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Beginning geography (Lower/Middle primary)

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ISBN 978-1-84654-659-4 PR– 6364

Titles available in this series: Beginning geography (Lower/Middle primary) Exploring geography: Africa (Middle/Upper primary) Exploring geography: Antarctica (Middle/Upper primary) Exploring geography: Asia (Middle/Upper primary) Exploring geography: Australia & Oceania (Middle/Upper primary) Exploring geography: Europe (Middle/Upper primary) Exploring geography: North America (Middle/Upper primary) Exploring geography: South America (Middle/Upper primary)

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BEGINNING GEOGRAPHY CONTENTS Section 1: Map skills .................................................................................................... 2–37 Section 2: Landforms and bodies of water ................................................................ 38–70 Section 3: Continents and oceans ............................................................................ 71–96 Section 4: Around the world with animals ................................................................ 97–105

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Answers ................................................................................................................... 106–111

SUBJECT

LEVEL

England

Geography

KS 1

OBJECTIVES

• name and locate the world’s seven continents and five oceans • name and locate the four countries of the United Kingdom and its surrounding seas • understand geographical similarities and differences • identify hot and cold areas of the world • use basic geographical vocabulary • use world maps, atlases and globes • use simple compass directions (N,S,E,W) and locational and directional language to describe the location of features and routes on a map • use and construct basic symbols in a key

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COUNTRY

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CURRICULUM LINKS

Northern Ireland

The World Around Us

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KS2

• locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus on Europe • understand geographical similarities and differences between the United Kingdom, Europe and North or South America • describe and understand key aspects of physical geography, including: rivers, mountains and volcanoes • use maps, atlases and globes

Foundation

• explore what is in their world, and beyond their world • show curiosity about places • understand and use positional and directional language, as well as simple maps and drawings

KS 1

• explore features of the immediate world • compare places

Beginning geography

iii


CURRICULUM LINKS

SUBJECT

LEVEL

OBJECTIVES

Republic of Ireland

Geography

1st/2nd Class

• develop an awareness of places in other areas • develop some awareness of maps • identify land and sea on maps and globes • use maps of Ireland and the globe to develop an awareness of other places • identify, explore and discuss aspects of some major natural features in the local environment

3rd/4th Class

• develop some awareness of the natural features of some places in Ireland and other places in the world • establish and use cardinal compass points • develop familiarity with, and engage in practical use of maps • develop an understanding of and use some common map features and conventions • identify major geographical features and find places on the globe • study some aspects of the environments in Europe and another part of the world • become familiar with the location and names of a few of the larger towns and cities in Ireland • develop some awareness of the types of environment which exist in Ireland and other parts of the world

Social Studies

Early

Second

Wales

iv

• explore a natural environment different from their own, and discover how the physical features influence the variety of living things

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• explore and appreciate the wonder of nature within different environments

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COUNTRY

• interpret information from different maps, and locate key features within the UK, Europe or wider world

Knowledge Foundation and Understanding of the World

• learn about where their locality is • learn about distances and how to follow directions and routes • use simple maps • identify natural features • begin to recognise differences between their own locality and localities in different parts of the world • use atlases and globes

Geography

• identify and locate places and environments using globes, atlases and maps • follow directions and calculate distances • identify and describe natural features • identify similarities and differences to describe, compare and contrast places and environments

Beginning geography

KS 2

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C T I ON SE

1

Map skills In this section of Beginning Geography, pupils learn basic map skills.

Reproducible activity pages There are 31 activity pages that cover 9 map skills. Page 3 provides a detailed table of contents for the Map skills section. The activity pages vary in difficulty, allowing you to match them to pupils’ learning levels.

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NOTE: The activity pages are intended for direct instruction with the whole class or small groups. Read the statement of the concept being presented and the activity directions to the pupils. For pupils at lower reading levels, it is recommended that you also read the activity items together.

Assessments

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Three map skills reviews (pages 35−37) follow the skill activity pages. These pages may be used as a review or as a formal assessment of pupils’ skill acquisition. The review pages vary in difficulty. Choose one or more that are appropriate to your pupils’ needs.

2

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Activity

Activity description

What is a map?

follow teacher-read directions to locate and colour items in a bedroom

4

Looking at a map

follow teacher-read directions to show items on a map of a school’s grounds

5

Places on a map

locate places on a more detailed map

6

Left or right?

use left and right to show direction

7

use left, right, up and down to show direction

8

Treasure hunt

follow teacher-read directions to locate a treasure

9

Which way?

use north, south, east and west to locate items

10

use cardinal directions to draw things on a map

11

What is a map?

2

Positional At the zoo words

3

Cardinal On the farm directions

4

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1

Page

Around the town

use cardinal directions to find places on a map

A compass rose

place cardinal directions on a compass rose

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Concept

Compass A fancy compass rose design a fancy compass rose rose

6

Map key

7

use a compass rose to find places on a map

15

Name that symbol

identify the ‘real things’ map symbols stand for

16

Symbols on maps

What is a map key?

colour to match map key symbols with places

19

Making a map key

write what the map symbols stand for

20

Reading a map key

use the map key to locate places on a map

21

How far is it?

count squares to find distances between animals

22

learn to recognise and understand a map scale

23

Using a map scale

use a map scale to find the distance on a map

What is a border?

learn to recognise a border on a map

26

learn to recognise a county border

27

Isles

9

17 18

Borders A county border on a map Borders of the British

Map grids

match labels to common map symbols

Drawing map symbols create new map symbols

Distance What is a map scale? on a map

8

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Using a compass rose

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Map symbols

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answer questions about borders

24, 25

28, 29

What is a map grid?

learn what a map grid is and answer questions

Making a map grid

correctly place grid squares to make a map

31, 32

Using a map grid

use a map grid to locate cities in Ohio

33, 34

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Beginning geography

30

3


Name

A map is a drawing of a place from above. A map shows where things are.

What is a map?

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This is a map of Ben’s bedroom. Listen and follow directions.

1. Colour the bed red. 2. Colour the rug yellow. 3. Colour the toy box green.

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Beginning geography

4. Colour the table purple. 5. Colour the chest of drawers brown.

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Name

Looking at a map

A map is a drawing of a place from above. A map shows where things are.

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This map shows a school. Listen and follow directions.

1. Colour the building red.

4. Colour the tree green.

2. Draw a circle around the sandpit. 5. Draw a child on the footpath. 3. Mark an X on the cars.

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Beginning geography

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Places on a map

A map is a drawing of a place from above. A map shows where things are.

Brown Street

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Yellow Avenue

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Main Street

Green Street

This map shows a town.

Pink Avenue

Fill in the blanks to complete the sentences.

1. The school is on

Avenue.

2. You go into the petrol station from 3. Kari and Kim live on

Street. Avenue.

4. Brown Street goes by the school and the 5. Green Street and 6

Beginning geography

. Street go by the park. Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com


Name

cat

Left and right are directions that help you find things.

dog

bird .

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1. From the bird to the rabbit

 or 

fish

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Which direction would you go? Draw 

rabbit

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Left or right?

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2. From the dog to the cat

3. From the fish to the bird

4. From the dog to the rabbit

5. From the cat to the fish

6. From the rabbit to the dog

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Beginning geography

7


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At the zoo

Left, right, up and down are directions.

up

h

at

P al

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im

An

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Wild Way

right

down Circle the correct answer.

1. Which animal is up at the top? 2. Which animal is down at the bottom? 3. Which animal is to the left of the bear? 4. Which animal is to the right of the bear?

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Name

Treasure hunt

Left, right, up and down are directions.

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up

right

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lef t

down

Listen and follow directions. Use a coloured pencil to draw a route to the buried treasure.

1. Start at the ship. 2. Go up to the lake. 3. Go left to the cave. 4. Go down to the log. Cross the river.

5. Go along the river. Go down to the village. 6. Go up to the three rocks. 7. Go to the rock on the right. 8. Mark an X below the rock.

What treasure did you find? Draw it on the back of this paper.

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Beginning geography

9


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Which way?

The four main directions on a map are north, south, east and west.

You are here.

east

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west

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north

south Start at X. Write the direction: north, south, east or west.

1. Look

to see the car.

2. Look

to see the bike.

3. Look

to see the lorry.

4. Look

to see the bus.

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Name

On the farm

The four main directions on a map are north, south, east and west.

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north

east

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west

south Follow the directions in order.

1. Draw a house south of the cow. 2. Draw an apple tree west of the horse. 3. Draw a truck north of the tractor. 4. Draw a chicken south of the barn. 5. Draw a pig east of the chicken.

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Beginning geography

11


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Around the town

The four main directions on a map are north, south, east and west.

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north

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Maple Street

west

east

Pine Street

Oak Street

Joe’s Home

Park Street

south

Read. Write north, south, east or west.

1. From the bank to the fire station, go 2. Park Street is 3. To post a letter, Joe walks 4. The hospital is 5. The supermarket is

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Beginning geography

. of Oak Street. . of the supermarket. of Maple Street.

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A compass rose

A compass rose is a map symbol that shows directions.

N stands for north

E stands for east

S stands for south

W stands for west

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Cut out the direction words below. Glue them on the compass rose.

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glue

W

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glue

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N

E

glue

S

glue

north

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south

east

west

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A fancy compass rose

A compass rose is a map symbol that shows directions.

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This compass rose is plain. Make it fancy. Label it with N, S, E and W.

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You can find plain and fancy compass roses on maps. Look at these compass roses. Which one do you like best?

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Name

A compass rose is a map symbol that shows directions.

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Using a compass rose

Circle the answers. Use the compass rose to help you.

1. Which one is N of the dog?

tyre swing

umbrella

2. Which one is W of the table?

swings

sandpit

3. Which one is S of the sandpit?

umbrella

scarecrow

4. Which one is E of the scarecrow?

swings

kennel

5. Which way does the fence run?

N and S

E and W

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Beginning geography

15


Name

A map symbol is a drawing that stands for something real.

Name that symbol

Look at the symbols. Write the word that each symbol could stand for on a map.

farm

lake

library

1.

5.

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2

3.

school

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1

2.

road

e

bridge

4

5

6.

6

Use the numbered letters to complete the sentence.

I am on a map. I stand for a real thing. I am a 16

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6

1

4

3

2

.

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Name

A map symbol is a drawing that stands for something real.

Symbols on maps Match each symbol with the name.

• road

2.

• hospital

3.

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1.

• airport

5.

• mountain

6.

• river

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Beginning geography

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Drawing map symbols

A map symbol is a drawing that stands for something real. There are different kinds of map symbols.

Pictures mountain

forest

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Patterns

capital city

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city

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Shapes

ocean

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desert

Pretend you are a mapmaker. What kinds of symbols would you use to show these things on a map?

library

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lake

park

bike path

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Name

A map key is a list of symbols on a map. A map key tells what the symbols stand for.

Map Key

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What is a map key?

Map key camping ground

lake

path

woods

Follow the directions to colour the map.

1. Colour each symbol on the map key a different colour.

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2. Then colour the pictures on the map to match the key. Beginning geography

19


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Making a map key

A map key is a list of symbols on a map. A map key tells what the symbols stand for.

Exit

Food court

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Main level

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Escalator

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Main entrance

Complete the map key. Write the name of each building next to the correct symbol.

Map key

toy shop music shop sports shop pet shop

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Name

A map key is a list of symbols on a map. A map key tells what the symbols stand for.

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Reading a map key

Circle the correct answer. Use the map key to help you.

1. Which symbol stands for a river? 2. The campground is next to the

.

3. The river and the path meet at the

.

4. To go from the woods to the lake, walk 5. The camping ground is

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hills lake

of the river.

lake bridge

. north south north

south

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21


Name

A map can show how far it is from one place to another. This is called distance.

How far is it?

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Look at the two dogs. Count the squares to find the distance between them.

sa

Count the squares to find the distance.

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The distance is 4 squares.

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1.

2.

3.

squares

squares

squares

4. The longest distance is between the and the

.

5. The shortest distance is between the and the

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Name

What is a map scale?

A map scale can help show distance. A map scale is like part of a ruler.

Here is a map scale. 1 centimetre stands for 1 kilometre. So, 2 centimetres would stand for 2 kilometres.

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Yummy Town

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7 cm

0

1

1 cm = 1 km

Map key bakery

pizza shop

12 cm

g

5 cm

Scale

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Answer the questions.

1. From the     to the    ?

cm =

km

2. From the    

to the  

?

cm =

km

3. From the   

 to the  

?

cm =

km

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Beginning geography

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Using a map scale

A map scale is a way to measure distance. It tells what measurement equals what distance.

Here is a map scale. 1 centimetre stands for 1 kilometre. So, 2 centimetres would stand for 2 kilometres.

Scale

0

1

1 cm = 1 km

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Cut out the ruler below. Use the scale and the ruler to answer the questions about Maya’s fun time map on page 25.

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This is Maya.

?

How many kilometres is it from Maya’s house to the 1. park

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km

2. swimming pool

km

3. cinema

km

4. zoo

km

5. toy shop

9 8

8

10 7

9

7

11

12

6

10

6

5

11

5

13 4

12

13

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15

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14 3

3

15 2

2

16

17

1

17 24

1

0

0

km

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Name

This map shows the places Maya likes to go to have fun. Look at the scale. It shows that 1 centimetre on the map equals 1 kilometre.

Maya’s fun time map

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Maya’s house

Scale

0

1

1 cm = 1 km

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Beginning geography

25


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A border is a dividing line between two places on a map.

What is a border?

This is a map of the places in Fairy Tale World.

Unicorn Field

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Talking Trees Forest

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Giants’ Garden

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Elf Acres

Listen and follow directions.

1. Trace the border between Giants’ Garden and Unicorn Field in green. 2. Use orange to trace the border of Elf Acres. 3. Trace the border between Giants’ Garden and Talking Trees Forest in red. 4. Which place has a border with four sides? 5. Does Elf Acres border Talking Trees Forest?

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A border is a dividing line between two places on a map.

A county border

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South Forest

East Forest

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North Forest

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This map shows five counties.

Timberland

Oceanside

Follow the directions.

1. Trace the border of North Forest in red. 2. Trace the border between South Forest and Timberland in yellow. 3. On this map, East Forest shares a border with

counties.

4. Does North Forest share a border with Oceanside? 5. Which county shares a border with four other counties?

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Beginning geography

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Borders of the British Isles

A border is a dividing line between two places on a map.

Look at the map of the British Isles below.

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There are five countries of different shapes and sizes in the British Isles. The borders are the dividing lines between the countries.

Use the map of the British Isles on page 29 to complete the directions.

1. Colour the two countries that share a border with England blue. 2. Colour the only country that borders Northern Ireland green. 3. Use yellow to colour the country that borders Scotland. 4. Use red to colour the smallest country. 5. Mark an X on the largest country.

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Name

Map of the British Isles

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British Isles

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Scotland

Northern Ireland

Republic of Ireland

England Wales

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What is a map grid?

A map grid is a pattern of lines that form squares. Each square on a map grid has a letter and a number.

A

B

C

1

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The monkeys are in square A1.

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2

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3

Look at this map grid. Circle the correct answer.

1. The

is in square

2. In square C1 there is a 3. The

30

Beginning geography

.

is in square

4. In square C2 there is a

A3 B3

.

.

.

A2 B2

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Making a map grid

Each square on a map grid has a letter and a number. A map grid helps you find places on the map.

B

C

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A

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Cut out the squares on page 32. Glue the squares in the correct places on this map grid.

2

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1

3

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Making a map grid These squares will make a map when you glue them on page 31.

B3

C1

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A1

A3

B2

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C3

B1

32

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A2

C2

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Name

Each square on a map grid has a letter and a number. A map grid helps you find places on the map.

Using a map grid

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Look at the map of Ireland on page 34. Trace the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland with your finger.

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Now find the capital of Northern Ireland. It is Belfast. Belfast is located at D2.

Use the map grid to help you answer the questions.

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1. In which square is the city of Dublin found? 2. Which city is found in square B3? 3. Which city is the furthest south? 4. Which sea is to the east of Ireland? 5. Which two cities are located on the River Shannon? In which squares are they found?

City name:

窶キocation:

City name:

窶キocation:

6. Which city, besides Belfast, is in Northern Ireland?

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Using a map grid This map shows some cities in Ireland. The map is in a grid. A grid is a pattern of lines. The lines form small squares.

A

B

C

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1

D

3

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4

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Name

Map skills Review 1 Write the directions on the compass rose.

N =  north S =  south E =  east

e

W =  west

petrol station •

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Match each thing to its map symbol.

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playground •

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forest •

school •

Name each picture.

border capital city river

map grid

map key

North Forest

East Forest South Forest

Timberland

Oceanside

Kansas

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Beginning geography

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Name

Map skills Review 2 Choose the correct words to name each drawing.

compass rose

grid square

map scale

county border

map key

e

A

0

1

1 cm = 1 km

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1

Scale

g

South Forest

capital

Timberland

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river

Dark Plain

Oceanside

Misty Woods

Circle the correct answer.

1. This arrow

is pointing

down

2. A map is a sign

.

right left of a place from above. name drawing

3. North, south, east and west are called 36

.

directions symbols borders

Beginning geography

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Name

Map skills Review 3 Tick the box next to the correct answer.

1. A map key has

that stand for places on the map.

directions

symbols

borders

2. Lines that form squares on a map make a city

grid

e

symbol

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.

3. The dividing line between two places is called a

map

sa

border

.

compass rose

4. Which of these is a correct grid location on a map?

A6

3C

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5B Answer the questions.

1. What are the four main directions?

   

2. How does a map key help you read a map? 3. A map scale shows 1 cm = 10 km. How many kilometres apart are two places that are 3 centimetres apart on the map?

kilometres

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Beginning geography

37


C T I ON SE

2

Landforms and bodies of water In this section of Beginning Geography, pupils learn basic landforms and bodies of water.

Reproducible activity pages There are 28 activity pages that present eight landforms and three bodies of water. Page 39 provides a detailed table of contents for the Landforms and bodies of water section. The activity pages vary in difficulty, allowing you to match them to pupils’ learning levels.

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NOTE: The activity pages are intended for direct instruction of the whole class or small groups. Read the statement of the concept being presented and the activity directions to the pupils. For pupils at lower reading levels, it is recommended that you also read the activity items together.

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Assessments

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Three map skills reviews (pages 68−70) follow the skill activity pages. These pages may be used as a review or as a formal assessment of pupils’ skill acquisition. The review pages vary in difficulty. Choose one or more that are appropriate to your pupils’ needs.

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1

Hills and mountains

Activity

Activity description

Hills and mountains

match pictures of these landforms to definitions

40

Parts of a hill

learn hill, hilltop, foot and knoll

41

Parts of a mountain

learn base, slope and peak

42

Islands and volcanoes

match pictures of these landforms to definitions

43

learn facts about Greenland

44

Erupting volcano!

colour to show features of an erupting volcano

45

Deserts and plains

match pictures of these landforms to definitions

46

A desert habitat

cut out desert animals, then colour an illustration of a desert

On the plain

cut out plains animals, then colour an illustration of a plain

Canyons and valleys

match pictures of these landforms to definitions

2

Deserts and plains

4

Oceans, lakes and rivers

6

51

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learn facts about valleys; colour a picture

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Valleys

49, 50

learn facts about the Grand Canyon; colour a picture

The Grand Canyon Canyons and valleys

5

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Islands and The largest island volcanoes

Page

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Concept

Oceans, lakes and rivers

match pictures of these bodies of water to definitions

54

Parts of a river

learn source, stream, mouth and bank

55

The Saint Lawrence River

learn facts about the Saint Lawrence River

56

Landforms and bodies of water puzzles

fit puzzle pieces together to match pictures of landforms and bodies of water with their definitions

57–61

compile a booklet about the landforms and bodies of water studied in Section 2; colour the booklet’s pictures

62–67

Landforms and bodies Landforms and bodies of water of water (booklet)

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Name

Hills and mountains

Hills and mountains are landforms.

mountain

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A mountain is a very high raised area of land. It is higher and larger than a hill.

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A hill is a raised area of land. It is lower and smaller than a mountain.

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hill

Follow the directions.

1. Colour.

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2. Cut.

3. Glue.

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Parts of a hill

A hill is a landform. A hill is a raised area of land. It is lower and smaller than a mountain.

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The highest part of a hill is called the hilltop. The bottom of a hill is called the foot. A small, round hill is called a knoll.

Follow the directions.

1. Write hill, knoll, hilltop and foot on the correct lines. 2. Draw a cabin at the foot of the hill. 3. Draw a tree on the top of the knoll.

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Name

Parts of a mountain

A mountain is a landform. It is a very high raised area of land. A mountain is higher and larger than a hill.

A mountain has three parts. The bottom is called the base. The steep sides are called slopes. The pointed top is called the peak.

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Follow the directions.

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2. Colour the mountain.

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1. Write the three parts of the mountain on the lines.

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Islands and volcanoes

Islands and volcanoes are landforms.

volcano

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A volcano is a mountain that has an opening. Lava, gas and ash can erupt through the opening.

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An island is land with water all around it. Islands are found in oceans, rivers and lakes.

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island

Follow the directions.

1. Colour.

2. Cut.

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3. Glue.

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Name

An island is a landform. An island is land with water all around it.

The largest island Read the facts about Greenland.

Arctic Ocean

• Greenland is the largest island in the world.

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• A huge sheet of ice covers most of Greenland.

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• Some animals of Greenland are polar bears, seals, walruses and whales.

Look at the map.

1. Write the name Greenland on the island.

2. Colour the Greenland animals.

Atlantic Ocean

3. Colour the water around the island blue.

Did you know?

Greenland belongs to the country of Denmark, which is many miles away in Europe.

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Name

A volcano is a landform. A volcano is a special kind of mountain.

Erupting volcano!

A volcano is a mountain that has an opening. Lava, pieces of rock, ash and hot gas can erupt through the opening. Lava is hot, melted rock.

Colour by number.

2. brown—erupting rocks

1

2

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1. grey—cloud of ash and gas

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Ash is grey powder from the burning volcano. You can’t see the gas, but it smells like rotten eggs.

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3. red—lava flowing down the sides

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4. brown—the rest of the volcano

3

4

Did you know?

When lava cools, it turns into solid rock.

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45


Name

Deserts and plains

Deserts and plains are landforms.

plain

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A plain is a large flat area of land. There are grasses. There are not many trees.

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A desert is a dry and sandy or rocky area. There is very little rainfall. There are only a few plants.

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desert

Follow the directions.

1. Colour.

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2. Cut.

3. Glue.

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Name

A desert habitat

A desert is a landform. A desert is a dry area that is sandy or rocky.

Some animals live in the desert. They have to find ways to survive. These animals hunt for food in the morning or at night. They rest during the hot time of the day.

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Follow the directions.

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1. Colour and cut out the animals that live in the desert. 3. Colour the desert habitat.

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2. Glue them under the desert on page 48.

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4. Cut out the story above. Glue it above the desert.

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47


Name

A desert habitat

A desert is a landform. A desert is a dry area that is sandy or rocky.

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glue

glue

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glue

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On the plain

A plain is a landform. A plain is a large flat area of land. It has grasses. It does not have a lot of trees.

There are many animals on a plain. Animals like to hide in the grasses. Their colours help them blend in. That way other animals can’t catch them as easily.

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Follow the directions.

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1. Colour and cut out the animals that live on the plain.

3. Colour the plain habitat.

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2. Glue them under the plain on page 50.

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4. Cut out the story above. Glue it above the plain.

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49


Name

On the plain

A plain is a landform. A plain is a large flat area of land. It has grasses. It does not have a lot of trees.

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glue

glue

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glue

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Name

Canyons and valleys

Canyons and valleys are landforms.

valley

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canyon

A valley is low land between hills or mountains. Valleys can be narrow or they can be kilometres wide.

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A canyon is a deep valley with steep sides. The sides of a canyon are rocky cliffs.

Follow the directions.

1. Colour.

2. Cut.

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3. Glue.

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Name

The Grand Canyon

A canyon is a landform. A canyon is a deep valley with steep sides.

There is a famous canyon in America. It is called the Grand Canyon. The canyon walls have beautiful rock layers. Some layers are red or yellow. Some layers are brown or green.

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The Colorado River flows through the canyon. The river carved out the canyon over millions of years.

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Colour the Grand Canyon.

Did you know?

You can take a trip to the bottom of the Grand Canyon. You can hike or ride a mule. It will take you all day to get to the canyon floor.

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Name

Valleys

A valley is a landform. A valley is low land between hills or mountains.

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A valley can be very long and wide. It has fields of grass and flowers. Rivers and lakes are in valleys. Forests are around valleys. Above and around valleys are huge cliffs with beautiful waterfalls and mountains with snow on top.

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Colour the valley.

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Name

Oceans, lakes and rivers

Oceans, lakes and rivers are bodies of water.

lake

river

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A lake is a large body of water with land all around it. There are saltwater lakes and freshwater lakes.

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An ocean is a very large body of salt water. There are five oceans on Earth.

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ocean

A river is a long, wide stream of water. Rivers flow across the land into another body of water.

Follow the directions.

1. Colour.

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2. Cut.

3. Glue.

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Name

Parts of a river

A river is a long, wide stream of water that flows across land.

Look at the river. Read the facts.

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The place where a river begins is called the source. This river begins at a lake. It begins as a small stream.

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More streams flow into the river. The river gets wider and faster along the way.

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The place where a river ends is called the mouth. Rivers may empty into another river, a lake or an ocean. Follow the directions.

1. Label the picture. Use the words stream, mouth and source. 2. Colour the picture.

Did you know?

The land along the side of a river is called a bank.

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55


Name

The Murray Darling River

A river is a long, wide stream of water that flows across land.

The Murray Darling River system is important for farmers in Australia. The water from the river system helps farmers to grow cotton, fruit and wheat, and to farm sheep and cattle.

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QUEENSLAND

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Adelaide

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Darling Ri ver

NEW SOUTH WALES

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Brisbane

Mu rra yR

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VICTORIA

SOUTHERN OCEAN

Sydney

The Murray Darling River

Melbourne 0

100

200 km

Follow the directions.

1. The source of the Darling River is the Murray River. Write S for source where they meet. 2. The mouth of the Murray River is the Southern Ocean near Adelaide. Write M for mouth there. 3. Trace the route of the Murray River in red. Trace the route of the Darling in blue. 56

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Name

Landforms and bodies of water puzzles

A river is a long, wide stream of water that flows across land.

Use pages 57–61 to make an activity in which your pupils can practise what they’ve learned about landforms and bodies of water.

Puzzle pieces, pages 57–60

1. Photocopy the puzzle pieces. Then colour the landforms and bodies of water. 2. Laminate the puzzle pieces and cut them apart along the dotted lines. 3. Store the puzzle pieces in an envelope or folder. 4. Make the puzzles available to pupils.

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Activity sheet, page 61

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Reproduce this page (one per pupil) and store the copies with the puzzles. After pupils have put together the puzzles, they can complete the activity sheet to show that they know the names of the landforms and bodies of water studied in Section 2 of Beginning Geography.

mountain

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A mountain is a very high raised area of land. It is higher and larger than a hill.

hill A hill is a raised area of land. It is smaller than a mountain.

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Landforms and bodies of water puzzles

plain A plain is a large flat area of land.

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An island is land with water all around it.

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island

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A plain has grass and not many trees.

volcano A volcano is a mountain with an opening. Lava, gas and ash erupt out of the opening.

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Landforms and bodies of water puzzles

valley

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A valley is low land between hills or mountains.

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A canyon is a deep valley with steep sides.

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canyon

desert A desert is a dry and sandy or rocky area.

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Landforms and bodies of water puzzles

ocean An ocean is a very large body of salt water.

river

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A river is a long, wide stream of water that flows across land.

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There are five oceans on Earth.

lake A lake is a large body of water with land all around it.

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Name

Landforms and bodies of water Write the number of the picture that matches the name of the landform.

canyon

1

2

3

desert

4

5

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mountain plain

8

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volcano

6

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hill valley

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island

Write the name of the body of water.

ocean  river  lake

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Landforms and bodies of water A landform is a shape of land. Earth has many kinds of landforms. The Earth has many different bodies of water, too. Let’s look at some of them.

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Name

A mountain is a very high raised area of land. Sometimes it has snow at the top. • Colour the tall mountain brown. • Show snow on the top of the mountain.

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A hill is a raised area of land. It is lower and smaller than a mountain. • Colour the hill green.

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• Draw a small tree on the hill.

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An island is land with water all around it. You can find many islands in the oceans. • Colour the island green. • Draw a tree on the island. • Colour the ocean blue.

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A volcano is a mountain that has an opening. Lava, gas and ash can erupt through the opening. • Colour the cloud of gas and ash grey. • Colour the lava flowing down the volcano red.

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• Colour the rest of the volcano brown.

A desert is a dry and sandy or rocky area. There is very little rainfall. There are only a few plants. • Colour the desert yellow. • Colour the tree green.

• Draw a brown snake in the desert.

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A plain is a large flat area of land. There are grasses. There are not many trees. • Draw yellow wildflowers on the plain.

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• Colour the grasses green.

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A canyon is a deep valley with steep sides. A canyon may have colourful rocky walls or cliffs. • Colour the layers of the canyon walls. • Use red, yellow, brown and green. • Colour the river blue.

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A valley is low land between hills or mountains. Valleys can be narrow or they can be kilometres wide. • Draw a deer in the valley.

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• Colour the valley using shades of green.

An ocean is a large body of salt water. Earth has five oceans. They are named the Atlantic, Arctic, Indian, Pacific and Southern. • Draw a ship on the ocean. • Colour the ocean using shades of blue.

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A lake is a body of water with land all around it. There are saltwater lakes and freshwater lakes. • Draw a sailboat on the lake.

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• Colour the lake blue.

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A river is a long, wide stream of water that flows across the land. A river may empty into another river, a lake or an ocean. • Draw a canoe on the river. • Colour the river blue.

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Name

Landforms and bodies of water Review 1 Write the correct word on the line above each list.

hill island desert

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lake ocean river

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landforms  water

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Draw a line to match each word to the correct picture.

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canyon plain mountain valley volcano lake

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Name

Landforms and bodies of water Review 2 Write the letter of the picture that matches the name of the landform.

1. canyon

A

D

B

E

G

2. desert

5. hill

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4. mountain

6. plain

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7. valley

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3. island

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8. volcano

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Write the name of the body of water under each picture.

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Name

Landforms and bodies of water Review 3 Tick the box next to the correct answer.

1. The largest bodies of salt water in the world are called lakes oceans rivers 2. A

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hill plain valley

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is a large flat area of land.

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3. Which landform is a deep valley with steep sides? canyon mountain volcano 4. What is the beginning of a river called? course mouth source 5. What is the source of the Darling River? a lake the Southern Ocean the Murray River 6. Greenland is the largest island lake volcano

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in the world.

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C T I ON SE

3

Continents and oceans

In this section of Beginning Geography, pupils learn about the seven continents and five oceans of the world.

Reproducible activity pages There are 21 activity pages that cover seven continents and five oceans. Following an introduction to all the continents and oceans, there are two activity pages for each continent. The first page is an introduction with facts and an activity, and the second page is a physical map of the continent. Page 72 provides a detailed table of contents for the Continents and oceans section.

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NOTE: The activity pages are intended for direct instruction of the whole class or small groups. Read the statement of the concept being presented and the activity directions to the pupils. For pupils at lower reading levels, it is recommended that you also read the activity items together.

Assessments

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Three reviews (pages 94−96) follow the skill activity pages. These pages may be used as a review or as a formal assessment of pupils’ skill acquisition. The review pages vary in difficulty. Choose one or more that are appropriate to your pupils’ needs.

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71


Concept

1

Continents & oceans

2

Activity description

Page

The seven continents

learn to recognise the seven continents on a map of the world

74

The five oceans

learn to recognise the five oceans on a map of the world

75

What is a globe?

colour continents and oceans in the Western Hemisphere

76

What is a globe?

colour continents and oceans in the Eastern Hemisphere

77

North America

learn facts about North America and follow directions to add to a map of the continent

78, 79

South America

learn facts about South America and follow directions to add to a map of the continent

80, 81

Africa

learn facts about Africa and follow directions to add to a map of the continent

82, 83

Europe

learn facts about Europe and follow directions to add to a map of the continent

84, 85

Asia

learn facts about Asia and follow directions to add to a map of the continent

86, 87

4

Additional material

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The seven continents

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Globe

Activity

Australia*

learn facts about Australia and follow directions to add to a map of the continent

88, 89

Antarctica

learn facts about Antarctica and colour an emperor penguin

90, 91

Continent match

match the shapes and names of the continents

92, 93

Where in the world do you live?

write your world address

94

* Many atlases group Australia and the islands of Oceania together. Australia is the continental

landmass. Oceania is made up of New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the island groups of Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia. For pupils at this year level, we have chosen to focus on Australia alone.

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The seven continents

A continent is a large area of land. The seven continents are Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America.

North Asia

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Europe

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America

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Africa South

Australia

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America

Antarctica

Follow the directions.

1. Colour Africa yellow.

5. Colour Europe green.

2. Colour Antarctica purple.

6. Colour North America pink.

3. Colour Asia red.

7. Colour South America brown.

4. Colour Australia orange.

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Name

An ocean is a large body of salt water. The five oceans are Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic and Southern.

The five oceans

Arctic Ocean North

Europe

Atlantic Ocean

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Africa

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America

Pacific Ocean

Asia

South

Indian Ocean

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America

Pacific Ocean

Australia

Southern Ocean Antarctica

Circle the correct ocean. Use the compass rose to help you.

1. Which ocean is east of North America?

Atlantic

Pacific

2. Which ocean is south of Asia?

Arctic

Indian

3. Which ocean is north of Europe?

Atlantic

Arctic

4. Which ocean is west of Africa?

Atlantic

Indian

Colour the oceans blue on the world map. 74

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A globe is a round model of the Earth. A globe shows the continents and oceans.

What is a globe?

This globe picture shows only one side of the Earth. It shows 2 continents and 2 oceans.

North

Atlantic Ocean

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Pacific Ocean

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America

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South

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Colour.

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Name

A globe is a round model of the Earth. A globe shows the continents and oceans.

What is a globe?

This globe picture shows only one side of the Earth. It shows 5 continents and 4 oceans. Arctic Ocean

Africa

Indian

Pacific Ocean

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Ocean

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Asia

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Europe

Southern Ocean

Australia

Antarctica

Colour.

1. Colour Africa brown. 2. Colour Australia orange. 3. Colour Europe and Asia pink. 76

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North America

North America is a continent. There are many countries in North America.

• The 3 largest countries in North America are Canada, Mexico and the United States of America.

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• The Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific Oceans border North America. • North America has high mountains, hot deserts and many forests. • The northern part of the continent is very cold. The southern part is warm.

Use the map of North America on page 78. Follow the directions and answer the questions.

1. Colour the United States of America yellow. 2. Which country is north of the USA? Colour it green. 3. Colour Mexico red. 4. To go to Mexico from the USA, in which direction would you travel?

5. Which US state is north of Canada? Colour it yellow, too. www.prim-ed.com Prim-Ed Publishing

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Name

North America

Arctic Ocean

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Alaska

Pacific Ocean

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Canada

United States of America

Atlantic Ocean

Mexico

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South America

South America is a continent. There are many countries in South America.

• The largest country in South America is Brazil. • Much of Brazil is covered by the Amazon Rainforest, a hot, wet jungle.

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• The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans border South America. • South America has rugged mountains, grassy plains and a very dry desert.

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Use the map of South America on page 80. Follow the directions and answer the questions.

1. Colour the grasslands yellow.

2. In which part of the continent are the high mountains found? Circle the answer. east  west

3. What ocean does the Amazon River empty into? 4. The high mountains are near which ocean? 5. Colour the rainforest green.

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Atlantic Ocean

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Pacific Ocean

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South America

Key Amazon River grasslands rainforest mountains

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Africa

Africa is a continent. There are many countries in Africa.

• Egypt, Kenya and Nigeria are three countries in Africa. • The Atlantic and Indian Oceans border Africa.

• The largest desert in the world is in the northern part of Africa. It is called the Sahara Desert.

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• Africa has large areas of grassy woodlands called savannahs.

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Use the map of Africa on page 82. Follow the directions and answer the questions.

1. Colour the desert light brown. 2. What is the name of the desert? 3. Draw a lion on the savannah. Colour the savannah yellow. 4. In which part of the continent is the Sahara Desert found? Circle the answer. north  south 5. Which ocean is on the eastern side of the continent?  

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Name

Africa

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Indian Ocean

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Atlantic Ocean

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Sahara

Key desert savannah

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Europe

Europe is a continent. There are many countries in Europe.

• France, Greece and Norway are three countries in Europe. • The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans border Europe.

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• Europe has frozen plains in the north and mountains called the Alps in the south. • The border between Europe and Asia is formed by the Ural Mountains.

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Use the map of Europe on page 84. Follow the directions.

1. Find Italy. It is shaped like a boot with a tall heel. Colour Italy green. 2. Use red to trace the border between Europe and Asia. 3. The island furthest to the west is Iceland. Colour it yellow. 4. The longer island south of Iceland is Great Britain. Colour it orange. 5. Find the mountains just north of Italy. Write Alps to label them.

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84

Atlantic Ocean

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Arctic Ocean

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Europe

Asia

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mountains

Key

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Asia

Asia is the largest continent. There are many countries in Asia.

• China, India and Japan are three countries in Asia. • The Arctic, Indian and Pacific Oceans border Asia.

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• Asia has frozen plains and evergreen forests in the north. Asia also has cold deserts and hot deserts. Rainforests are in the south. • The highest mountains in the world are in southern Asia. They are called the Himalayas.

Use the map of Asia on page 86. Follow the directions.

1. Write Himalayas to the left of the mountains. 2. Write India on the line that points to land shaped like a triangle that sticks out into the Indian Ocean. 3. Write Japan on the line that points to a group of islands. 4. Write China on the line that is left.

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86

Europe

Beginning geography

Indian Ocean

g

Vi ew in e

m pl

sa

Asia

Pacific Ocean

Arctic Ocean

mountains

Key

Name

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Name

Australia

Australia is the smallest continent. It is also an island country.

• The Indian and Pacific Oceans surround Australia. • The centre of the continent has huge, hot deserts and dry grasslands.

• Most of the mountains are in the eastern part of the continent.

Vi ew in

g

sa

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e

• The land is greener along the edges of Australia. Rainforests are in the north-east.

Use the map of Australia on page 88. Follow the directions.

1. The island to the south of the continent is part of the country of Australia. Circle the name of this island. 2. The largest city (   ) in Australia is Sydney. Label Sydney. 3. The pointy piece of land in the northern part of Australia is mostly rainforest. Colour it green. 4. Colour the desert area (

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) of Australia brown.

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88

g

Vi ew in

Indian Ocean

Beginning geography

Tasmania

e

m pl

sa

Australia

desert

Key

Pacific Ocean

Name

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Name

Antarctica

The South Pole is near the middle of the continent of Antarctica. Antarctica does not belong to any country.

• Antarctica is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.

e

• Antarctica is the coldest and windiest place on earth. It is covered in a thick layer of ice and snow.

g

Vi ew in

Use the map of Antarctica on page 90. Follow the directions.

sa

m pl

• Several kinds of penguins live in Antarctica.

1. Draw a red circle around the South Pole. 2. Antarctica is surrounded by ocean. Colour the ocean blue.

3. The largest penguin in Antarctica is the Emperor. Follow the directions to colour the emperor penguin.

• There are no indigenous people living in Antarctica.

Emperor Penguin

black with yellow-orange streak yellow patch reddish-brown black

white with yellow

white

black

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89


Name

Antarctica

sa

m pl

e

Southern Ocean

Vi ew in

g

South Pole

Southern Ocean

90

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Continent match

1. Laminate the cards on this page and page 92. 2. Cut out the cards and place them in an envelope.

Arctic Ocean

Southern Ocean

Vi ew in

g

sa

Ocean

m pl

Ocean

Southern

Ocean

Atlantic

e

3. Instruct pupils to match each continent shape with its name.

Indian

Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic

Indian

Ocean

Ocean

Atlantic Pacific

Ocean

Ocean

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Continent match Arctic Ocean

Pacific

Pacific

Atlantic

Ocean

Ocean

Ocean

Atlantic

m pl

e

Ocean

Antarctica

Asia

Vi ew in

g

sa

Africa

Europe

Australia North America

South America 92

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Name

Where in the world do you live?

You live on planet Earth. What continent do you live on? In which country do you live?

Vi ew in

g

Name

sa

m pl

e

Write your world address.

Street

Town or City County

Country Continent Planet

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93


Name

Continents and oceans Review 1

4 1

5

Vi ew in

g

sa

2

m pl

e

3

Write the name of each continent and ocean on the lines. Use the word box to help you.

1

North America

2

South America Arctic Ocean

3

Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean

4 5 94

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Name

Continents and oceans Review 2

Arctic Ocean

3

2

1

e

Atlantic Ocean

m pl

Pacific Ocean

5

Pacific Ocean

Indian Ocean

6

g

sa

4

Vi ew in

Southern Ocean

7

Write the name of each continent. Use the word box to help you.

1

5

2

6

North America South America

3

7

Europe Antarctica Asia

4

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Australia Africa Beginning geography

95


Name

Continents and oceans Review 3 Tick the box next to the correct answer.

1. There are 6, 4

7, 5

2. The Arctic, Atlantic and

oceans in the world.

Pacific

8, 3

e

Oceans border North America.

m pl

continents and

Indian

Southern

sa

3. The three largest countries in North America are Canada, the United States of America and . Panama

4. The coldest and iciest continent is

Antarctica

5.

Asia

Australia

Asia

6. The Amazon Rainforest is in Africa

96

.

is the largest continent. Australia

Mexico

g

Cuba

Vi ew in

Beginning geography

Europe .

North America

South America

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C T I ON SE

4

Around the world with animals

The final section of Beginning Geography focuses on the variety of animal life around the world. There is a world map followed by a map of each continent that shows examples of the animal life found in various regions of that continent.

How to use You may use these maps in a number of ways: • in conjunction with the study of each continent in Section 3—learning where interesting animals are found can help to engage pupils and enrich your geography studies • as a reference to science in the areas of biodiversity and ecosystems

e

• as a springboard to nonfiction reading and writing on animal life.

Page

m pl

Reproducible maps

A world map ........................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 98 North America ........................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 99

sa

South America . ....................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 100 Africa .. . . ............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 101

g

Europe .. . ............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 102

Vi ew in

Asia .. . . . . ............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 103 Australia ............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 104 Antarctica .............................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 105

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98

Beginning geography

Ocean

Pacific

Ocean

Arctic

Arctic

North America

America

South

Ocean

g Africa

e Antarctica

Ocean

Indian

m pl

sa

Europe

Southern Ocean

Atlantic

Ocean

Atlantic

Vi ew in Asia

Ocean

Australia

Ocean

Pacific

The world map is a flat picture that shows all the land and water on Earth. It shows the 7 continents and the 5 oceans.

A world map

Name

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Name

North America

Arctic Ocean

1

sa

m pl

e

2

Vi ew in

g

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

3

4 5

1 2 3 4 5 6

Animal Polar bear Caribou Coyote Alligator Puma Spider monkey

Habitat Arctic Islands Frozen plains South-west deserts South-east wetlands Mountains Rainforests

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6

Beginning geography

99


Name

South America

1

m pl

e

2

Vi ew in

Pacific Ocean

g

sa

3

4

5

Atlantic Ocean

1 2 3 4 5

100

Beginning geography

Animal Jaguar Anaconda Andean fox Llama Rhea

Habitat Rainforests Rainforests Deserts Mountains Grasslands

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Name

Africa

1

Vi ew in

g

Atlantic Ocean

3

sa

m pl

e

2

Indian Ocean

4

Animal 1 Goat 2 Camel 3 Lion 4 Gorilla

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Habitat Mountains Deserts Grasslands Rainforests

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102

Atlantic Ocean

g

Beginning geography

4

Vi ew in

1

2

e

m pl

sa 3

Arctic Ocean

Europe

1 2 3 4

Animal Reindeer Brown bear Wild boar Ibex

Habitat Frozen plains Forests Grassy plains Mountains

Name

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4

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Indian Ocean

5

2

6

3

g

Vi ew in

Asia

e

m pl

sa

1

1 2 3 4 5 6

Animal Arctic fox Giant panda Water buffalo Oryx Snow leopard King cobra

Pacific Ocean

Arctic Ocean

Habitat Frozen plains Forests Wetlands Deserts Mountains Rainforests

Name

Beginning geography

103


104

1 2 3 4 5

Animal Sugar glider Dingo Red kangaroo Koala Platypus

Beginning geography

Habitat Rainforests Dry grasslands Deserts Forests Wetlands

2 3

1

g

Vi ew in

Indian Ocean

e

m pl

sa

Australia

Tasmania

5

4

Pacific Ocean

Name

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Name

Antarctica Southern Ocean

1

m pl

e

4

3

Vi ew in

g

sa

South Pole

Southern Ocean

2

5

1 2 3 4 5

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Animal AdĂŠlie penguin Leopard seal Emperor penguin Weddell seal Killer whale

Habitat Ice sheets, ocean Rocky shores, ocean Ice sheets, ocean Ice sheets, ocean Ocean

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Answers Page 5

Page 6

Name

A map is a drawing of a place from above. A map shows where things are.

Looking at a map This map shows a school. Listen and follow directions.

This is a map of Ben’s bedroom. Listen and follow directions.

green

brown

A map is a drawing of a place from above.

Places on a map

A map shows where things are.

This map shows a town.

red

Green Street

What is a map?

Name

A map is a drawing of a place from above. A map shows where things are.

Brown Street

Name

Main Street

Section 1

Page 4

Yellow Avenue

yellow purple red

green

Pink Avenue

Fill in the blanks to complete the sentences.

Pink

1. The school is on

Avenue.

Green

2. You go into the petrol station from 1. Colour the bed red.

4. Colour the table purple.

2. Colour the rug yellow.

5. Colour the chest of drawers brown.

3. Colour the toy box green.

1. Colour the building red.

4. Colour the tree green.

2. Draw a circle around the sandpit.

5. Draw a dog on the footpath.

Beginning geography

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Page 7

Page 8

Left or right?

Left and right are directions that help you find things.

dog

bird

rabbit or

Beginning geography

At the zoo

fish

al

im

An

.

1. From the bird to the rabbit

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Treasure hunt

Left, right, up and down are directions.

sa

cat

6

Name

up

Which direction would you go? Draw

5

.

Page 9

Name

Name

library Street go by the park.

e

Beginning geography

Main

5. Green Street and

Street.

Avenue.

4. Brown Street goes by the school and the

3. Mark an X on the cars.

m pl

4

Yellow

3. Kari and Kim live on

Left, right, up and down are directions.

up

th

Pa

right

lef t

right

lef t

g

Wild Way

2. From the dog to the cat

Vi ew in

3. From the fish to the bird

4. From the dog to the rabbit

down Listen and follow directions. Use a coloured pencil to draw a route to the buried treasure.

down

5. From the cat to the fish

Circle the correct answer.

1. Start at the ship.

1. Which animal is up at the top?

2. Go up to the lake. 3. Go left to the cave.

2. Which animal is down at the bottom?

6. From the rabbit to the dog

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Page 10

7

8

4. Go down to the log. Cross the river.

4. Which animal is to the right of the bear?

What treasure did you find? Draw it on the back of this paper.

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The four main directions on a map are north, south, east and west.

On the farm

8. Mark an X below the rock.

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9

Page 12 Name

Name

Which way?

7. Go to the rock on the right.

3. Which animal is to the left of the bear?

Page 11

Name

5. Go along the river. Go down to the village. 6. Go up to the three rocks.

Around the town

The four main directions on a map are north, south, east and west.

north

The four main directions on a map are north, south, east and west.

north

north

Oak Street

You are here.

east

west

east

west

east Pine Street

Maple Street

west

Joe’s Home

Park Street

south south

Read. Write north, south, east or west.

south

Start at X. Write the direction: north, south, east or west.

Follow the directions in order.

1. From the bank to the fire station, go

1. Look

1. Draw a house south of the cow.

2. Park Street is

2. Look 3. Look 4. Look

10

north west south east

Beginning geography

106

to see the car.

2. Draw an apple tree west of the horse.

to see the bike.

4. The hospital is

4. Draw a chicken south of the barn.

to see the bus.

5. The supermarket is

5. Draw a pig east of the chicken. Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

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east

.

of Oak Street.

west . north of the supermarket. east of Maple Street.

3. To post a letter, Joe walks

3. Draw a truck north of the tractor.

to see the lorry.

south

Beginning geography

11

12

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Answers Page 13

Page 15

Name

Name

A compass rose

E stands for east

S stands for south

W stands for west

Name

Using a compass rose

A compass rose is a map symbol that shows directions.

N stands for north

Page 16

A compass rose is a map symbol that shows directions.

Look at the symbols. Write the word that each symbol could stand for on a map.

Cut out the direction words below. Glue them on the compass rose.

bridge

farm

E

l a k e

3.

r o a d

4.

b r i d g e

5.

s c h o o l

6.

l

Circle the answers. Use the compass rose to help you.

glue south

1. Which one is N of the dog?

north

south

east

west

tyre swing

umbrella

2. Which one is W of the table?

swings

sandpit

3. Which one is S of the sandpit?

umbrella

scarecrow

4. Which one is E of the scarecrow?

swings

kennel

5. Which way does the fence run?

N and S

E and W

13

1

3

4

5

i b r a r y 6

Use the numbered letters to complete the sentence.

I am on a map. I stand for a real thing.

s y m b o l

Making a map key

A map symbol is a drawing that stands for something real.

• road

2.

• hospital

1

4

3

.

2

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Reading a map key

A map key is a list of symbols on a map. A map key tells what the symbols stand for.

sa

Exit

6

Name

A map key is a list of symbols on a map. A map key tells what the symbols stand for.

Match each symbol with the name.

1.

5

Beginning geography

Page 21

Name

Symbols on maps

16

e

Page 20

Name

15

m pl

Page 17

Beginning geography

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school

2

I am a Beginning geography

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road

2.

glue east

S

library

f a r m

N W

lake

1.

glue north

glue west

A map symbol is a drawing that stands for something real.

Name that symbol

Main level

Food court

Escalator

• railway

g

3.

Main entrance

5.

• airport

Vi ew in

4.

Complete the map key. Write the name of each building next to the correct symbol.

• mountain

Map key Circle the correct answer. Use the map key to help you.

pet shop toy shop

6.

• river

music shop

toy shop

1. Which symbol stands for a river?

music shop

2. The campground is next to the

sports shop

3. The river and the path meet at the

pet shop

4. To go from the woods to the lake, walk

sports shop

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Page 22

17

20

5. The camping ground is

Beginning geography

How far is it?

Look at the two dogs. Count the squares to find the distance between them.

.

of the river.

hills

lake

lake

bridge

north

south

north

south

Beginning geography

21

Page 24

Name

A map can show how far it is from one place to another. This is called distance.

.

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Page 23

Name

.

Name

What is a map scale?

A map scale can help show distance. A map scale is like part of a ruler.

Here is a map scale. 1 centimetre stands for 1 kilometre. So, 2 centimetres would stand for 2 kilometres.

Yummy Town The distance is 4 squares.

Using a map scale Scale

0

Here is a map scale. 1 centimetre stands for 1 kilometre. So, 2 centimetres would stand for 2 kilometres.

1

1 cm = 1 km

Scale

0

1

1 cm = 1 km

Cut out the ruler below. Use the scale and the ruler to answer the questions about Maya’s fun time map on page 25.

Map key

7 cm

A map scale is a way to measure distance. It tells what measurement equals what distance.

bakery

This is Maya.

Count the squares to find the distance.

6

1.

2.

3.

squares

3

squares

5

squares

2. swimming pool 3. cinema 4. zoo 5. toy shop

to the

3. From the

to the

cm =

5

km

?

12

cm =

12

km

?

7

cm =

7

km

km

6

7 10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Beginning geography

5

8 9

17 24

4

9 8

23

3

10 7

Beginning geography

2

11

12

6

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1

5

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0

13 4

pig

.

14

15

16

3

Beginning geography

2. From the

5

?

km

2

22

cow

to the

km

.

5. The shortest distance is between the and the

1. From the

km

1

bird

cat

km

17 0

and the

1 2 4 3 5

1. park ice-cream shop

Answer the questions.

4. The longest distance is between the

?

How many kilometres is it from Maya’s house to the

pizza shop

12 cm

5 cm

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Beginning geography

107


Answers Page 26

Page 27

Name

Page 29

Name

A border is a dividing line between two places on a map.

What is a border?

A border is a dividing line between two places on a map.

Look at the map of the British Isles below.

This map shows five counties.

There are five countries of different shapes and sizes in the British Isles. The borders are the dividing lines between the countries.

orange

Unicorn Field

North Forest

Talking Trees Forest

Borders of the British Isles

A border is a dividing line between two places on a map.

A county border

This is a map of the places in Fairy Tale World.

green

Name

East Forest

Elf Acres Giants’ Garden

Oceanside

Timberland

blue

red

South Forest

green

red

yellow

Listen and follow directions.

Follow the directions. Use the map of the British Isles on page 29 to complete the directions.

1. Trace the border between Giants’ Garden and Unicorn Field in green.

1. Trace the border of North Forest in red.

2. Use orange to trace the border of Elf Acres.

2. Trace the border between South Forest and Timberland in yellow.

3. Trace the border between Giants’ Garden and Talking Trees Forest in red.

3. On this map, East Forest shares a border with

5. Does Elf Acres border Talking Trees Forest?

Beginning geography

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Each square on a map grid has a letter and a number. A map grid helps you find places on the map.

Cut out the squares on page 32. Glue the squares in the correct places on this map grid.

C

1

The monkeys are in square A1.

A

B

2

A1

g

3. The

3. Which city is the furthest south? 4. Which sea is to the east of Ireland?

5. Which two cities are located on the River Shannon? In which squares are they found?

B3

A3

is in square

4. In square C2 there is a

30

A3

. .

A2

. .

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Page 35

B3

C3

City name:

Beginning geography

Map skills

Review 1

Review 2

N W

E = east

E

Review 3

compass rose

grid square

map scale

county border

1. A map key has

map key

directions

playground •

symbol

Scale 1

0

grid square

compass rose

school •

river

map key

Name each picture.

border capital city river

map grid

map key

1. This arrow

East Forest

Timberland

2. A map is a

Oceanside

border

is pointing

down

North Forest

South Forest

sign

map grid

108

Beginning geography

Beginning geography

right

36

Beginning geography

symbols

3. The dividing line between two places is called a border

map

.

compass rose

4. Which of these is a correct grid location on a map? A6

3C

1. What are the four main directions?

north south

east west

2. How does a map key help you read a map?

.

It tells you what the symbols stand for.

left

of a place from above. name

. grid

Answer the questions. Misty Woods

3. A map scale shows 1 cm = 10 km. How many kilometres apart are two places that are 3 centimetres apart on the map?

drawing

3. North, south, east and west are called

35

borders

Oceanside

county

directions www.prim-ed.com Prim-Ed Publishing

map scale

Circle the correct answer.

Kansas

map key

Dark Plain

city

5B

Timberland

city

symbols

1

South Forest

capital

forest •

that stand for places on the map.

2. Lines that form squares on a map make a

1 cm = 1 km

petrol station •

33

Tick the box next to the correct answer.

A

S

Beginning geography

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Map skills

Choose the correct words to name each drawing.

W = west Match each thing to its map symbol.

31

Name

Name

S = south

B4 B4

Page 37

Map skills

N = north

Location:

Portrush

Page 36

Write the directions on the compass rose.

Location:

6. Which city, besides Belfast, is in Northern Ireland?

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Name

Shannon Limerick

City name:

3

B2

D3 Galway Cork Irish Sea

1. In which square is the city of Dublin found? 2. Which city is found in square B3?

C2

2

is in square

Look at the map of Ireland on page 34. Trace the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland with your finger.

Now find the capital of Northern Ireland. It is Belfast. Belfast is located at D2.

C1

B2

Vi ew in

1. The

Each square on a map grid has a letter and a number. A map grid helps you find places on the map.

Use the map grid to help you answer the questions.

A2

2. In square C1 there is a

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Using a map grid

C

B1

1 3

Look at this map grid. Circle the correct answer.

Beginning geography

Name

Making a map grid

A map grid is a pattern of lines that form squares. Each square on a map grid has a letter and a number.

28

Page 33

Name

Name

27

m pl

Page 31

B

5. Mark an X on the largest country.

South Forest

Page 30

A

4. Use red to colour the smallest country.

5. Which county shares a border with four other counties?

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What is a map grid?

3. Use yellow to colour the country that borders Scotland.

no

4. Does North Forest share a border with Oceanside?

sa

26

Unicorn Field no

1. Colour the two countries that share a border with England blue. 2. Colour the only country that borders Northern Ireland green.

counties.

e

4. Which place has a border with four sides?

3

.

30

kilometres

borders Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

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Beginning geography

37

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Answers Page 41

Page 42

Section 2

Page 48

Name

Name

A hill is a landform. A hill is a raised area of land. It is lower and smaller than a mountain.

Parts of a hill

Name

A mountain is a landform.

Parts of a mountain

The highest part of a hill is called the hilltop. The bottom of a hill is called the foot. A small, round hill is called a knoll.

A desert is a landform. A desert is a dry area that is sandy or rocky.

A desert habitat

It is a very high raised area of land. A mountain is higher and larger than a hill.

A mountain has three parts. The bottom is called the base. The steep sides are called slopes. The pointed top is called the peak.

Some animals live in the desert. They have to find ways to survive. These animals hunt for food in the morning or at night. They rest during the hot time of the day.

Follow the directions.

peak

1. Write the three parts of the mountain on the lines. 2. Colour the mountain.

slopes

Follow the directions.

1. Write hill, knoll, hilltop and foot on the correct lines.

base

2. Draw a cabin at the foot of the hill.

glue

glue

glue

glue

3. Draw a tree on the top of the knoll.

41

42

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On the plain

A plain is a landform. A plain is a large flat area of land. It has grasses. It does not have a lot of trees.

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Name

Parts of a river

A river is a long, wide stream of water that flows across land.

Look at the river. Read the facts.

The Murray Darling River

The place where a river begins is called the source. This river begins at a lake. It begins as a small stream.

A river is a long, wide stream of water that flows across land.

The Murray Darling River system is important for farmers in Australia. The water from the river system helps farmers to grow cotton, fruit and wheat, and to farm sheep and cattle.

sa

There are many animals on a plain. Animals like to hide in the grasses. Their colours help them blend in. That way other animals can’t catch them as easily.

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Name

Name

48

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m pl

Page 50

Beginning geography

e

Beginning geography

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QUEENSLAND

source

More streams flow into the river. The river gets wider and faster along the way.

Brisbane

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Traced in blue

stream

Follow the directions.

Adelaide

Mu rra yR

VICTORIA

Did you know?

50

glue

Beginning geography

glue

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Beginning geography

2 5 8 3 4 7 1 6

canyon

1

landforms

island 5

hill

water

hill island desert

Draw a line to match each word to the correct picture.

valley 7

Landforms and bodies of water Review 2

landforms

lake ocean river

6

plain

volcano

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Write the letter of the picture that matches the name of the landform.

Write the correct word on the line above each list.

water 4

Beginning geography

Review 1

desert

mountain

56

Name

3

2

55

Landforms and bodies of water

Write the number of the picture that matches the name of the landform.

200 km

Page 69

Name

Landforms and bodies of water

100

1. The source of the Darling River is the Murray River. Write S for source where they meet. 2. The mouth of the Murray River is the Southern Ocean near Adelaide. Write M for mouth there. 3. Trace the route of the Murray River in red. Trace the route of the Darling in blue.

mouth

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Name

0

Follow the directions.

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The Murray Darling River Melbourne

SOUTHERN OCEAN

The land along the side of a river is called a bank.

glue

Traced in red Sydney

M

2. Colour the picture.

glue

S r ive

Vi ew in

1. Label the picture. Use the words stream, mouth and source.

NEW SOUTH WALES

Darling Ri ver

g

The place where a river ends is called the mouth. Rivers may empty into another river, a lake or an ocean.

8

canyon

G D E B H C F A

1. canyon

A

D

G

B

E

H

C

F

2. desert 3. island 4. mountain 5. hill 6. plain 7. valley 8. volcano

plain Write the name of the body of water.

ocean

river

mountain

lake

Write the name of the body of water under each picture.

valley volcano lake

river www.prim-ed.com Prim-Ed Publishing

lake

ocean Beginning geography

river 61

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lake Beginning geography

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Answers Page 70

Page 73

Name

Page 74

Section 3

Name

Name

The seven continents

Landforms and bodies of water Review 3

A continent is a large area of land. The seven continents are Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America.

An ocean is a large body of salt water. The five oceans are Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic and Southern.

The five oceans

Tick the box next to the correct answer.

1. The largest bodies of salt water in the world are called lakes oceans rivers 2. A

.

America

is a large flat area of land.

pink

hill plain valley

Europe

America Atlantic Ocean

Africa

America

orange

brown

4. What is the beginning of a river called? course mouth source

South

Indian Ocean

America

Australia

purple

Australia

Southern Ocean Antarctica

Follow the directions.

in the world.

Pacific Ocean

Africa

Antarctica

5. What is the source of the Darling River? a lake the Southern Ocean the Murray River 6. Greenland is the largest island lake volcano

Pacific Ocean

yellow

South

3. Which landform is a deep valley with steep sides? canyon mountain volcano

Asia

North

Asia

Europe

green

Arctic Ocean

red

North

Circle the correct ocean. Use the compass rose to help you.

1. Colour Africa yellow.

5. Colour Europe green.

1. Which ocean is east of North America?

Atlantic

Pacific

2. Colour Antarctica purple.

6. Colour North America pink.

2. Which ocean is south of Asia?

Arctic

Indian

3. Colour Asia red.

7. Colour South America brown.

3. Which ocean is north of Europe?

Atlantic

Arctic

4. Which ocean is west of Africa?

Atlantic

Indian

4. Colour Australia orange.

Colour the oceans blue on the world map. Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

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Page 76

A globe is a round model of the Earth. A globe shows the continents and oceans.

What is a globe?

brown

America

blue

• The Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific Oceans border North America.

Asia

• North America has high mountains, hot deserts and many forests.

Pacific

Indian

• The northern part of the continent is very cold. The southern part is warm.

g

Ocean

Ocean

America

yellow

Southern

Australia

Vi ew in

Ocean

Antarctica

Use the map of North America on page 78. Follow the directions and answer the questions.

1. Colour the United States of America yellow.

orange

3. Colour Mexico red. 4. To go to Mexico from the USA, in which direction would you travel?

Page 78

75

76

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Name

South America

South America

South America is a continent. There are many countries in South America.

green

• The largest country in South America is Brazil.

Arctic Ocean

yellow

77

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Name

North America

Beginning geography

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Page 79

Name

Alaska

5. Which US state is north of Canada? Colour it yellow, too.

3. Colour Europe and Asia pink.

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south

1. Colour Africa brown.

2. Colour Australia orange.

3. Colour the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean blue.

Canada

2. Which country is north of the USA? Colour it green.

Colour.

1. Colour North America green.

• The 3 largest countries in North America are Canada, Mexico and the United States of America.

pink

Atlantic Ocean

2. Colour South America yellow.

North America is a continent. There are many countries in North America.

Arctic Ocean

Europe Africa

Colour.

North America

This globe picture shows only one side of the Earth. It shows 5 continents and 4 oceans.

North

South

A globe is a round model of the Earth. A globe shows the continents and oceans.

What is a globe?

green

blue

Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

Name

This globe picture shows only one side of the Earth. It shows 2 continents and 2 oceans.

Pacific Ocean

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Name

Name

74

m pl

Page 75

73

e

Beginning geography

sa

70

• Much of Brazil is covered by the Amazon Rainforest, a hot, wet jungle.

Alaska

• The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans border South America. • South America has rugged mountains, grassy plains and a very dry desert.

Canada

green

Use the map of South America on page 80. Follow the directions and answer the questions.

Atlantic Ocean

Pacific Ocean

1. Colour the grasslands yellow. United States of America

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

yellow

2. In which part of the continent are the high mountains found? Circle the answer. east

Mexico

4. The high mountains are near which ocean?

red

yellow

west

3. What ocean does the Amazon River empty into?

Atlantic

Key Amazon River

Pacific

grasslands rainforest

5. Colour the rainforest green.

mountains

78

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Answers Page 81

Page 82

Name

Page 84

Name

Name

Key

There are many countries in Africa.

Asia

red

light brown

• Egypt, Kenya and Nigeria are three countries in Africa. • The Atlantic and Indian Oceans border Africa.

Sahara

• Africa has large areas of grassy woodlands called savannahs.

Arctic Ocean

yellow

Indian Ocean

Use the map of Africa on page 82. Follow the directions and answer the questions.

red

Atlantic Ocean

Europe

• The largest desert in the world is in the northern part of Africa. It is called the Sahara Desert.

Alps

1. Colour the desert light brown.

Sahara

2. What is the name of the desert?

mountains

Africa

Africa is a continent.

Africa

savannah

m pl Sydney

Pacific Ocean

mountains

Key

sa

Green

Antarctica

blue Southern Ocean

blue

red

g

Australia

India

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean

Vi ew in Himalayas

South Pole

Brown

Pacific Ocean

China Europe

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Name

Japan

Arctic Ocean

Asia

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Name

Beginning geography

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Name

86

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e

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82

desert

81

Key

Beginning geography

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Atlantic Ocean

desert

Indian

orange

Key

south

5. Which ocean is on the eastern side of the continent?

Tasmania

north

yellow

4. In which part of the continent is the Sahara Desert found? Circle the answer.

green

3. Draw a lion on the savannah. Colour the savannah yellow.

88

Southern Ocean

blue

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Page 96 Name

Name

Name

Beginning geography

Continents and oceans

Continents and oceans

Review 1

Review 2

Continents and oceans Review 3 Tick the box next to the correct answer.

4

1. There are

Arctic Ocean

1

1

5

Atlantic Ocean

3

4

Indian Ocean

oceans in the world.

7, 5

2. The Arctic, Atlantic and

Pacific Ocean

5

Pacific Ocean

2

continents and

6, 4

3

2

Pacific

8, 3 Oceans border North America.

Indian

Southern

3. The three largest countries in North America are Canada, . the United States of America and

6

Cuba

Panama

Mexico

Southern Ocean

7

4. The coldest and iciest continent is Antarctica

Write the name of each continent. Use the word box to help you. Write the name of each continent and ocean on the lines. Use the word box to help you.

1

North America

2

South America

3

Pacific Ocean

4

Arctic Ocean

5 94

N o r t h

A m e r i c a

2

E u r o p e

5

A f r i c a

South America

6

A u s t r a l i a

Atlantic Ocean

3

A s i a

7

A n t a r c t i c a

Pacific Ocean

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Asia

6. The Amazon Rainforest is in

Europe

Africa

Antarctica

Australia

Europe .

North America

South America

Asia

4

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North America South America

Arctic Ocean

Asia

is the largest continent. Australia

North America

Atlantic Ocean Beginning geography

1

5.

.

S o u t h

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A m e r i c a

Australia Africa Beginning geography

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