Issuu on Google+

6694 97/4.85

g

Vi ew in e

m pl

sa


Science (Book 2)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing® 2013 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2011 ISBN 978-1-84654-578-8 PR– 6694

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

Titles in this series:

Science Book 1 (Ages 5-6) Science Book 2 (Ages 6-7) Science Book 3 (Ages 7-8) Science Book 4 (Ages 8-9) Science Book 5 (Ages 9-10) Science Book 6 (Ages 10+)

e

For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase.

m pl

Name of Purchaser:

sa

Date of Purchase:

Vi ew in

g

Supplier:

School Order# (if applicable):

Signature of Purchaser:

Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

View all pages online

Website: www.prim-ed.com


Foreword Science – Books 1-6 is a comprehensive series of science books for primary schools. Science literacy texts introduce concepts and are supported by practical hands-on activities, predominantly experiments. Science investigative skills, and the requirement for pupils to work scientifically, underpin all topics. Science is a complementary resource to the previously released Prim-Ed Publishing series, Primary science. Titles in this series are:

Science – Book 1 (Ages 5-6) Science – Book 2 (Ages 6-7) Science – Book 3 (Ages 7-8) Science – Book 4 (Ages 8-9) Science – Book 5 (Ages 9-10) Science – Book 6 (Ages 10+)

Contents Teachers notes .................................................................. iv – x

What happens when materials are cooled? ...................... 42–44

Science investigative skills overview ....................................... vii

Freeze that! ........................................................................... 45

Report format ....................................................................... viii

What do scientists use changed materials for? ................. 46–48

Experiment format ................................................................. ix

Materials change when cooked ............................................. 49

Curriculum links ...........................................................xi – xvii

m pl

Earth and space sciences .............................................. 50–65

How do changes to the Earth affect us? ............................ 50–52

sa

Biological sciences ......................................................... 2–33

e

What are living things? ......................................................... 2–4

My landscape diorama .......................................................... 53

Living thing observation .......................................................... 5

Where does water come from? ........................................ 54–56

How are living things the same or different? ........................ 6–8

‘Magic’ water experiment ...................................................... 57

Different coverings .................................................................. 9

Could Earth’s resources run out? ..................................... 58–60

What do living things need? ............................................. 10–12

How can we encourage water saving at school? ..................... 61

‘Plant needs’ experiment ....................................................... 13

Can science help us understand resources? ....................62 – 64

How does science help us care for our pets? ................... 14–16

Turn old paper into jewellery ................................................. 65

Make a plant pet ................................................................... 17

Physical sciences .......................................................... 66–81

What is ‘growing and changing’? ..................................... 18–20

How can you make things move? ..................................... 66–68

How can we find out if something has changed? .................... 21

Use the force! ........................................................................ 69

How do people grow and change? ................................... 22–24

What else makes things move? ......................................... 70–72

How you’ve grown! ................................................................ 25

Just hanging around .............................................................. 73

How do trees grow and change? ...................................... 26–28

What makes things move fast or slow? ............................. 74–76

Grow an oak tree .................................................................. 29

How does the strength of force affect a pinwheel? ................. 77

How do living things use their senses? ..............................30–32

How do toys from around the world use forces? .............. 78–80

See, smell, hear, touch and taste these! .................................. 33

Make a toy boat ..................................................................... 81

Vi ew in

g

Chemical sciences ........................................................ 34–49

How can materials change? ............................................. 34–36

Make a sparkly salty painting ................................................ 37

What happens when materials are heated? ...................... 38–40

Heating different things ......................................................... 41

Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

iii

SCIENCE – Book 2


Teachers notes Each book is divided into three or four sections, divided by shaded tabs down the side of each page. The four sections are: biological sciences, chemical sciences, Earth and space sciences and physical sciences. Activities to enable pupils to appreciate the work of scientists are included in all sections. Science investigative skills are included in all units. The skills utilised are listed on each teachers page. Each section is divided into a number of four-page units, each covering a particular aspect and following a consistent format. The four-page format of each unit consists of: • a teachers page • pupil page 1, which is a science literacy text about the concept with relevant diagrams or artwork • pupil page 2, which includes comprehension questions about the literacy text • pupil page 3, which involves a hands-on activity such as an experiment. FOUR-PAGE FORMAT Teachers page

sa

m pl

e

The first page in each four-page format is a teachers page which provides the following information:

Vi ew in

g

• A shaded tab gives the section.

• The title of the four-page unit is given.

• The content focus (the particular aspect of the unit covered in that set of four pages) is given.

• The investigative skills focus covered within the four pages is set out.

• Preparation states any material or resources the teacher may need to collect to implement a lesson, or carry out an experiment or activity. • The lessons provides information relating to implementing the lessons on the following pupil pages.

• Background information, which includes additional information for teacher and pupil use and useful websites relating to the topic of the section, expands on the unit.

SCIENCE – Book 2

• Answers and explanations are provided where appropriate for pupil pages 2 and 3 (the comprehension questions relating to the text and the final activity in the set of four pages).

iv

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Teachers notes FOUR-PAGE FORMAT (continued) Pupil page 1 The second page in the four-page format is a science literacy text which introduces the topic. This page provides the following information:

• A shaded tab down the side gives the section.

• The title of the unit is given. This is in the form of a question to incorporate science investigative skills and overarching ideas. • Instructions are given for reading the text.

m pl

e

• The science literacy text is provided.

sa

• Relevant diagrams or artwork enhance the text, or are used to assist pupil understanding of the concepts.

Pupil page 2

Vi ew in

g

The second pupil page consists of a series of questions or activities relating to the literacy text. They aim to gauge pupil understanding of the concepts presented in the text.

• The title, which is the same as the text page, is given.

• A shaded tab gives the section.

• Questions or activities follow. These relate to the text on the previous page.

Where relevant, a question relating to the work of scientists may be included as the final question on this page. This question is indicated by the icon shown to the left. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

v

SCIENCE – Book 2


Teachers notes FOUR-PAGE FORMAT (continued) Pupil page 3 The third pupil page provides a hands-on activity. It may be an experiment, art or craft activity, research activity or similar.

• A shaded tab gives the section.

e

• The title is given. This will be different from the previous two pages, but will be related to the concept focus of the unit.

g

sa

m pl

• An adapted procedure for an experiment, craft activity or a research activity is given.

Vi ew in

The work of scientists units and questions

Some four-page units are related to the work of scientists. Where the work of scientists questions occur within other units, they are indicated by the use of the icon. Explanations and answers relating to these questions are given on the appropriate teachers page.

SCIENCE – Book 2

vi

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Science investigative skills overview Biological sciences PAGES

Questioning and predicting

Processing and analysing data and information

Planning and conducting

Evaluating

Communicating

2–5 6–9 10–13 14–17 18–21 22–25

e

26–29

m pl

30–33

Chemical sciences Questioning and predicting

34–37 38–41

Evaluating

Communicating

Evaluating

Communicating

Evaluating

Communicating

Vi ew in

g

42–45 46–49

Processing and analysing data and information

Planning and conducting

sa

PAGES

Earth and space sciences

PAGES 50–53 54–57

Questioning and predicting

Planning and conducting

Processing and analysing data and information

58–61 62–65

Physical sciences PAGES

Questioning and predicting

Planning and conducting

Processing and analysing data and information

66–69 70–73 74–77 78–81

Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

vii

SCIENCE – Book 2


Report format Title Classification What is it?

Vi ew in

g

sa

m pl

e

Description

Conclusion What I think about it.

SCIENCE – Book 2

viii

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Experiment format Title Goal Materials

Results

Vi ew in

g

sa

m pl

e

Steps

Conclusion

Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

ix

SCIENCE – Book 2


Notes ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................

e

........................................................................................................................................................

m pl

........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................

sa

........................................................................................................................................................

g

........................................................................................................................................................

Vi ew in

........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................

SCIENCE – Book 2

x

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

xi

SCIENCE – Book 2

Vi ew in

g

• describe how things move at different speeds, speed up and slow down

Forces and motion

• identify and compare the uses of a variety of everyday materials, including wood, metal, plastic, glass, brick/rock, and paper/cardboard

Uses of everyday materials

• find out how the shapes of solid objects made from some materials can be changed by squashing, bending, twisting and stretching

• identify and name a variety of everyday materials, including wood, plastic, glass, metal, water, and rock

• distinguish between an object and the materials from which it is made

Everyday materials

pp2 – 5 •

pp10 – 13

e

m pl

sa

• describe the importance for humans of exercise and eating the right amounts of different types of food

• explain the basic needs of animals, including humans, for survival

• explain that animals including humans have offspring which grow into adults

Animals including humans

• describe how plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow and stay healthy

• describe how seeds and bulbs grow into mature plants

Plants

• explain the differences between things that are living and things that have never been alive

All living things

Year 2 ~ Science

England pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp14 – 17 •

pp18 – 21 •

pp22 – 25 •

pp26 – 29 •

pp30 – 33 •

pp34 – 37 •

pp38 – 41 •

pp42 – 45 •

pp46 – 49 •

pp50 – 53 •

pp54 – 57 •

pp58 – 61 •

pp62 – 65 •

pp66 – 69 •

pp70 – 73 •

pp74 – 77 •

pp78 – 81


SCIENCE – Book 2

xii

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®

pp6 – 9

pp10 – 13 •

pp14 – 17

g

sa

m pl

• describe how some forces are made by contact (pushing, pulling) while others act at a distance (e.g. gravity and magnets) • explain how gravity pulls things down, and that on the Earth’s surface, we are supported by a contact force with the ground

• explore and discuss how a push or a pull is exerted by something and acts on something else

Forces and magnets

• based on testing, explore differences between materials, including attraction to a magnet, and floating or sinking

Everyday materials

• explain that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition, and that they cannot make their own food; they get nutrition from what they eat

Animals including humans

• describe the ways in which nutrients, water and oxygen are transported within plants

e

pp2 – 5 •

pp18 – 21

• identify the requirements of plants for life and growth (air, light, water, nutrients from soil and space) and how they vary from plant to plant

pp22 – 25 •

Vi ew in

pp26 – 29

• identify and describe the functions of different parts of plants: roots, stem, leaves and flowers

Plants

Year 3 ~ Science

England

Curriculum links pp34 – 37 •

pp38 – 41 •

pp42 – 45 •

pp46 – 49 •

pp66 – 69 •

pp70 – 73 •

pp74 – 77 •

pp78 – 81

pp62 – 65

pp58 – 61

pp54 – 57

pp50 – 53

pp30 – 33


Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

xiii

SCIENCE – Book 2

pp2 – 5 •

• explore changes in the local natural environment, including how they can affect living things

• explore the effect of heating and cooling some everyday substances

pp34 – 37

pp30 – 33 •

pp38 – 41

pp26 – 29 •

pp42 – 45

• explore ‘How can we influence change?’

pp46 – 49 •

e

pp22 – 25 •

pp50 – 53

• explore ‘Can we stop unwanted changes?’

• explore ‘What kind of changes happen, have happened or might happen?’

m pl

sa •

g

• explore ’How do things change?’

Change over time

• explore devices that push, pull and make things move

• explore ‘How and why are they used?’

• explore ‘What sources of energy are in my world?’

• explore ‘Why do people and animals move?’

• explore ‘How do things work?’

• explore ‘How and why do things move?’

Movement and energy

pp10 – 13

• explore the variety of living things in the world and how we can take care of them

pp14 – 17 •

Vi ew in

pp18 – 21

• explore how we grow, move and use our senses, including similarities and differences between ourselves and other children

• explore ‘How do living things survive?’

• explore ‘Am I the same as everyone else?’

Interdependence

Key Stage 1 ~ The World Around Us

Northern Ireland pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp54 – 57 •

pp58 – 61 •

pp62 – 65 •

pp66 – 69 •

pp70 – 73 •

pp74 – 77 •

pp78 – 81


SCIENCE – Book 2

xiv

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®

Vi ew in •

g

• investigate how forces act on objects

• become aware of and explore how moving water and moving air can make things move

• explore how objects may be moved by pushing or pulling

Energy and forces

• become familiar with the life cycles of common plants and animals

• explore, through the growing of seeds, the need of plants for water and heat

• appreciate that living things have essential needs for growth

• group and sort living things into sets according to certain characteristics

• develop some awareness of plants and animals from wider environments

• observe, identify and explore a variety of living things in local habitats and environments

• use all the senses to become aware of and explore the environment

• begin to identify the main phases of the human life cycle

• identify some requirements for growth and development in the human

• recognise that physical growth has taken place since birth

e

m pl •

pp10 – 13 •

pp14 – 17

• recognise that all living things grow and change

sa

pp2 – 5 •

pp18 – 21 •

pp22 – 25

• recognise and/or measure physical similarities and differences between individuals

• become aware of the role of each sense in detecting information about the environment and in protecting the body

• name and identify external parts of the body and their associated senses

Living things

1st/2nd Class ~ Science

Republic of Ireland pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp26 – 29 •

pp30 – 33 •

pp66 – 69 •

pp70 – 73 •

pp74 – 77 •

pp78 – 81

pp62 – 65

pp58 – 61

pp54 – 57

pp50 – 53

pp46 – 49

pp42 – 45

pp38 – 41

pp34 – 37


Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

xv

SCIENCE – Book 2

pp2 – 5

pp10 – 13

e

m pl

pp22 – 25

pp18 – 21

pp14 – 17

g

sa

• become aware of ways in which the environment can be polluted or harmed

• identify and help to implement simple strategies for protecting, conserving and enhancing the environment

• identify, discuss and implement simple strategies for improving and caring for the environment

• realise that there is both an individual and a community responsibility for taking care of the environment

• begin to recognise that people, animals and plants depend on one another

• develop an awareness that air, water, soil and living things are essential to the environment

• appreciate the natural and human features of the local environment

Environmental awareness and care

• begin to investigate how materials may be changed by mixing

pp26 – 29

• explore the effects of heating and cooling on a range of liquids and solids

pp30 – 33 •

Vi ew in

pp34 – 37

• identify and investigate a range of common materials used in the immediate environment

Materials

1st/2nd Class ~ Science (continued)

Republic of Ireland pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp38 – 41 •

pp42 – 45 •

pp46 – 49 •

pp50 – 53 •

pp54 – 57 •

pp58 – 61 •

pp78 – 81

pp74 – 77

pp70 – 73

pp66 – 69

pp62 – 65


SCIENCE – Book 2

xvi

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®

Vi ew in

g

pp2 – 5

• take appropriate action to ensure conservation of materials and resources, and consider the impact of my actions on the environment

• •

pp10 – 13

e

m pl

sa

• explore properties and sources of materials, and choose appropriate materials to solve practical challenges

Materials

• compare generations of families of humans, plants and animals, and begin to understand how characteristics are inherited

• explore my senses and discuss their reliability and limitations in responding to the environment

Biological systems

• investigate forces on toys and other objects, and predict the effect on the shape or motion of objects

Forces, electricity and waves

• investigate how water can change from one form to another, and relate findings to everyday experiences

• experiment to find out what plants need in order to grow and develop, observe and record findings, and from what I have learnt, grow healthy plants

• distinguish between living and non-living things, and sort living things into groups and explain my decisions

Planet Earth

First Stage ~ Sciences

Scotland pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp14 – 17 •

pp18 – 21 •

pp22 – 25 •

pp26 – 29 •

pp30 – 33 •

pp34 – 37 •

pp38 – 41 •

pp42 – 45 •

pp46 – 49 •

pp50 – 53 •

pp54 – 57 •

pp58 – 61 •

pp62 – 65 •

pp66 – 69 •

pp70 – 73 •

pp74 – 77 •

pp78 – 81


Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

xvii

SCIENCE – Book 2

g

• understand how some everyday materials change in shape when stretched, squashed, bent and twisted, and when heated or cooled

pp10 – 13

e

m pl

sa

• develop an awareness of, and be able to distinguish between, made and natural materials

• experiment with different everyday objects and use their senses to sort them into groups according to simple features

Myself and non-living things

• identify the effects the different seasons have on animals and plants

• learn about the senses that humans and other animals have and use to enable them to be aware of the world around them

• identify the similarities and differences between themselves and other children

• observe differences between animals and plants, different animals, and different plants in order to group them •

Vi ew in

pp2 – 5

• learn the names and uses of the main external parts of the human body and plants

Myself and other living things

Foundation Stage ~ Knowledge and Understanding of the World

Wales pp6 – 9

Curriculum links pp14 – 17 •

pp18 – 21 •

pp22 – 25 •

pp26 – 29 •

pp30 – 33 •

pp34 – 37 •

pp38 – 41 •

pp42 – 45 •

pp46 – 49 •

pp54 – 57 •

pp62 – 65 •

pp66 – 69 •

pp74 – 77 •

pp78 – 81

pp70 – 73

pp58 – 61

pp50 – 53


What are living things? • Read each question on page 4 to assist the pupils or allow them to answer the questions independently. Discuss possible answers to Questions 4 and 5.

Content focus: Characteristics of living things

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

• Pupils may like to share their answers to Question 7 with a partner or the class. Answers Page 4

−− Growth: Living things must grow in some way, usually by converting external materials into progeny or additional mass.

−− Response to stimuli: Living things must respond to stimuli in their environment.

−− Metabolism: Living things must be able to convert energy in their environment into a new form.

e

• Some scientists define living things as organisms capable of growth, reproduction and metabolism. Many use seven criteria to classify living things:

1. plants, animals, people 2. grow, have babies, change, move 3. alive 4. Possible answers: Plants can grow taller, lose leaves, grow flowers, wilt, grow more leaves. 5. Possible answers: People can grow taller, fatter or thinner, learn things, need glasses when their eyes change, grow hair and nails. 6. (a) food (b) move, work 7. Answers will vary.

m pl

Background information

Page 5

−− Homeostasis: The systems of living things enable them to maintain a constant state of their internal environment.

Teacher check

sa

−− Reproduction: All living organisms are capable of replicating new individuals to continue their species.

g

−− Mutation: Living things are able to change and develop between generations.

−− Autonomous motion: Living things are capable of moving under their own power. This motion may be very small and does not require locomotion.

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

• Refer to <http://videoclips.mrdonn.org/animals.html> to view video clips about different living things. Preparation

• Pupils will be collecting and observing living things for the activity on page 5, using magnifying glasses (if small) or their senses (if larger).

• Allow time to collect items such as pot plants, insects or pets. All should be returned to their own environment once the observation activity is completed. The lessons • Pages 3 and 4 should be used together. • Read the text on page 3 with the pupils, discussing and explaining any unfamiliar vocabulary if necessary. Ensure the pupils understand the characteristics of living things before they attempt to answer the comprehension questions on page 4. In particular, discuss the sentence ‘Living things react to the world around them.’ Explain what this means and ask questions about specific living things. For example, ‘What happens if you gently touch a grasshopper with your finger?’, ‘What does your dog do when it starts to rain?’, ‘What happens to the leaves on some types of trees (deciduous) when the weather becomes very cold in winter?’, or ‘What happens to the skin on your arms when it gets very cold?’ SCIENCE – Book 2

2

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Read the text. Living things are alive. All living things have things that are the same. But most living things are different from each other.

g

sa

m pl

e

There are many kinds of living things. Plants are living things. Animals are living things. People are living things.

Vi ew in

Living things can grow. Living things can have babies. Living things can change. Living things can move.

Living things use food to make energy. Energy helps living things move. Energy helps living things work and do things. Living things react to the world around them. Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ www.prim-ed.com

3

SCIENCE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Book 2

Biological sciences

What are living things? â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1


What are living things? – 2 1. What are the names of three types of living things? 2. Circle the correct word(s). All living things can … grow gallop

sing

have babies

move

change

draw

run

e

3. Circle the correct word(s).

alive

funny

4. How can plants change?

g

plants

sa

tiny

m pl

All living things are …

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 3 to complete the following.

5. How can people change?

6. Copy words from the text to complete the sentences. (a) Living things get energy from

.

(b) Energy helps living things

and

.

7. What living thing would you like to learn more about? Why? SCIENCE – Book 2

4

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Living thing observation Biological sciences

1. Choose a living thing to look at. 2. Complete the information about your living thing. (a) My living thing is a

.

grow....................

Yes

No

have babies.........

Yes

No

change................

Yes

No

move...................

Yes

No

• My living thing needs: food.....................

Yes

No

air........................

Yes

No

Yes

No

sa

g

Vi ew in

e

• My living thing can:

m pl

(b) Colour the correct box.

water...................

(c) Write how your living thing reacts to the world around it. Draw your living thing.

Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

5

SCIENCE – Book 2


How are living things the same or different? Answers

Content focus: Similarities and differences among living things

Page 8

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

1. Has eyes

Has ears

Has a mouth

Has a nose

Has legs

Boy Dog Cat

Background information

Horse

• The many definitions of living things include those organisms with the functions of respiration, nutrition, excretion, reproduction and growth.

Elephant

2. guinea pig, hen, cow, flower, duck 3. lizard, ant, frog, bird, fish 4. Has hair

Has scales

e

• There are many ways for young pupils to group or sort living things. They could form groups of plants, birds, insects and people. They may also be familiar with the term ‘mammals’. They may group those with similar colours, sizes, movements, coverings, body parts, habitats and food.

m pl

Has fur

Has feathers

Girl

• Scientists have developed a system of classifying living things from broadest to most specific. The classification system usually consists of a ‘kingdom’, ‘phylum’ or ‘division’, ‘class’, ‘order’, ‘family’, ‘genus’, and ‘species’; for example: Human beings: KINGDOM: Animalia; PHYLUM: Chordata; CLASS: Mammalia; ORDER: Primata; FAMILY: Hominidae; GENUS: Homo and SPECIES: Homo sapiens.

Bear

sa

Fish

Bird

5. Answers will vary. Pupils may suggest: plants grow into tall trees, chicks grow into hens or roosters, seeds grow into flowers, tadpoles change into frogs.

g

• Refer to <http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/ plantanimaldif.html> and <http://www.wartgames.com/themes/ science/sorting.html> to play games to sort living things into similar groups, and <http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/videos/animals.html> to view short videos about different living things. Preparation

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

Page 9 Teacher check

• Before completing this series of lessons, it is advisable for pupils to be very familiar with the basic body parts and features of well-known animals and, if possible, have read short informational texts about a variety of living things and seen pictures of them. • The pupils will need templates (such as counters or cardboard shapes) to trace to make scales for the fish and bird on page 9. The lessons

• After reading the text with the pupils, ask them to answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to specific questions about living things; for example: ‘Does a fish have legs?’, ‘Does an elephant have ears?’, ‘Does an ant have legs?’ Alternatively, ask the pupils to give examples of animals with noses, ears, eyes etc. or those which do not have them. • Pupils should be able to use their general knowledge to complete the tables on page 8.

SCIENCE – Book 2

6

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


How are living things the same or different? – 1 Biological sciences

Read the text. Living things can have some things the same.

People have eyes and ears. So do most animals. People have a mouth and a nose. So do most animals. People have legs.

e

So do many animals.

m pl

People eat and drink. People breathe.

Vi ew in

g

So do animals.

sa

So do animals.

Living things can have some things different.

People have skin.

Some animals may have fur.

Some animals may have hair. Some animals may have scales. Some animals may have feathers.

Some adult living things look the same as their babies. Others don’t. Plants eat, drink, breathe and grow, just like people and animals. But they can’t move around like people and animals can! Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

7

SCIENCE – Book 2


How are living things the same or different? – 2 1. Tick the boxes in the table to show what these living things have the same. Has eyes

Has a mouth

Has ears

Has a nose

Has legs

Boy Dog Cat

e

Horse

m pl

Elephant

guinea pig

sa

2. Circle the living things that eat and drink. hen

table

cow

flower

duck

bird

car

fish

g

3. Circle the living things that breathe. lizard

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 7 to complete the answers.

ant

frog

4. Tick the boxes in the table to show how these living things are different. Has fur

Has hair

Has scales

Has feathers

Girl Bear Fish

Bird

5. Write the names of two baby living things that look different from the adult, until they grow and change. • SCIENCE – Book 2

• 8

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Different coverings

sa

m pl

e

Biological sciences

1. Glue small circles on the fish as scales.

Vi ew in

g

2. Glue small triangles on the bird as feathers.

3. Talk to a friend about how the coverings on these living things help them. Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ www.prim-ed.com

9

SCIENCE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Book 2


What do living things need? Answers

Content focus: Basic needs of living things

Page 12

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

1. Teacher check. Answers could include a fellow pupil, the teacher, a plant or a class pet. 2. Teacher check 3. Plants, animals and people all need air, water, space and food. 4. Answers should indicate that a tree could be food for animals that eat leaves or bark, and shelter for an animal that rests in or under it. 5. Answers should indicate that a plant without roots will not be able to get food from the soil, and so will die. 6. Answers will vary but could include that without water the pupils will start to feel unwell or thirsty. The work of scientists question Use and influence of science Pupils’ parents are usually responsible for ensuring a child’s needs are met. They gain their knowledge through their parents, schools, what they read and the work of scientists.

Background information • All living things have basic needs, without which they cannot survive. The basic needs of all living things are food, water, air and space. These needs differ amongst animals, humans and plants. • The needs of humans and animals can be extended to include healthy living, clothing and love.

m pl

e

• Plants make their own food by photosynthesis. In this process carbon dioxide and water combine in the presence of light to form sugar, a food.

Page 13

• A useful website is <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/ science/living_things/help_plants_grow/play.shtml> which has a brief interactive activity where pupils can try to ‘look after’ a plant online, meeting its needs and helping it grow.

g

• Collect the materials listed for the experiment on page 13.

sa

Preparation

Teacher check

The lessons

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

• Pages 11 and 12 should be used together.

• Discuss how living things have to do things and need certain things in order to survive. Before reading the information and completing the questions, ask pupils to give examples of things living organisms might need to be able to survive. • Discuss the answers the pupils gave to Questions 5 and 6 on page 12.

• The aim of the experiment on page 13 is to test what happens to a plant when one of its needs is removed. Before commencing the experiment, the pupils can work in small groups to plant the seedlings in the cups. The pupils then make a prediction about how each plant will grow or be affected by the conditions it is in. The plant in the resealable bag may need to be watered if it gets dry, to ensure only the effects of ‘no air’ are seen. Only Cup 1 (labelled ‘No water’) should not be watered during the duration of the experiment. • NOTE: The duration of the experiment is two weeks, during which the pupils can check the progress of the four plants while taking care not to change the conditions. • Discuss the experiment after completion to find out what worked and what didn’t, how easy or difficult it was to do, and any changes that could be implemented next time.

SCIENCE – Book 2

10

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Read the text. All living things have needs—things they must have to grow, be healthy and live. If they do not get these, they will become sick or die. People need …

Animals need …

• food for energy to grow, move and stay healthy

• food for energy to move and grow. Their food can be meat (other animals), plants or both plants and meat

• shelter from heat, cold, rain and wind

• love

e

m pl

• water. Some animals get water from food. Others need to drink fresh water

Vi ew in

• clothing to keep them warm or cool

sa

• water

• air

g

• air to breathe and to help change food into energy

• shelter from the weather, to hide, or to look after their babies

• space. Some animals (like a goldfish) need a small place to live. An elephant needs a big space.

• space to move in. Plants need …

• air to make energy to grow • water. Some plants need more than others • food. Plants make their own sugary food from air, light and water. They also get some food from the soil • light to make food • space to grow. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

11

SCIENCE – Book 2

Biological sciences

What do living things need? – 1


What do living things need? – 2 1. Find one living thing in the room. Write what it is, then its needs. Living thing: Needs: 2. Draw a line from each need to its picture. food •

m pl

e

• shelter

water •

• love

g

sa

3. Write three needs that plants, animals and people all have.

4. How could a tree be both food and shelter?

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 11 to complete the following.

5. What do you think would happen if a plant lost its roots? 6. If you didn’t have water for a day, what changes might you see in your body? Who gives you the things you need? How did they find out what things they need to give you to keep you healthy? SCIENCE – Book 2

12

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


‘Plant needs’ experiment Biological sciences

Complete the activity to find out what happens to plants if they don’t get the things they need. 1. You will need: • four plastic cups, each with a small plant or seedling in potting mix and numbered from 1 to 4 using a marker • water • tablespoon • box or brown paper bag

e

• large resealable bag

m pl

2. Follow the steps.

sa

(a) Write ‘No water’ on Cup 1. Place in sunny place. Do not water it again.

g

(b) Write ‘No air’ on Cup 2. Water well and put in resealable bag. (Squeeze out as much air as possible before closing.)

Vi ew in

(c) Write ‘No light’ on Cup 3. Water and cover with box. (d) Write ‘Water, light and air’ on Cup 4. Water and place in sunny place. 3. Draw how each plant looks after two weeks. No water

No air

No light

Water, light and air

Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

13

SCIENCE – Book 2


How does science help us care for pets? The lessons

Science as a Human Endeavour unit : Use and influence of science Content focus: Science helps us care for pets

• Pages 15 and 16 should be used together. • Discuss the needs of living things. Ask the pupils how we know about these. Direct the discussion to how the knowledge of these needs come about through scientific observation, testing, recording and learning about pets over time.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Communicating

• The activity on page 17 is designed to give pupils (especially those who do not have a pet) an opportunity to create a pet that they can care for. Access to the internet or relevant nonfiction books will allow them to research how best to care for their plant pet.

Background information

Page 16

• Useful websites: −− <http://www.funnygames.co.uk/take-care-of-your-pets.htm> is a game pupils can play online where they practise caring for a pet dog.

Preparation

sa Page 17

• Collect the materials listed for the plant pet activity on page 17. Ensure the pupils understand the term ‘needs’ as it applies to living things.

SCIENCE – Book 2

1. Answers should indicate that the pupils can find out about what food their plant needs by researching books, viewing documentaries or looking on the internet. Some pupils might answer that they could find out by experimentation. 2. Answers should indicate that science will help them to understand what their plant needs, and the best ways to care for their plant. Science may provide ‘medications’ (pesticides, fertilisers) that can help the plant be healthy.

g

−− <http://www.brainpopjr.com/health/beresponsible/ caringforpets/grownups.weml> is a website with general information about caring for pets.

1. (b), (c), (e), (f) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. Answers should indicate that a cat eating only people food would not be getting the nutrients it needs and would possibly get sick. 5. Answers will vary but should indicate that science helps us to understand pets so we can give them the correct food and care they need in order to be healthy. 6. Answers will vary. 7. Answers will vary but should indicate that a veterinary scientist studies the diseases and health maintenance of animals.

e

• If possible, invite a veterinarian to visit the class and talk to the pupils about ways to look after pets and how science helps us do this.

Answers

m pl

• Science has helped people to understand and cater to the needs of animals, especially those we keep as livestock and pets. A knowledge of the needs of pets, and how they can be met, is an important part of pet ownership. Scientific learning over time has helped humans find out how to ensure pets of all kinds receive the correct diet and health care.

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

14

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Read the text. Pets are living things that people care for. Pet owners have to care for their pets properly to make sure each pet stays healthy. But how do they know what is best for their pets? We use science to help care for our pets. Science has helped us find out what pets need to stay healthy. Food Science helps us to understand how living things grow and how their bodies work.

Health

Vi ew in

g

sa

m pl

e

Through science, we know that different animals need to eat different foods. Pets need to have the right amount of food that has the nutrients for them to stay healthy. Science has helped us to find out which foods make animals ill. Some foods people eat, like chocolate, are bad for dogs, cats and birds. Grapes, onions and tomatoes are not good for dogs or cats. Because we know what foods are good or bad for our pets, we can make sure they get the right food and stay healthy. Science helps us to understand which things in the environment can harm animals. We know that some plants, worms, fleas and other tiny insects can harm or even kill pets. Because scientists have studied these plants and insects, and how they harm pets, they have been able to make medicines that can stop them from harming our pets. Science helps us to understand our pets. It helps us know what we need to do to care for them properly. It gives us medicines to make them better when they get sick. Science helps us care for pets in so many ways! Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

15

SCIENCE – Book 2

Biological sciences

How does science help us care for pets? – 1


How does science help us care for pets? – 2 1. Which foods could make a pet dog sick? (a) cheese

(b) onions

(d) fish

(e) grapes

(c) tomatoes

(f) chocolate

2. What does the word ‘studied’ in ‘... scientists have studied these plants and insects, and how they harm pets ...’ mean? Underline the correct one. (a) They took them to school so they could learn.

m pl

e

(b) They watched, did tests and learnt about the plants and insects to understand them.

(c) They watched a cartoon about plants and insects.

sa

3. How could a pet owner know if his/her pet is not well? Tick the correct box. (a) He/She notices changes in the way it is eating or behaving.

g

(b) He/She asks it what is wrong.

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 15 to answer the questions.

(c) He/She sees that it is acting, eating and growing normally. 4. How might a cat change if it only ate ‘people’ food?

5. How does science help us care for pets? 6. If you could be a scientist who studies pets and how to keep them healthy, what kind of pets would you study?

What does a veterinary scientist do? SCIENCE – Book 2

16

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Make a plant pet Biological sciences

Plants can be pets, too! They are living things that need water, air, sunlight and nutrients. Caring for a pet plant means making sure it gets all these. Follow the instructions to make a plant pet. Materials:

• 2 pipe-cleaners

• potting mix

• 1 small plastic seedling or pot plant container with drainage holes • water

• paints and brushes

• gardening gloves

m pl

e

• flowering plant seeds

Procedure:

sa

1. Place the plastic container upright on a flat surface. Paint a face on it.

Vi ew in

g

2. Make a loop at the end of each of the pipe-cleaners. Insert the other end of each pipe-cleaner through a section the bottom of the plastic container. Fix it in place so it stays there. 3. With gloves on, fill the plastic container almost to the top with potting mix. Plant the seed in the container and cover it with a thin layer of potting mix. 4. Water your plant pet and place it in a sunny position. Questions:

1. Different foods are needed by different pets. How will you find out what kind of food will be best for your plant pet? 2. How can science help you to keep your plant pet alive and healthy? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

17

SCIENCE – Book 2


What is ‘growing and changing’? Answers

Content focus: Growth and change in ourselves

Page 20

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Communicating

1. When living things grow, they get heavier and taller, and change. They can usually do more things and look different. 2. Teacher check. Answers might include the tree has grown taller, has more branches, has more leaves, is heavier and has flowers. 3. Teacher check. Answers might include same eye colour, same number of fingers/toes/limbs, same hair colour, same skin colour. 4. 2, 1, 4, 3 5. (a) Answers should indicate their hands are bigger, their fingers longer, maybe the skin is a little rougher. (b) No. 6. Pupils should respond that they have not changed in exactly the same way. One pupil might be taller or shorter, have lost more or less teeth, have longer hair, weigh more or less, have bigger or smaller feet. The work of scientists question Use and influence of science An animal scientist or zoologist studies animals.

Background information • All living things grow and their features change over the course of their life. Growing and changing is part of an organism’s ability to find and use available resources, reproduce and survive. • The appearance and activity of people, animals and plants changes as they go through a complete life cycle.

• Useful website: −− <http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/index.html> provides information and links about the changes animals and people go through.

Page 21

1 (a) a ruler or tape measure (b) scales 2. camera, video camera, paints or coloured pencils 3. Teacher check. As it is an adult, it will probably not grow much more in length. It might continue to grow in weight, its behaviour might change as it gets older, its diet should stay the same.

sa

Preparation

g

• Teachers could ask pupils to bring in a picture of themselves as a baby. The pupils can try to guess who belongs to each picture. The lessons

m pl

e

• Be aware of any adopted pupils or stepchildren in your class and sensitivities they may have with not looking similar to their adoptive or step-parents.

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

• Pages 19 and 20 should be used together.

• The aim of the activity on page 21 is for pupils to understand some ways change and growth in living things can be observed, measured and recorded.

SCIENCE – Book 2

18

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Read the text. Plants, animals and people usually get heavier and taller as they go through life. This is called growing. Some plants and animals grow quickly, others take a long time. As living things grow, they also change. They look different and do different things. Some things change quickly, some things take a long time; some things change a lot and others only a little. You have grown from a baby to a child. You look different and are able to do more than you could when you were a newborn. As long as you have the things you need (water, food, shelter, clothing, love and air) you will keep growing and changing until you die.

m pl

e

How have you already grown and changed?

sa

You have more hair.

Vi ew in

g

You might look more like one of your parents. You have grown teeth (and maybe lost some, too). You know and can say thousands of words. Your body parts look different. Your hands, arms and legs can do more things. You are much heavier and taller. You have stronger

muscles. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

19

SCIENCE – Book 2

Biological sciences

What is ‘growing and changing’? – 1


What is ‘growing and changing’? – 2 1. What happens to animals and plants when they grow? 2. Write two ways the tree behind the child on page 19 grew and changed. (a) (b) 3. Write two ways in which your body is the same now as when you were a baby.

e

sa

m pl

4. Look at the changes in these hands as they have grown. Order them from youngest (1) to oldest (4).

g

5. Look at and feel your own hands.

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 19 to complete the following.

(a) How have they grown and changed?

(b) Can they change back to the way they were seven years ago? 6. Has the person sitting next to you grown and changed exactly the same as you have? If not, explain how you’ve grown differently.

A human biologist studies people. Use books or the internet to find out what kind of scientist studies animals. SCIENCE – Book 2

20

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


You can use your senses and equipment to find out if or how an animal or plant has changed. You can observe it over time to see if it: • • • •

looks (size, colour, shape), smells or feels different eats different food (or nutrients), or different amounts of food does different things is heavier or stronger.

The table below shows some scientists’ observations of how a rabbit grew and changed from 2 weeks old to adult.

Rabbit

2 weeks

2 months

5 months

1 year

Drinking milk from mother

Grass, hay, grains

Weight Length

Vi ew in

g

Diet

sa

m pl

e

Appearance

Behaviour

200 g 5 cm Stays in the nest area. Eyes opening.

1 kg 10 cm Eyes open. Playing and moving out of nest.

More grass, grains, hay, vegetables 2 kg 20 cm Hopping, leaping

1. What would the scientists have used to find changes in the rabbit’s: (a) length? (b) weight? 2. The scientists use a pencil to record the rabbit’s appearance. What other equipment could they have used to record it? 3. The rabbit at 5 months is an adult. What do you think might happen to its weight, length, diet and appearance from then on? Will they change, or not? Fill in the last column of the table with your predictions. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

21

SCIENCE – Book 2

Biological sciences

How can we find out if something has changed?


How do people grow and change? The lessons

Content focus: Changes that occur during the growth and development of humans

• Pages 23 and 24 should be used together. • If possible, show the pupils some pictures of people at different ages: baby, child, adolescent, adult, elderly person (or ideally, pictures of one person at different stages of life). Compare the appearance of the people in the different stages. Discuss what has changed, both in appearance and what they think each person can do. Ask the pupils what could affect the change and growth of a person.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

• The activity on page 25 is designed to help the pupils understand how they have grown and changed, and predict how they will continue changing. By comparing the change in height with others in the classroom, they will also understand that people change and grow at different rates. Encourage pupils to think of how tall their parents are, and use the measuring tape or chart to help them estimate their own height at age 35.

Background information • Human development from birth to adult is long compared to most other species. This length is related to the dependence humans have on brain development and learned behaviour (rather than genetically programmed responses) for survival.

• The lengths of these stages vary across individuals, cultures and time. Development in the stages is affected by environmental and physiological factors, as well as differing experiences.

1. Teacher check 2. 5, 1, 3, 2, 4 (Learnt to walk, learnt to dress themselves, lost a tooth, started secondary school, learnt how to drive) 3. Teacher check 4. Teacher check. Answers could include they both need care, perhaps they cannot do much by themselves, they might not be able to move around well. 5. Teacher check. Answers should include that if people don’t get the things they need, they might not grow as well or as much as they could, they might not be able to do as many things or be as strong. 6. Teacher check 7. Teacher check. Answers should indicate that the pupils’ parents will play an important part in the way they grow and change. Pupils who have carers or are adopted might state that these adults will also play a part in their development.

sa

• While children do not usually look exactly the same as their parents, they have similarities to both their genetic parents and siblings.

m pl

Page 24

e

Answers

• The human life cycle can be divided into different stages in a number of ways. In this section, the stages are defined as infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age.

• Useful websites:

−− <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/science/living_ things/moving_growing/read3.shtml> shows a sequence of human life stages.

g

−− <http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/humanchart.htm> has a chart with the different stages of human development that can be used as a discussion at the conclusion of the activity.

Preparation

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

• For the activity on page 25, pupils will need equipment such as a tape measure or height chart to measure their height.

Page 25

• Ensure pupils understand the meaning of ‘needs’.

SCIENCE – Book 2

22

1. Teacher check. Pupils should at this age vary in height from 108–142 centimetres, so answers should be somewhere in the range of a 58–92 cm increase in height. 2. Teacher check 3. The pupils will not have all grown the same amount. Pupils should explain that because people grow in a way similar to their parents, and the pupils have different parents, they will grow differently. They have also grown differently because people grow at different rates. 4. Teacher check 5. Pupils should give realistic estimates based roughly on the heights of their parents. Pupils with tall parents might indicate greater height development than those with shorter parents.

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Read the text. People usually grow and change in a similar way to one or both of their parents. Sometimes, people change earlier or later than others, or grow more or less than others, but they all go through changes in the same order.

When people are born, they are called babies or infants. They are small and cannot do much on their own. They drink milk and have to be looked after. As toddlers, they learn to move around and eat solid foods by themselves.

sa

m pl

e

Children from 2 to 11 years are very active and can do many things. They grow taller and stronger. They learn to run, read, ride a bike and write. They still need a lot of care from their parents.

Vi ew in

g

Between 12 and 18 years, teenagers (or adolescents) start changing from children into adults. Their bodies grow and change a lot, and so do their interests and abilities. They need less care from their parents than they did as children.

Most adults can take care of themselves and others. They stop growing as much as they did when they were younger. Many adults have jobs and children of their own.

When people get older (or elderly), they might not be able to see, hear or walk as well as they could when they were younger, or do as much by themselves. Their skin gets wrinkles and their hair might turn grey or fall out. Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ www.prim-ed.com

23

SCIENCE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Book 2

Biological sciences

How do people grow and change? â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1


How do people grow and change? – 2 1. Write the name of someone you know who is: (a) an infant (b) elderly (c) an adolescent 2. Number these life events from 1 (first) to 5 (last).

Learnt how to drive

Learnt to walk

Lost a tooth

Learnt to dress themselves

Started secondary school

g

sa

m pl

e

3. Draw yourself learning to walk.

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 23 to complete the following.

4. Write one way a baby might be similar to a very old person.

5. What might happen to the way people’s bodies grow and change if they don’t get healthy food, medical care, enough sleep, and exercise? 6. Imagine your body hadn’t grown and you were the same size now as you were as a baby. What would you find difficult to do? 7. Which people will play a part in the way you grow and change?

SCIENCE – Book 2

24

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


You have grown, and will continue to grow, in a way similar to your parents. 1. A newborn baby is often around 50 cm long. Measure yourself now. How much taller have you grown?

=

50 cm cm grown

e

cm

m pl

Height now:

4. Remembering that people often look like their parents, draw what you think you will look like when you are 35 years old.

Friend 1 Name:

Friend 2 Name:

Vi ew in

Centimetres grown:

g

sa

2. Find out how much two friends have grown. Write their answers below.

Centimetres grown:

3. Have you all grown the same amount? Why/Why not?

5. Estimate how tall you will be when you are 35. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

25

SCIENCE – Book 2

Biological sciences

How you’ve grown!


How do trees grow and change? The lessons

Content focus: Growth of a tree and changes it undergoes as it grows

• Pages 27 and 28 should be used together.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Communicating

• Cut an apple in half. Show the pupils the uncut side. Discuss what they know about apples and how they grow into apple trees. Show them the cut side with the seeds displayed. Talk about how the tiny seeds grow into tall trees. Discuss the ways trees grow and change. Ask if the pupils think all trees look the same all year long. If not, how do they change?

Background information

• The aim of the activity on page 29 is for pupils to collect fallen acorns from around local oak trees, plant the seeds they contain, then predict how their seeds will grow. Teachers could collect acorns ahead of time.

• Trees grow from seeds. Usually, seeds fall to the ground. If the conditions are right the seed will germinate (sprout from a seed and begin growth), roots first, followed by a stem, branches and leaves. Unlike humans, trees keep growing throughout life. As they grow, they change in shape and appearance to look like their parent plant.

Answers Page 28

• Some trees change from season to season. Evergreen plants have leaves in all seasons while deciduous plants completely lose their foliage during winter (or in tropical areas, in the dry season). In autumn many deciduous plants have leaves that change colour.

1. 4, 3, 6, 2, 1, 5 (is a seed, roots grow, a stem grows, branches grow, leaves grow, is called a sapling) 2. The tree is (over) ten years old. 3. roots - take water and nutrients from the soil; trunk - takes water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves; leaves - use sunlight for energy to make food 4. Answers should indicate that a seed landing in cold, dry soil will not open and start to grow. Seeds only open when there is enough moisture and warmth in the soil. 5. Teacher check The work of scientists question Use and influence of science A pomologist studies fruit and nut trees. He or she may specialize in developing new fruits, discovering existing fruits, handling crop pests, coping with changing climatic conditions, and other issues which pertain to the cultivation, harvest, and sale of fruit.

m pl

e

sa

• The leaves take carbon dioxide from the air, which, along with sunlight and water, is used to create oxygen and glucose. Plants use glucose as food for energy and as a building block for growing. The process of turning water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and sugar is called photosynthesis. • Useful websites:

g

−− <http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/kindergarden/Fun/project. htm> has a large number of fun activities pupils can participate in based around a plant theme.

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

−− <http://www.nationalregisterofbigtrees.com.au/tree_register_ gallery.php> is a gallery showing various varieties of tall trees. Preparation

Page 29

• Obtain an apple and, if a nature walk with the pupils to collect acorns is not possible, collect old acorns.

• Pupils might need access to a dictionary or the internet to answer questions on page 28.

• Collect the materials listed for the experiment on page 29.

SCIENCE – Book 2

26

1. Teacher check. The tree drawn should resemble the tree the seed came from. 2. Trees keep growing throughout their lives. They will only stop growing if destroyed by nature (fire, lightning, floods, parasites, other plants and animals etc.) or people (fire, pollution, poisons, logging etc.), or if they don’t get enough water, soil nutrients or sunlight. 3. Teacher check

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Read the text. Trees, like most plants, usually start life as a seed that has fallen to the ground from a tree. If the soil is warm and moist enough, the seed will open. Roots start growing down into the soil. They take water and nutrients from the soil. The plant uses these things to start growing.

m pl

e

Next, a stem starts growing up to the light. Branches grow from the stem and leaves grow from the branches. The stem holds the branches and leaves up so they can get sunlight. The leaves use sunlight (along with water and air) to make food for the plant. The stem also carries water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves. This small plant is called a seedling.

Vi ew in

g

sa

As the tree gets bigger, it needs more food and air, so it grows more leaves. The tree grows taller and the stem gets thicker. The stem is now called a trunk. The tree starts to look like its parents. This young tree is called a sapling.

Trees keep growing for as long as they live and can live for a very long time. Some trees can grow as tall as 100 metres, or live for thousands of years. If you find a tree that has been cut down, you will see rings in its trunk. The rings show how many years the tree has grown. Each ring shows one year of growth. Some trees look different at different times of the year. They have leaves that change colour in autumn or fall off in winter. Some grow beautiful flowers in the spring that turn into fruit, while others have cones. Trees can get ‘sick’ and die. They can get diseases or be attacked by insects. If they don’t have the right temperature and enough water, light and nutrients they can die. They can be destroyed by fire, humans, weather, poisons, animals and disease. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

27

SCIENCE – Book 2

Biological sciences

How do trees grow and change? – 1


How do trees grow and change? – 2 1. Put the events in a tree’s life in

2. How old is this tree?

order from 1 to 6. branches grow

a stem grows

is called a sapling

roots grow

is a seed

leaves grow

m pl

e

3. Draw a line to match the tree part to the job it does. •

• takes water and nutrients from roots to leaves

trunk

• use sunlight for energy to make food

leaves •

• take water and nutrients from the soil

g

sa

roots

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 27 to complete the following.

4. What do you think might happen to a seed if it landed in very cold, dry soil?

5. Look around you and draw a tree you see (or one you can remember). How old do you think it is? Why did you guess this number?

Use a dictionary or the internet to find out what a pomologist does. SCIENCE – Book 2

28

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Grow an oak tree Biological sciences

How do oak trees grow and change? Let’s find out! Materials: • acorns

• water

• seed raising mix

• small trowels • gardening gloves

• small plant containers or plastic pots with holes in the bottom Procedure: 1. Collect fallen acorns from your local area. 2. Fill a pot with seed raising mix to within 2 cm of the top of the pot. Press and smooth the surface of the mix lightly.

m pl

e

3. Put an acorn on the surface of the mix. Carefully put a thin layer of seed raising mix over the top.

sa

4. Label the pot with the date and name of the tree the acorn came from, or a drawing of the acorn.

Vi ew in

Predictions:

g

5. Put the pot in a warm, partly shaded spot and keep surface of the mix damp (not soggy).

1. Remember which tree you found your acorn under, or use the internet or books to find out what sort of tree it came from. Write the name of the tree and draw what you think your seed will look like when it has grown. 2. What are three things that might stop your tree growing forever?

3. How long might it be until your tree grows acorns of its own? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

29

SCIENCE – Book 2


How do living things use their senses? The lessons

Content focus: Senses of living things

• Pages 31 and 32 should be used together.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

• Read the text on page 31 with the pupils, explaining the concepts and any unknown vocabulary, and referring to the illustrations. Allow pupils to relate any relevant information they might know about the senses. • To assist the pupils to copy the correct letters in the sense words in Question 1 on page 31, write the words on the board. • Question 4 on page 32 involves the use of the pupils’ general knowledge. Discuss possibilities before the pupils write their answers.

Background information • The ‘senses’ is a very wide topic. This general introduction can be expanded by spending time discussing and learning about each specific sense.

• The final activity on page 32 involves the work of scientists. Discuss the topic as a group to assist pupils. Mention inventions such as hearing aids, braille, talking books etc. Read stories about famous people, such as Louis Braille and Helen Keller, who lost the use of one or more of their senses.

• The senses are ‘the special faculties connected with bodily organs by which human beings and other animals perceive external objects and their own bodily changes’. The five most commonly referred to are sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch.

e

• Before making the recipe on page 29, the pupils should be given the opportunity to practise measuring ingredients. While making the recipe, questions should be asked relating to the senses, such as ‘Does that look creamy enough yet?’, ‘Can you hear the Rice Krispies® crunching as they are mixed in?’, ‘How does the peanut butter and chocolate smell?’, ‘How did it feel to roll the balls?’ Reference should be made to changes to the colour and shape of the mixture throughout the steps.

m pl

• The five main sense organs are the eyes, nose, ears, tongue and skin. The sense organs send nerve impulses along sensory nerves to the brain. The brain then tells what the stimulus is.

sa

• Each sense organ collects information about the world and detects changes within the body. • Animals can develop specific senses to help them survive in their environment. Refer to <http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ amaze.html> for examples. People with some sort of sensory deficiency, such as those with blindness, sometimes further develop their other senses to help them interact with the world around them.

Answers

g

Page 32

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

• Cells are the microscopic parts which make up the structure and functions of a living thing. Nerve cells are special types of cells found in the brain and body that process and transmit information. • Visit <http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/jmresources/senses/links. html> for a list of various websites about the senses. • The recipe on page 33 makes about 50 peanut balls. Preparation

• Sing songs and play action games to develop pupil awareness of their own body parts.

1. hearing, sight, smell, taste, touch 2. (a) hearing (b) sight (c) smell (d) taste (e) touch 3. brain 4. (a) Possible answers: mosquitos, bears, deer (b) Possible answers: whales, bats, moths, cats, mice The work of scientists question Use and influence of science Refer to ‘The lessons’ information. Page 33

• To complete the cooking activity on page 33, the following will be needed: an electric beater, bowl, spoon, double boiler or bowl over boiling water, baking tray lined with waxed paper, cups for measuring, access to a refrigerator, spoons, forks for dipping balls into melted chocolate.

Teacher check

• Ensure strict safety measures are observed during the cooking activity. • NOTE: Find alternatives for the recipe given if any pupils in the class have allergies to nuts.

SCIENCE – Book 2

30

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Read the text. People are living things. They have five major senses to help them find out about the world around them. The five well-known senses are hearing, sight, smell, taste and touch. Different parts of the body help people use these five senses. Eyes help people see.

m pl

e

Ears help people hear.

The tongue helps people taste.

Vi ew in

g

sa

Noses help people smell.

The skin helps people learn about things they touch.

All the senses need the brain to help them work. The brain gets messages from the ears, eyes, nose, tongue and skin. The brain sorts the messages out and tells the body what to do. Animals have senses. Some animals’ senses have changed to help them survive. They use their senses differently to people. For example, owls have eyes which see prey a long distance away. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

31

SCIENCE – Book 2

Biological sciences

How do living things use their senses? – 1


How do living things use their senses? – 2 1. What are the five major senses? Finish writing the words. h

ta

si

sm

to

• sight

(b)

• taste

(c)

• hearing

(d)

g

sa

m pl

(a)

(e)

e

2. Match the picture of the body part to the sense.

Vi ew in

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 31 to complete the answers.

• touch

• smell

3. Which important part of the body helps the sense organs work? The 4. Write the name of one animal you know that has … (a) a very good sense of smell. (b) very good hearing. Scientists know how the senses work. They help people who have lost the use of one. Talk to a friend about how they do this. Think about blind and deaf people. SCIENCE – Book 2

32

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


See, smell, hear, touch and taste these! Biological sciences

1. Follow the recipe to make crunchy peanut butter balls. (a) You will need:

• 2 cups peanut butter • 125 g soft butter

• 450 g icing sugar

• 500 g chocolate chips • electric beater

• bowl

• double boiler (or saucepan with a bowl on top)

• baking tray covered with waxed paper

• 3 cups Rice Krispies

®

m pl

e

• refrigerator • spoon • fork

(b) Cream peanut butter and butter in bowl with beater. ®

sa

(c) Use spoon to mix in icing sugar, then Rice Krispies .

g

(d) Place mixture in refrigerator for 2 hours.

Vi ew in

(e) Take from refrigerator and roll mixture into balls. (f) Melt chocolate in double boiler over boiling water. (g) Use fork to dip balls in melted chocolate. (h) Place on baking tray and place in refrigerator to set. (i) Eat and enjoy! 2. Draw an eye, an ear, a nose, a tongue or a finger to show when you used each sense for each step above. One has been done for you. You must draw a picture for each sense at least once. 3. Colour as yes or no. (a) Did you know how the chocolate chips would change when placed over heat?

Yes

No

(b) Were the balls easy to make?

Yes

No

Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

33

SCIENCE – Book 2


How can materials change?

• To answer the questions on page 36, the pupils are only thinking about physical changes to materials. Ensure that their answers are based on the text information. When deciding which materials to write about to answer Question 3 (b), pupils could use the pictures on page 35 to answer the question. If suggesting other materials not on page 35, they must remember the two main aspects of physical change: the material basically remains the same/no new material is created AND the change can be reversed. An example of an irreversable change is wood when burnt, which undergoes a chemical change rather than a physical change. However, wood cut into pieces or painted undergoes a physical change.

Content focus: Materials change in different ways

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information • This set of pages deals with physical reversible changes of matter.

Answers Page 36

• Some ways physical changes can result are due to heating, cooling, melting, freezing, condensing, breaking, crushing, cutting, mixing, separating, and bending materials.

• Visit <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/science/ materials/> to find out more information about materials and how they can change.

e

1. Answers will vary but will include four from the following list: wood, air, cement, plastic, rubber, cotton, paper and metal. 2. All boxes should be ticked. 3. (a) size, colour (b) playdough, balloon, hot plate/element, water 4. (a) True (b) True

m pl

Page 37

• Visit <http://alex.state.al.us/uploads/7023/Name%20That%20 Change!.ppt> to read about simple physical and chemical changes.

sa

1.–3. Teacher check 4. the salt dissolved/mixed in with the other ingredients 5. Teacher check 6. The salt appeared and created a sparkly effect when the liquid dried. (It should be easily visible.)

Preparation

g

• Previously, pupils should have used their senses to examine different types of materials. They should have made observations about the texture, shape, size, appearance, smell or colour of materials, and compared different materials to find similarities and differences.

Vi ew in

Chemical sciences

• A physical change involves a change in physical properties (size, shape, state or appearance). The actual composition of the matter in the material does not change. A physical change does not result in the production of a new substance and can usually be reversed.

• Stretching, twisting, squashing and bending materials (such as playdough) can also be a good introduction to the topic.

• The pupils will need containers (such as clean ice-cream containers), spoons, paintbrushes and art paper to complete the activity on page 37. The salt paint requires salt, liquid starch, water and tempera paint or food colouring. The lessons • Pages 35 and 36 should be used together. • Read the text on page 35 with the pupils, explaining the concepts and discussing the pictures. Explain to the pupils that not all materials change shape, size, colour or temperature. Some may change in one way and others may change in many ways. Ask the pupils to give examples of materials that can be melted, cut, mixed, frozen, dissolved, boiled or moulded but which basically remain the same. List these in categories on the board if desired.

SCIENCE – Book 2

34

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


How can materials change? – 1 Read the text. There are many different types of materials. Wood, air, cement, plastic, rubber, cotton, paper and metal are all materials.

Materials can change size.

Vi ew in

g

sa

m pl

e

Materials can change shape.

Materials can change colour.

Materials can change temperature.

Even when changed, the material is still the same. No new material is made. Even when the material is changed, the change can be ‘undone’. These changes are called physical changes. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

35

SCIENCE – Book 2

Chemical sciences

Materials can change. They can change in many different ways. They can be changed by melting, cutting, mixing, freezing, stretching, dissolving, boiling or moulding.


How can materials change? – 2 Use the text and pictures on page 35 to complete the following. 1. What are the names of four different types of materials? •

2. Tick the ways materials can be changed.

mixing

cutting

freezing

boiling

dissolving

moulding

stretching.

g

3. (a) Complete the sentence.

sa

m pl

melting

Materials can change shape,

Vi ew in

Chemical sciences

e

Materials can be changed by …

,

and temperature.

(b) Write the name of one thing that can change …

• shape

• size

• colour

• temperature.

4. Colour as true or false. When materials are changed physically, … (a) no new material is made. . .................................

True

False

(b) the change can be ‘undone’. . ............................

True

False

SCIENCE – Book 2

36

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Make a sparkly salty painting 1. You will need:

• 2 cups salt

• 1⁄2 cup liquid starch

• 1 cup water

• tempera paint or food colouring

2. Follow the steps to make salt paint.

m pl

(c) Use to paint a colourful picture.

e

(b) Slowly add paint or colouring.

Chemical sciences

(a) Place first three ingredients in bowl and mix well.

Vi ew in

g

sa

3. Use coloured pencils to draw what you painted.

4. What happened to the salt when mixed with the other ingredients? 5. Was it easy or hard to use the salt paint? Why? 6. Was the salt still there when the painting dried? How do you know? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

37

SCIENCE – Book 2


What happens when materials are heated?

the can has been heated by the sun, Experiment 2 should show the ice cubes melting to form water, and Experiment 3 should show the solid chocolate melting to a smooth, thick liquid.

Content focus: The effects of heating on some materials

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

• Adult supervision will be needed to complete Experiment 3 on page 41. When all experiments have been completed, compare them by discussing any difficulties encountered or the success or failure of the experiments. • If desired, show that the changes can be reversed (‘undone’) by placing the can in a room or fridge to cool, the water in ice cube trays and refreezing them, and allowing the chocolate to solidify away from the heat.

Background information

Answers Page 40 1. heated 2. The pupils should have drawn ice cubes and a block of chocolate. 3. (a) False (b) True (c) True (d) True (e) False 4. (a) metal saucepans (b) iron with a metal base, metal baking dish The work of scientists question Nature and development of science/Use and influence of science The pupils should suggest that materials scientists look at materials. Refer to the website in the Background information.

m pl

e

• All changes are either physical reversible or chemical irreversible. Some other simple examples of physical changes due to heating include a rock heating up in the sun, melting metal to create different-shaped products (such as wire), melting ice-cream or snow melting in the sun.

sa

• The pupils are introduced to the concepts of the three different types of matter—solids, liquids and gases. Consequently, the correct vocabulary has been used.

• Solids, liquids and gases all expand when heated. Heat makes the material’s molecules and atoms vibrate faster. The space between atoms increases, so the object expands and takes up more space.

g

Page 41

Answers will vary.

• Catering for different responses from the pupils, the concept of conductors of heat is also presented on this set of pages.

Vi ew in

Chemical sciences

• These pages deal with physical reversible changes to some materials. A reminder about what a physical change is: Although some aspects such as shape, phase or form of the material change, the material itself remains the same before and after the change, and the change can be reversed (undone).

• Visit <http://www.strangematterexhibit.com/whatis.html> to watch videos of scientists speaking about materials. Preparation

• Pupils will need access to an oven hob or microwave to complete the simple experiments on page 41. One experiment will need to be completed on a warm, sunny day as the sun is the source of heat required. The pupils will need frozen ice cubes, an aluminium can of food or drink, and squares from a solid block of chocolate to complete the experiments. (Always ensure adult supervision.) The lessons • Pages 39 and 40 should be used together. • Read the text on page 39 with the pupils, explaining the concepts and discussing the pictures. Explain any unfamiliar vocabulary. • The pupils will answer the questions on page 40 using the text and pictures on page 39. Extra picture clues have been added to assist the pupils to answer Question 4 (b). • Discuss the Work of scientists question on page 40 and refer to the website information provided in the background information. • In the experiments on page 41, Experiment 1 should conclude when

SCIENCE – Book 2

38

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


What happens when materials are heated? – 1 Read the text. Materials can change when they are heated.

g

sa

Melting is a change that can be ‘undone’. Water can be frozen to make ice again. Melted chocolate can be cooled to make solid chocolate again.

Vi ew in

Heating some liquids can change them into gases. When liquid water is heated, it changes to water vapour, which is a gas. If you could collect all the water vapour which comes off a kettle when it boils, you could turn it back into liquid water again. Some materials, like metal, don’t change shape or form when they are heated. But heat can travel through them easily. Metal saucepans transfer heat easily. This helps us cook our food. What else can heat do? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

39

SCIENCE – Book 2

Chemical sciences

m pl

e

Some materials melt when heated. When solid ice is heated, it changes to liquid water. When solid chocolate is heated, it changes to liquid chocolate.


What happens when materials are heated? – 2 Use the text and pictures on page 39 to complete the answers. 1. Copy a word to complete the sentence. Materials can change when

.

m pl

3. Write as true or false.

sa

(a) Melting cannot be undone.

g

(b) Water can be frozen after it has melted. (c) Chocolate becomes solid when it cools.

Vi ew in

Chemical sciences

e

2. Draw two solid things that melt when heated.

(d) Heating water makes water vapour. (e) Water vapour cannot be changed to water. 4. (a) Write the name of something at home that does not change when heated but lets heat travel through it. (b) Can you write the name of something else at home that works the same way? Did you know there are scientists called materials scientists? What do you think materials scientists look at? SCIENCE – Book 2

40

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Heating different things Experiment 1 1. You will need:

• 1 aluminium can of food or drink

2. Write a word to tell how warm or cold the can is. 3. Place it in a sunny spot for a few hours. 4. Write what you think will happen. Chemical sciences

5. Write what happened.

e

1. You will need:

m pl

Experiment 2

• 4 ice cubes in a cup

sa

2. Place it in a sunny spot for a few hours.

Vi ew in

4. Draw what happened.

g

3. Write what you think will happen.

5. Was this experiment easy or hard to do?

hard

easy

Experiment 3

1. You will need: • 4 squares of solid chocolate • microwave-safe bowl OR bowl over saucepan of hot water • wooden spoon Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

2. Place chocolate in bowl over hot water and stir. (Or microwave for 20 seconds at a time, stirring after each.) 3. Draw what you think will happen. 4. Did what you thought happen? 41

Yes No SCIENCE – Book 2


What happens when materials are cooled? The lessons

Content focus: The effects of cooling and freezing on some materials

• Pages 43 and 44 should be used together. • Read the text on page 43 with the pupils, explaining the concepts and discussing the pictures. Relate the concepts to pupil experiences of freezing and cooling different materials. Discuss their answers to the question at the bottom of page 43.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

• To complete the experiment on page 45, the pupils will need access to a fridge or freezer, ice cube trays, and liquids (including vegetable oil, water, tomato sauce, milk, yoghurt, juice, soft drink and vinegar). Other liquids that the pupils suggest could also be used.

Background information

• The pupils may choose to ‘undo’ (reverse) the experiment by allowing the trays of liquids to defrost and ‘heat up’ in a sunny spot. Record the results.

• Cooling (removing the heat), which is a physical change, changes the state of matter by decreasing the motion of the molecules.

Answers

e

• The pupils may like to further their investigations into the effect of cooling on everyday materials by freezing slices of bread to see what happens, moulding clay with warm hands then allowing it to cool and harden, and melting and then allowing chocolate to cool and harden.

Page 44

• When a gas is cooled, the molecules slow down, and are attracted to each other so change from a gas to a liquid. This is called condensing.

1. You take heat away from it. 2. freeze 3. (a) solid (b) freezing (c) liquid (d) condensing 4. (a) and (c) should be ticked 5. The pupils should draw liquids that will freeze (such as juice, water, milk, soup) or condense (such as boiling/hot water).

sa

• When a liquid is cooled, the molecules slow down, are more strongly attracted to each other and change from a liquid to a solid. This results in freezing.

g

• Normally when solids are cooled, they do not change. (Solids can be changed directly to gases by a process, under the correct temperature and pressure conditions, called sublimation. However, this process is not relevant to pupil learning at this level.)

Vi ew in

Chemical sciences

• The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas. The molecules or atoms in gases move rapidly, and have large spaces among them and no regular arrangement. Those in liquids are close together, have no regular arrangement and move freely. The molecules in solids are tightly packed together, in a regular arrangement and, generally, do not move. Most materials change states depending on their temperature.

m pl

• Most substances expand when heated and contract when cooled, except for ice which expands.

Page 45 Teacher check

• Some simple examples of physical changes to materials by cooling include dew drops appearing on grass on a cold morning or water freezing into ice. • Visit <http://www.fossweb.com/modulesK-2/SolidsandLiquids/ index.html> to play a game to heat and freeze different solids and liquids. Preparation • The pupils should have experienced handling and sorting different materials into groups before completing this set of pages. • A movement activity may be useful in helping the pupils understand the different states of matter: gases, liquids and solids. The pupils move quickly, keeping large distances among themselves and other pupils, like matter in a gas. They then move less quickly and closer together, like a liquid. Finally, they vibrate in place, closely packed together in a small space, like solids. Imitate the action of cooling on matter by asking the pupils to move slower and closer together.

SCIENCE – Book 2

42

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


What happens when materials are cooled? – 1 Read the text. Materials can change when cooled. When we cool something, we take heat away from it. Some materials freeze when cooled.

sa

m pl

e

Chemical sciences

Cooling can change a liquid into a solid. When liquid water is cooled a lot, it changes to solid ice. This change is called freezing. When placed in a freezer, the water in an ice cube tray changes to solid ice cubes.

Vi ew in

g

Cooling can change a gas into a liquid. When water vapour, which is a gas, is cooled, it changes to liquid water. This change is called condensing. In a bathroom, vapour from hot water changes to water droplets on a bathroom mirror.

Cooling and freezing are changes that can be undone. For example, ice cubes can be changed back into liquid water by heating them. What do you do when you feel cool? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

43

SCIENCE – Book 2


What happens when materials are cooled? – 2 Use the text and pictures on page 43 to complete the answers. 1. Write what it means to cool a material. 2. Complete the sentence. Most materials

when cooled.

3. Colour the correct word. solid

gas . freezing .

m pl

e

(b) Cooling liquids to make solids is called melting (c) Cooling can change a gas into a liquid

solid . freezing .

g

4. Tick the true statements.

sa

(d) Cooling gases to make liquids is called condensing

(a) Cooling can be undone.

(b) Freezing cannot be undone.

(c) Ice cubes can become water again by heating.

Vi ew in

Chemical sciences

(a) Cooling can change a liquid into a

5. Write or draw some materials you have seen change by cooling.

SCIENCE – Book 2

44

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Freeze that! 1. You will need:

• ice cube trays

• liquids (vegetable oil, water, tomato sauce, milk, yoghurt, juice, soft drink, vinegar)

• freezer

2. Follow the steps. (a) Pour some of each liquid into ice cube trays. Chemical sciences

(b) Place them in a freezer and check regularly.

tomato sauce

milk

juice

water

m pl

vegetable oil

soft drink

sa

e

3. (a) Tick the liquids you think will freeze.

yoghurt

vinegar

Vi ew in

g

(b) Write Q next to those you think will freeze quickly and S next to those you think will freeze slowly. 4. Circle the liquids that froze.

vegetable oil

water

tomato sauce

milk

yoghurt

juice

soft drink

vinegar

5. Write which liquid(s) froze: (a) the quickest. (b) the slowest. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

45

SCIENCE – Book 2


What do scientists use changed materials for? • When completing the cooking activity on page 49, discuss the materials from which the muffin tin, bowl, sieve and spoon are made. If possible, select pupils to carry out different aspects of the cooking process, including measuring the ingredients. Ask the pupils to predict what will happen to the muffin batter after cooking. This cooking activity also incorporates components of the previous sets of pages—mixing and heating materials. After the muffins are cooked, discuss how they tasted, whether they were easy to make or not and what problems occurred (such as sieving the flour).

The work of scientists: Use and influence of science Content focus: Science is used in everyday life in relation to materials.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

Answers Page 48

• Scientific breakthroughs have enabled domestic households and industry to use a variety of materials in many different ways. Sometimes new materials have been created. At other times, materials have been improved to make better versions of the same. Often new materials are created for a specific purpose. Metal alloys, ceramics, plastics and polymers are all creations of materials science. • For background information about materials science visit <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Materials_science>.

Made from steel

Made from stainless steel

nails, bolts, nuts, house frames

sinks, knives, forks, spoons, bracelets

Made from aluminium

Made from plastic

cans, wheel rims (plus other suggestions from the pupils)

cup, bottle, chair (plus other suggestions from the pupils)

Made from nylon

Made from copper

sa

• Visit <http://www.strangematterexhibit.com/processing.html> to play games to change materials. Adult assistance will be needed to explain information.

g

Preparation

• Examples of products made from steel, stainless steel or cast iron can be collected, shown to the pupils and discussed.

Vi ew in

Chemical sciences

Background information

1. Answers will vary. Pupils will choose from: space, the body, light and sound, robots, aircraft, plants, computers and materials. 2. (a) from (b) act (c) things (d) change (e) fix 3. Answers will vary for some boxes.

e

m pl

• Pictures of things made from cast iron, aluminium, copper, nylon and plastic could be useful when discussing the text on page 47. The lessons

• Pages 47 and 48 should be used together.

• Read the text on page 47, explaining the concepts and discussing the pictures. Ask the pupils for the names of things made from aluminium, copper, nylon and plastic. This will assist them to answer Question 3 on page 48.

pipe, wire, cookware (plus other suggestions from the pupils)

Page 49

• Pupils can use the pictures on page 48 and the discussion about the text on page 47 to assist them with answering Question 3 on page 48. If desired, pupils can draw illustrations to accompany words in the table on page 48.

stockings, ribbon, jacket (plus other suggestions from the pupils)

1.–2. Teacher check 3. Answers will vary but may suggest that the dry ingredients became wet or ‘runny’ once the milk and other wet ingredients (including the melted margarine, vanilla and beaten egg) were added. 4. Answers will vary but may suggest that they changed colour when mixed, the batter rose and dried out, the mixture browned on the top when the muffins were cooked etc.

• After completing this set of pages, pupils could be encouraged to bring in and display items from home which are made from created materials, such as copper, aluminium, nylon or plastic. These can be grouped, labelled and displayed in categories.

SCIENCE – Book 2

46

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


What do scientists use changed materials for? – 1 Read the text. Scientists like to find out about all sorts of different things—space, the body, light and sound, robots, aircraft, plants, computers and many other things. But did you know that scientists like to find out about different materials too?

m pl

e

Scientists have found out how to mix metals together to make new materials. Steel, stainless steel and cast iron are materials made by mixing metals.

Vi ew in

g

sa

Many different things are made from steel.

Many different things we use are made from stainless steel.

Aluminium and copper alloys, and nylon and plastic are materials made by scientists. What things do you know are made from them? We wouldn’t have so many things to use if scientists didn’t find out about materials and how to change them. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

47

SCIENCE – Book 2

Chemical sciences

Some scientists like to find out what materials are made from and how they act. Then they work out how to use them to make different things. They work out how to change materials. Sometimes they fix old materials to make them work better.


What do scientists use changed materials for? – 2 Use the text and pictures on page 47 to complete the answers. 1. Write four things scientists like to find out about. •

2. Write the correct word to complete each sentence. fix

change

things

act

from

m pl

(b) Scientists find out how materials

e

(a) Scientists find out what materials are made

.

.

.

(e) Scientists

materials.

g

(d) Scientists work out how to

sa

(c) Scientists work out how to use materials to make

old materials to make them better.

Vi ew in

Chemical sciences

3. Write one thing in each box. Made from steel

Made from stainless steel

Made from aluminium

Made from plastic

Made from nylon

Made from copper

SCIENCE – Book 2

48

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Materials change when cooked 1. You will need: • 21⁄2 cups self-raising flour

• 3⁄4 cup sugar

• 1 cup dark chocolate bits

• 2 tbs. melted margarine

• 11⁄4 cups skimmed milk

• 1 egg, lightly beaten

• 1 tsp. vanilla extract

• paper muffin cases

• aluminium/stainless steel 12-cup muffin tin • spoon

• sieve

• wire rack

Chemical sciences

• bowl

(a) Preheat oven to 180 °C.

m pl

e

2. Follow the recipe to make 12 chocolate chip muffins.

(c) Sieve flour into bowl.

sa

(b) Line muffin tin with paper cases.

g

(d) Stir in sugar and chocolate bits.

Vi ew in

(e) Combine remaining ingredients. (f) Stir into flour/sugar/chocolate bit mixture and mix well. (g) Spoon mixture into muffin tin. (h) Bake for 15–20 minutes until cooked. (i) Cool on wire rack. 3. How did the ingredients change after the milk was mixed in? 4. How did the ingredients change after cooking? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

49

SCIENCE – Book 2


How do changes to the Earth affect us? Answers

Content focus: How changes in the physical features of the landscape affect us

Page 52

1. (a) tall (b) die (c) fall (d) cut 2. Answers should indicate that the birds and animals would have nowhere to live and would need to find a new habitat. 3. (a) True (b) False (c) False (d) True (e) True (f) True (g) True The work of scientists question Use and influence of science Discuss answers to the the work of scientists question at the bottom of the page. The pupils’ suggestions could include: picking up rubbish, water plants, not throwing rubbish into ponds, streams and lakes; and planting trees.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information • Changes in the landscape can include leaves falling from trees during autumn and new leaves growing, flowers blooming or dying, trees growing and getting taller, soil being washed away during a rainstorm, streams filling up with water after heavy rain or drying up during long periods of hot weather. • Pupils should predict how changes such as those mentioned above can affect plants, animals and themselves.

Page 53

m pl

Teacher check

e

sa

• When discussing changes to landscapes, the pupils could suggest changes due to human intervention, such as pollution. Books such as Lester and Clyde by James H Reece could be read to the pupils to show drastic changes to a landscape and how it affects two frogs in a pond.

• A diorama is a three-dimensional miniature or life-size scene in which figures or other objects are arranged in a naturalistic setting against a background. Preparation

Vi ew in

Earth and space sciences

g

• Visit <http://pbskids.org/rogers/buildANeighborhood.html> to play games that create various landscapes: a neighbourhood, a building site, a farm and a castle.

• Pupils should be aware of which features are natural features and which are built (human-made) before completing this set of pages. The lessons

• Pages 51 and 52 are to be used together.

• Read the text on page 51 with the pupils, discussing the concepts and referring to the pictures as necessary. At this point, discuss other changes the pupils have seen or heard about which have not been mentioned in the text. • After pupils have created the plans for making the dioramas, ask them to collect their box and the materials they need. Pupils then construct the dioramas. When the dioramas are completed, ask each pupils to evaluate how successful their plans were. Did each plan result in a good diorama? Did they deviate from their plan? If so, why? Were they happy with the results? If not, why? If they were to repeat the activity, what would they change? What would remain the same? • Display the dioramas in the classroom or library with the written plans.

SCIENCE – Book 2

50

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


How do changes to the Earth affect us? – 1 Read the text. Sometimes the landscape around us changes. These changes affect us. Trees and bushes on hills and mountains can grow tall.

sa

m pl

Soil and rocks can be washed away by rain or streams. They can be carried down a hill or mountain to arrive at the bottom.

e

Trees and bushes can die, fall down or be cut down. Birds and animals that live in those trees then have nowhere to live.

Vi ew in

Earth and space sciences

g

The ocean can look blue on a sunny day and grey on a cloudy day. Oceans, lakes, streams and ponds fill with water when it rains and can dry up when there is no rain for a long time. Plants and animals live in the ocean, and in lakes, streams and ponds. If there was no water, the plants and animals that live in these places would die. Trees in our garden can grow tall and give us shade. They might also grow fruit for us to eat.

Do houses, footpaths, roads and parks change? If they do, how might these changes affect us? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

51

SCIENCE – Book 2


How do changes to the Earth affect us? – 2 Use the text and pictures on page 51 to complete the answers. 1. How can trees and bushes on hills and mountains change? Write four ways by copying the correct word in each sentence. tall

die

fall

cut

(a) Trees can grow

.

(b) Trees can

.

(c) Trees can

down.

(d) Trees can be

e

down.

m pl

2. What happens to the birds and animals that live in trees if they die or are cut down?

sa

Vi ew in

Earth and space sciences

g

3. Write as true or false.

(a) Soil can be washed away. ............................... (b) The ocean always looks blue. . ........................ (c) Ponds never dry up. . ....................................... (d) Plants and animals live in lakes. . .................... (e) Some trees grow fruit. . .................................... (f) Trees can give us shade. . ............................... (g) Things in the places we know change. ............ Scientists tell people how to care for their landscape and to keep it healthy. What are some ways you can care for your local landscape? SCIENCE – Book 2

52

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


My landscape diorama Follow the steps to plan how to make a landscape as a diorama. 1. Choose a landscape from the list to make. Write your choice on the line. forest

city

park

farm

2. You will be making your landscape in a box. Write the colours you will use to paint the inside of the box.

e

4. Write the materials you will need to make your features and other things. (You could use plastic animals or cars if you have them.)

5. On the back of the worksheet, use coloured crayons or pencils to draw a picture of what your finished diorama landscape will look like. Label it. Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ www.prim-ed.com

53

SCIENCE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Book 2

Earth and space sciences

Vi ew in

g

sa

m pl

3. Write the things you will need to paint or make to place inside the box. Maybe you are making a countryside landscape, so you will need trees, soil, bushes, rocks, birds and animals.


Where does water come from? I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

• The aim of the experiment on page 57 is for pupils to create a small cycle of evaporation, condensation and precipitation. The sun will heat the water in the bowl, which will evaporate. When the rising water vapour touches the cling film, it will cool and condense. With the help of the pebble or weight providing a sloping surface, the resulting droplets will eventually drip down into the small bowl or cup in the centre of the large bowl. Pupils will notice how the water that collects in the small bowl or cup is clear, rather than the colour of the water in the bowl surrounding it.

Background information

• Discuss the experiment and what went right or wrong, or what might have influenced the results (such as the tightness of the cling film or the temperature on the day) after completing the experiment.

Content focus: The water cycle

• The Earth has a fixed amount of water which keeps going around, changing states, in the water (or hydrological) cycle. The sun’s heat evaporates water from bodies of water on the Earth’s surface. (Plants also lose water to the air through a process called transpiration, not discussed at this level.) The water vapour eventually condenses, forming tiny droplets in clouds. When the clouds cool, precipitation (rain, hail, sleet, or snow) occurs, and water returns to the land (or ocean). Some of the precipitation soaks into the ground (some of it gets trapped underground, becoming groundwater), but most of it flows downhill, eventually returning to the ocean.

Answers Page 56

m pl

• The water supply system network is the system that provides a supply of water to people in a community.

sa

• Useful websites:

g

−− <http://apps.southeastwater.com.au/games/education_ kidsroom_wcactivity.asp> is an interactive animation about the water cycle. −− <http://games.gippswater.com.au/game_cycle.asp> is an interactive game where pupils can label the parts of the water cycle. Preparation

Vi ew in

Earth and space sciences

1. (a) No (b) Answers will vary but should state that the water doesn’t disappear, it changes into water vapour when it is heated by the sun. 2. 3, 4, 1, 2 3. Condensation - water vapour cooling and turning back into water. Precipitation - water droplets falling to the ground. Evaporation - warmed water turning into water vapour. 4. The sun heats the water and changes it into water vapour. 5. (b) condensation 6. Rainwater is collected in dams or reservoirs. (Note: Water may also be taken from underground via bores.) It is then cleaned and carried in large pipes underground to streets. Smaller pipes carry the water into the house where it comes out of the taps. The work of scientists question Use and influence of science: Australian Aboriginals used their knowledge of trees, animals and landscape features to find water, such as from the trunk of the red mallee tree, water trapped in waterholes, rocks, tree hollows or underground after rainfall, and the location of shaded waterholes.

e

• Collect a kettle, cold spoon and glass of iced water to demonstrate evaporation and condensation (see below). • Collect the materials listed for the experiment on page 57. The lessons

1. Having completed pages 55-56, the pupils should predict the water in the large bowl getting warmed will turn into water vapour. Some pupils might also guess that this water vapour will condense on the cling film and drip into the cup. 2. After a few hours, some of the water in the large bowl should have turned into water vapour, condensed on the cling film and dripped into the cup or smaller bowl. They should note that the water in the smaller cup or bowl is clear. 3. Pupils should include in their description the evaporation, condensation and precipitation of water.

• Pages 55 and 56 should be used together. • If possible, demonstrate evaporation and condensation. Boil a kettle in the classroom and discuss what happens to the water when it gets hot. Describe how the steam (condensed water vapour) goes up. Carefully hold a cold spoon above the steam. Discuss how the invisible vapour turns back into water again when it cools. Teachers could also demonstrate condensation by putting some iced water into a glass and discussing the beads of water forming on the outside of the glass (from water vapour in the air cooling when it touches the cold glass and condensing back into water).

SCIENCE – Book 2

Page 57

54

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Where does water come from? – 1 Read the text, starting at 1 , to find out where water comes from. 2 Water vapour starts to ‘float’

3 As more water condenses,

up into the sky. When it gets quite high, where it is cold, it starts to cool down again. When water vapour cools, it changes back into small drops of water. These droplets begin to ‘stick’ together, making clouds. When water vapour cools and turns back into water, it is called condensation.

m pl

e

the clouds of droplets start to get heavy. When the clouds are so heavy that the air cannot hold the droplets anymore, they start to fall down from the sky. This is called precipitation. Water can fall as rain, hail or snow.

3

4 The precipitation falls back into

1 The water in puddles, lakes, rivers

the oceans, lakes or rivers, or falls on land. There it either soaks into the earth and is used by plants and animals, or runs over the soil and collects in the oceans, lakes, rivers or dams. There the sun warms it up and the water cycle starts all over again.

and the ocean gets warmed by the sun. Just like the water in a kettle that changes when it gets hot, the warmed water lying on Earth starts to change—into water vapour. This process is called evaporation.

Fresh water is collected in dams (or reservoirs) for people to use in their homes. It is first cleaned, then carried in large pipes underground to your street. Smaller pipes carry the water into your house, where it can come out through taps in the laundry, kitchen, bathroom and garden. Some people collect rainwater and store it in tanks or barrels. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

55

SCIENCE – Book 2

Earth and space sciences

1

Vi ew in

4

g

sa

2


Where does water come from? – 2 Use the text on page 55 to complete the following. 1. (a) Does water in puddles just disappear?

no

yes

(b) If not, what happens to it?

m pl

e

2. Order these pictures from 1 to 4. The first one has been done for you.

3. Join each word to its description.

sa

precipitation •

• warmed water turning into water vapour

evaporation •

• water vapour cooling and turning back into water

g

• water droplets falling to the ground

Vi ew in

Earth and space sciences

condensation •

4. What helps water change into water vapour?

5. Your warm, moist breath on a cold window makes a cloudy mist on the glass. What is this an example of? (a) the water cycle

(b) condensation

(c) precipitation

6. How does water come to your kitchen tap?

Find out how Australian Aboriginals used their knowledge of the environment to find water in the desert. (Try <http://www. start-a-new-life-in-australia.com/aboriginal-food.html>) SCIENCE – Book 2

56

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


‘Magic’ water experiment Materials:

• large, clear glass bowl

• 1-2 cups water

• small pebble

• food colouring

• large elastic band

• cling film

• smaller bowl or cup

Procedure: 1. Pour the water into the bottom of the large glass bowl. Add a few drops of food colouring to the water.

e

2. Place the small bowl or cup carefully inside (in the middle) of the large bowl. Keep it empty.

m pl

3. Cover the top of the large bowl with cling film. Secure it if necessary with an elastic band, but don’t stretch the top too tightly.

Vi ew in

g

5. Carefully put the bowl in the sunlight (for example next to a window) for a few hours. Be careful not to spill any water into the cup in the middle of the bowl. Predictions, results and conclusions:

1. What do you think will happen to the water in the large bowl? 2. Describe what you can see after a few hours. 3. Explain what happened to the water. (Continue on the back of this sheet.) Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

57

SCIENCE – Book 2

Earth and space sciences

sa

4. Place a pebble or small weight in the centre of the cling film so it sags down slightly in the middle.


Could Earth’s resources run out? The lessons

Content focus: Conserving Earth’s resources

• Pages 59 and 60 should be used together.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Communicating

• Page 59 gives a brief introduction to conservation of resources. A more in-depth study of reducing, recycling and reusing could be conducted after completing these pages. • The aim of the activity on page 61 is for the pupils to identify how water is used at school, think of ways water is potentially wasted, and to create a poster to encourage others to use water carefully. Before conducting the lesson, teachers might wish to read a version of Tiddalick the frog and discuss what might happen to people, plants and animals if supplies of fresh water dwindle. Pupils could go around the school in small groups and find places where water is used or teachers could send the pupils to specific places. Also show pupils some posters and discuss the clear and simple text, eyecatching images and colours used.

Background information • This lesson is a brief introduction to resource conservation. • Natural (Earth’s) resources are the things from the environment which are useful to humans. Earth’s increasing human population puts pressure on the resources available as more food, water and materials are required. Earth’s resources need to be protected, monitored and used carefully in a sustainable way.

Page 60

1. The good soil on Easter island went away because the people living there had chopped down all the trees. Without tree roots holding the soil, it blew or washed away. 2. Recycled into paper: envelope, paper bag (if clean), cardboard box. Recycled into glass: soft drink bottle, wine bottle; Cannot be recycled: rock, old shoe. 3. Answers should indicate that recycling paper means that fewer trees need to be cut down to make paper. 4. (a) Answers could include using it to make a paper aeroplane, drawing, printing or writing on the back of the page, cutting up the paper to use as notepaper, colouring it and using it as wrapping paper. (b) Answers could include scrap paper, clothing, tissue box, recyclable plastic drink bottles, books. 5. Answers might include advice about conserving resources or the consequences of the people’s actions. The work of scientists question Use and influence of science Pupils should visit websites to view water levels. Useful websites are: http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/homeandleisure/floods/ riverlevels/default.aspx http://www.sepa.org.uk/water/river_levels.aspx

• Useful websites:

−− <http://www2.seattle.gov/util/waterbusters> is a water saving game (interactive).

Vi ew in

Earth and space sciences

g

sa

• Resources recovery conserves natural resources by reprocessing used materials for further use. As well as such recycling activities, goods and natural materials can be reused and the amounts used reduced.

e

Answers

• Easter Island is a historical example of natural resources being used in an unsustainable way. The population and culture developed over 600 years, but the neglect of the environment resulted in disaster. Diminishing resources were fought over by the people and as the amount of protein available fell, the population turned to cannibalism. (This fact has not been mentioned in the text.)

m pl

−− <http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/kids/games/actiongames/ recycle-roundup/> is an interactive game where pupils can sort rubbish according to whether it is recyclable or not. Another recycling sorting game can be found at < http://www. primarygames.com/holidays/earth_day/games/landfillbill/index. htm>. Preparation

• Collect A3 paper, paint or markers for the activity on page 61. • Teachers could print or find pictures of Easter Island to show the pupils where it is and what it looks like to help them understand it is a real place. Discuss the lack of trees on the island, even today.

Page 61 Places where water is used could include the sinks in the toilets, the toilet (flushing), drinking fountains, sinks in the art room or wet area, staffroom, sprinklers outside etc. Ways to save water could include washing paintbrushes in a bucket instead of under running water; at the fountains, don’t play with water; in the toilets, turn the taps off when you finish washing your hands and use the correct flush button; tell a teacher or the gardener when you see a leak or sprinklers being left on.

SCIENCE – Book 2

58

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Could Earth’s resources run out? – 1 Read the text. People first came to Easter Island about 1500 years ago. The island had plants, animals and palm tree forests. The people cut down trees—to build houses, to burn for warmth, to clear land to farm and to help move heavy stone statues. Slowly the forests disappeared, until there were no trees left.

e

Without trees or tree roots to hold the good soil for growing plants, it blew away or washed into the sea. This meant the plants on the farms couldn’t grow. The animals had no food and soon were gone. The people had little food. But they were stuck on Easter Island ... with no wood left to build boats, they could not escape.

Vi ew in

g

Recycling means using old things to make new things. For example, used paper and cardboard can be recycled into new paper so that fewer trees are cut down. Old glass can be made into new glass so less silica is dug up. Old plastic can be made into new plastic so less petroleum is used. When things are recycled, fewer new resources are used. Instead of throwing things out after they have been used once, we can reuse them. We can use both sides of a sheet of paper, use plastic bags many times, fix old furniture and use some containers more than once. We can reduce the amount of rubbish we make and the power and water we use. We can turn off lights and appliances when we do not need them on (to save power) and use public transport, walk or ride bikes instead of driving (to use less petroleum resources). We can be careful about how much fresh water we use. We only have a limited supply of cheap, freely available water. Turning off dripping taps, having short showers and turning off the tap when we brush our teeth are ways we can help to use a very precious resource carefully. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

59

SCIENCE – Book 2

Earth and space sciences

sa

m pl

Sadly, this is a true story. Because the people who lived on Easter Island did not use its resources carefully, many of them ran out. We have to use Earth’s resources carefully or some of them, too, could run out. We can reduce, reuse and recycle to conserve resources and make sure there are enough for everyone.


Could Earth’s resources run out? – 2 Use the text on page 59 to complete the following. 1. What caused all the good soil on Easter Island to go away? 2. Can these things be recycled? How? Write the word for each picture in the correct place in the table.

Cannot be recycled

e

Recycled into glass

sa

m pl

Recycled into paper

3. How can recycling paper help save Earth’s tree resources?

Vi ew in

Earth and space sciences

g

4. (a) Write two ways you could reuse this sheet of paper.

(b) Write two more things you can see that can be recycled or reused.

5. Imagine you could go 1500 years back in time to Easter Island and speak to its people. What advice could you give them?

Use the internet to find out the water supply levels in your country. SCIENCE – Book 2

60

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


How can we encourage water saving at school? All living things need water. Fresh, clean water is one of Earth’s most precious resources. Using it carefully is so important—there is a limited amount that is easy to get and without it, people, plants and animals can’t survive. 1. Walk around your school and find three places where water is used. Then fill in the chart below.

Ways people can use water more carefully here

2. Choose one place to make a poster encouraging people to save water. 3. Plan your poster:

Title (What do you want people to do?)

Why should people do this?

How can people do this?

What colours and pictures will you use?

4. Make your poster on a separate sheet of A3 paper. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

61

SCIENCE – Book 2

Earth and space sciences

Vi ew in

g

sa

m pl

e

Place where Ways water might be water is used wasted here


Can science help us understand resources? Answers

The work of scientists unit : Nature and development of science Content focus: The role of scientists and science in understanding resources

Page 64

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

Background information

• These pages are a brief introduction to the topics of pollution and renewable energy. Teachers may wish to investigate these topics further after completing the lesson.

m pl

e

• The discovery, use and conservation of resources involves the work of many different types of scientists. They pose questions and research, study, test and experiment to find solutions to these questions.

1. Pollution is something that makes water, air or land very dirty or unhealthy. 2. (a) true (b) false (c) true 3. Burning coal to make power involves the use of a resource that will run out, while using solar power uses a renewable source and creates less pollution. 4. Two of the following: solar power, wind power, water power 5. Teacher check. Answers could include water samples, insects, other aquatic animals, plants, soil or mud samples. 6. Teacher check. Answers should indicate that it could become unhealthy for people to live there. 7. Teacher check 8. An environmental scientist might ask questions about the impact of the factory on the environment, such as whether there will be pollution, whether there are special plants or animals that might be affected etc.

Page 65

sa

• Useful websites:

1. Answers will vary, pupils should be able to predict that changing the length of the triangles will alter the size (thickness) of the beads. 2. Teacher check. Wrapping paper could be reused to wrap another gift, used to make cards or other craft activities, shredded to use at the bottom of gift baskets, used to cover books etc. 3. Answers will vary. 4. Answers will vary.

−− <http://www.energychest.net/energy_sources/es_ renewableenergy.html> provides information about different types of renewable energy.

g

Vi ew in

Earth and space sciences

−− <http://water.epa.gov/learn/resources/measure.cfm> describes some of the equipment scientists use to measure water quality, how they collect water and what they do.

• An environmental scientist uses scientific knowledge of the natural world to protect nature. There are many different types of jobs that environmental scientists do. Some of those are included in the text. Preparation

• These pages are designed to be done after completing pages 4653 and 58-61. Ensure the pupils understand the following terms: ‘resources’, ‘petroleum’, ‘power’ (electricity) and ‘sample’. • Collect wrapping paper or coloured magazine pages for the activity on page 65. The lessons • Pages 63 and 64 should be used together.

• The aim of page 65 is for the pupils to engage in a practical activity involving reusing common materials. If wrapping paper or coloured magazines are not available, newspaper can be used and each bead painted later.

SCIENCE – Book 2

62

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Can science help us understand resources? – 1 Read the newspaper articles.

POLLUTION TROUBLE

WHO IS KEEPING AN EYE ON OUR RESOURCES?

Scientists are investigating how some human actions make pollution.

Different kinds of scientists find, measure and study the Earth’s resources to learn more about them. Scientists can help us to learn how to use them carefully.

Because of these findings, other scientists are working to find ways to help us reduce pollution.

Vi ew in

g

They do tests and collect samples to find answers to these questions. Scientists have found out (and helped others to understand) that the ways we are using some of Earth’s resources are creating problems for our planet.

COULD NEW DISCOVERIES SAVE EARTH’S RESOURCES? We use power all the time. It is usually made by burning petroleum, coal or natural gas—resources that will one day run out. Scientists are trying to find new ways to make power, using energy that comes from renewable resources (that can be used again and again)—like wind power, water power and solar energy from the sun. These kinds of energy also create less pollution. Some scientists are trying to make new materials that reduce pollution. Scientists have found out how to make bioplastics (plastics made from plants) instead of plastics made from petroleum. Bioplastics use renewable resources and could create less pollution. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

63

SCIENCE – Book 2

Earth and space sciences

sa

Scientists ask questions about how we can use Earth’s resources, how much we have used and have left.

m pl

e

Pollution is something that makes water, air or land very dirty or unhealthy. It comes from many things, like smoke, factories, car exhaust, rubbish, oil and litter. Scientists measure pollution with different equipment. They also study plants and animals to find out if they are affected by pollution. They have found that pollution in some areas is making plants, animals and people unhealthy.


Can science help us understand resources? – 2 Use the text on page 63 to complete the following. 1. What is pollution? 2. Colour true or false. true

false

(b) Bioplastics are made using petroleum.

true

false

(c) Scientists try to find new ways to do things.

true

false

e

(a) Wind energy can be changed into power.

m pl

3. Write one way that burning coal to make power is different from using solar energy for power.

sa

Vi ew in

Earth and space sciences

g

4. Name two renewable resources.

5. Write two samples a scientist might collect from a river.

6. What could happen to you if your town became very polluted? 7. Imagine you are a scientist studying resources. What would you like to discover? Why? 8. Talk about what sort of questions an environmental scientist might ask about plans to build a new factory next to your town. SCIENCE – Book 2

64

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Turn old paper into jewellery Materials: • old magazines or wrapping paper

• pencil or pen

• string or thin elastic

• scissors

• glue

• thick skewers or knitting needles

• ruler

Procedure: 1. Draw long triangles, each about 2 cm wide at the base and 15 cm long, on the back of your paper. Cut out the triangles.

e

2. Put glue on the back of the tip (last 3 cm) of the triangle.

sa

m pl

3. Starting with the wide end, wrap the triangle tightly around the skewer or knitting needle. The tip should stay in the centre.

1. What might happen to the beads if you changed the length of the triangles?

2. Write one other way you could reuse sheets of wrapping paper. 3. Which part of the activity did you find the most difficult? 4. How could you have made it easier? (Include any equipment you could have used.)

Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

65

SCIENCE – Book 2

Earth and space sciences

Vi ew in

Questions:

g

4. Make enough for a necklace or bracelet. They can be coated with varnish to make them stronger. Thread them when dry.


How can you make things move? The lessons

Content focus: Pushes and pulls are forces Forces make things start or stop moving and change shape or direction

• Pages 67 and 68 should be used together. • Place a variety of classroom objects or toys out in the classroom. Ask pupils to show you some different ways of moving the objects. Ask if the objects can move by themselves when they are standing still. Discuss how something has to happen to them otherwise they can’t move, and that what makes them move are forces, such as pushing or pulling. Demonstrate pushing and pulling and discuss how we can push and pull things in different ways to make them move, stop or change direction. Ask some pupils to move the toys while the others identify the action as either a push or a pull.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

• Teachers might wish to discuss with pupils things that are not safe to stop by pushing or pulling, such as spinning fans, cars and power tools.

Background information • Pushes and pulls are forces, acting in opposite directions, that can start or stop an object moving or change its direction or shape. Forces are at work when we push a door open, pull on socks or open a bottle. Because forces cannot be seen, some pupils might find it difficult to gasp the concept introduced in this section.

e

• The activity on page 69 is designed to give pupils the opportunity to experiment with pushes and pulls as they manipulate playdough. They could also manipulate clay or plasticine. This activity is best done on large, flat, clean surfaces.

• Isaac Newton formulated laws of motion and gravitation that explain how objects move when a force acts on them. Newton found that objects at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by forces.

m pl

Answers Page 68

• In discussing pushes and pulls, some pupils might suggest that a ball can move on its own if it rolls downhill or is blown by the wind. Teachers might like to extend the learning at this point to briefly explain gravity and the way it acts as a force that pulls (see pages 70-73).

1. (a) pull (b) pull (c) pull (d) push 2. (a) Forces (b) pull (c) push 3. Answers will vary depending on each child’s door. 4. Pupils could either push or pull the ball using their hands or feet to change its direction, but most commonly a push would be used. 5. Answers will vary. The work of scientists question Nature and development of science Answers will vary but could include chairs, doors, drawers and windows.

• Useful websites:

g

sa

Vi ew in

−− <http://www.firstschoolyears.com/science/resources/games/ forces/pushes.htm> is a simple activity where pupils can sort pictures as being examples of either push or pull forces.

−− <http://wsgfl2.westsussex.gov.uk/aplaws/intergames/science/ v5_CyrilsCheese2.swf> is an interactive game where pupils have to help a mouse move his cheese by choosing to push or pull it.

−− <http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/push_pull/eng/Introduction/ InteractiveWhiteboardActivity.htm> offers two interactive push and pull activities. Preparation

• Obtain a number of movable toys or classroom objects to demonstrate pushing and pulling.

Page 69 1 .–3. Teacher check Conclusions (a) The pupils should be able to conclude that the harder you push an object such as a ball of playdough, the further it moves. (b) Answers will vary, but the pupils should mention that push and pull forces can change the shape of the dough in different ways.

• Make (or purchase) playdough for the activity on page 69.

Physical sciences SCIENCE – Book 2

66

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


How can you make things move? – 1 Read the text. You can move in different ways. You can run, walk, roll and jump, as fast or slowly as you like — whenever you want! I can move, too. But I can only move when someone, or something, moves me. If you press me away from you, I move away. This is a ‘push’. If you drag or tug me towards you, I move in that direction. This is a ‘pull’.

Push

Pull

m pl

e

Objects can move in different ways, but they do not move unless something makes them. Something that makes an object move is called a force. Pushes and pulls are forces. You can move things by ... pushing them up

forwards or backwards

Vi ew in

g

sa

down

and pulling them down

forwards or backwards

We can also use push and pull forces to make something: • change shape • stop moving • change direction

Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

67

SCIENCE – Book 2

Physical sciences

up


How can you make things move? – 2 Use the text on page 67 to complete the following. 1. Next to each picture, write if it is a push or a pull. (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2. Fill in the missing words. (a)

make objects move.

(c) Hitting a balloon up uses a

e

(b) Moving an object towards you uses a

force.

m pl

force.

sa

3. Which force do you use to open the door into your home?

Vi ew in

g

4. Imagine a ball is rolling towards you. How could you change its direction using a push or a pull?

5. Draw yourself using a...

h

s pu

ll

pu

Physical sciences

Make a list of things in the classroom that you can change or move using a push force. SCIENCE – Book 2

68

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Use the force! What can you do to a ball of dough using forces? Materials:

• a ball of playdough

• ruler

• flat surface

Instructions: 1. Push your hand into the playdough. What happens to its shape? 2. Pull the playdough with two hands. What happens to its shape?

m pl

3. Roll the playdough into a ball.

e

sa

(a) Push it gently from a line on a flat surface. Measure how far it rolls.

g

(b) Push it harder from the same line. Measure how far it rolls.

Vi ew in

(c) Roll the ball of playdough to a partner. Which forces can he/she use to make it stop?

(d) What do you think would happen to its shape if you dropped it from as high as you could reach?

(e) Drop it. What happened? Were you right?

Conclusions: On the back of this sheet, write what you discovered about: (a) how pushing a dough ball hard or soft affects how far it moves. (b) what push and pull forces can do to the shape, movement and direction of a ball of dough. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

69

SCIENCE – Book 2

Physical sciences


What else makes things move?

The lessons

Content focus: Gravity, wind and water can move objects

• Pages 71 and 72 should be used together.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

• If possible, complete pages 66-69 of this book prior to completing these pages. Remind the pupils that objects cannot move unless something else pushes or pulls them. Show the pupils an object, such a pen or a ball, and ask them what would happen if you let go of it. Ensure they respond that it will drop down. Demonstrate, then ask what they think caused the object to move that way, and not up or across. Ask for suggestions of other things that come down to Earth.

Background information

• The aim of the experiment on page 73 is for pupils to experiment with objects always being pulled downwards, regardless of the way they are held, by gravity.

• Gravity is a force of attraction that exists between any two masses, bodies or particles. It is not just the attraction between objects and the Earth; it is a universal attraction between all objects. Anything which has mass has a gravitational pull.

Answers Page 72

• Wind itself is caused in part by gravity. Air particles in the atmosphere are drawn downward by gravity. Pressure in the air creates an upward force working opposite gravity’s pull. This creates air pressure, and changes in air pressure in turn create wind.

sa

• Most waves are generated by wind blowing over water on the surface of the oceans. The wind first creates ripples, then smaller waves and larger ones. Waves caused by direct blowing wind are called wind waves. After the wind ceases to blow, wind waves are called swell (waves which were generated elsewhere, or some time ago).

1. Gravity is a force that pulls objects (including people, plants and animals) downwards towards the Earth. 2. One of the following: Gravity can make water fall as rain, water flow downhill, water fall in waterfalls, or make water run. 3. Teacher check. Children might draw themselves floating. 4. Two of the following: sand, shells and rocks 5. Answers will vary. They should describe how large waves are created when fast winds blow over a long distance of the surface of the ocean for a long time. 6. Egg timer: gravity pulls the grains of sand down to the bottom of the timer, so without gravity the sand wouldn’t fall down. Slide: gravity pulls things at the top down to the bottom of the slide, so without gravity people and objects wouldn’t move easily down the slide. Fountain: Gravity pulls the water back down to the basin of the fountain. Without gravity, the water would float instead of coming back down to the fountain.

e

m pl

• Earth’s gravity keeps its inhabitants on the ground, causes objects to fall and gives things on Earth (including air) weight.

g Vi ew in

• Useful websites:

−− <http://www.kenttrustweb.org.uk/kentict/content/games/ waterPlay_v3.html > has an interactive water tray where pupils can experiment with water, the way it moves and the way things can move in or on it.

−− <http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/phy03.sci.phys.mfw. zweightlessness/> demonstrates a gravity experiment (water in a cup with holes will fall out of the holes, but if the cup is dropped the water will not come out of the holes). Preparation

Page 73

• Collect the materials needed for the experiment on page 73 (string, scissors, rulers, sticky tape and paper clips).

1. Answers will vary but pupils should respond that the paperclip always hangs in the same position, pointing down, regardless of the position of the ruler. 2. (a) hanging objects at school could include mobiles, swings, ceiling lights or fans, pictures on walls. (b) Teacher check

Physical sciences SCIENCE – Book 2

70

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


What else makes things move? – 1 Read the text. Hold a pencil out and let it go. What happens? It falls down to the ground. Objects cannot move by themselves — they have to be pushed or pulled by something else. So what ‘invisible’ thing makes objects move down to the ground?

m pl

e

All things near the Earth fall down, towards the Earth, unless something holds them up. They move this way because of gravity. Gravity is a force that pulls things towards the Earth. You can’t see gravity, but you can see it working. If you kick a ball up into the air, it will go up for a while, then come back down. Gravity pulls it down. Without gravity, the ball would keep going up and up. If you trip on something, you fall down — because of gravity. Gravity is what keeps you, plants and animals on the ground. It keeps food on your plate and buildings on the ground. Without it, if you jumped, you would keep going up!

g

sa

Gravity makes water move. Rain is water drops being pulled to the Earth because of gravity. Gravity pulls water in rivers downhill and helps create waterfalls. Gravity makes water ‘run’, and running water can make things move. It can push sand, rocks and other things along.

Like gravity, wind can make water move. When it blows over the surface of the ocean, wind creates waves. The size of the waves depends on how fast, for how long and how far the wind blows across the top of the water. The greater these three things are, the larger the wave. Waves can move sand, shells and rocks on the shore. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

71

SCIENCE – Book 2

Physical sciences

Vi ew in

Another ‘invisible’ thing that can make objects move is the wind. Wind is moving air. It can make kites fly, sailboats move along the top of water, clouds move in the sky and leaves blow off trees. Sometimes wind can be strong enough to pick up or knock down whole buildings.


What else makes things move? – 2 Use the text on page 71 to complete the following. 1. In your own words, write what gravity is. 2. Write one way gravity can make water move.

3. Draw what might happen to you if there was no gravity.

m pl

e

4. Write two things waves can move.

sa

5. How does wind create large waves?

Vi ew in

g

6. Write why these things couldn’t work without Earth’s gravity.

Physical sciences

SCIENCE – Book 2

72

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Just hanging around Does gravity always pull hanging things the same way? Materials: • string • scissors • ruler • paperclip • sticky tape Instructions: 1. Cut about 30 cm of string. 2. Tie one end of the string to a paperclip. Tape the other end of the string onto one end of the ruler.

m pl

Sketch of ruler Position 2

Sketch of ruler Position 3

String direction Position 2

Vi ew in

String direction Position 1

g

sa

Sketch of ruler Position 1

e

3. Hold the ruler in three different positions. Draw the positions in the chart. When the clip is still, write the direction it hangs in each position.

String direction Position 3

Questions:

1. What did you notice about the way the paperclip hangs when the ruler is in different positions?

2. (a) Name two objects at school (in the classroom or playground) that hang down. (b) What could be some problems if gravity did not pull these objects the

way it does?

Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

73

SCIENCE – Book 2

Physical sciences


What makes things move fast or slow?

The lessons

Content focus: The strength of a push or pull affects how an object moves

• Pages 75 and 76 should be used together.

I nvestigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

• If possible, complete pages 66-69 of this book before these pages. Remind the pupils that objects cannot move unless something else pushes or pulls them. Show them a toy car and demonstrate or allow pupils to experiment with moving it different distances and at different speeds. Ask them what other factors affect the way the car moves. Teachers could also allow the pupils to play a game where they try to keep a balloon in the air without letting it touch the ground. Ask them to try using different strengths of pushes and pulls.

Background information

• Ensure the pupils understand terms such as ‘strength’, ‘strong’, ‘gentle’ and ‘force’.

• An object’s motion is affected by many factors. The strength of the push or pull, incline, surface (friction) and the mass and shape of the object itself all affect how it will move. This section focuses on the strength of pushes and pulls and how they affect the movement of an object.

• The aim of the activity on page 77 is for pupils to experiment with forces and movement by using different strengths of forces to move an object. They will need to be very careful when using the pins. It is advisable that teachers assist pupils with this part of the activity.

m pl

e

• The pinwheels made by different pupils might spin differently. Discuss with the pupils why this might have happened.

• The amount of change in position and motion of an object is related to the strength of the push or pull (force). The stronger the push or pull, the faster the object moves. The weaker the push or pull, the slower the object moves.

Answers Page 76

• Speed is also affected by the strength of the push or pull. Speed is a measure of the amount of distance covered per unit of time—how fast an object moves over a measured distance. Usually, the greater the force of the push or pull, the greater the speed with which the object moves.

1. (a) false (b) true (c) false 2. You can make a friend on a swing go higher by pushing him/her with more strength or force. 3. (a) To move a trolley faster, you would use a stronger push. (b) To stop a fast moving trolley, you would use a strong pull. (Some pupils might answer push rather than pull, if so ensure they can demonstrate that they understand that to push it to a stop they would have to stand in front of the trolley.) 4. (a) The space shuttle would require a stronger push force to move. (b) Because it is much heavier. 5. Answers may vary. A suggested answer is below.

sa

• Useful websites:

Vi ew in

g

• The position and motion of objects can be explored in a variety of ways. By experimenting with cause and effect the pupils can begin to predict the consequences of different strengths of pushes and pulls on objects. −− <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/5_6/pushes_ pulls.shtml> is an interactive activity where pupils can move objects in different ways with different strengths of pushes and pulls.

−− <http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/push_pull/eng/Introduction/ MainSession.htm> demonstrates no push, a small push and a bigger push on a toy car. Preparation

• Collect a toy car, balloon or other objects to demonstrate the effects of changing the amount of force applied to objects.

Needs a strong push or pull to move.

Needs a gentle push or pull to move.

Moved with either a strong or gentle force.

weight, brick

scissors, marble

school bag, dog on a lead.

Physical sciences

Page 77 1-5. Teacher check 6. (a) The pinwheel is turned using a push force. (b) Teacher check

• Collect small squares of thick paper, small push-pins, scissors and pieces of dowelling about as long as a pencil (or, preferably, use pencils with an eraser at the end) needed for the experiment on page 77.

SCIENCE – Book 2

74

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


What makes things move fast or slow? – 1 Read the text. Like all objects, this toy car can only start moving when it is pushed or pulled. How much it moves depends on the strength (the amount of force) of the push or pull. When the car is pushed or pulled gently, it: • moves slowly • can be stopped with a gentle push or pull

m pl

e

• will travel a short distance.

g

• will travel faster

sa

When the same car is given a harder push or pull it:

Vi ew in

• would need a stronger push or pull to stop it moving

Heavier things sometimes need to be pushed or pulled harder to make them move (or stop moving). By investigating and controlling the forces working on objects, we can predict and control how the objects will move. • Throwing a ball with more strength makes it go faster and further. • Gently pulling a door closed will move it enough to close it without making it slam loudly.

• Squeezing a tube of toothpaste gently will push out the right amount of toothpaste. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

75

SCIENCE – Book 2

Physical sciences

• will travel further.


What makes things move fast or slow? – 2 Use the text on page 75 to complete the following. 1. Colour ‘true’ or ‘false’ for each sentence. (a) A soft push makes a balloon move a long distance. true (b) Pulling a marble gently can make it roll. true

false

false

(c) You can stop a large, running dog by gently pulling

its leash. true

false

2. How could you make a friend on a swing go higher?

3. Imagine you are pushing a shopping trolley.

e

m pl

(a) It is moving slowly. Describe the force, and strength of that force, you will use to make it go faster.

sa

g

(b) It is going too fast and you want to stop it. Describe the force, and strength of that force, you will use to make it go slower.

Vi ew in

4. (a) Circle the object that would need a stronger push to make it move. (b) Why does this object need a stronger push ?

5. Cut the pictures from the bottom of the page. Glue them into the right place in the table. Physical sciences

Needs a strong push Needs a gentle push Moved with either a or pull to move. or pull to move. strong or gentle force.

SCIENCE – Book 2

76

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


How does the strength of a force affect a pinwheel? Instructions: 1. Fold a square of paper from corner to corner diagonally, then unfold. 2. Make a pencil mark about halfway from the centre on each fold. 3. Cut along each fold line, stopping at the pencil mark. 4. Bend every second point to the centre. Push a pin through each point and the centre into a thin piece of wood or a pencil.

e

5. Fill in the chart by predicting, then testing, what happens when you use different strengths of forces on the pinwheel.

m pl

sa

Vi ew in

Push the wheel round hard with your hand. Push the wheel gently with your hand. Blow gently on the wheel.

What actually happened

g

Action

Prediction (what I think will happen to the pinwheel)

Blow hard on the wheel.

Physical sciences

Stop the wheel while it is moving fast by blowing on it. Stop the wheel while it is moving fast with a finger. 6. On the back of this sheet, write: (a) which force you are using to move the pinwheel.

(b) what problems you had while doing the activity. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

77

SCIENCE – Book 2


How do toys from around the world use forces? • The aim of the experiment on page 81 is for pupils to make a simple boat, thinking about the forces that are used to move it. Pupils will need to be able to select from a variety of materials, such as those listed under ‘Preparation’. It might be advisable, prior to completing the activity, to discuss different boats and the way they move, such as canoes, motorboats, tugboats, sailboats and row boats.

The work of scientists unit : Use and influence of science Nature and development of science

Content focus: Toys from different countries or cultures use push and pull forces Investigative skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

• Upon completion of the activity, discuss the different boats made and share observations about the ways they move through the water. Answers Page 80

1.

Pushed

party blower, wagon, musical keyboard, pushchair, scooter

Background information • These pages should be completed after completing pages 6669 of this book. If pupils have not done these pages, ensure they understand that pushes and pulls are forces that can make objects start or stop moving, slow down, speed up or change direction.

wagon, scooter, pushchair

2. Answers could include they both fly, they both fly because of a push force, they are both triangular in shape, they can both be used in sports. 3. A hoop can be kept moving on your body by using a push force on it and twirling it. 4. A person flying a kite would use a pulling force on the string to change the movement of a kite. 5. Answers will vary. They could indicate that making the boomerang come back close to the thrower might be difficult. 6. Answers will vary. Ideas include bats and balls, spinning tops, kites, hoops, cars, teddy bears, dolls, rocking horses and toy boats. 7. Answers could include balls, bikes, toy cars, marbles or buttons on console games.

• Each time we use something, from tools to toys and light switches, we are using push and pull forces to make them move. Toys can be hit, pushed, pulled, spun, kicked or thrown with different strengths, each time using forces.

sa

m pl

e

Pulled

• Different cultures have toys that work with the application of different push and pull forces.

g

• Useful websites:

Vi ew in

−− <http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/sport/ traditional-aboriginal-games.html> has a list of Australian Aboriginal games.

−− <http://www.vam.ac.uk/vastatic/microsites/1482_moving_ toys/> has a number of toys from different countries that are moved in different ways. Clicking on a toy will bring up a quick video of how it is moved. Preparation

Page 81 1.–4. Teacher check

• Obtain some simple toys to introduce the lesson.

Physical sciences

• Collect a variety of materials needed for the experiment on page 81; polystyrene foam trays, small plastic containers, clean empty milk cartons, aluminium foil, foil pie trays, cardboard and paper scraps, paper tubes, straws, masking or sticky tape, waterproof modelling dough (such as plasticine), craft sticks and wooden skewers. Pupils will also need water to test their boats in. Large, shallow plastic tubs would be useful for this purpose. The lessons • Pages 79 and 80 should be used together. • If possible, show the pupils an ‘old-fashioned’ toy such as a hoop or old pull along toy. Discuss with them the way these toys can be moved using push and pull forces. Discuss how throughout history, people around the world have created, used and had fun with toys that use these forces.

SCIENCE – Book 2

78

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


How do toys from around the world use forces? – 1 Read the text. People around the world have used their knowledge of forces to make toys for many years. Boomerangs were first made by Aboriginal

Australians for hunting, thousands of years ago.

sa g

A person can use a push force on the hoop to keep it twirling around their waist or other parts of their body.

People first used the pushing force of the wind to fly kites thousands of years ago. Some countries, like Japan and Iran, have kite festivals. In Malaysia kites are flown in sporting contests.

Lego® bricks were first made in Denmark. The

creators used to make toys including wooden blocks that could be stacked upon one another. They discovered they could make blocks that could be pushed together to connect to one another, but not so tightly that they couldn’t be pulled apart again. Push and pull forces can be used to create (and take apart!) all sorts of Lego® block structures. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

79

SCIENCE – Book 2

Physical sciences

Vi ew in

Hoops have been used as toys for thousands of years. They can be pushed or pulled in different ways to make them move and spin, twirl and roll. They can be hit with a stick to keep them rolling.

m pl

e

Today boomerangs are also used as toys or for sport. Boomerangs move because of the push force of the thrower’s arm, which helps spin the boomerang through the air. Boomerangs are also used in games. Bubberah is an Aboriginal game where people throw a boomerang. The winner is the thrower who can make the boomerang come back closest to him or her.


How do toys from around the world use forces? – 2 Use the text on page 79 to complete the following. 1. Sort the toys into the table below, depending on how you make them move or work. Some toys can go into both boxes.

party blower

scooter

pushchair

wagon

Pulled

m pl

e

Pushed

musical keyboard

2. Write one way the kite and the boomerang on page 79 are similar.

sa

g

3. How can a hoop be kept moving on your body?

Vi ew in

4. Which force does a person flying a kite use to change the kite’s movement?

5. If you played a game of bubberah, what do you think you might find hard to do? Physical sciences

6. Write one toy your grandparents might have played with when they were young, and which forces they would have used to move it. 7. On the back of this sheet, write a list of toys you have that move using a push force. SCIENCE – Book 2

80

www.prim-ed.com

Prim-Ed Publishing®


Make a toy boat You are going to design and build a toy boat. The way you build it will depend on which forces you decide will move your boat. Will it be pushed by moving air, pulled by a string, or pushed by hand?

1. Which force do you plan to use to move your boat?

2. Draw a rough plan for your boat in the box.

m pl

sa

e

3. Write the materials you will need.

g

4. Collect your materials and make your boat.

Vi ew in

5. Test your boat in water, using the force you chose to move it. Results and conclusions:

1. Did your boat move using the force you had planned?

yes

no

2. Write any problems you had making or moving your boat.

3. What improvements could you make so your boat moves better in the water?

4. On the back of this sheet, write the procedure for making your boat. Include any changes you think will improve the boat you made and a drawing of what it looks like. Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ www.prim-ed.com

81

SCIENCE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Book 2

Physical sciences


6694 Science Book 2