Page 1

6384

g

Vi ew in e

m pl

sa


CHINA – a cross-curricular theme (Upper primary) Published by Prim-Ed Publishing® 2012 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2007 ISBN 978-1-84654-540-5 PR–6384

Copyright Notice

Additional titles available in this series: CHINA – a cross-curricular theme (Middle/Upper primary)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

m pl

e

For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase. Name of Purchaser:

sa

Date of Purchase:

Vi ew in

g

Supplier:

School Order# (if applicable):

Signature of Purchaser:

Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

View all pages online

Website: www.prim-ed.com


China

Foreword

China (Upper primary) is one of two books designed to provide opportunities for pupils to explore natural, physical, cultural, economic and political aspects of this fascinating Asian country and its people. The books in this series give information about both Modern and Ancient China and present a wide variety of activities across many learning areas. Titles in this series:

• China Middle/Upper primary • China Upper primary

Contents Teachers notes.....................................................................................................................................ii – iii

m pl

e

Confucius....................................................54–55 The Silk Road..............................................56–57 ‘A description of the world’ by Marco Polo.....58–59 Genghis Khan..............................................60–61 Wonders of China .........................................62–69 The Great Wall of China............................... 62–63 Fact or opinion?.......................................... 64–65 Terracotta Warriors.................................... 66–67 South China tiger.........................................68–69 Celebrations and customs ............................70–81 Chinese festivals.......................................... 70–71 The dragon dance....................................... 72–73 Chinese dragons.......................................... 74–75 The Chinese zodiac.......................................76–77 Make a Chinese kite......................................78–79 The game of mahjong...................................80–81 Fables and legends .......................................82–89 Chinese proverbs......................................... 82–83 The legend of the cowherd and the weaver ...................................................... 84–85 Journey to the west.................................... 86–87 Legends of silk.............................................88–89 The arts ......................................................90–101 The character of Chinese calligraphy............. 90–91 Chinese lanterns.......................................... 92–93 Chinese opera............................................. 94–95 Traditional Chinese instruments.................................................96–97 Chinese brush painting..................................98–99 Chinese cloisonné.....................................100–101

Vi ew in

g

sa

Geography of China ..........................................2–7 China’s natural features................................... 2–3 China – political geography.............................. 4–5 Natural disasters............................................. 6–7 Modern China .................................................8–19 City and country 1........................................... 8–9 City and country 2........................................10–11 Three Gorges Dam.......................................12–13 Mao and communism....................................14–15 Industry......................................................16–17 Flags and anthem.........................................18–19 Beijing ..........................................................20–27 Capital of China............................................20–21 Historical Tiananmen Square.........................22–23 The Forbidden City...................................... 24–25 The discovery and loss of Peking Man............26–27 People of China .............................................28–43 Living in China 1......................................... 28–29 Living in China 2......................................... 30–31 Chinese food culture.................................... 32–33 Chinese language, customs and etiquette....... 34–35 Religion...................................................... 36–37 Transport in China...................................... 38–39 Chinese martial arts..................................... 40–41 Clothing..................................................... 42–43 Ancient China ...............................................44–61 Chinese architecture.................................... 44–45 Pagoda tour............................................... 46–47 Paper–making procedure............................. 48–49 Compass challenge.......................................50–51 Dynasties.....................................................52–53

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 i


Teachers notes

The book has been organised into nine sections covering a variety of aspects of China: • Geography of China • Modern China • Beijing • People of China • Ancient China • Wonders of China • Celebrations and customs • Fables and legends • The arts Each section contains groups of two pages, each following a similar format. Each pupil page is accompanied by a corresponding teachers page.

Teachers notes pages

sa g

Vi ew in

Relevant teacher information is given, particularly background information which teachers may require about the topic or to answer pupils’ questions. Any necessary information about how to use the worksheet with the pupils is also provided.

m pl

e

The title of the corresponding pupil page is given.

Answers are provided to pupil pages where necessary.

Additional activities to support or extend the pupil activity on the worksheet are supplied. Many of these extend across other learning areas.

 ii 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Pupil activity pages

Teachers notes

The title of each pupil page is given.

Notes

g

Vi ew in

Clear, concise instructions for completing the pupil activity are supplied.

sa

m pl

e

Many pupil pages start with some information about the topic. This is written in pupil-friendly language and provides information required to complete the activity.

........................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................................................................................................

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 iii 


Geography of China – China’s natural features Objectives • Makes concise factual notes from a report text. • Uses reference material to draw a map of China showing the main physical features.

Teacher information • Use a large world map to locate Asia and China’s position within it. Discuss the extent of the country’s vast size and the different climatic regions from sub-arctic to tropical found within it.

• Discuss ways to present the facts; e.g. lists, graphic organiser. Remind pupils that only bare facts are required, without descriptions or full sentences.

• On a physical map of China, note how the land is varied and use the key to explain that much of the land is elevated and land that is flat is generally located to the east, near the coast.

• Notemaking from text is an essential skill for pupils to acquire for study and research. Making concise notes and presenting them in an organised way helps pupils to understand the text. Repeating this process with a number of resources gives pupils the material from which to write answers that they understand.

• Note the large number of rivers and locate major waterways.

m pl

e

• Encourage pupils to refer to a map of China as they read the text a second time.

Additional activities

• Use the notes and maps to give an oral presentation.

sa

• Research to draw a map of China, using different colours to display the range of climatic regions.

Vi ew in

g

• Choose one major natural feature to research in more detail. Present information as a written project.

 2 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Geography of China – China’s natural features 1. Read the information about China’s natural features. The third step contains the lower mountain ranges to the east, between 500 m and 1000 m elevation. It extends to the coast, to include the plains of the north-east and northern China and the Yangtze River. The fourth step is the land that extends into the sea as a continental shelf, where the depth of water is less than 200 m. China has an abundance of rivers, many of which begin in the Plateau of Tibet. Some rivers flow to the sea and others into lakes, deserts or salt marshes. The Yangtze, Yellow and Pearl rivers all flow eastward toward the Pacific Ocean. The Yangtze, 6379 km in length, is the longest river in Asia and the third longest river in the world (behind the Nile at 6695 km and the Amazon at 6437 km). To the Chinese, the Yangtze is known as Chang Jiang.

e

China lies in the Northern Hemisphere. Its land mass is vast, with its northern border in line with southern Alaska and northern Europe. Its southern border aligns with central Mexico and North Africa. To the west, the border is in line with the west coast of India, and to the east, in line with Australia’s Northern Territory and Queensland border. Because of its extent, China covers many climatic regions, from sub-arctic in the north to tropical in the south.

m pl

A relief map of China shows that it descends in four main levels of height (on ‘steps’) from west to east. The Plateau of Tibet, averaging more than 4000 m above sea level, is the top step. It is often referred to as the ‘roof of the world’ as it includes many of the world’s highest peaks; for example, Mount Everest in the Himalaya range (8848 m) and K2 in the Karakoram range (8611 m).

Mount Everest is known as Mount Qomolangma by the Chinese people. K2 was originally named Mount Godwin-Austen, after the English topographer, Henry Godwin-Austen, who surveyed the area. The name K2 comes from the first letter of the mountain range to which it belongs and the fact that it is the second highest peak in the world.

The second step includes land located between 1000m and 2000 m above sea level, such as the plateaus of Inner Mongolia, Loess and Yunnan-Guizhou.

Vi ew in

g

sa

The Yarlung Zangbo River, which starts in Tibet and eventually flows into the Indian Ocean, contains the Yarlung Zangbo Canyon, which is almost 500 km long and over 6000 m deep and is the largest canyon in the world. At more than 2000 km, the Tarim River, in southern China, is the country’s longest interior river.

2. On a separate sheet of paper, create a fact file on the physical features of China using the following headings and any others you think appropriate. • Location • Climate • Mountains • Rivers 3. Using an atlas and the Internet for reference, draw a map of China on a separate sheet of paper, showing its main physical features. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 3 1


China – political geography Objectives • Uses atlas as a reference to draw map of China showing regions, their capital cities and China’s neighbouring countries. • Demonstrates concept of density to younger pupils.

Teacher information • Look at a world map and compare the areas of China, Canada, the USA and Australia: the world’s four largest countries by area behind Russia (approximately 17 million km2). Australia is included more for reference than comparison, as its area is notably smaller than that of the other three countries. • Compare the population and population densities of each country.

• Explain the differences between the four types of region; provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions and special administration regions. • On a map of Asia, highlight the countries which share borders with China. Ask which country has the longest border with China, (Mongolia) and what major human-made feature was constructed to defend China from this nation. (Great Wall of China)

m pl

e

• Look at a map of China which clearly shows the regions and their capitals. Such a map may be found on the Internet by typing ‘China provinces’ into a search engine.

Answers

Additional activities

2. Answers should include:

Population and density of China over four times greater than that of the United States.

Population and density of China about forty times greater than that of Canada.

Population of China over sixty-five times greater than that of Australia; population density almost fifty times greater.

• Choose a single region to research in detail, including maps, diagrams, tables and pictures. Compile all projects in a single file labelled ‘China – a research project’. Discuss beforehand the areas to be studied; e.g. geography, history, industry, politics, people, culture. Use the same format for each region.

sa

Note:

Vi ew in

g

• Devise a way to illustrate the concept of ‘population density’ to younger pupils. • List all the regions in alphabetical order. Devise language games to remember the names and their spellings.

• The actual size (by area) of China is disputed. For the purposes of this book we have included the disputed areas of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and various other territories which makes China the world’s third largest nation. Excluding the disputed territories, China’s total area is 9 596 960km2, which makes it the world’s fourth largest nation.

 4 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


China – political geography 1. Read the information about China’s population.

China has the largest population of all the countries in the world. Its people are scattered throughout the various regions, but the majority live in the eastern half, where the land is more hospitable and fertile.

China has a similar area to Canada, the United States of America and Australia, but the population is much greater. Population density

China

9 640 821 km2

1 313 973 713 – just over 1.3 billion

125/km2

USA

9 631 420 km2

298 444 215 – almost 300 million

28/km2

Canada

9 984 670 km2

32 838 715 – almost 33 million

3.2/km2

Australia

7 686 850 km2

20 264 082 – just over 20 million

2.6/km2

e

Population

China is divided into a number of separate by Great Britain and Portugal respectively. Although they are again areas which are the first level of government part of China, they continue to operate independently. administration. China shares its border with fourteen neighbouring countries: The provinces are large areas of the Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), India, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, country which are governed by provincial Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrghyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia, law. The provinces are: Anhui, Fujian, Mongolia and North Korea. Gansu, Guangdong, Gizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan and Zhejiang.

Vi ew in

g

sa

Area

m pl

Country

Beijing

The municipalities of Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai and Tianjin are governed directly by central government.

The autonomous regions of Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur and Xizang (Tibet) are self-governing and subject to their own laws.

The special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau were previously colonised

China

2. How would you describe the difference in population density of the four countries shown in the table?

3. (a) Using an atlas and the Internet for reference, draw a map of China on a separate sheet of paper to show all the separate regions, their capital cities and all of China’s neighbouring countries. (b) Colour each region separately, using the smallest number of colours possible but without any two adjoining regions having the same colour. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 5 1


Geography of China – Natural disasters Objectives • Reads the text provided. • Researches data from the Internet to complete notes within a table under appropriate headings.

Teacher information • China also needs to develop an effective relief system on the ground. It is believed that communication between fire, police and medical assistance is poor and contributes to a lack of organisation between the three units. The Red Cross is also working to educate the Chinese public in first aid and to increase the public’s awareness and ability to respond to disaster situations.

m pl

e

• Due to the high volume of natural disasters experienced in China, the Chinese government have been working over the past decade to improve disaster monitoring and warning systems. Part of this system includes a ‘ground-to-air satellite constellation system’ which will monitor weather patterns on Earth and feed the information to weather stations. The satellites will provide high resolution images before, during and after a natural disaster. The information will be used to warn of the severity of the disaster, to monitor the amount of devastation and to keep track of any relief effort.

Answers 2. Teacher check

sa

Additional activities • Select one natural disaster which has occurred in China. Complete a comprehensive report on what happened and share it with your class.

Vi ew in

g

• Create a poem about natural disasters and the effects on the Chinese people. Present your poem as a Powerpoint™ presentation to your class.

 6 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Geography of China – Natural disasters 1. Read the text.

China is unfortunately famous for having been affected by many natural disasters. In the world, it is one of the countries most affected by natural disasters. This costs China many lives and millions of ‘yuan’ (Chinese currency) each year. The number of significant disasters in China’s history have contributed to the slow development of the country, due to the constant losses as well as the amount of time and money spent on rebuilding.

Of the 100 most deadly natural disasters of the 20th century, China experienced 23 of them. It is difficult to know the exact numbers of lives lost during disasters, as the Chinese government often keeps these details hidden. Type of disaster

Number of lives lost

Date

21 October 1907

earthquake

12 000

July 1931

1908

flood

100 000

1909

epidemic: cholera

1 500 000

1910

epidemic: Manchurian plague

60 000

1911

flood

100 000

1912

cyclone, typhoon, hurricane

50 000

1920

drought

Type of disaster

e

Date

3 700 000

26 December 1932

earthquake

70 000

1933

flood

18 000

1935

flood

142 000

28 August 1937

cyclone, typhoon, hurricane

11 000

July 1938

flood

500 000

July 1939

flood

500 000

July 1949

flood

57 000

August 1954

flood

30 000

July 1959

flood

2 000 000

m pl

flood

sa

g

Vi ew in

500 000

Number of lives lost

16 December 1920

earthquake

180 000

27 July 1922

cyclone, typhoon, hurricane

100 000

22 May 1927

earthquake

200 000

May 1974

earthquake

20 000

1928

drought

3 000 000

27 July 1976

earthquake

242 000

2 . China experienced a great number of natural disasters in 2006. Research to find how they affected China. Record your notes below. Event

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

People

Financially

China

Environmentally

 7 1


Modern China – City and country 1 Objective • Reads and analyses texts about city life and country life in China.

Teacher information Note: Pages 8 to 11 are to be used in conjunction with each other. • China is one of the world’s most populated countries, with 1.3 billion people (2006).

• Farmers who are financially rewarded by the government must meet the following requirements: both husband and wife are farmers; they have no children born between 1973 and 2001 in violation of state regulations; they only have one child—either boy or girl, two girls or no children, and they are at least 60 years old.

m pl

e

• The gap between city-living Chinese and country-living Chinese is believed to be widening. While people in the city may have mobile telephones and computers, people in the countryside may have to fetch water from wells and some still struggle to feed their families.

• China is reported to have the majority of the most polluted cities in the world. Industries were shut down a few months before the 2008 Beijing Olympics to help clear the air before athletes, journalists and tourists arrived.

Additional activities

• Pupils find recipes for authentic Chinese food and make and taste them. As a challenge, ask pupils to find and create two recipes— one that is common in rural China and one from urban China.

sa

Note

• Pupils use an atlas to find the names of ten country towns/villages and ten cities in China. Pupils will need to use specific maps and study keys to determine which place names are in the city and the country.

g

• The actual size (by area) of China is disputed. For the purposes of this book we have included the disputed areas of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and various other territories which makes China the world’s third largest nation.

Vi ew in

Excluding the disputed territories, China’s total area is 9 596 960km2, which makes it the world’s fourth largest nation.

 8 

• One Mao Zedong’s famous quotes is: ‘Women hold up half the sky’. Find evidence in the text that men and women are considered to be equals in the work force in China. How does this compare to the country you live in? What about other countries?

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Modern China – City and country 1

In terms of size, China is the third largest country in the world, and has a population of 1.3 billion people. However, the lives of people who live in cities and those who live in country villages are very different.

City life

To help slow down China’s rapidly growing population, the government has told the people they can only have one child. The parents and child live in tiny homes, usually flats with only two rooms. Grandparents may also live with them. Families often share a bathroom and kitchen with their neighbours. Meals are usually noodles with vegetables and a little meat.

markets and restaurants. In their spare time, people like to be outside, so they go for walks or play card games and mahjong in the park. After school, once their homework is complete, children may watch television or play with friends in the streets. Some play sports at school, such as table tennis, volleyball or gymnastics.

e

Today in Chinese cities, there are many things available to buy in shops, such as fashionable clothing, washing machines and toys. Vendors on the street sell running shoes, fabrics, herbs and many other goods. The cities are overcrowded and pollution pours out of the many factories. The air can become so polluted, people sometimes cover their faces with masks.

Children in the city go to school five days per week, with a twohour lunch break. Children are very well-behaved and work hard. Most go to secondary school and the best students are able go to college and university.

sa

m pl

As some people now work for private companies, some luxuries can be afforded, such as mobile phones, televisions and computers. Only wealthy people can afford a car, so bicycles are used as transport by the majority of city dwellers.

Men and women work in factories, offices, shops,

Vi ew in

g

Country life

People work the land in the country and work hard to feed their families. Some live lives today that are similar to their ancestors one hundred years ago. Water buffaloes plough the fields, water is collected from wells and clothes are washed in streams. People walk to where they need to go, often carrying water in buckets across their shoulders. People in the country have comparatively few possessions to those in the city. Some live in brick or mud-brick houses, while others live in tents. Houses may have up to four rooms, but many still have an outside toilet. Families in the country

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

often have more than one child as they need the children to help them on the farm, especially boys! The government is now rewarding farmers who only have one child by paying them 600 yuan (US$72.55) each year after they turn 60 years of age. Men and women neatly plant rice in rows in paddy fields, and wheat, sugar cane, vegetables, peanuts and fruit is grown. Some produce is sold at local markets. People usually eat rice and vegetables for dinner as meat is too expensive. Children go to school from ages six to 13, but not regularly, as they are needed to help with the farming. Many children don’t finish primary school. During harvest, schools close to allow the children to help their families. When the children are not at school or doing jobs for their parents at home, they may play in the streets, build kites or swim with the water buffalo.

 9 1


Modern China – City and country 2 Objective • Reads and analyses texts about city life and country life in China.

Teacher information Note: Pages 8 to 11 are to be used in conjunction with each other. • Pupils read the text on page 9 to locate the information to complete the table. Pupils write the most relevant facts as dot points, deleting unnecessary words and phrases. If pupils are having difficulty with Question 3, direct them to paragraph two of ‘City life’.

Answers 1. • noodles with vegetables and a little meat • bicycle • wealthy have a car • washing machine

• rice and vegetables

Homes

• flats with two rooms and communal kitchen and bathroom, often with grandparents

• four bedroom homes, can be brick, mud or tents • outside toilet

Air/atmosphere

• polluted from factories • people wear masks • walks, play cards or mahjong in parks • play in street, sports such as table tennis, volleyball or gymnastics • many shops with clothes, washing machines, electrical goods and toys • vendors sell running shoes, fabrics and herbs • people have mobile phones, TVs, computers • couples only allowed to have one child

• clean air

Leisure activities

Possessions and shopping

Number of children

 10 

• wash in streams

sa

Wash clothes

3. In rural China, children go to school from six to 13, but not regularly, as they are needed to help with the farming. Many children don’t finish primary school. During harvest, schools close to allow the children to help their families. In the cities, children go to school 5 days per week with a two-hour lunch break. Children are very well-behaved and work hard. Most go to secondary school and the best students are able to go to college and university.

• walk

g

Transport

Vi ew in

Meals

2. People living in the cities often spend their spare time outside because they have very little living space in their homes.

e

Country

m pl

City

• play in street, make a kite, swim with water buffalo

• people cannot afford many possessions • sell goods at local markets

Additional activities • Ask pupils the question: ‘If you lived in China, would you prefer to live in the city or the country?’ Pupils present a brief oral presentation explaining their choice. • Pupils write what they think it would be like if there was a ‘One child policy’ in place where they live. Imagine no siblings or aunties and uncles etc.

• some couples have more than one child (especially to have a boy to help on the farm) • people over 60 can now be rewarded financially for having one child

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Modern China – City and country 2 Answer the questions by using the text on page 9. 1. Write dot points about each area of life in Chinese cities and country villages. City

Country

Meals

Transport

e

Wash clothes

sa

Vi ew in

Leisure activities

g

Air/atmosphere

m pl

Homes

Possessions and shopping

Number of children

2. Explain why you think people living in cities often spend their spare time outside. 3. On the back of this sheet, compare education and schooling for Chinese children living in the city to those who live in the country. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 11 1


Modern China – Three Gorges Dam Objective • Extracts information from a text to present arguments for and against the construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China.

Teacher information • China is the world’s most populated country, with 1.3 billion people (2006). It is believed to have the second largest economy in the world and be the third largest importer and exporter. • After the USA, China is the largest consumer of oil and is the world’s biggest consumer of coal. Hydro-electric technology is needed to produce electricity for the country’s enormous population.

Other large hydro-electric dams include: • Itaipu, Brazil/Paraguay - 12 600 megawatts • Guri, Venezuela - 10 000 megawatts • Grand Coulee, USA - 6494 megawatts.

m pl

e

• Despite reform over their control of society, the Chinese government strictly regulates the media. Due to this, government reports about the Three Gorges Dam may incorrectly state the social and environmental effects to appear more positive than they really are.

Answers

Additional activities

2.

• In groups of eight, pupils use the information written in Question 2 to conduct a debate. Pupils choose one of the following roles:

– using a renewable energy source rather than fossil fuels like coal and oil – prevent power blackouts in cities

Arguments against: – expensive

Vi ew in

– bring wealth to the country

chairperson, timekeeper, affirmative speaker 1, affirmative speaker 2, affirmative speaker 3; negative speaker 1, negative speaker 2; negative speaker 3 Give each group time to prepare and practise the debate. Affirmative and negative teams should prepare in separate rooms.

g

– control flooding to save thousands of lives and damage to towns and crops

sa

Arguments for:

– one million people have had to be relocated – archeological sites lost

• Choose another large hydro-electric dam and use the Internet to research its impact on the environment; both wildlife and people. Present an information poster about the impact including art, diagrams and statistics.

– aquatic life suffering—Yangzte River dolphin possibly extinct 3. Answers will vary

 12 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Modern China – Three Gorges Dam 1. Read about China’s most ambitious building project since the Great Wall of China, the Three Gorges Hydro-electric Dam.

e

Unfortunately, over one million people have had to leave their homes to make way for the construction of the dam. The rise of the water levels has caused massive environmental damage and the destruction of archeological sites along the river. It is also believed the aquatic life in the river has suffered and will continue to suffer. Some say that the Yangzte River dolphin will have become extinct due to the construction.

The dam is was also designed to control flooding of the Yangtze River—flooding that has, in the past, taken hundreds of thousands of lives and caused incredible damage to towns and crops.

g

The construction of the Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River in China began in 1993 and was completed in 2008. This gigantic construction was created to provide electricity for China’s massive population. Many people who live in China’s cities would experience power blackouts in the hot summer months due to excess use of air- conditioners.

The Three Gorges Dam has the capacity to produce more than 18 000 megawatts of electricity and is the largest hydro-electric dam in the world. Gigantic locks allow large ships to continue to travel along the river, transporting goods and bringing wealth to the country.

m pl

China is one of the world’s largest consumers of oil and coal. As these fossil fuels will eventually run out, China has turned to hydro power to produce electricity. Hydro-electricity relies on the force of gravity on water for its power. Moving water runs downwards, which turns turbine blades to run generators to produce electricity. Hydro-electricity is a renewable energy source, but it is expensive as it requires the construction of a large dam.

sa

Vi ew in

2. You have been asked to help prepare for a debate on the benefits of the Three Gorges Dam for China and its people. Use the text to write dot points for and against the construction. Include how people, wildlife and the environment have been effected. Arguments for:

Arguments against:

3. Do you think the construction of the Three Gorges Hydro electric Dam provides more benefits or costs? On the back of this sheet, give reasons for your answer. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

Benefits

Costs  13 1


Modern China – Mao and communism Objective • Completes a cloze exercise about the life of Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China.

Teacher information

• Mao continues to be a controversial figure. Supporters believe he helped China become powerful, others believe Mao damaged the country and caused widespread starvation during his rule.

• Although there has been some reform in the Chinese government’s control of society, the government continues to have absolute control over politics. Media is strictly regulated, with some journalists and other people known to oppose the country’s politics jailed or exiled from the country. All newspapers are produced by local government and use of the Internet is regulated and possibly under surveillance. • The movement of people in the country is still policed, especially those travelling from rural areas to urban cities.

e

• In 1949, two million Nationalist troops fled to Taiwan, an island off mainland China. It is now called the Republic of China (rather than People’s Republic of China) and the country, refusing to submit to China’s Communist government, enjoys a democratic government with people free to vote for their leaders.

• Since Mao’s death in 1976, China’s economy has boomed and continues to do so. Many of his changes have been abolished, such as collective farming.

• In 1989, student protesters were killed by government forces in Tiananmen Square in Beijing. Concerns that China is not abiding by international laws for human rights continues.

m pl

• After the Second World War, farmland in China was scarce, peasants were in great debt to their landlords and they were hungry. Mao addressed these issues with his most famous and important programme—land reform. Land reform had farmland taken from its owners and turned in to collective farming (communes) run by the government. Some communes had thousands of people working in them.

sa

• China became a communist state in 1949 and the People’s Republic of China was established, controlled by Communist leader Mao Zedong.

Answers 1. important

2. study

3. people

4. feed

5. together

6. China

7. fight

8. escape

9. landlords

• Hold a mini debate with the topic:

g

Additional activities

Vi ew in

‘Mao Zedong’s rule was beneficial to China.’

10. victorious

11. severe

12. scientists

13. everywhere

14. decisions

15. markets

Choose a negative and affirmative side and give each a few minutes to formulate an opinion and to argue the topic. • Ask pupils to use the library or the Internet to find some of Mao Zedong’s famous quotations. Some quotations include: – Let one thousand flowers bloom. – Once all struggle is grasped, miracles are possible. – In times of difficulties, we must not lose sight of our achievements. – People like me sound like a lot of big cannons. – Women hold up half the sky. Pupils choose a quotation each and have one minute to explain to the class what he/she thinks Chairman Mao meant by it.

 14 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Modern China – Mao and communism

The late Mao Zedong was chairman of the Communist Party of China for 27 years and is regarded as one of the most important figures in modern world history.

1. Complete the text by filling in the spaces with words from the list. together scientists feed

study everywhere important

escape China victorious

Believed to be one of the most

1

severe decisions landlords

fight markets people

figures in modern world history, Mao Zedong

was born in 1893 in the village of Shaoshan, China. He was sent away to at college, 2 where he became an assistant librarian and read constantly. During this time, Mao became unhappy that China was ruled by a small group of wealthy 4

while

their families.

e

millions lived in poverty, struggling to

3

m pl

Mao wished for a China where all people were equal and everyone worked for the 5 good of the people. By the age of 27, he had helped create the Communist Party of China and became a member.

7

for control of the country

g

should be ruled and so a began—a civil war!

sa

At this time, two groups wished to control : The Nationalist 6 Party and the Communist Party. Neither groups could agree on how China

Vi ew in

Mao led Communist armies and walked across China with the troops to the Nationalists. During what is known as The Long 8 March, an almost 10 000 km trek, Mao and his men took land away from wealthy

9

and gave it to peasant farmers.

In 1949, the Communists were and Mao became 10 Chairman of the Communist Party and the People’s Republic of China was created. Mao’s government took control of farming but, unfortunately, during this time there was

11

drought and floods and thousands of people died from starvation.

From 1966 to 1976, Mao asked young Chinese people to join his army of supporters known as the Red Guards. People who had studied, such as teachers, to work alongside peasant farmers in the fields

12

and politicians, were sent to the country

Religious places of worship were destroyed as Mao claimed that the people of China should only believe in the Communist Party and not a religion. Mao’s portrait was , 13 especially in Tiananmen Square! This time in China’s history is known as The Cultural Revolution. After Mao died in 1976, farmers were able to make some

14

again about what and

how much they grew. They could also sell some goods at local for themselves. 15 Agricultural production and the general standard of living for most people improved. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 15 1


Modern China – Industry Objectives • Completes activities to gain knowledge about products generated in China. • Completes a cloze exercise about China’s astronautic industry.

Teacher information Discuss the enormity of China’s population with the class. It has about four times the population of the United States and yet China has only a little more land than the USA. With a population of 1.3 billion people (2006), China has an enormous job supplying its people with food and the necessary products for day to day living.

Cars are manufactured in and exported to the country to be purchased by wealthy Chinese. Although a communist state, China is restructuring its economy to include foreign companies.

m pl

e

From the reform policies adopted in 1978, China has managed to not only stabilise its economy but create a ‘booming’ one. For thirty years, China has exported products to and imported products from the rest of the world. Foreign investment and technology are welcomed in China today. (Although media and the Internet continue to be regulated.)

People living in Chinese cities now have the opportunity to become consumers, purchasing refrigerators, washing machines, colour television, video recorders and DVDs.

Answers

Additional activities

2. Agricultural

Manufactured

salt

rice

cement

gypsum

corn

erasers

sugar

steel

wheat

fertilisers

fur gas

plastics

computers rockets cloth

tractors

satellites

3. (a) established

(b) countries

(c) manufactured

(d) leaders

(e) launched

(f) booster

(g) mission

 16 

– why they are important, especially in warm climates – what else occurs at markets (socially)

Vi ew in

oil iron ore coal

– what they supply

g

Natural

• Investigate the importance of markets, where people buy and sell food and products, to China and its people. Present an A3 poster with your findings. Include:

sa

1. Answers will vary

– who grows or manufactures the products sold – the difference between city and country markets. • Choose one industry to investigate further from the following: – Electronic information industry; Aeronautics and astronautics; Machinery; Textile; Energy; Chemical industry • Compare the products generated in China to those in your own country. Create a two column list and highlight any that are similar.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Modern China – Industry

The Chinese government places great importance on being able to feed its people without relying on other countries. With a population of over one billion people, that is an enormous task!

In the last 30 years, China has made rapid progress in industry. It is one of the biggest producers of steel, raw coal, cement and fertilisers in the world. Thousands of products are manufactured and exported to many countries. (Probably to your local shops!)

1. Look in and around your classroom for items with a ‘Made in China’ label or sticker on them. Describe what you found. • Electrical goods: • Clothing: • Footwear:

e

• Other: rice steel rockets

cement wheat fur

salt iron ore cloth

corn coal gas

gypsum fertilisers tractors

erasers plastics sugar

sa

m pl

2. Classify these products as natural, agricultural or manufactured to complete the table below. oil computers satellites

Products of China Agricultural

Manufactured

Vi ew in

g

Natural

3. Choose words from the list to complete the text about China’s astronautic industry. China first

a

its astronautics industry in the 1950s and

now trades with more than 70

manufactured mission

. Spacecraft, missiles

b

and ground equipment are researched, designed,

booster c

launched

and tested all in China. China is also one of the world

d

in satellite research, satellite

launching and recovery. It is believed up to ten satellites are

e

leaders countries established

from China each year. On 15 October 2003, China’s first manned space mission, Shenzhou 5, was launched by a rocket

f

also made in China. The astronaut was in space for 21 hours and the

g

declared a success.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 17 1


Modern China – Flags and anthem Objectives • Colours and analyses the flags of mainland China and its two Special Administrative Regions–Hong Kong and Macau. • Analyses China’s national anthem ‘March of the volunteers’.

Teacher information

Facts

Note: Pupils require an atlas and access to a library and the Internet for this activity.

The official name of China is the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Mainland China refers to China’s:

• Spend some time looking at your own country’s flag with the class. Discuss the colours and any symbolism in the flag.

• 22 provinces • 5 autonomous regions • 4 municipalities

• Before completing Question 3, ask the pupils to sing their own national anthem. Discuss the meaning of the song and whether the pupils believe it describes the nation’s identity and gives clues about its history.

China also has two Special Administrative Regions, Hong Kong and Macau, that are not part of mainland China.

e

Answers

• In 1999, Macau was returned by Portugal to China.

1 July 1997 Great Britain Bauhinia flower (c) Macau SAR flag

sa

(b) Hong Kong SAR flag

• The bauhinia flower appears white on the Hong Kong flag, but they are actually a brilliant-purple colour.

1 October 1949 Revolution Communist Party People of China

19 November 1999 Portugal Lotus flower

2. The five stars of China’s flag also appear on the (new) flags of Hong Kong and Macau. 3. Answers will vary

• The lyrics for ‘March of the volunteers’ were written by playwright Tian Han in 1934. During the cultural revolution (1966–1976), Tian Han was imprisoned and ‘March of the volunteers’ banned.

g

• Although China is a Communist state, Hong Kong and Macau enjoy a high degree of self-rule and their governments are a limited democracy.

Vi ew in

m pl

1. (a) Chinese national flag

• In 1997, China resumed control of Hong Kong after it had been surrendered to Great Britain for 150 years. Great Britain had occupied and leased the port of Hong Kong for this time. (Originally by force.)

• The music for ‘March of the volunteers’ was composed by Nie Er. The song was first used as China’s national anthem in 1949 when Beijing came into control of the Chinese Communists in the Chinese Civil War. The song became the national anthem in 1949 (the same year the People’s Republic of China was founded) until it was banned. The song was reinstated in 1978 by the National People’s Congress.

Additional activities • Pupils write a piece comparing China’s national anthem with their own country’s. • Pupils rehearse and recite China’s national anthem from memory, concentrating on the tone and volume of their voice. • Pupils conduct research to create an eye-catching tourism brochure for China, Macau or Hong Kong.

Note: • The actual size (by area) of China is disputed. For the purposes of this book we have included the disputed areas of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and various other territories which makes China the world’s third largest nation. Excluding the disputed territories, China’s total area is 9 596  960km2, which makes it the world’s fourth largest nation.

 18 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Modern China – Flags and anthem

China is the third largest country in area in the world. Since 1997, two countries have rejoined China and are known as China’s Special Administrative Regions (SAR).

1. Use an atlas, a library or the Internet to colour the three flags correctly. Conduct research to complete the facts about each flag. (a) Chinese national flag (b) Hong Kong SAR flag

e

(c) Macua SAR flag

Type of flower on flag:

Date first flown: Macau was returned from China by: Type of flower on flag:

Vi ew in

Four smaller stars symbolise:

Hong Kong was returned to China by:

sa

The large star is a symbol of:

Date first flown:

g

Colour red is a symbol of:

m pl

Date first flown:

2. How have the designers of the two new flags shown that the regions are under China’s rule?

The Chinese national flag is usually raised to the music of China’s national anthem, ‘March of the volunteers’. The role of a national anthem is to describe a country’s history and preserve its identity.

3. (a) Read China’s national anthem aloud.

March of the volunteers Arise! All who refuse to be slaves! Let our flesh and blood become our new Great Wall! As the Chinese nation faces its greatest peril, All forcefully expend their last cries. Arise! Arise! Arise! May our million hearts beat as one, Brave the enemy’s fire, March on! Brave the enemy’s fire, March on! March on! March on!

(b) On the back of the sheet, write a paragraph describing what you think the lyrics of China’s national anthem tell you about China and its history.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 19 1


Beijing – capital of China Objectives • Reads notes of information about Beijing. • Finds words from notes in word search. • Selects interesting aspects for more detailed research.

Teacher information • Since its establishment in 1045 BCE as Ji, Beijing has been named and renamed a number of times, depending on the ruler of the time. Those names included Zhoujun, Youzhou, Nanjing, Zhongdu, Yanjing, Dadu and Beiping. Beijing has been its name at least once before.

• It is believed that Beijing has stood on its present site for over 3000 years. • The Four Great Ancient Capitals of China throughout its history were Beijing, Nanjing, Luoyang and Xi’an. Others were added to this list after the 1920s, when more archaeological discoveries were made.

• The main city area of Beijing has two older sections located in its middle. Once a 24-kilometre wall surrounded the city. Inside the wall was another walled city—the ‘Forbidden City’ which was the home of the Emperor.

m pl

e

• Beijing is in the northern part of the North China Plain and has mountains to the west, north and north-east. About 38% of Beijing is flat land and 62% is mountainous.

Answers

Additional activities

A

N

P

E

K

I

N

G

N

F

O

S

S

S

C

I

P

M

Y

L

O

T

S

I

R

U

O

O

P

E

R

A

V

T

N

O

I

T

U

L

L

N

R

E

H

T

R

O

N

Z

A

I

R

P

O

R

T

S

Y

A

W

R

O

T

O

M

N

O

O

S

N

O

M

D

I

S

T

R

I

C

T

C

A

P

I

T

A

L

Q

 20 

I

L

T

K

O

P

g

H

Vi ew in

2.

• Pupils write brief notes about his/her own capital city and then select 12 or 14 words to use in a word search for others to solve.

sa

1. Teacher check

China

• Pupils create a tourist brochure, using the information from the worksheet, describing why Beijing is a desirable place to visit. • Pupils categorise the information on the pupil page into relevant groups to write paragraphs about Beijing.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Beijing – capital of China 1. Read the notes about Beijing.

• name means ‘Northern Capital’

• capital city of China

• second largest city in China after Shanghai

• before 1949, known in Western world as Peking

• one of four very large municipal districts

• governed by Chinese Central Government

• has two counties and 16 districts

• covers an area of about 17 800 sq km

• about 14 million people live in Beijing—almost 96% belong to Han majority, 2% – Manchu, 2% – Hui, 0.3% – Mongolian

e

• a lot of traffic problems and air pollution due to factories and industry

m pl

sa

• Tiananmen Square located in centre of Beijing. Location of the Great Hall of the People. The Forbidden City (Chinese imperial palace during the Ming and Qing dynasties) • monsoon climate, four separate seasons—short nearby. spring and autumn; long winter and summer • fossil of Peking Man found at Zhoukoudian, • centre of government, culture and education in 48 km south-west of Beijing China • outside Beijing, at Badaling (80 km north • very busy, modern city west), is most visited section of Great Wall of • one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China China.

g

China

Vi ew in

Beijing

• many railways, roads and motorways pass through Beijing

• location of China’s international airport.

• popular tourist attractions in Beijing: Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Beijing Opera, many temples

• hosted the 2008 Olympic Games

2. Find 13 words from the notes in the word search. H

A

N

P

E

K

I

N

G

N

F

O

S

S

I

L

S

C

I

P

M

Y

L

O

T

S

I

R

U

O

T

K

O

P

E

R

A

V

T

N

O

I

T

U

L

L

O

P

N

R

E

H

T

R

O

N

Z

A

I

R

P

O

R

T

S

Y

A

W

R

O

T

O

M

N

O

O

S

N

O

M

D

I

S

T

R

I

C

T

C

A

P

I

T

A

L

Q

3. Select an aspect of Beijing you find interesting to complete more detailed research about. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 21 1


Historical Tiananmen Square Objectives • Reads information about Tiananmen Square. • Completes an acrostic using information about Tiananmen Square. • Selects a style of poetry to write about an aspect of Tiananmen Square.

Teacher information • The Monument to the People’s Heroes was built in 1952 and shows eight large relief sculptures representing Chinese modern history. The 38-metre high monument is constructed of granite and is the largest monument to Chinese history. The words ‘The People’s Heroes are immortal’, written by Chairman Mao, are engraved on the monument.

• A cinquain is a five-line poem that describes something. (Line 1 one word or two syllables to describe topic; Line 2 - two words or four syllables to describe title; Line 3 - three words or six syllables to describe what the topic does; Line 4 - four words or eight syllables to describe the feeling or mood; Line 5 - one word or two syllables with a similar meaning to the topic)

• The Great Hall of the People was built in 1959 and is the place where the China National People’s Congress meets. Twelve marble posts stand at the front of the hall which includes the Central Hall, Great Auditorium and Banqueting Hall. Marble floors and crystal lamps decorate the Hall.

• A sense poem describes something using the five senses. Each line uses a different sense.

e

• When the pupils have completed their poems, some may wish to share them with the class.

m pl

• Mao Zedong Memorial Hall is the place where the body of Chairman Mao lies in a crystal coffin, surrounded by bunches of various famous flowers and grasses.

• A string poem describes a keyword. (Line 1 - keyword is written three times; Line 2 - visual description; Line 3 - describes the size; Line 4 - describes what it does; Line 5 - describes something interesting; Line 6 - keyword is written three times)

• Tiananmen Tower was built in 1417 during the Ming Dynasty and was used for various ceremonies, such as announcing the new emperor or empress to the people.

Vi ew in

g

sa

• Protests which have taken place in Tiananmen Square—apart from 1989—include those in 1919 (May Fourth Movement for science and democracy) and in 1976, following the death of Zhou Enlai (a well-known communist party leader and Premier of the People’s Republic of China from 1949 until his death.

Answers

1–3. Teacher check

 22 

China

Additional activities • Pupils research to find information to write a report about one historical event which took place in Tiananmen Square. • Use the Internet as a resource to find pictures of Tiananmen Square for pupils to sketch and create simple black and white prints. • Investigate the largest public open space in your city and list activities which are held there. Compare these activities to those held in Tiananmen Square.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Historical Tiananmen Square 1. Read the information about Tiananmen Square.

In the centre of Beijing sits Tiananmen Square, which is the largest public urban open space in the world.

Tiananmen Square is well-known outside of China as the scene where, in 1989, many student protestors were killed and injured.

The square is named after the Tiananmen, or ‘Gate of Heavenly Peace’, which forms the entrance to the Forbidden City to the north of the square. Tiananmen Square is not actually a square, as it measures 880 metres from north to south and 500 metres from east to west. Tiananmen Square is very important to the Chinese people as it is the site of many historical events. On 1 October 1949, Chairman Mao announced the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in Tiananmen Square.

In Tiananmen Square, tourists can visit Tiananmen Tower, the Monument to the People’s Heroes, the Great Hall of the People, Mao Zedong Memorial Hall and the China National Museum or view the national flag-raising ceremony.

Military displays and parades, mass rallies and protests have taken place in Tiananmen Square.

e

sa

m pl

The Chinese people like to walk or fly kites in Tiananmen Square and on national holidays it is filled with flowers.

T

I

A

N

A

N

M

E

N

S

Q

U

A

R

E

Vi ew in

g

2. Complete an acrostic about Tiananmen Square using information from above.

3. Choose another style of poetry—such as a cinquain or sense or string poem—to write about an aspect of Tiananmen Square from the point of view of a tourist, military service person, kite flyer, merchant who supplies flowers or protester. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 23 1


The Forbidden City Objectives • Completes a cloze about the Forbidden City. • Uses a map to locate places of interest or importance.

Teacher information

• Construction of the Forbidden City began in 1406, took 14 years to complete and was completed by over one million skilled workers and craftsmen.

• An interactive walk through a map of the Forbidden City can be found at the website <http://www.thebeijingguide.com/forbidden_ city/index.html>. • Once the pupils have completed the cloze, ensure that they reread the cloze again in order to retain or comprehend the information.

sa

• Located in the Outer Court of the Forbidden City is the Hall of Supreme Harmony, which is approached by entering through the Gate of Supreme Harmony. The Hall of Supreme Harmony is the largest structure in the Forbidden City and is the location of the imperial throne. The throne is decorated with images of dragons, sits on a platform reached above a flight of seven steps and has status of a mythical beast, called a ludlan on either side of the throne. Included on each side of the throne are three giant columns decorated with images of golden dragons. Dragons also decorate the screens behind the throne and the roof above it. In total, nearly 14 000 dragons decorate the hall. The hall was the location of many spectacular ceremonies.

e

• The city was called ‘forbidden’ because no-one was allowed to enter unless given permission by the emperor or were members of the imperial household.

• The Imperial Garden is located behind the Palace of Earthly Peace. This was used by the members of the imperial household during their leisure time. It covers 12 000 m2, has 20 different structures and includes ancient pine and cypress trees, flowers and unusual rock formations. One strange, 14-metre tall rock formation is called the Hill of Splendor. It has a pair of dragons, carved from stone, sprouting water from their mouths in front of it. The paths of the garden are paved with colourful stones and feature 900 mosaics.

m pl

• The Forbidden City is the English translation of the Chinese name ‘Zijin Cheng’.

Vi ew in

g

• In the Inner Court of the Forbidden City, entered by the Gate of Heavenly Purity, is the Palace of Heavenly Purity, where all the Ming Dynasty emperors lived. It is the largest structure and contains nine bedrooms, all heated by pipes in the floor, with three beds in each bedroom. Each room was two storeys. As a security measure for the safety of the emperor, only the emperor’s very close servants knew which bed he would sleep in each night.

Answers

1.

(a) Beijing (d) Chinese (g) structures (j) grounds (m) river

2. Teacher check

 24 

(b) imperial (e) Palace (h) moat (k) square (n) Stream

(c) dynasties (f) largest (i) metre (l) buildings

Additional activities • Pupils research the location of World Heritage listed sites situated close to where he/she lives in his/her country. • Pupils use the map, select a portion, such as a watchtower or gate and create an artistic representation of it. Use of the Internet to research images may provide inspiration. • Pupils write a recount from the point of view of a traveller viewing, for the first time, the Forbidden City as it was in ancient times.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


The Forbidden City 1. Complete the cloze about the Forbidden City.

imperial buildings

grounds metre

Palace square

largest Chinese

structures river

The Forbidden City is located in the centre of serving as the

b

d

. It was built in 1420,

palace for the emperors and their families and .

c

name means ‘Purple Forbidden City’. Today, it is also known as the

Museum, and it houses the

e

preserved wooden

in the world.

m pl

g

The Forbidden City is surrounded by a six-metre wide

i

high wall.

f

collection of

h

and a ten-

e

moat dynasties

a

servants during the Ming and Qing Its

Beijing Stream

, 9999 rooms,

l

five halls, 17 palaces, a built

m n

palace moat

watchtower

watchtower

called the Inner Golden Im

and five stone bridges

with marble balustrades.

Palace of Kindliness and Tranquility

In 1987, the Forbidden City was declared a World

l

ria

pe

Vi ew in

.

k

palace moat

g

800

sa

j The of the Forbidden City cover an area of 720 000 metres. It includes the Imperial Gardens,​

s

en

rd

Ga

Palace of Heavenly Purity Gate of Heavenly Purity

Gate of Kindliness and Tranquility

Heritage listed Site.

2. Use the map of the Forbidden City to list the names of eight important or interesting features; for example, the Gate of Heavenly Peace (Tiananmen).

‘Sea of Flagstones’ Imperial Palace West Magnificent Gate

Gate of Supreme Harmony

East Magnificent Gate

Golden stream watchtower

watchtower

palace moat

Meridian Gate (Wumen)

palace moat

Altar of Earth and Grain

Upright Gate (Duanmen)

Temple of the Imperial Ancestors

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Gate of Heavenly Peace (Tiananmen)

China

 25 1


The discovery and loss of Peking Man Objective • Completes information about Peking Man using a crossword.

Teacher information • Work resumed on the project after the People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949. Discoveries now include six complete skulls, arm and broken facial bones, fifteen lower jawbones, and 157 teeth. • Some theories to explain the disappearance of the Peking Man specimens include that the bones sank with the Japanese hospital ship Awa Maru which, although guaranteed safe passage, was mistakenly sunk by an American torpedo in 1945.

• Finds at Zhoukoudian also include evidence of the earliest human use of fire for cooking, light and warmth and tools made from bones and sharpened stones. • As well as male remains, those of females, believed to be about 144 cm tall, were also found.

m pl

Answers D H E R I

 26 

P

K

5.

• Pupils write an imaginative tale to tell what happened to the fossil remains of Peking Man.

C O M M I T T E E D

• On a time line, plot important archaeological ‘finds’ which have contributed to theories about the development or evolution of modern humans. • Using the skull as a reference, sketch a picture of the ‘possible’ appearance of Peking Man.

Vi ew in

S A D I S A F E A P P U N N E A R R Y E E V I D E N C

B R T A G E A R I E C I M E N S H A E E P I N G O L N O W N G I O S S I L I S T S

sa

E V O L V E X I S T F 0 R E H E E D J A P A N L I C A B O S Q U A

Additional activities

g

e

• The site of Peking Man at Zhoukoudian is under threat from landslides, earthquakes, explosions at nearby stone quarries, acid rain from nearby cement factories eroding the rocks of the caves, vibrations from nearby train lines and improper archaeological excavation and weathering.

K

F

E

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


The discovery and loss of Peking Man Research the required information to complete the cloze and crossword.

A = Across

Vi ew in

g

sa

m pl

e

D = Down

In the 1920s, at an abandoned from Beijing, the discovered by

16A

in the small village of Zhoukoudian, 50 kms

15A

remains of teeth, a skull and other skeletal remains were

.

5D

The remains were identified and provided

17A

2D

that human beings

in China between 200 000 and 700 000 years ago. The skull, named Peking Man, was of a previously

13A

species of human being and showed how humans had

.

1A

The skull was similar to that of a modern person but had a low eyebrow

14A

, protruding

7A

and space for a smaller

. The teeth were

3D

quite large. The site was excavated for many years, until 1937, when digging stopped due to invading China. To safeguard the important discoveries, the

6A

packed up and sent to the USA for

9D

were carefully

. Unfortunately, all the fossils

12A

and have still not been found to this day. Luckily, one of the anthropologists

working on the project had made America.

8D

of all the skull fossils to be sent to him in

The site of Peking Man at Zhoukoudian was listed as a World and in 2005, the Chinese government established a bones. Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ ~ www.prim-ed.com

11A

4A 10D

China

site in 1987,

to try to find the missing î ´ 27 1î &#x201D;


People of China – Living in China 1 Objective • Reads and comprehends information about living in China.

Teacher information

• To date, there are approximately 670 cities in China, with an average population density of about 460 persons km2.. These figures will continue to rise as rural to urban movement increases. Over the past ten years or so, the population of China’s cities has increased 10% annually, increasing from around 170 million in the late 1970s to around 560 million. People that move from the country to the city are known as migrant workers, and because they are considered to have a low social status compared to urban dwellers, their choice of jobs is limited. Most migrant workers remain in jobs that provide cheap labour for China’s ongoing economic development, contributing greatly to China’s industrial workforce. Even though migrant workers face big challenges when working in the cities, they still consider it better financially.

• Chinese money is known as ‘renminbi’, meaning ‘the people’s currency’. The currency unit is called the ‘yuan’. One yuan equals 10 ‘jiao’ and 1 jiao equals 10 ‘fen’. The currency is issued in the following denominations: one, two, five, ten, twenty, fifty and one hundred yuan; one, two and five jiao; and one, two and five fen.

e

Pages 28 to 31 are to be used in conjunction with each other.

• In the mid-20th century, 80 per cent of Chinese people were illiterate or semi-illiterate. Now, a very small percentage of young and middle-aged people would be considered illiterate due to government policies improving schooling (particularly in the cities) and compulsory schooling.

m pl

Note:

• China, today, has one of the fastest changing societies in the

sa

world. The way of life, especially in cities and large towns, is not much different from other places in the world, mainly due to Western influences.

Vi ew in

g

• The more traditional way of life exists much more in rural areas than in the city. An extended family, with three to four generations living under one roof, each contributing to the family’s welfare in some way, can exist much more easily in the rural area. In the city, smaller houses can only cater for a nuclear family and perhaps grandparents. Family values and unity are still very important and if family members can’t all live in the same house they often live close to each other so they can care for and help each other. • The Chinese government introduced a one-child-per-family policy in 1979 to control population growth. If couples have more than one child, they have to pay high fines or are ineligible for certain health benefits etc. This policy is relaxed in the country, where couples may try for a son if their first child was a girl or disabled. Certain ethnic minorities may also have more than one child. It has been reported that China’s population would consist of 400 million more people if the policy did not exist.

Additional activities • Pupils can view a website—such as: <http://www.travelchinaguide.com/map/china_map.htm>— to study maps of the population density, locations of major cities, and agricultural and industrial areas of China. • Find out the exchange rate between the Chinese currency unit and his/her own currency. Label items in shopping catalogues with the current Chinese yuan prices.

Note: The actual size (by area) of China is disputed. For the purposes of this book we have included the disputed areas of the Republic of China Taiwan and various other territories. Excluding the disputed territories, China’s total area is 9 596 960km2, which makes it the world’s fourth largest nation.

 28 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


People of China – Living in China 1 If you live in a crowded city, you may have some idea of what it is like to live in urban China. Although China is the third largest country in area in the world, 1.3 billion people have to ‘fit in’ there! That’s more than one-fifth of the total population of the world. In fact, more people live in urban areas of China than the entire population of the United States of America. Also, China’s population is unevenly distributed, with western China sparsely populated compared to eastern China, which contains 90 per cent of the population.

China is made up of approximately 55 ethnic groups. The Han people form the largest group with about 1.1 billion people. The other ethnic groups total 160 million, which is still a lot of people! All nationalities are considered equal and nearly all non-Han minority groups are well-integrated into the national population.

Living in China today is different from the past. In the cities, you will now find towering office buildings, shopping centres filled with Western products and modern apartment complexes. These apartments usually have one or two bedrooms, a living room, kitchen and bathroom. City skylines are dotted with cranes and construction is booming. Mixed among the modern buildings are older, more traditional style office buildings, shops and housing. Many are gradually being knocked down and rebuilt. Traditional street stalls and markets can be still be found throughout the cities, selling items such as fresh vegetables, live chickens, dumplings or rice and noodle dishes. Stalls offer services such as bicycle or shoe repairs, or haircuts. Goods are paid for in ‘yuan’, the Chinese currency unit, and bartering for goods is a widespread practice.

Although more people live in the rural areas of China (about 60 per cent), on farms and in villages and towns, the population is spread out more. The amount of people living in rural areas is rapidly decreasing as more and more people move to the cities looking for better employment and education opportunities. In most rural areas, the way of life is noticeably different from that in the cities. Similar stalls and markets, as found in the cities, are common in rural areas, but the westernised shopping centres are not. In parts of the countryside, mud and straw houses can still be found. People live in individual houses which are not as modern as city housing. Many still do not have indoor taps or flush toilets; water is collected from outdoor taps or wells. The majority of people in rural areas are involved in farming and many still work the land by hand using animals and simple farming equipment. Also known as agricultural industrial workers, farmers in China have a low social status and comparatively poor education.

Many people live and work on the water in the traditional manner, in sampans or in modern motorised cargo boats, transporting goods from one port to another or selling food and other products.

The extended family is very important to the Chinese and, in the past, three or four generations lived in the same house. This can still occur in the country, where houses are bigger. Most families in China today have only one child, due to government laws made to stop the population from increasing. Children’s education is considered very important and children attend school six days a week, Monday to Saturday.

China today is becoming increasingly more modern and Westernised—particularly in the cities. The clothing worn is similar to that in Western countries and ownership of computers and mobile phones and use of the Internet continue to soar.

Vi ew in

g

sa

m pl

e

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 29 1


People of China – Living in China 2 Objective • Reads and comprehends information about living in China.

Teacher information Note: Pages 28 to 31 are to be used in conjunction with each other. • Pupils may need to revise how to organise data in a Venn diagram to answer Question 3.

Answers 1. Answers may include: 1.3 billion people have to ‘fit in’ the area, one-fifth of the world’s population, greater urban population than the whole of the USA, eastern China contains 90 per cent of the population, western China sparsely populated. 2. (a) approximately 55 (b) Han people, 1.1 billion

(c) Answer should indicate that all nationalities are considered equal and nearly all non-Han minority groups are well-integrated into the population.

RURAL

m pl

URBAN better employment/ education opportunities

densely populated

street stalls

farms, villages, towns

lower social status

bartering

Vi ew in

booming construction industry

‘yuan’ is used

g

small, modern apartment complexes

lack of indoor plumbing

sa

3.

e

Westernised shopping centres

population decreasing

4. Three or four generations do not live in the same house, especially in the cities; most families today have only one child.

Additional activities • In pairs, or individually, pupils could add other keywords or phrases in the Venn diagram about life in rural or urban China. They could also add information that does not fit into either of the three sections and needs to be placed outside the border. • Browse the Internet to research true stories about rural Chinese people who have left the country to live and work in the city. Suggested site: <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5410347>

 30 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


People of China – Living in China 2 Use the information on page 29 and your own research to answer the questions below. 1. Use the first paragraph to locate and write three facts that would give someone an insight into China’s

population. 2. Answer these questions about China’s ethnic make-up. (a) How many ethnic groups form the population?

(b) Name the largest group and its total.

(c) Write a brief comment about the integration of ethnic groups.

e

m pl

• better employment/education opportunities • population decreasing • lack of indoor plumbing • small, modern apartment complexes • farms, villages, towns • booming construction industry

Vi ew in

g

• ‘yuan’ is used

sa

3. Read the keywords and phrases below about living in rural and urban China. Write them in the correct part of the Venn diagram.

• street stalls

• densely populated • bartering

• lower social status

URBAN

RURAL

• Westernised shopping centres

4. What are two differences that are developing in Chinese family structure? Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 31 1


People of China – Chinese food culture Objective • Completes a crossword containing information about Chinese food culture.

Teacher information

– Southern: The most notable difference in this style is the use of chilli peppers, making dishes generally more spicy. The cuisine is known as Szechwan and Hunan cooking styles. Rice is widely used.

sa

• In most Chinese dishes, the food is presented in bite-sized pieces so it is easy to pick up with chopsticks. Each person is given his or her own bowl of rice or noodles and food is taken from accompanying dishes on communal plates. Each diner uses chopsticks to choose pieces of food from these plates. The food is eaten straight from the plate or added to the diner’s bowl of

Vi ew in

S N A K S E K I N G P O R C H O W M E I N D N L G A E R C S C H O P S L R O P C O M M U N A L O S G B O D I M S U M E N L E A V E

g

Answers T D E R A R O M P P O I N T

• There are several superstitions that explain why certain etiquettes are followed: If chopsticks are left upright in the rice bowl, it is considered extremely bad taste as it is connected with funerals. Tapping on your bowl with chopsticks is considered an insult to the chef or host. Like dropped chopsticks, crossing your chopsticks is unlucky, but permissible in a dim sum restaurant, where the waiter or waitress will cross them to show your bill has been paid. Turning a whole cooked fish over to debone the flesh on the bottom is considered bad luck. It means the same as capsizing a boat. The backbone of the fish should be removed without turning the fish over.

e

– Northern: The use of vinegar and garlic is common and the dishes tend to be quite oily. Wheat, in the form of pasta, is widely used in dishes such as dumplings, spring rolls, steamed and stuffed buns and in noodles.

rice. The bowls are usually held in one hand close to the mouth while eating and food is scooped into the mouth with the other chopstick-loaded hand.

m pl

• Food and the way it is cooked in China can be categorised into two main styles:

U P R I C E I H G O H I T I C K E T W L

S L U R N R P O R K

Additional activities

• Pupils who are proficient at using chopsticks can write a procedure about how to use them for other Pupils to follow. Alternatively, Pupils can demonstrate and explain how to use them so others can copy the correct method. Pieces of bread could be used for practise in picking up food items. • Research to find out why certain etiquettes are followed in Chinese eating customs. • Prepare a menu for a Chinese banquet for ten people. It should include four appetiser dishes, six to eight main courses, a savoury snack-type of dish and a dessert.

ACROSS

4. aroma

6. Peking

9. chow mein

13. chopsticks 16. communal 17. turn

19. dim sum

20. pork

10. rice 18. bowl

21. leave

DOWN

1. tea

2. drop

3. snake

5. spring roll

6. point

7. noodles

8. upright

11. choice

13. congee

14. spoon

15. slurp

 32 

12. across

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


People of China – Chinese food culture One of the first things that comes to mind when we think of Chinese food culture is the use of chopsticks for eating. These are called ‘kuaizi’ in Chinese. Did you know that there are superstitions regarding the use of chopsticks? For example, if you find a pair placed unevenly at your table setting, it is said that you will miss a train, plane or boat.

By completing the crossword below, you will find out more superstitions regarding chopsticks and other interesting snippets of information dealing with Chinese food culture.

Vi ew in

g

sa

m pl

e

Across 4. Colour, flavour and have equal importance in Chinese cuisine. 6. Famous duck dish 9. Popular vegetable and noodle dish (sometimes with meat added) 10. White grain eaten with most meals 13. Main table utensils 16. In everyday meals, diners take food from dishes. 17. It is considered bad manners to a whole fish over to debone the meat. 18. Used to eat from 19. Individual portions of food, often dumplings 20. Popular sweet and sour dish 21. It is considered good manners to something on your plate. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Down 1. Favourite Chinese beverage 2. It is considered bad luck to chopsticks. 3. Popular soup in China 5. Deep-fried dough with savoury filling 6. It is considered bad manners to the spout of a teapot at someone. 7. Type of pasta served with many meals 8. It is considered bad manners to point chopsticks . 11. It is considered bad manners to search in a dish for a portion. 12. It is considered good manners to reach the table for food. 13. Chinese rice soup 14. Used to eat soup with 15. It is considered bad manners to soup. China

 33 1


People of China – Chinese language, customs and etiquette Objective • Compares Chinese language, customs and etiquette with that of own culture.

Teacher information • Chinese courtesies follow strict guidelines and there are key concepts to understand Chinese culture. These are: – Mianzi (face): Losing ‘face’ or experiencing shame in public is considered a ‘no-no’ to the Chinese. They avoid this at all costs so as not to insult, embarrass, heatedly disagree with or demean someone. If they do not agree with something someone says, they will remain quiet so neither party loses respect or honour.

• Chinese as a written language has been in use for more than 6000 years. Chinese is written with characters known as ‘hanzi’. Each character represents a syllable of spoken Chinese and also has a meaning. Characters can be used on their own, as part of other characters or in combination with other characters. They are written using the following twelve basic strokes

– Guanzi (relationships between people): It is very important for the Chinese to forge good relationships as they are seen as a symbol of personal ability and influence. Guanzi is described as the fundamental ‘glue’ that has held Chinese society together.

horizontal vertical

left-falling

right-falling

e

dot

m pl

– Keqi: This not only represents modesty and humbleness, but means consideration, politeness and good manners. – Li: Today, this means the art of being polite and courteous. People must make a ‘sacrifice’ to do this preserve harmony and save ‘face’.

sa

rising

hooks

turning

Vi ew in

g

There is a set order in which to write the strokes of each character. A character can consist of as many as 64 strokes or as few as one stroke. • In 1979, the Chinese government adopted ‘pinyin’, a system of writing Chinese using the Roman alphabet. The word ‘pinyin’ means ‘joining sounds together’, the idea being to phoneticise Mandarin for translation to Roman script.

Answers

Answers will vary according to the culture used to compare. Pupils could compare answers and discuss the differences.

Additional activities • Research using the Internet, using a website such as :

<http://www.formosa-translation.com/chinese/> to find out how to write the Chinese characters for certain English words and phrases. Prim-Ed Publishing® recommends that the teacher checks any websites prior to use in class. • Pupils could research or ask Chinese people questions about other Chinese customs and etiquette; e.g. using an open hand rather than a pointed finger, it is rude to snap one’s fingers, whistling is bad manners, it is not considered rude to burp or talk while eating.

 34 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Chinese language, customs and etiquette

The Chinese language when written appears very different to those of other countries. This is the same with many traditional Chinese customs and etiquette. For example, in China, it is not considered impolite to ask personal questions of new acquaintances about age, weight, marital status, job, income etc. The reason is to seek common ground. In Western culture, such personal questions are asked when a friendship is well-established. Read about the various Chinese customs, etiquette and uses of language below. Briefly describe in note form how that custom or etiquette is followed in your culture. You may need to do some research to find some answers.

Chinese culture

culture

m pl

g

sa

How Chinese are named • Family name (surname) appears first, generally passed from father to son. Women retain their family name. Given name appears second. • Common surnames include Zhang, Wang, Li, Zhao, Liu and Chen.

e

Language • Official spoken language – Mandarin, called ‘Putonghua’ (the common speech) • Chinese is written with characters using a series of strokes; for example, hungry (pronounced ‘erh’)

Vi ew in

Greetings • Addressing an adult by his or given name is considered impolite unless you are long-time friends. Surname is spoken first, followed by Xiansheng (Mr) for men and Nvshi (Mrs) or Xiaojie (Ms) for women. • Handshakes and smiles when meeting Chinese are becoming acceptable now. Chinese do not show excessive emotion and hugging or kissing is usually unacceptable. • Affection to children can be shown by patting the shoulder or cheek, but not the head, which is considered a sacred part of the body. Gift giving • Gifts should be given and received with both hands. The Chinese will usually place the gift to one side— they rarely open gifts when they receive them. • Don’t wrap elaborately or use white paper or give white gifts—it symbolises death! Sets of four things, cut flowers and clocks also symbolise death. Sharp things, like knives, symbolise broken relationships. Social distance • While public affection is not shown, the Chinese stand close when talking. Pushing while waiting in line is not discourteous. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 35 1


People of China – Religion Objectives • Represents data about the religions of China on a pie chart. • Identifies symbols associated with different religions. • Uses the Internet to research five facts about Feng Shui.

Teacher information

Unlike in the Western world, where people often adhere to only one faith, many Chinese people are both Taoist and Buddhist. An overlap in China between religion and philosophy exists; for example, many urban younger people follow the spiritual ideas of feng shui.

1. Teacher check 2. • Buddhism: • Taoism: • Islam: • Judaism: • Christianity:

Vi ew in

Answers

g

sa

The People’s Republic of China was established in 1949 bringing about enormous changes to the country. The leader of the government at the time, Chairman Mao Zedong, believed that people should be loyal to the Communist party and not to a particular religious leader (such as the Roman Catholic Pope) or faith. During the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), the government was incredibly hostile towards religion, with temples, mosques and churches being either destroyed or looted and turned into non-religious buildings to be used by all people. Buddhist monks, Muslim mullahs and Christian priests were banned from practising religion and were sent to the country to learn about communism and to work alongside peasants in the fields.

e

Many Chinese people will not reveal their religious beliefs as they fear being prosecuted. Due to this, it is very difficult to attain true statistics of religious groups in China. It is possible that 3% of Chinese people are Christian (between 30 to 40 million).

By 1978, restrictions on religion had loosened, with the constitution guaranteeing ‘freedom of religion’, but only as long as the religious beliefs or groups did not challenge the government’s authority! As the Communist government embraces atheism, any new constructions of mosques, temples and churches must be approved by the government. Today, there are many underground ‘house churches’, where Christians gather, which are not officially registered.

m pl

Note: Pupils require access to the Internet to complete Question 3.

Additional activities

• Choose one of the religions and work with a partner to research for a five-minute oral presentation. • Use paints or water colours to paint religious symbols and display them. Include other symbols such as the Buddhist’s Buddha and endless knot or the Christian fish. More religious symbols can be found at: <http://altreligion.about. com/library/glossary/blsymbols.htm> • Create an eye-catching poster listing some of the guidelines of feng shui.

3. Answers may include any of the following: Feng shui is the ancient Chinese practice of the arrangement of space to achieve harmony with the environment. It can be translated as ‘wind and water’. It is considered to be a discipline with guidelines similar to architectural planning. Some examples of feng shui guidelines are: – Never sit at a desk with your back to the door. – Do not let the door face the sole of one’s feet when lying in bed. – Avoid straight lines and sharp corners. – Avoid clutter.

 36 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


People of China – Religion

Although most Chinese people are non-religious, many continue to follow the traditions of the centuries-old Chinese traditional (or folk) religion, which combines the practises of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. In more recent times, other religions such as Christianity, Islam and Judaism have been introduced to China and are becoming increasingly popular.

1. Look at the data showing the number of people who follow certain religions in China and display them on the pie chart. Colour the boxes and use the colour key for your chart. KEY No religion

59%

Confucianism/Taoism 33% 6%

Islam

1.2%

Christianity

Less than 1%

m pl

e

Buddhism

Religions of China

Vi ew in

g

sa

2. Draw lines to link each religion with the symbol it is associated with.

Christianity

Islam

Taoism

Buddhism

Judaism

In China, religion and philosophy often overlap. Many young Chinese people who live in cities follow the spiritual tradition of feng shui.

3. (a) Use the Internet to research five facts about feng shui.

(b) List the web addresses (URLs) of the websites which were the most useful. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 37 1


People of China – Transport in China Objective • Reads information and answers questions about forms of transport in China.

Teacher information • In China, trains are divided into four categories—soft-sleeper, soft-seat, hard-seat and hard-sleeper. Hard seats are mostly used on trains which travel short distances. Both hard and soft train sleepers are cushioned, even though the name suggests otherwise. Soft-sleepers have comfortable compartments with four berths and bedding provided, while hard-class sleepers consist of bunks in open-plan dormitory cars, usually arranged in bays of six (upper, middle and lower) on one side of the aisle, with pairs of seats on the other side of the aisle for use during the day. The majority of long-distance trains have a restaurant car which serves meals.

• Motorcycles are banned in some cities to try to reduce the amount of air pollution. • ‘Sampan’ literally means ‘three planks’ in Cantonese. Some have a small shelter and can be used as permanent dwellings. Sampans can still be seen in Hong Kong harbour and in inland waters. They are usually used for fishing or transportation, may be propelled by oars or outboard motors and stay close to the coast as they are not built to withstand harsh weather.

e

• There are about 300 million bicycles in China.

sa

Vi ew in

Teacher check

g

Answers

 38 

m pl

• Even though a Chinese person may own a car, parking is extremely difficult in all cities.

Additional activities

• Pupils research to find ways in which China is trying to combat pollution and traffic problems. • Pupils write a rap which discusses the topic of traffic in a major city, such as Beijing or Shanghai. • Pupils use body movements to depict various forms of transport used in ancient China and in modern China. They may select appropriate music to use to perform their movements.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


People of China –Transport in China 1. Read the information to answer the questions. In Ancient China, people travelled by foot, on horseback, in man-carried sedans and in carriages or oxcarts. This meant that travel from one place to another was very time-consuming. Travellers in Modern China can use a variety of transport, including planes, trains, bicycles, cars, buses, ships and boats, taxis and pedicabs. The main forms of transport in China are bicycles, buses and trains.

Beijing is the site of China’s international airport. Flights leave there to travel all around the world. Domestic flights link all provinces and remote areas. There are over 140 airports for civil aviation in China.

Rail networks link Beijing to most major cities. In very large cities, the trains are located underground. Train travel is usually crowded but inexpensive and safe. Long-distance trains have sleepers and a dining car.

China has many major motorways and all towns and counties can be reached via the road system. However, private cars, taxis, bicycles, buses and motorcycles cause many traffic jams and much air pollution in cities.

Buses in China are always crowded and slow, but are a relatively cheap way of travelling. Fares on buses are paid to the conductor, who sits near the middle of the bus.

Bicycles are a very popular way to travel in China. Many roads have special lanes for bike-riders. An entire family can travel on one bicycle, with the father pedalling, the mother on the back and a child sitting on the handlebars.

Hand-pulled rickshaws have virtually disappeared, except in older parts of cities. Pedicabs—three-wheeled bicycles with a passenger seat behind—are used instead and are particularly popular with tourists.

China’s mainland coastline stretches over 18 000 km long and its rivers total over 220 000 km in length. There are about 70 major inland and 20 coastal ports. Barges, sampans (flat-bottomed wooden boats), fishing boats, hovercraft and passenger boats transport people and goods.

Vi ew in

g

sa

m pl

e

2. Why are the main forms of transport used bicycles, buses and trains?

3. Why do you think it is important for China to have a good transport network?

4. Why do you think it is necessary for train networks in major cities to be underground?

5. What is the main disadvantage of replacing more traditional transport methods, such as rickshaws and sampans, with more modern methods? Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 39 1


People of China - Chinese martial arts Objectives • Reads the text provided. • Uses the text and research skills to list six key phrases to describe in detail his/her chosen martial art.

Teacher information • Most people think the martial arts are only for self-defence. It is a complex sport which develops the body’s muscle strength, posture, breathing, suppleness, inner health and healing, as well as mental discipline. The sport requires dedication and concentration in order to be able to perform the essential movements correctly and in sequence.

• Contemporary sport in China encompasses many different activities. These include table tennis, badminton, diving and gymnastics. It is estimated that around 300 million Chinese play basketball today, making it the most popular of all sports in China. Baseball and football are also gaining popularity and success, particularly in Westernised areas.

Answers will vary.

 40 

Vi ew in

Answers

g

sa

m pl

e

• A popular sport in China, which gained worldwide interest around 1949, when many martial arts practitioners decided to escape the Communist rule that had taken over China. These martial artists moved to different parts of the world and began teaching their craft to Chinese communities and, later, to others who were interested in their lessons.

Additional activities

• Invite guests into the classroom to demonstrate kung-fu, shuai jiao (Chinese wrestling) and/or Tai Chi to the class. Allow time for questions and perhaps an introductory lesson for the Pupils. • Research the Yellow Emperor further to find out the exact technique he first introduced into battle.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


People of China – Chinese martial arts 1. Read the text.

• Wushu The term ‘wushu’ is used to describe the martial arts in general. The Chinese consider animals to have natural martial qualities and abilities; therefore, many movements were based on animals which the Chinese admired and revered.

e

It is believed that the earliest forms of martial arts were introduced to the people of China during the reign of the Yellow Emperor, Huangdi, during 2698 BCE. He was a famous general who developed early techniques and successfully used them in battle. He is also credited with the development of the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, which is closely related to the martial arts.

when martial arts films and television programmes began to show Chinese boxing. The term ‘kungfu’ actually means ‘achievement through great effort’. Originally, the name ‘kung-fu’ referred to strengthening of the body and the mind. It was about learning and perfecting the skills involved.

m pl

Chinese martial arts developed out of a need for selfdefence during battle. The various techniques were developed over a continuous time line, mastered and then passed on through generations. Over time, Chinese martial arts became a significant part of Chinese culture.

Chinese emperors understood the value of the martial arts during battle. It was not enough for military personnel to have a high intellect, it was also expected that they be proficient in hand-to-hand combat. Today, martial arts take on a broad range of names

• Kuoshu

sa

g

and styles. However, there are three particular terms which are always linked to Chinese martial arts. They are:

• Kung-fu

Considered the most traditional form of martial arts, the term only became popular in the 20th century,

Vi ew in

Using throws, hand and foot strikes; the seizing and breaking of joints and attacking vital body parts describe the actions used in traditional Chinese wrestling known as ‘kuoshu’. With origins dating over 4000 years, this form of martial arts is a proven approach to winning battles. It is believed to be the origin of all martial arts within China.

2. Select one of the three styles from above and write six key phrases to describe the style in detail. You may need to complete some additional research.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 41 1


People of China – Clothing Objectives • Uses a graphic organiser to compare and contrast information. • Writes a detailed description supported by an appropriate illustration.

Teacher information • A compare-and-contrast chart is one graphic organiser that can be used to display information and make it easier to ‘see’ and understand similarities and differences.

• Colour symbolised rank: Yellow could only be worn by the emperor. Colour also symbolised the seasons: green – spring, red – summer, white – autumn and black – winter.

• It is important pupils understand that the clothing worn in China is and has been constantly changing over a long period of time and that the information provided on the worksheet is very general. The pupil, too, will need to generalise information when answering Question 1.

• The emperor’s robes had 12 symbols of his authority embroidered on them, including five-clawed dragons; the sun, moon and stars; a mountain; a fire; an axe and a lion-dog, called a ‘Fu’. • The many layers of clothing worn by members of the imperial family restricted their movements to such an extent that they were unable to complete some everyday tasks without assistance. Long fingernails were a similar status symbol and indicated that a person was not required to do any manual work.

e

• When addressing Question 2, pupils should research the clothing worn during a particular period by a person or group of people and provide more detailed information.

• Some dynasties were interested in elaborate robes, requiring a lot of silk for layer upon layer of garments, very wide sleeves etc. as well as years of handwork to decorate them. Others considered this as too extravagant and preferred a simpler style.

Teacher check.

 42 

Vi ew in

Answers

g

sa

m pl

• Clothing, as a form of visual communication about its wearer, was very well developed in China and there were once many rules about who could wear what; for example, the merchants who sold silk were not allowed to wear garments made from silk.

Additional activities

• Research foot binding: why and how it was done and the special shoes the women in China had to wear. Write an exposition either supporting or condemning the practice. • Discuss the questions, ‘What does clothing indicate today?’ and ‘Does clothing still indicate rank?’ • Explain why Chinese men were so upset when people tormented them by cutting off their pigtails.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


People of China – Clothing

In China years ago, the clothing you wore indicated your status or rank. This was true of many other countries, however, this was probably more formalised and rigid in China than in many other places.

1. Complete the graphic organiser to compare and contrast the difference in clothing worn by rulers and peasants in China. Use the information provided and any other information you can find. Features

Nobles

Peasants

Material used

e

Style

m pl

Decoration/ Patterns

Head wear

During some imperial dynasties, Chinese emperors and members of their imperial household wore so many layers of clothing, he or she was unable to move easily and needed assistance to complete many everyday tasks. The clothes had edgings, bands and sashes embroidered with detailed patterns, some of them taking years to make. Patterns and colours were strictly controlled and used to identify rank. Some men wore hats with badges and women wore pins and jewellery in their elaborate hairstyles. They often wore platform shoes to stop their robes trailing in the dirt.

Vi ew in

g

Function

sa

Colours

In contrast, the Chinese peasants’ clothes were loose and comfortable and made from hemp or, after it was introduced during the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), cotton. They often wore tunics, like long T-shirts, with trousers worn to the knee. Women’s tunics were longer and often worn with a belt. During the Sui Dynasty, peasants were allowed only to wear black or blue. Both men and women had long hair because they considered it as a gift from their parents and it was disrespectful to cut it. Large, pointy bamboo hats were worn for protection by people working out in the fields. When it was cold, peasants wore padded jackets.

2. Write a detailed description of the clothing worn during a particular dynasty, by a certain group of people or a person. Include a detailed illustration. (You may need to use the back of the sheet.)

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.comm

China

 43 1


Ancient China – Chinese architecture Objectives • Reads information about different types of buildings in China. • Researches other ways of living in China.

Teacher information

2. Teacher check

 44 

Vi ew in

Answers

g

sa

m pl

• A ‘hutong’ is a form of community living in China. Literally, it means ‘a street, lane or alley, being the passage formed by lines of ‘siheyuan’ (a traditional Chinese compound with a courtyard enclosed on four sides and one entrance gate). There are thousands of hutongs in cities such as Beijing. They are old communities, with some built in the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties from 1271 to 1911. Each hutong has a name, chosen from the names of places, plants, directions, special words, markets, temples and people.

• Courtyard (siheyuan) living is usually for one family, which may consist of two or more generations. For very poor people, one courtyard would house several families. Simple courtyards have rooms built along the four walls of a square, usually with several rooms along each of the four sides. The older family members live in the rooms on the north side, the younger family members live in the rooms on the east and west, while the southern rooms include a living room or study. All doors face the courtyard, with a gate in the south-eastern corner (to incorporate feng shui influences). A screened wall is located inside the gate so that when a person enters, he/she cannot see what is happening in the courtyard. Small brick pathways connect all the rooms, and stairs lead to each room. In the courtyard, people plant trees or flowers, relax, keep fish or do housework. Larger courtyards, used by government officials and their families, are much more complicated, with many rooms, corridors, an inner and outer yard and a gate separating the two yards.

e

• The Baoyunge Pavilion of Precious Clouds, in the Beijing Summer Palace, is built from bronze and is commonly called the Gold Pavilion. It is a rare form of pavilion because the entire structure is made from bronze.

Additional activities

• Pupils design a floor plan for a large courtyard habitat in China using the information above and additional research. Ensure plans are well labelled. • Pupils find pictures of and sketch a variety of temples or pagodas showing the influence of different religions. • Pupils research to find information about the Tibetan Buddhist Drepung Monastery.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Ancient China – Chinese architecture 1. Read the information about architecture in China.

Other beliefs were incorporated into traditional Chinese buildings. These included using ideas of balance and symmetry. The main structure is the central line of symmetry (axis) with secondary structures as wings down each side to form a main room and yard. Roofs are an important part of Chinese architecture. As well as providing protection from the elements, curved roofs were used to help repel evil spirits which were only able to move in straight lines.

e

Religion, including Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism, has had a large influence on Chinese architecture. Temples and pagodas are spread throughout China. These are mostly multistoreyed buildings with some religious significance, such as being a place of public worship or simply a place to store a sacred object. Buddhist pagodas were usually decorated with carved flowers and shrines or statues of animals or Buddha and usually had an underground palace.

of nine studs on palace gates, nine courtyards in the palace grounds, nine beams or 18 columns holding up structures, or nine dragons on screens or walls.

Pavilions are very common structures in China. Traditionally, they were made of wood, stone or bamboo. They could be square, triangular, hexagonal, octagonal or in the shape of a five-petalled flower or a fan. They were constructed with columns instead of walls. They were used for a variety of purposes, including as a place for travellers to rest, to protect an engraved record of an important event, as postal stalls, newsstands or a shop. The largest pavilion in China, the Kuonuting (Pavilion of Expanse), is in the Summer Palace and covers an area of 130 m2.

2. In the boxes provided, research (siheyuan) styles of living and write notes about the ‘hutong’ and courtyard in China. Use a separate sheet of paper if necessary.

Vi ew in

g

sa

Most Chinese towns or cities combine a mixture of old and new structures as many older-style houses are being torn down to make room for modern high-rise apartment blocks to cater for a larger population.

m pl

Imperial buildings, which are still very popular today as tourists attractions, depicted various beliefs about the emperors who lived in them.

The dragon and the phoenix are often used as a decoration on palaces. The dragon was considered the guardian of the people, and the phoenix was the sovereign of all birds. Together, the two symbolise protection, success and prosperity.

The number nine was important in Ancient China as it signified ‘the ultimate masculine’ and the supreme sovereignty of the emperor. The number nine, or multiples of nine, was often used in palace structures and design. For example, there may be nine rows

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.comm

China

hutong

courtyard

 45 1


Ancient China – Pagoda tour Objectives • Reads information text about Chinese pagodas. • Uses resource material to write a tour itinerary.

Teacher information

• Pupils will require resource materials — such as encyclopedias, travel brochures and the Internet, as well as a map of China — to help them write their itineraries. This activity could also serve as a draft for the pupils to later create a longer tour itinerary of China, perhaps presented as an illustrated brochure.

Dynasty, under the order of Emperor Qing Ning. Only five storeys are visible from outside the pagoda, with the first four storeys each containing an additional hidden storey within. • The White Horse Pagoda was built in Dunhuang in 386 CE and is one of the city’s major tourist attractions. Legend tells that it was built in memory of the horse of a famous Buddhist monk. This nine-storey pagoda is 12 metres high. • The Giant or Big Wild Goose Pagoda is found in southern Xi’an. It was built in 652 CE during the Tang Dynasty to house Buddhist figurines and sutras. Originally, this pagoda had five storeys, but in the eighth century, five more storeys were added. Today, due to damage in times of war, it has seven storeys and is 64 metres high.

e

• Before beginning this activity, teachers may like to collect travel brochures and read them with the pupils to help them understand how descriptive language is used to entice a reader and how tour itineraries are usually structured (e.g. ‘Today, we leave our hotel and make a fascinating journey through rolling hills to the stunning, majestic White Horse Pagoda.’) Pupils can use some of the pagodas mentioned in the provided text or may prefer to use ones he/she discovers in his or her research.

Teacher check

 46 

Vi ew in

Answers

g

sa

m pl

• The Sakyamuni Pagoda at the Buddhist Fogong Temple is found in the province of Shanxi. It is the only pagoda made entirely of wood left in China. It was built in 1056 CE, during the Liao

Additional activities

• Research to find out about the modern restoration efforts that are taking place on some of China’s famous pagodas. • Discover some of the ancient legends behind the building of Chinese pagodas. Write and illustrate one or more as a children’s story and present to a young child. • Compare pictures of Japanese and Chinese pagodas.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Ancient China – Pagoda tour

Some of the most common buildings in Ancient China were multi-storey towers called ‘pagodas’. These first appeared just over 2000 years ago, when Buddhists arrived in China from India. Most pagodas in ancient China were used as Buddhist temples. They normally have an odd number of storeys, eight sides and tiled roofs with edges that curve upwards. Early pagodas were made from wood, but few of these survive today.

Some of the most famous pagodas in China are the Sakyamuni Pagoda, the White Horse Pagoda and the Giant or Big Wild Goose Pagoda.

Imagine you work for a tour guide company. You have been asked to prepare a weekend bus tour for a group of people who are interested in seeing some of the famous pagodas that are still standing in China. Using reference material, such as the Internet and a map of China, plan an itinerary for the group to read that will whet their appetite for your tour. • allow time for the group to get from place to place

• use descriptive language for each pagoda; e.g. ‘ancient wonder’.

m pl

e

Remember to:

Day 1

sa

Day 2

Vi ew in

g

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.comm

China

 47 1


Ancient China – Paper making procedure Objectives • Reads and views information about the invention of paper. • Researches and writes a procedure to explain how to make paper.

Teacher information • Pupils will need access to information resources, such as the Internet, and will also need to understand the format of a procedure. The framework provided on the worksheet could be used for planning, with the procedure written in full on a separate page later. Procedures are written to instruct or inform. They should be brief, with any unnecessary words omitted. The instructions or steps, often numbered, should be easy to understand and follow. Imperative or command verbs often begin a sentence.

Soak bamboo, hemp, silk rags and mulberry bark in water.

2.

Mix together.

m pl

1.

e

For example:

• Printing was developed much later, during the Tang Dynasty (618-906 CE). This achievement was remarkable given the large number and nature of Chinese characters compared, for example, with the 26 less complex letters used in English. The first book was printed in China in 868 and there were soon bookshops in all major Chinese cities. Movable print was developed later in 1045, during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). This led to a dramatic increase in the number of books printed. Some traditional papermanufacturing businesses are still operating in parts of China and can be visited by tourists.

Vi ew in

Teacher check

g

Answers

sa

• Of all the inventions attributed to China, the development of paper, ink and printing is widely considered to be the most significant. Paper and ink were invented during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE) and spread along the Silk Road to Arab countries, taking 400 years to reach Europe. Paper mills were established in Italy in the 14th century and in Britain by the 17th century.

 48 

Additional activities

• Research the art of Chinese paper folding to find how to do it and what the Chinese did with the paper they folded. • Make paper using recycled paper. • Make a paper dragon for Chinese New Year. Instructions can be found on the Internet at: <www.enchantedlearning.com/crafts/ chinesenewyear/lion>.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Ancient China – Paper-making procedure

In 105 CE, Cai Lun became famous when he presented some paper to the emperor he’d made using bark and hemp. The series of illustrations below show how he would have made the paper.

m pl

e

1. Use the illustrations, as well as research from the Internet and/or other resources, to help you write a procedure that tells how to make paper this way. Write your information as notes on a separate sheet of paper. 2. Use your notes to write your procedure, using the framework below.

Vi ew in

Materials:

g

Goal:

sa

Chinese paper–making

Method:

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.comm

China

 49 1


Ancient China – Compass challenge Objectives • Reads information text about the invention of the magnetic compass. • Makes and appraises his/her own simple magnetic compass.

Teacher information • Pupils will need to be organised into pairs to complete this experiment. For the compass to work, the needles need to be magnetised correctly and the card circle balanced. Once their compass is working correctly (i.e. the needles are facing northsouth), the pupils can answer the questions.

• By the 8th century, Chinese scholars had discovered how to magnetise needles. By the 11th century, portable needle compasses were being used to guide boats in the ocean. These needle compasses were made by floating the needles in water, placing them on a point or hanging them from a silk thread.

Teacher check

Additional activities

sa

Answers

m pl

e

• Early Chinese compasses (‘si-nan’ or ‘south-pointers’) with lodestones were used to determine the best location and timing for events such as building houses or burials—the Chinese practice of feng shui.

• View photographs or pictures of Ancient Chinese compasses from different dynasties and write a time line that explains their development.

Vi ew in

g

• Find out more about the Earth’s magnetic field and how it affects our lives.

 50 

• Challenge the pupils to make a sturdier compass that can be used outdoors. • Research to write a report about feng shui.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Ancient China – Compass challenge

One of the most important inventions of Ancient China was the magnetic compass. Opinions vary as to when the first compass was made by the Chinese. What is known is that during the Warring States Period (475 – 221 BCE), a device called a ‘si-nan’ was made. This consisted of a bronze plate, on which rested a ladle-shaped ‘lodestone’ (magnetic iron ore). The ladle always aligned itself in a north-south direction because the Earth has two magnetic poles which lie near the North and South poles.

At first, compasses were used to help the Chinese build houses facing north, considered to be the most favourable direction. Later, compasses with magnetised needles were taken on journeys and ocean voyages.

1. Try making your own compass. You will need: a small horseshoe

a magnet

3 identical sewing needles

a strip of paper approximately 8 cm long and 3 cm wide

• Hold one of the needles by the head and stroke it with the magnet from head to tip about 10 times. Repeat with the second needle.

m pl

plasticine™

e

sticky tape

• Fold the paper strip half length-wise. Use sticky tape to attach the two magnetised needles on the inside as shown. Make sure they are both pointing in the same direction. Write ‘S’ on one end of the paper (where the needle heads are) and ‘N’ on the other end.

• Push the head of the third needle into a piece of plasticine™, so it is standing upright. Balance the paper on the top of the needle point. (This can be tricky—keep trying!)

Vi ew in

g

sa

2. Answer these questions.

(a) Explain what happened.

(b) How do you think this compass works?

(c) Write how you think your compass could be improved.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.comm

China

 51 1


Ancient China – Dynasties Objectives • Researches information using the Internet and/or library and makes notes. • Writes expository text about a Chinese dynasty.

Teacher information • Before pupils select the dynasty they consider most interesting, brainstorm to elicit factors pupils believe could make living during a dynasty interesting for them; such as: people to meet, places to go, art to see, excitement, dangers, adventures, challenges and exploration.

• It is important that pupils realise that the text he/she writes must be persuasive and they should try to convince others that his/her chosen dynasty is much more interesting than the others. They need to provide details and supporting evidence to demonstrate the points they make. Their focus should be on expressing opinions rather than facts.

• Pupils will need to make notes about their chosen dynasty from the text and information provided in the resources available to them. They should only record things they find interesting. Their notes must be able to be understood, but need not be in complete sentences.

• Encourage pupils to use some imagination and to realise they are not writing a factual report. They need to use emotive, persuasive language and focus on choosing interesting information and presenting it in a way that it will appeal to and attract the interest of others.

Teacher check

 52 

m pl

sa

Vi ew in

Answers

• Pupils should follow the expository text format of: an introductory paragraph, stating the topic and his/her position (what they want the reader to believe); a number of paragraphs, each focused on a particular aspect with supporting information, starting with the strongest argument; followed by a conclusion, restating his/her position.

g

• Encourage pupils to compare and contrast other dynasties or life today and to show his/her chosen dynasty in a positive way. He/she will need to consider how to present the information and will need to be creative.

e

• The dynasty pupils choose initially may not be the one he/she finds the most interesting information about after conducting further research. Some pupils may decide to change his/her minds and write about a different dynasty.

Additional activities

• Pupils present their expositions orally in small groups and vote to identify the one they found the most interesting. Those selected are then presented to the class and voted on again. • Research the differences between succession in Chinese dynasties, from brother to brother and then to oldest nephew, with that of a European monarchy and discuss any possible outcomes and implications. • Pupils complete their own family tree and use it to work out how Chinese succession could be applied in his/her own family.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Ancient China – Dynasties A ‘dynasty’ is a ruling family that passes control from generation to generation. One dynasty in China lasted more than 800 years and another only lasted for 15 years. The Chinese believed that their rulers had a ‘mandate from heaven’. This meant that they had been chosen by their ancestors to rule the country. When a ruler became weak, it was believed that he had lost his mandate from heaven, so the people rebelled against him and a new dynasty started. The Shang Dynasty (17th – 11th century BCE) expanded its territory and was the first to leave written records. They believed in human sacrifice and slaves were buried with their masters, some alive and others after they were beheaded. The oldest brother of the ruler then took over control of the country. The lunar calendar with twelve months was developed during this dynasty. The Shang were overthrown by warriors from the west who had superior weapons made out of iron extracted from rock.

g

sa

m pl

e

The Zhou Dynasty established a feudal system and gave property to nobles who divided their property between tax-paying families working on the property. Some of the tax collected by the nobles was then given to the emperor. The Zhou Dynasty spent this tax money wisely; roads and dams for irrigation were constructed and walls were built around the cities. But as the nobles became stronger, the Zhou Dynasty lost its power and a period of 254 years (475-221 BCE), known as the Warring States Period, followed. It was during this time that the teachings of the famous philospher Confucius made a difference to how some states were governed. The states were united in 221 BCE by Emperor Qin Shi Huang, who expanded the Chinese empire and built roads, fortifications and palaces. During the Qin Dynasty, farmers were given the land they farmed and weights and measures and Chinese writing were standardised. China’s defences were improved. Work on the Great Wall began by joining several regional walls built earlier by the Warring States. Emperor Qin is known as the first emperor of a united China; he was from Qin province. His tomb was guarded by what are known as the Terracotta Warriors. The name ‘Qin’ (pronounced ‘Chin’) gave China its name. The Qin Dynasty lasted only 15 years.

Vi ew in

The Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) has been compared with the Roman Empire and is often referred to as ‘The Golden Age of Chinese History’. Commerce and agriculture flourished and China became a very powerful country during this time. Emperor Wu decided the country would no longer follow Taoism and would instead be a Confucian state. The government became very well organised because its administrators followed the wise teachings of Confucius. Paper was invented and scholars recorded the country’s history. China expanded to the west, making it possible for silk traders to move across central Asia on what became known as the ‘Silk Road’.

1. (a) Choose one of the four dynasties you think is most interesting and that you would like to know more about. Use the Internet or library to research additional information you find interesting. Write brief notes to help you to remember interesting facts about the dynasty.

(b) Write an exposition on a separate page to persuade others than your chosen dynasty is really interesting. Find facts but use some imagination to describe what it was like. Remember to state in the first paragraph the dynasty you chose. Next, write a paragraph for each of your points supported by arguments to persuade others to agree with you. Include a conclusion, again stating your position.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 53 1


Ancient China – Confucius Objectives • Reads text and answers an evaluative question. • Selects and illustrates a Confucian saying for a poster.

Teacher information

Remind pupils they should choose a saying they believe to be true and their poster should aim to convince others to believe it too. Posters should be eye-catching and attractive.

• Confucianism spread through South-East Asia, where there are temples in countries such as Japan, Korea and Vietnam. It was introduced to Europe by the Jesuit, Matteo Ricci (1552–1610), who translated documents and Latinised the name.

Teacher check

Vi ew in

Answers

g

sa

• Confucius was born in the village of Zou in the state of Lu, where he lived most of his life. At that time, known as the ‘Warring States Period’, China was not one country but divided into many kingdoms. Confucius believed that good government led to peace and justice for the people and good leaders were those who understood and believed this. He was of the opinion that government officials should be appointed because of their education and talent and not by family connections. This concept was later widely accepted and government officials were required to sit examinations to assess their abilities and their knowledge of Confucius and his philosophy.

e

Note: Not all Internet websites record appropriate/genuine Confucian sayings and lists of sayings and pupils’ choices may need to be carefully monitored.

• Confucius did not write down any of his ideas but relied on face-to-face discussion with the many different government officials and rulers in China at the time. His ideas were recorded and passed to the many disciples who listened and learned from him and continued his work after his death. His descendants were acknowledged in China by successive governments and given honours and titles of nobility. The title, Duke of Yansheng, was bestowed upon successive generations until it was abolished in 1935 by the Nationalist Government.

m pl

• Pupils will need to consider, record and discuss a number of different Confucian sayings before selecting one for their poster.

Additional activities

• Select a Confucian saying and work in small groups to plan and write a fable in which his saying is the moral of its conclusion. Prepare a role-play of the fable and perform it. • Write a letter to your country’s leader explaining something Confucius taught about leadership that you think is still relevant today and which you believe the leader of your country should be implementing in government. Give reasons to support your position and argue your case convincingly. • Prepare a time line showing significant events associated with Confucius. You may choose to extend the time line to include events after his death. You will need to research relevant information on the Internet or in the library.

 54 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Ancient China – Confucius Although Confucius lived about 2500 years ago, this wise Chinese philosopher’s teachings have influenced and continue to influence millions of people in China and around the world.

minister, but he left this position to travel around China, passing on his ideas and teaching rulers and their government administrators how he believed they could govern better.

Confucius lived in China during the Warring States Period (476-221 BCE). He believed that good government resulted from good leadership. His concern was that people were suffering because many of the Chinese kingdoms were administered by men chosen for who they knew rather than what they could do. He proposed tests for government officials to ensure they had the skills and knowledge to do their work well.

Confucius taught about kindness and the love of others and nature. He called this ‘jen’. He believed people who developed jen became superior and both rich and poor people could become superior. He also believed parents were naturally superior to children and men were superior to women! Many of his wise sayings have been translated to different languages, are very well known and are still used today

e

m pl

Many of those who listened to Confucius became his disciples because they believed in what he taught and wanted others to know about it too. They continued his work after his death. Some of them wrote down what he had taught and produced a book called the Analects of Confucius to explain his teachings. This book enabled his message to be shared around China and to the world for centuries.

Although he was born to a noble family, Confucius grew up in poverty after his father‘s death, so he understood some of the problems poor people had to face. He received a good education and worked in a number of different jobs, including farming, bookkeeping and as a clerk. By the time he was aged 53, he had become a justice

Vi ew in

g

sa

1. (a) Do you think the teachings of Confucius are still relevant today?

(b) Explain why you think this.

2. Design a poster featuring an illustrated Confucian saying.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 55 1


Ancient China – The Silk Road Objectives • Reads about the history of the Silk Road. • Writes a narrative located on the Silk Road.

Teacher information

• Silkworms can no longer survive in the wild. The moths have fat bodies and small wings—they can’t fly or feed. • The silk thread from a single cocoon can range from about 300 to 900 metres in length. The thread is continuous and is secreted from two salivary glands in the silkworm’s head. It takes about 111 cocoons to make one tie and 630 for a lady’s shirt.

Teacher check

 56 

Vi ew in

Answers

g

sa

• The Silk Road was the most important link between the West and the Orient until the sea route to India was discovered. During one era, the entire route from China to the Mediterranean Sea, was part of the Mongol Empire. It was an extremely hazardous journey. A monk, Faxian, travelled along it at the end of the 4th century and reported, ‘the only road signs are the skeletons of the dead. Wherever they lie, there lies the road to India’.

• Silkworms have been domesticated in China for approximately 5000 years. According to legend, Emperor Huangdi wanted to know what was eating his mulberry trees so he asked his wife to find out. She noticed that white caterpillars were eating the leaves and spinning shiny cocoons. She dropped a cocoon into hot water and a single silk thread unwound itself. This was said to be the beginning of silk production in China.

e

Some pupils may prefer to work with a partner to plan their narrative. It is important to consider the information provided about the Silk Road in the text and to research further information about the people and the activities likely to be taking place along the Silk Road at this particular time.

• Marco and Nicolo Polo travelled along the southern route, a journey that took them many years to complete.

m pl

• Pupils should plan the orientation of their narrative by thinking first about their characters and completing the character profiles at the bottom of the page. The setting is the Silk Road during the Han Dynasty. They should think about the complication, the initiating event, the resolution (how the characters dealt with the problem) and perhaps a coda (how characters have changed and what has been learned). Some pupils may like to include Marco and/or Nicolo Polo in their narrative.

Additional activities

• Give an account of one of the legends that explain how the secret of silk production was smuggled out of China. Use the Internet or library sources for information. • Research the life of Marco Polo and map his journey along the Silk Road. • Obtain silkworm eggs, which can be kept in the fridge until mulberry leaves are available, and observe the insect’s life cycle. Silkworms need fresh, moist mulberry leaves daily. They do not require water. They can eat lettuce leaves but the quality of the silk is not as good. A shoebox with ventilation holes in the lid is ideal. The box should be placed in a cool, dry quiet place with lots of fresh air and must be kept clean, with droppings and old leaves removed.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Ancient China – The Silk Road The Silk Road was one of the world’s oldest trading routes. It was not just one road, but made up of many. Its route changed constantly, according to local conditions, as it crossed mountains and deserts. It was a long, perilous journey from Chang’an in China to the Mediterranean Sea; a distance of over 8000 kilometres.

The history of the Silk Road is linked to that of a military general. In 138 BCE, Emperor Wu sent a general, along with a troop of one hundred soldiers, westwards. The general’s mission was to try to form trade alliances with countries to the west of China. After 13 years, the unsuccessful general, having been a prisoner for ten of those years, returned with only one of his men. However, he told the emperor stories about the existence of 36 great kingdoms, which were of great commercial interest to the emperor. Emperor Wu was also interested in the magnificent horses his general had seen there, as he needed these strong, fast horses for his army. Emperor Wu wanted to control this land and after two invasions, he had conquered all the land from China to the Ferghana Valley in Central Asia. This provided China with new markets for selling goods and horses.

Traders didn’t travel the whole length of the Silk Road, but sold their goods to other traders who passed them on across the border. China traded not only silk, but furs, ceramics, spices, jade, bronze, iron and lacquer objects, in exchange for gold, gems, glass, ivory, perfumes and dyes.

m pl

status. However, the Chinese were very secretive about how silk was made and where it came from. Silk production in China was limited to the province of Sichuan, an isolated area well away from the prying eyes of foreigners. To obtain silk, foreigners started smuggling the material out of China. The Chinese had to carefully check people’s cargo as they were leaving the country. There are many stories or legends to explain how the secret of silk production eventually spread from China.

e

1. Read the information.

Vi ew in

g

sa

The Silk Road not only provided opportunities for trade, but ideas and inventions were also shared. The West learnt about ploughs, paper and movable type, while Buddhism spread from India to China.

In 53 BCE, Roman legions reported seeing beautiful banners made from a strange, new material while they were fighting in Parthia. The banners were made of silk and soon the Romans wanted to acquire this delicate, light fabric for their clothing. Soon the possession of silk became a symbol of wealth and

The greatest period for trade was from 618–907 CE, during the Tang Dynasty. However, travel along the Silk Road was very dangerous and when sea routes were opened, trade along it declined. It is interesting to note that it wasn’t until a German geographer coined the term ‘seidenstrasse’ in the 1870s that the trade route became known as the Silk Road.

2. Write a narrative set on the Silk Road during the Tang Dynasty. Before you start, think about your characters and write notes about three of them on the grid below. Your narrative should be written on a separate page. Character’s name: age: occupation: personality: strengths: weaknesses: Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 57 1


‘A description of the world’ by Marco Polo Objectives • Reads the text provided. • Uses information within the text and his/her own understanding of globalisation to account for the label of Marco Polo as one of the forefathers of ‘globalisation’.

Teacher information of Marco Polo). As Europeans became interested in trading with Asia on a greater scale, it became a much more expensive exercise which eventually forced traders to find alternative routes to China by travelling westward by sea (this is where Christopher Columbus comes into the equation).

Answers

sa

m pl

e

Trade between Europe and Asia had been happening for many years along the Silk Road. This occurred like a chain with many links; items would be traded along short sections of the Silk Road for items which were in demand. Marco Polo was one of the first Europeans to travel the entire length of the Silk Road and to have seen for himself how the trading system worked. This, however, did change significantly after Polo wrote his book, A description of the world (also known as The travels

Additional activities

• We know that Asia introduced many new ideas to Europe and the rest of the world. Research to find any new ideas that were introduced to Asia from Europe or the rest of the world.

(b) Marco Polo made European people interested in the Asian world. He inspired Christopher Columbus to explore and he introduced many new concepts to Europe from Asia.

• Some scholars question whether or not Marco Polo actually travelled to China at all. However, there is enough precise detail in his book to believe Polo was truthful. Research to make a list which supports Marco Polo’s book as fact.

Vi ew in

g

(a) Globalisation is the idea that the worldwide community is becoming ‘smaller’ and more alike. It is easier to share knowledge and information and to trade with other countries.

 58 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


‘A description of the world’ by Marco Polo 1. Read the text below.

Marco Polo is famous for his detailed account of his travels and experiences while living and working in Asia for Kublai Khan, a Mongol emperor. Shortly after Marco’s return to Venice, Italy, he was captured by Genoese soldiers and imprisoned for 12 months. During this time, he dictated his story to a famous French romance novelist by the name of Rustichello. The original handwritten manuscript was written in French, which was then copied many times and translated into several languages, including Latin, Italian, Venetian dialect and English. There was no such thing as a printing press available in Europe at this time, so all copies had to be handwritten.

His book was very popular in medieval Europe, but was not well • Christopher Columbus, as he relied on the accuracy of Marco Polo’s received by all. Many Europeans did not believe his amazing stories geographical information when and the phrase ‘It’s a Marco Polo’ was coined to mean ‘to tell an planning his voyage to Asia by sailing exaggerated tale’. The Asian culture and customs, the animals, west from Europe. This eventually the flora and the geography he had seen and experienced were led Columbus to the discovery of the beyond the wildest imaginations of the European people, and very Americas. unbelievable to them. Kublai Khan’s kingdom was the largest and most advanced in the world at this time and the Europeans did • Europeans establish the use by not want to believe that people in another land could possibly be Europeans of paper currency, superior or more advanced than themselves. gunpowder, coal for fires, asbestos, an efficient postal system and many However poorly his book was received by some, it inspired and other new ideas. was used as a factual resource for many others. The detailed

g

sa

m pl

e

Vi ew in

information he provided helped:

Marco Polo had travelled more than any other person in his time. He was • stimulate European interest in trade with Asia open to experiencing new cultures, • cartographers (map makers) by providing clear and precise foods, beliefs and traditions. When he information about different parts of Asia and the amount of time recounted his experiences he helped taken to travel various distances open up the minds of the European people to new inventions and ideas. • trade merchants prepare for commercial ventures to Asia

• Portuguese mariners find a suitable and safe sea route to India

2. Marco Polo is considered to be one of the forefathers of ‘globalisation’.

(a) What does the term ‘globalisation’ mean to you?

(b) Explain why you think Marco Polo is considered as one of the ‘forefathers of globalisation’.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 59 1


Ancient China – Genghis Khan Objectives • Reads the text provided. • Uses the knowledge gained from the text to predict whether or not the great leader would have been able to conquer the world.

Teacher information • Genghis Khan was considered to be a very generous leader. He shared the wealth of the spoils of warfare with his followers as Khan did not place great value on material items. He was known for his thirst for knowledge and new ideas and would spend a great deal of his time learning about other civilised cultures.

• Genghis Khan developed a code or set of laws for day-to-day living called the ‘Yasa’. It clearly outlined various laws for various people where the most common form of punishment was death. It was devised to ensure unity between the Mongol people and their allies and to reduce possible social issues between the different races.

m pl

• Genghis Khan is considered one of the greatest leaders of all time. Research to find out about his leadership qualities and how they contributed to his success. • Genghis Khan was himself illiterate but was responsible for the spread of the Uighurs script as the common Mongolian alphabet. Find out more about this script.

Vi ew in

g

Answers will vary

Additional activities

sa

Answers

e

• Genghis Khan accepted all peoples and religions except those who challenged him. He did not divide his military or his people based on ethnicity—an early acceptance of multicultural beliefs. Towards the end of his life, he was believed to be attempting to create a new social system of equality for all, including women. He was a man who was ahead of his time.

 60 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Ancient China – Genghis Khan 1. Read the text below. Genghis Khan was a formidable Mongol leader who left a wake of devastation wherever he went in his quest to unite the Mongol people and establish the largest empire the world has ever seen.

It all began when Temujin (later known as Genghis Khan) was 13 years of age. His father, a local chieftain, was poisoned by his rivals, which left his son to succeed him as chieftain. He was too young to be a leader and many people in Temujin’s camp abandoned him. As he grew into a young man, his camp was attacked by enemies and Temujin was captured and kept imprisoned for some time. He managed to escape with the assistance of one of his captors. After some time, the Mongol leaders declared Temujin their leader and named him ‘Genghis Khan’, meaning ‘universal monarch’.

m pl

e

Genghis Khan grew into a powerful leader who controlled central Mongolia. He organised his people into a devastating military powerhouse, ready to conquer surrounding countries. His military’s success was due to the fact that they were extremely disciplined, followed a clear and concise chain of command and used innovative military tactics. They often began with a surprise attack on their rivals in order to break resistance, and would then sweep through and devastate entire cities; claiming the land and all possessions, killing the men and capturing women and daughters.

Genghis Khan lives on in history as a military genius who managed to establish an empire so large that nothing before or since can compare to its vastness.

Vi ew in

g

sa

2. As Genghis Khan was dying, he told his wife and sons that he had died too early and wanted to conquer the world. Based on his achievements, do you think it would have been possible for Genghis Khan to conquer the world? Explain your thoughts.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 61 1


Wonders of China –The Great Wall of China Objective • Reads a letter about a visit to the Great Wall of China.

Teacher information

Note: Pages 62 to 65 are to be used in conjunction with each other.

• The name ‘Shi Huang’ means ‘first emperor.’ He was from the Qin (pronounced ‘chin’ ) province.

• In 1987, the Great Wall of China was listed as a World Heritage site. Some parts, near tourist centres, have been preserved, but in most locations, the wall is in disrepair. For some villages it has been a source of stones for rebuilding houses and roads and it has also been prone to graffiti. Some sections have been bulldozed to make way for new construction projects.

• The achievements of Qin Shi Huang include the standardisation of Chinese writing, scholarship, bureaucracy, law, currency and weights and measures; and the building of roads, palaces and the capital, X’ian. • Qin Shi Huang was a cruel leader who killed or banished those who opposed his ideas. He sent many of his enemies to work on the wall and burnt books from earlier regimes.

• During the Ming Dynasty, fortifications were established. It was wide enough for troops to march along and to drive wagons along. Where it exists as a tourist site, it can be quite a challenge for some tourists to climb up all the steps to the top.

e

m pl

Vi ew in

g

• It is said that the construction of every 30 cm of the wall cost one human life. It has been reported that many who died were buried in the wall itself, but it is probably untrue as this would have weakened the strength of the wall.

sa

• At moments in the wall’s history, it is believed there were thousands of forts and towers and was guarded by more than one million men. The watchtowers were used to store weapons, house troops and send smoke signals. Each tower had a unique staircase and entrance designed to confuse attackers. Towers for sending signals were located on hilltops or high points chosen for visibility, while administration centres were located at larger intervals along the wall.

• The claim that the Great Wall of China is the only built structure visible from the moon is incorrect. Some astronauts have claimed to have seen it from space when visibility was exceptionally good, but this is doubtful. The Chinese astronaut, Yang Liwei, convinced most of his countrymen that it was not visible. However, a ChineseAmerican astronaut took an indistinct photo from the International Space Station that some believe shows the wall. The state-run China Daily newspaper concluded that the wall can be seen if you know where to look and if visibility is exceptionally good.

 62 

Additional activities

• Research the materials and construction methods used on the wall during one dynasty and write a report. • Research information about the theory that the Great Wall of China is visible from the moon. Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper explaining why this is a myth. Be persuasive. • Complete a character profile of Qin Shi Huang.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Wonders of China – The Great Wall of China

Vi ew in

g

sa

m pl

e

Hi Josh I just have to tell you about China. We arrived on Tuesday and Beijing was just about what I expected; people everywhere and bikes and cars going in every direction making heaps of noise. There are pedestrian crossings, but they are not what you could call safe—no-one stops for anything or anyone. Yesterday, we drove for two hours in a mini bus to see the Great Wall of China. It is just unbelievable! I’d heard a bit about it, not much; just that it was very old and long and you could see it from the Moon. Mum and Dad thought it would be educational and dragged us along, but I’m glad I went. The bus stopped in the mountains, quite close to the wall—which towered above us. There is a cable car, but, of course, Dad made us walk. We climbed the steps up onto the wall and I thought that was it. How wrong was I? The wall stretched in both directions as far as I could see—a bit like a gigantic snake sliding over the mountain ridges. (It’s about 2400 km long–but some say its even longer!) It took us some time to decide if we would turn to the left or the right. The top of the wall was like a sea, with waves of people moving along it. It was really busy and there were hawkers everywhere, trying to sell various kinds of souvenirs. We turned to the right. The Chinese built the wall to keep out the nomads from the north. The first emperor of China, a guy called Qin—(pronounced Chin) Shi Huang (the country was named after him), joined up some smaller walls and built this one. This was in 214 BCE and a small part of his wall is still standing, but most of what we saw was from the 16th and 17th centuries. Hundreds of thousands of workers died building the wall. Some people say they were buried inside the wall, but our guide said they didn’t do that because it would have weakened the wall’s strength. Other dynasties added to and improved the wall, especially during the Han Dynasty, when it was extended through to the Gobi Desert, and the Ming Dynasty, when imposing watchtowers and cannons were added. They used to send signals to other soldiers along the wall by lighting fires and creating smoke. We got to look at two watchtowers; some of them are quite close together. They are really interesting. The military commanders were really smart and kept moving soldiers from one watchtower to another so the enemy never knew which tower they were in. The guide told us that it is possible to arrange to spend the night in one of the watchtowers. It would be a great thing to do, but we were going to see the Terracotta Warriors the next day, so we couldn’t. The wall itself was a real surprise. The top is wide, about six metres, and it’s more like a road than a wall. It is also very high, about eight metres, but the watchtowers are much higher again, by about four metres. I thought we could just walk along the top for a while and look down at the view and it would be easy. But it wasn’t! It just about killed me. There are steps all the way along it, going up and down and up again forever. I thought my legs were going to fall off. The guide said the soldiers pulled carts along the top and had horses up there, too! They would have needed to be mountain goats and super fit. It was torture, but I’m glad I did it! We took heaps of photos, especially later in the day when the sun was setting. No wonder it’s one of the world’s leading travel destinations; it’s such a special place. There are other places to see the wall too, where it is not in such good condition and it is even more difficult to climb—but I’d love to have a go one day. :) Taj Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 63 1


Wonders of China – Fact or opinion? Objectives • Identifies facts and opinions in text. • Plans paragraph headings for a report.

Teacher information Note: Pages 62 to 65 are to be used in conjunction with each other. • Remind pupils that a fact is something that is true and can be verified and an opinion is what someone thinks or believes to be true. It is not always easy to differentiate between them; for example, what one person considers to be ‘tall’ or ‘old’ may be perceived quite differently by another.

• In planning the paragraphs for a report pupils will need to ensure they have assigned paragraphs for each piece of appropriate information. He/She should check that their proposed paragraphs would provide suitable moments to include information about who-, when-, where-, why-, what- and how- type questions. • Pupils should give each paragraph an appropriate title and take care to list the paragraphs in logical order.

• Pupils may like to speculate on whether a letter describing the Great Wall of China would be more likely to contain more facts than opinions before he or she starts identifying examples.

m pl

e

• Pupils may like to underline some facts in the text in one colour and opinions in another colour, before selecting examples to write on their worksheet.

Teacher check

 64 

Vi ew in

Answers

g

sa

• Pupils could discuss, in small groups, the facts and opinions group members have recorded and decide if they agree or disagree with the categories assigned.

Additional activities

• Prepare five questions you would ask a guide to answer about the Great Wall of China. • Imagine spending the night in one of the watchtowers on the Great Wall and write a poem about the experience. • Write a report about the Great Wall using a paragraph heading from Question 2. Research any additional information needed on the Internet or in the library.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Wonders of China – Fact or opinion? 1. Read the letter Taj wrote about the Great Wall of China and select some facts and opinions from the text to list in the chart below. The Great Wall of China

m pl

e

Facts:

Vi ew in

g

sa

Opinions:

2. Reports are written to present facts in an organised and rational way. Think carefully about the paragraphs you could use to organise information for a report about the Great Wall of China. Refer to the facts you wrote above to check that you have planned paragraphs where those facts could be included. Write your paragraph headings below. Paragraph 1.

Heading

Paragraph

Introduction

Heading

5.

2.

6.

3.

7.

4. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 65 1


Wonders of China – Terracotta Warriors Objectives • Expresses opinions based on a conclusion to answer evaluative-type questions. • Composes questions.

Teacher information

e

• The Chinese government has permitted some Terracotta Warriors to be displayed in museums at different locations around the world. They arouse great interest and have been seen and appreciated by millions of people who would not otherwise have had this opportunity.

Vi ew in

Answers

g

sa

• The different body parts of the Terracotta Warriors were mass produced by workers, then assembled and covered with a thin layer of fine clay by artisans who added individual features and details. Recent research, based on studies of minute seed samples taken from the clay, has shown that the Terracotta Warriors were not all made at the same place and many of them were transported to their final site later. The paint used to decorate the figures all those years ago, fades very quickly when exposed to air and researchers are currently working on procedures to stop this process. Many of the figures were, and some still are broken, requiring painstaking work to reassemble.

• The military formations of the Terracotta Warriors in rows and columns facing different directions, provide viewers with a glimpse of the Qin army and an understanding of its organisation. The soldiers all stand at attention and look as if they are waiting for someone to order them to attack.

m pl

• The Terracotta Warriors are considered to be one of the most significant archeological excavations of the 20th century. Since it was developed in 1979, the Museum of Qin’s Terracotta Warriors collection have become a spectacular and very impressive tourist attraction in China. Jacques Chirac, the former president of France, once said, ‘If you close your eyes and listen, you can hear the soldiers breathing, the horses snorting and pawing the ground...’.

Answers may vary. Possible answers include:

1. (a) The rulers thought they would need slaves to take care of them. (b) The rulers thought their ‘lives’ wouldn’t really change after they died.

Additional activities

• Research other significant dates concerning Qin Shi Huang and the Terracotta Warriors to place on a time line. • Research how the Terracotta Warriors were arranged in each pit and draw a diagram to show the formation of the warriors in one of the pits.

2. (a) The emperor thought he would be fighting in battles.

(b) The emperor believed the Terracotta Warriors would either scare people away from his tomb or they would come to life and fight for him. 3. The emperor ordered that his tomb be built in pits buried five metres underground and he organised that the people who constructed and assembled the terracotta army be killed too, so they couldn’t tell anyone about the tomb. 4. Teacher check

 66 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Wonders of China – Terracotta Warriors The Terracotta Warriors have been described as the ‘eighth wonder of the world’. Although these life-size clay figures were created over 2000 years ago, they remained undiscovered, hidden underground near the Chinese city of X’ian, until 1974. The statues were discovered by accident when the ground collapsed while some men were digging a well. They fell five metres down into an underground chamber and discovered the statues of about 8000 warriors, horses and chariots. The warriors, some armed with crossbows, were arranged in battle formation to guard the tomb of Emperor Qin. The number of figures, and the way they were positioned, provided an insight into the organisation of the Qin’s mighty army and help to explain how the army successfully destroyed the forces of opposing states and unified China under its first emperor.

The practice of burying slaves alive—to look after their masters after they died­—was banned in China in 384 BCE. Realising he would not have any slaves to look after him in death, Qin Shi Huang arranged, long before he died in 210 BCE, to have more than one million workers create his terracotta army. In order to keep the location of his army a secret, he ordered that more than 700 000 of the people who had worked on the project were to be entombed at the site.

Three separate pits have been discovered. The first and largest one was made from earth and wood and had a black floor made of brick. It

had five separate sloping entrances. There were 6000 warriors, armed with crossbows, horses and chariots, located there. This pit was opened to the public in 1979 and receives more than two million visitors each year. The three pits are an exciting find and it is believed that more may be discovered in the future.

sa

m pl

e

Vi ew in

g

1. (a) Why do you think the early Chinese rulers wanted to be buried in the tombs with their slaves?

(b) What do you think the Chinese rulers believed their ‘lives’ would be like after they died?

2. (a) Emperor Qin Shi Huang thought he would need the Terracotta Warriors in his afterlife. What can you conclude the emperor thought he would be doing after he died?

(b) Why do you think the emperor made such an effort to make his army lifelike?

3. What information would lead you to believe that Qin Shi Huang didn’t want his tomb to be discovered? 4. Write two questions you would like to ask Qin Shi Huang about the Terracotta Warriors. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 67 1


Wonders of China – South China tiger Objective • Reads the text provided.

Teacher information

Answers C T

E R M

I

I

T

N A

T

A

N

I

S

I

I

N

O

S

N

I

T

I

A

I I

C A T

 68 

C

A N

P

M

O

T

I

N

I

S

T

V

E X P E R T

L

L

e • Write a newspaper article or record a television news report discussing the successful release and introduction of the South China Tiger back into the Chinese wild. Remember to include information about the process which was undertaken to achieve this goal.

C

E S

I

I

T

T

B

O

Y

U

R

• Research information on the history of the South China tiger and its descendants.

T

N R A D

E D

Vi ew in

P H A B

D T

Additional activities

g

E E X

sa

• They are solitary animals, but have been known to work together to capture large prey. The animals stalk their prey until they are close enough to chase it and attack. They suffocate their prey by biting the nape of the neck and cutting off the air supply. The tigers are known to eat large mammals, such as pigs, deer, antelope, buffalo and (their preferred food), ungulates (a type of goat). The tigers have been observed to eat up to 40 kg of meat in one sitting, then covering the carcass and returning to it several days later to finish the meal.

• The tiger’s preferred habitat are the temperate forests of southern China. They are found in the mountainous regions close to the provincial borders. Due to deforestation to make way for population growth, only small pockets of forest remain. The small pockets are separate, which does not allow the tigers to move freely from one area to another. This means they are trapped within their small pocket of forest, which impacts on breeding within the species.

m pl

• The South China tiger is the second smallest of the big cats. Males measure approximately 2.5 m from head to tail and weigh around 150 kg; while females are smaller, measuring approximately 2.3 m and weighing around 110 kg.

D E C

L

L

I

N E

D

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Wonders of China – South China tiger were transported to South Africa to be trained by wildlife experts. The tigers are able to run free in wide open spaces to hunt their own prey and learn to survive on their own. When the programme started, it took the tigers some time to even step onto the soil, as they were used to living in a concrete cage. Initially, food was hunted for them but the tigers didn’t know what the dead animals were for, and were often found playing with the prey rather than eating it. Over time, the tiger’s natural instinct began to develop and they learned that prey was meant to be eaten and began to be able to hunt their own prey for their survival.

e

South China tigers have lost a great deal of their habitat due to population expansion in the central and southern areas of China. This has lead to a decline in prey for the animals, which has also contributed to the tigers’ demise. The tigers were once considered ‘an enemy of the people’ or pests by the Chinese government and were freely exterminated over a 27-year period, reducing the population from around 4000 tigers in the early 1950s to a mere 1000 tigers in 1977.

A radical new approach is being undertaken by the Chinese government to reintroduce the tiger population to the wild areas of China. They are working very closely with wildlife management experts in South Africa to retrain captive-born tigers to be able to live in the wild. In the 1990s, four tigers

Meanwhile, the Chinese government is working frantically to rebuild the habitat of the South China tiger, so the tigers have somewhere to come home to. The goal is to reintroduce the tigers to the Chinese wild, but in order to do this, they need to breed as many wild tigers as possible to ensure success when the tigers are returned to their original habitat.

Vi ew in

g

The South China tiger is believed to be the ancestor of tiger from which all other species of tigers are descended. Sadly, it is the most endangered species of big cat in the world, with an estimated wild population of between 10 and 30 tigers, with around 60 tigers in captivity!

m pl

1. Read the text below.

sa

2. Complete the crossword by finding synonyms for the words from the text above. Across 4. destroyed

7. environment 9. specialists

10. to begin with 11. deterioration 12. drastic Down 1. growth 2. confinement 3. death 5. participated 6. forefather 8. innate Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 69 1


Celebrations and customs – Chinese festivals Objective • Uses information from a table to plan, design and create a calendar.

Teacher information

• Give pupils examples of Chinese art, such as calligraphy, patterns, architecture, lanterns and dragons, to help them decorate their calendars. Explain that red and gold are important colours in Chinese decorations. • Here is a list of important days in the Chinese lunar calendar:

Double Seventh Festival — 7th day of the 7th moon. This is traditionally a day of romance. The legend of the cowherd and the weaver maid is often told on this day. Ghost Festival — 15th day of the 7th moon. This is another day for remembering the deceased. Spirits are believed to roam during the 7th moon and people burn paper money and gifts to calm them.

sa

Ching Ming festival – celebrated in April and known as ‘Remembrance of Ancestors Day’. This festival honours deceased relatives. Families visit cemeteries and tidy graves. Young children are taught to pray to and for the family spirits. Branches of the willow tree, regarded as a symbol of light and an enemy of darkness, are hung in doorways to ward off evil spirits.

Tuen Ng – 5th day of the 5th moon. Also known as the Dragon Boat Festival, is celebrated in June. It honours the death of Qu Yuan, the famous poet and patriot who wrote beautiful and passionate poetry to protest against evil officials working in his country. He became so disillusioned with the corruption that he drowned himself in the Mi-Lo river. The people were so upset that they took to their boats, beating the water with their paddles to prevent fish from eating his body and throwing rice dumplings into the water to entice the fish away from Qu Yuan.

e

• If making reference to the animals of the Chinese zodiac, pupils should be reminded that the ‘Year of the rat’ and all subsequent ‘animal’ years begin on the first day of the new lunar year.

is celebrated in May. Huge towers are built and covered with bread buns. At a signal, young people clamber up the towers to collect as many buns as possible. It is said that the number of buns collected is proportional to the amount of good luck and blessings the person and his/her family will receive from the spirits.

m pl

• Explain that the Chinese Lunar New Year does not begin on 1 January as it does in the Gregorian calendar but on the first day of the first lunar month, sometime between 21 January to 20 February.

Mid-autumn Festival — 15th day of the 8th moon. Celebrated in September, honours the moon. People travel to the best vantage points to study the moon closely. Children carry lanterns of all shapes, lit by candles to light the way for people paying their respects to the moon.

Vi ew in

g

Dong Zhi (winter solstice) – 22 or 23 December each year, has the shortest day and longest night. Between this day and the summer solstice in June, the days become longer. The ancient Chinese believed that positive power became stronger as the daylight hours increased and this was reason to celebrate.

Chinese New Year — 1st day of the 1st moon. A time of family gathering and for celebrating successes or closing the door on failures, of the old year and hoping for positive times in the new. Originally, the celebrations lasted for 15 days, but today, it is generally three days. Lantern Festival — 15th day of the 1st moon. Traditionally the final day of new year celebrations, when people would line the streets at night with lanterns as they watched parades and dragon dancing.

Tin Hau — 23rd day of the 3rd moon. Celebrated in late April, it honours a young girl, Mo Niang, who was re-named Tin Hau, meaning ‘Queen of Heaven’. She is known as the mother of boat people and sailors. Birthday of Buddha — 8th day of the 4th moon. Celebrated in May. Legend says that at the moment of Buddha’s birth, over 2500 years ago, nine dragons spat on the water. Buddha, meaning ‘enlightened one’, is the sacred name given to the Indian prince, Siddhartha Guatama, who founded the Buddhist religion.

Double Ninth Festival — 9th day of the 9th moon .‘Nine’ is a Yang number so this day was believed to be potentially dangerous. Ancient Chinese people protected themselves by drinking chrysanthemum wine and wearing the zhuyu plant, both of which were held as having cleansing and healing properties. Xia Yuan Festival — 15th day of the 10th moon. Another lantern festival and one during which the people pray to the water god for a peaceful year.

Additional activities • Choose a festival to research and present as a written project, including maps, pictures and diagrams as necessary. • Using a range of art and craft materials, create a 3-D image for your chosen festival. • Conduct research to find festivals that are celebrated in different provinces of China.

Cheung Chau Festival — 8th day of the 4th moon. Known as the ‘festival of the buns’, it is a four-day event of religious ceremonies, Chinese opera and burning paper clothing as gifts to make nervous spirits happy. It

 70 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Celebrations and customs – Chinese festivals

Festivals are an important part of life for the Chinese people and they celebrate many throughout the Chinese lunar year. Each one has its own traditions and they all involve excitement, colour and mass participation.

Use the information provided to design and create a decorative calendar of Chinese festivals held throughout the lunar year. First moon

Second moon

Third moon

1st day – Chinese New year • Family gathering and major festivities for three days (traditionally 15 days)

23rd day – Tin Hau Festival • Visits to the shrines of the spirit of Tin Hau, who could predict storms and the fortunes of seafarers

m pl

sa

Sixth moon

5th day – Tuen Ng Festival (Dragon boat) • Dragon boat racing in honour of Qu Yuan, the famous Chinese poet

Vi ew in

8th day – Birthday of Buddha • Buddhists pray for the gifts of wisdom and peace

Fifth moon

g

Fourth moon

e

15th day – Lantern Festival • Final day of new year celebrations—Lantern parades and dragon dancing

8th day to 12th day – Cheung Chau Festival • Towers of bread buns climbed and paper gifts burned to calm ghosts and spirits Seventh moon

7th day – Double Seventh Festival • Sweethearts exchange flowers and gifts 14th day – Ghost/Spirit Festival • People pay their respects to the spirits of the deceased Tenth moon

Eighth moon

15th day – Mid-autumn Festival • Sharing moon cakes and carrying lanterns to high ground to view the moon

Eleventh moon

Ninth moon

9th day – Double Ninth Festival • People go hiking and wear chrysanthemum blossoms

Twelfth moon

15th day – Xia Yuan Festival • Pray to the water god for a peaceful new year Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 71 1


The dragon dance

Celebrations and customs – Objectives

• Designs and creates a dragon. • Evaluates dragon and suggests improvements.

Teacher information • Encourage pupils to find and use vibrant colours, reminding them that red and gold are often used in Chinese decorations. When the basic costume has been measured and cut, encourage pupils to be creative in their ideas for decorations. Look on the Internet to find images for inspiration.

• The number of body sections or the length of the dragon, relates to the amount of luck it will bring the community; i.e. the longer the dragon, the greater the luck. Neighbouring communities often compete to produce the longest dragon. • In Ancient Chinese mythology, dragons are associated with water and were first thought of as river spirits. Communities used to perform dragon dances to ask the gods for rain during the season of growth and to halt the rain during the harvest.

e

• The dragon dance takes many forms, all of which are carefully choreographed and expertly executed. Using special poles attached to the dragon, the performers manoeuvre the dragon while following the leading performer, who takes the dragon through the parade. This performer holds aloft a large pole topped with a ball, the ‘precious pearl’.

Vi ew in

g

The dragon dances performed during the Lantern Festival, on the 15th day of the new year celebrations, are considered by many to be the highlight of the celebrations. The dragon can rise and fall at differing speeds to give the illusion of reality. Parades conducted at night are even more spectacular to watch as the dragons are illuminated.

sa

• The dragon dance was originally performed to halt the spread of sickness, but by 1000 CE, the dance had evolved into its current role of traditional entertainment.

m pl

Among the dragon’s many positive attributes, they are associated with the ancient Chinese ‘pearl of wisdom’, which is why the leading performer of the dragon dance holds the precious pearl.

Additional activities • Create a dragon dance with musical accompaniment to perform to younger pupils. • Using butchers paper, make an accurate pattern of the improved dragon design for others to copy. Include materials required for decoration. • Research to find different dragon legends. Dramatise them for a young audience and perform them using the dragons made.

 72 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Celebrations and customs – The dragon dance

Dragons have always been an important part of Chinese culture. Unlike their Western counterparts, Oriental dragons are considered to be good and helpful and have been the symbol of imperial power for thousands of years. The dragon dance is an expression of people’s enjoyment in their nation’s ancient custom of honouring the dragon.

Dragons are made with different materials but they are all manoeuvred by martial arts experts who use poles to raise and lower the dragon in a well-rehearsed sequence. The number of dancers working the dragon depends on its length.

1. On a large sheet of art paper, design a dragon that you could make in class. 2. Complete the table to show the materials you would use for each part of the dragon.

Dragon part

Material

e

head

m pl

eyes eyebrows

lips teeth tongue

Vi ew in

ears

g

nose

sa

eyelashes

horns neck body claws tail

3. How many people will be required to move your dragon? 4. (a) Test your dragon to see how well it can move.

good

(b) How would you rate its manoeuvrability?

fair

terrible

5. (a) What features of your dragon are you most (b) What improvements could you make to your happy with? dragon?

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 73 1


Celebrations and customs – Chinese dragons Objectives • Follows specific guidelines to draw a picture. • Reproduces the picture on to card and decorates.

Teacher information

• The Chinese or Oriental dragon can fly even though it has no wings, can change the size and shape of its body and is generally a gentle creature whose main purpose is to help people. • The dragon has always been a part of Chinese mythology and can be found in paintings, stories, poetry, architecture and craft work.

There are many waterfalls and cataracts in China which are reputed to be the secret location of the Dragon’s Gate. • The internationally famous dragon dance is the highlight of the Chinese New Year celebrations. The dragon is manoeuvred by many people, manipulating specialised stage props to simulated the various movements of the dragon. The movements symbolise the many traditional roles of the dragon, always showing power and dignity. The spectacular double dragon dance involves two troupes of dancers intertwining their dragons in a clever display of skill and accuracy of movement.

Vi ew in

g

sa

• In China, there are three Nine Dragon walls. The oldest and largest is in Datong in the Shanxi province. It was built during the Liao Dynasty, 916-1125 CE. The most spectacular of the three is the Nine Dragon Wall in Baihai Park in Beijing, which was built in the middle of the 18th century. It is 21 m long and about 15 m high and the borders are decorated with many smaller dragons, bringing the total number to 635.

In the legend, a carp saw the top of a mountain and decided he would reach it, no matter how hard the journey. He swam upstream, successfully tackling waterfalls and rapids until eventually he reached his goal. At the top of the mountain the carp saw the Dragon’s Gate. As he jumped over it, he turned into a revered dragon.

e

• For many centuries, the dragon was a symbol of the emperor and some emperors even claimed to be descendants of the first dragon.

• The legend of the mythical Dragon’s Gate symbolises the strength of character and determination shown by people who strive to overcome obstacles to achieve a goal.

m pl

• Legend tells that the first dragon appeared to Fu Hsi, a mythical emperor, and filled the hole in the sky which had been created by Kung Kung, a wicked monster. The dragon’s body rhythms of sleeping, waking and breathing created night and day, the seasons of the year and the weather, in all its forms. It was believed that foul weather, including floods and storms, occurred when a human upset the dragon.

Additional activities • Research to find the different types of dragon in Chinese mythology. In groups, plan and write a short play to illustrate a story and share with the rest of the class. (The five types of dragon are: those guarding the gods and emperors; those controlling the weather; earthly dragons which deepened the rivers and seas; those guarding hidden treasure; the first dragon.) • Use the dragons to create a ‘dragon wall’. • Research to find a story about a dragon. Use your dragon to tell this story to younger pupils.

 74 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Celebrations and customs – Chinese dragons

Dragons have been an important part of Chinese culture for thousands of years. They symbolise all that is good and kind, and throughout China, there are many shrines and temples dedicated to the dragon. In ancient times, it was believed that dragons controlled the weather, could ward off evil spirits and protect innocents from harm.

Over the centuries, the Chinese dragon has evolved into a mythical creature bearing the body parts of a number of different animals.

1. Use references and your knowledge of animals to draw a Chinese dragon with these body parts: antlers of a stag

eyes of a lobster

neck of a snake

belly of a clam

scales of a fish (carp)

paws of a tiger

claws of an eagle

ears of an ox

tail of a whale

Vi ew in

g

sa

m pl

e

head of a camel

2. Reproduce your dragon on stiff card and decorate in red and gold.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 75 1


Celebrations and customs – The Chinese zodiac Objectives • Uses retrieval charts to find information to complete tables. • Describes personal characteristics determined by ancient Chinese astrology and compares with what he/she believes.

Teacher information • Explain that the Chinese calendar years and (lunar) months differ from those of the Gregorian calendar. Accurate dates for comparison can be found on the Internet by typing ‘Chinese astrology’ into a search engine. • Clarify the differences in characteristics associated with the year, month and hour of birth: year – our presentation to others

month – how we perceive ourselves

hour – how we really are.

• Explain the concept of ‘Yin and Yang’ as being complementary, opposing directions of any aspect or form. Yin represents the darker element which is passive, feminine and corresponds to the night. Yang represents the brighter element which is active, masculine and corresponds to the day. • Copy and enlarge the tables below for pupils to locate the information relating to their times of birth.

Characteristics

Animals

metal (gold)

determined, strong, persistent, reserved

monkey, rooster, dog

wood

generous, persuasive, idealistic, enthusiastic

tiger, rabbit, dragon

water

diplomatic, compassionate, intellectual, creative

boar, rat, ox

fire

energetic, enterprising, adventurous, competitive

snake, horse, ram

patient, reliable, ambitious, disciplined, helpful

Element

Year ending in ...

Element

all animals of the zodiac

Year ending in ...

Element

0

Yang metal

1

Yin metal

2

Yang water

3

Yin water

4

Yang wood

5

Yin wood

6

Yang fire

7

Yin fire

8

Yang earth

9

Yin earth

sa

earth

Year ending in ...

m pl

Element

These five elements were increased to ten as each has a Yin and a Yang form. Each year is associated with either the Yin or the Yang direction of one of these elements.

e

• Ancient Chinese astronomers believed certain elements to have a bearing on the characteristics of individuals born under them. Each element governs a number of animals of the zodiac.

Note: The change over from one year to the next occurs on the first day of the Chinese New Year and not on 1January.

g

According to Chinese astrology, an individual’s personality is determined by: • the animal assigned to the year of birth – the personality he/she presents to others Animal

Year

Animal

Year

Animal

Year

Animal

rat

1999

rabbit

2002

horse

2005

rooster

Vi ew in

Year 1996 1997

ox

2000

dragon

2003

ram

2006

dog

1998

tiger

2001

snake

2004

monkey

2007

boar

• the animal assigned to the month of birth – how one perceives his/her own personality Lunar month

Animal

Lunar month

Animal

Lunar month

Animal

Lunar month

Animal

4 Feb. – 5 March

tiger

6 May – 5 June

snake

7 Aug. – 7 Sept.

monkey

8 Nov. – 6 Dec.

boar

6 March – 4 April

rabbit

6 June – 6 July

horse

8 Sept. – 7 Oct.

rooster

7 Dec. – 5 Jan.

rat

5 April – 5 May

dragon

7 July – 6 Aug.

ram

8 Oct. – 7 Nov.

dog

6 Jan. – 3 Feb.

ox

• the secret animals assigned to the hour of birth – an individual’s true personality Hours

Animal

Hours

Animal

Hours

Animal

Hours

Animal

2300 – 0100

rat

0500 – 0700

rabbit

1100 – 1300

horse

1700 – 1900

rooster

0100 – 0300

ox

0700 – 0900

dragon

1300 – 1500

ram

1900 – 2100

dog

0300 – 0500

tiger

0900 – 1100

snake

1500 – 1700

monkey

2100 – 2300

boar

Additional activities • Pupils design posters or booklets, illustrating their supposed characteristics.

• Design and make a calendar wheel showing the twelve animals of the zodiac. This activity may be extended to include characteristics, lunar months and hours.

• Pupils describe their supposed characteristics to the rest of the group/ class, using elements of dance and drama to illustrate each characteristic.

 76 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Celebrations and customs – The Chinese zodiac

The Chinese animal zodiac is based on a twelve-year cycle with one animal representing each year. It also includes a cycle of lunar months (moons) and hours of the day. The characteristics of individuals were believed to be influenced by the animal associated with:

• the year of birth – determining the characteristics we present to others

• the lunar month of birth – determining what an individual perceives to be his/her true self

• the hour of birth – determining an individual’s true characteristics.

Yin/Yang element

Element

Animals

Characteristics

Animal

Characteristics

Vi ew in

Month

g

sa

Year

m pl

e

1. Using the information provided by your teacher and by research, determine which animals of the zodiac are associated with your time of birth. Note: The change over from one year to the next occurs on the first day of the Chinese New Year and not on 1 January.

Hour

Animal

Characteristics

2 (a) Describe your characteristics according to ancient Chinese astrology.

(b) How are you similar to or different from this description?

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 77 1


Celebrations and customs – Make a Chinese kite Objectives • Follows procedure accurately to make a kite. • Predicts outcome of test based on materials used. • Evaluates performance of kite compared with the control.

Teacher information • Collect an assortment of materials that could be used for the frame and sails of the kite. • Make a ‘control’ kite using the given materials that allow the kite to fly. • Pupils follow the same procedure to make their kites, but substitute materials with those collected. • Pupils discuss the materials and consider how well his/her kite will fly compared with the control. 5. Attach tail

• for spine, 50-cm length of thin balsa wood, with a hole 1 cm from each end and one 15 cm from one end

• Make loose loop of string through holes at top and bottom of spine.

• for spar, 40-cm length of thin balsa wood, with a hole 1 cm from each end and one at the centre

• Cut 1-m length of string and tie one end to loop at top of spine. Make loop in string, 10 cm from top. Thread string through loop at bottom of spine.

m pl

• 60 cm x 50 cm rectangle of clear plastic

• Fold squares of crepe paper into bows. Staple to tail at regular intervals.

• 15 cm x 15 cm squares of assorted colours of crepe paper • thin nylon thread and a needle

• sticky tape

• empty cardboard (clingwrap etc.)

What to do: 1. Make frame

6. Attach reel

• Wind 15 m of string around empty cardboard roll. Tie free end to loop close to top of spine. Hints:

• To save time, the holes in the balsa wood can be made before the lesson, using a strong darning needle.

g

• black marker

sa

• strong nylon string

Vi ew in

• Lay out spine and spar in cross shape, so hole at 15 cm on spine is aligned with hole in centre of spar.

• Secure two pieces of wood together by winding string several times through holes.

• Cut length of string at least 150 cm. Thread it through hole at top end of spine and secure. Thread it twice through hole at one end of spar and pull tight. Repeat for holes at bottom of spine, other side of spar and top of spine again to create a kite shape. 2. Create sail

e

To make a control kite you will need:

• Lay frame on plastic sheet. Use black marker to draw sail outline according to size of frame. 3. Decorate sail

• Plastic sheeting from white goods packaging is ideal for the sail. • Construct a kite before the lesson and use it to explain the names of the different parts; i.e. spine, spar, frame, sail, tail and reel. • Collect a number of Chinese illustrations for pupils to use as inspiration for their kite designs; e.g. dragons, birds, butterflies, goldfish. • Choose a windy day and a safe place, away from traffic and overhead powerlines, to fly kites. • Minor adjustments in construction can improve a kite’s stability and flying. As pupils test their kites, ask them to evaluate how well their kites fly and to make suggestions for possible adjustments.

• Use black marker to draw Chinese design on plastic, keeping it inside outline of sail. 4. Attach sail • Lay frame on sail so that plastic overlaps frame. Cut out sail. At each end of spine and spar, secure plastic using needle and thin thread to sew sail to frame. Use sticky tape to secure string frame to back of plastic.

Additional activities • Demonstrate to younger pupils how to make a kite. Give a running commentary, explaining the different parts of the kite and the importance of the materials of construction. • Research different shapes of kites and try making them. • Research the history of kites from the days of Ancient China to the present day. Present findings in an illustrated time line.

 78 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Celebrations and customs – Make a Chinese kite

How well a kite flies depends on the design and on the materials used in construction. The materials need to be light enough for the kite to become airborne, yet strong enough to withstand strong winds.

1. Follow the procedure for making a kite, provided by your teacher. 2. Complete the table. Kite component

Material used

frame sail 3. How do you think the flying ability of your kite will compare with that of the control kite?

4. (a) Test your kite.

e

(b) How would you rate its performance against the control kite?

m pl

I think my kite will perform better/ worse than the control kite because ...

sa

similar worse

g

better

Vi ew in

5. How do you think the flying ability of your kite could be improved?

I think the flying ability of my kite could be improved by ...

6. Classify the materials you used as either good or poor for kite making.

Good materials for kite making Frame

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Poor materials for kite making

Sail

Frame

China

Sail

 79 1


Celebrations and customs – The game of mahjong Objectives • Reads the text. • Uses own knowledge of the game to describe the pieces and write a set of rules for a younger audience. • Evaluates work.

facts

Teacher information

• Some people believe the mahjong tiles show hidden symbols which can be used to predict the future.

• Before pupils can complete the task, they must be familiar with the game of mahjong. Collect as many mahjong sets as possible—one per group of four pupils is required.

• Mahjong sets are coloured red, blue and green: red represents blood and life; blue represents the sky and the heavens; and green represents the Earth and nature.

• Determine the number of pupils, if any, who can play mahjong and evaluate the standard they can play the game at. Use these pupils as teachers to instruct other pupils. Alternatively, teach one group how to play and then divide them to teach other groups.

• Useful websites include: <http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Mah-Jong.htm> <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahjong>

e

• Read through the text with the pupils to determine their familiarity with the game.

m pl

• When everyone is familiar with mahjong, discuss the rules and clarify any anomalies. Divide the class into groups, mixing ‘experts’ with novices, allowing the pupils to complete the worksheet as a group.

Vi ew in

g

sa

• On completion, pupils test their rules on a group of younger novices. The pupils’ success in constructing the rules can be determined by the amount of extra help they have to give to the novices. If the rules made sense, the novices will require little or no help.

 80 

Additional activities

• Devise a mahjong challenge, including all pupils in the class, to determine the mahjong master. • Choose a mahjong tile to draw and paint on A3 paper. • Write an exposition on why pupils should be encouraged to play the game of mahjong.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Celebrations and customs–The game of mahjong The game of mahjong originated in China over two thousand years ago. Legend says that while living an existence of solitude in the emperor’s court, a beautiful young maiden invented the game to prevent herself from becoming bored and restless. She spent hours carving the pieces of ivory and bamboo and, when she was finished, the maiden invited three of her maids to play the very first game with her.

For centuries, mahjong was a leisure activity allowed only for the ruling classes. It was against the law for commoners to play and the penalty for flouting this law was decapitation. Around 500 CE, the ban was finally lifted and everyone was able to enjoy the game, which allowed its popularity to spread rapidly. In the 1920s, an American living in Shanghai adapted the rules and gave the tiles an English translation, enhancing mahjong’s appeal to the Western world.

Known as ‘the game of a hundred intelligences’, mahjong has become very popular because it requires skill to play it successfully. Similar to games such as chess and bridge, each player has to pay close attention to how his or her opponents play and try to anticipate the next moves.

The rules of the game allow it to be played at different levels of difficulty, giving beginners the chance to become familiar with the pieces and the general flow of the game and practise some of the important skills required. When this level has been mastered, more complex rules may be added. This process can continue until the game is played using all the rules.

While the game of mahjong may sound complicated, once you start to play, it is very easy to become addicted to and progress can be swift.

g

sa

m pl

e

Vi ew in

1. Design a poster, illustrating the different suits of a mahjong set. Complete the table before you begin. Suit

Number of tiles

Suit

Number of tiles

2. Design a set of rules for mahjong, suitable for younger pupils to understand. Use the following headings to create a plan for the task. • Object of the game

• Beginning a hand

• Winning a hand

• Scoring

• Playing a hand

3. (a) Test your rules on a group who are new to the game. Watch to see if the group understands your rules. (b) How appropriate were your rules for the players? Circle a score out of five.

not appropriate

1

2

3

4

5

very appropriate

(c) How could you improve your rules? Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 81 1


Fables and legends – Chinese proverbs Objectives • Discusses the meaning of some proverbs and matches each to a life skill. • Explains how each proverb applies personally to him/her.

Teacher information • As a class, discuss the meanings and associated life skills of different proverbs. They need not be associated with China. Discuss how each one may be relevant to each pupil’s life. (Use the Internet or a book of proverbs).

wisdom, using the experiences of daily life to illustrate examples of human behaviour. The proverbs have a number of ‘layers of meaning’, the first of which is immediately obvious. As one thinks about the meaning, a deeper message may be discovered. It is because of this that Chinese proverbs are considered a great source of wisdom.

• Proverbs were initially used as a teaching tool by Ancient Chinese philosophers. They were taught to people and handed down through the generations. As they were based on practical examples and the personalities and characteristics of all people, they are as valid today as they were in ancient times.

• Note: Many Ancient Chinese proverbs found on the Internet are not authentic. Validating websites and checking references is necessary to ensure that you find the real thing. Many fakes are immediately obvious as they are either anachronistic or spoofs.

e

• While appearing to be very simple, Chinese proverbs are full of

Additional activities

2.

• Choose one proverb and explain its meaning in detail, describing how its message could help you.

Proverb

Life skill

A journey of one thousand miles begins with one single step.

self-discipline

A single conversation with a wise man is worth a month of study with a book.

wisdom

We can learn many lessons by talking with others who have practical experience rather than hoping to learn only from the theory.

With time, the mulberry leaf becomes silk.

patience

With the right conditions, good things will happen even though it may not seem obvious at present.

knowledge

Be prepared to admit that there are things you do not understand and you will acquire knowledge by asking for explanations.

perseverance

Keep working through a problem and the lessons you learn along the way are as valuable as the end product.

There are many paths to the top of the mountain, but the view is always the same.

success

There are many ways reach a goal all of which are equally valuable.

Keep a green bough in your heart and the singing bird will come

optimism

Be open to good things happening and they will.

Do not be afraid of growing slowly; be afraid only of standing still.

learning

Do not be discouraged if, in spite of effort, progress is slow. But be concerned if you make no effort at all.

The journey is the reward.

 82 

Meaning

• Create an 8-page booklet, with an illustrated version of a proverb on each page.

sa

Although a task may seem great, be prepared to stick with it and tackle it one step at a time.

g

• Design a poster of proverbs to encourage you in your daily life.

Vi ew in

The person who asks a question is a fool for a minute; the person who does not is a fool forever.

m pl

Answers

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Fables and legends – Chinese proverbs

Proverbs are short, wise sayings containing a message or truth that is useful for everyday life. They have been quoted for many generations as a means of teaching people life skills or advice about life.

There are many ancient Chinese proverbs which are still useful today.

1. In groups: (a) read and discuss the meaning of each proverb (b) discuss the life skills listed in the box and consider which applies to each proverb. Record your answers in the table. wisdom

knowledge

success

self-discipline

learning

patience

perseverance

optimism

e

m pl

2. In the ‘Personal message’ column, give an example of how each proverb applies to you.

Vi ew in

A single conversation with a wise person is worth a month of study with a book.

Personal message

sa

A journey of one thousand miles begins with one single step.

Life skill

g

Proverb

With time, the mulberry leaf becomes silk.

The person who asks a question is a fool for a minute; the person who does not is a fool forever. The journey is the reward. There are many paths to the top of the mountain, but the view is always the same. Keep a green bough in your heart and the singing bird will come. Do not be afraid of growing slowly; be afraid only of standing still. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 83 1


The legend of the cowherd and the weaver Objectives • Uses narrative text to plan and write a play script. • Shows major and minor roles in a play script. • Rehearses and performs in a production of the group’s play.

Teacher information Complete the following steps before pupils write their play scripts. • Write a list of characters. • Determine how many cattle and magpies there will be: how many will have speaking parts and what the silent characters will do; e.g. a choreographed dance piece.

When the play scripts are written, discuss tips for achieving a creditable performance: • All parts should be memorised, with the exception of the narrator who is allowed to read from the script. • Rehearse thoroughly to practise cues and stage directions.

• Determine the number of scenes required and what takes place in each one.

• Always face the audience when speaking and never turn your back on them.

• Discuss possible dialogue between characters in each scene.

• Follow directions for speech—speaking clearly and with expression.

• Decide upon the age of the audience before writing the script. – new line each time speaker changes – name of character at the beginning of each speech

– stage directions where appropriate, in italics – scenes numbered using Roman numerals – description of each scene before dialogue for that scene

• Explain the value of each character to the success of the whole production. Remind them that the whole is always greater than the sum of its parts.

sa

– directions for how each person speaks in italics within brackets before the speech

m pl

e

• Give everyone in the group the opportunity to audition for all the parts. Match the pupils to the parts to provide the greatest overall success.

• Explain conventions for writing a play script:

Vi ew in

g

• Discuss props which may be used, such as music (pre-recorded or live), stage furniture and scenery. These are an important part of a script as they are referred to in the stage directions. Props required can be listed at the end of the script.

Additional activities • Design an illustrated poster to advertise a performance of the play. • Write a critical review of the performance. • Draw a picture to illustrate each scene of the play. Include a brief description of what occurs in each scene. Present as a booklet to give to a lower primary class.

 84 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


The legend of the cowherd and the weaver

Vi ew in

g

sa

m pl

e

Legends are stories of olden times which may be based on real people or events. The story of the cowherd (a person who tends cows) and the weaver maid is associated with the romantic Double Seventh Festival, which is celebrated on the 7th day of the 7th moon. In the mid-summer night sky, when the Milky Way is When Niu Lang met Zhi Nu, he instantly fell in clearly visible, two bright stars on either side of the love with her. They married and lived a happy life sky can be seen twinkling at one another. They are together, Niu Lang farming and tending the cattle the subjects of an ancient Chinese legend, that of the while Zhi Nu looked after the home and worked as cowherd and the weaver maid. a weaver. In time, they had two beautiful children, a boy and a girl. They continued to live a blissful life Niu Lang was a kind and until one day the Jade Emperor, the god of heaven, honest man who had been discovered her absence. driven from home by his unkind stepmother. He went The Queen Mother of the Western Heaven followed to live alone in the country, the orders of the Jade Emperor and brought Zhi farming and herding cattle. Nu back home. Niu Lang was left distraught, but Unknown to him, he was was determined to find his wife, the love of his life. being watched from the Seeing his distress, celestial cattle came to Earth heavens above. and moved among his herd. They offered to take the cowherd to the heavens to seek out The heavenly fairy, Zhi Nu, Zhi Nu. had been following the cowherd from her celestial With his son and daughter, Niu Lang rode on home and she had fallen the cattle and reached Zhi Nu’s home. But just in love with him. Without as he was about to make contact with his wife, informing her queen, she the queen mother saw him and, with one strike travelled to Earth and transformed herself into a of a golden hairpin, she created an impassable river beautiful young woman; the weaver maid. between them.

There the family remained, the lonely weaver maid on one bank of the river and her husband and children on the other. Touched by their love for each other, tens of thousands of magpies formed a bridge spanning (b) Complete the table, showing the link between the river so the family could reunite. Seeing their characters and size of role. devotion, the queen mother relented and agreed that on one day each year, Character Speaking role (✓) Major role (✓) Minor role (✓) the 7th day of the 7th moon, the family Narrator would be allowed to Niu Lang cross the bridge to meet. Stepmother As you look at the Zhi Nu mid-summer night sky on a clear night, Son you can clearly see Daughter the cowherd, the weaver maid, the Jade Emperor impassable river and Queen mother the magpies! Celestial cattle

1. (a) Working in a group, plan and write a play script for this story on a separate sheet of paper.

Magpies

2. Rehearse the play and perform it before your chosen audience. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 85 1


Fables and Legends – ‘Journey to the west’ Objective • Creates an illustrated flow chart to demonstrate an understanding of the text.

Teacher information • Journey to the west was published during the Ming Dynasty in the 16th century. The book contains 100 chapters and is divided into three sections: – the early history of Sun Wu Kong, the Monkey King – Xuan Tang’s biography up to the beginning of the pilgrimage. – the main story of the 81 dangers and calamities encountered by Tripitaka and his three disciples (Monkey, Pigsy and Sandy) and his horse (a dragon prince). The book is widely acknowledged as having a number of levels of interest:

• The demons in the school story are: Black Bear; Yellow Wind; Zhen Yuan Holy Man; White Bone; Yellow Robe; Gold Horn; Silver Horn; Holy Baby King; Tiger Power; Deer Power; Goat Power; Black River Dragon; Carp; Green Ox; Scorpion; Six-ear Monkey; Ox Demon King; Demon Woman; Jade-faced Princess; Boa Snake; Nine-headed Worm; Seven Spider; Hundred-eye Taoist; Green Lion; White Elephant; Falcon; Deer; and Gold-nosed White Mouse. • It is thought that the calamities that befell the group were orchestrated by Buddha to ensure that they had truly repented for past misdeeds. • At the end of the pilgrimage, each traveller was given the reward of immortal life and promoted to a higher celestial post.

– It provides spiritual lessons.

m pl

e

– It is an excellent adventure story.

– Tripitaka and Monkey both achieved Nirvana.

– It represents an individual’s journey towards enlightenment. – It is a satirical text, describing the state of the Chinese government during the 16th century.

– Sandy became an ‘Arhat’, a spiritual practitioner.

sa

The task of collecting the sacred scriptures was given to Tripitaka by the Bodhisattva Guanyin, on instruction from Buddha.

– Pigsy became an altar cleanser and was required to eat all the offerings laid at the celestial altar.

• A ‘bodhisattva’ is an enlightened being who delays his own entry into nirvana in order to help others achieve enlightenment.

– The dragon prince (the horse) became a ‘Naga’, a supernatural being with snake and human features.

Vi ew in

g

‘Nirvana’ is the ultimate state attained after a series of reincarnations when all wants and self-delusions have been cast aside.

• Monkey, who called himself Monkey King, was a master at kung-fu. Using clouds as transport, he could travel over 250 000 km in one single cloud somersault.

Monkey could transform himself into many different images, from a tiny ant to a huge tree, and could use this skill to enter the body of an enemy and attack him from within.

He also had the power to blow on a single hair pulled from his body and transform it into whatever he wished; for example, multiple clones of himself to gain advantage in a battle.

Additional activities • Conduct research to discover the 81 calamities that befell the travellers. Distribute them around the class so that all are read. Each pupil gives a written and oral synopsis of the calamities he has read. • Create an illustrated time line of Journey to the west including the 81 calamities. • Choose some of the calamities to dramatise for younger pupils.

Monkey’s trusted weapon was a staff, which was once a pillar, supporting the underwater palace of the East Sea Dragon King. It weighed over 6000 kg, but he could shrink it to the size of a sewing needle and store it behind his ear. • Pigsy could also travel on clouds and transform himself, but his powers were not as great as Monkey’s. His trusted weapon was the nine-tooth iron rake. • Sandy’s weapon was the crescent moon shovel. He was thought of as the weakest member of the group, as his powers were much weaker than those of Monkey and Pigsy. However, he was more thoughtful and caring of his master and never engaged in powerstruggle bickering, as Monkey and Pigsy often did.

 86 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Fables and legends – ‘Journey to the west’ Journey to the west is a chronicle of the legend of a pilgrimage to India during the Tang Dynasty (618–907 CE) by a monk, Xuan Zang, and his four disciples. The purpose of the mission was to collect Buddhist scriptures and return with them to China.

Xuan Zang, known as Tripitaka, was instructed by Buddha to travel to India to collect the sacred texts as Buddha believed the rulers of China were spoilt and needed to discover a more virtuous life. Buddha arranged that Tripitaka would have four followers to help him on his journey, whom each had to atone for past sins. Sun Wu Kong, known as Monkey, was a daring and rebellious spirit who had been punished by the Jade Emperor, the king of the heavens, for acting against him. With the help of Buddha, Monkey was trapped under a mountain for 500 years until Tripitaka rescued him. Monkey would prove to be a valuable disciple as he had many powers which he had learned from a master Taoist (a religious man).

The fourth disciple was the third prince of a dragon king, who was sentenced to death for setting fire to his father’s great pearl. He was granted a reprieve but imprisoned until a suitable role could be found for him. He was eventually chosen to join the pilgrimage to the west. He was turned into a horse and became Tripitaka’s steed.

m pl

a monster after accidentally smashing a crystal goblet belonging to the Heavenly Queen Mother. He lived in the Flowing Sands River, where he terrorised anyone who tried to cross the river. It was here that he encountered the superior fighting prowess of Monkey and Pigsy. Having been defeated by them, Sandy agreed to join the party on its journey to the west.

e

sa

The party encounters many monsters and adventures on its 14-year journey. With lies, disguises and trickery, the disciples are able to fight off the advances of their enemies, who all wanted to eat a piece of Tripitaka’s body as they believed it would give them immortality.

The second follower was Zhu Bajie, known as Pigsy. He used to be a general in the celestial army but was disgraced for flirting with the Moon Princess. He was banished to the mortal world, where he was to be reborn in human form but, during his reincarnation, was accidentally born from a sow and so became half man, half pig. As an adult, he disguised his pig features and stole a beautiful, young bride from a local village. When the villagers discovered his deceit, they planned to attacked him. Tripitaka and Monkey arrived in the village in time to rescue him and so he joined the journey to the west.

Pigsy had many powers but they were not as great as Monkey’s. However, he had magnificent fighting skills in the water which he used to combat Sha Wujing who was to become the third follower of Tripitaka.

Sha Wujing, known as Sandy, was exiled from the heavens and given the features of

Vi ew in

g

1. (a) Use the information from the text to create an illustrated flow chart of Journey to the west. (b) Conduct research using the Internet to give you more information to extend your chart. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 87 1


Fables and legend – Legends of silk Objectives • Listens to the three texts and determines factual content. • Writes a plan for a similar text. • Proofreads and edits the plan and writes a final draft.

Teacher information • Read each of the three legends to the class and discuss any similarities and differences between texts, such as mention of the mulberry tree and the effect of heat on the cocoons. • Discuss the elements found in most legends and brainstorm ideas for an original legend of how silk was discovered. • A legend is a non-historical story often told as though the events were actual historical events and the characters were real people. Legends may or may not be based on an elaborated version of an actual historical event. They are generally about human beings, but often gods and mythical creatures are involved in some during the story. • Sericulture is the rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk. Type ‘sericulture’ into an Internet-based search engine to find websites about this process.

sa

m pl

e

Long ago in Ancient China, some women were walking through a beautiful garden, picking various fruits from the trees. They came upon what they believed was the fruit of the mulberry tree, but it was so hard, they could not bite into it. They boiled the ‘fruit’ in water to soften it, but still they were still unable to eat it. In frustration, they hit the ‘fruits’ with sticks only to find that threads of silk were released. The ‘fruits’ were the cocoons of silkworms.

Vi ew in

g

A father and daughter had a magical horse that could speak and was able to fly. One day, the father went away on business and did not return. His daughter sent the horse to find her father, promising to marry it if it brought her father home safely. The horse was successful, but on hearing the promise his daughter had made, the father killed the horse. The spirit of the horse rose from the body and carried the girl away. She was laid to rest on a mulberry tree where she immediately turned into a silkworm. Everyday, she cries tears of silk threads because she misses her father so much.

One day in Ancient China, XilingShi, wife of Emperor Huanghi, was sipping tea under a mulberry tree in her beautiful garden. As she sat, enjoying the peace, something hard fell from above and dropped into her teacup, disturbing her tranquil thoughts. XilingShi tried to remove the offending object and found herself unwinding threads of silk. The object was the cocoon of a silkworm.

Answers

Additional activities

1. (b) Silk comes from silkworms, which feed on mulberry trees. The silkworm cocoon needs to be boiled before the threads can be released.

• Write a simple play script for each story and perform them to younger pupils. • Create a montage of things that have been discovered by accident. Display as a time line, indicating when each thing was discovered. • Write a play script for your legend.

 88 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Fables and legends – Legends of silk

No-one knows exactly when or how silk was really discovered, but it is generally accepted that it occurred in China, thousands of years ago.

1. (a) Listen to the three legends, each telling how silk was discovered. (b) What facts about silk do these legends reveal?

2. Using brief notes, write a plan of a legend of your own about the discovery of silk, including the facts you already know.

e

Title:

sa

Vi ew in

g

Complication and events:

m pl

Orientation:

Resolution:

Conclusion:

3. On separate sheets of paper: (i) add more detail to the plan, proofread and edit (ii) write a final draft. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 89 1


The arts – The character of Chinese calligraphy Objectives • Reads information about calligraphy. • Completes sentences using a key of ‘Hánzi’. • Creates ‘Hànzi’ (Chinese characters) of his/her own.

Teacher information • The Chinese have been producing beautiful artworks for many centuries. The themes used in ancient Chinese art were usually related to religious or supernatural beliefs or were to do with nature or the environment. • Chinese art was built on the tradition of calligraphy, using only a few simple brushstrokes and producing often abstract forms.

• Calligraphy is an abstract art form, with words used as a means of expression. The term ‘calligraphy’ includes inscriptions and handlettering as well as pieces of fine art. • Copperplate is one style of calligraphy still used today. This style employs sharp lines resembling engraved copper.

1. Teacher check 2. (a)

,

(b)

,

(c) (d) (e)

,

Vi ew in

Answers

g

sa

m pl

e

• The name calligraphy comes from the Greek ‘calli’ meaning beauty and ‘graphos’ meaning writing.

Additional activities

• Provide the pupils with black ink and pens with nibs to experiment with copying or creating Chinese calligraphy. (Refer to <http:// www.chinapage.com/calligraphy.html> for examples.) • Provide pupils with examples of a style of the Copperplate alphabet, sharp nibs, pens and ink and ask pupils to recreate his/her own name. • Conduct research to find pictures of abstract art by Western painters and compare to artworks created using Chinese calligraphy. List features of each and discuss preferences.

,

(f) (g)

 90 

,

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


The arts – The character of Chinese calligraphy 1. Read the information. Calligraphy is the art of beautiful writing. It is one of the oldest and simplest forms of art. Chinese calligraphy uses ink brushes to write Chinese characters called Hánzi. Hánzi fit into a square space and are all about the same size and shape.

The original tools used for calligraphy were a brush pen made from animal hair and black inks made from soot and glue.

Chinese calligraphy was used to make inscriptions, for handlettering and to make fine artworks. Before paper was invented, these were usually produced on silk. Often the calligraphy was Calligraphy is used today to create menus, mounted on scrolls and either hung on walls like paintings or greeting cards, invitations, legal documents, rolled up. diplomas and business cards. However, a variety of pens are used as well as brushes. A style of calligraphy is called a hand or alphabet.

Chinese ink-and-wash painting uses similar The art of calligraphy is over 2000 years old. Noble people, tools, skills and techniques to those of scholars and priests were expected to master the art. calligraphy.

m pl

e

sa

2. Write the Hánzi from the key which completes the sentence. (a) Calligraphy is one of the simplest forms of old.

, and ink made from

Vi ew in

made from animal Chinese characters.

(c) Hánzi are usually the same size and

(d) One of the uses of calligraphy was hand-

were used to write the

(g) Calligraphy is often used today to create

pen

lettering

.

shape

.

silk and was often

alphabet

are.

(f) A style of calligraphy is called a hand or

thousand

soot

(e) Before paper was invented, calligraphy was produced on hung on walls like

years

brushes

g

(b)

art and is over two

Key (Hánzi)

invitations paintings

. and can be written using a

.

hair Chinese

3. Use the squares to make up some Hánzi of your own to write your name and address.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 91 1


The arts – Chinese lanterns Objectives • Reads information and answers questions about Chinese lanterns. • Writes solutions for Chinese riddles.

Teacher information

 92 

e

Mr Puzzle, riddle me left, riddle me right. Puzzle me bright, from the fire to light. The answer is easy. The question is not. It lies in the past that time has forgot. Do I just jest or do I jest not. I know the truth—do I or do I not?

Vi ew in

4. (a) lotus/waterlily (b) thermometer

Additional activities

• Pupils design, plan and create a lantern for a specific purpose (and therefore in the correct colour) to display around the room.

g

Answers

Mr Riddle, puzzle me in and puzzle me out. Riddle me dark from the cave to shout. The question is easy. The answer is not. It lives in the future that has yet to arrrive. I would if I could, I could not and died. Had I lived, I would not have lied.

sa

• The world’s first riddle? During the excavation of a 4500-yearold burial site at Xiaguan in central China, a sheet of parchment was discovered sealed inside a clay utensil, presumably for the dead person to take with him/her on the journey to his/her ancestors. The writing on the parchment, in Mandarin, tells of a traveller who was lost in the mountains. He came across two old men talking while sitting by a fire near the entrance to a cave. He heard and recorded the last part of their conversation.

m pl

• The Lantern Festival has been celebrated in China since the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-221 CE). It marks the end of the Chinese New Year celebrations. It also signifies the return of light and spring. During this time, lanterns are hung in marketplaces for about two weeks. On the 15th day of the Chinese New Year, lanterns are made using materials such as wood, bamboo, silk and rice paper and carried through the streets to a public square or place. Here the participants present and share their lanterns.

China

• Hold a class competition to see who can write the best Chinese riddle. • Pupils write simple instructions for a younger child to follow to create his/her own Chinese paper lantern. Pupils will need to make and test their design to see if it works before giving to with a younger pupil from another class.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


The arts – Chinese lanterns 1. Read the information, then answer the questions. Chinese paper lanterns are believed to have existed since 250 BCE, not only as a form of decoration, but also to announce a birth or death in the family, to warn of impending danger or to describe the social status of the householder. The placement and colours of lanterns varied for each different purpose. Red was the colour used to depict energy and life, so red lanterns placed outside a door were used to signify a wedding or a birth in the family. A white strip of material draped across the top of a doorway with a white lantern on each side announced a death in the family and indicated that energy had been eliminated. Blue lanterns showed that there was illness in the family or declining energy.

e

Traditional Chinese lanterns consisted of a bamboo, redwood or wire frame surrounding a candle. Thin or oiled paper, gauze or silk covered the frame, so that the harsh light from the candle produced a soft glow.

sa

m pl

Simple lanterns were used in daily life to light the way home at night, and were hung on boats or outside homes and shops. More elaborate lanterns were made for two important Chinese holidays — the Lantern Festival and the Mid-autumn (Moon) Festival. The lanterns for the Lantern Festival displayed historical or patriotic scenes and were painted on silk. Many also had riddles on them which had to be solved during the festival. This still happens today. Lanterns for the Mid-autumn (Moon), Festival display pictures of animals, fruit and flowers in imaginative or fancy shapes.

Vi ew in

g

2. What was the importance of Chinese lanterns? Give at least two examples.

3. What were the two main types of lanterns, how were they made and what did they look like?

4. What are the solutions to the Chinese riddles below? (a) A small maiden sits in the middle of the water wearing a pink jacket. She rows her boat without oars.

Who or what is she?

(Clue: a flowering plant)

(b) A red maiden lives in a small lane. In the winter she is short and in the summer she is long.

Who or what is she?

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

(Clue: it measures something) China

 93 1


The arts – Chinese opera Objectives • Reads information about Chinese opera. • Rates and gives opinions about aspects of Chinese opera. • Researches and writes notes about other aspects of Chinese opera.

Teacher information

sa

• Chinese opera facial make-up dates back to at least 960 CE, when simple patterns of painted faces were found in murals of tombs. More information about Chinese opera face masks can be found at <http://www.paulnoll.com/China/Opera/index. html>.

• Pupils should form small groups to compare the results of their research and adjust their notes. When the pupils feel they are as accurate as they can be, they should each write their answers as a short paragraph.

e

• Beijing Opera developed into its present form in the 19th century. It includes six or seven musicians playing traditional Chinese string and percussion instruments to accompany the singing or punctuate the action or dialogue. The instruments usually include Chinese forms of the fiddle, banjo, guitar, oboe, drums, gongs, cymbals and wooden clapper.

• The four main categories of characters in Chinese opera include ‘Sheng’ (male roles – a middle-aged or old man, young men and men with martial arts skills), ‘Dan’ (female roles – a woman with a strict moral code, a lively young woman, a woman with martial arts skills and an elderly woman), ‘Jing’ (roles with painted faces – warriors, heroes, statesmen or demons) and ‘Chou’ (clown – a comic character which is easily recognised by the facial makeup which usually includes white paint on the nose—can also be a civilian clown or clown with martial arts skills).

m pl

• Because the first opera school was given the name Liyuan meaning ‘Pear Garden’, performers of Chinese opera are still called ‘disciples of the Pear Garden’. At first, Chinese opera was only available to court officials and emperors but later (1644– 1911 CE), common people were able to see opera in tearooms, restaurants and on makeshift stages.

Additional activities

• Compose a ‘simple’ Chinese opera using the steps below:

Vi ew in

g

– As a class, select a well-known historical or military event. Determine the characters required and discuss what the characters are like. – Divide the class into groups of five or six pupils to work out the following components of the opera: • movement/actions • dialogue (recited speech and everyday language) • rhythmic musical accompaniments percussion instruments

using

string

or

• costumes • facial make-up – Meet at regular intervals to compare progress and information. – Select actors, practise and perform for a school assembly. • Pupils select a group of characters from a well-known novel or play to create a series of masks representative of each character as the basis of a visual arts lesson.

 94 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


The arts – Chinese opera 1. Read the information.

Chinese opera is a mixture of traditional music, using the gong and lute for unusual melodies and dialogue and movement in one performance.

One of the most popular aspects of Chinese opera is the facial make-up used by the performers. Applying the makeup requires very distinctive painting techniques and is very time-consuming. The make-up tells about the personality, role or fate of the character. A character with a red face is usually loyal and brave, one with a black face is heroic. Yellow and white faces tell that a character is deceitful or cannot be trusted. Gold or silver faces were used for gods or spirits or suggested a mystery surrounding the character. A character with a green face is stubborn or impetuous. Lines and the amount of colour drawn on the face are also important. For example, the more white paint on a face, the nastier the character is.

female, minor and more frivolous characters. Acrobatics and movement also form a large part of Chinese opera. Characters use gestures, mime or body movements to represent actions such as riding a horse, rowing a boat or opening a door. All actors are trained to perform acrobatic stunts, such as swordplay or martial arts, as these are often needed to portray battle scenes.

e

Chinese opera is one of the world’s oldest dramatic art forms. It is believed to have been started during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) by Emperor Taizong.

sa

m pl

Characters in Chinese operas are easily recognisable because of their costumes, which include headdresses, robes and opera boots and shoes, and because most of the stories are well-known.

The singing usually consists of a series of sad melodies and the dialogue is in two forms: recited dialogue for the main or serious characters and everyday or colloquial speech for the

Vi ew in

g

Many regions of China have developed their own particular style of opera but the most popular is Beijing Opera, which performs over 1000 different operas, most of which are taken from historical stories or legends about political and military events.

2. How important do you think each of the 3. Explain the reason for your first choice (most following aspects of Chinese opera are? This is important). a personal opinion which must be rated from 1 (most important) to 7 (least important). (a) historical story or legend

(b) accompanying music (c) makeup

(f) dialogue (g) singing Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

(d) costumes (e) movement

4. Use research to find information about props and the four main categories of character in Chinese opera. Write your notes on a separate sheet of paper. China

 95 1


The arts – Traditional Chinese instruments Objectives • Reads information about some traditional Chinese musical instruments. • Researches and draws and/or writes information about musical instruments made from other materials.

Teacher information

• The Chinese drum is considered to be one of the oldest instruments (possibly 3000 years old). Drums were used to launch an attack in battle, for religious and ceremonial occasions, in dancing music, when hunting animals, to sound alarms and to tell the time. Chinese drums were made of wood with stretched animal skin on the top and struck by a pair of sticks.

Possible answers may include:

Additional activities

• Pupils write a list of traditional Chinese musical instruments in one column and in a second column write Western equivalents, if possible.

g

Answers

sa

• The chime bells, or ‘bianzhong’, is a set of large bells of different pitches hung on a rack and struck on the rim by small metal sticks or a long rod. In ancient China, chime bells were only available to the upper classes.

• The cymbals are pairs of brass circular shapes which are banged or rubbed together. They can also be played by being tapped on the rim by a stick. Chinese cymbals come in different sizes. The larger ones make a loud, booming sound and are used in ensembles and in ceremonies. The smaller ones have a clear, bright sound and are often used in the traditional Chinese Lion Dance.

e

• Other well-known Chinese percussion instruments include the drum, the chime bells (bianzhong), the gong and the cymbals.

• The gong is played in bands, concerts, opera, drama, and singing and dancing and dining celebrations such as boat races, lion dances and harvest festivals. They are made from metal, bamboo or other materials. It has a simple circular structure and is struck by wooden sticks or mallets.

m pl

• Traditional Chinese music is played in small groups or solo.

Vi ew in

A pien ching is a set of L-shaped stones of different sizes and quantities which hang from a stand and are struck with a special hammer. A sheng is one of the oldest Chinese musical instruments; constructed from hollowed-out vegetables such as gourds or pumpkins. It has a wind chest and bamboo pipes set in a circle. Its sound imitates that of the phoenix. A xun (ocarina) is a small, egg-shaped wind instruments made from clay with six holes for fingertips.

• The Chinese believe that music is a form of ‘expression of the harmony that exists between Heaven, Earth and humans’. Discuss this topic substituting Western music for Chinese music. • Visit the website <http://www.learn-ict.org.uk/resources/sec_ music/chinese/2china.htm> to see pictures and hear examples of instruments made from different materials.

The bianzhong is a set of large bells of different pitches hung on a rack and struck by a small metal stick or long rod.

 96 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


The arts – Traditional Chinese instruments

Traditional Chinese musical instruments include a variety of string, wind or percussion instruments. They are divided into eight main groups—silk, bamboo, wood, stone, metal, clay, gourd and hide—all based on the materials from which they are made.

1. Read the information about traditional Chinese musical instruments.

The ‘pipa’ is a four-stringed, pear-shaped instrument which is related to the lute. It is placed on the lap upright, and plucked with a plectrum rather than the fingers. The once-silk strings are now made from steel.

e

The ‘erhu’ is a two-stringed instrument played with a bow and made from hardwood. It has a soundbox covered in snake skin and a long, carved neck, often shaped like a dragon head. Silk has previously been used to make the strings.

m pl

The ‘guzheng’ is one of the oldest plucked instruments in China. It has a wooden soundbox. The number of strings varies from thirteen to twenty-five. The strings were originally made from silk but are now made from metal or nylon. It is also called a ‘zither’ and is played laid horizontally across a stand. The ‘dizi’ is a transverse flute (a tube with one end closed and a blowhole to blow across to split the air). It has six holes and a tone hole which is covered with a rice paper membrane to give the instrument a buzzing sound.

Vi ew in

g

sa

2. Use the boxes to sketch labelled pictures and/or write information about instruments made from other materials.

stone — pien ching

gourd — sheng

clay — xun (ocarina)

metal — bianzhong

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 97 1


The arts – Chinese brush painting Objectives • Reads information about Chinese brush painting. • Completes activities about aspects of Chinese brush painting.

Teacher information • A Chinese painter had complete freedom over the structure of the painting. Backgrounds could be left blank to draw attention to the subject or the subject may look completely different to the way it does in reality. • The message behind a painting was often more important than the actual image of the painting. Chinese brush painters tried to express the ‘inner spirit’ of the subject of the painting or the feelings of the artist.

• The red paste for the artist’s seal was made from cinnabar paste (a mixture of mercuric sulfide, ground silk and oils). The seals used to complete paintings were also considered as a work of art. • Calligraphy and brush painting use the same techniques and materials. • Other well-known arts and crafts in China include fine china, paper cuttings, lacquerware and pottery.

Teacher check

 98 

Vi ew in

Answers

g

sa

m pl

e

• Philosophy and symbolism played an important part in Chinese painting. Animals had their own symbols. Flowers were often used to symbolise things such as good fortune, wisdom or purity.

Additional activities

• Pupils conduct research to find how other forms of art and craft, such as paper cutting, is made. • Visit <http://www.chinese-tools.com/learn/painting> to view step-by-step instructions for creating a number of Chinese brush paintings of animals and insects. • Debate the topic ‘Chinese brush painting does not require as much skill as other painting styles’.

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


The arts – Chinese brush painting

Traditional Chinese brush painting uses brushes, ink, paint and paper or silk to create artworks of birds, flowers, people, animals or scenery.

Two main techniques are involved: meticulous (gongbi) and freehand (xieyi). The meticulous style, which is more difficult to master, is very decorative and requires great care when completing the fine brushwork, while a freehand style uses general ideas of shapes and a lot of brush and ink techniques.

m pl

e

1. Under each example of brush painting, write which of the two techniques you believe has been used.

The many and varied ways to hold and use the brushes create a wide variety of lines, shades and textures. Black is the main colour for use in traditional Chinese brush painting. Ink is mixed with water in varying amounts to create different techniques. Thick black ink appears glossy; thin ink appears lighter and almost translucent, creating different effects on paper or silk. Colour is sometimes added to express the characteristics of the subject of the painting.

Vi ew in

g

sa

2. In the box, experiment with a selection of black pens and pencils, pressing heavily or lightly to create a number of different types of ‘brush strokes’.

Formerly, Chinese paintings were often completed by adding inscriptions using calligraphy. The inscription may have been simply the artist’s name and the date or it may include the special occasion for which the painting was completed, the name of the person who commissioned the painting, information about the subject of the painting, a piece of poetry or mention a piece of literature. These were usually followed by the artist’s seal.

3. Write a simple inscription for one of the paintings above or an imaginary one.

The artist’s seal was usually carved from stone and included the artist’s name, a saying and a design or symbol connected to the painting. The stone seal was pushed into a container of red paste which was then pressed onto the painting. Adding a red seal to a painting of one single colour was referred to as ‘adding the eye to the dragon’.

4. In the box, design a seal to be added to a completed brush painting. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 99 1


The arts – Chinese cloisonné Objectives

• Reads information about cloisonné. • Uses a dictionary to find the meaning of words in a text. • Draws and compares steps in the cloisonné process for a selected object. • Researches to find information about tourist attractions which have cloisonné features.

Teacher information • ‘Cloisonné’ (pronounced klwu’zonay) is a very unique art form originating from the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). It was further developed during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) as the emperor was very interested in bronze casting techniques. During this time the bright-blue colour which became known as Jingtai/Chingtai Blue, was created. The work became more delicate during the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) and many more objects were made using this technique.

• Objects made using the cloisonné technique include folding screens, incense burners, tables, chairs, chopsticks, bowls, vases, snuffboxes, jewellery (particularly beads), clock cases and eggs. • Today, the technique is applied to objects and sculptures made from wood, jade, ivory and lacquer. The production of cloisonné objects is a thriving industry in China with many objects exported to countries all over the world.

1. Teacher check

m pl

sa

Vi ew in

2. The meanings of some words which pupils may need to look up in the dictionary include:

Additional activities

• Pupils experiment with a number of painting or printing techniques to try and recreate a ‘cloisonné’ effect on an sketched object in an artwork.

g

Answers

e

• St Mark’s Cathedral, Venice, contains an altarpiece with small scenes in cloisonné enamel. The Alfred Jewel (an Anglo-Saxon ornament dating from the late 9th century) is made of filigreed gold and includes a piece of quartz crystal with a cloisonné enamel plaque showing an image of a man. It is kept in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, Britain.

enamel — a glassy substance, usually opaque, applied by fusion to the surface of metal, pottery, etc., as an ornament or for protection. cloisonné — enamel-work in which colour areas are separated by thin, metal bands fixed edgeways to the ground or base. copper — a malleable, metallic element with a reddish brown colour. brass — a hard, malleable yellow alloy, consisting mainly of copper and zinc. soldered — to join closely partitions — parts, divisions, or sections frit — a fused or partially fused material used as a basis for glazes or enamels; powered glass mixed into a paste with water fired — applied heat to in a kiln for baking or glazing corrosion — the act or process of corroding or rusting

• Pupils use protractors or compasses to create partitions (cloisons) in a variety of geometrical shapes.

3–5. Teacher check

 100 

China

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


The arts – Chinese cloisonné (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

1. Read the information.

‘Cloisonné’ is an ancient metalworking technique of producing decorative items. The technique is also called ‘inlaid enamel’. Cloisonné is a complicated and time-consuming process and as a result, items such as a small vase may take many months to complete.

The steps for creating a cloisonné object are: (a) The artist forms an object from copper or brass by hammering pieces into shape and joining them at high temperatures.

sa

(c) The object is then heated to permanently glue the wire to the object and then cooled.

m pl

e

(b) Copper wire is curved into patterns or shapes, such as flowers, and soldered onto the object creating partitions (in French, ‘cloisons’) of a design.

(e)

(f)

Vi ew in

g

(d) ‘Frit’ is ‘painted’ into the partitions to add colours to the enamel and allowed to dry. (e) The object is fired in an oven so the frit dries onto the metal.

(f) The ‘frit’ is applied, dried and fired several times until the layers are built up to the height of the partitions.

(g)

(g) The artist polishes the object until its surface is smooth. (h) A thin film of gold is added to the exposed metal to prevent corrosion and to create a pleasing effect.

2. Use a dictionary to find the meaning of any unknown words and then reread the text. 3. Select an object to create using the 4. Compare your drawings to those of another pupil to ensure cloisonné process and draw pictures that you have included all the correct steps. to show the stages of development in 5. Conduct research to find any well-known tourist attractions the boxes. around the world which use cloisonné as a feature. Object: Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

China

 101 1

6384 China (upper primary)