2 Use the text on page 19 to complete the following. 1. What properties of plastic make it good for use as water bottles? 2. Write one thing you can see that is made from a material that is: (a) flexible

(b) strong

(c) waterproof

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4. Write one property glass and rubber both have.

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5. Why do you think your chair is not made from paper?

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3. What does ‘recycling’ mean?

6. Next to each object, draw a picture of something with a similar property. Write the name of the property on the line provided. candle

kitchen sponge

plastic cup

Make a list of as many things as you can find at home that have the recycling symbol. SCIENCE – Book 3

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What do the recycling symbols mean? Some products you use have different recycling symbols. What do they mean? 1. Read about the different symbols in the chart below. 2. Find items with those symbols. 3. Tally how many items with each symbol you can find. Uses plastics, paper, metals

The recycling symbol with a percentage in the middle means the product is made with that percentage of recycled material.

usually found on paper and cardboard

The three arrows around a number means the material is a type of plastic that can be recycled. There are different kinds of plastics.

plastics

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Anything that can be recycled has the recycling symbol.

Tally

Results:

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50%

Description

Chemical sciences

Symbol

Item found with that symbol

1. Draw the symbol you found most often. 2. (a) Which symbol did you find the least of? (b) Why do you think there were so few things with this symbol? 3. Write about anything you found that had no recycling symbols (the material, what it was used to make, why you think it has no symbol). Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Book 3


How can materials be combined?

Content focus:

The lessons

Combining materials

• Pages 23 and 24 should be used together.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Communicating

• Read the text on page 23 explaining the concepts and discussing the pictures. Encourage the pupils to give examples of materials that change colour when mixed, and materials that will make a new material when mixed. Ask the pupils what substances they have seen produce bubbles when mixed. • Assist the pupils to answer the questions on page 24 if necessary.

Background information

• Collect the materials listed for the activity on page 25. Be aware of any pupils who may be diabetic or have food colouring allergies. It is advisable to have a number of spoons available so pupils can use a different spoon each time. Ensure the mixture is cooled sufficiently after the addition of boiling water for the children to safely taste. After completing the experiment, ask questions such as ‘What might have happened if we had mixed the jelly with cold water?’, ‘What might have happened if we had mixed two packets of crystals into the same volume of water?’, ‘Why do you think some people gave different answers to question 2?’

• This set of pages explores some of the ways materials can be combined. They include both mixing and dissolving.

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• Mixing some materials together can create a new substance. In this case, a chemical change has taken place which usually cannot be reversed. The original materials cannot be easily retrieved. Properties can be altered when materials are combined. Mixing and stirring, either rapidly or slowly, is an important part of chemical reactions.

Answers Page 24

1. (a) change (b) different 2. (a) Yes (b) Yes (c) Yes (d) Yes 3. A chemist finds out what happens when some materials are mixed with others. 4. (a) sugar (b) Answers could include stirring, shaking, using heat or hot water, adding more water. 5. (a) water (b) cement (c) blue The work of scientists question Use and influence of science Aboriginal Australians made an ochre paint by grinding ochre and mixing it with saliva, blood, orchid sap or yolk to paint onto bark, rock or their bodies.

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• The process of dissolving forms a solution. When a solid is dissolved in a liquid, the liquid is called a solvent and the solid is called the solute. Solutions can be separated into their original components. • Useful websites

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• Mixing materials together creates a mixture. The substances are physically combined and can be separated again by methods such as sieving, filtering or evaporating. The change can be reversed and a new material is not formed. For example, salt when dissolved in water can be retrieved by evaporation.

−− <http://www.cwmbachjunior.co.uk/6d-science.shtml> has a range of games and information about mixing materials. Preparation

• Pupils may have carried out preliminary experiments by mixing sand, soil or clay with water in free play activities. They may also have completed scientific activities in other learning areas such as art and craft. For example when colouring a large circle in the centre of a sheet of blotting paper using coloured markers and dropping water from an eye-dropper onto the coloured circle, the water makes the colour spread outwards.

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Page 25 Pupils’ observations of the jelly at the different stages should use different adjectives to describe the smell, feel, appearance and taste of the jelly. 1. Answers will vary as each pupil describes what happened in his/ her own words; however, pupils should be able to use the word ‘dissolve’. 2. Answers will vary. The jelly goes through two marked changes as it moves from a crystal form to a liquid, then from the liquid mixture into solid, wobbly jelly. Pupils could choose either of these changes. 3. Answers will vary. Some pupils might suggest that the jelly will become like crystals once more; others that the jelly will become hard.

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How can materials be combined? â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1 Read the text. Materials can be combined (put together) in many ways. Different things can happen when materials are combined.

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Sometimes it is harder to see or separate materials once they have been put together. If you stir a little bit of sugar into a glass of water, it seems to disappear. This is called dissolving. Usually, the dissolved materials can go back to the way they used to be. For example, salt dissolves in water to make salty water. When the water dries up, the salt is left behind.

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Some materials can be combined to make a new material. For example, plaster of Paris is a white, powdery substance which hardens when mixed with water and left to dry. Powdery cement combined with sand, stones and water makes a new material called concrete. Concrete dries into a very hard and strong material. Once they have changed, these materials cannot easily go back to the way they were. Chemists and materials scientists are people who work to try to find out what happens when some materials are mixed together. They record and try to explain what they see, smell, hear, taste or feel when things are mixed. They can use what they find out to make new materials or products. Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Book 3

Chemical sciences

When some materials are combined, you can see the different materials in the mixture. It can be easy to separate them again. Fruit salad and muesli are both mixes where it is possible to see and separate the different parts.


How can materials be combined? – 2 Use the text on page 23 to complete the answers. 1. Copy the correct word to complete the following.

change

different

(a) Mixing different materials can make them (b) Materials can change in

. ways.

2. Write ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. When mixed, some materials ...

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(b) make a new material.

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white

(c) dissolve. (d) cannot be separated.

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grey

3. In your own words, write what a chemist does.

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(a) change colour.

4. (a) Which sweet material dissolves when mixed in a cup of hot tea?

(b) What could a person do to make this material dissolve faster? 5. Finish these science ‘sums’. (a) dirt

+

= mud

(b) sand + stones (c) yellow paint

+

+ water

+

= concrete

paint = green paint

Use books or the internet to find out what Australian Aboriginals traditionally made by grinding ochre rock to a powder and mixing it with saliva, animal blood, sap or egg yolk. SCIENCE – Book 3

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Jelly crystals and water: a great combination Scientists record what they see, smell or feel before, during and after things are combined. You will need: • jelly crystals • hot water • spoons • plastic jug What to do:

Before adding water After water has been added (when it is cool enough to touch)

After jelly has cooled and set

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Jelly

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Looks

Smells

Tastes

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Feels

Questions: 1. What happened when the jelly crystals were mixed with water? 2. When did you notice the biggest change in the way the jelly looked? 3. What do you think might happen to the jelly if all the water dried out of it? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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Chemical sciences

Follow the directions on the jelly packet to make jelly. Write how the jelly looks, feels, tastes and smells at each stage.


Why are materials combined? The lessons

Use and influence of science Materials are combined for particular purposes

• If possible, complete pages 18 to 25 of this book before this lesson. • Pages 27 and 28 should be used together.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Communicating

• Teachers could show the pupils a number of everyday items and discuss what they are made of and what the properties of these materials are. Discuss why these properties make the material suitable for use in making that item. • The aim of the activity on page 29 is for pupils to predict, then test, observe and record what happens when various materials are mixed. They will also think about what some of these mixtures could be used for. Discuss what happened with the pupils and ask questions such as ‘What if we added more … (salt/flour/water)?’, ‘Why do you think the oil and water doesn’t mix?’, ‘What sort of things could we do to try to make them mix better?’, ‘Which materials dissolved the quickest?’, ‘Which materials settled after stirring ceased?’

Background information

• Some common properties include hardness (resistance to scratching and pressure), strength (the amount of force needed to break the material by pushing or pulling down), toughness (resistance to breaking by cracking), elasticity (ability to return to its original shape when a force is removed), absorbency (ability to soak up a liquid) and how waterproof (resistance to liquids) they are.

Answers

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Page 28

• Mixtures are made by combining two or more materials in the absence of any chemical reaction. When a chemical reaction does take place, a completely new substance is created and the original substances cannot easily be recovered.

1. Answers could include rubber in the soles, used because it is strong, flexible, lasts a long time and helps to grip; the laces made of cotton, leather or fabric because they are flexible; leather because it lasts a long time and is flexible. 2. Answers will vary. Some answers could include (a) rubber, metal, plastic (b) glass, wood, metal (c) flour, sugar, egg, grains, butter. 3. (a) Soap is combined with water to make a mixture that helps to clean people or objects. (b) Hot water and cold water are combined to make warm water. (c) Pasta is combined with boiling water to cook the pasta. 4. Adding straw to a mud brick makes it harder to break by squeezing or tearing and so makes it stronger. 5. The following items should be circled: racing car, fishing rod, space shuttle and the boat.

• Useful website:

Page 29

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• A material can be described in a variety of ways. Glass, for example, is hard, transparent and brittle. This combination of its properties helps determine its use. The choice of a material for a task can also be influenced by cost and time.

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• An object may be made of a combination of several different materials. These materials are used because of their properties. Some properties of materials are more important than others when deciding what to use.

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• Materials have properties, basic or essential attributes that can distinguish them from other materials and which can be detected using the senses.

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T he work of scientists: Content focus:

−− <http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/which-material/2464. html> is a video where Cinderella’s fairy godmother talks about choosing the right material to make Cinderella’s shoes for the ball. Preparation

• Collect oil, water, vinegar, salt, sugar, flour and a number of plastic spoons and clear plastic cups for the experiment on page 29.

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1-2. Teacher check 3. The salt and sugar should dissolve in water. The flour and oil should not mix well. The flour may form lumps. The oil may appear to mix but after a while will settle in a layer on top of the water; the same applies to the vinegar. 4. (a) Answers may vary but the flour and water mix can be used as a simple glue. If pupils have other answers ask them to explain their answer. (b) The vinegar and oil mixture can be used as salad dressing. Pupils who have not tasted salad dressing before may not come up with this answer and might suggest something else.

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Why are materials combined? – 1 Read the text. Materials are often combined. Combining materials in different ways can make an object, material or mixture that is better in some way; it might be lighter, stronger, stretchier or tastier.

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• Yeast, sugar, flour and water are combined with heat to make bread, a new material that is light, soft and good to eat. Foods are often combined to create different flavours and textures. Many things can be combined and heated to make something useful.

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Some materials are joined together because their properties combine to make an object that is right for the job. vinyl cloth

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• Shoes are made by gluing or sewing a number of different materials together. Leather, rubber, plastic, canvas, fabric and foam are often used to make shoes. These materials are light, durable and flexible, and combine to make shoes that are comfortable, look foam good and give feet good support.

rubber

Some materials are made by combining (but not fully blending) different materials to make a better material. Usually, one material holds everything together, while the other makes it stronger. • People have made bricks out of mud and straw for thousands of years. Mud is good at sticking together and, when dry, is hard and strong, but easy to break by bending. Straw is hard to break by stretching but is easily crumpled. By putting pieces of straw in a block of mud and letting it dry, a strong brick is made that is hard to break by squeezing or tearing. • Aeroplanes must be made of materials that are both strong (to take off, land and carry heavy loads) and light (to lift into the air). In the past they were made from aluminium (a light, strong metal), but newer planes are made using composites. These are plastics with other materials mixed through them. These new materials are even lighter and stronger than aluminium. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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Chemical sciences

Some things are mixed together to become something very different.


Why are materials combined? â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2 Use the text on page 27 to complete the following. 1. Write two materials used to make your shoes and which of their properties you think makes them good for the job they are doing. (a) (b) 2. Write two materials used to make each object. (a)

(c)

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(a) soap and water:

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3. Why are these materials combined at home?

(b) hot water and cold water:

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(b)

(c) pasta and boiling water:

4. How can adding straw to a mud brick make it stronger? 5. Circle the things that could benefit from being made from composites that are light, hard and strong.

SCIENCE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Book 3

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Just add water! Materials: • salt

• flour

• vinegar

• five clear containers • water

• vegetable oil

• sugar

• teaspoons

Instructions: 1. In the second column, write what you think will happen when each material is stirred into water or vinegar. 2. Stir the amounts of each different material into a different container.

What I think will happen

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1 tablespoon flour + 1/2 cup water

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1 tablespoon salt + 1/2 cup water 1 tablespoon oil + 1/2 cup water

What happened

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Materials

1 tablespoon sugar + 1/2 cup water 1 tablespoon oil + 1/2 cup vinegar

4. (a) Which mixture would make the best glue? (b) Mix the oil and vinegar well and taste it by dipping in a clean finger. What do you think this mixture could be used for? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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Chemical sciences

3. In the last column, write or draw what happened.


What is the difference between a solid, a liquid and a gas?

Content focus:

• After discussing their observations from page 33, talk about whether any parts of the activity could be improved; e.g. scales not being sensitive enough to register weight, ball not being fully inflated.

Properties of solids, liquids and gases

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

Answers Page 32 1. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass (weight). 2. (a) liquid (b) gas (c) solid (d) liquid 3. They all have mass./They all take up space. 4. (a) Yes (b) No (c) No (d) No (e) No (f) Yes 5. (a) packed together tightly, hardly move (b) close together, always moving around each other (c) far apart, spread out to fill up the space 6. Possible answers: sugar, flour, rice, nuts, pepper The work of scientists question Nature and development of science: Possible answers: car tyre, bike tyre, gas oven, gas barbecue, bicycle pump, gas hot plates, gas hot water system.

Background information

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• Because of these arrangements, solids have mass, a definite volume and a definite shape. Liquids have mass, a definite volume and no definite shape. Gases have mass, no definite volume and no definite shape.

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Note: The common term ‘weight’ has been used in this unit instead of the scientifically correct term ‘mass’, as it is easier for pupils at this level to understand. Mass is a measure of how much matter an object has. Weight is determined by gravity. (Your mass would be the same on the moon but you would weigh less as there is less gravity.) <http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/gases.html> <http://www.catie.org.uk/testing_time_index.html> <http://www.abpischools.org.uk/page/modules/solids-liquidsgases/?age=Age%20Range%207-11&subject=Science> (Each is an interactive site dealing with the identification of solids, liquids and gases.) Preparation

1. Pupils should say the cup is light/hardly weighs anything. Its weight should just register on the scales. 2. Pupils should predict the cup would feel heavier and measuring will prove that. 3. Measuring will show the cup with the solid (eraser) is heavier. 4. The inflated ball will be slightly heavier than the deflated ball because it is now filled with air. 5. Answers should indicate that solids, liquids and gases have weight.

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• Useful websites:

Page 33

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• Solids, liquids and gases are three states of matter. (A fourth state, plasma, which is a distinct state of matter containing a significant number of electrically charged particles, is also recognised.) Matter is made up of particles called atoms and molecules. These are very closely arranged in a regular pattern in solids, and, generally, do not move. In liquids, the atoms and molecules are close together, have no regular arrangement and move freely. In gases, they move rapidly, have large spaces between them and no regular arrangement.

• Obtain the items mentioned in paragraph 1 of the text on page 31.

• Collect the equipment needed for the investigative activity on page 33. A basketball, netball or football could be used. The bicycle pump can be used to remove the air from the ball if it is already inflated. The lessons • Pages 31 and 32 should be used together. Ensure pupils understand the meaning of the word ‘properties’. • Display the items mentioned in the first paragraph on page 31. Place them in various locations around the classroom so pupils will easily see them. The last paragraph has been printed upside-down so pupils won’t readily be able to see the answer for the question asked in the previous paragraph. • Pupils could work in pairs or a small group to complete page 33. However, ensure that all have the opportunity to weigh and heft the materials, rather than simply copy the measurements or observations of other pupils. SCIENCE – Book 3

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What is the difference between a solid, a liquid and a gas? – 1 Read the text. How many of these things can you find in your classroom? A book, a bottle of glue, a ruler, a cup of water, a chair and a blown-up balloon? They are all different types of matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass (weight). Matter is all around you— even the air is a form of matter! Matter can be a solid, a liquid or a gas. These are called states of matter. We can tell the difference between solids, liquids and gases because they have different properties (things they can do).

Chemical sciences

All solids, liquids and gases can be weighed. A solid like a pebble won’t weigh much but it can be weighed. A gas like the air may feel like it doesn’t weigh anything at all but it too can be weighed.

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A solid has a definite size and shape. It can be hard like a brick or soft like a pillow. A solid can change its shape only if we do things to it like bending it or cutting it.

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A liquid has an exact size but does not have a definite shape. It changes shape according to the type of container it is in. A liquid can be poured but a solid cannot. We say a liquid can flow. Some liquids are thicker than others; for example, honey is thicker than milk. A gas does not have a shape or size. It spreads out until it fills the container it is in. Like liquid, a gas can flow. A gas can get bigger or smaller to fit in different sized containers. A gas like the air has no colour—we cannot see it. We can feel air blowing and see bubbles of air if we blow air into a straw placed in a glass of water. Why do solids, liquids and gases have different properties? Matter is made up of tiny particles. In a solid, these particles are packed together so tightly they can hardly move. That’s why a solid keeps its shape. In a liquid, the particles are close together, but they are always moving around each other. That’s why a liquid can flow. In a gas, the particles are far apart. They bounce off each other and flow so easily they can spread out to fill up any space. Try to answer this question without reading the answer! Do you think sand is a solid, a liquid or a gas? (Turn the page upside-down to find out!)

ANSWER: Most children will not give ‘gas’ for an answer. Many will say ‘liquid’ because when sand is dry, it pours out of a container like a liquid. The answer is ‘solid’. Each little grain of sand is a solid. The same happens when you pour cereal out of a packet. But each piece of cereal is also a solid. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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What is the difference between a solid, a liquid and a gas? – 2 Use the text on page 31 to complete the following. 1. What does the word ‘matter’ mean? 2. Write ‘solid’, ‘liquid’ or ‘gas’ next to each. (a) olive oil

(b) air

(c) chair

(d) water

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4. Write YES or NO next to each question.

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(a) Does a solid have a definite shape? (b) Does a liquid have a definite shape?

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(c) Does a gas have a definite shape?

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3. What is one property that all solids, liquids and gases have?

(d) Can a solid flow?

(e) Can a liquid be picked up in one piece? (f) Can a gas get bigger or smaller?

5. Write keywords to describe how the particles are arranged in a: (a) solid. (b) liquid. (c) gas. 6. Write two more solids, besides sand and cereal, that can be poured out of a container.

Think of four things at home or school that use a gas like air or natural gas to help them work.

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Do solids, liquids and gases have weight? Complete this activity to investigate if a solid, a liquid and a gas have weight. Equipment: • 2 identical clear plastic cups

• kitchen scales

• water

• bicycle pump

• eraser

• deflated basketball

1. (a) Hold one of the cups in one hand. Describe its weight. (b) Weigh it. Weight = 2. Pour water (liquid) into the cup until it is about three-quarters full. Chemical sciences

(a) How do you think it will feel when you hold it now?

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(b) Hold it in one hand and describe its weight.

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(c) Weigh it. Weight =

Weigh it. Weight =

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3. (a) Put the eraser (solid) in the empty cup.

(b) Write the weight of the empty cup from 1.(b) (c) What is the difference in weight between the cup with the

eraser and the empty cup?

4. (a) Weigh the deflated ball. Weight = (b) Pump up the ball with air (gas) until fully inflated.

Weigh it. Weight =

(c) Was it the same weight as before?

Why/Why not?

5. What did you learn from doing this activity? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE – Book 3


What happens when solids and liquids are heated and cooled?

Content focus:

Answers

How heating and cooling can change the state of solids and liquids

Page 36

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

1. honey, milk, raw egg 2. Answers should indicate that margarine is a solid in the fridge or at room temperature. When heated, it becomes a liquid. When cooled it becomes a solid once more. 3. … a substance changes state and cannot be changed back again … 4. (a) No, irreversible (b) Yes, reversible 5. (a) False (b) False (c) False

Background information • All liquids and solids can change states by being heated or cooled. However, the temperature needed for a solid to be melted to become liquid or cooled to change from liquid to solid varies.

Page 37

• Useful websites:

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<http://www.fossweb.com/modulesK-2/SolidsandLiquids/index. html> (Interactive game changing solids to liquids and liquids to solids)

Temperatures will vary, except for the oven which should show it has been preheated to 180 ºC. (Obviously, the pupils will use the gauge as a guide and not actually use the thermometer!) A summary of what should happen is provided below. Allow the pupils to touch the chocolate before recording to help them describe what happened. Digital photographs could be taken at appropriate intervals. (a) The chocolate in the classroom should look the same and remain a solid and be at room temperature to touch. (b) The chocolate in full sun will melt and become a thick liquid (at an interval depending on how hot the day is), could feel slightly warm if a hot day and be sticky and possibly quite runny to touch. (c) Depending on the heat of the day, the chocolate may or may not partially or fully melt. (d) Chocolate will take a very short time to melt. (Don’t allow it to stay too long in oven.) It may even bubble if it reaches boiling point. When first taken out of the oven it will be a runny liquid and quite warm to touch. (Take care it is not too hot for pupils to touch.) (e) Chocolate will remain solid and cool to touch.

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• Some changes to these substances are physical (reversible). They may change appearance after changing from one state to another but are still the same material and can be changed back. Other changes can be chemical (irreversible). A new substance is made and cannot be changed back.

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• Most pupils would say that a substance like rock could never become a liquid as normal conditions do not provide enough heat. Rocks become liquid if near the extreme temperatures of the Earth’s core. If moved away from the Earth’s core due to a force such as an earthquake or volcano, they will cool and become igneous rock.

<http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/statematerials.html> (Water as a solid, liquid and gas) Preparation

• Provide some of the examples of the substances discussed on page 35.

• Collect the equipment needed for the investigative activities on page 37. The lessons • Pages 35 and 36 should be used together. • This section is best treated after completing pages 30–33. Though several of the scientific terms are revised in the text, ensure pupils understand the terms ‘matter‘, ‘states of matter’, ‘substance’, ‘solid’, ‘liquid’ etc. if those pages have not been treated. • Pupils can work in a small group or as a whole class for the activity on page 37. Discuss how they can ensure the test is fair or not (all chocolate bars must be identical). • Preheat the oven to 180 °C.

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What happens when solids and liquids are heated and cooled? – 1 Read the text. Matter is any material that takes up space and has mass (weight). Liquids and solids are two states of matter. Examples of liquids are water, milk and honey. Wood, fruit and sugar are examples of solids.

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When a substance changes state, it can sometimes change back. This is called a reversible change. No new substance is made. If it cannot be changed back again, it is called irreversible. A new substance has been made. Here is an example of each. Irreversible change

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Reversible change

Inside a raw egg is thick, liquid egg white and even thicker liquid yellow yolk. If it is cracked onto a heated frying pan, it can be heated (cooked) until it becomes a solid fried egg. (Sometimes the yolk can be left a bit runny.) It cannot become a raw egg again, even if it is left to cool.

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The margarine described above turned from a solid to a liquid through heating. It turned back to a solid when it was cooled.

Solids have different temperatures to which they need to be heated until they melt and become liquid. Ice blocks become solid at 0 °C. As soon as they are taken out of the freezer at 0 °C, they gradually begin to melt. A metal like gold takes an enormous amount of heat before it changes from solid to liquid—more than 1000 °C! Liquids have different temperatures to which they need to be cooled until they harden and become solid. Margarine that has been heated until it is a liquid will eventually become solid at room temperature. It will happen more quickly if put in the fridge. Oils such as olive oil or sunflower oil need to be cooled a lot more by putting them in the freezer before they will become solid. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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Chemical sciences

A liquid can change into a solid and a solid can change into a liquid. We call this changing states. For example, a tub of margarine is a solid in the fridge or at room temperature on the kitchen bench. If it is heated in a microwave, it becomes a liquid. If it is left to cool, it will become a solid once more.


What happens when solids and liquids are heated and cooled? – 2 Use the text on page 35 to complete the following. 1. Colour the substances that are liquids at room temperature. sugar

honey

fruit

milk

raw egg

margarine

2. Using the example in paragraph 2, explain how a solid can change into a liquid and a liquid can change into a solid.

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3. Complete the sentence to explain the difference.

In an irreversible change, a

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In a reversible change, a substance changes state and can be changed back again.

as a new substance has been made.

4. Write Yes or No in the first space and Reversible or Irreversible in the second space.

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(a) A glass of milk is left out of the fridge and goes off. Can it become fresh if it is put back in the fridge?

This is because it is a/an

change.

(b) A tub of ice-cream melts in the car on the way home from the shop. Can it become solid again if put in the freezer?

This is because it is a/an

change.

5. Answer True or False. (a) All solids become liquids at the same temperature. ......................... (b) Gold becomes liquid at O °C. ........................................................... (c) If olive oil is left at room temperature on the kitchen bench it will eventually become solid. .............................................. SCIENCE – Book 3

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The chocolate experiment Investigate what happens to chocolate when it is placed in different areas of the school. Equipment: • 5 identical bars of dairy milk chocolate • thermometer • 1 ovenproof tray • oven • 4 paper plates Procedure: 1 Put four bars on paper plates and one on tray.

2 Record temperature at each place in table. 3 Place chocolate in each of the locations. 4 Observe what happens and record in table.

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(a) Position of chocolate and temperature: °C Temperature On the desk in the middle of the classroom What do you think will happen? Were you correct? if not, what did happen?

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(b) Position of chocolate and temperature: °C Temperature Outside in the full sun What do you think will happen? Were you correct? if not, what did happen?

(c) Position of chocolate and temperature: °C Temperature Outside in the shade What do you think will happen? Were you correct? if not, what did happen?

(d) Position of chocolate and temperature: °C Temperature In the oven What do you think will happen? Were you correct? if not, what did happen?

(e) Position of chocolate and temperature: °C Temperature In the fridge What do you think will happen? Were you correct? if not, what did happen?

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How can changing materials from solid to liquid be useful?

Content focus:

The lessons

Practical purposes (particularly those related to recycling) of changing materials from solid to liquid and liquid to solid

• Pages 39 and 40 should be used together. • Pupils can work in a small group for the activity on page 41. Some of the websites listed would be helpful in their research. Suggestions for solid and liquid materials for them to investigate could include: car batteries; outdated medicines; cooking oil; paint; specific or general cleaning products such as varnish and bleach; asbestos; electronic goods such as computers; tyres; mobile phones and televisions; glass; metal; cars and other vehicles; pesticides; boat flares; gas cylinders; pool chemicals.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

• With assistance, pupils work out how to present their research to the class or small group. Compare and discuss the information found about the same materials.

Background information

Answers Page 40

• Some changes to these substances are physical (reversible). They may change appearance after changing from one state to another but are still the same material and can be changed back. Other changes can be chemical (irreversible). A new substance is made and cannot be changed back.

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1. Teacher check 2. Answers should indicate that when gold is mined it can be heated to become a liquid and poured into moulds to make ingots of a set size. These are easier to buy and transport. Ingots can be melted again to make gold products. 3. (a) plastic: Teacher check examples (b) steel: Teacher check examples (c) aluminium: Teacher check examples (d) glass: Teacher check examples 4. Teacher check 5. Teacher check

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• In this unit, pupils will be made aware of some positive aspects of changing the state of different materials, along with some negative aspects relating to polluting the environment. • Useful websites:

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<http://www.ollierecycles.com.au/aus/html/recycle.html> (Information suitable for pupils about recycling different types of materials)

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• All liquids and solids can change states by being heated or cooled. However, the temperature needed for a solid to be melted to become liquid, or cooled to change from liquid to solid, varies.

<http://www.recycling-guide.org.uk/rrr.html> (How to safely recycle different materials)

<http://www.ollierecycles.com.au/planet/aus/info/issue/waste.htm> (Problems incorrect waste disposal can cause)

Page 41 The work of scientists page Use and influence of science Teacher check

<http://www.ollierecycles.com.au/planet/aus/info/info/rc_el03. htm> (How to correctly dispose of electronic products)

<http://www.burkesbackyard.com.au/factsheets/Conservation-andthe-Environment/Chemical-Disposal/187> (Correct disposal of a variety of materials) Preparation • Provide some of the examples of the materials discussed on page 39. • Pupils will need access to the internet and other reference material to complete the research activity on page 41.

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How can changing materials from solid to liquid be useful? – 1 Read the text.

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There are reasons people in different jobs change materials from liquid to solid and solid to liquid. Think about people who work with a metal such as gold. After it is mined and treated, gold is heated until it becomes a liquid and a set amount can be poured into a container. It is cooled and becomes a solid again—it has become a gold ingot. This makes it easier for manufacturers to buy and transport. The ingot will be melted again before being made into jewellery, coins, caps for teeth and so on.

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Did you know that changing solids to liquids and liquids to solids is also very useful for recycling many materials? Read about how this characteristic helps four different kinds of materials to be recycled. Glass

Steel

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Glass bottles and jars have metal lids removed and stickers taken off the outside. Then they are crushed and sent as solid pieces to a glass factory. The pieces are mixed with other materials needed to make glass and placed in an extremely hot furnace to melt. When cooled, this mixture can be moulded into new glass bottles and jars—solids once again!

Solid steel objects are sent to a steelmaking plant where they are melted down with other materials. The liquid metal is poured into moulds and left to become solid. A machine cuts it into large pieces to be sent to various factories to make new steel products such as tools and car parts.

Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

Aluminium

Plastic

Aluminium cans are squashed into bales. These are shredded and have the paint removed. The pieces are melted then poured into containers to make ingots. These are rolled into very thin, coiled aluminium sheets and made into new aluminium cans.

Plastic bottles are sorted into different types then squashed into bales. A machine cuts them into flakes. These are cleaned, melted down, then made into new plastic items such as garden chairs, bottles and bins.

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Chemical sciences

Solids can be changed to liquids and liquids can be changed to solids. This can be very useful in our everyday lives. A lump of solid butter can be melted to become liquid and mixed with other ingredients to make biscuits, cakes and so on. Water can be made into solid ice blocks to keep drinks cold or food cold in coolers. We can choose between a solid bar of soap to wash ourselves in the shower or a pump bottle of liquid soap. Can you think of other useful ways we change solids to liquids and liquids to solids?


How can changing materials from solid to liquid be useful? – 2 Use the text on page 39 to complete the following. 1. Give another example (see paragraph 1) about a way we change a material from a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a solid. 2. How is being able to change a material from solid to liquid and back again useful for a person who works with gold?

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(a) lispatc (b) leest

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3. Unjumble four different materials that can be recycled by methods involving changing solids to liquids and liquids to solids. Next to each material, write one new product that it can be made into.

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(c) mumunalii

(d) lasgs

4. Choose one of the materials above. Use three or four bullet points to summarise the steps taken in recycling this material. • • • • 5. Describe another useful way, different from those on page 39, you have changed a solid into a liquid or a liquid into a solid. SCIENCE – Book 3

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Investigating harmful solids and liquids Some solids and liquids can be harmful to the environment. They can pollute the air, water or soil, resulting in harm to human health and other living things. They need to be disposed of (got rid of) properly so they do not harm the environment. 1. Work in a group. Your teacher will help you choose a solid or liquid to research the correct way to dispose of it. 2. Make notes next to each question in the table to help plan your report.

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What do we already know about it?

Chemical sciences

Name of material

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Is there any information about how to dispose of it on the material or its packaging?

What else do we need to find out?

What drawings, photographs or diagrams will we need?

What websites, books etc. will we need?

How will we present our report?

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SCIENCE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Book 3


What are Earth’s resources?

Content focus:

Answers

Definition and examples of Earth’s resources

Page 44 1 Plant resource tomatoes, nuts, wood

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

Animal resource

Air resource

meat, eggs, wool

wind

2. Teacher check. Answers could include water, air, grains, fruit, vegetables and petroleum. 3. Teacher check. Answers should indicate natural resources are the things that grow, or form, in, or on, Earth that people use to live and to make things. 4. Natural resources (coloured green): the sun, clouds, tree, grass, dog, lake, rocks, birds, flowers; Resources made by people (coloured blue): house, bucket and spade, bicycle, rubbish bin, rope and tyre swing and road. 5. Answers will vary. The work of scientists question Use and influence of science A geologist is a person who studies the Earth and the processes which shape it. The natural resources they study would include the land, rocks, minerals, metals and fuels.

Background information

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• Earth’s (natural) resources are the raw materials supplied by the earth and its processes that are used by humans (and other living things) to meet their wants and needs. These resources include soil, air, water, forests, plants, animals, fossil fuels, and naturally produced metals and minerals. Although sunshine isn’t one of the Earth’s resources (coming from the sun), it is a natural resource.

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• People use natural resources as raw materials to make (manufacture) a huge range of goods. • Some natural resources are renewable; they can be replaced continuously by natural processes at the same rate (or faster) than they are being used. They include the sun (solar energy), wind power, and trees. Some resources are considered to be finite, as they become depleted more quickly than they can regenerate. These resources are called non-renewable resources. They include coal, oil and natural gas.

Page 45

• Useful websites:

−− <http://www.neok12.com/diagram/Natural-Resources-01.htm> is an interactive game where pupils can match resource words and pictures.

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Earth and space sciences

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1. Teacher check. The pupils should note the differences in the way soil feels, looks, goes through the sieve and acts when water is added or when it is added to water. Pupils might also write that the soil smells different. 2. Answers will vary. Pupils will use a combination of prior knowledge and their observations to predict which sample would be better to grow plants in. (The soil would be better because it holds more moisture for the plant’s roots and contains more nutrients.)

−− <http://www.fossweb.com/modulesK-2/PebblesSandandSilt/ activities/findearthmaterials.html> is an interactive game where pupils can try to find the things on screen that are made from Earth materials such as pebbles, sand and silt. Preparation

• Collect the materials listed for the experiment on page 45; samples of moist soil and dry sand (collected from areas free of broken glass etc. and unlikely to be contaminated with animal faeces), one large bowl or plate for each sample, magnifying glasses, clear plastic cups, water, tablespoons and sieves. The lessons • Pages 43 and 44 should be used together. • The aim of the experiment on page 45 is to allow pupils to explore some of the properties of sand and soil. Teachers might wish to use more than two samples (using yellow sand, gravel, silt, clay or dirt collected from under a tree), or allow pupils to collect their own samples from around the school. • Discuss the test, compare results and ask the pupils to suggest which other sands or soils could have been included to better investigate the different properties of sands and soils. SCIENCE – Book 3

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What are Earth’s resources? – 1 Read the text. Every minute of every day, you use things; clothes, pencils, books, cups, chairs, buildings, air, food and water. The things we use are called resources. Some resources are built or made by people. Others grow or form in, or on, the Earth. The resources from Earth are called natural resources. Earth has many natural resources which we use to help us live and make things we need and want.

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Many kinds of plants grow on Earth. Plants are used by people and animals for food and shelter. People also use plants to make many other things. Wood, vegetables, flowers, fruits, nuts, cotton and even rubber from rubber trees are plant resources.

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Air, wind and water are natural resources. Plants, animals and people all use air and water to survive.

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There are many different kinds of animals on Earth. Some kinds of animals are raised on farms for food (such as meat, eggs and milk) or wool. Other animals can be pets, while some are wild. They are all natural resources.

There are many different kinds of rocks, soils and sands on Earth. Rocks are made up of minerals (hard, non-living parts of rocks that occur in nature) and take many years to form. Inside the Earth, underground, are many other things like petroleum (oil), gold and silver that people dig up and use. The light and warmth of the sun reaching the Earth is also a natural resource. Its light and warmth is used by people and plants. Everything people make uses Earth’s resources. But people cannot make natural resources; they are only made naturally. Some resources can grow or form again; new animals can be born and new plants can grow. But some resources, like petroleum and gold, cannot be replaced. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE – Book 3


What are Earth’s resources? – 2 Use the text on page 43 to complete the following. 1. Write the name of each natural resource below in the correct place in the chart. meat

eggs

Plant resource

tomatoes

nuts

wool

Animal resource

wind

wood

Air resource

2. Write two natural resources you use every day. •

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3. In your own words, write what a natural resource is.

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4. In the picture below, colour the natural resources GREEN. Draw one more natural resource in the picture.

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Colour anything made by people (using natural resources) BLUE.

5. Which natural resource do you think is the most important? Why? What does a geologist do? Which natural resources does he or she study? Use a dictionary or the internet to find out. SCIENCE – Book 3

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Investigating Earth’s resources Sand and soil are natural resources that are used for different things. Sand is very small pieces of rock. Soil is sand mixed with tiny bits of dead plants and animals. There are many different kinds of soil and sand. Follow the instructions to find out more about soil and sand using your senses and some simple science tools. Sand

Soil

Look at it with a magnifying glass. What can you see?

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Earth and space sciences

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Add some water to it. What happens? Does it soak up the water?

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Sift it through a sieve. What happens?

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How does it feel? Does it stay together when you squeeze it in your fist?

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What colour is it?

Mix a tablespoon of it into a clear cup of water. What happens?

Results and predictions: 1. How is soil different from sand? 2. (a) Which do you think would be best for growing plants? (b) Why? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE – Book 3


How do we use Earth’s resources?

Content focus:

Answers

How Earth’s resources are used by humans

Page 48 1. (a) tree, wood, paper (b) cow, milk, cheese (c) mineral, metal, coin 2. (a) Three of the following: power (electricity), plastic, crayons, make-up, fuel, shoes/clothes, CDs and DVDs. Some pupils might write other answers not mentioned in the text which can be teacher checked. (b) Teacher check. If all the petroleum is used up, people will not be able to make plastics, crayons, make-up, fuel for cars, CDs or DVDs. Cars and other forms of transport will have to find different fuels; people will have to find different ways to make things. 3. Teacher check as answers will vary. Pupils are probably using paper, pencils, tables, light, power, electricity, air, a building, clothing and footwear, possibly some jewellery. 4. Answers could include petroleum (for plastics, fabric), sand (glass tables), animals (leather on sofas), cotton (fabric on chairs or sofas). 5. (a) Silica has to be melted at very high temperatures for it to change into glass. (b) Answers will vary, but the correct answer is no, glass cannot change back into silica. The work of scientists question Nature and development of science Teacher check

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information • Everything humans use in the physical environment comes initially from natural resources; the raw materials provided by the Earth and its processes, and the sun. All of Earth’s resources are exploitable by humans for useful purposes.

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• Some pupils might find it difficult to understand that everything they use originally comes from the Earth, not just out of a packet. An excursion to a bakery or ice-cream factory where goods are produced from natural resources might help pupils to understand the concept.

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• This set of pages could be used as an introduction to an activity such as making bread, where pupils investigate the process of making everyday foods or goods using different resources. • Useful website:

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Page 49

Preparation

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Earth and space sciences

−− <http://www.ranken-energy.com/Products%20from%20 Petroleum.htm> provides a list of some of the many items made using petroleum.

• Collect the materials listed for the experiment on page 49. The lessons

• Pages 47 and 48 should be used together.

• The aim of the experiment on page 49 is for pupils to observe change and to understand how some of Earth’s resources are made into other resources that people use. It is best advised that pupils work individually or in pairs, making a small quantity so the results will be apparent quickly. Baby food jars or clear, empty film canisters are ideal for use in this experiment.

1. (a)-(b) Pupils should record observations about the appearance and smell of the cream before and after shaking it, recording what had changed and what (if anything) had not. 2. Butter purchased from the supermarket usually has salt and colouring added. The butter made from cream without additives should appear paler than standard butter and taste slightly sweeter. 3. The pupils should mention that the experiment used cream (from cows), the glass or plastic of the container (silica or petroleum), the knife (metal/minerals) and any other items they used. 4. Teacher check. The pupils will reflect on the experiment and might identify the shaking for a long period of time as being the hard part. They might suggest using a beater or other equipment to make the task easier.

• Encourage the pupils to share their observations and discuss any differences.

SCIENCE – Book 3

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How do we use Earth’s resources? – 1 Read the text. People use the things that grow or form in, or on, our planet (natural resources) to survive and make the things they use every day.

The food we eat comes from plant and animal resources. Animals are raised on farms for meat, eggs and milk. Cows’ milk is used to make cheese, yoghurt, butter and cream. The seeds, leaves and roots of different plants are eaten as foods or used to make other foods. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

People need fresh water to drink. We also use it to wash, clean and cook with, to grow plants and swim in. Cardboard, paper and pencils come mostly from trees. Trees are cut down and turned into everyday items in factories. Trees are also used to make furniture.

CDs, DVDs, fuel for cars and planes, crayons, plastic and make-up are made using petroleum. Some car tyres, gloves and balloons are made from the sap of rubber trees.

Clothes all begin as Earth’s resources. Some clothes are made from cotton, which grows on plants, others from sheep’s wool. Other clothes, including some shoes, are made from materials using petroleum. Shoes can also be made from leather, which is the skin of animals. 47

SCIENCE – Book 3

Earth and space sciences

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Pets, working animals (such as guide dogs, and work horses) and even wild animals in the zoo are natural resources. We use them for entertainment and to help do jobs.

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Clay is a kind of soil used to make bricks. A special sand (silica) is melted at very high temperatures to make glass.

Coins, metals and jewellery are made from gold and other minerals dug up from underground.

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Power (electricity) is made using different resources. When we use cars, planes, lights, fridges and microwaves, we are using power from natural resources like the sun, natural gas or petroleum.


How do we use Earth’s resources? – 2 Use the text on page 47 to answer the questions. 1. Which comes first? Write the words in order from natural resource to the item we use. For example, cow leather

shoes

(a) paper, tree, wood (b) milk, cow, cheese (c) metal, mineral, coin 2. (a) What are three things people make using petroleum?

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(b) What might happen if all the petroleum on Earth is used up?

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3. (a) Write one thing you are using right now.

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(b) Write which natural resources you think were used to make it.

4. What other natural resources, other than wood, could be used to make furniture (sofas, chairs, beds, tables)?

5. (a) What has to happen to silica sand to make it change into glass? (b) Do you think glass can change back into silica sand? Explain your answer. Draw three things you use every day at home. Write what they are and which natural materials were used to make them. SCIENCE – Book 3

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How is butter made? How easy is it to make butter? Find out for yourself! Materials: • small jar or container with a tight-fitting lid • thickened cream • plain biscuits or bread • butter knife Procedure: 1. Pour the cream into the jar or container until about 1/2 – 2/3 full. Put the lid on tightly. 2. Shake the jar until you feel something solid moving in the jar. This could take 10-15 minutes.

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3. Carefully tip out the white liquid (buttermilk).

Observations and results:

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4. Swirl some cold water in the jar and tip it out to remove the rest of the buttermilk. Spread the butter on some bread or a cracker and eat!

Earth and space sciences

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1. (a) How did the cream look and smell before shaking?

(b) How did the cream look and smell after shaking?

2. Does the butter you made look and taste the same as or different from the butter you normally eat? How? 3. List three of Earth’s resources that you used in this experiment.

4. What was hard about making butter? How could it be made easier? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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Where does sound come from? Content focus:

• With the guitar on page 53, six rubber bands are more accurate to a real guitar than four. However, this may be too many to enable young children enough room between them to pluck the strings and make a nice sound. A tissue box with a centre that can be removed to access the tissues is preferable, as the teacher or pupils will then not need to cut out a central sound hole. However, other boxes can be used with a hole cut.

Sources of sound

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

Answers Page 52

Background information

1. With their voices and bodies. 2. Teacher check 3. Teacher check. Answers will vary; examples include: clicking fingers, clicking tongue, whistling, stamping feet. 4. Some examples include: cheep-cheep, meow, moo, growl, bark, peep, quack, buzz, croak. (Many can be found at <http:// didyouknow.org/animals/animalsounds/>.)

• Sound is created by the vibration of an object or air. The vibrations create waves which move outwards from the source. The vibrations move through the air to our ear, and we hear sound. • Musical instruments make sounds by being struck, blown, plucked or by being played with a bow. Each of these actions causes vibrations. • Thunder is one of the loudest sounds in nature. • Our ears collect soundwaves and filter them through the ear passage, where it causes the ear drum to vibrate. The vibration is converted into a signal by the rest of the ear and sent to the brain.

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Page 53

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The rubber bands vibrate when plucked. Different thicknesses of rubber, and how tight or loose the rubber bands are will change the sound. Wide rubber bands will vibrate slower and create lower pitched sounds. Thin rubber bands will vibrate faster to create higher pitched sounds. Loose rubber bands will vibrate more slowly, creating a lower sound than a tight elastic that is the same width. Stretching the rubber bands will change the sound. NOTE: A simplified version of this activity (making a sound box) can be found at <http://www. sciencekidsathome.com/science_experiments/sound_box.html>.

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• The frequency of a sound is how high or low it is. Some animals hear at frequencies higher or lower than humans. Sounds lower than human hearing are called infrasound, while sounds higher than human hearing are called ultrasound.

Preparation

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• The bridge of a guitar (replicated by the pencil in the activity on page 53) is a device for supporting the strings on a stringed instrument and transmitting the vibration of those strings to some other structural component of the instrument in order to transfer the sound to the surrounding air.

• Auditory discrimination activities to identify the sounds of different objects or animals would be beneficial before commencing this activity. Play a free online game to match animal sounds to the picture of the animal at <http://www.kongregate.com/games/ruddellc/ matching-animal-sounds>. The following website <http://schools. rainforestsos.org/free-resources/rainforest-multimedia/rainforestsounds> offers opportunities to listen to different rainforest sounds. The website <http://www.mcwa.com/sounds/index.htm> provides opportunities to listen to different types of water. The lessons • Pages 51 and 52 should be used together.

Physical sciences

• Read the text on page 51 with the pupils, explaining the concepts and discussing the pictures. Discuss which sounds are loud or soft, high or low; which can be changed to make louder or softer; which are pleasant and which are not. Discuss and order the sounds mentioned from softest to loudest.

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Where does sound come from? – 1 Read the text. Sound is all around us.

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Animals and people make sound with their voices and bodies.

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Musical instruments, like pianos, drums and trumpets, make sound when they are played.

Physical sciences

Machines, like cars, refrigerators, telephones and trucks, make sound when they do work.

Rain makes sound on the roof. The wind howls and thunder booms. Birds sing and dry leaves crunch underfoot. Sound is everywhere! Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE – Book 3


Where does sound come from? – 2 Use the text and pictures on page 51 to complete the answers. 1. How do people and animals make sound? 2. Under each heading, draw two things that make sound. Musical instruments

Machines

Nature

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3. Write three ways to make sound with your body; for example: clapping your hands. • Physical sciences

• • 4. Write two sounds animals make; for example: roar. • • SCIENCE – Book 3

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Make a simple guitar 1. You will need:

• empty tissue box

• pencil

• 4–6 large rubber bands

• sticky tape

2. Follow the steps.

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(a) Stretch the rubber bands around the box lengthwise, across the hole. Leave a space between each one.

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(b) Carefully push a pencil between the box and the rubber bands on one end of the hole.

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(c) Tape a ruler to the back for the handle.

(d) Using your finger, pluck each rubber band.

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(e) Listen to the sounds.

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3. (a) What do you think will happen to the sound of one of the rubber bands if you pull it tighter before plucking?

(b) Try it. Write what happened.

Physical sciences

4. (a) What do you think will happen to the sounds of the rubber bands if the pencil is moved further from the hole? (b) Try it. Write what happened. 5. Talk to a friend about the activity. What worked? What didn’t? What was fun? What wasn’t? What could be changed? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE – Book 3


How is sound made? Content focus:

• Other methods of demonstrating sound vibrations include holding a balloon close to the mouth when speaking and feeling the balloon vibrate, or holding the throat gently while speaking.

Creation of sound

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

Answers Page 56 1. … an object vibrates 2. It moves backwards and forwards. 3. They make the air particles vibrate and bump into other air particles. 4. (1) An object vibrates. (2) The vibrations make the air particles around the object move. (3) Air particles bump into others and make them move. (4) A soundwave is made. (5) The soundwaves reach the ear. 5. Possible answers include: guitar, rubber band, tuning fork, the human voice box and other suggestions from the pupils.

Background information • Sound is an invisible vibration which travels in waves, spreading outwards from a source such as a music player, a car engine or a musical instrument. • Sound vibrations cannot be seen but if an object is making a sound, some part of it is vibrating. • A soundwave must travel through something in order to be heard because vibrations must push against something to travel outwards. Sound can travel through air, but moves faster through liquids and solids (because the particles are packed more closely together).

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1.–2. Teacher check 3. When the saucepan is struck, it vibrates. The vibrations move through the air to the ear and the plastic food wrap on the bowl. The food wrap vibrates and the salt does also. The salt jumps into the air. 4. The salt should jump in the air. 5.–7. Teacher check

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• Soundwaves are longitudinal. This is because the particles of the substance the soundwave is passing through vibrate in the same direction as the direction in which the sound moves. • Sound is a form of energy. Sound energy can be changed to other forms of energy, such as electrical energy. Other forms of energy can be changed into sound.

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• Visit <http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/education/video/sound_vid. aspx> to watch a video which explains sound. • Visit <http://www.sciponline.org.uk/under_how_the_ear_works. asp> to read about how the ear works.

• Visit <http://www.dosits.org/audio/interactive/#/46> to listen to a variety of sounds made by marine mammals. Preparation

• Demonstrate how soundwaves work by using five marbles. Place four marbles in a straight line on a table or other flat surface and ensure they are touching. Use a fifth marble to thump one of the end marbles. One at a time, each marble will hit the next marble passing the energy down the line. When the last marble receives the sound energy, it will roll away. This closely mimics the way a soundwave is produced.

Physical sciences

The lessons • Pages 55 and 56 should be used together. • Read the text on page 55 with the pupils, explaining the concepts and discussing the pictures. • Revise the explanation, if necessary, in order to assist the pupils with answering Question 4 on page 56. • The experiment on page 57 can be repeated by sprinkling rice on a plate and placing it on top of a speaker. Play a song with loud bass and the rice should ‘dance’.

SCIENCE – Book 3

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How is sound made? – 1 Read the text.

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Sound is created when an object vibrates. This means that it moves backwards and forwards. The object could be a guitar string, a rubber band, a tuning fork or a human voice box.

The vibrations make air particles around the object vibrate, too. These air particles bump into other air particles. This creates a wave which moves through the air. The soundwaves keep moving until they run out of energy. Physical sciences

When they reach your ear, you pick up the vibrations as sound.

Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE – Book 3


How is sound made? – 2 Use the text and pictures on page 55 to answer the questions. 1. How is sound made? It is made when …

.

Vroom Vroom

2. Write what it means for an object to ‘vibrate’.

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3. How do the vibrations change the air around them?

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4. Number the sentences in the correct order from 1 to 5. (a) A soundwave is made.

(b) An object vibrates.

(c) The vibrations make the air particles around the object move.

(d) The soundwaves reach the ear.

(e) Air particles bump into others and make them move.

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5. Write or draw four things which make sound.

Physical sciences SCIENCE – Book 3

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See sound vibrations 1. You will need:

• plastic mixing bowl

• plastic food wrap

• sticky tape

• salt

• metal saucepan and spoon

2. Follow the steps. (a) Tightly cover bowl with one piece of food wrap.

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(b) Stick wrap firmly to the bowl. (The plastic wrap must be firm and flat!) (c) Sprinkle salt on food wrap.

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(d) Place saucepan close to bowl.

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3. Write what you think will happen to the salt on the food wrap if you hit the saucepan with the metal spoon.

4. Write what you think would happen if you yelled loudly while you were close to the bowl.

Yes

No Physical sciences

5. Did the experiment work? 6. Circle the correct word. This experiment was

easy

hard .

7. With a friend, talk about: (a) your answer to Questions 5 and 6, and (b) another possible way to make the salt move. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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What is sound like?

Content focus:

Answers

Characteristics of sound

Page 60

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

1. (a) soft, loud (b) low, high 2. (a) soft, loud (b) low, high 3. Teacher check: Arrows should be shown moving away from the dog; the child should be circled; the adult should have a cross on her. Page 61 Sound is created by vibrations. When the hanger is tapped against the table, it makes the air around it vibrate. These vibrations travel through the string, through the fingers to the ears and are heard as sound. NOTE: It will sound different because sound travels differently through string (which is a solid) than through air (which is a gas).

Background information • The frequency of a sound is the number of vibrations per second. This is expressed in hertz (symbol Hz). • The size of the height of a soundwave (amplitude) corresponds with the energy in the wave. The more energy a soundwave has, the louder it is. Loudness is measured in decibels (dB).

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• Noise is any unwanted sound. What one person perceives as noise, another may not. Pleasant sounds often have regular, repeated wave patterns; noise often has irregular wave patterns which are not repeated.

• Sound travels at the speed of about 340.29 m/s in dry air.

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• Longitudinal soundwaves can be reflected, refracted and diffracted like all waves. Reflected soundwaves are known as ‘echoes’. • Sound energy can be changed to electrical energy. Electrical energy produced by soundwaves can be seen on an oscilloscope.

Preparation

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• Visit <http://www.fi.edu/pieces/dukerich/teacher/lessons/ explorations1.html> for some sound activity ideas.

• Use music lessons to listen to, and identify, loud, soft, high, low, fast and slow sounds as played on a variety of musical instruments or created by the voice when singing. The lessons

• Pages 59 and 60 should be used together.

• Read the text on page 59 with the pupils, explaining the concepts and discussing the pictures. Explain any unfamiliar vocabulary. • When changing variables in an experiment, such as that on page 61, it is advisable to only change one variable at a time.

Physical sciences

• After every experiment, always take time to discuss what worked and did not work, what was enjoyable and what was not, what difficulties were encountered etc. to evaluate investigation methods.

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What is sound like? – 1 Read the text. Sounds can be soft or loud.

soft

loud

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Sounds can be low or high. Low sounds are caused by slow vibrations. High sounds are caused by fast vibrations.

Sounds can be nice (like music) or unpleasant (like a noise). Sound travels outwards in all directions from the object that makes it. Sound becomes quieter the further it travels from the object that makes the sound.

Physical sciences

Sound travels through air, solids and liquids. Sometimes, when a soundwave hits something solid, it may bounce back and cause an echo.

sound echo

Can you think of a place where you have heard an echo? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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What is sound like? – 2 Use the text and pictures on page 59 to complete the answers. 1. Copy words to complete the sentences. (a) Sounds can be s (b) Sounds can be l

or l

d.

w or h

.

2. Sounds can change.

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(a) Label soundwaves as soft or loud.

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(b) Label the soundwaves as low or high.

3. (a) Draw arrows to show where the sound travels from the dog. (b) Circle the person hearing the louder sound. (c) Put a cross on the person hearing the softer sound.

Physical sciences SCIENCE – Book 3

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Coathanger experiment 1. You will need:

• metal coathanger

• table

• two 30-cm lengths of string

2. Follow the instructions:

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(b) Wrap the loose end of each length of string around each index finger.

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(a) Tie a length of string to each corner of the coathanger.

(c) Place fingers in ears.

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3. Write what you think will happen if you tap the hanger against the table.

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4. Change the string to wool. What do you think will happen?

5. List two other things which could be used instead of string. Physical sciences

6. Work with a friend to see what happens if you: (a) hang a metal spoon from the hook of the coathanger (b) hit the original hanger with the metal spoon. 7. Draw or write about what you found out on the back of the worksheet.

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How do scientists use what they know about sound? Answers

The work of scientists:

Page 64

Nature and development of science/Use and influence of science

Content focus:

1. In numerical order, the sentences are 1: (d), 2: (e), 3: (c), 4: (a) and 5: (b). 2. hearing aids 3. batteries 4. Answers could include: a person may have been born with a hearing problem, he/she may have had an accident and damaged part of the ear, he/she may have gradually gone deaf with age. 5. Answers could include: they can hear lots more things and things they couldn’t hear before; they feel safer because they can hear traffic.

Scientific technology uses knowledge about sound

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

Page 65 1.–4. Teacher check 5. The cone collects soundwaves and directs them to the ear. 6. Answers will vary. The drinking glass picks up the soundwaves and directs them into the ear through the glass. 7. Teacher check

Background information

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• Visit <http://www.oticonchildren.com/children/com/OtiKids/ About Hearing/HowDoesTheEarWork/index> to see a digital representation of how the ear works.

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• The use of soundwaves as a form of technology is widespread. Soundwaves are used as ultrasound to detect patterns showing a foetus in the womb of a pregnant woman. Soundwaves released into the earth’s crust can reveal what the layers under the surface contain. Known as seismic exploration, this knowledge has enabled oil or natural gas deposits to be detected. Some testing has been carried out to use sound technology to locate land mines.

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• Types of hearing aids have been in use for centuries. Some of the first hearing aids were made from wood and shaped like an ear. Modern hearing aids involve wireless technology, directional microphones and amplifiers.

• Most hearing aids consist of four main parts: a microphone which picks up sound and converts it into an electrical signal; an amplifier which collects the signal, increases the volume of the sound and sends it to a receiver; a receiver/speaker which changes the electrical signal back to sound, sends it to the ear and then to the brain; and a battery to power the hearing aid. Preparation

• Play listening games such as ‘Simon says’ or literacy games in which pupils listen for rhyming words or specific initial, medial or final sounds. • The pupils will need cardboard, sticky tape and a glass to complete the experiment on page 65.

Physical sciences

The lessons • Pages 63 and 64 should be used together. • Read the text on page 63, explaining the concepts and discussing the pictures. • When making the simple hearing aid on page 65, one end should be as large as possible, while the small end should be about the size of a coin. It is imperative when experimenting with the cone hearing aid to ensure that pupils do not poke it in their ears.

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How do scientists use what they know about sound? – 1 Read the text. Scientists have worked out how the ear works. 2. They travel to the eardrum and make it vibrate.

3. The vibrations make three small bones behind the eardrum vibrate too.

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1. Soundwaves enter the ear canal.

4. The vibrations travel into the inner ear to a part called the cochlea. Fluid in the cochlea moves. The fluid makes tiny hairs move. The hairs change the movement into signals or messages.

5. The hearing nerve takes the messages to the brain. The brain works out what the sound is. Physical sciences

Some people cannot hear well. Scientists have invented hearing aids to help them. Hearing aids are simple machines. Most work using batteries. They pick up sound and make it louder. They send the loud sound into the ear. The sounds are sent to the brain. I wonder how scientists help people who cannot see?

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How do scientists use what they know about sound? – 2 Use the text and pictures on page 63 to complete the answers. 1. Number the sentences in the correct order from 1 to 5. (a) Vibrations travel to the cochlea, where fluid and hairs move and change the movement into messages.

(b) The hearing nerve sends the messages to the brain.

(c) The three bones behind the eardrum vibrate.

(d) Sound enters the ear canal.

(e) Sound travels to the eardrum and it vibrates.

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2. What simple machines help people hear better?

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3. What often gives power to make hearing aids work?

4. Talk to a friend about why a person may not be able to hear well. Write one reason below. 5. How do you think having a hearing aid may change things for a person who cannot hear? Physical sciences

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Make a simple hearing aid 1. You will need:

• large sheet of thin cardboard

• sticky tape

2. Follow the steps to make a simple hearing aid. (a) Roll the cardboard into a cone shape.

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(c) Hold the small end up to the ear. (Do not put it IN the ear!)

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(b) Tape it in place so it does not unroll.

3. What do you think the cone will do?

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4. Point the cone towards different things as you move around the room. Write some sounds you hear.

5. How do you think the cone works?

6. Instead of the cone, use a drinking glass. Press it against a wall or door. What can you hear? 7. On the back of the sheet, write about or draw the best and worst thing about the activity. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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Physical sciences


What is heat and how is it produced? Answers

Content focus: Sources of heat and ways it can be produced

Page 68

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

1. Heat, power 2. The Earth would receive too much heat, making it too hot to survive. 3. Answers should describe making fire by rubbing two sticks together or using a flint. 4. wood, coal, oil, natural gas 5. They rub their hands together to produce warmth from friction. 6. (a) rough surfaces (b) quickly 7. (a) kettles/hot water systems/toasters/irons/ovens/heaters (b) Teacher check The work of scientists question Use and influence of science: Pupils could suggest wearing long trousers, sliding down on a towel or wetting the slide to reduce friction and heat.

Background information • Heat is one of the important factors that ensure our survival. Our body temperature must be maintained at approximately 37 ºC or we would not live very long. The food we eat provides the ‘fuel’ needed to maintain this temperature. There would be no food without the heat (and light) from the sun. Plants and animals could not survive. • The sun is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium gases which help to produce a constant chain of nuclear explosions that give off enormous amounts of heat. This heat is radiated out to the surrounding planets, including the Earth.

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Page 69

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The pupils should discover that rubbing rougher surfaces together produces more heat than smoother surfaces. Water and lotion on their hands makes the surface of their hands softer and more lubricating so not as much heat will be felt when compared with rubbing their bare hands together, on the carpet or on the desk.

• Fire is a type of chemical reaction. Heating a fuel such as wood causes it to burn, which gives off heat.

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• Heat is made from friction because molecules in each material being rubbed together move faster when in motion. Energy is lost in the form of heat.

• Useful website:

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• Other sources of heat not discussed on page 67 include nuclear reactions using uranium or plutonium, and geothermal heat—heat from underneath the Earth’s crust.

<http://www.brainpopjr.com/science/energy/heat/grownups.weml> (Background information and activities for the teacher) Preparation

• Provide pictures or actual items of some of the objects/appliances discussed on page 67. (Pupils could also identify heat-producing appliances in their classroom and school.) • Collect the equipment needed for the experiments on page 69. Note: The tap water used can be collected in a bucket and used to water plants. The lessons • Pages 67 and 68 should be used together.

Physical sciences

• Pupils should work individually or in pairs to complete page 69. However, ensure that each pupil completes the experiments and discusses any discrepancies in the results. Also discuss what makes the test fair; e.g. rubbing hands 20 times at the same speed, allowing hands to ‘cool down’ before commencing the next activity, ensuring the water used to rub hands together is the same temperature, ensuring the hand lotion is the same amount and type.

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What is heat and how is it produced? – 1 Read the text. Heat is a form of energy or power. Anything that gives off heat is a source of heat. The sun is the first source of heat most people think of. We feel its heat, specially on a hot day. This enormous ball of very hot gases produces a tremendous amount of heat (and light). However, only a small portion of the sun’s heat reaches Earth. If Earth was closer to the sun, it would be too hot over the entire planet for people to survive.

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Fire is another source of heat. It is not known when fire was first used by people for warmth (and light and cooking). The first fires were probably from lightning strikes. Long ago, people learnt to make fire by rubbing two sticks together. This rubbing action made glowing wood dust. If the dust fell onto a pile of dry leaves and tiny bits of wood, a fire could be started. Later, people discovered that striking a stone called ‘flint’ against a harder rock containing iron produced sparks. Apart from wood, other fuels have been discovered that can be burnt to produce heat. These include coal, oil and natural gas. Matches and firelighters can be used to light fires instead of sticks and flint.

Today, electricity is a common source of energy used to produce heat. Electricity is used to heat up water in kettles or in hot water systems. It is used to heat up irons, cook food in ovens and toast bread in toasters. Many types of heaters work by electricity. Other appliances in your home can still feel warm, even though their purpose is not for heating. Put your hand on the back of a fridge, computer or television after it has been turned on for a while. You will feel heat as some is produced in making the appliance work. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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On a cold day, have you ever rubbed your hands together to try to get them warm? This source of heat comes from ‘friction’. This is the same method used by people long ago to make fire. When two surfaces are rubbed together, heat is produced. The rougher the surfaces, the more heat is produced. Also, the greater the speed the surfaces are rubbed together, the greater the heat produced. Try rubbing your hands together slowly. Then try rubbing your hands together quickly. What do you notice?


What is heat and how is it produced? – 2 Use the text on page 67 to complete the following. 1. Fill in the missing words.

is a form of energy or

.

2. Why couldn’t we survive if the Earth was closer to the sun? 3. Describe one way people long ago made fire.

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4. List four fuels that can be burnt to produce heat.

5. Why do people often rub their hands together if they are cold?

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6. Friction produces heat when two surfaces are rubbed together. Tick the boxes that describe what you should use or do to the surfaces to make more heat. (a) use:

(b) rub the surfaces together:

soft surfaces

rough surfaces

quickly

slowly

7. (a) From page 67, list two appliances that use electricity for heating.

Physical sciences

(b) Write another appliance using electricity or a use for electricity not described on page 67.

If you slip down a slide with bare legs, the friction of the slide against your legs can cause a burning feeling. How could you prevent that from happening? SCIENCE – Book 3

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Handy experiments When two objects are rubbed together, they produce a certain amount of heat through friction. Complete this activity to find out what heat you feel when you rub your hands in different conditions. Equipment: items described in the first column Procedure: 1 For each experiment, rub hands together at the same speed, 20 times. Allow your hands to ‘cool’ down before you try the next one. 2 Complete the first experiment and rate the heat you feel between 1 and 5 (5 being the warmest). 3 Before each experiment, predict whether you think you will feel more or less heat than in the first experiment.

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Rub hands together

My prediction

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What to do

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4 Record your results.

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Results

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More heat

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Rub hands on carpet

Less heat

More heat

Rub hands on desk

Less heat

Rub hands under cool tap water

More heat

Rub hands with hand lotion on them

More heat Less heat

What did you discover by doing these ‘handy’ experiments? Explain your findings on the back of this sheet. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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Less heat


How does heat travel?

size so same heat is contained; spoons should be placed in cup at same time and left for the same length of time; spoons should be close to the same size. Note: Ensure pupils take care when feeling the metal spoon as it can become quite hot to touch.

Content focus:

Heat travels by conduction, convection or radiation Identifying the difference between a thermal conductor and a thermal insulator Investigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

Answers Page 72 1. into, out 2. conduction, convection, radiation 3. (a) (ii) metal spoon should be ticked (b) Answers should indicate that metal is a good conductor of heat and the wood is not so the metal spoon will get hotter. 4. Answers should indicate that plastic does not let heat travel through easily so the handle will stay cool and not burn their hand. 5. insulator 6. a convection current 7. Answers should indicate we feel the sun’s heat because infrared heat rays radiate from the sun to Earth. The work of scientists question Use and influence and science Good conductors are the metals tin, copper and steel. (The others are good insulators.)

Background information

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• Heat energy can be transferred in three ways: by radiation through infrared rays; by convection, which transfers heat through currents in liquids and gases; and by conduction, which moves heat from warmer to cooler areas in solid objects. Heat can only travel from warm to cooler areas and not the other way around.

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• Useful websites: <http://spaceplace.jpl.nasa.gov/en/kids/st8/thermal_loop/index. shtml> (Powerpoint™ about heat travel)

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The pupils should discover a metal spoon will be the best thermal conductor. Not only will it feel the hottest but the heat will remain there for the longest. If a ceramic spoon is used, they will find that spoon will hold less heat than the metal spoon but more than the plastic and wooden spoons. The plastic spoon will hold a slight amount of heat for a short time, while the wooden spoon will hold the least heat.

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<http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/science/materials/ keeping_warm/read1.shtml> (Information to read about temperature and insulating materials)

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<http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/keepingwarm.html> (Interactive activity investigating conductors and insulators) <http://www.kids-science-experiments.com/ heatconductorsandinsulators.html> (Information to read about conductors and insulators) Preparation

• Where possible, obtain the items described on page 71 to demonstrate to the pupils. • Organise the equipment needed for the experiments on page 73. The lessons

• Pages 71 and 72 should be used together. This unit is best covered after pages 66 to 69. The unit on pages 34 to 37 about investigating solids, liquids and gases should also be completed or revised.

Physical sciences

• Demonstrate how a metal spoon heats up in hot water/soup by conduction and how a plastic or wooden one does not. Discuss how the water/soup gradually heats up by convection and how stirring helps this process. • Pupils could work in pairs or a small group to complete page 73. However, ensure that all have the opportunity to feel and compare the heat of the spoons. • Discuss how a fair test can be achieved in the experiments on page 73; e.g. when comparing results from different groups of pupils doing this experiment, coffee cups used should be the same thickness and SCIENCE – Book 3

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How does heat travel? – 1 Read the text. Heat is a form of energy or power. We can feel heat from sources like the sun or a fire; from friction when we rub our hands together; from hot water from a tap; and from appliances such as heaters, toasters and electric blankets. But how does the heat travel so we can feel it? Heat travels into and out of objects. This is called heat transfer. All objects are made up of tiny particles called atoms and molecules. If an object is hot, its molecules and atoms move quickly. If an object is cooler, they will move much slower. Heat travels from one object to another through conduction, convection or radiation.

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Conduction is the main way heat travels through solid objects. When you stir a pot of hot soup with a metal spoon (a solid), the spoon will gradually heat up all the way to the handle. The molecules and atoms in the spoon move more quickly and bump into others. Heat travels throughout the spoon in this way and it can get quite hot to touch. Metal is a good conductor. The pot is made of metal, too, and will also get very hot.

warm air

ART Heater with arrows to show a convection current.

cool air

Gases and liquids transfer heat by convection. When a pot of cold soup is put on a hot plate, the soup (a liquid) at the bottom heats up first. This warm soup is lighter and moves up to the top where the soup is cooler. The cooler soup moves down. The warmer and cooler molecules and atoms mix until the temperature is the same throughout. The same thing happens when we turn on a heater in a cold room. The air (a gas) is heated right in front of the heater. Warm air is lighter than cool air so it rises. Cool air comes down to take its place. It gets warmed and rises. The movement of the liquid or gas is called a convection current.

Radiation is another way of heat transfer. It is the spreading out of heat rays. The sun is the best example. Heat from the sun cannot travel by conduction or convection because space is almost completely empty. We feel heat from the sun as it travels to Earth by infrared rays. We can also feel heat from a light bulb in the same way. It radiates heat into the surrounding air.

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Physical sciences

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What happens if you use a wooden or plastic spoon to stir the soup? Wood and plastic are not good conductors of heat. Heat does not travel easily through them. They are called insulators. You will notice that most pots have plastic handles. This is so we can hold the pot and not burn our hand.


How does heat travel? – 2 Use the text on page 71 to complete the following. 1. Fill in the missing words. Heat transfer is the way heat travels

and

of objects.

2. What are the three ways heat can travel from one object to another?

3. (a) Tick the spoon that would get hotter if you used it to stir hot soup.

(i)

(ii)

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(b) Why did you choose this spoon?

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4. Why do most pots and pans have plastic handles?

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6.

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5. What word in the text means the opposite of ‘conductor’? What is the name of the way heat moves as shown by the arrows around the heater?

warm air

cool air

7. Explain how we can feel the heat from the sun. Physical sciences

Find out which of the following materials would good be conductors of heat: glass, cotton wool, air, tin, copper, polystyrene foam, steel, cork, rubber. SCIENCE – Book 3

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Spoonfuls of experiments Some materials allow heat to pass through them easily. They are good thermal (heat) conductors. Other materials do not allow heat to move through them easily. They are good thermal insulators. Follow the procedure to find out which type of spoon is the best thermal conductor. Equipment: • kettle filled with hot water • 1 large coffee mug • 3 or 4 spoons about the same size made of different materials; e.g. 1 plastic, 1 metal, 1 wooden, 1 ceramic Procedure:

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1. With adult supervision, pour hot water into the mug.

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2. Place all the spoons in the mug at the same time. Leave them for 1 minute. 3. Which spoon do you predict will feel the hottest when you take it out?

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Material spoon is made from

Describe the heat you felt

Physical sciences

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4. Take out the spoons and quickly and carefully feel each one. Complete the table with your results.

5. (a) Which spoon was the best thermal conductor? (b) Was your prediction correct? YES Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE – Book 3


What is a thermometer?

Procedure

Content focus: How thermometers work and their uses

1. As a class, choose 5 different places for each group to position their containers; e.g. freezer, fridge, classroom, outside in shade, outside in full sun. Pupils list in table. 2. Before they start, pupils rate the places (within their group) from 1 to 5—1 where they think a container will get the warmest and 5 the coolest. 3. Pupils take turns to pour 250 mL cold water into their group’s 5 identical containers. (All groups should have the same; e.g. glasses, glass jars, clear plastic cups. Don’t use containers that are too insulated as this may affect the water temperature too much.) The water temperature is measured and the time recorded. 4. Each container is placed in position. Note: Thermometers should not be left in the containers. Bring inside so each new reading will be unaffected by continual heat/cold. 5. Pupils take three more readings over the next couple of hours, and record in appropriate column. After the last reading, they rate the containers again and discuss and compare the results among the groups. Results can be recorded on graphs. (Also discuss what made the procedure a fair test.)

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

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• Thermometers can be analogue (temperature shown on a dial or scale) or digital (temperature shown as a number). The temperature can be measured in different scales—Celsius (C), Fahrenheit (F) or Kelvin (K). Celsius and Fahrenheit units are called degrees (symbol= º), while Kelvin units are called kelvins. Celsius is used in most countries today, though scientists usually use Kelvin in their investigations.

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• Ice melts at exactly 0 ºC, a hot bath is about 40 ºC and fresh water boils at exactly 100 ºC. • Mercury is a metal used in traditional thermometers as it is a liquid at room temperature. It is naturally coloured silver so it can be seen against the degree markings in the thermometer tube. If colourless alcohol is used, it is dyed so it can be seen.

Answers Page 76

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1. thermometer, temperature, hot, cold 2. The liquid expands and rises up the tube as the temperature rises and contracts and lowers as the temperature falls. 3. Because the heat from your hands will transfer to the glass tube and make the temperature rise (giving a false reading). 4. (a) 15 ºC (b) 5 ºC (c) 37 ºC (d) 28 ºC 5. Possible answers: Tube thermometers are harder to handle because of heat transfer/made of glass which can break; Digital reading is easier to read than that of a tube thermometer. The work of scientists question Use and influence of science Lists could include: heaters of various forms, air conditioners, ovens, irons, electric blankets, pizza ovens, hair straighteners, hair dryers, washing machines, toasters, refrigerators, hot plates, clothes dryers, coffee makers.

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• Useful website:

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• Medical thermometers used for checking a person’s temperature include ear probe models; forehead detection strips; digital thermometers for use under the tongue, under the arm or on the forehead; and traditional oral liquid thermometers. <http://www.neok12.com/Heat-Temperature.htm> (Several short pupil videos explaining difference between temperature and heat, how a thermometer works and so on) Preparation

• Collect traditional glass tube thermometers, digital and strip thermometers to show pupils. • Collect the equipment needed for the experiments on page 77. The lessons

Page 77

• Pages 75 and 76 should be used together.

Teacher check

• To assist in discussing page 75, show pupils how traditional glass tube thermometers, digital and strip thermometers work.

Physical sciences

• Pupils could work in a small group of up to five to complete the experiments on page 77. Instructions for the procedure for the experiments and to complete the table are provided in the next column. These could be written for pupils to follow, related orally or given as a mixture of oral and written format.

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What is a thermometer? – 1 Read the text. A thermometer is an instrument used to measure temperature. Temperature is how hot or cold something is—or the amount of heat it has. Different kinds of thermometers are used to measure the temperature of different things. A glass tube thermometer is shown below.

It contains a thin glass tube of coloured liquid. The liquid is usually mercury, which has a silver colour, or alcohol that has been coloured with a dye.

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The liquid expands and rises up the tube as the temperature rises, and contracts and lowers as the temperature falls.

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The tube containing the liquid is marked in degrees so the temperature can be read.

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The thermometer shown is marked in degrees using a scale called ‘Celsius’. The temperature is 25 °C.

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If a thermometer like the one above is used to measure temperature, it should be hung or stood up vertically (upright). It should not be held with your hands around the tube while taking temperature readings as the heat from your hands will transfer to the glass and make the temperature rise. The temperature can be read by making sure your eyes are level with the top of the liquid in the tube. If you look at the reading from above or below the level, it will not be the same.

Knowing the temperature is useful for many reasons. A person’s temperature should be around 37 °C (Celsius). A thermometer can tell if our temperature is too high and we have a fever. Cooks and chefs measure the temperature of fridges, ovens and food so it can be cooked, stored and served correctly. Vehicles like cars, trucks and planes have instruments that show if an engine is overheating. We like to know the temperature so we can dress for the weather and plan outdoor activities. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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Physical sciences

Some thermometers are digital. They contain a tiny device called a ‘thermistor’. This measures the temperature which is then displayed on a screen. Another type of thermometer is shaped like a strip of card. It has different inks on it which change colour according to the temperature. Digital and strip thermometers are easier to use than a tube thermometer.


What is a thermometer? – 2 Use the text on page 75 to complete the following. 1. Fill in the missing words. A

is an instrument used to measure

Temperature is how

.

or

something is.

2. What happens to the liquid inside a glass tube thermometer? 3. Why shouldn’t you hold a tube thermometer in your hands when reading the temperature?

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4. Read and record the temperature on each of these thermometers. (c) 40

30

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(a)

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°C °C °C 5. Why do you think a digital or strip thermometer is easier to use than a tube thermometer?

°C

Physical sciences

List as many objects or appliances as you can at school or home that have a type of temperature control or gauge to make the temperature hotter, colder or stay the same. SCIENCE – Book 3

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What’s the temperature? Have fun using a thermometer to find out how a container of water gets warmer or cooler depending on where it is placed! I am boiling.

Equipment: • 5 identical containers I am freezing. • 1 litre jug of cold water • 250 mL measuring cup • 5 thermometers • watch/timer that shows seconds Procedure: Follow your teacher’s instructions to complete the table below with your predictions and results.

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Temperature of water at start

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Rate 1 to 5 before begin

Temperature Time

Temperature Time

Physical sciences

Temperature Time Rate 1 to 5 after experiment Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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How can heat affect us and things around us? Answers

The work of scientists: Use and influence of science Content focus:

Considering some of the effects of heat in everyday life Investigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

Page 80 1. Teacher check 2. (a) heater/beanie/blanket/scarf/double-glazed windows (b) air conditioner/double-glazed windows/fan (c) fridge/cooler/vacuum flask (d) oven/vacuum flask (e) oven/toaster (f) cooler/vacuum flask/double-glazed windows 3. The liquid in a thermometer and the metal in expansion joints both expand when heated and contract when cooled. 4. (a) make it change from a solid to a liquid (b) make it change from a solid to a liquid (c) make it change from a liquid to a solid 5. Pupils should describe the soles of shoes wearing out or the problems caused by friction in the moving parts of machines like bicycles or car engines.

Background information • When a material or substance becomes heated, its atoms become more active and spread out. This can cause the material to expand. The opposite occurs when it cools. The atoms become less active, take up less space and the material contracts. • Useful website:

Page 81

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<http://www.brainpopjr.com/science/energy/heat/grownups.weml> (Background information and activities for teacher) Preparation

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The lessons

1. Teacher check 2. Teacher check 3. Depending on the heat of the water, the balloon will start to inflate after a few minutes (or sooner). 4. Teacher check 5. The balloon will deflate. 6. As the air inside the balloon becomes heated in the hot water, it expands and needs more space. This stretches out the balloon. When the bottle is placed in the ice water, the air inside the balloon is cooled, contracts and needs less space, so the balloon deflates.

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• Obtain actual items or provide photographs of some of the materials/ objects discussed on page 79. • Collect the equipment needed for the experiment on page 81.

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• Pages 79 and 80 should be used together. This unit is best completed after the previous three units on pages 66 to 77 have been covered.

• Pupils should work in pairs or a small group to complete page 81. Photographs of each step could be taken to display. Explanations of what happened to the balloon could be displayed under each step. • Allow time for pupils to predict what will happen before carrying out Steps 2 and 4 on page 81. Note: Using ice cubes will cause the balloon to deflate quicker than just using cool water.

• Through questioning and prompts using pupils’ suggestions relating to their observations, direct them to answer Question 6 in their own words.

Physical sciences SCIENCE – Book 3

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How can heat affect us and things around us? – 1 Read the text. Imagine it is a very hot day. What are some of the things you could do to make yourself feel cooler? You could wear light clothing, use a fan or air conditioner to cool yourself or have a cool shower or a swim. You could play in a shady spot outside instead of in the sun. We sweat when we are hot, which helps to cool us down. Extra water should be drunk to replace the water lost from sweat.

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There are many appliances, machines and items we use everyday that make us warmer, make us cooler, keep things warm, keep things cool, use heat for cooking or use heat for other reasons. Read through the following list and decide how and why each is used. Can you add to the list? gas, electric, solar or wood heater

iron

hot water system

fridge

hair dryer

beanie

blanket

double-glazed windows

cooler

thermos

oven mittens

kettle

toaster

scarf

40 30 20 10 0

– 10 – 20

Sometimes, materials can change when they gain or lose heat. Some materials can change size by expanding when heated or contracting when cooled. Liquid inside a tube thermometer works in this way. The metal in railway lines and bridges can expand and contract with heat and cold. They have expansion joints built into them so they won’t buckle in the heat.

Materials can change state from a solid to a liquid or a gas when heated or cooled. Water can be a liquid when we drink it. If we boil it in a kettle, some of it comes out of the spout as a gas. If we freeze water, it becomes a solid. A block of chocolate can change from a solid to a liquid if heated. When we boil an egg, the inside changes from a liquid to a solid by heating. When two surfaces are rubbed together, heat is produced by friction. This can cause problems for us. For example, did you know that the soles of your shoes wear out because of the constant rubbing against the different surfaces you walk on? Problems can occur with the friction between the moving parts in machines such as car engines and bicycles. Oil or grease is used to reduce the friction (and heat) between the moving parts. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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SCIENCE – Book 3

Physical sciences

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g

oven

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air conditioner


How can heat affect us and things around us? – 2 Use the text on page 79 to complete the following. 1. Describe two things YOU do on a hot day to keep cool. 2. Write an example of an object or appliance that can: (a) keep us warm ................ (b) keep us cool ..................

(d) keep food warm .............

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(e) be used for cooking something . ..............

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e

(c) keep food cool ...............

(f) keep heat from coming in or going out ....

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3. What is similar about the way a thermometer works and how expansion joints in bridges or railway lines work?

4. How can heat change:

(a) a block of chocolate? (b) an ice cube? (c) a raw egg?

5. Heat can be produced by friction. Explain one way this can cause problems for us. Physical sciences

SCIENCE – Book 3

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www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Magic balloon trick Find out what happens to a balloon when the air inside it is heated up and then cooled down. Equipment: • 1 empty plastic soft drink bottle • 1 uninflated balloon • 2 saucepans • kettle of hot (not boiling) water • 2 trays of ice cubes • 1 cup cool water Procedure: 1. Put the end of the balloon over the mouth of the bottle so no air can get in or out. 2. With adult supervision, get ready to pour hot water into the saucepan and then place the bottle with the balloon on it into the water. Before you do this, write what you predict will happen.

e

m pl

YES

NO

sa

3. (a) Were you correct?

(b) If you were not correct, describe what did happen.

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4. Place the ice cubes into the other saucepan and add some cool water. Get ready to take the bottle with the balloon from the hot water to push firmly into the cold water and ice. Before you do this, write what you predict will happen. 5. (a) Were you correct?

YES

NO

(b) If you were not correct, describe what did happen. Physical sciences

6. On the back of this sheet, explain why each result happened. Use diagrams to help. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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