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Teachers resource book – Book B

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing 2013 Copyright© Diane Henderson and Rosemary Morris 2012 ISBN 978-1-84654-647-1 PR–6356

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

Titles available in this series:

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Teachers resource book – Book A Teachers resource book – Book B Teachers resource book – Book C Teachers resource book – Book D Teachers resource book – Book E Teachers resource book – Book F Teachers resource book – Book G

The English workbook – Book A The English workbook – Book B The English workbook – Book C The English workbook – Book D The English workbook – Book E The English workbook – Book F The English workbook – Book G

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Published by Prim-Ed Publishing 2013

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School Order# (if applicable):

Signature of Purchaser:

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Prim-Ed Publishing follows the guidelines for punctuation and grammar as recommended by the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 2002, 6th edn. Note, however, that teachers should use their own guide if there is a conflict.

Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

View all pages online

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INTRODUCTION This teachers resource book provides information to support the implementation of The English workbook – Book B, designed to develop and improve pupils’ literacy skills, focusing on procedures, recounts, expositions, narratives and reports. The following sections are included within each format. • speaking and listening • vocabulary • language features • proofreading and editing • reading comprehension • spelling • writing activities • pupil evaluation

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Features of The English workbook – Teachers resource book • Descriptions of the five different writing formats • Photocopiable planning frameworks for the five writing formats • Speaking and listening notes and photocopiable charts • Additional information about vocabulary, useful reference lists and spelling rules • Clear and concise explanations of the included language features • Photocopiable pupil editing and proofreading checklists specific to each writing format • Comprehensive integrated activity sheets provide cross-curricular extension to stimulate pupil interest • Class evaluation sheets to record information about pupil understanding and performance • Answers for pupil activities

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CONTENTS

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Introduction........................................................................... 1 Writing format descriptions...........................................2–3 Planning frameworks......................................................3–8 Editing and proofreading checklists..........................9–14 Class evaluation record sheet...................................15–16 Speaking and listening...............................................17–21 Speaking skills........................................................... 17 Listening skills............................................................ 17 Oral presentations..................................................... 17 Speaking chart........................................................... 18 Listening chart........................................................... 19 Vocabulary.....................................................................20–22 Compound words....................................................... 20 Homographs............................................................... 20 Homophones.............................................................. 20 Synonyms.................................................................... 20 Antonyms.................................................................... 20 Overused words......................................................... 20 Find a better word (good, nice, then)..................... 21 Find a better word (got, said, went)........................ 22 Spelling..........................................................................23–25 Syllables...................................................................... 23 Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Plurals....................................................................23–24 Adding suffixes (1-1-1 rule, dropping final ‘e’, adding ‘ly’)........24–25 Language features........................................................26–29 Parts of speech (verbs, adverbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions)...............................26–27 Punctuation (capital letters, commas, apostrophes for possession, grammatical contractions, quotation marks, paragraphs)................................................... 27 Sentence beginnings......................................................... 28 Question words................................................................... 29 Integrated activities.....................................................30–34 Graphic organisers......................................................35–40 Mind maps.................................................................. 35 Flow chart................................................................... 36 Senses chart.............................................................. 37 Tree chart.................................................................... 38 Semantic web............................................................ 39 Reading journal.......................................................... 40 Scope and sequence chart............................................... 41 Answers.........................................................................42–50 The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

1


WRITING FORMAT DESCRIPTIONS

1. Procedure

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The main purpose of a procedure is to direct, inform or explain how something is done. It usually includes: • a goal – tells what is to be done • a list of requirements • steps – a list of instructions in a particular order • a test – to see if the task was completed successfully. A procedure uses: • command verbs • the present tense • short, clear statements. A procedure may be written in the form of instructions for a task such as playing a game, constructing something, operating an appliance, using a reference book, dealing with a problem, or as a recipe or an experiment.

2. Recount

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The purpose of a recount is to retell past events in time order. It usually includes: • a title – tells what the recount is about • a setting – who was involved and where and when the events happened • the events – what happened in chronological order • an ending or comments – how the events ended and what the writer thinks about it. A recount uses: • the past tense • paragraphs to separate significant events. A recount may be written in the form of a diary, a letter, a newspaper or magazine article, an eyewitness account, a biography or autobiography.

3. Exposition (Persuasive writing)

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An exposition is written or spoken to persuade others to think or do something. It usually includes: • a title – tells what the exposition is about • an overview – a brief summary of what the writer thinks about the topic • reasons – the arguments to persuade people • a conclusion – a final comment or summing up. An exposition uses: • persuasive language • facts to support the arguments • a new paragraph for each new argument. An exposition may be written in the form of an essay, a letter, an advertisement, a review, a speech or an editorial.

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WRITING FORMAT DESCRIPTIONS

4. Narrative

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The main purpose of a narrative is to describe a series of events and circumstances often involving fictitious characters. It usually includes: • a title – gets the attention of the reader and indicates what the story is about • an orientation – introduces the main characters, the setting or location, the time of the story and the initiating event • a complication – a problem which involves the main character(s) • a resolution – how the problem is solved. A narrative uses: • descriptive vocabulary • interesting characters • suitable paragraphing. A narrative may be written in the form of a story, a play, a fairytale, a myth, a legend, a science fiction work, a ballad or a poem.

5. Report

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The main purpose of a report is to give facts clearly without unnecessary information or opinions. It usually includes: • a title – tells what the report is about • a classification – provides information about the focus of the report • a description – expands on the focus • a conclusion – a summary or comment. A report uses: • facts, not opinions • no unnecessary information • the third person • the timeless present tense. A report may be written in the form of a review, a newspaper or magazine article, an eyewitness account or a scientific report.

PLANNING FRAMEWORKS

The following pages (4–8) are photocopiable planning frameworks for each of the five writing formats, designed for pupils to use when planning their writing. They provide a structure for writing and include elements unique to each format. The planning frameworks can be used in conjunction with the ‘Editing and proofreading checklists’ (pages 9–14) to encourage pupils to review and correct their writing. Teachers can assess and then record their pupils’ understanding of the elements of each writing format on the ‘Class evaluation record’ on pages 15–16.

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Planning a procedure Name:

Date:

Title:

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Goal: (What you need to do)

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Needs:

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Steps: (In order)

Test: (How you’ll know if your procedure works)

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Planning a recount Name:

Date:

Title:

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Orientation: Who? Where? When? Why?

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Events:

Ending:

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Planning an exposition Name:

Date:

Title:

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Introductory statement: (What I think)

Arguments:

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1. 2.

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3.

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5.

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4.

Conclusion:

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Planning a narrative Name:

Date:

Title: Orientation: Who is the story about?

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Where are they?

When did it happen?

Events: (What happened?)

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Complication: (What was the problem?)

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Resolution: (How was the problem fixed?)

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Ending: (How did the story end?)

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Planning a report Name:

Date:

Title:

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Classification: (What is it?)

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Description:

Conclusion: (What I think about it)

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EDITING AND PROOFREADING CHECKLISTS

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The primary purpose of writing and the use of language is communication—to get one’s message or ideas across to another person in an effective manner. It is important that the message is clear so that there are no misunderstandings. Ensuring that there are no barriers to effective communication, due to poor spelling and grammar or incorrect structure, is vital. Provided on the following pages is a series of checklists for each of the five writing formats: procedures, recounts, expositions, narratives and reports. Each of the writing formats has its own particular structure or elements which help the pupils communicate their ideas within the given format. The checklists allow pupils to ensure that these elements are included and that they have thoroughly checked and edited their work for any errors. The checklists, which list specific points, provide an opportunity for pupils and their peers to evaluate their writing and develop their writing and editing skills. Ideally, providing this opportunity for self-evaluation will allow pupils to develop a habit of always editing and proofing their work.

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Checking a procedure Name:

Date:

Title:

Writing Did you say what you wanted to do or make?...........

yes

no

Needs: Did you make a list of what was needed?...................

yes

no

Steps: Are the steps easy to follow?.......................................

yes

no

Are they in the right order?..........................................

yes

no

Were any steps missed out?.........................................

yes

no

Test:

Did you say how it would look or work?.....................

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

Have you put a capital letter at the start of every sentence?.....

yes

no

Did you remember full stops?...................................................

yes

no

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Goal:

Spelling

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Did you check your spelling?.....................................................

Words

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Did you use command verbs?...................................................

Punctuation

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Checking a recount Name:

Date:

Title:

Writing Orientation: yes

no

Did you tell when it happened?.................................................

yes

no

Did you tell where it happened?................................................

yes

no

Did you tell what happened?.....................................................

yes

no

Were the events in the right order?...........................................

yes

no

Did you tell how it ended?.........................................................

yes

no

Did you say how you felt about it?............................................

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

Does every sentence start with a capital letter?.......................

yes

no

Have you used capital letters for names?.................................

yes

no

Have you used a capital letter for ‘I’?........................................

yes

no

Have you used full stops?..........................................................

yes

no

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Did you tell who was there?.......................................................

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Events:

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Ending:

Spelling

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Did you check your spelling?.....................................................

Words

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Did you use interesting words?................................................. Did you use any ‘time’ words?..................................................

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Punctuation

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Checking an exposition Name:

Date:

Title:

Writing Introductory statement: yes

no

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Did you state what the topic was?............................................. Did you say what you thought about it?...................................

yes

no

Did you explain your ideas clearly?..........................................

yes

no

Did you start with your strongest one?.....................................

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

Does every sentence start with a capital letter?.......................

yes

no

Have you used a capital letter for ‘I’?........................................

yes

no

Have you used full stops and question marks?........................

yes

no

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Arguments:

Conclusion:

Did you say what you thought at the end?...............................

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Spelling

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Did you check your spelling?.....................................................

Words

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Did you use persuasive words?.................................................

Punctuation

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Checking a narrative Name:

Date:

Title:

Writing Orientation: yes

no

Did you tell when it happened?.................................................

yes

no

Did you tell where it happened?................................................

yes

no

Did you say what the problem was?.........................................

yes

no

Did you say what happened?.....................................................

yes

no

Did you tell how the problem was fixed?.................................

yes

no

Did you tell what happened at the end?...................................

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

Does every sentence start with a capital letter?.......................

yes

no

Have you used capital letters for names?.................................

yes

no

Have you used a capital letter for ‘I’?........................................

yes

no

Have you used full stops?..........................................................

yes

no

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Did you say who was in the story?............................................

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Resolution and ending:

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Complication and events:

Spelling

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Did you check your spelling?.....................................................

Words

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Did you use interesting words?................................................. Have you used good describing words?...................................

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Punctuation

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

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Checking a report Name:

Date:

Title:

Writing Classification: yes

no

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Have you said what the report is about?.................................. Description:

Did you write interesting things?..............................................

yes

no

Is your information true?............................................................

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

Does every sentence start with a capital letter?.......................

yes

no

Did you remember full stops?...................................................

yes

no

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Conclusion:

Did you say what you thought about it?...................................

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Spelling

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Did you check your spelling?.....................................................

Words

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Did you use interesting words?.................................................

Punctuation

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Class evaluation record

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Names

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Procedure Understands the format Uses clear concise language Sequences steps logically Self-edits Recount Understands the format Sequences events Uses past tense Self-edits Exposition Understands the format Presents persuasive arguments Supports arguments Self-edits

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Class evaluation record

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Names

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Narrative Understands the format Uses descriptive language Imaginative ideas Self-edits Report Understands the format Accurate information Self-edits

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

SPEAKING SKILLS

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Pupils need to have a sense of audience and to learn how to engage and communicate effectively. The ‘Are you a good speaker?’ chart on page 18 can be photocopied and enlarged for classroom use. It focuses attention on the preparation and presentation of information as well as oral communication skills. Opportunities are provided for pupils to organise and communicate their ideas to a partner, a small group or the class. Pupils should be encouraged to set individual speaking goals on which to focus and to evaluate their performance.

LISTENING SKILLS

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Providing opportunities for pupils to engage in active listening is essential, but some pupils may need to have explicit instruction to understand the requirements of effective listening. The ‘Are you a good listener?’ chart on page 19 can be photocopied and enlarged for classroom use. It is suggested that the teacher and pupils set a goal—e.g. sitting still—as a focus for a particular lesson and then evaluate how well this goal was achieved.

ORAL PRESENTATIONS

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An oral presentation is a talk or address delivered to an audience.

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Purpose 1. To inform the audience of the views, facts and news of the speaker. 2. To influence the audience to support the speaker’s perspective or cause. 3. To justify an action or proposed action. 4. To entertain a specific audience.

Features 1. Ideas and facts must have a logical sequence. 2. Format may include: • introduction • description • conclusion 3. May include some visual presentation (objects and photographs). 4. Personal experience and humour may be used to maintain interest. 5. Short sentences may be used to enable members of the audience to remain focused and attentive.

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Are you a good speaker?

Good speakers … • interesting information

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Choose:

Organise: • something to show Plan:

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• their talk

• • • •

at the audience good and stand tall interested confident

• • • •

clearly at the right volume at the right speed in a lively manner

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Look:

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Present: • their ideas and tell who‚ what‚ when‚ where and why

Speak:

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Are you a good listener?

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Sit still

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Look at the speaker

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Good listeners:

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Listen carefully

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Concentrate

Think about what the speaker is saying

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VOCABULARY

An increased vocabulary develops the pupils’ ability to communicate their ideas, making their writing and speaking more descriptive and interesting to read or listen to.

COMPOUND WORDS

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‘Compound’ comes from the Latin meaning ‘putting together’. Each part of a compound word must be a word that can stand alone. For example: toothbrush, mother-in-law Note: As language changes, many words that were previously hyphenated no longer need a hyphen. Pupils should be encouraged to consult a recent dictionary.

HOMOGRAPHS

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Homo – same graph – write Homographs are words that are written in the same way, but have different meanings, origins and sometimes are pronounced differently. Homographs that sound the same include: sack, ruler, pupil, spring, squash, bear, saw, felt, train, fast, hold, park, club, duck, cape, chop, coach, grave, cricket, march, right, ring, table, watch, last, kind, cross, blind, iron Homographs that are pronounced differently include:

HOMOPHONES

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row, subject, present, object, wind, wound, bow, tear, record, desert, close, minute

Homo – same phone – sound Homophones are words that sound the same but are spelt differently. For example: be/bee‚ for/four‚ here/hear‚ write/right‚ sun/son‚ to/two/too

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SYNONYMS

Synonyms are words with the same or similar meaning.

ANTONYMS

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Antonyms are words with the opposite meaning. Finding synonyms and antonyms helps pupils to develop a wider vocabulary and allows them to write more precisely and interestingly. Some antonyms are formed by adding a prefix; for example: un, dis, in, im, mis.

OVERUSED WORDS

Pupils should be encouraged to communicate more exact meaning by avoiding the overuse of some words; e.g. ‘asked’ and ‘said’. Words that can be used instead of ‘asked’ include: enquired, requested, queried, questioned, begged, quizzed, appealed, demanded Words that can be used instead of ‘said’ include: spoke, uttered, yelled, shouted, whispered, cried, sobbed, commented, replied, stated, talked, voiced, announced, remarked, repeated, breathed, declared, recited, expressed, protested 20

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Find a better word

nice

• well behaved • lovely

then • before

• interesting

• beautiful

• excellent

• kind

• fine

• enjoyable

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good

• after

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• during

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• at last

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

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Find a better word

got

said

went

• yelled

• ran

• was given

• cried

• walked

• won

• replied

• hurried

• received

• spoke

• travelled

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• became

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SPELLING

Because of the complexity of the English language, there are a number of exceptions to most of the spelling rules. After pupils have learned a rule, they should be encouraged to consolidate this learning by seeking exceptions to the rule.

SYLLABLES

swim/mer

con/test

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Breaking words into syllables is very useful for pronouncing and spelling words. A syllable has one vowel sound. The following is a list of rules to determine how words are divided into syllables. 1. When two consonants (same or different) come between two vowels, divide between the consonants.

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2. When there is only one consonant between two vowels, divide before the consonant. fa/mous

mu/sic

3. When consonants make one speech sound, they are kept together. pro/phet

me/thod

dol/phin

4. The letters ‘re’ and ‘le’ cannot stand alone at the end of a word and must take the preceding consonant.

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me/tre

sad/dle

5. Prefixes and suffixes are usually separated from the base word. joy/ful

sub/mit

dis/o/bey

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6. Compound words divide between the small words. rain/coat

la/dy-/in-/wait/ing

PLURALS

• Most nouns form their plural by just adding ‘s’. socks, shoes, shirts

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• Words ending in ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘s’, ‘x’, and ‘z’ usually add ‘es’ to make the plural word easier to pronounce. churches, wishes, buses, boxes, quizzes exceptions include: stomachs, monarchs, matriarchs, patriarchs

Note: The ‘ch’ is pronounced like ‘ck’ in these words, so the ‘es’ is not needed for ease of pronunciation.

• Many words ending in ‘o’ also add ‘es’ in the plural form. tomatoes, potatoes, heroes, echoes But there are numerous exceptions, including words ending with ‘oo’ and some words associated with music. In many recent dictionaries, both endings are included. ‘oo’ words: bamboos, kangaroos, cockatoos, zoos, shampoos music: banjos, solos, duos, trios, pianos, sopranos, radios, altos, cellos, videos others: ratios, zeros, merinos, silos Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

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SPELLING • Nouns ending in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ change the ‘f’ or ‘fe’ to ‘v’ and add ‘es’. knives, wolves, halves, selves Note: Both forms of some words are accepted: dwarves or dwarfs, wharves or wharfs, hooves or hoofs.

Exceptions include: words ending with ‘ff’: stuffs, puffs, skiffs, cliffs, staffs, sheriffs others: reefs, gulfs, chiefs, roofs, waifs

babies, puppies, flies, spies, libraries

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• Nouns ending with a consonant and a ‘y’ change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding ‘es’.

• Some plurals are made by changing some letters of the base noun or by adding an unusual suffix.

woman – women foot – feet die – dice cactus – cacti, cactuses radius – radii, radiuses fungus – fungi, funguses axis – axes crisis – crises emphasis – emphases louse – lice medium – media, mediums phenomenon – phenomena sphinx – sphinges, sphinxes child – children mouse – mice, mouses (computer)

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tooth – teeth oasis – oases person – people goose – geese parenthesis – parentheses criterion – criteria ox – oxen cherub – cherubim, cherubs

• Some words may have the same singular and plural forms.

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fish, cod, salmon, trout, deer, sheep, reindeer, swine, elk, dozen, score, innings, gallows • Some nouns have no singular form; many of them are thought of as ‘a pair of’. trousers, shorts, spectacles, glasses, pants, tweezers, pliers, clippers, scissors, secateurs, bellows, tongs, measles, billiards

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ADDING SUFFIXES

A suffix can be described as a group of letters added to the end of a word. Suffixes change the meaning of words. Examples of suffixes include:

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able, age, al, an, ance, ary, ate, en, ence, er, ery, ese, est, ful, fy, hood, ible, ic, ion, ish, ist, ive, less, ling, ly, ment, most, ness, or, ous, ship

• Suffixes are usually just added to the end of the word. work, worked, workable, working, worker

• Sometimes the spelling of the base word changes. shut–shutting, happy–happily, shape–shaping

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SPELLING The one-one-one rule for adding suffixes beginning with a vowel requires understanding of: • consonants and vowels • short and long vowels • syllables.

one-one-one rule When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel to words of one syllable, with one short vowel sound followed by one consonant, double that consonant. cut–cutting

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shop–shopper

Note: Words of more than one syllable with a prefix or which are compound words also double the final consonant. refitting

babysitter

dropping the final ‘e’

outrigger

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Another rule for adding a suffix beginning with a vowel to a word, usually with a long vowel sound and ending with a silent ‘e’, is that the ‘e’ is dropped before adding the suffix. shape – shaping

close – closing

Note: An interesting exception is ‘likable’. A simple way for pupils to remember part of this rule is:

adding ‘ly’

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‘e’ goes away when ‘ing’ comes to stay

‘ly’ is usually just added to words.

quick – quickly

love – lovely

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There are some exceptions: 1. Whole – wholly. The ‘e’ is dropped before adding ‘ly’. 2. True – truly, due – duly. There are already two vowels at the end of these words so one is dropped before adding ‘ly’. 3. Horrible – horribly, simple – simply. These are two examples of words ending in ‘le’ after a consonant. The ‘e’ is changed to ‘y’.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES PARTS OF SPEECH Understanding the different parts of speech will help pupils construct effective sentences.

Verbs

the present walk walks see sees

the future will walk should walk will see should see

Note: The future and past tenses often use auxiliary or ‘helping’ verbs to form a compound verb; e.g. have written, can open, may visit, were asleep.

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the past regular walked has walked irregular saw has seen

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Verbs are words used to show actions or states of being or having; e.g. eat, was, has. Command verbs are imperatives and are often used in procedures at the beginning of a sentence; e.g. ‘Roast the meat’. Verb tense: There are three basic tenses. However, because there are so many irregular verbs in English, these can be complex.

Adverbs

Adverbs are words that can modify or enhance the meaning of verbs; e.g. He swam slowly, I sang yesterday. There are adverbs of time, place and manner.

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time; e.g. tomorrow place; e.g. outside manner; e.g. quickly

Nouns

Pronouns

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Nouns are words used to name people, places, things, feelings or ideas; e.g. boy, school, book, joy, courtesy. Proper nouns are used to name particular people, places or things. Proper nouns are written with capital letters; e.g. John, Singapore, February.

Pronouns are words substituted for nouns; e.g. We asked them to help us.

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Adjectives

Adjectives modify or enhance the meaning of nouns and, less commonly, pronouns; e.g. deserted playground, lucky me.

Prepositions

Prepositions are words that show the relationship between nouns and/or pronouns in the same sentence. Common prepositions include: during, for, between, in, up, on. He rode through the park. Sally slept until dawn. I would like one of those.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES Conjunctions Conjunctions are joining words. They can join different language units.

one word with another one phrase with another one clause with another one sentence with another

hot or cold on the land and in the air sitting on the beach while watching the birds There were dark clouds in the sky so I took my umbrella.

PUNCTUATION

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Punctuation is used to clarify meaning and assist with reading and comprehension.

Capital letters

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Capital letters are needed for: • sentence beginnings; e.g. I like my teacher. She is kind to me. • proper nouns; e.g. people’s names (Bob Brown), names of places (Pacific Ocean), days of the week (Tuesday), months (May), countries (New Zealand), nationalities (French), languages (Russian), religious faiths (Christian), holidays and festivals (Passover). • titles; e.g. Red Cross, The sound of music, Note: Prim-Ed Publishing employs minimal capitalisation for titles of books and other publications as recommended by the Style ‘Goldilocks and the three bears’. manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, 2002.

Commas

Commas are used to separate items in a list or series; e.g. I like ice-cream, carrots, apples and chocolate.

Apostrophes for possession

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Apostrophes are used to show that something belongs to someone or something. The placement of the apostrophe can be challenging but the simple rule is that it is placed after the owner or owners. (The ‘tail’ of the apostrophe ‘points’ to the owner[s].) the girl’s dresses (one girl) the baby’s shoes (one baby)

the girls’ dresses (more than one girl) the babies’ shoes (more than one baby)

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Grammatical contractions

Grammatical contractions are words that have been made by joining and shortening two words. An apostrophe is used in place of the missing letters. should not – shouldn’t I had – I’d

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he will – he’ll it has – it’s

Quotation marks

Quotation marks (inverted commas) are used to enclose quoted speech or thoughts. Single or double quotation marks are acceptable but must be used consistently. ‘Please feed that noisy cat’, Mum shouted. ‘I fed him yesterday, it’s Ben’s turn’, Adam replied.

Note: Prim-Ed Publishing punctuates speech as recommended by the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, 2002.

Quoted text must start on a new line, unless the same speaker is continuing.

Paragraphs Paragraphs separate text into meaningful sections to facilitate reading and understanding. Paragraphs start on a new line. A space is often left between paragraphs. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

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Sentence beginnings

• Once upon a time ...

• On my way home ... • During the holidays ...

• For my birthday ... • Walking along ... • Yelling loudly ...

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• At the weekend ...

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• Later that day ...

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• While I was ...

• Thinking it was ...

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• Looking around ...

• Shivering with fright ...

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• Feeling excited ... • Waiting impatiently ... • Running towards ... • Hearing a loud noise ... • Slowly he ...

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Question words

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1

2 3

9 8

7

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5

4

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10

11

Where?

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Who?

What?

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When?

Why?

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Which?

How? Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

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INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES These are a series of activities designed for each specific writing format as it appears in the pupil workbook. They will hopefully provide ideas as to how the formats can be used in relation to a variety of subjects other than English.

Procedure 1 – Playing hopscotch History

The arts

1.

1.

3. 4.

Mathematics 2. 3.

SPHE

Keep a tally of the games and sports you play in a 1. Plan a daily routine to include fitness sessions. week. 2. Research to find out how much time a day should Compare your tally with your classmates and graph be spent in physical activity. them to show the most popular sports and games. 3. Compile a list of things to remember for your health Compare the time you spend playing sports and and safety while doing sport and outdoor games. games with the time you spend watching TV. Include: – appropriate clothing – drinking water – warming up – safety with equipment

Research to find some good fishing places near your home. Compile a list of the fish caught in these areas. Compile a list of freshwater and saltwater fish found in your area.

SPHE 1. 2.

Find some easy recipes for cooking fish. Choose a favourite and try it out at home or school. Research to find out why fish is a healthy food and which fish are better to eat. Compare the benefits of fish with chicken and/or meat.

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2. 3.

4.

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Design and technology

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Recount 1 – Going fishing Science and geography 1.

2.

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1.

Design a new sport or game. You will need to include: – number of players – equipment needed – rules for the game Design a poster for your new sport or game. Make it interesting, bright and colourful.

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2.

List the sports and games you and your classmates play. Research to find sports and games played in the past. Choose one sport or game and find the origins of it. Hold a games day at school and play games from the past.

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

1. 2. 3.

Design a fishing rod. Research first to see what features need to be included. Research other ways of fishing. Include: nets, trawling, spears etc. Compare fishing in the past to today’s techniques. List the similarities and differences.

English 1.

Write a story pretending you are a fish. Don’t forget to include: – what sort you are – where you are – what happens to you etc. 2. Write a story about an imaginary fishing trip. Include lots of exciting things that happened and lots of descriptive words.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Compile a list of class rules. Discuss one you think is not necessary. Discuss any extra rules you think are needed. Talk to other classes and compare their rules to yours. Conduct a class debate on whether you should be able to talk in class. Compile a list of places where you think talking should not be allowed; e.g. in a theatre.

History 1. 2. 3.

Research to learn about schools in the past. Visit a museum to experience school in the past. Compare and contrast today’s classroom rules with the rules of the past.

Mathematics

The arts

1.

1. 2.

Design a poster for one of your class rules. Make it bright and colourful. Mime some of your class rules and see if your classmates can guess what you are miming.

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2.

Choose one class rule. Survey your classmates to find those who agree with it and those who don’t. Graph the results. Count your class rules. Compare to other classes’ rules. Graph the results to see which classes have the most rules.

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Exposition 1 – Talking in class SPHE

Narrative 1 – Prince Hal and the dragons Geography English

3.

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2.

Research to find out which countries still have princes and princesses. Research to find out other types of rulers. Make a list of the different types. On a world map, using a colour-code system, colour in the countries according to their rulers; e.g. king, prime minister, emperor, etc.

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1.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

List as many fairytales or stories as you can about princes or princesses. Find some poems about princes or princesses. Choose one to learn. Write an acrostic poem using ‘prince’ or ‘princess’. Write your own narrative about a prince/princess. Find as many dragon stories or poems as you can.

The arts

English

1.

Fun with words 1. Choose six long words from the story and make a word snake. 2. Choose eight words from the story and compile a crossword puzzle. 3. Using the title ‘Prince Hal and the dragons’, find as many small words as you can (e.g. in, pin, pal, lap). 4. Write the names of the characters on cards and draw pictures on other cards. Play a matching or memory game.

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Pretend you are a prince/princess and design a castle you would like to live in. Design a poster to advertise the story of Prince Hal and the dragons. Make it colourful and interesting. Make yourself a crown using cardboard and any sort of decorations you wish. Draw an imaginary dragon. Use collage to decorate your drawings.

3. 4.

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

31


INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES Report 1 – Ice-cream Mathematics 2. 3.

Survey your class to find their favourite flavour of 1. ice-cream. Graph the results. Conduct a survey to find the most popular dessert apart from ice-cream. Graph the results. 2. Check at your local shop and find the most popular flavours.

Choose a new and interesting flavour for an ice-cream. Create a poster advertising your new flavour. Make it bright and colourful. Create a new and inventive way to serve and sell ice-cream; maybe a plastic bowl or a cardboard box. Remember, it needs to be waterproof.

Science

SPHE

1.

1.

3.

Compile a list of healthy desserts. Compare and contrast their ingredients. Choose one of these desserts to make.

2.

English 1. 2.

Compose an acrostic poem for ice-cream. List all the flavours of ice-cream you can think of. Now put them in alphabetical order. List any flavours that are compound words; e.g. strawberry.

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2.

Calculate the time it takes ice-cream to melt. Think of ways to keep it frozen longer without a freezer. Make ice-cream at school and calculate how long it takes to freeze. Try different ingredients and see if this changes the times. Ice-cream can freeze then melt, then freeze again. Think of other materials that are able to do this. Compile a list of materials that can melt but not be frozen again.

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1.

The arts

3.

Procedure 2 – Humpty Dumpty biscuits SPHE Mathematics

3.

The arts 1.

3.

Visit the local shop and list the prices of ingredients for the biscuits. Write them in order from the cheapest to the most expensive. Weigh all the ingredients, then list them from the heaviest to lightest. Time how long it takes to make the biscuits. Compare and contrast to other biscuit recipes.

Science

Draw some other faces you could make with the 1. biscuits; for example: an elf. List what you would need. 2. Design a colourful bag or box in which to carry your biscuits. Mime nursery rhymes and see if your classmates can 3. guess them.

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2.

Discuss the ingredients in the biscuits. Decide if they 1. are healthy/unhealthy. Find some healthy recipes for biscuits and choose one to make. 2. Compare the ingredients for different biscuits you can buy. Which ingredients are the same/different? 3.

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Mix icing sugar with hot and cold water, noting how quickly it mixes in each. Find things that will dissolve in water and experiment to find the differences in time when using hot or cold water. Place Smarties® or M&Ms® in water to see which colours last the longest.

English 1. 2.

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‘Humpty Dumpty’ is a nursery rhyme. List as many nursery rhymes as you can. Survey your class to find the most popular. Make as many small words from ‘Humpty Dumpty’ as you can. Use each letter once only.

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES Recount 2 – Sleepover Mathematics

English

1.

1.

3.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Write a description of your favourite toy. Don’t forget to use lots of adjectives. Keep a diary for your favourite toy for a week. Tell about what happens to it, where it goes, how you play with it, etc. Adopt a class ‘teddy’. Take turns in taking it home for a night and record its adventures. Write a story about a fantasy sleepover you would like—maybe at a castle or in a tree house. Make a word snake with the things you need for a sleepover and ask a friend to solve it.

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Survey your class to see how old they were when they had their first sleepover. Graph the results. Make a list of all the things you would need for a sleepover. Choose the five most important and measure them to work out how large a bag you will need. Ask your classmates about their bedtimes and what time they wake in the mornings. Calculate the hours of sleep. Compare and contrast these with each other. Do weekends have different times?

Design and technology

2. 3. 4.

Design a really fun bag to take on a sleepover. Make it bright and colourful. Does it have zips, velcro, a handle, buttons, decorations, etc.? Design an interesting box in which to carry your favourite toy to a sleepover. Design a fantastic pair of pyjamas or a nightie to wear at a sleepover. Make up some fun games to play.

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SPHE and geography

1.

1.

3. 4.

Research to find the best age for children to learn to swim. Compile a list of water safety rules. Compare and contrast water safety at the beach to water safety at a pool. List other health and safety rules at the beach; for example: apply sunscreen. Compile a list of water sports and games. Choose one to research, learn when and where it originated, what the rules are, where it is played etc.

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Exposition 2 – Learn to swim SPHE

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Mathematics 1. 2. 3.

2. 3. 4.

English

Survey the class to find out the ages when children 1. learnt to swim. Graph the results. Survey the class to research how often they swim at the beach and at a pool. Graph the results. 2. Compile a list of different swimming strokes. Place in order from the fastest to slowest. Find out the 3. most popular.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

List as many well known swimmers as you can. Research to find out how old they were when they learnt to swim. Choose a country and research to find out what water sports and activities they offer. Visit your local aquatic centre and find out what swimming lessons they offer and for what ages. Find out what other local water activities and sports are available.

Choose a well known swimmer and write a short paragraph about them. Include why they are well known. Choose ten words from the exposition and compile your own crossword. Use the same words to compile a wordsearch for a partner to solve.

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

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INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES Narrative 2 – Our pets Mathematics

The arts

1.

1.

3.

Design and technology

2.

5. 6. 7.

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Discuss rules to stay safe when playing with pets. Compile a list of things you need to do to keep a pet healthy.

English 1. 2.

Find as many songs or poems about spiders as you can. Choose a favourite to learn. Spiderman is a fictional hero. Think of and list as many other fictional heroes as you can. Choose one to write a story about. Write a story pretending you are a spider. Don’t forget to say what type you are, what you look like, where you live, what happens to you, etc. Choose ten different spiders. Put them into alphabetical order. Choose ten words from the report on spiders. Jumble them up, then see if a classmate can unjumble them.

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4.

SPHE

Compare and contrast spiders and insects. Choose one spider and draw it. Label the body parts. Research to find the largest and smallest spiders in the world. Research to find the most dangerous spiders. List the top ten. Find out where in the world they live. Collect information including pictures of as many different types of webs as you can. Choose five different types of spiders and research to find what they eat. Research to find the differences between male and female spiders. Research to find and compare the size and shape of different spider’s eggs.

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3.

4.

Design an amazing home for your pet (or an 1. imaginary one). Remember, your pet will need 2. food, water, shelter and some things to play on or with. Design and make a safe carrying container for your pet. Make it easy to carry and comfortable for your pet.

Report 2 – Spiders Science 1. 2.

3.

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1.

2.

Design a poster to advertise a pet. Make it bright and colourful. Mime different pets and allow your classmates to guess what you are. Choose a pet and draw its outline in heavy card. Use the cutout to make patterns. Bring a pet to school and get the class to draw a portrait of it.

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2.

Survey your class to find out which pets they own. Graph the results. Ask your classmates to weigh and measure their pets. Order them from longest to shortest, heaviest to lightest. Calculate how much your pet costs to feed each week. Compare cats/dogs/fish/birds to see which are the cheapest to feed.

3. 4. 5.

Design and technology 1. 2.

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

Design an effective way to catch a spider. Remember, it could be poisonous. Design a good pet house for a spider. Remember it needs water, food, shelter and space to move.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


GRAPHIC ORGANISERS

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Graphic organisers are visual frameworks that are used to represent ideas and to organise them in a way that promotes learning and facilitates understanding. They are particularly useful for planning the content, sequence and organisation of a writing task. Graphic organisers allow pupils to: • make connections and understand how things are related • develop their more complex thinking skills; e.g. analysing, categorising and evaluating • use visual representations to assist memory and facilitate recall • apply multiple intelligences simultaneously. Graphic organisers include: • mind maps (page 35) • flow charts (page 36) • senses charts (page 37) • tree charts (page 38) • semantic webs (page 39).

MIND MAPS

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Mind maps can be used for note taking and as visual prompts for oral presentations. They usually use keywords, colour, drawings and symbols linked with arrows and branches. They are intended to be understood only by their creators. Space should be left so further ideas can be added.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

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Flow chart

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Senses chart Subject:

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Looks

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Feels

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Sounds

Tastes

Smells Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

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Tree chart

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


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Semantic web

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

39


Reading journal Comment

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Title

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Speaking and listening

Spelling

Going fishing

Ice-cream

vowels plus ‘r’ (ar, er, ir, or, ur)

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book B

Report 2

Report 1

tricky words, question words, spelling maths

‘c’ as in ‘ice’ and ‘cat’, ‘g’ as in ‘giant’ and ‘gate’, plurals – ‘f’ to ’ve’ magic ‘e’, long vowels, two vowels making one Procedure 2 sound long ‘a’ (a-e, ai, ay), long ’e’ (e, ee, ea, ey, y), Recount 2 singular – plurals that don’t change, plurals with no singular long ‘i’ (i-e, ie, y), long ‘o’ (o-e, oa, ow, o), Exposition 2 contractions, plurals – ‘y’ to ‘i’ long ‘u’ (oo, ew, ue, u-e), air/ere, spelling maths, Narrative 2 rhyming words, words that change when plural

Narrative 1 silent letters, plurals ‘es’

‘ou’ and ‘ow’, ‘all’, ‘oo’ (book), au/or/aw, ‘alk’, Exposition 1 syllables

Recount 1

Procedure 1 tricky words, spelling maths, question words

Spiders

Read missing words

Read joining sentences Read yes/no Read questions Read joining sentences Read questions, yes/no

Activities

Read and think Think draw a scary pet, questions similarities and differences Read and think Think yes/no, sorting facts labelling

compound words, alphabetical order, senses, word search

Report 1

jumbled words, male/female, alphabetical order, opposites

rhyming words, animal coverings, word snake, unjumble pets, pet homes

compound words, homophones, word jigsaw, describing words

alphabetical order, opposites, jumbled words, ‘What am I?’

A trip with Dad or a friend

Chocolate

Report 2

prepositions

Report 2

Animal report

Narrative 2 Pet story

A sleepover

Narrative 2 adjectives, comparatives

Recount 2

Procedure 2 Making a hamburger

Report 1

Narrative 1 An animal nobody wants

Exposition 1 Whiteboards are better than blackboards

Recount 1

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Procedure 1 Learn to skip

Report 2

Narrative 2

Exposition 2

Recount 2

Procedure 2 hidden and jumbled words, crossword

similes, words and colours, alphabetical order, masculine and feminine

Narrative 1

Exposition 2 Everyone should play sport

proper nouns

‘er’ words, jumbled words, ‘What am I?’

Recount 1 Exposition 1 homographs, word shapes, compound words

matching games and pictures, game titles, jumbled sports

Activities

Procedure 1

Genre

Exposition 2 exclamation marks, conjunctions

Recount 2

Procedure 2 verbs, command verbs, adverbs

prepositions

Narrative 1 adjectives, direct speech Report 1

Vocabulary

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Read and think questions Read and think questions Read and think questions

Think poster Think timelines Think water activities

Read and think Think draw and label games equipment Read and think Think sequencing, fishing questions Read and think Think questions poster Read and think Think questions similarities and differences Read and think Think questions ice-cream facts

nouns, pronouns

Exposition 1 conjunctions

Recount 1

Procedure 1 verbs, adverbs

Report 2

Narrative 2

Narrative 2 Our pets

Report 2

Read yes/no Read yes/no

Read yes/no Read yes/no

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Recount 2 Exposition 2

Favourite toys

Procedure 2

Report 1

Narrative 1

Exposition 2 Water activities

Recount 2

Procedure 2 Sandwiches, cakes and biscuits

Report 1

Narrative 1 Fairytales and dragons

Exposition 1

Recount 1

Procedure 1

Genre

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Exposition 1 Talking and listening in the classroom

Recount 1

Procedure 1 Favourite games

Activities

Reading

Language features

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Writing

Genre

SCOPE AND SEQUENCE CHART

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