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Bullying in a cyber world (Early years)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing® 2011 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2010 ISBN 978-1-84654-274-9 PR–6450

Copyright Information Only the copymasters contained within this publication may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of these copymasters for purposes of reproduction. No other part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher.

Titles in this series: Bullying in a cyber world (Early years) Bullying in a cyber world (Lower) Bullying in a cyber world (Middle) Bullying in a cyber world (Upper)

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Accompanying resources for this series: Set of six posters each for: Bullying in a cyber world (Lower) Bullying in a cyber world (Upper)

Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

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Foreword Bullying is not a recent phenomenon; it has always been with us. The negative effects of childhood bullying can remain with both the bully and his or her targets into adulthood. Everyone, child or adult, should be free to live without the fear of emotional abuse which bullying engenders. Bullying in a cyber world (Early years) aims to help young children grow into socially-competent, empathic adults who can cope with bullying and avoid becoming bullies. Activities in the book place importance on a number of aspects: providing positive environments where children are free to express their feelings and be themselves, building children’s self-esteem and developing a sense of their own worth, building children’s self-resilience, developing children’s sense of empathy for how others feel, and developing tolerance and an appreciation and acceptance of similarities and differences in others. Bullying in a cyber world is a complementary resource to the previously-released Prim-Ed Publishing® series, Bullying: Identify, Cope, Prevent.

This series of books is supported by sets of six posters:

Titles in this series are: Bullying in a cyber world (Early years) Bullying in a cyber world (Lower) Bullying in a cyber world (Middle) Bullying in a cyber world (Upper)

• Bullying in a cyber world Lower • Bullying in a cyber world Upper

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Contents

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Teachers notes.................................................................. iv–xiii Bullying reports.................................................................xiv–xv Class anti-bullying pledge.....................................................xvi Child’s/Family anti-bullying pledge.....................................xvii Merit certificates/Bookmark..............................................xviii Child internet safety checklist/Parent cyber safety checklist.......................................................................xix Resources.........................................................................xx–xxi Curriculum links............................................................xxii–xxiii

How do people bully? .......................... 12–25 Bullies hurt the body.........................................................12–13 Saying nasty things...........................................................14–15 Left out.................................................................................16–17 Take away...........................................................................18–19 Rude signs..........................................................................20–21 Bullies use mobile phones...............................................22–23 Computer bullies................................................................24–25

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What is bullying? ................................... 2–11 Bullies hurt people................................................................2–3 Bullies like to bully.................................................................4–5 Bullies keep on hurting people............................................6–7 Bullies like to feel powerful.................................................8–9 Anyone, anywhere, anytime............................................10–11

Who gets bullied? .............................. 26–33 Anyone can be bullied......................................................26–27 People look different.........................................................28–29 People act differently........................................................30–31 Things..................................................................................32–33

How does bullying affect people? ......... 34–41 The jungle bully—1...........................................................34–35 The jungle bully—2...........................................................36–37 The jungle bully—3...........................................................38–39 The jungle bully—4...........................................................40–41 Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

Who bullies and why? .......................... 42–51 Anyone can be a bully......................................................42–43 Bully helpers.......................................................................44–45 Bullies who stand by.........................................................46–47 Laughing bully....................................................................48–49 Bullies bully because ... ...................................................50–51

How do people deal with bullies? ........ 52–63 I trust ... ...............................................................................52–53 Know what to say..............................................................54–55 Act bravely..........................................................................56–57 Circle of safe friends.........................................................58–59 Safe places.........................................................................60–61 Stay calm............................................................................62–63

How can we prevent bullying? ............ 64–73 I belong................................................................................64–65 I am special........................................................................66–67 I keep on trying..................................................................68–69 Same and different............................................................70–71 Good friends.......................................................................72–73 Glossary.............................................74–76

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Teachers notes The books in the series are divided into a number of sections, each covering a particular aspect of bullying. Within each section are a number of individual units, each with pupil pages and supporting teachers pages.

Teachers pages Each teachers page includes the following components. A focus, identifying the main purpose of the activity Teacher information, providing background information relating to the topic An introduction, with specific information and/or suggestions relating to the activity Discussing the text, suggesting questions to promote discussion about the topic. Possible answers may be included. Answers as necessary, to specific questions on pupil pages

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Supporting activity/Supporting activities to develop the focus or section

Pupil pages

The pupil pages include a stimulus to inform pupils about the theme and to promote discussion. Many of these are visual texts. The activities in this book depend on heavy support from visual components to support non-readers and early readers. The variety of activities provided include: • poems • sequencing

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Any written texts are simple sentences with easy vocabulary.

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• reading simple texts in speech bubbles • mazes • stories

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• role-play

• reading and writing simple texts • craft • scenarios for discussion • drawing • board game • ticking the correct pictures

Pupil pages which may require the teacher to help the children read the text such as a story or poem, or include an activity such as a game or cards for the teacher to use with the children, are denoted by the words teacher page. Capable children may be allowed to complete these activities independently.

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Teacher page

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Teachers notes The seven sections are:

What is bullying? pages 2–11 Bullying is the act of using superior strength or power to intentionally harm, intimidate or humiliate someone who is weaker. The act of bullying is generally repeated over time and is usually an enjoyable experience for the person(s) dispensing the behaviour. An imbalance of power, whether real or perceived, is usually a key component of bullying. When one or more people feel they are more powerful than another, bullying situations and experiences may well develop and continue indefinitely. ‘Perceived power’ imbalances may include: intellectual, social, physical, verbal or financial. Bullying may occur within the school grounds; between home and school; at local shopping centres, parks and playgrounds or sporting facilities; at parties; or via the internet and mobile phones. Bullying can happen anywhere, at any time and to anyone. It can be directed by the same person towards the same target over a short or long period and it can be a repeat of the same behaviours or can involve a range of bullying behaviours.

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In order to identify bullying behaviours and tactics, we first need to identify behaviours which are sometimes misinterpreted as bullying. The first is mutual conflict between two pupils over a problem. In this type of situation, both parties generally want a fair resolution but are having difficulty reaching one, and there is a balance of power. The second situation involves social rejection or dislike. We don’t always have to like everyone, so long as we respect each person for who he or she is. Some children may feel they are being bullied just because someone doesn’t particularly like spending time with them. This does not constitute bullying behaviour. The third situation is when nastiness occurs on a single occasion. A child may push another child in the playground on a particular day. Unless physical, verbal or psychological acts occur over several occasions, this is also not considered bullying.

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How do people bully? pages 12–25

Although the vast amount of research currently available categorises bullying in varying ways, the content remains consistent.

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Bullying, which can occur between an individual or a group of bullies and an individual or a group of targets, can broadly be categorised as physical, social or psychological. The resilience of the target and the extent of the bullying are key factors in determining how severely the target is affected emotionally. Depending on the circumstances, bullying acts can feature in any category. Physical bullying is direct contact between the bully and the target. Examples include verbal abuse relating to the target’s appearance, family, home, possessions, physical and intellectual abilities; punching, kicking and tripping; using or throwing objects to cause personal injury; intimidation which threatens physical abuse; extortion in which money or goods are demanded to avoid physical injury to the target or his or her family; deliberate damage to the target’s property, or something borrowed in his or her name, and theft of a target’s possessions, or those borrowed in his or her name. Social bullying is any actions on the part of the bully which make the target feel humiliated or embarrassed by his or her peers or excluded from them. Examples can include being excluded from conversations, jokes, games, peer groups, social activities; being mocked and mimicked for intellectual and athletic capabilities, physical appearance and habits; being the object of unkind messages sent to others via gestures, notes, sms texts, emails; talking negatively about something related to the target, pretending the target is not within earshot, making silent phone calls or sending cryptic sms text messages; and being ‘befriended’ by the bullies and asked to do foolish things ‘for a joke’. The target is then ridiculed for his or her foolish actions. Psychological bullying is a form of bullying which can be difficult for the target to prove and so he or she is less likely to report it. The bully can appear totally innocent of any wrongdoing but he or she has a powerful, negative hold over the target. Examples can include following or stalking, silently threatening intent to harm; gestures such as wafting a hand over the nose when the target approaches, implying that he or she has a personal hygiene problem; and subtle exclusion such as greeting everyone else with a smile and eye contact but ignoring the target. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes Cyberbullying is the act of bullying a target using technology such as mobile phones or the internet as a vehicle. In the ‘real world’ there are generally physical boundaries where the bullying stops; for example at home or in the classroom (with the teacher present). However, cyberspace knows no boundaries and a target has no reprieve or safe haven from his or her tormentor. Cyberbullying includes repeated attacks, threats, defamation or harassment designed to cause distress to the chosen target. The bully or group of bullies may use mobile phone messages or pictures; Internet social sites or blogs; or email to render the torment. They may stage the same attack over and over or vary the delivery. It may be organised by one bully and carried out by several others or it may be organised and carried out by the same person. Cyberspace provides the bully with a sense of anonymity which they can’t possibly have in the ‘real world’. It allows them to take the bullying to another level beyond what is possible at school or other ‘traditional bullying hotspots’. It also provides the target with a hard copy of the event(s) which they are then able to read and reread many times over—causing much deeper harm. Traditional bullying may be observed by a few people or a large group of ten or more. However, technology allows the bullying to be witnessed (and carried on) by a far greater audience—adding to the target’s humiliation. This form of bullying can also be continued over a longer period and total strangers can ‘join in’. Almost like a ripple in a pond, it can grow and grow. Every time someone forwards a text message or email, that person helps the bully to continue his or her campaign against the target.

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Fortunately, this technology also provides a level of security that cannot be found in real life. It is education and an understanding of the technology which will provide a safe and secure environment. Individuals have the ability to lock their profile, blog or webpage—allowing only selected friends access to their information, while specific callers can be blocked from a mobile phone contact list. Individuals also need to be aware of the information they share with others. It is up to the individual to carefully consider the sharing of photographs, information and personal events. By taking simple precautions, individuals can take charge and reduce the risk of becoming an online target.

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The ‘upside’ of cyberbullying is that it does provide a hard copy which can be saved and used as evidence against the bully. The target must be educated to save and keep all documentation and share it with the appropriate authorities (school, parent, police officers) to have the matter dealt with. Criminal legislation is now available to pursue any specific behaviours involving such technology to cause harm to another person.

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NOTE: Because cyberbullying is more prevalent in older children, this aspect of bullying has been treated only briefly in this level.

Types of cyberbullying Cyberstalking occurs when an individual repeatedly sends threatening messages via the internet or a mobile phone. The messages instil the fear that the stalking might move offline and become physical. Flaming involves sending correspondence using chat rooms, email and instant messenger. Flaming refers to arguments to which images are often added to emphasise a point. It includes harsh language. Exclusion occurs when an individual is singled out and excluded from a group. The group then taunts the excluded person using the internet or mobile phones. Outing occurs when an individual publicly shares personal communications involving another person using online communication methods or a mobile phone. That individual is then ‘outed’ when his/her private information is broadcast publicly, either online or offline.

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Teachers notes Types of cyberbullying (continued) Masquerading is a form of cyberbullying in which an individual creates a false identity and harasses another while pretending to be someone else. Masquerading includes attempts to steal log-in information, then using that information in a harassing manner, such as sharing it publicly. Impersonation is pretending to be someone else and sending or posting material online to make the impersonated person look bad, get him/her in trouble or danger, or cause damage to that person’s reputation or friendships. Harassment is the act of repeatedly sending offensive, rude or insulting messages. Denigration is the act of ridiculing someone online. It involves sending or posting cruel gossip or rumours about a person to damage his or her reputation or friendships.

Who gets bullied? pages 26–33

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Minority groups commonly targeted by bullies are those of different ...

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Anyone can be bullied. It may be for a specific reason or for no particular reason. Bullies enjoy the sense of power they have over their targets and they thrive on the reactions elicited from them. A target who gets upset, showing fear or anger, is more likely to be ruthlessly pursued by a bully, whereas one who ignores a bully’s taunts may be left alone. Often, a person (or group of people) is singled out for bullying because they are different in some way from the mainstream group. This difference puts them in the minority. As the motivating force behind bullying is power, targeting a minority group is an easy option for the cowardly bully. • Race – with different coloured skin, hair type or facial features • Religion – who follow a different (or any) religious faith

• Culture – from another region or country and who may have different accents, languages, foods, fashions and customs

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• Sexual orientation – those who are gay or who are perceived to be gay because of their choice of style, fashion, activities, friends. A person can become a bully’s target if a family member of the target is gay or if his or her family unit comprises single sex parents. Bullying of this nature is known as homophobic bullying.

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• Physical ability – This can be divided into two main groups: those who have a medically recognised physical disability, including those who wear hearing aids and glasses, and those who have all their faculties but are not adept at either fine or gross motor skills. The latter are often bullied for their lack of sporting prowess.

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• Intellectual ability – This can also be divided into two main groups: those who have a medically recognised intellectual disability and those who have all their faculties but who are at either end of the curve of natural distribution. If a nonacademic pupil is talented in another area, he or she may escape bullying. Academically gifted pupils are often bullied and some deliberately underachieve in order to fit in with the majority. • Physical features – In addition to those who may be bullied because of different physical features related to race, some become targets because they have features that do not match the ‘norm’. Examples include big ears, lower than average height, unruly hair, prominent birthmarks, and protruding teeth. • Social status – This is manifest in many areas, such as type of home, car, suburb, lower or higher than average income family, personal possessions (whether or not the target has the latest electronic toys and gadgets), types of holidays or destinations and social activities. • Personality – Shy pupils are often targeted by bullies. They lack the confidence to stand up to the bully and find it difficult to tell someone about the problem. Their vulnerability often prolongs the bullying onslaught and they may retreat even further into their shells.

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Teachers notes How does bullying affect people? pages 34-41 All targets are affected to some degree by bullying, but the extent depends on their confidence, self-esteem and resilience. Some will have strategies for coping with the bullying, thus ending the problem, but many more will suffer consequences in the short and the long term. Some short-term consequences ... • for the target are: loss of appetite; insomnia; feelings of sadness, fear, anger, shame, loneliness; excessive absenteeism from school; drop in school work standards; poor attention span; loss of interest in social activities; anxiety attacks; feeling responsible for the attacks; lack of trust in friends. • for the bully are: shallow friendships (peers are ‘friends’ for fear of being bullied themselves); negative reputation among staff and some pupils. Some long-term consequences ... • for the target are: low self-esteem; difficulty in making and maintaining friendships; depression; non-fulfilment of academic potential; poor career prospects; open to bullying in the workplace; paranoia– specifically related to cyberbullying; selfharm; possible suicide; revenge attacks; and abusive behaviour at home.

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• for the bully are: unpopularity and loss of peer group as ‘friends’ no longer fear retribution; continued antisocial behaviour possibly leading to crime; and abusive behaviour at home.

Who bullies and why? pages 42–51

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Although the focus in schools is often on providing support for the targets of bullying, the bullies themselves also need to be understood so they too can be helped. Categories of bullies

• Bystander bullies: Even bystanders who observe bullying and take no active role in that bullying are themselves classified as bullies if they fail to take any action.

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• Accessory bullies: Bystanders become accessories to bullying when they encourage a bully by, for example, making statements of support, laughing, jeering or mimicking.

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• Advocates: There is a further category involved in bullying; those who are neither targets nor bullies. They haven’t actually observed the bullying, but they may suspect that bullying is occurring. This group can be very effective in preventing bullying.

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Bystander bullying is of particular relevance in cyberbullying. Pupils may pass on images or information which amuse or shock them. They may do this without thinking of, or being aware of, the effect on the target or of their own role as a bully. Depending on the nature of the material being sent, these pupils could be performing an illegal act. Characteristics of bullies

The following list contains generalisations about bullies. There can be no one set of characteristics to describe all bullies. A bully may be a very confident, high achieving, apparently popular pupil with high self-esteem or a target who is retaliating by bullying other less powerful or younger pupils in order to hide his or her own lack of confidence. Bullying is about power and control. Bullies may have a conduct disorder; lack empathy and sympathy; be confident and popular; lack self-esteem and have difficulty making friends; be physically bigger and stronger than their targets; be able to talk their way out of trouble; have a small group of friends who support their bullying; question authority, break rules, push boundaries and admire violence; tend towards physical bullying if they are boys, or be more likely to use social exclusion or humiliation if they are girls; be impulsive, socially dominant, easily frustrated, confrontational, aggressive, needing to control or attention-seeking. There is no common reason for bullying, but the following generalisations worthy of consideration are: jealousy and competition for attention and valued objects; personal experience of being bullied; inadequate supervision; child abuse and neglect; harsh physical discipline; overly permissive parenting or lack of limits; inconsistent enforcement of rules and consequences; or poor role models at home or school. Pupils have reported they have bullied others because: ‘They are annoying’, ‘To get even’, ‘It is fun’, ‘To take things I want from others’, ‘Others do it’, ‘To show how tough I am’, ‘They’re weak’, ‘They deserve it’ or ‘I can’.

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Teachers notes How do people deal with bullies? pages 52–63 To persist with bullying, bullies rely on evoking a reaction from their targets. They want to see fear, hurt or anger. These responses give bullies the feeling of power on which they thrive. By learning strategies to deal positively with bullying attacks, pupils are empowered to stand up for themselves and are less likely to be regular targets in the future. Examples of strategies to give pupils include: • Have a ready response for a given bullying situation and deliver it with direct eye contact with the bully before walking away confidently. Examples of these responses can be practised during role-play of prevalent bullying situations. It takes courage for pupils to appear brave while inside they may be feeling quite the opposite, especially if they are on their own against more than one assailant. But by reacting in this way, they are challenging the bully who, in many cases will back down, as most bullies are cowards.

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• Do not react emotionally to the bully but look him or her straight in the eye before smiling and carrying on with the activity in progress. This action says, ‘You can’t hurt me and I’m not bothered by what you say or do’. Bullies do not like to be ignored, so if the pupil can calmly play out this response, the bully will get the message.

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• Turn what the bully says or does into a joke. Without making fun of the bully, if a target can make light of the situation, the bully will see that he/she has no power over the target.

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• Improve your body language. By walking purposefully, with shoulders back and head held high, pupils will look less vulnerable, reducing the likelihood of being targeted. • Increase your social circle. By making an effort to engage fellow pupils in general conversation and showing an interest in them and their lives, pupils develop a greater social network and potential support against bullying.

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• Talk to people if you feel you are being bullied. In sharing their experiences, pupils realise they are not alone and they will identify peers and adults in whom they can confide. They will need to know that in talking with school staff, their problems will be taken seriously and dealt with appropriately. If more than one pupil is being targeted by the same bully or group of bullies, they could go together to speak to a member of staff. The sooner targets talk about their problems, the sooner they can be dealt with, reducing the risk of emotional damage.

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• Keep any evidence of bullying. A record of events with names of bystanders and witnesses is useful for recalling details. Any physical evidence related to the bullying, such as a note that has been passed around, should be retained. While cyberbullying is difficult to trace and monitor, saving all messages and emails will help to find the initial perpetrator. Instruct pupils to inform an adult as soon as they receive any unwanted photos, texts or emails and if they discover anything negative relating to them on social networking sites. Pupils need to talk to their parents and trusted friends about being bullied in this way. It is one type of bullying from which it is almost impossible to escape so it is important that they have a supportive network in whom they can confide, discussing the content of the photos and/or messages. • If possible, avoid the bully. While no-one should have to use avoidance tactics to be safe, it is possible that keeping out of the bully’s way for a while may be enough to stop the opportunistic bully who has no specific gripe against the target but who bullies just because he or she can. In more serious cases, adults should be informed of unsafe areas where bullies are likely to strike. • Avoid being alone when you are at risk of being bullied. It is not always possible to avoid bullies. In these cases, pupils should try to always be in the company of their friends. • Walk to and from school with friends. Pupils should feel safe to walk to and from school alone without harassment, but if they are concerned, walking with friends will ease their discomfort.

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Teachers notes How can we prevent bullying? pages 64–73 Bullying is not a new problem and or one that all teachers see the same need to deal with—some perhaps because they perceive bullying as ‘just a part of growing up’ and as something they and others have all survived. Others may believe the problem of bullying is too difficult and believe they lack the skills and training to deal with it effectively. But preventing bullying, particularly at a time when cyberbullying is affecting an increasing number of pupils, is important, and there is a great deal teachers and the pupils in their classes can and must do to protect targets from pain and humiliation. Teachers need to: • participate in whole-school planning to deal with bullying … and include pupils in this planning • ensure that pupils and parents understand the school bullying policy • be consistent in imposing consequences for bullying behaviours • assist pupils to accept and appreciate physical, cultural and attitudinal differences • listen, try to understand and respond appropriately to reported bullying behaviours

• provide opportunities for pupils to understand bullying and empathise through role-plays and discussions • realise how effective well-informed advocates (pupils who are neither bullies nor targets) can be in preventing bullying

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• be informed about the different forms, possibilities and technologies involved in cyberbullying

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• ensure that all pupils are well informed about different forms of bullying and how to deal with them

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• be sensitive to the needs of both targets and bullies

All pupils need to:

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• realise cyberbullying between pupils at home needs to be addressed by parents and the school.

Targets need to: • be able to identify bullying behaviours and realise that bullying is wrong

• be involved in the development of the school’s bullying policy

• understand that it is acceptable to report bullying

• empathise with targets and understand more about bullying through discussions and role-plays

• know they will be listened to and action taken when they report bullying

• appreciate differences in cultural practices, values, physical appearances, abilities and attitudes, including sexual orientation

• realise they are not alone and that other pupils understand and will help them

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• be able to identify bullying and differentiate between bullying and hurtful behaviours that are isolated or unintentional

• accept they have a role in supporting targets and preventing bullying • understand that it is acceptable to report bullying • understand some forms of cyberbullying are illegal

• have strategies to employ when bullied; e.g. things they can do or say • keep any evidence of cyberbullying • develop a support network.

• be aware of the need to protect personal details when posting information in chat rooms and network sites.

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Teachers notes How can we prevent bullying? pages 64–73 (continued) Bullies need to: • realise that bullying is wrong • understand when they are bullying • expect that bullying will be reported • realise there are consistently applied consequences of bullying and that it will not be tolerated • learn to empathise more with the feelings of others • become more tolerant and less aggressive • learn to interact with others and resolve differences in a more acceptable way

Be toleran t

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standing Be under

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• understand that posting photos and hurtful or false information is a form of bullying.

Accessories or bystanders who are also bullies because they actively support bullies need to:

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• realise if they support or encourage a bully by joining in, passing on hurtful material or even laughing, they are accessories and therefore are bullies too • know they have choices and do not have to support bullying

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• know others will help them if they too become a target

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• understand that it is acceptable to report bullying.

Bystanders who are also bullies because they passively support bullies by doing nothing need to: • realise that by not supporting the target they are being bullies too.

Advocates who are neither bullies nor targets need to: • realise the importance of their role in preventing bullying • learn strategies to deal with bullies and targets • report bullying.

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Teachers notes How can we prevent bullying? pages 64–73 (continued) Provide a firm base for young children In order to help young children grow into socially-competent, empathic adults who can cope with bullying and avoid becoming bullies, it is important to:

• build self-esteem and develop a sense of one’s own worth – Children should be able to express something which is special about themselves, and know that others can see this as well. They should be praised often and feel free to take risks, knowing that even if they fail, at least they tried (or ‘had a go’). Encourage the children to make positive self-statements: ‘I can do this if I keep trying’, ‘I can get this finished in time’, ‘I tried hard’, ‘I didn’t do very well this time but I know what to do now, so I can do better next time’.

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Train them how to make good decisions: to stop before making a decision, think about why they want to do it, what the choices/options are, what the consequences are, how the decision will affect others, and whether the decision is in their best interests. After making a decision, children need to learn to judge if it was a good choice or not, thereby giving them a basis for better decision-making next time.

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• provide positive environments where individuals are free to express their feelings and be themselves – Young children should feel safe and comfortable in their home and classroom and know that they belong. They should feel free to be themselves, be able to play often and know their boundaries. They should feel they can express their feelings and concerns to peers or adults with whom they interact positively. Adults within their immediate circle should be supportive and a positive influence on the children by the example they set.

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• build self-resilience – Teach the children life skills, and praise them whenever they use them. They may learn to clean their teeth and dress themselves at home, but at school they can help to give out paper and other supplies, collect and give out lunches, blow their nose, tie their own shoelaces, peel their own banana, open their own lunch box and care for their own belongings.

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• develop a sense of empathy for how others feel – Empathy is the ability to understand the feelings of others. Young children can be very egocentric. To some extent, they consider that the world revolves around them. Some simple strategies may be used to develop a sense of empathy in young children.

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Children need practice in recognising and learning about emotions in everyday situations. Ask them to identify the sad/happy/ angry/excited face of a child or adult in a picture, photograph, DVD or film. Ask ‘How are they feeling?’, ’Have you ever felt sad or happy or excited?’, ‘When?’ Daily situations which arise in the classroom or playground may require an adult to ask, ‘How would you feel if someone did this to you?’ Children learn by observation and experience. Teachers, parents or adult helpers need to demonstrate empathy for the children and others they come into contact with. This provides a good role model for the children to copy. • develop tolerance and an appreciation of similarities and differences in others – Lead by example. Demonstrate that you appreciate the similarities and differences in each child and other adults. Avoid stereotyping. Talk positively about people who are different from you. Provide opportunities for the children to interact with children of diverse cultures and play games from different cultures. Consider carefully which books, toys, music, art or DVDs children will be exposed to. Acknowledge differences and similarities within families. Celebrate the uniqueness of different cultures by holding multicultural days, lunches or special visits and learning about different holidays and religious celebrations. Above all, help the children to feel good about themselves. They should respect themselves as much as others.

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Teachers notes BULLYING IN SCHOOLS It is now widely accepted that bullying is unacceptable at any level and that everyone has the right to a bully-free life at school and in the outside world.

A safe school environment The school environment itself should discourage bullying activities. Staff supervision in the playground, school buildings and on school transport should create safe areas for play, areas of retreat and eliminate ‘blind spots’ where bullying may occur. The physical design of the school buildings may also need to be considered. Schools need to target key times and locations for bullying and take steps to minimise risks to potential targets. Pupils may assist in providing this information.

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In order for schools to effectively combat bullying, staff and other adult helpers or supervisors need to understand bullying fully. Professional development by experts should include information about legal responsibilities relating to the care of pupils at school. Welfare or government agencies may be approached.

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Establishing an anti-bullying policy

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A school needs to assure its pupils that bullying will not be tolerated, incidents will be thoroughly investigated, perpetrators will be dealt with appropriately and targets will be supported. The biggest hurdle to achieving a bullying-free school is that many incidents go unreported, either because targets and witnesses fear retribution, or because they believe that although an initial investigation may take place, there is no follow-up and the bullying is allowed to continue. While an anti-bullying plan is drawn up by the staff, if the pupils are also involved in the process they will feel ‘ownership’ of the document. Ensure the pupils know the policy and all procedures, including the consequences. As a result of this knowledge, they will be more likely to report bullying incidents if they believe the procedures will be followed.

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Pupils, parents and staff provide valuable information regarding their personal experiences of bullying. This will help the school establish, and evaluate the effectiveness of, the anti-bullying policy.

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When establishing an anti-bullying policy, the school leadership team should actively demonstrate positive anti-bullying behaviours and, if possible, gain support from the wider community, especially parents. Other schools in the local area may also be interested in working together to establish a bullying policy. Recording of bullying incidents should be clear and consistent. Confidentiality, fair and effective investigations, listening strategies and appropriate follow-up should all be included in a bullying policy. Sanctions for bullies should be fair, consistent and reasonable. The bully should be provided with opportunities to learn from and change the offending behaviour. Targets should be supported—disruption to normal routines should be kept to a minimum and they should be aware that the bully is being dealt with. Rewards for pupils taking care of each other and good behaviour should be well established. By engaging in role-play, pupils should know how to support each other and assert themselves in a bullying situation. By building confidence and resilience, pupils should be able to better withstand bullying.

Including anti-bullying messages within other learning areas Curriculum areas provide opportunities to raise awareness of bullying. Personal development and health lessons can be used to discuss issues and support anti-bullying procedures. Creative activities such as music, drama and art can develop positive social and emotional aspects.

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Teacher

Teacher completing form:

Date:

Child reporting incident:

Class:

Children involved and their roles – target/bully/bystander

Time:

Location:

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Steps taken to resolve incident

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Incident details

Follow-up interview date

Parents informed? Teacher’s signature:

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No

Yes

Date: Class teacher’s signature:

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Child

Name:

Date:

Who was involved?

Describe the incident. Include: why do you think it happened

why you were there

exactly what you did

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what you saw the others do

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what happened

Who do you think was/were the target/targets, bully/bullies and bystander/bystanders in this incident? Target/Targets

Bully/Bullies

Child’s signature:

Bystander/Bystanders

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Class

School

Class/Group:

We want everyone to be safe and happy at school. We don’t want bullying. We promise to: be nice to everyone not bully

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tell if we see someone being bullied help someone being bullied

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tell the bully to stop

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Child

I want everyone to be safe and happy at school. I don’t want bullying. By writing my name, I promise to: be nice to everyone not bully tell if I see someone being bullied help someone being bullied

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tell the bully to stop Child’s name:

Class/Group: Date:

Family

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We want everyone to be safe and happy at school. We don’t want bullying.

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By writing our name, we promise to: be nice to everyone not bully tell if we see someone being bullied help someone being bullied tell the bully to stop

Child’s name:

Class/Group:

Parents:

Date:

Teacher:

Date:

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Merit certificates/Bookmark

Awarded to for

saying ‘No’ to bullying by Date:

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Child

When online I will …

Name

make up a clever password and keep it secret. always log out of shared computers. never give out my name, address, phone number, birthday, school or club names. talk nicely to others. never agree to go to meet a stranger.

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only download from safe websites.

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tell a trusted adult if I see something that makes me feel bad. never open emails from strangers.

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ask before sharing pictures or information about others.

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To ensure my child is protected online, I will …

Name

educate myself about dangers he/she may encounter including online predators and cyberbullying. talk to my child about things on the web that make him/her feel uncomfortable. monitor his/her internet use by sharing an email account, checking browser history, keeping the computer in a shared situation, and maintaining access to my child’s account. research and recommend appropriate child-safe sites. maintain an appropriate amount of parental control of software through user time limits, and access to sites, games, chat and file sharing. install defensive software such as anti-virus, anti-spyware, spam blocker and personal firewall, and update these regularly. select child-safe mobile devices, including those which do not include a camera or web access, and phones with a limit on the number of calls that can be made.

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Resources Internet sites There are many internet sites which give information on how to recognise and deal with bullying. For example: www.kidscape.org.uk http://www.cyh.com/HealthTopics/HealthTopicDetailsKids.aspx?p=335&np=286&id=1695 http://au.reachout.com/find/articles/bullying-what-it-is www.bullyingnoway.com.au http://www.ncab.org.au/ http://kidshealth.org/kid/feeling/emotion/bullies.html http://www.bullying.org/ http://www.police.govt.nz/service/yes/nobully/whats_bullying.html

http://www.bullying.com.au/

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http://www.childsafetyaustralia.com.au

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http://www.ag.gov.au/www/agd/agd.nsf/Page/CyberSecurity _ProtectingYourselfOnline-WhatEveryoneNeedstoKnow

http://www.kidspot.com.au/subsection+258+School-Bullying.htm www.notcooltobecruel.com

www.antibullying.net/knowledge/questiononeg.htm

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www.teachers.tv/bullying/download

http://www.squidoo.com/search/results?q=bullying

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http://www.cybersmart.gov.au/

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Resources Books The tale of Sir Dragon: Dealing with bullies for kids (and dragons) by Jean E Pendziwol

Bully beans by Julia Cook Big sister, little sister by Leuyen Pham Bootsie Barker bites by Barbara Bottner and Peggy Rathmann Butt Ugly by Lynn Montgomery

I can play it safe by Alison Feigh When Sophie gets angry, really angry by Molly Bang When I feel angry (Way I feel books) by Cornelia Maude Spelman

The ugly duckling (traditional fairytale)

Pebble: A story about belonging by Susan Milord

Hooway for Wodney Way by Helen Lester

Eggbert the slightly cracked egg by Tom Ross

Shrinking Violet by Cari Best

My teacher’s my friend by P K Hallinan

Stop picking on me by Pat Thomas (A first look at bullying)

Willy the wimp by A Browne Ruby the copycat by Margaret Rathmann

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Hurty feelings by Helen Lester

Don’t feed the monster on Tuesday by Adolph Moser

The recess queen by Alexis O’Neill

Just me and Dad by Mercer Mayer

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Tyrone the horrible by Hans Wilheim

King of the playground by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor

It’s okay to be different by Todd Parker

Jungle bullies by Steven Kroll

Odd Velvet by Mary Whitcomb

Nobody knew what to do: A story about bullying by Becky Ray McCain

Ant bully by John Nicole

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The bully blockers club by Teresa Bateman

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The Berenstain Bears and the bully by S and J Berenstain

Crowboy by Taro Yashima Arnie and the new kid by Nancy Carlson A rainbow of friends by P K Hallinan Learning to be a good friend by Christine A Adams Dinosaur chase! by Benedict Blathwayt Blubberguts by AJ Rochester

Pinky and Rex and the bully by James Howe

Hooray for Horrible Harriet by Leigh Hobbs

Henry and the bully by Nancy Carlson

Tashi and the golem by Anna Fienberg and Barbara Fienberg

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Enemy pie by Derek Munson

Martha walks the dog by Susan Meddaugh A weekend with Wendell by Kevin Henkes Myrtle by Tracey Campbell Pearson

No more teasing! by Emma Chichester Clark Elmer and the big bird by David McKee

Stand tall Molly Lou Melon by Patty Lavell

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Curriculum links England – Early years foundation stage (40-60+ months) Early learning goal

Personal, social and emotional development

Self-confidence and self-esteem • express needs and feelings in appropriate ways • have an awareness and pride in self as having own identity and abilities • have a developing awareness of their own needs, views and feelings, and be sensitive to the needs, views and feelings of others • have a developing respect for their own cultures and beliefs and those of other people Making relationships • form good relationships with peers Behaviour and self-control • show confidence and the ability to stand up for own rights • have an awareness of the boundaries set, and of behavioural expectations in the setting • understand what is right, what is wrong, and why • consider the consequences of their words and actions for themselves and others Sense of community • have an awareness of cultural and religious differences • have a positive self-image and show that they are comfortable with themselves • understand that people have different needs, views, cultures and beliefs, that need to be treated with respect • understand that they can expect others to treat their needs, views, cultures and beliefs with respect

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Area of learning and development

Northern Ireland – Foundation stage Objective

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Area of learning

Personal development and Personal understanding and health mutual understanding • explore who they are, what they can do, and what makes them special

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• begin to recognise how they feel • develop ways to express how they feel • know what to do if they feel sad, lonely, afraid or angry and when it is important to tell others about their feelings • realise what makes their friends feel happy or sad • recognise how other people feel when they are sad, angry or lonely • express appropriate personal safety strategies and identify situations that are safe, and those where personal safety might be at risk Mutual understanding in the local and wider community • begin to recognise how they relate to other children • begin to take responsibility for what they say and do • understand that everyone is of equal worth and that it is acceptable to be different

Republic of Ireland – Primary curriculum – Junior and senior infants Subject

Objective

SPHE

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Myself • discuss and appreciate all the features that make a person special and unique • name a variety of feelings and talk about situations where these may be experienced • explore the variety of ways in which feelings are expressed and coped with • begin to be sensitive to the feelings of others and to realise that the actions of one individual can affect the feelings of another • explore appropriate safety strategies strategies Myself and others • identify, discuss and appreciate his/her own friends • discuss and examine the different aspects of friendship • identify and appreciate friends at school and how they can help and care for each other • recognise and appreciate differences in people and know how to treat others with dignity and respect • recognise and explore bullying behaviour, who is involved and the effects on different people • know that bullying is always wrong and know what should be done if one is being bullied or sees it happening to someone else • resolve conflict with others Myself and the wider world • realise that each person is important and has a unique and valuable contribution to make to the class • explore and respect the diversity of children in the class and school • suggest ways of helping other people in school

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Curriculum links Republic of Ireland – Aistear – The early childhood curriculum framework Theme

Learning goal

Well-being

• 1.1 make strong attachments and develop warm and supportive relationships with peers • 1.2 be aware of and name their own feelings, and understand that others may have different feelings • 1.4 be confident and self-reliant • 1.5 respect themselves and others • 3.6 understand that others may have beliefs and values different to their own

Identity and belonging

• 1.1 build respectful relationships with others • 1.2 appreciate the features that make a person special and unique • 2.1 feel that they have a place and a right to belong to the group • 3.2 understand the rules and boundaries of acceptable behaviour • 3.4 be aware of and respect others’ needs, rights, feelings, culture, language, background and religious beliefs • 3.5 have a sense of social justice and recognise and deal with unfair behaviour • 3.6 demonstrate the skill of conflict resolution

Scotland – Curriculum for excellence – Early level Objective

Health and wellbeing

Mental, emotional, social and physical wellbeing • show awareness of and be able to express feelings • know everyone experiences a variety of thoughts and emotions • understand that there are people to talk to and access for practical and emotional support for a range of circumstances • understand that feelings and reactions can change depending upon what is happening around them • develop and value relationships, showing care and respect for self and others • understand that people can feel alone and be misunderstood and left out by others • contribute to making the school community one which values individuals equally and is a welcoming place for all Relationships, sexual health and parenthood • understand positive things about friendships, but know that when something worries or upsets them they know who to talk to

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Wales – Foundation stage

Objective

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Area of learning

Skills • express and communicate different feelings and emotions • be aware of and respect the needs of others • consider the consequences of words and actions for themselves and others • develop an understanding of the behavioural expectations of the setting/school and understand that rules are essential in an ordered community • form relationships • value friends and show care and consideration • appreciate what makes a good friend • develop an awareness of different cultures • treat people from all cultural backgrounds in a respectful and tolerant manner • communicate about what is good and bad, right and wrong, fair and unfair, caring and inconsiderate • respond to simple imaginary moral situations • use stories or situations to raise questions • value and contribute to their own well-being and to the well-being of others • be aware of their own feelings and develop the ability to express them in an appropriate way • understand the relationship between feelings and actions and that other people have feelings • demonstrate care, respect and affection for other children

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Personal and social development, well-being and cultural diversity

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What is bullying?

Bullies hurt people Focus

Answers

To view pictures and identify the bully

The children should put a cross on:

Teacher information • Bullying is the act of using superior strength or power to intentionally harm, intimidate or humiliate someone who is weaker.

1. the boy holding the smaller boy’s shirt 2. the girl raising her fist to the other 3. the two boys talking about the lone child 4. the girl pointing and laughing

Supporting activities

The act of bullying is generally repeated over time and is usually an enjoyable experience for the person(s) dispensing the behaviour.

• Provide large colourful crayons, oil pastels, or paint and brushes for the children to draw a picture of a bully. When completed (or dry), select individual children to talk about their picture and explain why they chose the colours used, and shapes and expressions drawn. Provide large flashcards with the word ‘bully’ written on them and thick black markers for the children to copy and label their picture.

An imbalance of power, whether real or perceived, is a key component of bullying. The power may be intellectual, social, physical, verbal or financial. Introduction

• As a class, think of words beginning with ‘b’ to describe bullies; for example, ‘bad’, ‘big’ etc. Discuss why some examples children may think of would not be appropriate; e.g. ‘brave’.

• Enlarge the worksheet to A3 size or place on an overhead projector transparency to discuss.

• Read the story Bully beans by Julia Cook.

Discussing the visual texts

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• Who is being hurt in each picture? (Picture 1–the smaller boy whose shirt is being pulled; Picture 2–the smaller girl who is having the fist shaken at her; Picture 3–the boy being talked about and ostracised; Picture 4–the girl being pointed at and laughed about)

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• To simplify the concept, the bully is shown slightly larger. In reality, of course, this may not be the case.

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• This activity asks the children to find the people who are being hurt (the targets) and the person or people hurting them (the bullies).

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• Who is hurting them? (Picture 1– the boy holding the smaller boy’s shirt; Picture 2–the girl raising her fist to the other; Picture 3– the two boys talking about the lone child; Picture 4–the girl pointing and laughing.) • Is only one child hurting others or are there more than one? (In Picture 3, two boys are involved.)

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• How do you know who is the bully? (He/She is making the other child sad. He/She is deliberately doing it. He/She is enjoying it.) • How do you think the target is feeling? (He/She is feeling sad or unhappy. He/She is scared.)

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Bullies hurt people Put a cross on the bully in each picture. 2.

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What is bullying?

Bullies like to bully Focus

Supporting activities

To realise that bullies enjoy hurting other people

• Ask the children to give verbal endings to the sentence, ‘Bullies like to … ’.

Teacher information

• Discuss what things the children like to do that make them happy.

• Bullying is the act of using superior strength or power to intentionally harm, intimidate or humiliate someone who is weaker.

• Sing happy songs such as ‘If you’re happy and you know it … ’. • Ask the children to give verbal endings for an adult to scribe for the sentences: ‘I like to … ‘ and ‘I don’t like to … ’ then draw a picture to match the sentence.

The act of bullying is generally repeated over time and is usually an enjoyable experience for the person(s) dispensing the behaviour.

An imbalance of power, whether real or perceived, is a key component of bullying. The power may be intellectual, social, physical, verbal or financial. Introduction • The poem tells about things children like to do and introduces the idea that bullies enjoy (like) hurting others.

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Discussing the text

• Ask the children to stand up to indicate if they like doing the activity when you ask: ‘Who likes to run?’, ‘Who likes to skip?’, ‘Who likes to build sandcastles?’, ‘Who likes to help Mum and Dad do jobs at home?’ etc. Bring to the children’s attention the fact that we don’t all like doing all the same things because we are different from each other.

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• Read the second and third verses about things bullies like to do to hurt people. ‘Who has been hurt like this?’ Ask the children to indicate by raising their hands if anyone has hurt them in any of the ways mentioned. (Try to avoid the children naming others who have done these things to them if possible!)

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• Read the first verse to the children and look at the pictures. Ask, ‘What things do you like to do?’

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• Read the last verse and ask the children, ‘Is it good to like hurting people?’, ‘Is it good to be a bully?’ ‘Why or why not?’

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Teacher page

Bullies like to bully

Read the poem. I like to dress in funny clothes. I like to look at colourful rainbows. I like to nap when the rain falls down.

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I like to snuggle into my warm dressing gown. We are all so different. That is true.

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But do you know what bullies like to do? They like to kick and push and hit.

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They like to trip and yell and spit.

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They like to keep you from playing a game.

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They make fun of you and call you names. They take away toys and break your things. They like to see the hurt they bring. Bullies are strange. Don’t you agree To like to hurt you and me? They act so mean. They act like brats. I think there’s something wrong with that! Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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What is bullying?

Bullies keep on hurting people Focus

Supporting activities

To view pictures and read sentences about repeated acts of harm

• Ask the children what Alex could do to stop Jack from hurting him.

Teacher information

• Cut out the pictures and staple them together to make the pages of a book. Add an extra page to show a positive ending.

• Bullying is the act of using superior strength or power to intentionally harm, intimidate or humiliate someone who is weaker. The act of bullying is generally repeated over time and is usually an enjoyable experience for the person(s) dispensing the behaviour. An imbalance of power, whether real or perceived, is a key component of bullying. The power may be intellectual, social, physical, verbal or financial. Introduction

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• Bullying does not include ‘one-off’ harmful acts. Only when the acts are repeated, are they considered acts of bullying. However, stress that the children should tell an adult any time they are hurt by another child, even if it is not considered bullying.

• Ask the children, ‘What is happening in Picture 2?’ then read the sentence. Repeat for all the pictures and sentences. • Ask the children, ‘What do we call a person who hurts others?’ (a bully)

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• Ask the children, ‘What do you notice about all the pictures?’ (Jack keeps on hurting Alex. Jack hurts Alex every day in a different way.) OR ‘How many times does Jack hurt Alex?’ (six times). Introduce the concept that a bully keeps on hurting someone. Acts of bullying do not happen just once.

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Discussing the text • Ask the children, ‘What is happening in Picture 1?’ then read the sentence.

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Bullies keep on hurting people Look at the pictures and read the sentences.

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4. On Thursday, Jack took Alex’s lunch.

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3. On Wednesday, Jack pushed Alex over.

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1. On Monday, Jack hit 2. On Tuesday, Jack Alex. tripped Alex.

5. On Friday, Jack laughed when Alex fell over.

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6. On Monday, Jack hid Alex’s schoolbag.

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Bullies like to feel powerful

What is bullying?

Focus

Supporting activities

To view and discuss an image which relates the fact that bullies like to feel powerful

• Read the story Big sister, little sister by Leuyen Pham. • Teach the children how saying positive affirmations can make them feel stronger. Read I think, I am!: Teaching kids the power of affirmations by Louise Hay and Kristina Tracy.

Teacher information • Bullying is the act of using superior strength or power to intentionally harm, intimidate or humiliate someone who is weaker.

• The children use dark paint (black, blue, purple) and brushes to draw a bully.

The act of bullying is generally repeated over time and is usually an enjoyable experience for the person(s) dispensing the behaviour.

Introduction • To promote discussion, physical strength has been illustrated to make the concept easier for the children to understand. Discussing the visual text

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• A major component of bullying is to feel powerful or stronger in some way. While at times, bullies may be powerful physically (stronger), this is not always the case. Bullies may be powerful because they are cleverer (more intelligent), have more money, are from a higher socioeconomic background and therefore have more advantages or ‘look down’ on those from a lower socioeconomic background, or are cleverer with words (wittier) than the person they bully.

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An imbalance of power, whether real or perceived, is a key component of bullying. The power may be intellectual, social, physical, verbal or financial.

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• Look at the picture. Who is shown in the picture? (a super villain, a powerful person)

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• Is he/she a nice person? How do you know? (face looks mean, looks a bit scary) • What do you think the word says on his/her chest? (bully) • Do bullies look like this? (No)

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• Do they look big and strong? (No)

• Are bullies easy to pick out? (No, they look like ordinary children or adults.) • Some people think they are better than other people. Why do they think this? (They have a nice home and car. The mum and dad make lots of money to buy lots of nice things for the kids. They think everyone should be like them. They think people who are clever are better than people who work with their hands.) • How can other people be powerful too? (They can be strong because they don’t take any notice of the bully. They can be strong by going away from the bully. They can be strong by getting better at the things they like to do. They can learn to run fast.)

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Anyone, anywhere, anytime

What is bullying?

Focus

Supporting activity

To realise that anyone can be bullied, anywhere and at any time

• Ask the children to cut out different images from colour magazines or off the internet of children of different appearance—race, skin colour, size, different types of hair etc. to make a collage titled ‘Anyone can be bullied’.

Teacher information • Bullying may occur within the school grounds; between home and school; at local shopping centres, parks and playgrounds or sporting facilities; at parties; or via the internet and mobile phones.

Bullying can happen anywhere, at any time and to anyone. It can be dispensed by the same person towards the same target over a short or long period and it can be a repeat of the same behaviours or can involve a range of bullying behaviours.

• It may be helpful to let children know that sometimes even adults can be bullied by other adults. Introduction

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• It is important for the child being bullied to know that he/she is not the only one who has been bullied. It can happen to anyone. • Who is being bullied in Picture 1? (the big boy) What does he look like? (He is big.) How is he being bullied? (He is not being allowed to join in a game.) Where is he? (in the playground) • Who is being bullied in Picture 2? (the little girl) What does she look like? (She is little.) How is she being bullied? (She is being forced off the swing.) Where is she? (in the park)

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• Who is being bullied in Picture 3? (the skinny boy) What does he look like? (He is skinny.) How is he being bullied? (He is not being allowed to enter the gate of his home.) Where is he? (near his home)

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Discussing the visual text

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• Who is being bullied in Picture 4? (the fat girl) What does she look like? (She is fat.) How is she being bullied? (She is being made fun of.)

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• Who is being bullied in Picture 5? (the clever boy playing the computer) What does he look like? (He is wearing glasses.) How is he being bullied? (He is being bullied to get off and give his turn to someone else.) Where is he? (in class at school) • Who is being bullied in Picture 6? (the girl dancing) What does she look like? (She is wearing a ballet dress.) How is she being bullied? (She is being laughed at.) Where is she? (at ballet class)

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Bullies hurt the body

How do people bully?

Focus

Supporting activity

To identify some actions which constitute physical bullying

• Read Bootsie Barker bites by Barbara Bottner and Peggy Rathmann.

Teacher information • Physical bullying is direct contact between the bully and the target. This includes punching, kicking and tripping; and using or throwing objects to cause personal injury. Introduction • All of the pictures shown include physical bullying (hitting, kicking, punching, tripping, pushing, biting, pinching and throwing things). For the purposes of this activity, only physical bullying has been identified, as this will be more obvious to the children. • Young children learning to socialise often hurt each other, but these are usually isolated incidents and not repetitive, intentional, enjoyable or involving an imbalance of power, as with bullying.

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Discussing the visual texts • Look at the pictures. What is happening in each picture? • Who is being bullied? • How is the bully hurting the target? • Is the bully hurting the target? • How would you feel if someone hurt you in this way?

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• Has anyone ever hurt you in one of these ways?

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• Who is the bully in each picture?

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Bullies hurt the body

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Draw a line to join all the ways bullies can hurt someone’s body.

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Saying nasty things

How do people bully?

Focus

Supporting activities

To identify forms of verbal bullying

• The children practise saying nice things and showing good manners using ‘Please’, ‘Thank you’ and ‘Excuse me’.

Teacher information

• Play a circle game with the children where each child must say one nice thing about a chosen child.

• Common forms of bullying include verbal abuse relating to the target’s appearance, family, home, possessions, physical and intellectual abilities; intimidation which threatens physical abuse; extortion, in which money or goods are demanded to avoid physical injury to the target or his or her family; talking negatively about something related to the target, pretending the target is not within earshot. Introduction • Young children learning to socialise often hurt each other by saying nasty things, but these are usually isolated incidents and not repetitive, intentional, enjoyable or involving an imbalance of power, as with bullying.

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• Introduce the activity by reading Oliver Button is a sissy by Tomie dePaola or The chicken of the family by M Amato. • Look at the speaker in the first picture. Listen while the teacher reads what the speaker is saying. Is this a nice thing to say to someone? Why/Why not? Could the person speaking be making a joke? How do you know that Jack is hurt by the words? (He is looking upset.) Why do you think the speaker said this? • Repeat with the other spoken texts. • Why should you always try to say nice things to other people? What nice things could you say?

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Discussing the text

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• Has anyone ever said nasty things to you? How did you feel?

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• What should you do if someone says nasty things to you?

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Teacher page

Saying nasty things

Read some nasty things children say.

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Scaredy-cat! Scaredy-cat! Jack is afraid of gnats. He hides his head Under the bed. Scaredy-cat Jack!

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He can’t play with us! He’s too fat to run fast!

Big ears!! Ha! Ha! She looks like an alien! She could fly with those ears.

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How do people bully?

Left out Focus

Supporting activities

To identify the person in the picture who is being left out of an activity

• The children role-play asking a small group of others to join them to play their game.

Teacher information

• Learn some fun games to play alone or with a friend. Refer to <http://kids-outdoor-activities.suite101.com/article.cfm/ outdoor_games_for_children_playing_alone> for some games to play if alone.

• Social bullying is any action on the part of the bully which makes the target feel humiliated or embarrassed by his or her peers or excluded from them. This includes being excluded from conversations, jokes, games, peer groups and social activities. Introduction • The images ask the children to identify the child being excluded from joining a game and the bullies who are excluding him/her. Discussing the visual texts • Ask the children to look at each picture. • What is happening?

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• What are the children doing? • Who is playing a fun game? • Do you think the child who was left out asked to join in or not? • Do you know why the child is being left out? • Has anything like this ever happened to you? • How did you feel? • What did you do?

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• What do you say if you want to join in a game that other children are playing?

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• Who is being left out?

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Left out

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Circle the child being left out. Put a cross on the bully/bullies.

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How do people bully?

Take away Focus

Supporting activities

To make the children aware that bullies often hide people’s belongings to hurt them

• Ask the children to paint a picture of a favourite belonging such as a teddy bear and, when dry, label it.

Teacher information

• Sing the song and play the game ‘A tisket a tasket’. Refer to <http://www.mamalisa.com/?t=es&p=2275&c=23> for lyrics and instructions.

• As well as causing actual physical or verbal harm to the target, bullies may cause deliberate damage to, or carry out theft of, the target’s possessions or those borrowed in his or her name. Introduction • The children will follow a simple maze to help a person who has been bullied by having his or her belongings hidden. Discussing the text • There are two mazes on the page. In each maze, the bully has hidden the child’s belongings. Follow the maze with your pencil to help the child find his or her belongings.

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• What did the boy have taken? • What did the girl have taken? • How do you think they felt?

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• Have you ever lost anything special to you? How did you feel?

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Take away

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Bullies sometimes hide other peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s things. Help each child find his or her things by drawing a line.

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Rude signs

How do people bully?

Focus

Supporting activities

To role-play ‘rude’ gestures children may use to bully others

• Read When the wind changed by Ruth Park.

Teacher information

• Learn to say ‘I like you’ by using signals or sign language.

• Social bullying is any action on the part of the bully which makes the target feel humiliated or embarrassed by his or her peers or excluded from them. This includes being mocked and mimicked for intellectual and athletic capabilities, physical appearance or habits.

• Use facial expressions to show happiness, sadness, surprise, excitement, anger etc.

• Psychological bullying is a form of bullying which can be difficult for the target to prove and so he or she is less likely to report it. It includes gestures such as wafting a hand over the nose when the target approaches, implying that he or she has a personal hygiene problem. Introduction

Discussing the text • Read the word on each card for the children. Explain that some people bully by making rude gestures that show they think a person is smelly, ugly, too short, too tall, too clever, too clumsy, too quiet, too noisy, too fat, too stupid, too athletic or too skinny.

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• This activity should be used with discretion as the children are required to make simple gestures rather than rude hand signs.

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• The words on the cards provided are for the children to role-play ‘rude’ gestures, such as holding their nose to indicate they think someone is smelly, as a form of bullying others. To show that children can be bullied, teased or ridiculed for any reason, many opposites have been used.

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• As each card is selected, children may be chosen to role-play a ‘rude’ gesture to show that attribute. Some will be familiar, others less so. Encourage the children to pull their faces into funny shapes.

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• Could you work out what each child was trying to say with his or her gesture or facial expression? • What would be a better (easier to understand) gesture?

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• Has anyone ever made rude gestures at you? What did they mean? • Did the gestures upset you? Why?

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Teacher page

Rude signs

Make a gesture to show that you think someone is â&#x20AC;Ś

ugly

stupid

fat

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short

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skinny

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smelly

tall

clever

clumsy

quiet

noisy

athletic

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Bullies use mobile phones

How do people bully?

Focus

Supporting activities

To realise that bullies can use mobile phones to harm others

• SMS messages use abbreviations, shortened forms of words and substitutions to convey a message. Give the children some rebus sentences or common phrases to decipher, copy or write; for example, I U.

Teacher information • Cyberbullying is a vehicle for bullying that reaches a much wider audience and extends into the target’s home, invading a previously safe haven. Cyberbullying is the act of bullying a target using technology such as mobile phones or the internet as a vehicle. Social and psychological bullying have increased dramatically with the advent of cyberbullying.

• Provide recycled materials for the children to create their own mobile phones to play with, or role-play making phone calls with them.

Introduction • While cyberbullying is not as prevalent in this age group, it is important that the children are aware that it happens. If children are taught at a young age to be cybersafe, they will be able to enjoy using information and communications technology without fear of being bullied.

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• Show a mobile phone or an image of one. Discussing the text • What is it used for? (making phone calls/calling friends and family) • What things can be done with it besides calling people? Who has seen Mum or Dad use it in another way? What was he or she doing? (sending SMS messages, taking pictures, sending emails, accessing the internet etc.)

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• Explain that some people use mobile phones to hurt people. They send nasty messages or pictures. These can hurt people as much as, or more than, being bullied in person.

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• What is this a picture of? (a mobile phone)

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• Ask the children to write or draw something nice on the mobile phone picture to send to a friend. They may also like to write or copy the name of the friend to whom it is to be sent in the white address box at the top.

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Bullies use mobile phones Some people bully others by sending nasty things by mobile phone. Write or draw something nice on the mobile phone.

From:

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To:

Messages

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Computer bullies

How do people bully?

Focus

Supporting activities

To realise that bullies can use computers to hurt others

• As a group, compile and send a nice email to the school principal or another teacher at the school.

Teacher information

• Refer to <http://www.stopcyberbullying.org/> and <http://www.cybersmart.gov.au/> for a list of ‘safe’ cyber sites for the children to access.

• Cyberbullying is a vehicle for bullying that reaches a much wider audience and extends into the target’s home, invading a previously safe haven from bullying. Social and psychological bullying have increased dramatically with the advent of cyberbullying. Introduction • While cyberbullying is not as prevalent in this age group, it is important that the children are aware that it happens. If children are taught at a young age to be cybersafe, they will be able to enjoy using information technology without fear of being bullied.

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• It is also important that they realise that some actions using the computer to bully may also be against the law (criminal acts). • Refer to the computer(s) in the classroom. Discussing the text • What is it used for? (playing games, finding out things, sending emails/messages, playing movies, doing work, playing music, keeping photographs, writing, reading the news etc.)

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• Computers can be used to talk to a lot of other people. Explain that some people use computers to hurt people. They send nasty messages or pictures. These can hurt people as much as, or more than, being bullied in person. Lots of other people can read the nasty things or see the nasty pictures.

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• What is this a picture of? (a computer)

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• Ask the children to write or draw something nice on the computer screen to send to a friend.

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Computer bullies Some people bully others by sending nasty things by computer.

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Write or draw something nice on the computer.

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Anyone can be bullied

Who gets bullied?

Focus

Supporting activities

To look at pictures of different children and to realise that anyone can be bullied

• Read the story Cricketwing by Janell Cannon (a story about being different).

Teacher information

• Cut around the circles and attach them to a craft stick to use as stick puppets.

• Anyone can be bullied. It may be for a specific reason or for no particular reason. Often, a person or group of people are singled out for bullying because they are different in some way from the mainstream group. This difference puts them in the minority. As the motivating force behind bullying is power, targeting a minority group is an easy option for the cowardly bully. Minority groups commonly targeted by bullies are those of different race, religion, culture, sexual orientation, physical ability, intellectual ability, physical features, social status or personality. Introduction

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• This activity introduces the children to the concept that all children, no matter what they look like or how they act, are possible targets for bullies. • Ask the children to look at the pictures and describe each. Alternatively, ask the children to indicate, by pointing to, the child with the freckles, curly hair, the chubby child etc. • How are they different? (They have different hair, faces, skin colour etc.) • How are they the same? (They are all children. There are girls and boys. etc.)

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• Why were you asked to draw yourself in the last circle? (to show that you could be bullied too)

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Discussing the texts

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Anyone can be bullied Tick the children who can be bullied.

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Draw yourself in the last circle.

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People look different

Who gets bullied?

Focus

Supporting activities

To identify differences in children’s appearance and to group pictures by similarities

• Read the story Butt Ugly by Lynn Montgomery. • Read and discuss The ugly duckling.

Teacher information • Often, a person or group of people are singled out for bullying because they are different in some way from the mainstream group. This difference puts them in the minority. As the motivating force behind bullying is power, targeting a minority group is an easy option for the cowardly bully. People of a different race – with different coloured skin, hair type or facial features – can be one such minority group. • In addition to those who may be bullied because of different physical features related to race, some become targets because they have features that do not match the norm; examples include big ears, lower than average height, unruly hair, prominent birthmarks or protruding teeth.

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Introduction

Discussing the visual text • Look at the first boy. What does he look like? (He is tall, thin and has black hair.) • Repeat with the other pictures.

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• Have the children colour and cut them out. (If desired, the cards may be photocopied onto cardboard, coloured and laminated for durability and used as a whole-class game.)

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• This activity aims to develop the concept that we are all different. By grouping the pictures, the children will be also identifying similarities among children as well.

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• Ask the children to sort them into groups of: girls and boys; children with light hair and children with dark hair; tall children, small children and middle-sized children; etc.

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• It is important for the children to realise that, even though we may look different, we have some similarities and underneath we are all the same.

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People look different 1. Colour and cut out the pictures.

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2. Make different groups using them.

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People act differently

Who gets bullied?

Focus

Supporting activities

To realise that, because we are individuals, we all act differently from others

• Read the story Hooway for Wodney Way by Helen Lester (a story about a rat who talks differently from everyone else).

Teacher information

• Role-play acting differently from others. Form pairs or groups of three children. Call out a specific action and select one child in each group to think of a different action to perform. Ensure the children take turns and have fun.

• Minority groups commonly targeted by bullies are those:

~ who follow a different (or any) religious faith

~ who are gay or who are perceived to be gay because of their choice of style, fashion, activities or friends. A person can become a bully’s target if a family member of the target is gay or if his or her family unit comprises single-sex parents. Bullying of this nature is known as homophobic bullying

~ with different physical abilities. This can be divided into two main groups: those who have a medically recognised physical disability, including those who wear hearing aids and glasses, and those who have all their faculties but are not adept at either fine or gross motor skills. The latter are often bullied for their lack of sporting prowess

~ with different personalities. Shy students are often targeted by bullies. They lack the confidence to stand up to the bully and find it difficult to tell someone about the problem. Their vulnerability often prolongs the bullying onslaught and they retreat even further into their shells

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~ with different intellectual abilities. This can also be divided into two main groups: those who have a medically recognised intellectual disability and those who are at either end of the curve of natural distribution; i.e. they are really clever or struggle to keep up with others. If a non-academic student is talented in another area, he or she may escape bullying. Academically gifted students are often bullied and deliberately underachieve in order to ‘fit in’ with the majority

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~ from a different region or country who may have different accents, languages, foods, fashions and customs

Introduction

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• This activity is to help the children understand that because we are individuals, we do not all act the same. Although we may act differently, this does not mean that we can bully others, or be bullied. We have a right to be individuals. Discussing the visual text • Ask the children to look at the picture and find any child they think is acting differently. If necessary, indicate the children who are dancing, reading by themselves, look different etc. • What are they doing that is different? How are they acting differently? • Are they happy? (Yes) • Is anyone bullying them because they are different? (No) • Discuss the fact that even though they may act differently, they are happy, and accepted, the way they are.

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People act differently

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Find the children who are acting differently.

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Things

Who gets bullied?

Focus

Supporting activities

To identify material goods and opportunities which they have or would like

• Read Messy Bessey’s closet by Patricia McKissack. • Hold a ‘Things Day’ in the classroom, where the children can bring one thing to donate to a charity.

Teacher information • Minority groups commonly targeted by bullies are those of different social status. This covers many areas, such as type of home, car, suburb, lower or higher than average income family, personal possessions—whether or not the target has the latest electronic toys and gadgets, types of holiday or engages in particular social activities. Introduction • This activity asks the children to identify ‘things’ they have or would like.

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• It is expected that some children will have some of these or most of these, depending on their socioeconomic background and the school demography.

Discussing the visual text • Discuss the pictures with the children. Say what each picture portrays (a nice car; a nice house; a play set, ladder and climbing section; lots of toys; nice clothes; money; books; drawing utensils; a holiday).

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• Some children will indicate that they have all the things shown. Others may have some or none. Some may want all, or none, of the things shown.

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• This activity focuses predominantly on material goods as this will be easier for the children to understand. It is not meant to indicate that children and their families should strive to own as many, or the most expensive, material goods!

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• Is it good to own lots of nice things? Why or why not? (It is good to have nice things but it is not always necessary.)

• Is it important to own lots of nice things? Why or why not? (People need to look after things and can be upset when they are lost. It’s nice to have nice things.)

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• Does it matter if people own lots of things or not, if they are your friend? (No) • Do your friends come to play with you to use your things? (Hopefully not, but that doesn’t mean that if you have nice things you can’t enjoy playing with them when your friends come to play.) • Do you choose to play with friends because of the things they have? (Hopefully not) • Is it good to share things, or not? (Yes, it’s good to share things. Sharing can be enjoyable.) • Why do you play with the friends you do? (Because we like to do the same things; Because we have fun together; We like each other.)

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Things Tick the things you have.

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Circle the things you would like to have.

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How does bullying affect people?

The jungle bully – 1 Focus

Supporting activities

To listen to part of a story telling about the effects of bullying on a character being bullied

• The children use paper plates and craft sticks to make masks or puppets of Gorilla and Monkey. Use the pictures shown to introduce the lesson as reference. Ask the children to dramatise parts of the story.

Teacher information • All targets of bullying are affected to some degree but the extent to which they are depends on their confidence, self-esteem and resilience. They may suffer short-term consequences, including loss of appetite; insomnia; feelings of sadness, fear, anger, shame, loneliness; excessive absenteeism from school; a drop in school work standards; poor attention span; loss of interest in social activities; anxiety attacks; feeling responsible for the attacks, lack of trust in friends. They will suffer long-term consequences including low self-esteem; difficulty in making and maintaining friendships; depression; non-fulfilment of academic potential; poor career prospects; vulnerability to bullying in the workplace; paranoia—specifically related to cyberbullying; selfharm; possible suicide; revenge attacks; and abusive behaviour at home.

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• Read the story Shrinking Violet by Cari Best.

Introduction

Discussing the text • Read the story to the children while they listen. • Who is the bigger—Gorilla or Monkey? (Gorilla—Refer to pictures shown) • Who is the bully? (Monkey)

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• Who is being bullied? (old Gorilla)

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• Show pictures of some of the animals (in particular Gorilla and Monkey) from the story for the children to identify.

• How do you know that Monkey is a bully? (He keeps on hurting Gorilla in different ways. He enjoys hurting Gorilla.)

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• How does Gorilla feel about being bullied? (He does not like it. He is sad, lonely and scared. He feels small.) • How is bullying affecting Gorilla? (He cannot eat or sleep. He is afraid. He does not want to see anyone or do anything.)

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• How did the animals know something was wrong with Gorilla? (They missed him.) • What do you think the animals will do? What will their plan be?

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Teacher page

The jungle bully – 1

Listen to the story. Many animals lived in the jungle—Tiger, Parrot, Monkey, Ant, Frog and Gorilla. They lived happily together—except for one thing. Monkey was a bully. He liked to be mean. He especially liked to bully old Gorilla.

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On Monday, Monkey threw bananas at Gorilla and laughed. Gorilla rubbed his sore head and stayed in his tree all day. He didn’t feel like going to the creek to watch the frogs playing. He felt sad and lonely.

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On Tuesday, Monkey called him names. Gorilla tried to cover his ears with his paws but he could still hear the nasty words. They made him feel small and very old.

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On Wednesday, Monkey jumped out at Gorilla from behind a tree. He chattered happily as he ran away. Gorilla was scared to leave his tree to look for fruit and bark. He did not want to eat or sleep. He was afraid Monkey would sneak up on him.

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On Thursday, Monkey bit Gorilla on the leg. Gorilla rubbed his sore leg and hid behind a bush until Monkey left. He pulled leaves over himself and curled into a small ball. On Friday, Monkey pulled Gorilla’s fur. Large tufts fell out and Gorilla felt bare and sore. He hid in the trees, waiting for his hair to grow back. He was all alone. He did not want to see anyone or do anything. He grew thin and he was very sad and lonely. He could not eat or sleep. The other animals missed Gorilla. They wondered where he was and what he was doing. When they found him sad and alone, hiding in the trees, they decided to think of a plan to stop Monkey bullying. Gorilla felt better at once. But what could they do to stop Monkey? Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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How does bullying affect people?

The jungle bully – 2 Focus

Supporting activities

To identify similar feelings to those of a character in a story about being bullied and the circumstances that cause those feelings

• Write the words ‘sad’, ‘lonely’, ‘scared’, ‘small’ and ‘worried’ on cards for children to select. The children use facial and bodily actions to demonstrate each feeling.

Teacher information

• Read Hurty feelings by Helen Lester.

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• All targets of bullying are affected to some degree, but the extent to which they are depends on their confidence, self-esteem and resilience. They may suffer short-term consequences, including loss of appetite; insomnia; feelings of sadness, fear, anger, shame, loneliness; excessive absenteeism from school; a drop in school work standards; poor attention span; loss of interest in social activities; anxiety attacks; feeling responsible for the attacks; lack of trust in friends. They will suffer long-term consequences including low self-esteem; difficulty in making and maintaining friendships; depression; non-fulfilment of academic potential; poor career prospects; vulnerability to bullying in the workplace; paranoia—specifically related to cyberbullying; selfharm; possible suicide; revenge attacks; and abusive behaviour at home. • The children need to be aware of the feelings experienced by targets of bullying. They need to empathise with the target by putting themselves in the target’s place. Discussing the text • Read the beginning of each sentence with the children.

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• Discuss situations when they may have experienced each feeling. Encourage them to write or draw a time when they have experienced each feeling. Those who cannot, tell an adult who can scribe the ending of the sentence for them.

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Introduction

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• Select children to share their texts with the remainder of the class.

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The jungle bully – 2 Tell your teacher or write or draw an ending for each sentence.

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2. I feel lonely when ...

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1. I feel sad when ...

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3. I feel scared when ...

4. I feel ‘small’ when ...

5. I feel worried when ...

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How does bullying affect people?

The jungle bully – 3 Focus

Supporting activities

To listen to part of a story about a monkey who bullies and to realise that bullies are affected by their own actions

• Read Stop picking on me by Pat Thomas (A first look at bullying).

Teacher information

• Have the children make simple finger puppets of the characters and retell the story.

• Bullies are also affected by their own actions. The short-term effects include making shallow friendships (peers are ‘friends’ for fear of being bullied themselves) and gaining a negative reputation among staff and some students. The long-term consequences include unpopularity and loss of peer group as ‘friends’ no longer fear retribution; continued antisocial behaviour possibly leading to crime; and abusive behaviour at home. Introduction

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• Revise the beginning of the story on page 35 if necessary. After asking the questions relating to how targets of bullying feel, continue by reading the remainder of the story on page 39. Then ask the questions below. Discussing the text • Which animals helped Gorilla? (Tiger, Parrot, Ant and Frog) • Why did they help? (They were Gorilla’s friends. They wanted to help. They wanted to finally stop Monkey from being nasty to everyone.) • How did they help? (They gave him food, guarded him while he slept and thought of a plan.)

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• Did Monkey have any good friends? Why? (No. He did not know how to be a friend or play nicely with others. The other animals did not like him because he was mean to everyone.)

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• Read the story to the children while they listen.

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• What was Tiger’s plan? (Tiger planned to scare Monkey so he would know how others who are bullied feel.) • Did the plan work? (Yes, Monkey was scared until he realised that the strange animal was all the animals riding on top of Tiger’s back.)

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• Why did Monkey bully? (He wanted the other animals to take notice of him. He wanted friends but he did not know how to make them.) • How do you think Tiger and the other animals will teach Monkey to play nicely and be a friend? (They may show him how to act and speak to others. They may teach him some ‘nice’ games to play with others.) • Do you think the animals will hurt Monkey? Why or why not? (No. The animals should not hurt Monkey as this is not a good way to deal with bullies. It may make matters worse.) • What would most likely happen to Monkey if he keeps on bullying? (The other animals might get tired of it and hurt him or make him go and live somewhere else.)

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Teacher page

The jungle bully – 3

Listen to the story. Tiger, Parrot, Ant and Frog gathered food for Gorilla and kept guard while he slept. In the morning, they travelled back to the jungle. ‘This is the plan’, Tiger said.

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Monkey climbed his tree. He could not see Gorilla and the jungle was quiet. He liked living in the jungle but he did not like having no friends. The only way to make the animals take notice of him was to be mean. He especially liked being mean to Gorilla because he always acted hurt.

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The night jungle was very quiet and still. He wanted someone to jump on and scare. He wanted someone to throw bananas at or bite. He wanted to pull out feathers or fur. He wanted someone to play with.

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He heard rustling in the bushes. As he watched, a strange, shadowy animal appeared. It had two heads, eight eyes, flapping, feathered wings and six legs. He quickly fled to the top branches of the tree out of reach. His heart beat very fast. His eyes bulged and his arms and legs shook with fear. He clung tightly to the branches. He wished he could call the jungle animals for help. He knew he had been mean to them. He knew no-one would come. Even old Gorilla would be a welcome sight. He wished he had not hurt Gorilla. He wished he had friends. The strange animal stopped at the foot of the tree where he was hiding. The jungle moon shone down. Monkey could clearly see Gorilla, Parrot, Monkey, Ant and Frog riding on Tiger’s back. ‘Come down’, growled Tiger. ‘We’re going to teach you how to play nicely and be a friend.’ Gorilla gave a shy grin. Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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How does bullying affect people?

The jungle bully – 4 Focus

Supporting activities

To identify the correct picture in a pair which shows animals playing nicely together

• Select a favourite game to play as a class. • Make up new lyrics and actions to ‘This is the way we play nicely … ’.

Teacher information • All targets are affected to some degree by bullying but the extent to which they are depends on their confidence, self-esteem and resilience. Some will have strategies for coping with the bullying, thus ending the problem, but many more will suffer consequences in the short- and the long-term.

• Make up a simple chant to repeat such as ‘We’re not bullies. We know how to play. We practise being nice, every day’.

Introduction • The pictures are the concluding activity to the story which relates the short- and long-term effects of bullying on the target and the bully. • Revise the story quickly if necessary. Discussing the text

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• Ask the children to look at the first picture.

• What is Monkey doing? (Monkey is in the tree throwing bananas at Gorilla.) • What are the other animals doing? (The other animals are not aware of what Monkey is doing to Gorilla. They are going about their normal everyday activities.) • Ask the children to look at the second picture.

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• What is happening in the picture? (The animals are in the jungle. They are playing together.)

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• What is happening in the picture? (The animals are in the jungle. Monkey is bullying Gorilla.)

• What is Monkey doing? (He is playing nicely with Gorilla and Tiger.)

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• What are Parrot and Ant doing? (They are watching the others play together.)

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The jungle bully – 4

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Colour the picture that does NOT show Monkey being a bully.

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Anyone can be a bully

Who bullies and why?

Focus

Supporting activities

To view pictures of different children and identify all as potential bullies, including themselves

• Read the stories Tyrone the horrible by Hans Wilheim, The recess queen by Alexis O’Neill and King of the playground by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor.

Teacher information

• Cut around the circles and attach them to a craft stick to use as stick puppets.

• Although the focus in schools is often on providing support for the targets of bullying, the bullies themselves also need to be understood so they too can be helped. • There can be no one set of characteristics to describe all bullies. A bully may be a very confident, high-achieving, apparently popular student with high self-esteem or a target who is retaliating by bullying other less powerful or younger students in order to hide his or her own lack of confidence. Bullying is about power and control. Introduction

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• This activity introduces the children to the concept that all children, no matter what they look like or how they act are potential bullies. • Ask the children to look at the pictures and describe each. Alternatively, ask the children to indicate by pointing, the child with the freckles, curly hair, the chubby child etc. • How are they different? (They have different hair, faces, skin colour etc.) • How are they the same? (They are all children. There are girls and boys etc.)

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• Why were you asked to draw yourself in the last circle? (to show that you could be a bully too)

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Discussing the texts

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Anyone can be a bully Draw yourself in the last circle.

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Tick the children who can be bullied.

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Bully helpers Focus

Who bullies and why?

Answers

To realise that people who help bullies by doing the same actions are bullies too

1.

2.

3.

4.

Teacher information • People who help bullies hurt others are considered bullies too. If they engage in the same hurtful activity, whether physical, verbal or emotional, as the bully, these ‘bully helpers’ are bullies also. No distinction is drawn between the two. Each supports the other’s bullying actions. Introduction • For the purposes of this activity, the ‘bully helper’ is shown doing the same thing. No distinction is made for bystander bullies. They will be discussed in the activity on page 47.

ha

ha

ha

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ha ha ha

• Enlarge the worksheet to A3 size or place on an overhead projector transparency to discuss.

Discussing the visual texts • Who is being hurt in each picture? (Picture 1–the smaller boy whose shirt is being pulled; Picture 2–the smaller girl who is having the fist shaken at her; Picture 3–the boy being talked about and ostracised; Picture 4–the girl being pointed at and laughed about)

Supporting activities

• Read Jungle bullies by Steven Kroll.

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• To simplify the concept, the bully is shown slightly larger. In reality, this may not be the case.

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• This activity asks the children to find the people who are being hurt (the targets), the person or people hurting them (the bullies) and the people helping the bully (the bully helpers).

• As a class, think of words beginning with ‘h’ to describe bully helpers. For example, ‘horrible’, ‘hard’, ‘hurting’ etc.

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• Who is hurting them? (Picture 1– the boy holding the smaller boy’s shirt; Picture 2–the girl raising her fist to the other; Picture 3– the two boys talking about the lone child; Picture 4–the girl pointing and laughing)

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• How do you know who is the bully? (He/She is making the other child sad. He/She is deliberately doing it. He/She is enjoying it.)

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• Who is helping the bully in each picture? (Picture 1 – the girl who is laughing; Picture 2 – the girl at the back looking angry; Picture 3 – the boy listening to the other talking; Picture 4 – the girl with the dark hair)

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Bully helpers Write ‘b’ on the bully. Write ‘h’ on the bully helper.

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Bullies who stand by Focus

Who bullies and why?

Answers

To view a picture, and understand and identify bystander bullies Teacher information • A bystander is a person who watches the bullying. Bystanders can support the bully’s actions by laughing or cheering. Other types of bystanders may even feel uncomfortable about the bullying, but do nothing to help the target. They are still supporting the actions of the bully. A bystander may also ignore, or pretend that he or she does not know, what is happening. A bystander may hear about the bullying but not actually see it.

bystander

bystander

bystander

• A bystander can assist the target in a number of different ways: he or she can tell an adult about the bullying; he or she can tell the bully that what the bully is doing is wrong and to stop; he or she can take the target away from the bullying situation.

bully bystander

target

Introduction • Play a game that demonstrates the importance of bystanders. Refer to <http://www.gameskidsplay.net/games/chasing_games/ tag/freezetg.htm> for instructions for ‘Stuck in the mud’ where bystanders crawl through the legs of ‘tagged’ children frozen in place and enable them to move again. • Ask the children to look at the picture on page 47. • Who is being bullied? Who is the target? (The child crying) • Which child in the picture is the bully? (The girl with the ponytail pointing at the boy)

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• Is anyone helping the bully? Which children? (All of them)

• Read the stories: Nobody knew what to do: A story about bullying by Becky Ray McCain and The bully blockers club by Teresa Bateman.

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Discussing the text

Supporting activity

• Which child is helping the bully by watching and not doing anything? (The boy with his hands in his pockets)

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• Which child is helping the bully by smiling at what the bully is doing? (The girl at the bottom, pointing)

• Which child is helping the target by going to tell the teacher? (The girl running away at the top)

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• Ask the children to cut out the words. Assist them to place them next to the correct child before they glue them. • Who has been a bystander and not helped? Why does this happen? (He/She may not have known what to do or was scared) • Who has seen something bad happening and told the teacher or another adult?

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Bullies who stand by

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Cut and paste the words on the correct person in the picture.

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Laughing bully

Who bullies and why?

Focus

Supporting activities

To create a ‘laughing bully’

• Read Ant bully by John Nicole.

Teacher information

• Use the laughing bully and make him say ‘I’m sorry’ when his mouth is moved to look like he is speaking.

• Bystanders become accessories to bullying when they encourage a bully by, for example, making statements of support, laughing, jeering or mimicking. They are considered bullies too. Introduction • Learn and sing silly songs which make children laugh, such as Giggling and laughing: Silly songs for kids by various artists, Gina the hyena by Geof Johnson (refer to <http://freesongsforkids. com/audios/gina-hyena>) or Mr Clickety Cane by Peter Combe. Discussing the visual text • Why do people laugh? (because they are happy, hear something silly etc.)

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• Is laughing always good or fun? (No)

• How does it feel when someone laughs at you? (Bad, it hurts, it’s embarrassing, it can make you sad etc.) • Is it nice to laugh at someone who is being hurt? (No) • Why would the person laugh at the bully hurting someone? (He may be afraid of the bully. He may be mean like the bully.)

• Enlarge the worksheet to A3 size.

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• What can you do if someone is laughing at someone who is being hurt? (Tell the person laughing to stop, don’t laugh as well, talk nicely to the person who is being laughed at or take him/her away to play with you.)

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• When is laughing not good or fun? (When someone is laughing at you)

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• Ask the children to colour and cut out the pieces of the laughing bully and join them together with a paper fastener so that, when joined, the laughing bully’s mouth can be moved up and down to make him laugh.

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Laughing bully

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Bullies bully because ...

Who bullies and why?

Focus

Answers

To realise that bullies have problems and need help

Guide the discussion about why each child bullies so the children become aware of the conclusions provided below.

Teacher information

1. Aiden bullies because he is sad. 2. Eddy bullies because he was bullied. He sees it as a way to not be bullied. 3. Joseph bullies because he lacks self-esteem, is easily frustrated and is academically challenged. 4. Vonnie bullies the other boys because he does not know how to make friends. 5. Jacob bullies because he is big, strong and mean-looking. 6. Sophie bullies because she has been bullied at home. (Differentiate between discipline and bullying.) 7. Tavisha bullies Mandy because she wants what Mandy has. 8. Hari bullies because she is seeking attention. She lacks boundaries. 9. Zoe bullies because she has no boundaries or role models.

• Bullies may be impulsive, socially dominant, easily frustrated, confrontational, aggressive, needing to control and attentionseeking. They may have a conduct disorder, lack empathy and sympathy, question authority, break rules, push boundaries and admire violence. They may be able to talk their way out of trouble, be confident and popular or lack self-esteem and have difficulty making friends. They may have a small group of friends who support their bullying, or be physically bigger and stronger than their targets. Boys tend towards physical bullying, while girls are more likely to use social exclusion or humiliation. • There is no common reason for bullying, but the following generalisations are worthy of consideration: jealousy and competition for attention and valued objects; personal experience of being bullied; inadequate supervision; child abuse and neglect; harsh physical discipline; overly permissive parenting, lack of limits; inconsistent enforcement of rules and consequences; poor role models at home or at school.

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Supporting activities

• Read the following stories: The Berenstain Bears and the bully by S and J Berenstain and Enemy pie by Derek Munson.

• The descriptions are intended to help the children realise that children bully for different reasons. (It should be noted that all children in similar situations do not react in the same way by becoming bullies.) Discussing the texts

– Who is the bully?

– Who is being bullied? [the target(s)]

– Why is the bully bullying?

– What could the bully do instead?

– How could others help the bully?

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• Read a number of the descriptions and ask the children the following questions for each.

• Ask the children to select one of the bullying scenarios on page 51 to illustrate.

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Introduction

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Teacher page

Bullies bully because ...

Listen to the description of each bully. Say why he or she bullies.

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3. Joseph didn’t like school. He got the 1. Aiden’s dad died. numbers wrong. He loved his dad 2. Eddy was short He couldn’t write and shy. Last very much. He his name. He year, Corey hid didn’t like to see could not cut out or his schoolbag James with his colour in well. But every day. dad. When James he liked to hit Ryan Now Eddy was at school, and Ryan’s friend, hides Mason’s Aiden annoyed Oliver. schoolbag him every day. every day. 6. Sophie was the oldest in 5. Jacob was big and 4. Vonnie stayed her family. strong. He looked by himself at Her dad made mean. Only big, playtimes. The her look after mean Bill played with other boys the little ones. him. Jacob tripped played tag and He smacked Jack. Jacob pinched football. Vonnie her and yelled Sally. Jacob tripped interrupted the at her all the Alex. Jacob laughed game of tag time. Sophie when Susie fell over. and kicked the bullied the football over the 8. Hari was the kids at school. fence. youngest in the 7. Tavisha liked going family. She was 9. Zoe’s mum and to school. One day, always the last dad work a lot. Mandy brought her to get a new Most days when new doll to school. dress. She was she gets home The next day, the last to get a from school, they Mandy showed her good place near are not there. new box of markers. the fire. She was Zoe never lets Tavisha started to first to say nasty Georgia play say nasty things to things to Asmita with her and her Mandy each day. each day. friend, Holly.

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How do people deal with bullies?

I trust ... Focus

Supporting activities

To identify trusted friends or adults to talk to if he/she is bullied

• Read the stories Pinky and Rex and the bully by James Howe and Henry and the bully by Nancy Carlson.

Teacher information

• Provide a number of blank pages with the text ‘I trust ... ‘ on the top for children to write and draw to create pages for a book about people they trust.

• To persist with bullying, bullies rely on evoking a reaction from their targets. They want to see fear, hurt or anger. These responses give bullies the feeling of power on which they thrive. By learning strategies to deal positively with bullying attacks, children are empowered to stand up for themselves and are less likely to be regular targets in the future.

• Cut out the faces and attach to craft sticks to make simple stick puppets for dramatic play.

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• The children should talk to people if they feel they are being bullied. In sharing their experiences, children realise they are not alone. They will identify peers and adults in whom they can confide. They need to know that, in talking with school staff, their problems will be taken seriously and dealt with appropriately. If more than one child is being targeted by the same bully or group of bullies, they could go together to speak to a member of staff. The sooner targets talk about their problems, the sooner they can be dealt with, reducing the risk of emotional damage. • Children should feel settled and comfortable in their school classroom. They should be able to relate to, and trust, the teacher or other adult helpers. They should feel confident enough to trust them when they tell them things that bother them. Discussing the visual texts • Enlarge the worksheet to A3 size and photocopy one for each child.

• Whom do you trust? • Why do you trust them?

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• How do you know you can trust someone?

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• What does it mean to trust someone?

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Introduction

• Read the instructions to the children. Explain that the outlines are for the children to complete faces of people they trust to talk to if they are bullied.

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• Provide colourful crayons and pencils to complete the faces. Assist the children to write unfamiliar names.

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I trust ...

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Draw the faces of people you trust. Write each name.

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How do people deal with bullies?

Know what to say Focus

Supporting activities

To read and practise the correct words to say to a bully

• Relate simple bullying situations where the correct words may be practised. For example:

Teacher information • To persist with bullying, bullies rely on evoking a reaction from their targets. They want to see fear, hurt or anger. These responses give bullies the feeling of power on which they thrive. By learning strategies to deal positively with bullying attacks, students are empowered to stand up for themselves and are less likely to be regular targets in the future. • The children should have a ready response for a given bullying situation and deliver it with direct eye contact with the bully before walking away confidently. The children need to be given examples of these responses which can be practised during role-play of prevalent bullying situations. It takes courage for children to appear brave while inside they may be feeling quite the opposite especially if they are on their own against more than one assailant. But by reacting in this way, they are challenging the bully who, in many cases will back down as most bullies are cowards.

Introduction

(b) Carol trips Mark over every day. Practise saying ‘I don’t like you doing that, so stop it!’

(c) Sophie and Jamie won’t let Sashi play whenever she asks and she has to play by herself. Practise saying ‘I’m going to play with because you keep being mean to me!’

(d) Georgia keeps saying nasty things to Amy. Practise saying ‘Your words can’t hurt me anymore!’

(e) Jen saw Simon hurting Adrian. Practise saying ‘He doesn’t like you doing that. It’s mean, so stop doing it!’

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• Read the story Martha walks the dog by Susan Meddaugh.

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• Young children need practise repeating simple phrases to make them automatic when they find themselves in specific situations. With practice, they will be able to respond quickly when they need to.

(a) Barbie hits Jill every day. Practise saying ‘I’m going to tell the teacher!’

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• Older children may be able to turn what the bully says or does into a joke. Without making fun of the bully, if a target can make light of the situation, the bully will see that he/she has no power over the intended target.

Discussing the text

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• Explain that speech bubbles contain the actual words that the speaker is saying. Comic books and graphic novels are written like this. • Read each speech bubble with the children.

• What could be happening to make the child reply in this way?

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• Practise saying it in an assertive manner.

• Repeat for all the words in speech bubbles.

• Ask ‘Would you be able to say these words?’

• Explain that even though they may be still feeling frightened, saying the words confidently will help.

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Teacher page

Know what to say

Read and practise the correct words to say to a bully. I’m going to tell the teacher!

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I don’t like you doing that, so stop it!

because you

keep being mean to me!

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I’m going to play with

Your words can’t hurt me anymore!

He doesn’t like you doing that. It’s mean, so stop doing it!

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How do people deal with bullies?

Act bravely Focus

Supporting activities

To identify brave behaviour as described in a story

• Read the stories A weekend with Wendell by Kevin Henkes, Myrtle by Tracey Campbell Pearson and Stand tall Molly Lou Melon by Patty Lavell.

Teacher information • To persist with bullying, bullies rely on evoking a reaction from their targets. They want to see fear, hurt or anger. These responses give bullies the feeling of power on which they thrive. By learning strategies to deal positively with bullying attacks, children are empowered to stand up for themselves and are less likely to be regular targets in the future.

• Learn the action rhyme Five brave firefighters <http://www. atozkidsstuff.com/octcal3.html> or The brave firefighter <http:// www.nswfb.nsw.gov.au/page.php?id=684>. • Make a paper bag puppet of the brave little mouse. Have each child copy the words ‘I can be brave too’ or have an adult scribe them on the back of the paper bag.

• Children need to improve their body language. By walking purposefully with shoulders back and head held high, they will look less vulnerable, reducing the likelihood of being targeted. Introduction

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• Sing the song ‘Bend and stretch ...’. Practise standing up straight and making oneself as tall as possible. Make up new words and actions to suit acting bravely in front of bullies; for example, ‘Stand up straight, Stand up so tall, Puff your chest right out, Look the bully in the eyes’. • Read the story to the children. • Who are the characters in the story? (The lion and the mouse)

• Who acted bravely? (The mouse)

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• What happened in the story? (The lion caught the mouse. He let the mouse go. The lion said he would help him. The lion got caught in a trap. The mouse chewed through the ropes and saved him.)

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Discussing the text

• What did he do that was brave? (He stood up to the lion when he was first caught.)

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• Do you think the little mouse was scared of the lion? (Yes)

• When do you need to act brave? (Whenever you feel scared of someone, something or a situation) • Have you ever been scared and still acted bravely? When?

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• Is it easy to act bravely even when you are scared? (No)

• Why is it important to act bravely towards bullies? (Because they will lose their power over you)

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Teacher page

Act bravely

Listen to the story. Once upon a time, a lion was sleeping in the jungle when a little mouse ran up and down his back. The mouse woke the lion up.

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The lion caught the mouse in his paw and roared at him. ‘How dare you wake me?’ I am the king of the jungle! I will kill you and eat you’, he said.

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‘Please don’t eat me’, begged the little mouse. ‘I did not mean to wake you. Let me go and one day I may be able to help you.’

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The lion laughed and said, ‘You’re too little to help me. But you have made me laugh so I will let you go!’ The lion opened his big paw and let the mouse go. The little mouse ran into the jungle to safety.

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A few days later, the lion was hunting in the jungle when he stepped into a hunter’s net and was trapped. He struggled to break free but he could not break the ropes of the net. He roared and roared until the noise filled the jungle. The little mouse heard the lion roaring and ran to find him. He saw the lion caught in the net and said, ‘Hold still, Lion, and I will set you free! It is my turn to help you now.’ The lion was happy to see the little mouse, but he did not think he could help. The mouse took the net in his mouth and began to chew through the ropes with his sharp teeth. Soon, the lion was free. ‘Thank you, little mouse, for helping me’, said Lion. ‘I did not think that you could be of any use to me. You are a brave little mouse. You saved my life! We will be friends forever.’ Prim-Ed Publishing® www.prim-ed.com

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How do people deal with bullies?

Circle of safe friends Focus

Discussing the visual text

To realise that by having a wide circle of friends, they reduce the opportunities for bullies to target them

• Ask the children to look at the picture and tell what it is. Explain that it will be a circle of friends. Count the friends.

Teacher information

• Who can name eight friends? Some may name children who are actually relatives (cousins) as friends. Few will be able to name eight.

• To persist with bullying, bullies rely on evoking a reaction from their targets. They want to see fear, hurt or anger. These responses give bullies the feeling of power on which they thrive. By learning strategies to deal positively with bullying attacks, children are empowered to stand up for themselves and are less likely to be regular targets in the future.

• Why is it good to have lots of friends? (You will have lots of people to play with even if your best friend is away.) • How can you make new friends? (Talk to new people; Say hello; Ask them to play with you; Ask if you can join their game etc.)

• Children need to increase their social circle. By making an effort to engage others in general conversation and showing an interest in them and their lives, children develop a greater social network and potential support against bullying.

• The children use coloured crayons or light collage materials to complete the circle of friends. They should commence with children who are their closest friends, then acquaintances, followed by others they do not know well yet.

Introduction

• Capable children may write or copy the names of friends on each figure.

• Practise saying hello and talking to children in the class with whom they may not normally play.

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• Enlarge the copymaster if desired.

Supporting activities

• Read the story The tale of Sir Dragon: Dealing with bullies for kids (and dragons) by Jean E Pendziwol. (This book also deals with the important part played by bystanders such as friends.)

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• A template has been included below for tracing if teachers prefer to use it instead of the copymaster. The size shown is appropriate for a large circle cut from A3 paper and will make eight friends. To make a circle of friends, the children will need to fold a large circle in half three times. The shape obtained will look like a slice of pie. Place the template on the folds and trace around it. Cut away the shaded sections. Open out and decorate as individual friends.

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• Sing a song about friendship. Refer to <http://www. preschooleducation.com/sfriend.shtml> for some new lyrics about friendship set to familiar tunes.

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Circle of safe friends 1. Colour or decorate each friend.

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2. Cut out the circle.

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How do people deal with bullies?

Safe places Focus

Supporting activities

To identify safe places to go or be to avoid a bully

• Read the story I can play it safe by Alison Feigh.

Teacher information

• Ask the children to paint a picture of a favourite safe or peaceful place. An adult may scribe, or the child may write, a label to display on it when it dries.

Introduction • Discuss what the word ‘safe’ means. Where do the children feel ‘safe’?. Discussing the text • Ask the children to look at the pictures.

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• Children should avoid being alone when they are at risk of being bullied. It is not always possible to avoid bullies. In these cases, children should try to always be in the company of their friends. While no-one should have to use avoidance tactics to be safe, it is possible that keeping out of the bully’s way for a while may be enough to stop the opportunistic bully who has no specific gripe against the target but who bullies just because he or she can. In more serious cases, adults should be informed of unsafe areas where bullies are likely to strike. If a bully saves his intimidation for after school, it is helpful for children to know if there is a place of safety between school and home. By walking to and from school with friends, children should feel safe and this will help to ease their discomfort.

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• To persist with bullying, bullies rely on evoking a reaction from their targets. They want to see fear, hurt or anger. These responses give bullies the feeling of power on which they thrive. By learning strategies to deal positively with bullying attacks, children are empowered to stand up for themselves and are less likely to be regular targets in the future.

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• What is each place? (school buildings and playground, classroom, home, the park, the local library, the shops/shopping centre, the police station, Grandma’s or Grandpa’s house)

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• In which of these places do you feel safe? Why?

• In which of these places do you feel unsafe? Why?

• What can you do if you don’t feel safe in one of these places?

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• If you feel unsafe, such as when a person is bullying you, which place would you go to? Which person would you tell? In which place would you find that person? • Discuss other places the children feel safe.

• The children write about the place they feel safest or a favourite safe place.

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Safe places

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1. Tick the places where you feel safe.

2. Write about your favourite safe place. Prim-Ed Publishing速 www.prim-ed.com

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How do people deal with bullies?

Stay calm Focus

Supporting activities

To realise that staying calm is an effective way to deal with bullies

• Read the stories When Sophie gets angry, really angry by Molly Bang and When I feel angry (Way I feel books) by Cornelia Maude Spelman.

Teacher information • To persist with bullying, bullies rely on evoking a reaction from their targets. They want to see fear, hurt or anger. These responses give bullies the feeling of power on which they thrive. By learning strategies to deal positively with bullying attacks, children are empowered to stand up for themselves and are less likely to be regular targets in the future.

• Write the good strategies on a large sheet of cardboard. Select children to illustrate different strategies.

• Children should not react emotionally to the bully but look him or her straight in the eye before smiling and carrying on with the activity in progress. This action says, ‘You can’t hurt me and I’m not bothered by what you say or do’. Bullies do not like to be ignored so if the child can calmly play out this response, the bully may leave him/her alone.

Discussing the game • Ask the children how they keep calm. (Try not to get angry) If some answers coincide with those on the game board, identify them.

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• The board game includes good and bad strategies for dealing with bullies. It predominantly focuses on ways to stay calm. Players who land on positive calming steps are allowed to progress while those who land on negative ways to deal with bullies must go back spaces. One or two children can play the game using plastic counters and a six-sided dice. The first to throw six starts. The first to reach ‘Finish’ wins.

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• Let the children know that when they land on a good way to stay calm they will go ahead spaces, and when they land on a bad way to deal with a bully, they will go back spaces.

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• Enlarge and photocopy the game boards for each group or pair of children. • Read each strategy with the children.

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• Provide counters and a six-sided dice, and allow the children to play the game. If desired, play the game as a whole class.

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Starts to cry.

Takes a big breath.

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Go back 1 space.

3 4 5 1 2

6

Go ahead 1 space.

Counts to 10.

FINISH

Thinks of nice things.

7

Yells at bully.

Go ahead 1 space.

8 9 10

Go ahead 1 space.

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Hits bully.

Go back 3 spaces.

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Go back 3 spaces.

Puts a calm look on face. Go ahead 2 spaces.

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Stay calm Teacher page

Play the ‘Stay calm’ game.


How can we prevent bullying?

I belong Focus

Supporting activities

To realise that they belong and are safe in the classroom

• Read the story Pebble: A story about belonging by Susan Milord, Eggbert the slightly cracked egg by Tom Ross and My teacher’s my friend by P K Hallinan.

Teacher information • Preventing bullying is important and there is a great deal teachers and the children in their classes can and must do to protect themselves and others from pain and humiliation. One of the most important aspects of helping children to withstand bullying is developing self-confidence and resilience in them. • Teachers need to make sure the children feel comfortable in the classroom and know they will be listened to and action taken when they report bullying. The children need to realise they are not alone and that the teacher and other children understand and will help them. They need to feel that they belong. Introduction

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• Play a familiar group game such as The farmer in the dell or a parachute game such as Popcorn. Refer to <http://www. gameskidsplay.net/games/other_games/popcorn.htm> where the children must cooperate to play the game.

Discussing the text • Read the instructions and the sentence in the first box with the children. • What do you like about the classroom? (Places to play, toys, friends, things we do, nice teacher, nice artwork, bright and colourful, spacious etc.)

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• What does it mean to belong? (To be in the right/proper place)

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• Enlarge the worksheet to allow plenty of space for drawing.

• What are the things that you like to do best in the classroom? • What is the most fun?

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• Who are your friends? Why are they your friends?

• What sorts of things can happen in the classroom which may be bad? (Another child hurting you physically or calling you names, losing property etc.)

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• State that the children should feel confident to tell the teacher anything that bothers them. • Ask the children to draw the remaining pictures.

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I belong Read the sentences. Draw the missing pictures. I know what to do in my classroom. I have fun.

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I have friends.

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I like my classroom. I belong.

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I like my teacher. I can talk to my teacher if something bad happens.

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How can we prevent bullying?

I am special Focus

Supporting activities

To realise that they are unique and they do not deserve to be bullied

• Read the stories Willy the wimp by A Browne and Ruby the copycat by Margaret Rathmann.

Teacher information

• Provide paper plates, large craft sticks and collage materials for the children to make a stick puppet of themselves to hold up while singing the song I am special. (See Introduction.)

• Preventing bullying is important and there is a great deal teachers and the children in their classes can and must do to protect themselves and others from pain and humiliation. One of the most important aspects of helping children to withstand bullying is developing self-confidence and resilience in them. • Children need to develop an awareness of their uniqueness as individuals and that they deserve to be safe. They need to be proud of their unique physical attributes and abilities. Introduction • Sing the song I am special to the tune Frere Jacques. Refer to <http://www.alphabet-soup.net/me/mesong.html>.

• Read the poem with the children, emphasising the rhyming words. • Ask ‘Who can walk?’, ‘Who can jump?’, ‘Who can run?’ etc. identifying the actions in the poem.

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• Explain that everyone is different and can do different things better (or worse) than others. This is what makes everyone special.

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Discussing the text

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• Select a number of different children to compare. Alternatively, select specific attributes, such as hair and eye colour, for the children in the class to stand up and identify if that attribute applies to them. Explain that everyone looks different and this makes them special.

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• Ask the children to write words or draw to complete the sentence at the bottom of the page. The back of the worksheet or a large sheet of paper may be used. Capable children may copy the beginning words and complete the remainder unassisted. Less capable children may have the words scribed by an adult.

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Teacher page

I am special

1. Read the poem. I am special. I like me.

I can do things as you will see.

I can walk and run and jump.

I can shape a play dough lump.

I can colour and write my name.

I can play a matching game.

I can cut and glue a shape.

I can tear off sticky tape.

I can sing but not in tune.

I can dance and bat a balloon.

I can hum and click my tongue.

I can beat on the big bass drum.

I am special. I like me.

I am as special as I can be.

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2. Write (or draw on the back) to finish the sentence. I am special because â&#x20AC;Ś Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ www.prim-ed.com

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How can we prevent bullying?

I keep on trying Focus

Supporting activities

To analyse a cartoon about persistence

• Read the story Don’t feed the monster on Tuesday by Adolph Moser and Just me and Dad by Mercer Mayer.

Teacher information

• Have the children practise saying positive statements about themselves, such as: ‘I can do this if I keep trying’, ‘I can get this finished in time’, ‘I tried hard’, ‘I didn’t do very well this time but I know what to do now, so I can do better next time’.

• By developing self-resilience, building self-esteem and developing a sense of their own worth, children can learn to cope with difficulties. Children should be able to express something which is special about themselves, and know that others can see this as well. They should be praised often and feel free to take risks, knowing that even if they fail, at least they tried (or ‘had a go’). Encourage the children to make positive self-statements to themselves: ‘I can do this if I keep trying’, ‘I can get this finished in time’, ‘I tried hard’, ‘I didn’t do very well this time but I know what to do now, so I can do better next time’.

• Learn, or listen to, a rhyme or fingerplay about trying, such as Mistakes from Values education toolkit (Ages 4–6) (published by Prim-Ed Publishing®) page 20 or others about feelings.

Introduction

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• Listen to the song Try, try again (refer to <http://www.kididdles. com/lyrics/t058.html>) or read the classic children’s story The little engine that could by Watty Piper. • The cartoon text may be enlarged or used on an overhead projector or whiteboard. • Ask the children to look at the first picture. • What is happening in Picture 1? (The boy is building a tall block tower.) • What is happening in Picture 2? (The tower is falling down.)

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• Why do you think it fell down? (It was too tall. The blocks on the top were too heavy for the blocks on the bottom to hold up. There were too many blocks etc.)

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Discussing the visual text

• What is happening in Picture 3? (The boy is building the block tower again.)

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• Why is he trying to build it again? (He wants to make it tall again. He wants to see how tall he can make it before it falls again. He wants to keep on playing with the blocks etc.)

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• What is happening in Picture 4? (The tower is falling down again.) • What is happening in Picture 5? (He’s trying to build the tower again.) • Is it good that he keeps on trying? Why? (He should succeed if he keeps on trying.) • What things have you tried to do and couldn’t, but after trying or learning, you were able to do?

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I keep on trying 2.

3.

4.

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Read the cartoon.

5.

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6.

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How can we prevent bullying?

Same and different Focus

Supporting activities

To identify and appreciate differences

• Read the stories It’s okay to be different by Todd Parker, Odd Velvet by Mary Whitcomb, Crowboy by Taro Yashima and Arnie and the new kid by Nancy Carlson.

Teacher information • Teachers need to assist students to accept and appreciate differences in cultural practices, values, physical appearances, abilities and attitudes, including sexual orientation. By developing an appreciation of the difference in others, children will be less likely to bully others, particularly those in minority groups.

• Provide coloured cardboard circles of various skin colours and collage materials for the children to replicate images of their faces. Sort by similarities and differences when completed.

Introduction • Read the poem You and me from Values education toolkit (Ages 4–6) (published by Prim-Ed Publishing®) page 36, the Sesame Street story We’re different, We’re the same by Bobbi Kates or similar. • If desired, play a game where the children form into groups of different children rather than sorting by similarities.

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Discussing the text

• Read the poem with the children. • Is it good to be the same? Why or why not? (You can do things you both like together. You think about things the same way. You know what to expect. It can be boring.)

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• Is it good to be different? Why or why not? (It’s interesting learning about new things and different ways to do things. You can’t play the same things if you are different.) Elicit the response that there are some good and bad things about being the same and different. Basically, we are all the same inside.

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• NOTE: The bottom section of the worksheet may be separated from the top and enlarged for ease of use by young children. The poem may be read to the children.

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• The children draw eyes, noses and mouths on the different multicultural faces to show there are some things that are the same for all people.

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Same and different 1. Read the poem.

I am different from you.

You are different from me.

I like you. You like me too.

We are very happy as you can see.

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2. Draw eyes, mouths and noses on the different faces.

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How can we prevent bullying?

Good friends Focus

Supporting activities

To realise the qualities of a good friend and decide whether they possess these

• Read the stories A rainbow of friends by P K Hallinan and Learning to be a good friend by Christine A Adams.

Teacher information

• Role-play meeting a new person and starting a conversation. See Teacher information.

• Friendships are an important part of life. With support from one or more friends, children can withstand difficulties that occur in life, such as bullying. By increasing their friendship network, children have access to different avenues to avoid being bullied.

• Ask the children to complete activities in different groups so they become familiar with other children they do not know well. • Practise reading and matching the names of other children in the class to the child.

• Young children usually develop one or two close friendships. They may need to be taught social skills to develop new friendships. Role-play meeting a new child. Practise saying ‘Hello. I’m .’ and asking the other child’s name and other friendly, polite questions. Practise standing up straight and tall and looking the new friend in the eye. Practise listening to what the other child says and responding appropriately to questions.

Discussing the text • Ask the children to look at the picture. • What are the children doing? • Who are they? (Encourage the response, ‘friends’.)

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• What is a friend? (A friend is someone who plays with you, someone who talks to you etc.)

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• Read Do you want to be my friend? by Eric Carle. Rhymes and songs to introduce the activity may be viewed at <http://web. archive.org/web/20080109151939/http://www.theteachersroom. com/friendship.htm>.

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Introduction

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• Some people we talk to are acquaintances but not friends. What is the difference? (An acquaintance is someone you know but don’t spend a lot of time with. A friend is someone you see a lot who is close to you.) • What is a good friend? (Refer to responses on worksheet.)

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• Ask the children to tick the boxes of those things they do to be a good friend. Are there some things they don’t do well that they could do better to be an even better friend?

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Good friends

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1. Look at the picture. Colour the friends.

Good friends:

3. Draw your best friend.

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listen.

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2. Tick the boxes. Find out if you are a good friend.

help.

trust. are kind. make you laugh or smile. make you feel good. are always there. Prim-Ed Publishing速 www.prim-ed.com

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Glossary advocate/associate

cyber harassment

a person who has not actually observed the bullying, but may suspect it is occurring. An advocate can be very effective in preventing bullying.

a form of cyberbullying whereby a bully sends repeated offensive or nasty messages to a target, usually using personal communication channels such as emails, texts and instant messaging

anxiety

cyber stalking

a state of worry, distress, nervousness or uneasiness caused by apprehension of danger or misfortune

the use of the internet or other electronic communications to follow and repeatedly harass and/or threaten another person or group of people, making them fear for their safety

attachment a document or file (containing pictures, text or video) which accompanies a primary document or email. Basic plain text emails are unable to transmit most viruses, so attachments are often used to do so. Any unknown, unexpected or unsolicited attachments should be deleted without being opened.

cyberspace the ‘invisible world’ of the emails, computer networks, information resources and websites that make up the internet

denigration

avatar

a form of cyberbullying whereby a person posts, emails or texts information (including digitally altered photos) about another person or other people that is untrue or derogatory

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a representation of a person online (in virtual reality). An avatar can be a three-dimensional model (used in computer games) or a two-dimensional picture (commonly used on Internet forums and other online communities).

depression

internet bashing is a hostile and insulting interaction between internet users, usually occurring in public forums such as discussion boards, chat rooms, game servers or websites. Bashing is sometimes referred to as flaming.

blog

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a website, or part of a website, created as a ‘virtual journal’ with entries of commentary, descriptions of events, videos and photos. The word is an amalgamation of ‘web’ and ‘log’.

bullying

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the act of using superior strength or power to intentionally harm, intimidate or humiliate someone who is weaker

bystander

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a person who observes bullying. Bystanders who observe bullying but take no active role in that bullying are themselves classified as bullies if they fail to take any action.

bystander bully a bystander who is an accessory to bullying by encouraging a bully by, for example, making statements of support, laughing, jeering or mimicking

chat facility chat room a site on the internet that allows people in different locations to communicate with each other through typed messages, usually in real time. The discussion may or may not have a moderator.

cyberbullying the use of the internet or other electronic communications to bully another person or persons

download

to copy data from the internet to a user’s computer, or from one computer to another

e-crime

a form of computer-related crime where the internet or computers are used as a medium to commit crime (also called cybercrime)

email messages sent from one person to another (or to groups of people) via computers

emoticon a representation of a facial expression created by typing a sequence of keyboard characters, to indicate an emotion. For example, :-) denotes happiness and :-( denotes unhappiness. The word is a combination of ‘emotion’ and ‘icon’.

empathy the ability to perceive, appreciate and share the thoughts, feelings, or state of another person

exclusion

see ‘instant messaging’

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a state of despondency where a person experiences feelings such as sadness, pessimism, anxiety, helplessness, worthlessness and guilt

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bashing

a form of cyberbullying whereby an individual is excluded from a group, by being knocked off friend lists, left off party invitations or not accepted as a friend in social networking sites

filter a program that processes packets of data (from websites), blocking certain packets and allowing others through, hence restricting or controlling what content a computer user is able to access

Bullying in a cyber world

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Glossary firewall

instant messaging

a system that protects a network from unauthorised users, usually for security purposes

real-time text conversations between two or more computer users over the internet. Often users are only able to chat with one person at a time, although a user may chat with multiple friends simultaneously through separate chat interfaces.

flame war occurs when flaming (see below) develops into a series of heated exchanges repeatedly and personally attacking a person or group

internet a vast network of computers (academic, commercial, and government) connected internationally through other, high speed computers, allowing electronic communication among millions of computers

flaming brief, hostile attacks using offensive language towards a person, group or institution, usually in public forums such as chat rooms or websites

internet acronyms acronyms used on the internet or mobile phones as a method of communication, usually used to save time in preparing messages, such as LOL (laughing out loud) or ROFL (rolling on floor laughing)

game or gaming site

hack

handheld game console

see ‘message board’

intimidate

to intentionally make another person feel fearful or timid

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to gain unauthorised access to computer systems in order to steal, change or destroy information

Internet forum

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a website that is itself a game, playground or virtual world. Some games incorporate complex graphics and virtual worlds, where players can chat to and play with other players, while other sites offer single-player games

intranet

a lightweight, portable electronic device with a screen, controls and speakers, such as a Nintendo DS™ or a Sony PSP™

handle

happy slapping

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a nickname or made-up name an internet user uses when online

link

a connection between two documents (on the internet)

login identifying oneself to a computer system or network for access or use, usually requiring a password

malware software created to infiltrate, damage or destroy a computer system, usually without the user’s knowledge or permission. Includes viruses, trojan horses and worms. Malware is short for ‘malicious software’.

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hard copy

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a physical assault on an unsuspecting target, often accompanied by verbal abuse, which is usually photographed or filmed using a mobile phone camera. The footage is sometimes sent to others or posted online.

a private or restricted computer network belonging to an organisation that is accessible only to its members/employees or other authorised people

a printed copy of data stored in a computer, or from a word processor

hit (internet)

message board

a request from a web browser for an item from a website. The number of hits made to the web server is sometimes used to measure the popularity of a file or website.

humiliate to injure a person’s dignity, self-esteem and self-respect by shaming, degrading or embarrassing them

identity theft/impersonation a form of cyberbullying whereby a bully gains access to another person’s (the target’s) accounts (or creates accounts using the target’s personal information) and communicates inappropriately or rudely with others from that account

a location on a website where users can post (type) messages that other visitors to the site can read and often respond to. A message board (sometimes called a forum) differs from chat rooms in that messages are not shown in real-time.

minority a group of people who differ (culturally, racially, religiously or ethnically) from the larger group it is part of

mobile internet-enabled devices mobile devices such as phones, laptop computers and game consoles that are able to access the internet

netiquette short for ‘network etiquette’, it is a code of appropriate and courteous online conduct

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Glossary online forum (newsgroup)

tag (social networking)

an internet-based discussion, usually requiring subscription, where users can read and reply to others’ posts about a particular topic

to attach the name of a friend to a picture or video on a social networking site, so that person and his or her friends receive a link to the picture or video

outing

target

a form of cyberbullying whereby personal or embarrassing information about a person is shared with people the information was never intended to be shared with

a person who is the subject of the bullying

trickery a form of cyberbullying whereby a person is tricked into revealing personal or private information about themselves, which is then shared with others

peer-to-peer (P2P) networking a network that allows users direct access to each other’s computer hard drives to share files, rather than through a central server or website. Any information in a shared folder (even that of a personal nature) can be accessed and used by anyone using the same P2P software.

trojan/trojan horse computer software that appears to perform a desirable function but actually performs another, such as transmitting a virus

phishing

troll

the use of electronic communications to obtain private or sensitive information (such as usernames, passwords and credit card details). It can be done by masquerading as a trustworthy entity (such as online banks), usually by email or instant messaging.

a measure of a person’s belief in his or her own abilities, judgement or power

self-esteem

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a person’s sense of his or her own worth; an evaluation encompassing beliefs and emotions including pride and shame

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upload

self-confidence

server

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a computer and/or program that holds large amounts of information for one or more websites and streams it to users when requested via a network

sexting

a person who posts controversial, inflammatory or off-topic messages in an online forum or chat room with the intention of aggravating, offending or baiting other users into an emotional response

to transfer or copy a file or other information from a computer to a larger system, such as from a personal computer to a network (for example, putting a video onto YouTube™)

URL

the address of a web page or resource on the internet. It is an initialism from ‘uniform resource locator’.

video hosting/sharing site an internet site that allows users to upload (q.v.) and share videos for others to view online

virus

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the act of sending or receiving sexually explicit messages, videos or photos electronically, usually between mobile phones

social networking site

a website (or service) designed to build social networks among people, allowing them to communicate and share ideas, activities, events, and interests. Users usually have a profile or other representation with some personal details and social information.

a software program designed to infect, destroy or interfere with a computer or a computer’s software. A virus can copy itself and be transmitted between computers via networks or removable storage (such as CDs and USB drives).

wall a section of a profile (such as on a social networking site) that acts as a public writing space, where anyone viewing the profile can leave or read messages

web page

spam unwanted email, especially commercial or advertising material, sent in bulk to many recipients

a document or page of information within a website on the World Wide Web

website

spyware software installed on a computer without the user’s knowledge, that collects pieces of information about the user/s and sends it back to another source. Spyware can also take partial control of the user’s computer, and can be difficult to detect.

a collection of interlinked pages, images and other files available from the same URL (q.v.), published on the World Wide Web

wiki a website that allows users to add and edit content collaboratively

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Other titles/products include:

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Early years posters P7074-P7084 Early childhood themes 1 6574 Early childhood themes 2 6575 Early childhood themes 3 6573 Songs and fingerplays for the early years 6574 Early years themes - Places 6566 Early years themes - People 6567 Early years themes - Animals 6568 Early years themes - Science 6569 Early years themes - Fantasy 6570 Early years themes - Fairytales 6571 Early years - Special days 6572

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