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Upper

6403C


THINKING SKILLS (Upper)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing® 2006 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2006 ISBN 978 1 84654 076 9 PR–6403

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Foreword Thinking skills is a series of three books, designed to provide opportunities for pupils to practise the six thinking skills of Bloom’s revised taxonomy—remembering, understanding, applying, analysing, evaluating and creating—across the learning areas of English, Maths, Science, History/Geography, PE/Health/Values and The Arts. The skills are ranked in order from the three fundamental, lower order skills to the three, more advanced, higher order skills. Titles in this series are: Thinking skills (Lower) Thinking skills (Middle) Thinking skills (Upper)

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Analysing .................................................................. 49 Pupil self-evaluation .................................................... 50 Teacher introduction .................................................... 51 Class captain ........................................................... 52–53 Quadrilaterals ......................................................... 54–55 Solve the mystery … .............................................. 56–57 Birthday traditions .................................................. 58–59 Sports breakdown .................................................... 60–61 Character role-play ................................................. 62–63

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Teachers notes ........................................................ viii – x Remembering ............................................................. 1 Pupil self-evaluation ...................................................... 2 Teacher introduction ...................................................... 3 A miraculous escape ................................................... 4–5 Coordinates ................................................................. 6–7 The skeletal system ..................................................... 8–9 Disasters cause and effect ....................................... 10–11 Resolving conflict ................................................... 12–13 Listening quiz ......................................................... 14–15

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Contents

Thinking challenges – 1 Sport and Fads and fashions ........................................ 16

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Understanding .......................................................... 17 Pupil self-evaluation .................................................... 18 Teacher introduction ..................................................... 19 Poetry techniques .................................................... 20–21 Animal angles ......................................................... 22–23 Cyclone force ........................................................... 24–25 Environmental profile ............................................ 26–27 Stereotypes ............................................................... 28–29 Weave a story ............................................................ 30–31

Thinking challenges – 2 Willow pattern story and Popular children’s literature. 32

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Applying ..................................................................... 33 Pupil self-evaluation .................................................... 34 Teacher introduction .................................................... 35 Odysseus – Return to Ithaca .................................. 36–37 Mental calculations ................................................ 38–39 Fungus fun .............................................................. 40–41 Death of the planet ................................................ 42–43 What a problem! ...................................................... 44–45 Mythological monster mask ................................... 46–47 Thinking challenges – 3 Wonders of the world and Powerful people ................. 48

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Thinking challenges – 4 Music and Careers ........................................................ 64 Evaluating .................................................................. 65 Pupil self-evaluation .................................................... 66 Teacher introduction .................................................... 67 Mini-debate ............................................................. 68–69 Recording solutions ................................................ 70–71 Design a zoo habitat ............................................... 72–73 The Daintree and the Amazon ............................... 74–75 Charlie’s lifestyle ..................................................... 76–77 Impressionism ........................................................ 78–79 Thinking challenges – 5 Amazing human body and Himalayas ....................... 80 Creating ...................................................................... 81 Pupil self-evaluation .................................................... 82 Teacher introduction .................................................... 83 News story presentation .......................................... 84–85 Dotty drawings and cube constructions .................. 86–87 Tsunami diagram ................................................... 88–89 Country fact file ...................................................... 90–91 Fad diet interview .................................................... 92–93 Space lyrics .............................................................. 94–95 Thinking challenges – 6 The mysterious Orient and The greenhouse dilemma . 96 References ................................................................... 97

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Teachers notes The purpose of this book is to provide a practical resource of learning activities, each aimed at a specific thinking skill as described in Bloom’s revised taxonomy. Pupils require these skills to understand and process a vast amount of information from across a range of media and to consider its relevance and validity. The range of tasks provided will encourage and assist pupils to become higher level thinkers. A brief explanation of Bloom’s revised taxonomy

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n the 1950s, Benjamin Bloom developed the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives as a means of expressing, qualitatively, different kinds of thinking. It continues to be one of the most widely applied models of formal analysis of the nature of thinking and has been adapted for use in school curriculum planning. Bloom’s original taxonomy provided a means of organising thinking skills into six levels ranging from the most basic to the more complex. These terms were revised in the 1990s by Lorin Anderson, a former pupil of Bloom, resulting in some significant improvements to the existing model. Anderson’s revised terms

Knowledge

Remembering

Comprehension

Understanding

Application

Applying

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Bloom’s original terms

Analysis

Analysing

Synthesis

Evaluating

Evaluation

Creating

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The names of the six major categories were changed to verb forms as thinking is an active process. Remembering replaced knowledge as the first level of thinking as knowledge is an outcome rather than a type of thinking. In keeping with the nature of thinking described for each level, comprehension and evaluation were renamed understanding and creating, respectively. Where Bloom’s original taxonomy was aimed at the early years of schooling, Anderson’s revised taxonomy is more universal and applicable at all levels of study. The six levels of thinking are ranked from the three lower order skills of remembering, understanding and applying to the higher order skills of analysing, evaluating and creating. At each level of the taxonomy, there are subcategories which describe the emphasis of each skill. Subcategories

recognising, recalling, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, locating, naming, finding

understanding

interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarising, inferring, comparing, explaining

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remembering applying

executing, implementing, using, carrying out

analysing

differentiating, organising, attributing, comparing, deconstructing, outlining, structuring

evaluating

checking, hypothesising, experimenting, judging, testing, detecting, monitoring generating, planning, producing, designing, constructing, inventing, devising, making

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creating

Why teach thinking skills?

It is widely acknowledged that if pupils are to become better thinkers, they must be taught explicitly how to think. Planning for this explicit teaching is essential. Teaching methods must promote the transfer of learning beyond one context and into others. To develop better thinking skills, pupils require an environment which demonstrates an open-minded attitude to the nature of knowledge and thinking, providing open-ended tasks with multiple

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solutions. Talking about thinking, using all strategies for questioning, should be actively encouraged and form a part of all learning situations. Focusing on thinking skills supports active cognitive processing, helping pupils to investigate beyond the information provided and to assess each situation before reaching their own conclusions.

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Teachers notes Questioning A key element in the development of thinking skills is questioning. To engage pupils in thought at each level, questions need to be used purposefully, directing pupils to achieve defined goals. Open-ended questioning allows pupils to demonstrate their ability in each thinking skill. Questions at the higher levels of the taxonomy encourage …

recalling information

determining different parts of any object, text or concept and exploring them

explaining ideas or concepts

justifying opinions, decisions and courses of action

using knowledge in different situations

developing new ideas or models based on previous knowledge

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Questions at the lower levels of the taxonomy encourage …

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Each pupil activity page includes a number of questions, relevant to the activity, for the pupils to consider. By reflecting on each, they will have the opportunity to develop their metacognitive thought processes. Metacognition

• Metacomprehension – the ability to check understanding of information, to identify gaps in understanding and to rectify identified failures. Pupils monitor and adjust the plan which occurs during learning.

• Self-regulation – the ability to modify learning processes in response to perceived feedback. Pupils evaluate the plan after the learning process has taken place.

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• Metamemory – an awareness of different memory strategies, a knowledge of which strategy is best suited for a task and how it may be used most effectively. Pupils develop a plan for learning which occurs before learning.

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In order to improve each thinking skill and to establish meaning from information, pupils need to develop their own thought processes. Metacognitive thought enables an individual to recognise preferred learning strategies and to consciously direct his/her learning. Metacognition, which means to ‘think about thinking’, was first described as a learning concept in 1976 by John Flavell. It comprises three parts:

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There are a number of recognised analyses of the nature of thinking, all aiming to develop thinking to a qualitatively higher level; for example: Six thinking hats – Edward de Bono Instrumental enrichment – Reuven Feuerstein Philosophy for children – Matthew Lipman Multiple intelligences – Howard Gardner Thinkers keys – Tony Ryan Cognitive and cooperative thinking strategies – Eric Frangenheim

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Teachers notes Graphic organisers What is a graphic organiser? A graphic organiser is a means of presenting information pictorially. Blank areas are provided for pupils to record ideas or information about a given topic. There are a number of graphic organiser styles, each of which is suited for a particular purpose. The basic design of any organiser may be adapted to meet the requirements of a specific task and level of ability. Examples concept map, spider map, word map, character map, mind map, story map, story star, concept web, summary chart, matrix, T-chart, Y-chart, 5W chart, KWL chart, senses chart, step chart, comparison/contrast chart, paragraph organiser frame, structured overview, note making framework, issues circle, futures wheel bar chart, pictogram, line graph, pie chart, labelled diagram, array

presenting data

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Purpose concept development

word chain, sequence chain, word wheel, cycle wheel, ladder, historical time line, continuum, flow chart, cartoon and picture strip, action plan, rebus

evaluating determining relationships

PMI chart (plus, minus, interesting), plus/minus T-chart, agreement scales, evaluation scales fishbone map, concentric circle chart, semantic grid, decision tree, network tree, human interaction outline

categorising and classifying

plot, matrix, pyramid, categories, Venn diagram, Carroll diagram, arrow diagram, tree diagram

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Why use graphic organisers? • Graphic organisers provide a means to show the key facts, ideas or results of a given situation or topic. • They help to clarify thoughts and to determine how to proceed. • The information illustrated is immediately obvious without the need for reading and analysing lengthy text. • Pupils learn that presenting information in this way is an important means of communicating ideas and information. • It demonstrates understanding of their own research and similar representations in the media worldwide.

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Using a graphic organiser To gain confidence in completing and studying graphic organisers, pupils need to be: • presented with many tasks which require pictorial representation • guided in their choice of style(s) and in the conventions of that style, so they can develop effective representations related to a given purpose and audience. Teachers need to discuss and model each style of organiser as it is introduced, explaining how it works for a given purpose and how it can be adapted if required.

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Teachers notes Examples of graphic organisers

Concept map

Pie chart

Who Part

What When

Part

Part

Where Why

Whole

Flow chart

Evaluation chart

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5W chart

P (plus) Second

Third

Eighth

Seventh

Sixth

Chain

M (minus)

Fifth

PMI chart

Compare/Contrast organisers

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Venn diagram

Human interaction outline

Story star Who?

Person 1

Action

Group 1 Reaction 1

Reaction

Outcomes

Whe

Whe

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Reaction 2

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Group 2

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2-person human interaction outline

Person 2 hy

Action

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Group 2

Interaction

Group 1

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Person 1

Person 2

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Fishbone

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Goals

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Fishbone chart

Fourth

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5-point story star

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Teachers notes The six thinking skills of Bloom’s revised taxonomy have been used: • remembering • understanding • applying • analysing • evaluating Each section has a cover page, a pupil self-evaluation page and a teacher introduction page. For each skill, an activity from each key learning area has been provided. • English • Mathematics • The Arts • Science • History/Geography • Physical Education/Health/Values

• creating

Each activity is presented over two pages; a pupil page and a teachers page. At the end of each section, two theme-based, extension thinking challenges are provided. The final page of the book includes references for further research.

The pupil cover page allows pupils to collate worksheets dealing with a particular thinking skill.

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Pupil cover page

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Name:

REMEMBERIN

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Name

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Coordina

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The pupil self-evaluation page enables pupils to record thoughts or information about the activities completed. Pupils may record answers to metacognitive questions relating to each pupil page.

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Teachers notes Teacher introduction page Section summary chart, provides page numbers, title of pupil page, key learning area and task objectives. Definition, provides full definition of thinking skill. Appropriate verbs, offers suggestions for command verbs to use to help pupils to focus on the specific skill. Appropriate graphic organisers, offers suggestions for graphic organisers to use to assist pupils focus their thinking within each skill. Appropriate questions, offers suggestions for questions to ask to help pupils practise the specific skill.

Teach e Pages 4–5

Title A miracu lous esca pe

r intr oduct ion R

Key lear

EMEMBERING

ning ar eas English

Thinking activity • Proofre ads and ed its a text. • Uses 4an d 68–9 place poin figure grid refer The skele ences to lo ts on a gr tal system cate and id. • Recalls informat Science ion abou system. t the hum an sk ele • Corre tal 10–11 Disasters ctly labels cause an some bone skeleton. d s of the hu effect man • Resear Geograph ches info y rmation • Record about na 12–13 s in a tural disa Resolving sters. and effec table information conflict ts of disaste about the Health an rs. causes • Resolve d Values s conflict using sta • Creates nd ard strateg easy 14–15 y. resolution. to remember sloga Listening n for confl quiz ict • Recalls Music informat ion abou listened to t a song he . /sh e has • Uses m usical ter ms to desc ribe a piec e of music. Definitio n: The skill of re previously membering de monstrat learnt. Re es th m Remembe ring requ embering is often e pupil’s ability to ire used to ob re and to re view the re s the pupils to lo tain factu call information, ca al inform levant in ideas, data formation te knowledge with ation, bu t it may al or principles Some ap in a cont from his/h ext so propriat er shorte verbs: or long-te of the material be be an approximat define, id ing presen io rm mem entify, de ory. ted at the n. scribe, lis time t, name, recall, loca Some ap te, recogn propriat ise , record, re e graphi KWL char late, write c organi t, Cy , label, re sers: bone, Targ cle graph, Chains peat, unde et, Pie ch , rline, state art, Categ Line graph, T-ch etc. ar ories, Tree , Pyramid t, Compare or cont Some su , Matrix etc rast char itable qu t, Concep . estions: What happ t chart, Ve nn diagra ened after ?, How m m, Fish any?, Whe n?, Who wa s it that?, Can you na me?, Who spoke to?, Which is true or fa lse? etc. 6–7

Coordina tes

Mathemat

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Subject Music

Northern Ireland

Music

Scotland Wales

Music Music

KS 2 5th/6th Cla

Level D KS 2

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Teacher information, provides any relevant information required for the completion of the pupil page. Additional activities to develop this skill, related to the topic of the pupil page yet focusing on the specific skill.

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Objectives, explains what the pupils are expected to achieve in completing the activity.

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Music Republic of Ireland

The skill focus. Definition, gives an abridged version of the skill definition provided on the teacher information page.

Publishing

Curriculum links, provides the subject and specific links for each country. Answers, where required.

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Teachers notes Listen

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The title of the page. The task, explains what the pupils will do. The skill focus. The activity, the range of which varies throughout the book, across the six learning areas. Thinking more about thinking, to help pupils develop their metacognitive thought processes before, during and after the activity.

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Sport

. is person cus admire th is your Topic fo why you List what e rules of . Explain icipates. • List th ire rt m pa ad ng he u ri he/s rson yo ch hi pe w ts Remembe in or ort a sp about a sp • Choose formation assmate rite the in rview a cl ng for this sport. u enjoy. W ni ng • Inte yo t ai di tr or an in sp st team Under involved igins of a ng. out the or t or clothi ch to find w equipmen • Resear line. ctive, ho sporting piece of it is effe courage a k a time r in g fo on th t in u ly yo en emen App er is to rt th es ve he us w ad magazine isement, stating any techniques it rt • Find a e and the adve claims ar Analyse think its orts. Say istic you e product. racquet sp al ng re si ly different y th Ana g. bu e. to ; ts le spor peop to play. o similar ntrast tw enjoyable might re and co k would be more well. This • Compa in you know th u yo o sports one tw ch hi g of w tin es ting featur Evalua ajor spor mixing up c. e at a m a sport by team numbers et mospher • Invent ibe the at pment, cr ui es eq D e t. ud lis incl e a journa e you ar • Imagin Creating event. ions is might nd fash Fads a and go. Th en come se ve ha you ds fa e th hen he/ cus me of popular w Topic fo a list of so or fashions. ns were • Write or fashio books , ds fa ys t to ha e tw ring includ ain why. t to find ou Remembe slike. Expl w an adul like and di • Intervie ions you your age. features. sh l as fa ia w ec or e sh its sp t fads pular lar. Label t of curren anding pu who is po lis st po a or er e tly th nd rit en U •W ren’s au at is curr out a child n’s toy th ab re s ct ild fa ch a sting • Draw e the out intere oment. t they lik ch to find m igate wha • Resear age group at the to invest n re ur ild yo Applying ch r with r younge ill go nnaire fo u think w a questio which yo • Design t a current fad. sting and -la ng lo ou most ab might be Analysing rrent fads adult. t which cu kly. Give reasons. you are an • Predic n quic ent to ble when io sh fa vertisem fashiona t of g ad ou be tin an ht ua e ig al rit Ev ck. W think m outfit you e come ba se an n to ig e lik • Des u would of a fad yo it up or buy it. • Think le take Creating make peop

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Topic focus, provides the theme for the challenge. Skill-based activities, provides a range of tasks covering the six levels of thinking.

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Thinking challenges

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REMEMBERING Pupil checklist

A miraculous escape .............................................................................Pages 4–5 Coordinates ..............................................................................................Pages 6–7 The skeletal system ................................................................................Pages 8–9 Disasters cause and effect ....................................................................Pages 10–11 Resolving conflict ....................................................................................Pages 12–13 Listening quiz ...........................................................................................Pages 14–15

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REMEMBERING: PUPIL SELF-EVALUATION Use the sections below to record thoughts or information about the worksheets or answers to the metacognitive questions on each pupil page. Name A miraculous escape

Pages 6–7

Coordinates

Pages 8–9

The skeletal system

Pages 10–11

Disasters cause and effect

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Pages 4–5

Resolving conflict

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Pages 14–15

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Listening quiz

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Teacher introduction

REMEMBERING Title

Key learning areas

4–5

A miraculous escape

English

6–7

Coordinates

Mathematics

8–9

The skeletal system

Science

10–11

Disasters cause and effect

Geography

12–13

Resolving conflict

Health and Values

• Uses 4- and 6-figure grid references to locate and place points on a grid. • Recalls information about the human skeletal system. • Correctly labels some bones of the human skeleton. • Researches information about natural disasters. • Records in a table information about the causes and effects of disasters. • Resolves conflict using standard strategy. • Creates easy to remember slogan for conflict resolution.

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Listening quiz

• Proofreads and edits a text.

Music

• Recalls information about a song he/she has listened to. • Uses musical terms to describe a piece of music.

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Definition: The skill of remembering demonstrates the pupil’s ability to recall information, ideas, data or principles previously learnt. Remembering is often used to obtain factual information, but it may also be an approximation. Remembering requires the pupils to locate knowledge within a context of the material being presented at the time and to review the relevant information from his/her short- or long-term memory. Some appropriate verbs: define, identify, describe, list, name, recall, locate, recognise, record, relate, write, label, repeat, underline, state etc.

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Some appropriate graphic organisers: KWL chart, Cycle graph, Chains, Line graph, T-chart, Compare or contrast chart, Concept chart, Venn diagram, Fish bone, Target, Pie chart, Categories, Tree, Pyramid, Matrix etc. Some suitable questions: What happened after?, How many?, When?, Who was it that?, Can you name?, Who spoke to?, Which is true or false? etc.

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Teachers notes

REMEMBERING The skill of remembering demonstrates the pupil’s ability to recall information, ideas, data or principles which he/she has previously learnt. OBJECTIVE • Proofreads and edits a text.

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ANSWERS All errors are highlighted in bold and circled.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Pupils should read the text entirely before making any corrections. • Corrections may be marked as a class once all pupils have completed the activity.

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A 13-year-old Northshore boy is tonight safely at home with nothing worse than a broken toe after what witnesses are calling a ‘miraculous’ escape from almost certain death. Early yesterday evening, James Lee was riding his bicycle home along the dual use path that borders Northern Bypass. Horrified commuters watched helplessly as James swerved to miss a young puppy that ran in front of the bicycle. The bicycle’s front wheel jammed in a drain and stopped instantly, hurling James over the handlebars, directly into the heavy traffic on Northern Bypass. ‘I was sure he was going to be killed’, said Holly Madison, who had been waiting at a nearby bus stop. ‘He went up, up and then down, down, right in the middle of the road.’ In a miraculous twist of fate, James landed in the back of a passing truck which was carrying a large trampoline for the local fitness centre. The trampoline broke James’s fall, but flung him back into the air. What happened next was even more unbelievable. ‘I couldn’t believe my eyes’, said truck driver, Butch Henry (43). ‘This kid just came flying over the cab of my truck and disappeared into the back.’ James’s incredible luck held out, because Butch’s truck was carrying a full shipment of inner spring mattresses. Once again, James landed safely before becoming airborne for the third time. On this occasion, he flew over the fence of the Happy Days Childcare Centre and landed, winded but completely unhurt, in the children’s sandpit. His toe was broken when his mother, arriving to take her lucky son home, drove her car over his foot.

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ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Write a recount using the correct format, spelling, punctuation and grammar. • Identify the orientation, complication, resolution and conclusion of a narrative. • Describe the language features used in a particular discussion text and tell why they were used. • Use a play format to relate information about an environmental issue of concern. • Peer edit the work of a class mate highlighting errors in format, spelling, punctuation and grammar.

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THINKING SKILLS

CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

English

KS 2

• Proofread – check for spelling and punctuation errors.

Northern Ireland

Language and literacy

KS 2

• Develop increasing competence in the use of grammar and punctuation and spell words correctly.

Republic of English Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Edit and observe the conventions of grammar, punctuation and spelling.

Scotland

English

Level D/E

• Deal with spelling errors and check punctuation.

Wales

English

KS 2

• Proofread – check for spelling and punctuation errors.

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Task You will use your knowledge of punctuation, spelling and grammar to proofread and edit a text.

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A miraculous escape

E M B E RI

1. Read the recount and write the corrections above any errors. A 13 year old northshore boy is tonight safely at home with nothing worse than a broken toe after what witnesses are calling a ‘miraculous’ escape from almost certin death.

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Early yesterday evening, James Lee is riding his bicycle home along the duel use path that borders northern bypass. Horrified commuters watched helplessly as James swerved to miss a young puppy that ran in front of the bicycle. The bicycles front wheel jammed in a drain and stopped instantly, hurling James over the handlebars, directly into the heavy traffic on northern bypass.

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I am shore he was going to be killed, said Holly Madison, who had been waiting at a nearby bus stop. He goes up, up and then down, down, write in the middle of the road. In a miraculous twist of fete, James landed in the back of a passing truck which was carrying a large tramperline for the local fitness centre. The tramperline broke Jamess fall, but flung him back into the air. What happened next was even more unbeleivable.

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I couldn’t believe my eyes, said truck driver, Butch Henry (43). This kid just came flying over the cab of my truck and disapeared into the back. Jamess incredible luck held out, because Butchs truck was carrying a full shipment of inner spring mattresses. Once again, James landed safely before becoming airborne four the third time. On this occasion, he flies over the fence of the happy days childcare centre and landed, winded but completely unhurt, in the childrens sandpit.

His toe was broken when his mother arriving to take her lucky son home drove her car over his foot.

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING When editing a text, there are a lot of spelling, grammar and punctuation rules to remember. How do you remember them all? Do you use any memory tricks?

Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

5


Teachers notes

REMEMBERING The skill of remembering demonstrates the pupil’s ability to recall information, ideas, data or principles which he/she has previously learnt. OBJECTIVE • Uses four- and six- figure grid references to locate and place points on a grid.

(ii) B – 7911 (iv) D – 7714 (vi) F – 7611

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • On a large-scale map of a rural area, use six-figure grid references to locate a number of features. Ask a partner to give you the references for those features. Do they match yours? • Plan a quiz game using maps of different countries. Give a number of six-figure grid references for major cities in each country. The first individual/team to find all cities, wins. • On cm2 paper, draw a map of a fairground, zoo or other busy scene. Your partner draws a similar scene. Do not look at each other’s pictures. Use four-figure grid references to move from place to place on each other’s pictures (without looking). Each time you land accurately on a feature in your partner’s picture, the feature is crossed out. The first person to delete all of his/her opponent’s features, wins (as in ‘Battleships’).

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ANSWERS 1. (a) (i) A – 7413 (iii) C – 7509 (v) E – 7809 (b)

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Pupils need to remember the process of reading and recording four- and six-figure grid references. • Techniques to aid this process include: (a) for four-figure references, using a ruler to draw a line along the left hand side and base of the square, (b) for six-figure references, using a ruler to draw lines through the square, corresponding to the third and sixth figures. The point where these two lines intersect is the exact six-figure grid reference location, (c) finding how far east a point is always comes before finding how far north a point is; e comes before n in the alphabet, (d) pupils working in pairs to explain how to read and locate both types of references.

(ii) B – 786 138 (iv) D – 735 105 (vi) F – 754 158

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2. (a) (i) A – 797 152 (iii) C – 742 112 (v) E – 785 092 (b)

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THINKING SKILLS

CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Maths

KS 2

• Use coordinates.

Northern Ireland

Maths and numeracy

KS 2

• Use coordinates.

Republic of Maths Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Plot and apply coordinates.

Scotland

Maths

Level D

• Use a coordinate system to locate a point on a grid.

Wales

Maths

KS 2

• Use coordinates to specify location. www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Task You will use four- and six-figure grid references to locate items on a grid.

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Coordinates

E M B E RI

Coordinates are important in mapping skills as they determine location. While four-figure grid references locate a square on a map, six-figure grid references give a more exact location.

(ii) B

(iii) C

(iv) D

(v) E

(vi) F

15

D

14

A

13 12

(i) U 78 13

(ii) V 74 15

(iii) W 73 10

(iv) X 75 12

(v) Y 79 15

(vi) Z 80 10

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(b) Write each letter in the correct square. The first one is done for you.

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A

B

74

75

74

75

76

E

77

80

(ii) B

(iii) C

(iv) D

(v) E

(vi) F

78

79

(ii) V 745 136

(iii) W 752 093 (iv) X 778 148

E 77

79

2. (a) Use six-figure grid references to locate the exact position of the dot in the square. The first one is done for you.

(i) U 774 117

76

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(b) Draw a dot at each point. The first one is done for you.

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09 73

B

(i) A 797 152

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10

F

C

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73

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(i) A 74 13

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1. (a) Use four-figure grid references to locate the square in which each letter is situated. The first one is done for you.

(v) Y 738 153 (vi) Z 796 116

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THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING What strategies could you use to remember how to read and record grid references? Why is using a ruler important in reading and plotting six-figure grid references? How would grid references help you on a walk in a rural area? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

7


TEACHERS NOTES

REMEMBERING The skill of remembering demonstrates the pupil’s ability to recall information, ideas, data or principles which he/she has previously learnt. OBJECTIVES • Recalls information about the human skeletal system. • Correctly labels some bones of the human skeleton.

(c)

skull

humerus

(d) shoulderblade

(f)

ribs

(g)

pelvis

(h)

backbone

(i)

kneecap

(j)

femur

CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Science

KS 2

• Know about skeletons and muscles that protect their bodies and help them to move.

Northern Ireland

Science

KS 2

• Know that humans have skeletons to support their bodies, protect their organs and help them move.

5th/6th Class

• Develop a simple understanding of the structure of the human body.

Science

Level C

• Identify and describe the functions of the (organs) of the human body.

Science

KS 2

• Know about skeletons and muscles that support and protect their bodies and help them move.

Republic of Science Ireland Scotland

3. Involuntary: blinking, swallowing, breathing Wales Voluntary: walking, head turning, typing 8

THINKING SKILLS

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Find pictures in magazines of people doing voluntary and involuntary actions (e.g. pointing and sneezing). Attach to a large sheet of paper underneath the correct headings. • Identify bones on models of the human skeleton. • Label major muscles of the human body on a poster or model.

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(e)

(b)

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ANSWERS 1. (a) ii (b) iii (c) i (d) ii 2. (a) jawbone

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Pupils will require an understanding of the human skeletal system to complete this activity. • There are 206 bones in the human body. • The skeleton has three jobs: – To protect our body parts: The skull protects the brain, the ribs protect the heart and lungs and the backbone protects the spinal cord. – To support our body: The skeleton allows us to stand upright and holds up our internal organs. – To help us move: Muscles are joined to our bones. Our bones have joints which enable the skeleton to bend. Joints and ligaments connect the bones to each other. Within the joints is cartilage that enables smooth movement. • Muscles allow movement by contracting and relaxing. They always work in pairs. This is because they cannot push or stretch on their own.

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Answer these questions. 1. Circle the correct answers.

(iii) 406

(iv) 1006

(a)

(b) One of the skeleton’s main tasks is to: (ii) reduce pain

(iii) protect our body parts

(c) Our muscles are joined to our bones to:

kneecap backbone collarbone

(b)

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(i) keep us warm

skull femur pelvis shoulderblade

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humerus jawbone ribs

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(ii) 206

E M B E RI

2. Place these labels in their correct position on the diagram.

(a) How many bones are in the human body? (i) 56

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Task You will recall information about the human skeletal system.

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The skeletal system

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

(i) allow movement (ii) allow healing (iii) protect them

(d) Muscles always work: (i) on their own

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(ii) in pairs

(iii) in threes

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(iv) in fours

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3. There are two types of muscles—involuntary (they carry out activities over which we have little or no control) and voluntary (they are controlled by the conscious part of our brain).

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Classify these common activities as either involuntary or voluntary movements. Add some of your own. blinking swallowing

walking head turning

breathing typing

Involuntary

Voluntary

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING What memory tricks or aids do you use to remember facts such as the names of bones in your body? Under which circumstances are these tricks most and least useful? Do they help you to understand concepts or just to recall information? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

9


Teachers notes

REMEMBERING The skill of remembering demonstrates the pupil’s ability to recall information, ideas, data or principles which he/she has previously learnt. OBJECTIVES • Researches information about natural disasters. • Records information about causes and effects of disasters in a table.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Pupils may select natural disasters from the list to research: tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons, plagues, epidemics and pandemics, avalanches, landslides and mudslides, drought, storms and floods, tornadoes and bushfires. • Pupils may use the library or Internet resources to research their information.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Locate and name all six disasters on a time line, including information about place and time of occurrence. • On a world map, label locations where recent disasters have occurred. • Write a recount from the point of view of a person involved in a natural disaster, including any relevant information. • Create a table of disasters and identify the costs in terms of human lives and money lost. • Use labelled diagrams to explain how some disasters occur. • Answer (or create) quiz questions relating to particular disasters.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

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THINKING SKILLS

CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Geography

KS 2

• Use secondary sources of information.

Northern Ireland

Geography

KS 2

• Use secondary sources and investigate the effects of natural disasters on people and places.

Republic of Geography Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Study major features of the natural environment and be aware of how natural disasters can cause famine.

Scotland

Society

Level D

• Describe how extremes of weather can disastrously affect people and places and select and record relevant information.

Wales

Geography

KS 2

• Use secondary sources for information. www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


Use the cause and effect table to recall and record information. Cause

E M B E RI

Effect

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Name of disaster

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Research information about six different natural disasters.

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Task You will recall information about natural disasters.

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Disasters cause and effect

3. From the information gathered, decide which disaster was the most devastating and give reasons.

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How did you select the disasters? Were they those you had heard about on television or in newspapers? Were they topics of interest? What other disasters are you familiar with which have resulted from human activity? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

11


Teachers notes

REMEMBERING The skill of remembering demonstrates the pupil’s ability to recall information, ideas, data or principles which he/she has previously learnt. OBJECTIVES • Resolves conflict using standard strategy. • Creates easy to remember slogan for conflict resolution.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Discuss a number of common minor conflicts which are easily resolved. List reasons why these are resolved so easily. Discuss conflicts arising from more serious issues. List reasons why they are more difficult to resolve. ��� In small groups, pupils discuss the problem between Lachlan and Brianna, empathising with each character in turn. List their possible feelings and opinions. Through role-play and discussion, each group suggests a solution to the problem. • Using the key elements of conflict resolution—communicate, negotiate, consolidate—pupils discuss ideas for a catchy slogan to remember the positive steps to take. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • In groups, pupils write and perform a series of sketches incorporating contemporary problems they may face. Pupils break up to discuss and write a sketch for a solution to a problem, performed by a different group. After all sketches have been performed, pupils evaluate the success of each solution. • Design a poster to remind pupils of positive conflict resolution steps. • Write and perform a rap about resolving conflict positively.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

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THINKING SKILLS

CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

PSHE

KS 2

• Consider dilemmas they come across in life and try to see things from other people’s point of view.

Northern Ireland

PD

KS 2

• Consider challenges and issues that can arise and how they can be resolved.

5th/6th Class

• Explore and practise how to handle conflict.

Republic of SPHE Ireland Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

• Discuss strategies for coping with or tackling problems. KS 2

• Develop strategies to resolve conflict.

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Task You will consider positive ways to resolve a conflict.

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Resolving conflict

E M B E RI

We encounter potential conflict situations every day, but by using cooperative strategies, most problems are averted. Some issues are more serious, requiring definite positive steps to reach a solution. 1. Read this conflict scenario.

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Lachlan and Brianna are working on a school project called, ‘Make a magazine’. They are constantly arguing. Lachlan is enthusiastic and has some great ideas and he doesn’t want to compromise. He feels that Brianna is not contributing enough. This worries him as he is keen to get a top mark. Brianna feels Lachlan is too bossy and doesn’t listen to her suggestions, which she believes are just as good as his. As a result, Brianna has lost interest in the project and doesn’t care about the mark. 2. Answer the questions to show how Lachlan and Brianna could resolve their conflict.

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(a) List Lachlan’s wants.

(b) List Brianna’s wants.

(c) Write a statement, beginning with ‘I’, which Lachlan might use to air his grievance.

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(d) Write how Brianna might repeat this to show that she has listened.

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(e) Write a statement, beginning with ‘I’, which Brianna might use to air her grievance.

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(f) Write how Lachlan might repeat this to show that he has listened.

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(g) Suggest a possible solution to the conflict.

3. Write a slogan to help you remember positive steps to resolve conflict.

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How do you remind yourself of positive action steps? How would you deal with an unexpected crisis during negotiation? How do you amend your resolution strategies? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

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Teachers notes

REMEMBERING The skill of remembering demonstrates the pupil’s ability to recall information, ideas, data or principles which he/she has previously learnt. OBJECTIVES • Recalls information about a song he/she has listened to. • Uses musical terms to describe a piece of music.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Teachers will need to play a modern dance song (e.g. suitable rap, hip hop, disco) for the pupils to listen to for this activity. The song should not be something too familiar to the pupils (something from more than 10 years ago or by a less popular artist would work well) and should include a clear lead singer and understandable and appropriate lyrics. It is suggested that the pupils read the quiz questions first, listen to the song, then complete the quiz. • Pupils will require an understanding of basic musical terms to complete this activity. ANSWERS Teacher check

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Have the pupils write or identify musical terms, signs and symbols. • Write what it is pupils enjoy the most about their favourite song. • In small groups, pupils can recall lyrics of some of their favourite songs and use them to create a new song.

Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Music

KS 2

• Listen to music and its elements.

Northern Ireland

Music

KS 2

• Respond to music and think about elements of music.

Republic of Music Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Listen and respond to music and identify instruments, tempo and time.

Scotland

Music

Level D

• Listen to music and recognise the characteristics.

Wales

Music

KS 2

• Listen to music and recognise its main characteristics.

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CURRICULUM LINKS

14

THINKING SKILLS

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Task You will recall information about a song you have listened to.

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Listening quiz

E M B E RI

Listen to a song, then answer the questions. 1. Tick or write the names of two instruments you could hear. violin

drums

guitar

keyboard/piano

other

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2. What sort of dancing could you do to this music?

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3. Write one of the lines from the song.

4. Tick the most appropriate description of the song. classical

jazz

modern

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5. Describe the lead singer’s voice.

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6. What was the mood of the song? (Think about how it made you feel to help you answer this question.)

7. Tick true or false.

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(a) The music kept the same tempo (speed) throughout. .......................................................................

(b) The volume of the music stayed the same throughout. .................................................................... (c) The lead singer was female. .............................................................................................................. (d) The song had a chorus. ...................................................................................................................... (e) The song was in 3/4 time. ................................................................................................................... THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING Did you ‘hear’ the music in your head when you answered the quiz questions? How easy or difficult is it for you to recall things you have heard? Do you find it easier to remember things you have seen? Why do you think this might be?

Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

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Thinking challenges 1 Topic focus

Sport

Remembering • List the rules of your favourite sport. • Choose a sportsperson you admire. Explain why you admire this person. Understanding • Interview a classmate about a sport in which he/she participates. List what is involved in training for this sport. • Research to find out the origins of a team sport you enjoy. Write the information on a time line.

Analysing

• Find a magazine advertisement for a piece of sporting equipment or clothing. Analyse the advertisement, stating whether you think it is effective, how realistic you think its claims are and any techniques it uses to encourage people to buy the product.

Evaluating

• Compare and contrast two similar sports; e.g. different racquet sports. Say which one you think would be more enjoyable to play.

Creating

• Invent a sport by mixing up features of two sports you know well. This might include equipment, team numbers etc. • Imagine you are a journalist. Describe the atmosphere at a major sporting event.

Topic focus

Fads and fashions

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Applying

• Write a list of some of the fads you have seen come and go. This might include toys, books or fashions. • Interview an adult to find out what fads or fashions were popular when he/ she was your age. Understanding • Write a list of current fads or fashions you like and dislike. Explain why.

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Remembering

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Applying

• Draw a children’s toy that is currently popular. Label its special features. • Research to find out interesting facts about a children’s author who is popular with your age group at the moment.

Analysing

• Design a questionnaire for younger children to investigate what they like the most about a current fad.

Evaluating

• Predict which current fads might be long-lasting and which you think will go out of fashion quickly. Give reasons.

Creating

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• Design an outfit you think might be fashionable when you are an adult. • Think of a fad you would like to see come back. Write an advertisement to make people take it up or buy it.

THINKING SKILLS

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Name:

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UNDERSTANDING Pupil checklist

Poetry techniques ...................................................................................Pages 20–21 Animal angles ..........................................................................................Pages 22–23 Cyclone force ...........................................................................................Pages 24–25 Environmental profile .............................................................................Pages 26–27 Stereotypes ..............................................................................................Pages 28–29 Weave a story ..........................................................................................Pages 30–31

Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏

THINKING SKILLS

17


UNDERSTANDING: PUPIL SELF-EVALUATION Use the sections below to record thoughts or information about the worksheets or answers to the metacognitive questions on each pupil page. Name Poetry techniques

Pages 22–23

Animal angles

Pages 24–25

Cyclone force

Pages 26–27

Environmental profiles

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Pages 20–21

Stereotypes

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Pages 28–29

Pages 30–31

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THINKING SKILLS

Weave a story

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Teacher introduction

UNDERSTANDING Pages

Title

Key learning areas

Thinking activity • Demonstrates understanding of the terms ‘rhyme’, ‘alliteration’ and ‘onomatopoeia’. • Explains how some literary devices are used in a poem.

Poetry techniques

English

22–23

Animal angles

Mathematics

• Draws and identifies angles on animal pictures.

24–25

Cyclone force

Science

• Researches for information on cyclones. • Completes a flow chart of cyclone development.

Geography

• Demonstrates how to locate specific information from resources. • Explains some key features of an environmental group.

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Environmental profiles

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26–27

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20–21

Stereotypes

Values

30–31

Weave a story

Drama

• Researches a current environmental issue. • Writes and directs a playscript related to the issue.

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28–29

• Reads information about stereotypes. • Completes illustrations about stereotypes. • Compares and discusses illustrations with other pupils.

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DEFINITION: The skill of understanding involves explaining what has been learnt in a different way to show the level of comprehension. This may be done in a number of ways, including interpreting the material and summarising it, delivering the material to a different audience, using concrete resources and presenting a brief talk.

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SOME APPROPRIATE VERBS: interpret, summarise, infer, paraphrase, give examples, explain, sequence, sort, match, classify, locate, collect, compare and measure, restate, discuss, express, give in your own words, identify, report, review, select, clarify, illustrate, describe, predict etc.

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SOME APPROPRIATE GRAPHIC ORGANISERS: Mind map, PMI, Venn diagram, Cycle, Compare or contrast chart, T-chart, Concept chart, Chains, Categories chart, Tree, Matrix etc. SOME SUITABLE QUESTIONS: Can you write in your own words … ?, How would you explain … ?, Can you give a brief outline … ?, What could have happened next?, Who do you think … ?, What was the main idea?, Why did the character act this way? etc.

Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

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Teachers notes

UNDERSTANDING The skill of understanding involves explaining what has been learnt in a different way to show the level of comprehension. OBJECTIVES • Demonstrates understanding of the terms rhyme, alliteration and onomatopoeia. • Explains how some literary devices are used in a poem.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Teachers will need to provide a suitable poem for the pupils to use for this activity. It must contain examples of rhyming words, alliteration and onomatopoeia. Suggested poems include The centipede’s song – Roald Dahl; The witches’ spell – Shakespeare (from Macbeth); TS Eliot’s cat poems (e.g. ‘Macavity the mystery cat’). • Question 5 will need to be completed on a separate sheet of paper. It will further demonstrate the pupils’ understanding of the literary devices. ANSWERS Teacher check

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ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Explain other literary devices to the pupils (e.g. assonance, rhythm) and have them provide examples. • Discuss different forms of poetry and then have the pupils try to write their own. • Have the pupils review their favourite poems. • Challenge the pupils to make a collection of poems that are connected together in some way; e.g. same rhyming pattern, theme etc.

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CURRICULUM LINKS

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THINKING SKILLS

Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

English

KS 2

• Consider poetic forms and their effects.

Northern Ireland

Language and literacy

KS 2

• Read poems.

Republic of English Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Read and respond to poetry.

Scotland

English

Level C

• Explore effects of sound etc. in poems.

Wales

English

KS 2

• Read poetry.

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Task You will understand some of the techniques used by poets.

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Poetry techniques

S TA N

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Poets use many techniques to make their words and ideas more effective and memorable to their readers. These include rhyme, alliteration and onomatopoeia. Use a children’s poem to answer these questions.

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Rhyming words are often found at the ends of lines of poetry. 1. (a) Find two pairs of rhyming words in your poem.

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(b) Write any two pairs of rhyming words you can think of.

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Alliteration is the repetition of the same first sound or letter in a line of poetry; e.g. ‘Katie was kind to her cat’. 2. (a) Find two examples of alliteration in your poem. • •

(b) Create two lines of your own that use alliteration. They must make sense! •

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Onomatopoeic words sound like what they are describing; e.g. ‘crash’, ‘hiss’.

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3. (a) Find four examples of onomatopoeia in your poem.

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(b) Write four more examples of onomatopoeic words. Two must describe a harsh sound and two must describe a soft sound.

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4. Which technique do you think the poet used most effectively? Explain.

5. Use your answers to help you write your own poem on a separate sheet of paper. THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING Did the given examples of alliteration and onomatopoeia help you to understand what these were, or were you able to understand the concepts without them? Did you find it easy to come up with your own examples? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

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Teachers notes

UNDERSTANDING The skill of understanding involves explaining what has been learnt in a different way to show the level of comprehension. OBJECTIVE • Draws and identifies angles on animal pictures.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Pupils should identify the most obvious angles found on the outside of the animal profiles, which are acute angles (on the ears) and obtuse angles (along the neck and head). • Pupils should compare their answers with those of a partner and report to the class. • Pupils may convert the drawings to simpler geometric sketches and use a protractor to measure the exact degrees in particular angles of the picture.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Measure and compare the lengths, using standard units, of a variety of objects. • Explain why two containers of different shape may appear to hold different amounts even when filled with identical amounts. • Use grid paper to draw and compare the perimeters of different shapes. • Find the areas of a variety of shapes drawn on grid paper. • Compare the areas of a series of quadrilaterals by using a formula.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

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CURRICULUM LINKS

22

THINKING SKILLS

Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Maths

KS 2

• Recognise angles.

Northern Ireland

Maths and numeracy

KS 2

• Recognise the properties of acute, obtuse and reflex angles.

Republic of Maths Ireland

5th/6th Class • Recognise and classify angles.

Scotland

Maths

Level C–E

• Use right, acute, obtuse and reflex to describe angles and know that a straight angle is 180°.

Wales

Maths

KS 2

• Use angles and the associated language.

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


A right angle or 90° angle has perpendicular lines.

An obtuse angle is more than a right angle and less than a 180° or straight angle.

A straight or 180° angle.

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S TA N

D

A reflex angle is larger than a straight angle.

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An acute angle is smaller than a right angle.

ER

D

Angles can be classified under five main headings. 1. Select a different colour for each type of angle.

ING SKI

IN

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Task You will draw and identify angles on animal pictures.

K IN

• LS

• T H

Animal angles

Angles found:

Angles found:

Angles found:

Angles found:

Angles found:

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Angles found:

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Sa m

pl

2. On the pictures draw and label as many angles formed by the joins on the outside of the bodies as you can.

Angles found:

Angles found:

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How did you decide to identify the different angles? Did you plan to identify all the different angles on one animal first or all the angles of the same type on all the animals? Did you check with a partner while you were doing the activity to see if you were on the right track? Were there any angles that you missed? Why do you think that was? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

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Teachers notes

UNDERSTANDING The skill of understanding involves explaining what has been learnt in a different way to show the level of comprehension. OBJECTIVES • Researches for information on cyclones. • Completes flow chart of cyclone development.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • In groups, pupils use a range of resources to research and make notes on the development of cyclones. Pupils discuss information before completing the flow chart. • Pupils use flow chart notes to give talks on the development of a cyclone. ANSWERS Teacher check

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ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • On a world map, pinpoint coastlines where major cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons have hit in the past five years. Classify each according to the international standard. • Research for information and then design a poster, which outlines how to prepare for a cyclone. • Draw a series of sketches to show what happens as a cyclone reaches the coastline.

CURRICULUM LINKS Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Science

KS 2

• Explain how things work and establish links between causes and effects.

Northern Ireland

Science

KS 2

• Research topics and present information in appropriate ways.

5th/6th Class

• Collect information from a variety of sources and present findings.

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Country

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THINKING SKILLS

Republic of Science Ireland Scotland

Science

Level D

• Provide explanations related to scientific knowledge.

Wales

Science

KS 2

• Use a range of methods, including charts, to present information in an appropriate and systematic manner.

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


ING SKI

L

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IN

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• T H UN

Task You will research and make detailed notes to describe how a cyclone forms.

K IN

• LS

Cyclone force

S TA N

D

A cyclone is a powerful storm that forms over warm tropical or subtropical waters. For a cyclone to form, four climatic conditions need to be present: • low air pressure

• warm temperatures

• moist ocean air

• tropical winds

1. Use the flow chart to plot the stages of a cyclone’s development and demise.

Sa m

pl

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Tropical wave

Tropical disturbance

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Death of cyclone

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Cyclone

Tropical depression

Tropical storm

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How did you plan your research for this topic? How did you record your notes from each resource? How could you improve or develop your information? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

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Teachers notes

UNDERSTANDING The skill of understanding involves explaining what has been learnt in a different way to show the level of comprehension. OBJECTIVES • Demonstrates how to locate specific information from resources. • Explains some key features of an environmental group.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Pupils will need access to the Internet or other suitable resources to complete this activity. The websites for the groups given are: WWF (former World Wide Fund) : www.wwf.org Greenpeace : www.greenpeace.org/international ANSWERS Teacher check

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ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Write a report on an environmental group or association in your local area. • Identify similarities between different environmental groups. • Explain how you could care for places in your local area. • Describe an endangered animal or plant. Explain how it could be helped.

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CURRICULUM LINKS

26

THINKING SKILLS

Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Geography

KS 2

• Study environmental issues and recognise how people can improve the environment.

Northern Ireland

Geography

KS 2

• Consider ways of caring for the environment, research topics and present information in appropriate ways.

Republic of Geography Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Recognise aspects of human activities that effect the environment and appreciate the need to conserve the Earth’s resources.

Scotland

Science

Level C

• Explain how living things and the environment can be protected.

Wales

Geography

KS 2

• Identify ways in which people look after the environment.

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


ING SKI

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Environmental groups work to care for environments and thus to prevent animals and plants from becoming endangered or extinct.

IN

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• T H UN

Task You will use resources to write a profile of an environmental group.

K IN

• LS

Environmental profile

S TA N

D

Research to profile one of the international environmental groups below. Use the group’s official website or other resources. 1. Choose one of the groups below.

6. Describe one of the group’s greatest achievements.

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2. Find the group’s mission statement. List keywords from it.

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WWF .................................................................... Greenpeace .......................................................

7. Explain how people can help this group.

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3. Draw the group’s logo. Explain its meaning.

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4. List some of the countries in which this group works.

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8. Give your opinion of the group.

5. Give details of one of the group’s current projects.

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING What were some of the ways in which you located information in the resource(s) you used? How did you go about writing ideas in your own words? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

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Teachers notes

UNDERSTANDING The skill of understanding involves explaining what has been learnt in a different way to show the level of comprehension.

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OBJECTIVES • Reads information about stereotypes. • Completes illustrations about stereotypes. • Compares and discusses illustrations with other pupils.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Stereotypes depend on conventional ideas about groups of people, including their attitudes, interests, characteristics, traits, mannerisms or physical appearance. It is common to base initial judgments about people on stereotypes. • Pupils should be aware that as far as jobs are concerned, gender does not usually play a part. • Pupils’ understanding of stereotypes will be greatly influenced by their own personal experiences; for example, one pupil may have a grandmother who is sick, disabled or mentally incapacitated, while another pupil may have an active grandparent who works, is physically fit and ‘young-at-heart’. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Identify stereotypes in prerecorded television shows and advertisements. • Write narratives in which the complication is caused by stereotyping. • Perform short role-plays with pupils, depicting typical and atypical stereotypes. • Write character descriptions which follow a typical stereotype. • Collate and sort illustrations of people cut from magazines into groups and discuss the appropriateness of each being in the group.

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ANSWERS Illustrations will vary, but pupils should include different ages, genders and appearances for all their illustrations, except the grandmother. Pupils may choose to include mentally disabled people in their illustration, as well as elite athletes with a disability.

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THINKING SKILLS

CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

PSHE

KS 2

• Recognise and challenge stereotypes.

Northern Ireland

PD

KS 2

• Recognise how inequality affects people’s lives.

Republic of SPHE Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Recognise unequal treatment of roles and other issues in the media.

Scotland

Health

Level D

• Recognise issues of discrimination and the right to equal opportunity for all members of the community.

Wales

PSE

KS 2

• Value the uniqueness of individuals and recognise the importance of equality. www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


ING SKI

L

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IN

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K IN

• LS

UN

Task You will show understanding of stereotyping.

• T H

Stereotypes

D

R S TA N 1. Read the information. A stereotype can be described as a very simple—and often incorrect—picture that people have of a particular type of person. In our communities, people are often stereotyped according to their jobs, gender, disabilities, age, religion, race, culture or where they live.

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pl

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2. In each of the circles, draw pictures to show your understanding of a ‘typical’ person who fits this stereotype.

a disabled person

a doctor

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a grandmother

an engineer

a flight attendant

an elite sportsperson

a minister of religion

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a nurse

an infant teacher

3. Compare your answers with other class members, discuss reasons for differences and, if possible, give personal examples. THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How different were your illustrations from those of other class members? What effect does the opinions of others have on how you think of different groups? How much have the media influenced you? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

29


Teachers notes

UNDERSTANDING The skill of understanding involves explaining what has been learnt in a different way to show the level of comprehension. OBJECTIVES • Researches a current environmental issue. • Writes and directs a playscript related to the issue.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Discuss a number of recent, global environmental issues which pupils could use for this activity. In turn, list any people, animals, plants and environments that are affected by the situation. Discuss and record how each is affected. • In groups, pupils take the part of the people, animals, plants or environments and plan a story of how their existence is affected. Facts from the actual event/issue must be used in the story. To show an understanding of a situation from all perspectives, if the issue has been brought about by people, the perpetrators should also be considered as a focus for the story. • As they write their playscripts, pupils should consider how well their stories will help the audience understand the environmental issue. • Once the playscript has been written, pupils can complete their plan for the performance of their story. This can be dance, drama, mime, music or any combination of these. • Pupils give their performances to an audience, first giving a brief account of the event/issue through which the story has been woven.

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THINKING SKILLS

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Use a mind map to record all people, places and things affected by an environmental event. State their role in the situation and give a brief account of how they have been affected. Use your notes to present a narrated, mime performance of this event. • Present the elements of an environmental event on a large, annotated, painted poster. • Present the elements of an environmental event in a narrated, musical performance, using different percussion instruments for each role in the event.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

English

KS 2

• Participate in a wide range of drama activities and devise and write scripts.

Northern Ireland

English

KS 2

• Write creatively and factually in a variety of forms and improvise scenes.

Republic of English Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Write short plays.

Scotland

Drama

Level D

• Plan and work together in drama and participate in a scripted piece of work.

Wales

English

KS 2

• Participate in the writing and performing of scripted drama. www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


ING SKI

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IN

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• T H UN

Task You will research the details behind a current environmental issue and write and direct the performance of a story woven around the facts.

K IN

• LS

Weave a story

S TA N

D

The director of a performance decides how to interpret and transform a script from print to film or stage. The sensory stimulation we experience during a performance helps us to understand the story. 1. (a) Choose and research an environmental issue. (b) On a separate sheet of paper: (i) plan a story woven around the facts, and (ii) write a playscript for that story.

pl

Environmental issue

Sa m

Title of story

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Setting

Characters and individual performance skills (dance, drama, mime etc.)

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2. Plan how you will perform your story below.

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Scenes Music

Background props 3. Rehearse and present your performance. THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How did working in a group help the success of this task? How did you determine the personality of each character? How could performances like this educate people about environmental issues? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

31


Thinking challenges 2 Topic focus

Willow pattern story

Remembering

• Tell the story of The Willow legend to younger children. • Locate China on a map. Draw a map of China and its neighbouring countries. Label major physical, natural and built features.

Understanding

• Draw a picture to depict each scene in the story of The Willow. • Present a character profile of the four characters in the story.

Analysing

• Examine each feature in the Willow pattern. How does each piece fit into the story? • Draw a time line to illustrate the chronology of Chinese dynasties.

Evaluating

• Research the era in Chinese history from which The Willow story supposedly comes. How does the story match the cultural climate of the time? • Research garden designs of Ancient China. Is the Willow pattern an authentic design?

Creating

• Design a plate pattern based on a well-known international folktale. • Write a poem about the story, using the features of your plate design as the focus for each line.

Topic focus

Popular children’s literature

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Applying

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Understanding

• Make a list of: (i) popular titles, (ii) popular authors. • Devise a questionnaire to determine: (i) why these titles are popular, (ii) why these authors are popular. • Using pupils as subjects, research and conduct a survey to compile a list of: (i) the top ten titles, (ii) the top ten authors. • For each author: (i) categorise the genre of books he/she writes, (ii) compile a book list with dates of first publication, (iii) write a brief report on the author. • Research to determine the most popular genre for boys and for girls. Record the outcome of your research.

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Remembering

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Applying

• Write a playscript of The Willow story and direct its performance with percussion music accompaniment. • Write a poem about the plight of Knoon-se and Chang.

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Analysing

Evaluating Creating

32

• Compare the similarities and differences between the styles of the authors. • Create a new superhero. Describe his/her superhero talents and how they were obtained. Give a description of his/her appearance and tell how his/her super talents are hidden from the world.

THINKING SKILLS

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Name:

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APPLYING Pupil checklist

Odysseus – Return to Ithaca ..................................................................Pages 36–37 Mental calculations ................................................................................Pages 38–39 Fungus fun ................................................................................................Pages 40–41 Death of the planet ..................................................................................Pages 42–43 What a problem! ......................................................................................Pages 44–45 Mythological monster mask ..................................................................Pages 46–47

Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏

THINKING SKILLS

33


APPLYING: PUPIL SELF-EVALUATION Use the sections below to record thoughts or information about the worksheets or answers to the metacognitive questions on each pupil page. Name Odysseus – Return to Ithaca

Pages 38–39

Mental calculations

Pages 40–41

Fungus fun

Pages 42–43

Death of the planet

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Pages 36–37

What a problem!

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Pages 44–45

Pages 46–47

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THINKING SKILLS

Mythological monster mask

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Teacher introduction

APPLYING Key learning areas

36–37

Odysseus – Return to Ithaca

English

38–39

Mental calculations

Mathematics

40–41

Fungus fun

Science

Death of the planet

44–45

What a problem!

46–47

Mythological monster mask

Geography

• Tracks journey and events of consecutive adventures on a map. • Writes key points of each adventure. • Uses various mental strategies to solve number problems involving rounding. • Follows an experiment procedure. • Answers questions to explain an experiment.

• Prepares answers to key questions from an environmental perspective. • Convincingly presents answers to an audience.

Sa m

42–43

Thinking activity

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Title

pl

Pages

Values

Art

• Applies values to devise possible solutions to moral dilemma scenarios.

• Researches a mythological creature. • Plans and evaluates the creation of a mask of a mythological creature.

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DEFINITION: The skill of applying demonstrates a pupil’s ability to use previously learnt material in a new or familiar situation. It aims to find out whether a pupil is able to explain ideas or concepts. Pupils are able to apply information if they can select, transfer or use data and principles to complete or solve a problem or task with minimal help from the teacher. SOME APPROPRIATE VERBS AND PHRASES: implement, carry out, use, ask questions, predict outcomes, define the problem, plan a research, improve ideas, anticipate the consequences, test conclusions, demonstrate, generalise, illustrate, interpret, relate, compute, solve, apply, construct, execute, show etc.

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SOME APPROPRIATE GRAPHIC ORGANISERS: Flow chart, T-chart, Compare or contrast chart, Compare and contrast chart, Venn diagram, Spider map, Fishbone, Cloud/Cluster, Tree etc. SOME SUITABLE QUESTIONS: Can you give another example of … ?, Could this have happened when … ?, Which things would you change if … ?, Can you make up a set of questions from the information given?, How would you explain … ?, Does everyone act in the same way … ? etc.

Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

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Teachers notes

APPLYING The skill of applying demonstrates a pupil’s ability to use previously learnt material in a new or familiar situation. OBJECTIVES • Tracks journey and events of two consecutive adventures on a map. • Writes key points of each adventure.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Introduce and discuss Homer’s books, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Simplified versions are available for pupils. On a world map, show the area around modern Italy, Greece and Turkey where the stories are set. Discuss that while many stories of ancient times are supposedly based on fact, it has been difficult for historians and archaeologists to prove conclusively that key places and characters actually existed. This adds to the romance and mystery! • If pupils are familiar with the adventures of Odysseus, let them choose which stories to work on. If they are not, select for them. Allow pupils to work in groups, preferably with different stories for each group, so that all are covered. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • When all stories have been mapped, transfer all routes and synopses to a display-size map. • Create a time line showing how Odysseus’s adventures were spread over the 20 years. • Choose a story to dramatise and perform for a younger audience.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

CURRICULUM LINKS Subject

Level

Objectives

England

English

KS 2

• Read myths.

Northern Ireland

Language and literacy

KS 2

• Read and understand a range of traditional texts.

Republic of English Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Read more challenging reading material, including myths.

Scotland

English

Level D

• Read more complex works of fiction.

Wales

English

KS 2

• Read myths.

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THINKING SKILLS

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


Odysseus – Return to Ithaca • T H A

Homer’s Odyssey tells the mythical adventures of Greek warrior, Odysseus, king of Ithaca, as he returns to Greece after the Trojan War, a journey which took 20 years.

K IN

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PP

L • LS

Task You will map part of Odysseus’s route home to Ithaca.

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RI AD

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1, Choose one adventure from an adaptation of Homer’s Odyssey. (a) Use the map below to show the route taken during the adventure. (b) Make notes to indicate the main events in the adventure.

AT

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land of the hades

A

circe

Land of the Laestrygones

sirens

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land of the lotus eaters

ithaca

troy

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land of the sun

scylla

Ismarus

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Island of to pillars of the winds heracles land of the cyclopes charybdis

land of the phaeacians

Sparta

island of calypso Kythera crete

Adventure:

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING What criteria did you use for choosing the adventure? How did you overcome any difficulties with place names and locations? How could this activity be extended to develop a better understanding of Homer’s Odyssey? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

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Teachers notes

APPLYING The skill of applying demonstrates a pupil’s ability to use previously learnt material in a new or familiar situation. OBJECTIVE • Uses various mental strategies to solve number problems involving rounding.

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ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Use calculators to solve number problems. Explain how you did each. • Use number expanders (e.g. 40 x 70) to support times table facts. • Make illustrated charts aimed at younger children that explain some strategies for mentally adding and subtracting numbers.

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ANSWERS (b) 50 (c) 80 (d) 60 1. (a) 70 (e) 20 (f) 60 (g) 300 marbles (h) Sarah is older – she is MORE THAN 3600 days old. (360 x 10) 2. (a) 50 (b) 20 (c) 100 (d) 10 (e) 120 (f) 460 (g) 80 (h) 10 (i) 120 (j) no (k) He will need about 170g, (3 packets)

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Before the pupils commence the worksheet, explain that they may use various mental adding and subtracting strategies for solving the problems and can write any working required in the boxes provided.

CURRICULUM LINKS Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Maths

KS 2

• Estimate answers by approximating.

Maths and numeracy

KS 2

• Approximate to gain the feeling for the size of a solution to a calculation.

Republic of Maths Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Round whole numbers and decimals.

Scotland

Maths

Level D

• Round numbers to the nearest ten.

Wales

Maths

KS 2

• Estimate answers by approximating.

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Northern Ireland

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THINKING SKILLS

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


• T H

Task You will solve number problems using mental calculation.

A

K IN

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PP

L • LS

Mental calculations

LY I N

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1. Estimate the answers by rounding the numbers mentally to the nearest 10. Use the boxes for any calculations you find difficult to do mentally. (a) 23 + 48 =

(estimate)

(b) 97 – 52 =

(estimate)

(c) 19 + 62 =

(estimate)

(d) 85 – 27 =

(estimate)

(f) 38 + 24 =

(estimate)

(estimate)

(e) 123 – 98 =

Yes

marbles

Sa m

What would your estimate be?

No

pl

Was his estimate close?

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(g) James knew that he had 186 marbles and that his sister had 112 marbles. He told his friends that they had about 200 marbles at home.

(h) Sarah met an alien on her way to school one day. He told Sarah he was 3050 days old. Sarah was 11. Estimate if Sarah is older or younger than the alien.

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2. Estimate the answers to these addition and subtraction problems by rounding to the nearest 10.

(d) 23.5 – 9.7 = (g) 115 – 43 =

(b) 43 – 16 =

(c) 61 + 37 =

(e) 83 + 36 =

(f) 307 + 145 =

(h) 2.15 + 7.64 =

(i) 48 + 72 =

in

(a) 27 + 19 =

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(j) Nicola has five gallons of petrol in her car. She can drive 35 miles per gallon. Her grandma lives 200 miles away. Does Nicola have enough petrol to visit her grandma? No

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Yes

(k) Jack is making cakes and needs 229 g of cocoa, but there is only 58 g left in the packet he has. Jack goes to the supermarket and finds packets of cocoa that weigh 75 g. How much more cocoa does Jack need and how many packets will he need to buy? THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING What were some of the strategies you used to solve the problems? Did you find the ‘working boxes’ helpful? Can you ‘see’ numbers in your head when solving problems like these?

Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

THINKING SKILLS

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Teachers notes

APPLYING The skill of applying demonstrates a pupil’s ability to use previously learnt material in a new or familiar situation. OBJECTIVES • Follows an experiment procedure. • Answers questions to explain an experiment.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Yeast is a living organism (a single-celled fungus) used in the production of bread and beer. Yeast, in the company of sugar, produces carbon dioxide and alcohol. This process is called fermentation. • When the yeast is dry or cold, it is not active or alive. (The micro-organisms are resting.) As the yeast dissolves in the water, it becomes active, but because yeast is a microscopic fungus organism, this action will not be visible. Yeast needs energy in the form of some sort of food to become active — in this case, sugar. As the yeast absorbs the sugar, it creates a gas (carbon dioxide) which begins to fill the balloon and the balloon inflates. • Yeast smells like fresh bread or beer. The yeast solution may be safely disposed of down the sink. The balloon should be removed carefully from the neck of the bottle.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Use your knowledge of the movement of the Earth around the sun to explain how different seasons occur. • Draw diagrams to demonstrate your understanding of how pollution can lead to greenhouse gases rising and causing global warming. • Complete an experiment involving coloured water to show how plants take in nutrients.

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ANSWERS 1. Teacher check 2. (a) Yeast is not active when it is cold or dry. Warm water starts yeast ‘moving’. (b) Yeast must be dissolved to become active. Warmth and moisture together give the optimum condition to make yeast active. (c) Yeast is a microscopic organism so its actions are not visible to the human eye. (d) The extra warmth from the sun will encourage the yeast to be as active as possible. (e) As the yeast absorbs the sugar, it produces carbon dioxide gas, which begins to fill the balloon.

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THINKING SKILLS

CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Science

KS 2

• Use their scientific knowledge and understanding to explain observations.

Northern Ireland

Science

KS 2

• Carry out fair tests.

Republic of Science Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Carry out simple experiments and offer explanations.

Scotland

Science

Level D

• Provide explanations related to scientific knowledge.

Wales

Science

KS 2

• Relate the outcomes of investigations to their scientific knowledge and understanding. www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


• T H

Task You will apply your knowledge of procedures to carry out and explain an experiment.

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PP

L • LS

Fungus fun

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1. Read the experiment and tick each step as it is completed. Goal: To inflate a balloon using yeast Materials: • a packet of yeast • 1 teaspoon of sugar • a small, clean, clear plastic drink bottle

• a small balloon • some warm water

(Collect the materials.) ................................................................................................. 1. Pour approximately 3 cm of warm water into the bottle. ....................................

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Steps:

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2. Add the yeast and swirl the water gently for a few minutes. ............................. 3. Add the sugar and swirl the mixture again.......................................................... 4. Put the neck of the balloon over the top of the bottle. ......................................... Test:

Sa m

5. Allow the bottle to sit in a warm place for some time. ........................................ The balloon will begin to inflate. ................................................................................

2. Answer the questions using your background knowledge.

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(a) Why does the water need to be warm?

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(b) Why does the yeast need to be mixed well with the water in the bottle?

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(c) Why can’t you see the yeast working?

Vi

(d) Why does the bottle need to be placed in a warm spot?

(e) Why does the balloon inflate?

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING Were you able to follow the procedure easily? Could you see what was going to happen when you started the experiment? Did you understand fully why the balloon was able to inflate? Did you understand enough about how yeast works to predict what would happen? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

APPLYING The skill of applying demonstrates a pupil’s ability to use previously learnt material in a new or familiar situation. OBJECTIVES • Prepares answers to key questions from an environmental perspective. • Convincingly presents answers to an audience.

Sa m

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Discuss the global problems resulting from clearing forests and increased gas emissions from factories and motor vehicles. • If possible, show some short recordings of politicians being interviewed. Do they answer the questions? Do they stray from the point? Do they use the air time just to voice their own opinions? • Working in groups, pupils research the topic before preparing answers to the questions. • Pupils practise their interviewer/interviewee techniques before presenting to the rest of the class.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Repeat the activity but with answers given by an industrialist who believes there are still enough forests in the world and that plenty of new trees are being planted to make up for those being felled. You may have to alter some of the questions. • Write two letters to the newspaper about the interview with the environment minister: the first from an environmentalist, supporting his/her response; the second from an industrial engineer, accusing the minister of frightening the public. • Conduct a debate on the statement: ���There should be a ban on forest clearing for a minimum of ten years’.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

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THINKING SKILLS

CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Geography

KS 2

• Identify different views that people hold about topical geographical issues and communicate in ways appropriate to the task and audience.

Northern Ireland

Geography

KS 2

• Research topics and consider ways of caring for the environment and how we might act on a global issue.

Republic of Geography Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Discuss global environmental issues.

Scotland

Society

Level D

• Describe the possible effects, good and bad, on the environment of tropical forest clearance.

Wales

Geography

KS 2

• Collect evidence to answer questions and begin formulating ideas and opinions about geographical issues. www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


• T H

Task You will use your knowledge of the problem to answer television interview questions as an environmentally friendly Minister for the Environment.

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PP

L • LS

Death of the planet

LY I N

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1. Prepare answers in note form, to be given by the politician. Politician

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Journalist

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It has been said that the world’s forests are the lungs of the planet, breathing in carbon dioxide and breathing out oxygen. All over the planet, vast regions of forest are being felled at an enormous rate, in the interests of industrial and economic development. As the forests continue to be destroyed, the twin problems of increased carbon dioxide and reduced oxygen production are threatening the future of our planet.

Sa m

Why are rainforests important?

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What problems are caused by the loss of the forests?

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Why are forests being cleared?

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What additional factors contribute to these problems?

Vi

Why do we need to stop the destruction of the forests? How can the problem be solved?

2. Select a partner to be the current affairs journalist and conduct the interview. THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING What is the most productive way to research the many aspects of such a topic? How can you clarify areas of the topic about which you are unsure? How has this activity helped you understand more about this topic? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

APPLYING The skill of applying demonstrates a pupil’s ability to use previously learnt material in a new or familiar situation. OBJECTIVE • Applies values to devise possible solutions to moral dilemma scenarios.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Before the pupils commence the worksheet, discuss useful problem-solving steps such as: define the problem; brainstorm possible solutions; evaluate the ideas; decide on a solution. These could be written on the board for pupil reference. • During the class discussion, encourage the pupils to detail the process they used to come up with their solutions and the values they applied. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Use problem-solving steps to work through bullying scenarios. • Give the pupils a list of values (e.g. ‘always do your best’, ‘respect others’ property’ etc.). Ask them to select which they feel are the most important and give an example of how they have demonstrated these values in their lives. • Discuss the steps involved in conflict resolution. Ask the pupils to try using the steps next time they are in conflict with others.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

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CURRICULUM LINKS

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THINKING SKILLS

Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

PSHE

KS 2

• Resolve differences by looking at alternatives and making decisions.

Northern Ireland

PD

KS 2

• Consider the challenges and issues that can arise at home and school and how they can be resolved.

5th/6th Class

• Acquire a growing sense of the importance of making informed decisions.

Republic of SPHE Ireland Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

• Demonstrate an ability to select from a range of choices and to discuss the reasons for the choices made. KS 2

• Develop decision-making skills.

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


• T H

Task You will work with a partner to devise solutions to real-life problems.

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PP

L • LS

What a problem!

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1. Find a partner to work with. Read and discuss each of the scenarios below. Write the best solution to each problem.

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You are hurrying to school one day when you see a younger child from your school trip over and fall in a puddle. She and her schoolbag are soaked. She starts crying. There is no-one else around, but if you stop to help the child you will be late for school. You don’t want to be late today because your class is going on an exciting excursion. Your teacher has already warned your class that the bus driver won’t wait for anyone who is late. You will have to stay at school.

Sa m

pl

What do you do?

Your family is planning a skiing holiday. You are very excited and are even more so when your parents say you may take one friend with you. You have two best friends. One friend cannot ski and comes from a poorer family than the other. You know that this person’s family wouldn’t be able to afford to go on such a wonderful holiday. However, you would prefer to take the other friend because this person is a good skier, like you. You don’t want to upset either friend.

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What do you do?

Vi

You have a special birthday coming up. It is traditional in your culture to celebrate this birthday with a party. This includes a ceremony, special food, music, storytelling and dancing. Your parents want you to invite all of your friends. However, you are sure your friends, who don’t share your background, will think the party is weird. Your culture is important to you and you don’t want to hurt your parents’ feelings—but you don’t want to be embarrassed in front of your friends. What do you do?

2. Share your solutions with the class and discuss. THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How did you and your partner decide on a solution for each problem? Did you use your own experiences to help you decide? Were you able to imagine yourself in each person’s situation? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

APPLYING The skill of applying demonstrates a pupil’s ability to use previously learnt material in a new or familiar situation. OBJECTIVES • Researches a mythological creature. • Plans and evaluates the creation of a mask of a mythological creature.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Enlarge the worksheet to enable adequate space for completing information and sketches if necessary. • Pupil research notes should include a detailed description to aid the creation of the mask. The steps for creating the mask should include a variety of art skills and techniques. Some discussion of the effects of various art skills and techniques (such as building up layers and different painting skills and media) before pupils start may stimulate creativity and variety.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Write a poem about a myth or legend and add a selection of percussion pieces to sections of the poem to create suspense or provide sound effects. • Use dance or movement to depict a variety of mythological creatures for other pupils to view and name. • In small groups, create a short play to tell a legend or myth. Include staging, costumes etc. • Use researched descriptions of mythological creatures to sketch detailed portraits in charcoal, crayon or ink over pencil.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

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CURRICULUM LINKS

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THINKING SKILLS

Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Art and design

KS 2

• Complete 3-D projects using a range of materials.

Northern Ireland

Art and design

KS 2

• Complete activities involving 3-D construction, using a range of materials.

Republic of Visual art Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Make imaginative structures.

Scotland

Art and design

Level C

• Plan and research to create objects.

Wales

Art

KS 2

• Plan and make 3-D objects using various materials for various purposes.

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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PP

L • LS

Task You will apply research and art skills and techniques to the creation of a 3-D mask of a mythological creature.

• T H

Mythological monster mask

LY I N

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1. From the list, select a mythological creature for the subject of your mask. Chimera Cerberus Cyclops Griffin Anubis Siren Harpy Sphinx Pegasus Hydra 2. Use this format to plan a mask for a mythological creature. Subject of mask:

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Research source(s):

Preliminary sketch

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Research notes

Steps for creating the mask

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Materials required

Evaluation

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Labelled sketch of end product

3. Construct your mask and evaluate the end product in the space provided in the plan above. THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING Did you follow specific steps to research your subject? What criteria did you use to choose the subject for your mask? Did you find relevant art skills and techniques to create an interesting mask? Why did you select the particular skills and techniques to create your mask? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Thinking challenges 3 Topic focus Remembering

Wonders of the world • Research and write a list of at least 10 ‘wonders’ of the world.

• Select two very different ‘world wonders’ (such as the Sphinx in Egypt and the Grand Canyon in the USA) as the subjects for a debate titled, ‘The only true Understanding wonders of the world are those which have been created by nature’. Write bullet points ‘for’ and ‘against’ the argument.

Evaluating

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Analysing

• Write a list of 10 built wonders of the world in a table, including information under the following headings: location, builder/creater/designer, appearance, cost, time taken to build, reason for building/creating and interesting facts. • Compile a list of at least four ‘Wonders of the world’ stating good and bad points of each, such as the cost of human life while building, the destruction of fragile environments, remarkable engineering feats etc.

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Applying

• Review your list of 10 wonders of the world. Compile a list of possible built or natural structures in your country or local area which may be included on a ‘Wonders of the world’ list. Give reasons for including each on the list.

Creating

• Use the information about the appearance of each wonder from the ‘remembering’ activity to create a collage of ‘Wonders of the world’. Alternatively, use illustrations or diagrams from the Internet. (Note: Be aware of copyright considerations.)

Topic focus

Powerful people

Understanding

• Give an oral report stating why this person has been a positive influence on others or the world.

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Remembering

• Research and describe in detail a person you feel has had a great impact on one area of human existence — a scientist, a human rights activist, a surgeon, a researcher, a writer or poet, an artist, a reporter or current affairs writer, a politician or a person in your local area who has had a positive influence on the lives of others.

Applying

• Use the information from the ‘remembering’ section to write a biography of your chosen person.

Evaluating

• Consider some goals of your own which you would like to achieve. Compare these to the ‘Powerful person’ chosen. Using the thought ‘If ... (chosen person) can change the world, surely I can achieve my goals’, write action plans to achieve your goals.

Vi Analysing

• Outline reasons why this person was able to achieve ‘great things’. Highlight aspects such as his/her background, momentous events which may have influenced his/her opinion, thinking or beliefs, the struggle or hardships which had to be overcome to achieve the person’s objectives etc.

Creating

48

• Create clues for the profiles of other ‘Powerful people’ for other class members to research.

THINKING SKILLS

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


Sa m

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Name:

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ANALYSING Pupil checklist

Class captain ............................................................................................Pages 52–53 Quadrilaterals ..........................................................................................Pages 54–55 Solve the mystery … ..............................................................................Pages 56–57 Birthday traditions ..................................................................................Pages 58–59 Sports breakdown ...................................................................................Pages 60–61 Character role-play .................................................................................Pages 62–63

Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏

THINKING SKILLS

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ANALYSING: PUPIL SELF-EVALUATION Use the sections below to record thoughts or information about the worksheets or answers to the metacognitive questions on each pupil page. Name Class captain

Pages 54–55

Quadrilaterals

Pages 56–57

Solve the mystery …

Pages 58–59

Birthday traditions

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Pages 52–53

Sports breakdown

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Pages 60–61

Pages 62–63

50

Character role-play

THINKING SKILLS

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


Teacher introduction

ANALYSING Pages

Title

Key learning areas

52–53

Class captain

English

54–55

Quadrilaterals

Mathematics

• Names quadrilateral shapes. • Records characteristics of shapes in a chart.

56–57

Solve the mystery ...

Science

• Analyses the results of mixing vinegar with mystery powders.

Sports breakdown

62–63

Character role-play

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pl

60–61

Values/RE

• Uses Internet or library resources to complete information about the tradition of celebrating birthdays. • Completes information about his/her own birthday. • Follows clues to complete tree diagram. • Compares similarities and differences among some formal sports. • Dramatises a scene from a novel. • Analyses a character from a novel to create a roleplay.

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Birthday traditions

• Answers questions about the features of a persuasive text.

PE/Maths

Drama

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58–59

Thinking activity

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DEFINITION: The skill of analysing involves exploring the assumptions, ideas or structure inherent in a text or other piece of information. This is done by breaking the information into sections or elements—often visually, through a graphic organiser. Analysing can also help pupils compare the features of two or more texts.

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SOME APPROPRIATE VERBS: compare, attribute, organise, deconstruct, form opinions, make decisions, interpret, infer, deduce, give reasons, analyse, categorise, contrast, separate, calculate, determine, develop, distinguish, estimate, predict, relate, solve, classify etc.

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SOME APPROPRIATE GRAPHIC ORGANISERS: Decision-making Matrix, Disadvantages/Improvements T-chart, Fact/Opinion T-chart, KWL chart, Mind map, PMI, Y chart, 5W chart, Venn diagram, Compare or contrast chart, Compare and contrast chart, Categories tree, Categories pyramid, Chain of events etc. SOME SUITABLE QUESTIONS: What are the differences?, Which events could not have happened?, How is this similar to?, What was the idea of … ?, Why did … changes occur?, What was the problem with … ? What might have been the ending if … ?, What other possible solutions do you see?, Can you explain what must have happened when … ?, What was the turning point? etc.

Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

ANALYSING The skill of analysing involves exploring the assumptions, ideas or structure inherent in a text or other piece of information. OBJECTIVE • Answers questions about the features of a persuasive text. TEACHER INFORMATION • Enlarge and photocopy the text below for each pupil.

Please vote for me!

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Class members of 6A, I think that I would make an excellent candidate for class captain and that you should vote for me for a number of reasons. The first reason for voting for me is that I am an active member of the school community. I am a member of the school choir which has represented the school when singing at the Senior Citizens’ Club during Seniors’ Week and at the combined Schools’ Christmas concert and community events such as Carols in the Park. I have been a pupil ‘librarian’ for two years and sports monitor this year. The second reason is that I have been a member of this school all of my school life. I started school when Mr Brown was the headteacher and Mrs George was the infant teacher. I saw the new playground equipment being put in and the computer room being built. I watched the rose gardens being built when Mrs Stokes retired and the new computer lending system installed in the library. I know all the teaching and ancillary staff at the school and I am very familiar with the school environment. Another reason is that I am very interested in community activities as well. I worked with other community groups to pick up rubbish from around the lake near my house on Environment Day. I also planted trees along the reclaimed open space near the river for Tree Day. The final reason is that I am a ‘well-rounded’ person. I enjoy playing sport at school and on the weekends I play cricket in summer and football in winter. I enjoy listening to music, watching television and DVDs and reading comic books. My favourite computer game is ‘Robotic Wars’. There are five people in my family and I am the oldest child with two younger sisters. So, to conclude, you should vote for me for class captain because I am very involved in school activities, I know the school and staff well, I am involved in community activities and I am a responsible, well-rounded person.

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ANSWERS 1. Teacher check 2. (a) The issue is the election of the class captain. (b) He wants the pupils to vote for him. 3. (a) active school community member, long-time school member, active in the community, ‘well-rounded’ person (b) Teacher check (c) Teacher check 4. Teacher check

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THINKING SKILLS

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Analyse other writing formats for particular features. • Pupils analyse the best and worst features of their own writing.

CURRICULUM LINKS Country Subject

Level

Objectives

England

English

KS 2

• Understand the structural and organisational features of different types of text and obtain specific information through detailed reading.

Northern Ireland

Language and KS 2 literacy

• Read a range of texts and refer to texts to justify their responses.

Republic English of Ireland

5th/6th • Engage with an increasing range of expository text Class and use comprehension skills.

Scotland

English

Level D • Become familiar with structural features of different text types and write personal responses.

Wales

English

KS 2

• Recognise the organisational and structural features of different texts and read to obtain specific information. www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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• T H

Task You will analyse a persuasive text in the form of a speech.

K IN

• LS

Class captain

A LY S I N

Answer the questions about the features of this text. 1. (a) Is the title of the text appropriate? (b) Write an alternative title which would still suit this text.

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2. Introduction

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(a) What issue is the speaker addressing?

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(b) What does he want the pupils to do?

3. (a) Write bullet points to show the main arguments presented. • • •

(b) Did the speaker:

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(i) present his arguments in logical order?............................................................................. (ii) start with the strongest argument? ...................................................................................

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(iii) use supporting details to support each argument? ...........................................................

(c) Would you vote for this speaker? ..............................................................................................

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Why/Why not?

4. The conclusion should restate the writer’s position. (a) Did the writer achieve this aim?................................................................................................. Explain how.

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING Were you familiar with the format and features of a persuasive text before completing the analysis? Did you know that this type of text could take the form of a speech? Did analysing this text offer any insights for writing other persuasive texts of your own? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

ANALYSING The skill of analysing involves exploring the assumptions, ideas or structure inherent in a text or other piece of information. OBJECTIVES • Names quadrilateral shapes. • Records characteristics of shapes in a chart.

Two Two Four Two sets Four One set sets of sets of congruent of parallel of parallel congruent congruent congruent lines sides lines angles sides angles

rectangle parallelogram rhombus

kite

Vi THINKING SKILLS

Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Maths

KS 2

• Classify 2-D shapes and recognise their geometrical features and properties including angles and pairs of parallel lines.

Northern Ireland

Maths and KS 2 numeracy

• Classify 2-D shapes through examination of sides and angles and begin to understand congruence.

(b) Teacher check

54

CURRICULUM LINKS

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trapezium

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Investigate which shapes tessellate. Design an artistic display with more than one tessellated shape. • Make nets for solid shapes with quadrilateral faces. • Write ‘Who am I?’ descriptive clues for each shape.

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square

(b) kite (d) parallelogram (f) trapezium

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ANSWERS 1. (a) rhombus (c) square (e) rectangle 2. (a)

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Revise the meaning of the terms ‘congruent’ and ‘parallel’. Look at the six different shapes and collectively name each. • Explain how the graphic organiser clearly shows features that shapes have in common with one another. Which shapes have the least in common with the rest? Pupils complete the chart independently. • Pupils use the information displayed on the chart to write a paragraph describing the features of quadrilaterals. Encourage them to compare similarities and differences between the shapes.

Republic of Maths Ireland

5th/6th • Use angle and line Class properties to classify quadrilaterals.

Scotland

Maths

Level E

• Define and classify quadrilaterals.

Wales

Maths

KS 2

• Classify 2-D shapes according to their geometrical properties and understand congruence.

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


A

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• T H

Task You are going to explore the similarities and differences among six quadrilaterals.

K IN

• LS

Quadrilaterals

A LY S I N

All quadrilaterals have two properties in common. • They all have four sides. • Their interior angles always add up to 360°.

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

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(a)

pl

e

Beyond this, there are many other similarities and differences. 1. Name each quadrilateral. Copy the correct spelling of the words from 2 (a).

(f)

2. (a) Complete the chart to identify similarities and differences between the quadrilaterals. Four congruent sides

Two sets of parallel lines

One set of parallel lines

Four congruent angles

Two sets of congruent angles

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square

Two sets of congruent sides

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rectangle parallelogram

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rhombus trapezium

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kite

(b) Write a paragraph to describe the features of quadrilaterals.

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How did you revise information about quadrilaterals before completing this activity? What practical activities did you do to check your answers? What strategies will you use to remember this information? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

ANALYSING The skill of analysing involves exploring the assumptions, ideas or structure inherent in a text or other piece of information. OBJECTIVE • Analyses the results of mixing vinegar with mystery powders.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Materials required for this activity are the four mystery powders (see below for suggestions), vinegar, jars and eyedroppers. • Have the pupils work in small groups. Tell them they are going to investigate four mystery powders—bicarbonate of soda, icing sugar, flour and talcum powder (or others of your choice; e.g. baking powder, cornflour, custard powder). The names of the powders can be written on the board for the pupils to refer to at the end of the activity. Give each group four jars labelled A to D. Each should contain a small amount of a different powder. The pupils should then add several drops of vinegar (and use the same amount for each powder) to the first jar. Each group can then record its observations of any physical or chemical changes; e.g. ‘fizzes’, ‘dissolves’, ‘no change’. This procedure is repeated for the remaining three jars. After the pupils have recorded their observations, they can analyse their results to help them to decide which powder is in which jar. A class discussion could follow after all the pupils have completed their worksheets. • All powders will change in some way when mixed with vinegar. An observable physical change may include, for example, appearance or disappearance of colour while still retaining the powders original form. An observable chemical change would be when a solid changes to a liquid or gas or vice versa. Some clues could be bubbling, smoke, a strong smell or a sizzling sound.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

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THINKING SKILLS

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Perform other experiments using mystery powders; e.g. heating, mixing with water. • Compare the properties of two or more mystery powders, including their texture. • After experimenting, categorise a number of mystery powders into different groups; e.g. ‘fizzes when mixed with vinegar’.

CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Science

KS 2

• Describe changes that occur when materials are mixed.

Northern Ireland

Science

KS 2

• Investigate materials and changes that can occur to everyday substances.

Republic of Science Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Investigate how a range of materials may be changed by mixing.

Scotland

Science

Level C

• Describe changes when materials are mixed.

Wales

Science

KS 2

• Know that mixing materials can cause them to change. www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


ING SKI

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• T H

N

A

Task You will investigate what happens when vinegar is added to mystery powders.

K IN

• LS

Solve the mystery …

A LY S I N

Some interesting things can happen when vinegar is added to different substances! For each mystery powder, predict what you think might happen when you add vinegar. Add the vinegar and describe any changes you observe. Finally, carefully consider your results to help you write what you think each mystery powder might be. Describe any physical or chemical changes

I think the mystery powder is …

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My prediction

Sa m

A

Vi

C

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B

D

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING What helped you to decide which powder was which? Did you have to guess at some of the powders? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

ANALYSING The skill of analysing involves exploring the assumptions, ideas or structure inherent in a text or other piece of information. OBJECTIVES • Uses Internet or library resources to complete information about the tradition of celebrating birthdays. • Completes information about his/her own birthday.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

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TEACHER INFORMATION • The tradition of celebrating birthdays is believed to have started in Europe many years ago, although ancient pagan cultures are thought to have carried out similar traditions. It was felt that evil spirits were more dangerous to people when they experienced some sort of change in their daily lives, such as turning a year older. To protect the birthday person from harm, family and friends would give the birthday person good wishes, thoughts and gifts. At first, only people such as kings were thought important enough to celebrate birthdays, but gradually children were included. The first children’s birthday party is believed to have started in Germany and was called Kinderfeste. Some traditions which are said to impart good luck include birthday pinches, the wearing of birthday ‘crowns’ (hats), candles on a cake to wish on, birthday games, fun and general merriment. • Many countries have similar customs, but in other countries, such as Japan, China, Africa and several Latin American countries, they vary greatly. Some countries, such as Saudi Arabia, and people of some religious beliefs do not celebrate birthdays at all. • The following websites may prove useful for finding information: http://www.kidsparties.com/traditions.htm http://www.abcog.org/birthday.htm http://www.partyology.com/infobirthday.htm http://birthdayexpress.com/bexpress ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Compare popular celebrations of two different cultures. • Construct a classroom calendar detailing important celebrations observed throughout the year. Research the background of each celebration to find its origins.

CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

PSHE

KS 2

• Think about people with different customs.

Northern Ireland

PD

KS 2

• Value and celebrate cultural difference and diversity; e.g. celebrations.

5th/6th Class

• Become aware of some of the cultures of other countries.

Republic of SPHE Ireland

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THINKING SKILLS

Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

• Be positive about social and cultural backgrounds. KS 2

• Value and celebrate cultural difference and diversity.

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Task You will analyse the tradition of celebrating birthdays.

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Birthday traditions

A LY S I N

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Most groups in society have a system of beliefs or traditions which influence the nature of their culture. This may include celebrating or recognising important days, such as a specific battle or end of a war, observing public holidays for important days, including religious celebrations, or simply recognising birthdays of family members. 1. Use Internet or library resources to research the information. (a) How, where and why did the tradition of celebrating birthdays begin?

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(b) How do the following activities relate to birthdays? pulling earlobes

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flying flags

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lifting or raising chairs

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greasing noses

2. Complete the information about your own birthday. Star sign:

Birth flower:

Birthstone:

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Date of birth:

Favourite birthday tradition:

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING What steps did you use to find your information? Were you able to find the information easily or did you need help for some parts? Were there ways of finding the information faster? Were you familiar with some of the information needed or was it new to you? Did you find the information interesting or strange? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

ANALYSING The skill of analysing involves exploring the assumptions, ideas or structure inherent in a text or other piece of information.

no throwing no kicking

invasion

hockey

hockey netball basketball

football

throwing

rugby netball

volleyball

basketball

tennis

running with ball netball basketball no running with ball

hockey

throwing

kicking

football

hockey

rugby

football rugby no throwing

football

badminton

with bat with net

squash

volleyball

basketball

tennis badminton cricket squash without net

without bat

team game

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badminton

ball

tennis

volleyball

cricket

cricket squash

single/doubles

60

shuttle

tennis badminton

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striking/net

volleyball tennis badminton

netball

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netball cricket

basketball

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rugby

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Choose one of the games and list all the skills required. Plan two activities to practise each skill. • Choose an invasion game and study how the teams are arranged to cover the territory. Write a brief explanation of the roles of the different positions. • Choose a striking/net game and study how points are scored. Write a list of rules for scoring.

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ANSWERS

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Using a familiar example, revise the technique of completing a tree diagram. • Pupils complete the worksheet independently or in pairs. • Discuss the main differences among games that appear to be similar.

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OBJECTIVES • Follows clues to complete tree diagram. • Compares similarities and differences among some formal sports.

squash

CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Maths

KS 2

• Represent data using diagrams.

Northern Ireland

Maths and numeracy

KS 2

• Classify, record and present data using diagrams.

Republic of Maths Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Represent data.

Scotland

Maths

Level D

• Organise data using diagrams.

Wales

Maths

KS 2

• Represent data using diagrams.

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Task You will examine a number of games to determine the similarities and differences between them.

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Sports breakdown

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1. Starting in the box on the left where 10 sports are listed, follow the paths through the tree until there is only one sport in each box to the right. no throwing

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no kicking

invasion throwing

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running with ball

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no running with ball

hockey

throwing

volleyball tennis

kicking

football

no throwing

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rugby

netball

with bat

with net

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cricket

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badminton

shuttle

ball

squash

without bat

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basketball

team game

striking/net without net single/doubles

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How would you simply describe the similarities and differences among the games? Is it necessary to play these games to understand them? How would you teach the skills required for each game? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

ANALYSING The skill of analysing involves exploring the assumptions, ideas or structure inherent in a text or other piece of information. OBJECTIVES • Analyses a character from a novel to create a role-play. • Dramatises a scene from a novel.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • The pupils could choose a scene from a novel they and their partner have read or the teacher may like the pupils to use a novel that has been studied in class. • This activity could take up a single lesson or the pupils could organise suitable props and costumes to use and perform their role-plays in a future lesson. • Encourage the pupils to use their own dialogue in their role-plays—they do not need to use lines directly from the novel.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Read a scene from a play and have the pupils explain why a character acted in a particular way. • Watch a scene from a television drama or televised play and discuss the choices made by the director; e.g. actors, use of space, costumes etc. • Discuss some of the factors that need to be considered when making a film version of a novel. The pupils could analyse a film version of a novel they have read.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

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THINKING SKILLS

Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

English

KS 2

• Use character, action and narrative to convey story and emotions.

Northern Ireland

Language and literacy

KS 2

• Improvise a dramatic scene based on literature.

Republic of English Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Respond to fiction through drama.

Scotland

Drama

Level C

• Communication through movement and speech should be developed; e.g. through role-play.

Wales

English

KS 2

• Participate in a wide range of drama activities, including role-play.

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Task You will plan and present a partner role-play based on a scene from a novel.

K IN

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Character role-play

A LY S I N

Find a partner. Choose a dramatic scene from a novel you have both read that involves two characters. Plan a role-play of this scene by following the steps below. 1. Think carefully about how the characters feel during the scene. How do they use their voices, faces and bodies to show or hide these feelings? Complete the table for each character. Character 2

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Character 1

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Feelings Use of voice

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Use of face Use of body

3. (a) Explain how you want the audience to feel as they watch your scene.

(b) List some of the things you will do to make them feel this way.

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2. Draw and label how you will use the stage space; e.g. where the characters will begin the scene, where you will place props and furniture.

4. Practise your role-play. When you are ready, perform it for the class. THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING Which features of the characters did you most enjoy imagining? What helped you to imagine the character? Which was the most challenging to recreate—the character’s facial expressions, voice or body? Why do you think this was? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Thinking challenges 4 Topic focus Remembering

Music • Write an alphabetical list of all the types of music you know.

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• Choose a musician or band you particularly enjoy. Explain what you like about their music. Understanding • Research to find out the meanings of five important musical signs or symbols. Draw and define them. • Imagine you become a famous pop star overnight! Write what you think you would Applying like and dislike about your life. • Research to find out the origins of a musical instrument. Write your information as a Analysing report. Include labelled diagrams. • Write a critical review of a CD you own. Evaluating • Imagine music is banned worldwide. Write what you think life would be like. • Think of one of your favourite songs. Write the lyrics for a new verse to the song. • Make a simple musical instrument using everyday materials you find in the Creating classroom. Give your instrument a name. • Design the CD cover you would like if you were to release your own album.

Topic focus Remembering

Careers

• List all the careers you have ever thought you would like to try.

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Understanding • Interview adults to find out what they like or dislike about their jobs.

Analysing

• Design a questionnaire that asks pupils in your class what their ‘dream’ career is. Try out your questionnaire and show the results as a graph.

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Applying

• Research to find information about a career you would like to know more about. Write details about the qualifications that are needed and where people in this career might be employed.

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Evaluating

• Think about your talents and what you really enjoy doing. Make a list of which careers you think you might be best suited to. • ‘Earning lots of money is the most satisfying part of a career.’ Give your opinion of this statement. • Write about a day in your life in the future, working in your ‘dream’ job. • Study some employment advertisements then write an advertisement for a job you would like to apply for in the future.

Creating

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www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Name:

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EVALUATING Pupil checklist

Mini-debate ..............................................................................................Pages 68–69 Recording solutions ................................................................................Pages 70–71 Design a zoo habitat ..............................................................................Pages 72–73 The Daintree and the Amazon ...............................................................Pages 74–75 Charlie’s lifestyle .....................................................................................Pages 76–77 Impressionism ..........................................................................................Pages 78–79

Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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EVALUATING: PUPIL SELF-EVALUATION Use the sections below to record thoughts or information about the worksheets or answers to the metacognitive questions on each pupil page. Name Mini-debate

Pages 70–71

Recording solutions

Pages 72–73

Design a zoo habitat

Pages 74–75

The Daintree and the Amazon

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Pages 68–69

Charlie’s lifestyle

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Pages 76–77

Pages 78–79

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Impressionism

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Teacher introduction

EVALUATING Key learning areas

Mini-debate

English

Recording solutions

Mathematics

72–73

Design a zoo habitat

Science/DT

74–75

The Daintree and the Amazon

Geography

76–77

78–79

Charlie’s lifestyle

Impressionism

• Plans and writes a debating speech. • Presents a debating speech. • Reads a problem and studies two formats for recording the solution. • Answers questions about the formats for recording the solution. • Researches the natural habitat and characteristics of a wild animal. • Designs zoo enclosure for chosen animal. • Gives considered opinions on an environmental issue.

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70–71

Thinking activity

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68–69

Title

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Pages

Health

• Reads a description of the lifestyle of a character. • Evaluates the lifestyle of a character.

Art

• Researches the features of Impressionist art. • Produces and evaluates a piece of Impressionist art.

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DEFINITION: The skill of evaluating involves judging the merits of ideas according to a set of criteria, standards or values. Evaluating may require pupils to reflect on or criticise information or justify a decision or course of action.

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SOME APPROPRIATE VERBS: assess, decide, measure, select, conclude, compare, summarise, judge, recommend, critique, justify, check, evaluate, choose, rate, revise, score, validate, value, test, argue, prioritise, verify etc.

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SOME APPROPRIATE GRAPHIC ORGANISERS: Advantages/Disadvantages T-chart, Decision-making matrix, PMI chart, Relevant/Irrelevant T-chart, Y-chart, Fact/Opinion T-chart, 5 Ws diagram, Continuum, Problem/Solution organiser etc. SOME SUITABLE QUESTIONS: Is there a better solution to … ?, Do you think … is a good or bad thing?, What changes would you recommend to …?, How would you feel if … ?, How effective is … ?, What do you think about …?, Do you believe … ?, How would you have … ? etc.

Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Evaluating The skill of evaluating involves judging the merits of ideas according to a set of criteria, standards or values. OBJECTIVES • Plans and writes a debating speech. • Presents a debating speech.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • A formal debate normally involves six speakers and a Chairperson, who states the topic for debate and introduces each speaker. • Teachers could choose their own topics for debate if those suggested in Question 1 are not suitable for their class. ANSWERS Teacher check

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ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Have the pupils self-evaluate their speeches, considering voice, information and presentation. • Compare your speech to someone else’s on the same topic. Which points do you like and dislike about each? • Write who you think should be the winner of the debate you listened to. Give reasons, considering presentation and arguments.

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CURRICULUM LINKS Subject

Level

Objectives

England

English

KS 2

• Qualify and justify what they think, deal politely with opposing points of view and take up and sustain different roles.

Language and literacy

KS 2

• Take part in group discussions, giving arguments and points of view.

Republic of English Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Argue points of view from the perspective of agreement and disagreement in the context of formal debates.

Scotland

English

Level D

• Talk in groups and disagree without antagonizing others.

Wales

English

KS 2

• Qualify and justify what they think and deal politely with opposing points of view.

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Northern Ireland

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Task You will write a debating speech on a topic of interest to you.

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Mini-debate

L U AT I N

A debate is traditionally held between two teams of three speakers. The speakers are given the same topic. One team is called the ‘Affirmative’ and speaks in support of the topic. The other team is called the ‘Negative’ and speaks against the topic. Prepare a two-minute speech for a mini-debate to be held between you and a partner. 1. Find a partner. Choose one of the topics below that you are both interested in. Tick the one you choose. Pets are a pest. Computer games do more harm than good.

2. The affirmative speaker is

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Television commercials should be banned. We should do without cars.

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The negative speaker is

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3. List your arguments below (without your partner seeing!). Write in point form.

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My arguments:

4. Highlight your five best points. These are the ones you will use for your debate.

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5. On the palm cards below, write in point form a beginning (your introduction), middle (your five points) and ending for your speech. Cut out the palm cards. Make more if you need them.

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6. Practise your speech using your palm cards. When you and your partner are ready, find another pair and present your mini-debate to them.

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How difficult was it to think of points to support just one side of an argument? Do you think you would have done a better job supporting the other side of the argument? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Evaluating The skill of evaluating involves judging the merits of ideas according to a set of criteria, standards or values. OBJECTIVES • Reads a problem and studies two formats for recording the solution. • Answers questions about the formats for recording the solution.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Some graphic organisers may give more than answers to problems. They may also be used to show pupil understanding of problems and possible solutions. Some direct and focus pupil thoughts to particular areas. ANSWERS Teacher check

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ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Compare a variety of 3-D shapes for similarities and differences. • Match a net to its 3-D shape using a set of predetermined rules, such as identifying the number and types of sides. • Rank a number of word problems in order of difficulty. • Identify quadrilaterals from a group of shapes, according to a definition. • Estimate then calculate solutions to problems; then compare. • Judge grid drawings of other class members.

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THINKING SKILLS

Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Maths

KS 2

• Solve numerical problems, choose an appropriate way to calculate and explain their methods and reasoning.

Northern Ireland

Maths and numeracy

KS 2

• Develop a range of strategies for problem solving and compare ideas and methods of working.

Republic of Maths Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Analyse problems, plan an approach to solve them and evaluate solutions.

Scotland

Maths

Level C/D

• Multiply in number applications.

Wales

Maths

KS 2

• Solve numerical problems, use appropriate operations and methods of computation and record and explain their methods and reasoning.

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Data may be recorded in many different ways. 1. Read the problem below and the two methods shown to record and solve it.

K IN

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Task You will evaluate the best method for recording solutions to problems.

• T H

Recording solutions

L U AT I N

Problem On Monday Brian baked three cakes. Each day after that he baked twice as many cakes as the day before. If this pattern were to continue, how many cakes would he have baked by Friday? Method 2 – Maths path

Method 1 – Table

Monday

3

Tuesday

6

Wednesday

12

Thursday

24

Friday

48

The solution to the problem is shown on the left side and the explanation of the steps is shown on the right. 3 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 48 • 3 cakes were baked on Monday and

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Amount of cakes baked

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Day

• doubled (multiplied by 2) for Tuesday and

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• doubled (x 2) again for Wednesday, • Thursday (x 2) and • Friday (x 2) Therefore, 3 cakes is multiplied by 2 four (4) times.

2. Answer the questions.

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(a) Which method is the easier to read? Explain.

Explain.

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(b) Which method is the more difficult to read?

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(c) Which method would you choose to record the data? Give reasons for your choice.

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(d) Which method do you think your teacher would prefer you to use? Why?

3. List another method for recording data and solutions to problems which you find useful. State one reason for using it.

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING What prior knowledge would you have needed to solve the problem using your own format? How did you decide which was the best way to use to show the solution to the problem? Have you used any of these formats for solving problems? If so when? If not, why not? Which method gave the most information and why? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Evaluating The skill of evaluating involves judging the merits of ideas according to a set of criteria, standards or values. OBJECTIVES • Researches the natural habitat and characteristics of a wild animal. • Designs a zoo enclosure for chosen animal.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Make a list of reasons why zoos exist. Look at a number of different animals, comparing their natural habitat and climate with that of your local zoo. How important is it to simulate its natural environment? • In small groups, pupils research a chosen animal and the specifications needed to simulate its natural environment. • Each group presents its ‘enclosure’ to the class, explaining how it meets the needs of the animal. The class can evaluate each enclosure, rating it according to a given scale.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Look on the website of your local zoo. How has the zoo changed over the years to improve conditions for the animals? What strategies does it have in place to educate the public about caring for animals in captivity and in the wild? Produce an advertising brochure for the zoo, highlighting the positive steps it is taking in caring for animals. • Research for information on an endangered animal. Are zoos helping to increase its numbers? Write a report on the animal, including why its numbers are falling. • Conduct a debate on the statement: ‘Man should not interfere with the survival of any animal species’.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

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CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Science

KS 2

• Know how animals in different habitats are suited to their environment.

Northern Ireland

Science

KS 2

• Investigate habitats.

5th/6th Class

• Explore some ways in which animal behaviour is influenced by, or adapted to, environmental conditions.

Republic of Science Ireland

Scotland

Science

Level D

• Give examples of how animals are suited to their environment.

Wales

Science

KS 2

• Know how animals in different habitats are suited to their environment.

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Task You will design a home for an animal in captivity. It should resemble its natural habitat.

K IN

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Design a zoo habitat

L U AT I N

Zoo designers use modern design and material technology to simulate the natural environment of each animal for its protection and survival in captivity. 1. (a) Choose a wild animal and make notes about its requirements. animal:

natural habitat:

prey:

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characteristics:

(b) Make design notes for a zoo enclosure, explaining the need for each feature. water features:

rock features:

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enclosure dimensions:

tree features:

special features:

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(c) Draw a scaled sketch of your design.

2. (a) Discuss your animal enclosure with a partner. (b) How suitable do you think your design is for your chosen animal? Rate it on the scale below. unsuitable

so-so

reasonable

not bad

perfect

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How much did your previous knowledge of wild animals help you with your choice? How did you solve any problems you encountered with your design? How well do you now understand the role of zoos in protecting endangered species? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Evaluating The skill of evaluating involves judging the merits of ideas according to a set of criteria, standards or values. OBJECTIVE • Gives considered opinions on an environmental issue.

Area Continent

The Daintree

The Amazon

approx. 994 000 ha approx. 7 000 000 km2 Australia

South America

2. – 4. Teacher check

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Use the completed worksheets to write and present debates on what we should do to save rainforests. • Make posters that state your opinions about environmental issues. • Predict what you think will happen to the Daintree and Amazon rainforests in the future.

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ANSWERS 1.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Pupils will require resource material, including an atlas, to complete this activity. They could work in pairs or small groups to complete Question 1.

CURRICULUM LINKS Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Geography

KS 2

• Study environmental issues.

Northern Ireland

Geography

KS 2

• Understand the importance of conserving the environment; e.g. rainforest.

Republic of Geography Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Discuss global environmental issues.

Scotland

Society

Level D

• Know about effects of environmental change; e.g. tropical forest clearance.

Wales

Geography

KS 2

• Study the theme of environmental change.

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The world’s rainforests are environments that are under threat.

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Task You will research to help you present your opinions about rainforest issues.

• T H

The Daintree and the Amazon L U AT I N

1. Use resource materials to write five important facts about the Daintree and Amazon rainforests. Two headings have been done for you. The Daintree

The Amazon

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Area (size)

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Continent

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2. Give the main reason why these rainforests are under threat.

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3. What do you think is the most important reason for saving these rainforests?

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4. Select one of the rainforests.

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(a) Write two things that are being done to help save this rainforest.

(b) What else do you think should be done to help save this rainforest?

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING Did your rainforest research affect your thinking? If so, in what way? Do you feel passionately about environmental issues like protecting rainforests? How does feeling passionate about an issue affect your thinking? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Evaluating The skill of evaluating involves judging the merits of ideas according to a set of criteria, standards or values. OBJECTIVES • Reads a description of the lifestyle of a character. • Evaluates the lifestyle of a character.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Pupils should be aware that no-one’s lifestyle can be perfect and the occasional treat should be allowed. • Lifestyles incorporate diet, exercise, sleep and relaxation. Balancing the demands of work and school with relaxation helps to provide a healthy lifestyle. More emphasis on one area while neglecting another can lead to stress, poor health and an inability to cope with the demands of daily life.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Pupils create their own character with lifestyle imperfections for another pupil to evaluate lifestyle choices. • Pupils make judgments about a weekly menu for a family. • Pupils evaluate their own and their family’s lifestyle choices. • Pupils evaluate how realistic it is to achieve a series of long-term and short-term goals. • Pupils rank a series of choices relating to developing better relationships with peers and parents. • Pupils make judgments about the ability of specific advertisements to promote poor body image (e.g. ultrathin clothing models).

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ANSWERS Teacher check

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CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

PSHE

KS 2

• Know what makes a healthy lifestyle and how to make informed choices.

Northern Ireland

PD

KS 2

• Understand the benefits of a healthy lifestyle.

Republic of SPHE Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Recognise and examine behaviour that is conducive and harmful to health.

Scotland

Health

Level C

• Show knowledge and understanding of what they do to keep healthy.

Wales

PSE

KS 2

• Have respect for their bodies and understand the benefits of exercise and food.

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Task You will evaluate the lifestyle choices of a character.

K IN

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Charlie’s lifestyle

L U AT I N

1. Read the description below. Charlie is a 12-year-old boy who is slightly overweight. His dad, Bob, has just come home from hospital after suffering chest pains. Bob has been told by his doctor that he needs to change his lifestyle dramatically, otherwise he runs the risk of having a serious heart attack.

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Charlie is a talented computer user, who loves watching sport. He enjoys sleeping in on the weekends. His favourite foods are fruit and pasta. His favourite drinks are soft drinks, although his mum doesn’t let him have them very often. Charlie used to like going for bike rides with his dad before he got sick. He also loves his golden retriever, Thomas. He has one brother, Nicholas, who is really annoying at times, especially when he wants Charlie to show him how to do things on the computer. 2. Use the headings below to evaluate Charlie’s lifestyle choices.

What positive things are What negative things are What improvements could be made? happening now? happening now?

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Diet

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Exercise

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Sleep

Relaxation

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING Did you know that getting adequate sleep and relaxation are just as important as eating well and exercising? Were you aware that looking after your health while you are young may stop you from having health problems later in life? How did your answers compare with those of a partner? Do you think you could evaluate your own lifestyle objectively and make positive improvements? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Evaluating The skill of evaluating involves judging the merits of ideas according to a set of criteria, standards or values. OBJECTIVES • Researches the features of Impressionist art. • Produces and evaluates a piece of Impressionist art.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Collect a selection of famous paintings by each artist from calendars, post cards, gift cards etc. • Relate the Impressionist period to a time frame already familiar to pupils through studies in history. Discuss the changes that Impressionism made in the art world. From being a formal professional career, bounded by many constraints, art became accessible to all. It became a personal pastime with artists choosing what they wanted to paint and how they wanted to do it. • When ready to paint, give pupils time to practise the techniques, using different brush strokes and experimenting with colour.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Choose an Impressionist artist. Produce a time line of his career, including dates of all his major works. • Compare the works of two Impressionist artists. Present your information on a chart. • Compare the major features of Impressionism with those of Realism and Post-Impressionism, the eras which came immediately before and after Impressionism. Present your information on a chart.

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THINKING SKILLS

Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Art and design

KS 2

• Investigate art in a variety of genres, styles and traditions.

Northern Ireland

Art and design

KS 2

• Look at the work of artists and examine their methods.

Republic of Visual arts Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Look at the work of artists.

Scotland

Art and design

Level C

• Research artists and relate their findings to their own work.

Wales

Art

KS 2

• Examine a variety of art from different periods and experiment with some methods used by other artists.

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Task You will study the characteristics of Impressionist art and produce your own masterpiece.

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Throughout history, there have been a number of art ‘eras’; from the prehistoric cave paintings, through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance to Modern Art. Within each era, many masterpieces have been produced, with the common factors of colour, texture and form linking them. 1. (a) Study a number of paintings by Monet, Degas and Renoir. (b) What subjects or scenes did they like to paint?

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(c) Research and record details of the techniques of Impressionist art. sketching

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2. (a) Choose a subject or scene for your masterpiece. What is it?

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(b) Explain how you will use the Impressionist techniques to produce your masterpiece.

(c) Select some suitable paper and sketch and paint your masterpiece. 3. (a) Display your work. (b) Discuss how your painting fits into the Impressionist mould. THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING The Realism era came before Impressionism. How did they differ from each other? What have you learnt about colour, texture and form through this activity? How has this activity helped you understand the Impressionist artists? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Thinking challenges 5 Topic focus

Amazing human body

Remembering

• Compile a chart of the seven functions of the human body and the organs involved.

Evaluating

Creating

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• Design an illustrated booklet explaining the seven functions. Your target audience is the Year group below yours. • Draw seven life-size outlines of the human body. In each, sketch the organs involved in one function. Display and label the seven bodies. • Using the display, present a talk explaining the seven functions. • In turn, study the organs involved in each function. Describe their role within that function. Draw detailed diagrams to show how each works. Explain how health can be affected if they malfunction. • Design a chart to illustrate how a healthy lifestyle affects each function of the body. • Repeat to illustrate the effect of an unhealthy lifestyle. • Devise a number of tests to assess the health and fitness of your body. Research to find appropriate guidelines against which to match your performance. • Write a story about an amazing human feat in which the body performed beyond its expected potential. • Organise a parade of different organs. • Draw two large pictures of each organ, to be worn sandwich board fashion. • Write a narration for each organ in all functions, explaining its role in the human jigsaw puzzle. • Compose a percussion musical score to accompany the parade.

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Understanding

Topic focus

Himalayas

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• On a map outline of Asia, sketch the position of the Himalayas. Draw the boundaries of India, Nepal and Tibet through the mountain range. Colour in and Remembering label the three countries with their capital cities and the main towns. • Research to discover how the Himalayas were formed. Draw a series of labelled diagrams to show how and when the land masses moved. Understanding • The Himalayas are young fold mountains. Use a chain diagram to describe what this means and how they occur. • Plan a walking trek through the foothills of the Himalayas. Refer to holiday websites Applying for information. • Locate the highest peaks in the Himalayas. Write a simple fact file for each. Analysing • Construct a table to compare the Indian, Nepalese and Tibetan Himalayas. • Assess how the fragile ecosystem of the Himalayas has been disturbed by built and natural influences. Evaluating • Discover just how many of the world’s highest peaks are in the Himalayas. • Write a poem to capture the essence of the Himalayas. Creating • Record a diary entry describing an attempt to climb Mount Everest.

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www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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CREATING Pupil checklist

News story presentation ........................................................................Pages 84–85 Dotty drawings and cube constructions .............................................Pages 86–87 Tsunami diagram ....................................................................................Pages 88–89 Country fact file ........................................................................................Pages 90–91 Fad diet interview ...................................................................................Pages 92–93 Space lyrics ..............................................................................................Pages 94–95

Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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CREATING: PUPIL SELF-EVALUATION Use the sections below to record thoughts or information about the worksheets or answers to the metacognitive questions on each pupil page.

Pages 86–87

Dotty drawings and cube constructions

Pages 88–89

Tsunami diagram

Pages 90–91

Country fact file

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Fad diet interview

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Pages 92–93

Pages 94–95

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Space lyrics

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


Teacher introduction

CREATING 84–85

News story presentation

English

86–87

Dotty drawings and cube constructions

Mathematics

88–89

Tsunami diagram

Science

90–91

Country fact file

Geography

92–93

Fad diet interview

94–95

Space lyrics

Thinking activity • Researches current news story. • Plans and presents news story. • Constructs 3-D models from isometric drawings. • Constructs and draws different 3-D models made from the same number of cubes. • Reads an explanation about tsunamis. • Draws and labels a detailed diagram to show how a tsunami is formed.

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Title

• Researches information on chosen country. • Uses information to give presentation.

• Researches information about fad diets. • Plans and presents a television interview about fad diets with a partner. • Reads information about an historical event. • Writes, practises and performs lyrics to a wellknown tune. • Compares and evaluates own lyrics to create a better version.

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DEFINITION: The skill of creating involves using previous knowledge to produce new ideas and different ways of seeing things. Generating new ways to deliver and show understanding of a concept may involve multiple intelligences.

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SOME APPROPRIATE VERBS: arrange, rearrange, combine, create, design, invent, hypothesise, develop, plan, produce, construct, extend ideas, give alternative … , assemble, compose, formulate, modify, propose, predict, devise etc.

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SOME APPROPRIATE GRAPHIC ORGANISERS: Disadvantages/Improvements T-chart, Y-chart, Cloud/Cluster, Concept map, Mind map, Word web etc. SOME SUITABLE QUESTIONS: Can you design …?, How many ways can you …?, Can you develop …?, Devise your own ways to …, What would happen if …?, Can you create new uses for …? etc.

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Teachers notes

Creating The skill of creating involves using previous knowledge to produce new ideas and different ways of seeing things. OBJECTIVES • Researches current news story. • Plans and presents news story.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Collect a number of media resources, including recordings of radio and television coverage, of a range of current news stories. Separate the facts from opinions and identify the information required for each heading on the pupil activity page. • In small groups, pupils use the resources, noting the different approaches to reporting each story. They discuss and make notes about the story before completing their plans. Pupils within each group should record their own notes as they may have different ideas and opinions from their peers.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Follow a chosen news story over time. Use pictures, maps, a time line, charts and other appropriate graphic organisers to present a continuing report on the story. • Create a complete news presentation about events occurring in your school. Present it to your school during an assembly. • Write a number of general knowledge questions, with answers, relating to recent current affairs. Use them to organise a class general knowledge quiz.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

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THINKING SKILLS

Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

English

KS 2

• Present important features of a radio or television programme.

Northern Ireland

Language and literacy

KS 2

• Prepare and give a short oral presentation.

Republic of English Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Listen to radio broadcasts and be aware of the importance of facial expression, audibility and clarity of enunciation in communicating with others.

Scotland

English

Level D

• Be aware of purpose and nature of the audience when preparing a talk.

Wales

English

KS 2

• Report and describe events and present important features of a radio or television programme.

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Task You will prepare an outline for presenting the details of a current news story to a younger audience.

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News story presentation

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The media provide us with news stories from around the world. They keep us informed about the many aspects of life on our planet. 1. Complete the plan with details of your presentation.

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Story headline:

Location (local, national or overseas):

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People involved (includes their role in the story):

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Additional information:

Resources required for presentation:

2. (a) Prepare and display your resources. (b) Present the news story. THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How many different versions of the same story did you use in your research? What strategies did you use to reach your own conclusions where versions differed? How has this activity helped you to have an open mind and to consider all options? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Creating The skill of creating involves using previous knowledge to produce new ideas and different ways of seeing things. OBJECTIVES • Constructs 3-D models from isometric drawings. • Constructs and draws different 3-D models made from the same number of cubes.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Pupils will require centimetre cubes to complete this activity. For Questions 2 and 3, it is important that they construct their models before they draw them.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Challenge the class to solve commercial 3-D puzzles. • Plan and construct 3-D models using different concrete materials. • Make a more complex 3-D model from centimetre cubes, then hold a competition to see which pupil can guess exactly how many cubes make up the model.

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ANSWERS 1. (a) 7 (b) Teacher check 2. Teacher check 3. Teacher check

CURRICULUM LINKS Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Maths

KS 2

• Present solutions to geometrical problems.

KS 2

• Present their results clearly.

Republic of Maths Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Solve problems and record the results of their work.

Scotland

Maths

Level D

• Make 3-D models.

Wales

Maths

KS 2

• Use geometrical properties in the solution of problems.

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Maths and numeracy

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www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Task You will design and construct 3-D models using centimetre cubes. 1. (a) Construct this 3-D model using centimetre cubes.

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(b) Draw your own 3-D model that can be made using centimetre cubes. Construct the model when you have finished. How many cubes did you use? ................

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How many cubes did you use? ................

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2. Construct and then draw two different shaped models that use four cubes. (b)

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3. Construct and then draw two different shaped models that use six cubes.

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THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING Did you find it easier to draw or construct the 3-D models? What kind of thinking does this mean you might be more skilled at? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Creating The skill of creating involves using previous knowledge to produce new ideas and different ways of seeing things. OBJECTIVES • Reads an explanation about tsunamis. • Draws and labels a detailed diagram to show how a tsunami is formed.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Pupils will need to fully understand the explanation before attempting to create a detailed diagram. • Pupils may need to use scrap paper to practise and to ensure that they have included all the relevant data, before completing their diagram on the worksheet.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Design a model or experiment to explain a volcanic eruption, avalanche or cyclone. • Write a play from the point of view of a person caught in a natural disaster, including all details of the cause and of the ensuing disaster.

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ANSWERS Diagrams may be similar to those below.

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CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Science

KS 2

• Use a range of methods, including diagrams, to communicate data.

Northern Ireland

Science

KS 2

• Record information using a range of appropriate ways.

Republic of Science Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Present findings using a variety of methods; e.g. diagrams.

Scotland

Science

Level D

• Make a report, using appropriate illustrations.

Wales

Science

KS 2

• Use a range of methods, including diagrams, to present information.

www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Task You will create a diagram to explain how a tsunami is formed.

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1. Read the explanation below about tsunamis. Tsunamis are a series of waves often referred to as a ‘train’. They are caused when a large mass of water is rapidly displaced. This can occur when there is a massive movement of oceanic plates at the earth’s crust, causing a submarine earthquake.

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As the tsunami approaches the coast where the depth of the ocean becomes shallow, three things happen: • the waves slow down, • the height of the waves increases, reaching up to 30 m, • the distance between each wave decreases.

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Waves are formed as the mass of displaced water spreads across the ocean. The distance between waves, the wavelength, may be hundreds of kilometres, with the height of each, the amplitude, being only one metre. But the waves are moving the entire depth of the ocean and hold a massive amount of energy. They can travel at almost 1000 km/h in deep water, ten times faster than a normal wave.

On the shore, the first visible sign of a tsunami is either a rapid rise or fall in water level. If the crest, or top of the initial wave hits land first, the water level rises, causing widespread flooding. This is called the run-up. If the trough, or bottom, hits first, the water level drops as it is sucked into the wave, exposing a vast expanse of land. This is called the drawback. About 15 minutes later, the monstrous waves explode onto the shore, continuing for up to two hours.

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2. In the space provided, draw and label a detailed diagram to show how a tsunami is formed.

THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How many times did you revise your diagram before you were satisfied that you had included enough relevant information? Comparing the written explanation with the diagram, which would you prefer to have to explain the formation of a tsunami? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Creating The skill of creating involves using previous knowledge to produce new ideas and different ways of seeing things. OBJECTIVES • Researches information on chosen country. • Uses information to give presentation.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Ensure each pupil chooses a different country for inclusion in class ‘World fact file’. Information on more countries may be collated at another time. Encourage pupils to choose countries from different continents so that each is represented. ANSWERS Teacher check

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ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • On an outline map of the chosen country, including neighbouring countries/coastline, label major cities and physical features. Around the edge of the map, record information from your fact file. Include appropriate illustrations such as flags, national costume, emblems. • Design a poster to illustrate the major industries or natural resources of your chosen country. • Colour a population map of your country which shows the areas of different population density.

CURRICULUM LINKS Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Geography

KS 2

• Use secondary sources of information and develop knowledge and understanding of places.

Northern Ireland

Geography

KS 2

• Use secondary sources to research topics and describe places.

Republic of Geography Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Collect information from a variety of sources and become familiar with other parts of the world.

Scotland

Society

Level D

• Record information from a variety of sources.

Wales

Geography

KS 2

• Use secondary sources of information and learn about different places.

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www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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Task You will create a fact file for a chosen country.

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For statistical purposes, it is useful to have fact files on all the countries of the world so that information can be acquired easily and comparisons made. 1. Complete the chart with information about a country of your choice. Capital city

Currency

Population

Area

Density

Continent

Geographic coordinates

Language

Neighbouring countries

Government type

Physical terrain

Climate

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National holidays

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National sports

Natural hazards

Current environmental issues

Festivals

Customs

National arts

Famous people

2. Use your research to give an informative presentation on the country. 3. Add your chart to a class ‘World fact file’. THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING How or why did you choose this country for investigation? What resources did you use and how did you organise the information collected? How could you improve the fact file? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Creating The skill of creating involves using previous knowledge to produce new ideas and different ways of seeing things. OBJECTIVES • Researches information about fad diets. • Plans and presents a television interview about fad diets with a partner.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Pupils will require access to magazines or the Internet to complete Question 1. Alternatively, teachers could provide the information they wish the pupils to use for their interviews. • This activity could take place within one lesson or could be extended over several lessons if the pupils wish to use costumes and props. ANSWERS Teacher check

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ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Create a ‘healthy’ fad diet. Write it as part of a magazine article which discusses which imaginary celebrities are currently on the diet. • In a small group, create a television commercial that promotes healthy eating. • Plan and hold a class party that features healthy recipes made by the pupils. CURRICULUM LINKS Subject

Level

Objectives

England

PSHE

KS 2

• Know what makes a healthy lifestyle, including the benefits of healthy eating.

PD

KS 2

• Understand the benefits of a healthy lifestyle, including healthy eating.

Republic of SPHE Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Appreciate the importance of good nutrition for staying healthy and accept some personal responsibility for adopting a healthy and balanced diet.

Scotland

Health

Level C

• Show their knowledge and understanding of what they do to keep healthy; e.g. choosing nutritious food.

Wales

PSE

KS 2

• Understand the need for a variety of food for growth and activity.

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www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


Task You and a partner will plan and present a television interview about a fad diet.

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Fad diet interview

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Fad diets have become popular ways to lose weight quickly. They are different from trying to improve your health by cutting out junk food or following a diet recommended by a doctor. Most fad diets are dangerous to your health because you eat a limited range of foods, so your diet is lacking in nutrients and energy. Also, most people put on any weight they have lost when they ‘finish’ these diets!

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Find a partner to plan and perform a television interview about a fad diet. One of you will be the interviewer and the other will be a nutritional expert. 1. Begin by finding out some information about a fad diet. You might find this in magazines or on the Internet. Write some notes about the basic ‘rules’ of the diet. Name of diet:

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2. Write some brief opening comments the interviewer can say to the television viewers about the dangers of fad diets. You can use the information at the top of the page to help you. The interviewer can then introduce the expert.

3. The expert will need to answer five to six questions about the diet during the interview. These should include a description of the diet and its dangers. You can also name some imaginary celebrities who are on the diet! Decide on the questions together and write them below.

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4 Practise your interview and present it to the class. THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING What steps did you use to plan and rehearse your interview? Was it difficult to keep a balance between creativity and providing serious information? How did you try to achieve this? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Creating The skill of creating involves using previous knowledge to produce new ideas and different ways of seeing things.

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OBJECTIVES • Reads information about an historical event. • Writes, practises and performs lyrics to a well-known tune. • Compares and evaluates own lyrics to create a better version.

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TEACHER INFORMATION • Pupils need to be familiar with the song ‘When Johnny comes marching home again’ before completing new lyrics. Practise the song several times to ensure that all pupils know the tune well.

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ANSWERS Teacher check

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Lyrics for the first verse of When Johnny comes marching home Line 1. When Johnny comes marching home again, Line 2. Hurrah! Hurrah! Line 3. We’ll give him a hearty welcome then Line 4. Hurrah! Hurrah! Line 5. The men will cheer and the boys will shout Line 6. The ladies they will all turn out Line 7. And we’ll all feel gay, Line 8. When Johnny comes marching home.

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ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP THIS SKILL • Design an artwork using a series of sketches to depict different stages in the first space flight. • Retell the event as a written recount in the form of a diary entry. • Modify your lyrics as a rap with movements. • Formulate a wordsearch or crossword with clues about the first space flight. • Write a description of the event as a newspaper article.

CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

Music

KS 2

• Sing songs.

Northern Ireland

Music

KS 2

• Sing a variety of songs and work creatively.

Republic of Music Ireland

5th/6th Class

• Sing songs from memory.

Scotland

Music

Level C

• Sing a wide range of songs and have opportunities to invent.

Wales

Music

KS 2

• Sing songs and refine musical ideas. www.prim-ed.com • Prim-Ed Publishing


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1. Read the text which tells about the first man into space.

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Task You will create lyrics depicting a momentous historical event for a well-known piece of music.

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Yuri Gagarin, a Russian cosmonaut, was born on 9 March 1934, in the town of Klushino, later renamed Gagarin. He became a pilot in 1957 and later graduated with honours from the Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy. He was the pilot of the Vostok 1 mission which launched on 12 April 1961. The flight lasted for 108 minutes and orbited the Earth once. The spacecraft landed in the Saratov region of the Soviet Union. He was able to show that a man could withstand liftoff, re-entry and weightlessness and still be able to control a spacecraft. He died on 27 March 1968 when his aeroplane crashed near Moscow.

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2. Write lyrics to match the tune ‘When Johnny comes marching home again’ to retell this historical event using the framework below. Write another verse using the back of the worksheet. A single idea about the topic (e.g. When Yuri comes flying home again) (4 beats)

Line 2:

Hurrah! Hurrah! (2 beats)

Line 3:

A continuation of the first thought or idea about the topic. (e.g. We’ll give him a hero’s welcome then.) (4 beats)

Line 4:

Hurrah! Hurrah! (2 beats)

Line 5:

A second thought or idea about the topic. (4 beats)

Line 6:

A third thought or idea about the topic. (4 beats)

Line 7:

Another short thought or idea about the topic. (3 beats)

Line 8:

Repeat Line 1. (4 beats)

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3. Practise your lyrics with the tune and perform it for the class. 4. Compare your song to those of other class members and create a different version. THINKING MORE ABOUT THINKING Were you familiar with other frameworks for writing poems (lyrics) before creating lyrics for this tune? Were you able to include a series of different events or thoughts about the first space flight? After listening to the songs of other class members, what better ideas could you have incorporated? Prim-Ed Publishing • www.prim-ed.com

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Thinking challenges 6 Topic focus

The mysterious Orient

• Use an atlas to copy the main physical and built features of a selected Asian country onto a traced map. • Devise and use a key to identify the different physical and built features of the Understanding selected Asian country. • Use the map and a scale to calculate the distance between two major cities or between the main airport and a major tourist attraction. Applying • Add lines of latitude and longitude to the map and give the specific locations of the tallest mountain, longest river, most important built feature and capital city etc. Remembering

• Collect rainfall figures for different regions of the country and, using the map, find possible reasons for the volume of rainfall.

Evaluating

• Compare your map to that of a class member and identify possible improvements.

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• Use markers to trace a basic outline of the original map onto a sheet of overhead projector plastic (or similar). Draw a selection of interesting monuments, tourist attractions etc. on the map and fit exactly over the original map as an extra layer.

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Analysing

• Create a file card of important information about the selected Asian country. Use a number of different headings, including population, currency, national flag, language, national song or dance etc.

Topic focus

The greenhouse dilemma

• Write a definition of the greenhouse effect. • Give an oral presentation describing what the greenhouse effect is.

Understanding

• Draw a diagram to show how the greenhouse effect occurs. • Summarise research information about the greenhouse effect.

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• Use diagrams to show how some degree of the greenhouse effect is necessary to keep the planet warm, but too much gas such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can cause the planet to ‘overheat’! • Explain what difference the greenhouse effect has on the lives of people, plants, animals and weather patterns. • Select specific areas such as Antarctica and show what impact the greenhouse effect may be having on plants, birds and animals in region. • Monitor the emissions of greenhouse gases in the local area using media resources over a given period; graph and give reasons for levels; for example, consider changes in weather patterns, changes in heater or airconditioning use.

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Evaluating Creating

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• Devise a series of actions to help combat the greenhouse effect. Include actions which could be implemented on a personal, local, national and worldwide level.

THINKING SKILLS

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References

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Websites http://rite.ed.qut.edu.au/oz-teachernet/index.php?module=ContentExpress&func=display&ceid=29 http://www.habits-of-mind.net/whatare.htm http://www.edhelper.com http://ictnz.com/articles/quallearn.html http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/fas/shuell/CEP564/Metacog.htm http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/bloom.html http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/bloomrev/index.htm http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htm www.enchantedlearning.com/graphicorganizers/ http://www.graphic.org/goindex.html www.edwdebono.com/ http://www.kaganonline.com/AboutKaganFrame.html http://www.kurwongbss.eq.edu.au/thinking/Think%20Keys/keys.htm http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm

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Books Habits of Mind: A Developmental Series by Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick

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6403 Thinking Skills - Upper