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Comprehension for independent readers (Upper)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing® 2012 Copyright© Edward Connor 2012 ISBN 978-1-84654-608-2 PR– 6352

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

Titles in this series:

Comprehension for independent readers (Middle) Comprehension for independent readers (Upper)

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Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

View all pages online

Website: www.prim-ed.com


Foreword Comprehension for independent readers (Upper) offers a range of writing genres and activities to develop the skills required for comprehension. The aim is to provide pupils with the opportunity to work independently to extract information from different texts and to demonstrate the different levels of comprehension: literal, inferential and evaluative. The other title in the series is: Comprehension for independent readers (Middle)

Contents

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Teachers notes......................................................................................................................................................... iv Curriculum links........................................................................................................................................................ v Daily Script (Newspaper) .................................................................................................................................. 2 – 4 The meaning of proverbs (Proverbs) ................................................................................................................. 5 – 8 J R R Talkman’s travelling circus (Poster) ....................................................................................................... 9 – 11 July/August 1969 (Diary) .............................................................................................................................. 12 – 16 Strine – Australian English (Language) ........................................................................................................ 17 – 19 What is irony? (Irony) .................................................................................................................................... 20 – 22 What is sarcasm? (Sarcasm) ........................................................................................................................ 23 – 25 In space you can hear the engine (Data grid) ............................................................................................... 26 – 28 What does it mean? (Symbolism) ................................................................................................................. 29 – 31 Bringing writing to life (Metaphor) ................................................................................................................ 32 – 35 Mixed metaphors (Metaphor) ........................................................................................................................ 36 – 37 Statistics (Tables and graphs) ........................................................................................................................ 38 – 40 Who’s who in Mother Goose (Biography) ...................................................................................................... 41 – 43 Biological classification (Classification) ........................................................................................................ 44 – 46 Major events of the 20th century (Time line) ................................................................................................ 47 – 49 How to play the guessing game (Flowchart) ................................................................................................. 50 – 52 Logical arguments (Syllogism) ...................................................................................................................... 53 – 55 Sim Sala’s Magic Emporium (Sales catalogue) ............................................................................................ 56 – 58 Cryptic puzzles (Crosswords) ........................................................................................................................ 59 – 60 Missing word puzzles (Crosswords) ............................................................................................................. 61 – 62 Word search puzzles (Crosswords) ................................................................................................................ 63 – 64 Target words (Scanning) ............................................................................................................................... 65 – 67 Time line puzzles (Scanning) .......................................................................................................................... 68 – 72 Answers ........................................................................................................................................................ 73 – 78

Note: Prim-Ed Publishing® punctuates speech as recommended by Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edition 2002.

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Comprehension for independent readers

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Teachers notes Most units in the book focus on the literal, inferential and evaluative comprehension of a particular text type or the use of a specific figure of speech. Appreciation of the latter is necessary for the inferential and evaluative levels of comprehension. A number of units are puzzle-based and focus on the understanding of vocabulary and the skill of scanning as well as extracting information from text types such as time lines. The focus of the unit is highlighted at the top of each page. Figures of speech featured

Text types used

The format of questions ranges from multiple choice and matching to those requiring a full written explanation.

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• Front page of newspaper • Poster • Diary entry • Information in tables • Information in graphs • Biography • Time line • Flowchart • Sales catalogue

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• Proverb • Colloquialism • Irony • Sarcasm • Symbolism • Metaphor • Syllogism

Something extra At the end of most units, is an additional activities section with suggestions for developing pupils’ understanding of the theme of the unit.

Classroom organisation The aim of this book is that pupils work independently from the teacher but there are times when discussion with peers would be beneficial to each pupil’s full understanding and enjoyment of the unit.

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Curriculum links

TEACHERS NOTES

Subject

Level

Objectives

England

English (Reading)

Years 5/6

• maintain positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read • understand what they read by building on the skills developed in Years 3 and 4 • discuss how authors use language and consider the impact on the reader • retrieve, record and present information from nonfiction

Northern Ireland

Language and Literacy (Reading)

KS 2

• read, explore, understand and make use of a range of texts • extend the range of their reading • represent their understanding of texts in a range of ways • consider, interpret and discuss texts, exploring the ways in which language can be manipulated in order to affect the reader or engage attention • justify their responses logically, by inference, deduction and/or reference to evidence within the text • use a variety of reading skills for different reading purposes

Republic of Ireland

English (Reading)

5th/6th Class • engage with an increasing range of text

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Country

Scotland

Wales

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• read widely from a more challenging range of reading material • respond to a challenging range of poetry • use comprehension skills to aid deduction, problem-solving and prediction • develop study skills • retrieve and interpret information presented in a variety of ways • support arguments and opinions with evidence from the text • read and interpret different kinds of functional text • explore nonfiction texts for various purposes

Literacy and English (Reading)

Second

• using what I know about the features of different types of texts, I can find, select and sort information and use this for different purposes • identify and consider the purpose and main ideas of a text and use supporting detail • respond to literal, inferential and evaluative questions and other close reading tasks • discuss structure, characterisation and/or setting, recognise the relevance of the writer’s theme and how this relates to my experiences, and discuss the writer’s style and other features

English (Reading)

KS 2

• read in different ways for different purposes • recognise and understand the characteristics of different genres • consider what they read, respond orally and in writing, and be able to select evidence to support their views • become an enthusiastic and reflective reader • experience and respond to a wide range of texts • read extracts with a variety of structural and organisational features, and that show quality and variety in language use

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Comprehension for independent readers

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Daily Script

2

The

NEWSPAPER

Daily Script Wednesday 1 April 2012

Published in Cityton since 1893

By Nosey Parker, senior reporter

The world’s most famous painting, the Mona Lisa, also known as La Gioconda, was painted by Leonardo di Vinci more than five hundred years ago. It was stolen from the Louvre museum Paris, France. On Monday morning staff were shocked when they entered the great hall to gaze at the renowned painting, as they do every morning, but discovered it had been stolen during the night. The French police, known as the Gendarme (zhahne dahrm), were immediately contacted and a nationwide search was instigated. To everyone’s relief the precious painting was found the next morning resting by a tree. The hunt for the criminals continues.

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The two ships of the Swiss navy collided while on a naval exercise in the Mediterranean Sea. The SSS Alpboat, was a minesweeper and the SSS Cuckoo a frigate. The two ships were part of an international flotilla that consisted of more than fifty warships sailing in a tight formation. The collision of the Swiss ships created a dangerous situation that resulted in several other vessels having to steer dangerously close to one another. As some of those ships were nuclear-powered the incident could have resulted in a major catastrophe. Neither of the Swiss ships was damaged; however, in the confusion the captain of the SSS Cuckoo fired one of its torpedoes. Unfortunately a fisherman’s dinghy was blown apart, along with the man. ‘It was a terrible accident’, said the captain of the SSS Cuckoo. ‘I thought I was pressing the emergency button. They look so much alike.’

The Mona Lisa disappears.

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By Newsiah Ound, Europe correspondent

Stolen Painting Found by Tree

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Two Navy Ships Collide - Man Dies

Continued PAGE 10

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Golf News

The SSS Alpboat on its maiden voyage, 2001.

School Dropout Figures Cut in Half EXCLUSIVE by Penny Ink, education reporter

A new report just released by the Education Department shows why the number of students dropping out of school before they complete their final year has dramatically declined. Continued PAGE 14

What’s Inside: Arts Page 25 Letters Page 38 Comics Page 62

Entertainment Page 58 Classifieds Page 35 Puzzles Page 63

Grandmother of Eight Makes a Hole in One By Jiminy Cricket, sports reporter

To everyone’s surprise the oldest player in the Women’s Worldwide Golf Championship, Wilma Whack, shot a hole in one off the tenth tee to take the trophy. Wilma said she had promised her eight grandchildren she would win the tournament, so she had to. ‘I may be the oldest player here,’ she said, ‘but that doesn’t mean I’m past my prime’. No, sir, she certainly isn’t. Read more in the sport section.

Weather

Cloudy, Showers 13 –21˚C Thursday Friday Saturday

Business Page 42 Obituaries Page 45

Comprehension for independent readers

14 –19˚C 14 – 22˚C 13 – 18˚C

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Daily Script

NEWSPAPER

EXTRA! Newspaper articles are traditionally set out in columns, using different font sizes and weights, to make the headlines and article titles stand out from the rest of the text.

Use the newspaper front spread on page 2 to answer the questions.

 (a) What is the name of this newspaper? (b) Where is it published?

(c) When was it first published?

(d) What day was this issue put out?

(e) What year was this issue put out?

(f) Describe the weather on the day the newspaper was sold.

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 Of the four journalists featured on the front page, who do you think is the most popular or

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important reporter? Give reasons for your answer.

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 Only one of the articles featured on the front page seems to be complete.

(a) Which one is it?

(b) How can you tell?

 The advertisement appears to have a contradiction. What is it?  (a) What is the part titled ‘What’s Inside’ usually called in a book?

(b) What other sections of a newspaper can you suggest to add to it?

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Daily Script

NEWSPAPER

Use the newspaper front spread on page 2 to answer the questions.

 Which of the four articles is written in the most informative style? Give reasons for your answer.

 What caption appears on the front page? (a) What does this mean?

(b) Why is it highlighted?

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 One of the articles is an ‘exclusive’.

 Why could the minor collision between the two Swiss ships have resulted in something

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 (a) Describe the paper’s logo.

(b) Explain the logo’s significance.

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 Why is the print used in the advertisement different from the rest of the text?

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SOMETHING EXTRA Many schools send home a weekly newsletter which is similar to a newspaper. • Look at back issues of your school’s newsletter and suggest contributions you could make to it. • Design a school newspaper spread, reporting on some of the many activities that go on in your school. Interview some teachers and pupils. • Design a fictitious newspaper spread with articles that will amuse and amaze its readers. Comprehension for independent readers

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The meaning of proverbs

PROVERBS

Proverbs are defined as easy to remember short statements of general truth to do with everyday experiences. Read and discuss these proverbs and decide if you think they are truthful and if they relate to your life or to anyone you know.

1. Actions speak louder than words. 2. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. 3. First come, first served.

6. Spare the rod and spoil the child. 8. All that glitters is not gold. 9. Too many cooks spoil the broth.

16. Out of sight, out of mind.

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7. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.

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5. One good turn deserves another.

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4. Absence makes the heart grow fonder.

17. Many hands make light work. 18. A stitch in time saves nine.

11. You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours.

19. You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear.

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10. The more haste, the less speed.

12. A friend in need is a friend indeed.

20. Better be the head of a dog then the tail of a lion.

13. Don’t judge a book by its cover.

21. Lightning never strikes in the same place twice.

14. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

22. Great oaks grow from little acorns.

15. Fools and their money are soon parted.

23. Those who play with fire get burnt. 24. However long the night, the dawn will break. 25. Hunger is the best sauce. 26. It never rains but it pours. 27. Learn to walk before you run. 28. They can who believe they can. 29. Practise what you preach. 30. The darkest hour is just before dawn.

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The meaning of proverbs

PROVERBS

Use the proverbs on page 5 to answer the questions.

 Write the number of the proverb that matches each meaning.

(a) Do not judge anyone or anything simply by appearance. ...................................................

(b) Something unusual is unlikely to re-occur in exactly the same place. ............................

(c) Take your time and learn how to do something first; don’t rush into it. ............................

(d) Even when things are at their worst there is still hope. ......................................

(e) Someone who helps you when you need it is a true friend. ...............................................

(f) It’s what people do that matters, not what they say. ...........................................................

and

 Some of the proverbs seem to contradict each other.

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Write the number of the proverb that seems to contradict these. (a) Absence makes the heart grow fonder. .................................................................................

(b) Learn to walk before you run. ..................................................................................................

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(a) Too many cooks spoil the broth.

(b) Many hands make light work.

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 Proverbs 9 and 17 seem to contradict each other. Give a practical example of each.

 Write the number of the proverb that has a similar meaning to these.

(a) A stitch in time saves nine. ............................................................

(b) One good turn deserves another...................................................

 Write the number of the proverb for which each of these is a clue.

(a) Be early. ............................................................................................

(b) About being cautious in practical matters. .................................

(c) So easy to forget. ............................................................................

(d) You get what you deserve. .............................................................

(e) Do not be a hypocrite. ....................................................................

(f) Be a leader rather than a follower. ..............................................

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The meaning of proverbs

PROVERBS

Use the proverbs on page 5 to answer the questions.

 Use all the words in the box to write three proverbs. their soon a a makes and of you grow silk are ear fonder purse parted absence the sow’s make out money heart can’t fools

 Which proverb would you definitely not want your teacher to literally believe in?

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 Which proverbs do you think relate to you and your teacher? Explain why you think so. Me

My teacher

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 Rearrange the words to find proverbs that are not on page 5.

(a) When play mice cat’s the away the will

(b) The hardest is step first the

(c) You new teach an tricks old can’t dog

(d) The worm bird early the catches

(e) A worth two bush in in hand is the the bird

(f) Two don’t right wrongs make a

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7


The meaning of proverbs

PROVERBS

Use the proverbs on page 5 to answer the questions.

 Which of the proverbs have the opposite meaning to these fake proverbs? (a) Your attitude will not affect your achievement.

(b) Don’t think twice, just go for it.

(c) Don’t worry about minor problems, they will just go away.

(d) It’s what you say that matters, nothing else.

(e) Something small will always stay small.

(f) If it looks good then it must be good.

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 Explain the meanings of each proverb.

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(a) Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.

(b) However long the night, the dawn will break.

(c) Hunger is the best sauce.

(d) They can who believe they can.

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SOMETHING EXTRA • Write a story that includes as many proverbs as possible yet still makes sense. • Write your own proverbs and explain their meaning. • Look at this website and test yourself on your knowledge of proverbs: <http://www.englishclub.com/ref/Sayings/Quizzes/index.htm> Comprehension for independent readers

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J R R Talkman’s Travelling Circus

POSTER

ember 19 Augu st to 5 Sept

Yes folks, you can get in for

FREE

*

The most fantastic show on E arth!

The Fantastic flying falconos Family

Biffo and Butto

The world’s greatest family on the high trapeze.

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Two of the funniest clowns ever, as well as eight other hilarious clowns.

Pinta the pony girl

An angel with wondrous equestrian skills.

S PLAY THE GAME PRIZES! AND WIN BhoIG rseshoes.

Toss the coconuts. Knock over the . s over the prizes Throw the hoop outh. to the clown’s m Drop the balls in ng bag. Punch the punchi with the dart. Hit the bullseye oo. Lasso the kangar Lucky dips. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Many, Many more stupendous acts! Leopold — the bravest lion trainer in the world. Pyroguy — the man who eats fire. Vipera — the beautiful snake charmer. Brutto — stronger than Hercules. Chucker — the ambidextrous juggler. Balancia — the discalced tightrope walker. Mr Yakkitiyak — the verbose Ringmaster.

INDULGE your BELLIES with popcorn, sweets, candy floss, apple pies, cherry pies, meat pies, hotdogs, doughnuts, Coke®, Pepsi®, Fanta® and Schweppes®. * People over 90 and children under 5 enter free. Comprehension for independent readers

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J R R Talkman’s Travelling Circus

POSTER

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong. Use the poster on page 9 to answer the questions. Shade the bubble next to the answers you think are correct.

 What is the poster about?

The history of the circus.

About 30 cm × 20 cm.

The circus coming to town.

How to join the circus.

hilarious

hysterical

clowns

two

big funny feet

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 How many clowns are there in the circus?

funny has a double ‘n’

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 Which word on the poster means very funny?

eight

ten

When it is gone.

19 August

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 When does the circus leave?

31 August

5 September

 What do you think the word ‘ambidextrous’ means?

Very strong and can lift heavy weights.

Look the word up in a dictionary.

Able to use both hands equally well.

Can do somersaults and jump high.

 What does the asterisk (*) that appears by the word ‘FREE’ mean?

The circus has star performers.

This is a special offer.

There is more information about the cost.

To attract your attention to the cost.

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J R R Talkman’s Travelling Circus

POSTER

Use the poster on page 9 to answer the questions.

 What does the word ‘discalced’ mean?

To discard something valuable.

It is a made-up word.

Not calceate.

To be barefooted.

 Why does each of the last four products you can ‘indulge your stomach’ with have a capital letter?

They are actual names.

They are the last ones in the list.

They are the most expensive ones.

To highlight them.

 What is unusual about the names of the ‘Stupendous Acts’? They are stupendous.

They come from words connected with the acts.

They sound interesting.

They attract your attention.

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 Which animal is connected with the word ‘equestrian’? horse

lion

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SOMETHING EXTRA

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elephant

Imagine your school is having a concert and you are drawing a poster to advertise it. • Choose what you want the concert to be; for example, a play, a talent show, a choir, a musical recital, a comedy show. • Make your poster attractive and colourful to catch the attention of readers. • Include all the relevant information; for example, name, date, time, venue.

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July/August 1969

DIARY

These are extracts from the personal diary of a teenage girl in 1969. They are as she wrote them, including her doodles, vernacular and slogans from that time.

Monday 21 July 1969.  Dear Diary. THE EAGLE HAS LANDED! How historic! An American astronaut named Neil Armstrong landed on the moon this morning! WOW! Everyone was talking about it. The whole school gathered in the hall to watch a film of it on the tele. We all cheered. I wish I could see it in colour.

NEIL ARMSTRONG

Wednesday 23 July 1969.  Dear Diary. OUT OF SIGHT! A new girl, Marcie, came to school today. She is weird. We tried to be friendly. Betty asked her what she ate under there, and she said, Under where? and Betty said, Eww, you ate underwear. We laughed but Marcie said it wasn’t funny. It was just a joke.

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Sunday 26 July 1969.  Dear Diary. ROLLING, ROLLING, ROLLING. Its been such a good weekend. Went shopping with Betty for a new pair of rollerskates. I would love to skate. Betty is so good at it! She even belongs to a club and she said she will teach me when I get a pair. Soon! I had a phone call from that new girl, Marcie. She wanted to go out but I told her I was busy with Betty and she just hung up. Weird.

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Tuesday 28 July 1969.  Dear Diary. PEACE! Guess what? Today was super great! Because dreamy Bobbie smiled at me! He is so copacetic! There’s not a zit on his sharp face and that jellyroll way he combs is hair makes him look like a film star. All the girls at school think he is a hunk.

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Wednesday 29 July 1969.  Dear Diary. FLOWER POWER. Betty is a skuzz! She is not, not, NOT my best girlfriend forever anymore. Marcie told me she was flirting with Bobbie and she knows I have a crush on him! Marcie is my new best girlfriend forever. Friday 31 July 1969.  Dear Diary. PEACE, LOVE, DOVE. Marcie is so cool. She told me she saw Bobbie smile at me again today. Far out! She said I should smile back at him. I said I couldn’t but she said I had to or I would lose him, maybe even to Judy. She is so clever. Monday I will. It will be so groovy! Saturday 1 August 1969.  Dear Diary. RIGHT ON! Betty came to see why I wasn’t speaking to her and was so upset when I told her I was angry because she flirted with Bobbie. She said she didn’t. We had such a fun time. Marcie phoned when I was out and Mum said she sounded very odd. What’s wrong with the girl? Monday 3 August 1969.  Dear Diary. UP YOUR NOSE WITH A RUBBER HOSE. Betty is a dipstick! She is just so jealous of Bobbie and me. Marcie said that Betty made gooey eyes at him. What a dork! It’s just like Marcie said she would. I shouldn’t have chickened out of smiling at him. Marcie said I would be a ditz to miss my chance with a hunk like him. She said she saw him smile at me again. Thursday 6 August 1969.  Dear Diary. GIVE PEACE A CHANCE, DUDE. In art Marcie drew a picture of me and Bobbie inside a . It was so lovely. But our teach, Mrs G, saw it and yelled at her. Marcie said she was a jealous old chick and too old to know what love was. Then Mrs G got angry and sent her to the office. 12

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July/August 1969

DIARY

Friday 7 August 1969.  Dear Diary. LOVE AND PEACE, MAN. Marcie was not copacetic because of that stupid teach, Mrs G. It spoilt my whole day. But I stood right next to dreamy Bobbie in the tuck shop for a whole minute. He brushed against me. I’m sure it wasn’t by accident. He gets hotter every day. Saturday 8 August 1969.  Dear Diary. DON’T HAVE A COW! Today was such a drag. All I could think of was being back at school on Monday and standing next to Bobbie again. I phoned Marcie to rap a bit but she just went on about how much she hates Mrs G. I suggested we go out somewhere but she raved on how she was too busy planning revenge on Mrs G to go out.

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Monday 10 August 1969.  Dear Diary. WHAT A BUMMER! I was all set to smile at Bobbie, but Marcie was no support at all. She had a weird look and said ‘Doom!’ about a million times. I chickened out because she was no help to me. I’m thinking that maybe Abigail would be a better best girlfriend forever.

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Saturday 15 August 1969.  Dear Diary. RIGHTEOUS DAY! Today was a gas with Abi! She’s so great at netball. She is going to get me on her team and she is going to coach me herself. I love netball so much! I’ve always wanted to play and finally I’ve got my chance. Abi is such a doll. We went to lunch and the cinema. Her family is so cool and she has a cute brother too. He is out of sight!

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Monday 17 August 1969.  Dear Diary. DON’T FLIP YOUR WIG! Somehow a whole lot of superglue got spilled on Mrs Gs chair and she got stuck! The school had to call an ambulance. They carried her away still stuck to the chair. She kept yelling, “I’m stuck! I’m stuck!” It was sad but funny too. We were all giggling and feeling sorry for her at the same time. Except Marcie, she just had that weird look on her face. Abi said we should show more sympathy even if she is a tyrant. The girls quietened down then and agreed with her. She is so sweet. Wednesday 19 August 1969.  Dear Diary. SOCK IT TO ME. Abigail is not my best girlfriend forever anymore. Marcie said it wasn’t none of her business but she had to protect me. Marcie said that Abigail picks her nose and she eats it too! Major YUK! Marcie warned me because if I hang around with her too much the other kids would think I did that too. Even Bobbie would think it. It would be so embarrassing. I’d die! Marcie is my best girlfriend forever and she said she isn’t upset that I went with Abigail for a while. She said she is going to do something to show me what a real friend she is. But I wish that weird expression would leave her face. Thursday 20 August 1969.  Dear Diary. PSYCHEDELIC! I can just die! Marcie is the coolest girlfriend in the whole world. She told me that she spoke to Bobbie and he said he likes me a lot!!!!! But he told her that he was very shy and he wants me to walk right up to him at lunchtime tomorrow and yell out that I love him with all my heart and then he wouldn’t be shy anymore. Marcie said it was a shame I didn’t have the courage to do it but I said I do. I would do anything for Bobbie. I can hardly wait. I’m freaking out thinking about it but it’s going to be fab! Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

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July/August 1969

DIARY

Use the diary entries on pages 12 and 13 to answer the questions.

 The name of the author has not been explicitly stated, but it can be found in the text.

What is her name?

 The girl has made a few grammatical errors in writing her diary. This is common when people are writing for themselves. What errors did she make in these entries?

(a) Sunday 26 July

(b) Monday 17 August

(c) Wednesday 19 August

 What is the significance of the famous statement,

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‘The Eagle Has Landed!’ that she wrote at the beginning of her entry for Monday 21 July?

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 The words spoken by Neil Armstrong as he

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stepped onto the moon’s surface are generally written as: ‘One small step for (a) man, one giant leap for mankind.’ Why do you think the ‘(a)’ is written in that manner?

 There are many colloquialisms (slang terms) of the 1960s in the girl’s diary. What do you think these mean?

(a) Jellyroll:

(b) Copacetic:

(c) Freaking out:

(d) Groovy:

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July/August 1969

DIARY

Use the diary entries on pages 12 and 13 to answer the questions.

 The diarist begins each entry with a slogan from her time. Which slogan means:

(a) remain calm?

(b) an insult?

(c) a salutation?

(d) really good?

 Describe the opinion you have formed of the character of the girl writing the diary. Support your opinion with examples from the text.

pl e

 Describe the opinion you have formed of Marcie’s character.

m

Support your opinion with examples from the text.

Sa

in g

 Complete the next day’s entry.

Vi ew

(A skag is a really rotten person.)

Friday 21 August 1969. Dear Diary. SKAG! Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

15


July/August 1969

DIARY

 On 23 July the diarist described a conversation between Betty and Marcie; however, she paid no attention to the use of correct punctuation. Rewrite the conversation correctly.

 Find five colloquialisms in the diary that were not mentioned in Question 5. Explain their meaning.

pl e

m

 Find two colloquialisms of the 1960s that are not greatly used these days.

Sa

Vi ew

in g

 Find two colloquialisms of the 1960s that are still in use these days.

 Which entries concern friends making up after a falling out?

16

SOMETHING EXTRA

• Begin keeping your own diary, if you don’t already do so. It doesn’t have to be elaborate, just enter a few sentences each day. Personalise it with decorations, comments and a handwriting style that express your feelings. • You need not be overly concerned about the proper use of grammar and spelling. Its intention is to reflect your thoughts and feelings, not to be an extra school project. • After a while, read through your diary. Assess different events that occurred and consider how you might have enjoyed certain things more, or even prevented an unpleasantness happening had you approached them differently. • How might events have turned out if you had behaved in a different way towards people? Comprehension for independent readers

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Strine – Australian English

LANGUAGE

Strine began diverging from British English soon after the first arrival of settlers, military personnel and convicts in Australia in 1788. Most of these people came from large English cities and from Ireland. The early form of Strine was a combination of their variations in speech. As Strine was first spoken by the children, it can be argued that it was children who created the Australian form of English. The Australian goldrushes, in the 1850s, and film and television in the 20th century, saw an increasing influence from US English. Here are some examples of Australian Strine

STRINE

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

pl e

Gum Sucker grouse joey jumbuck larrikin Kiwi knock off mate mongrel mystery bag Never-never oil plonk Pommies pork pie rack off rapt reckon ripsnorter Sandgroper skite sprung squiz stickybeak stoked swag Taswegian tucker whinge wobbly wooden pegs wuss

m Sa

Queenslander kids guy red-haired person start eating rough person great, wonderful a wild horse no chance dead, broken look a chicken farmer in a bad mood sick shoes mum person from NSW a nerd, goof South Australian a nerd, goof trousers something excellent the real thing telephone meat pie fool, dope outdoor toilet blowfly get rid of hello! acting foolishly

Vi ew

Banana Bender billy lids bloke bluey bog in bogan bonzer brumby Buckley’s cactus Captain Cook chook cocky cranky crook canoes cherry plum Cockroach corker Crow Eater dag daks dinkum dinky-di dog and bone dog’s eye drongo dunny dunny budgie flick g’day goose

MEANING

in g

STRINE

MEANING

Victorian great, terrific baby kangaroo sheep harmless prankster New Zealander steal, copy illegally buddy, friend despicable person a sausage the Outback information cheap wine the English lie push off! get lost! pleased, delighted think, presume great, fantastic Western Australian boast, brag to get caught a quick look nosy person very pleased rolled up bedding Tasmanian food complain excitable behaviour legs coward

Comprehension for independent readers

17


Strine – Australian English

LANGUAGE

Some Strine phrases come from cockney rhyming slang, which originated in London and used rhyme to make up words; for example, bubble bath – laugh, pen and ink – stink. Use the Strine examples on page 17 to answer the questions.

 Find four phrases in the Strine list that come from cockney slang.

(a) Captain Cook (to do with curiosity)

(b) curry and rice (to do with shopping)

(c) trouble and strife (to do with marriage)

(d) tea leaf (to do with crime)

m

pl e

 These Strine phrases have cockney origin. What do they mean? (The clues will help you.)

Sa

Some words have more than one Strine version; for example, both dunny and loo mean toilet.

in g

 These Strine words have a US English influence. What do they mean? (a) ace (to do with value)

(b) cool (to do with value)

(c) furphy (to do with rumours)

(d) moolah (to do with wealth)

Vi ew

 Unravel the Strine words with similar meanings to these.

(a) qzsui (glance)

(b) kroco (ill)

(c) llbiy slid (children)

(d) krop ipe (fib)

(e) nobrez (excellent)

 Which word in the Strine list comes from the

name of an escaped convict who managed to survive in the Outback against all the odds?

18

Comprehension for independent readers

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Strine – Australian English

LANGUAGE

Use the Strine examples on page 17 to translate the letter.

 The following letter was written by a British gentleman. Rewrite it on a fresh sheet of paper as it would have been written by a Strine-speaking bloke.

Sa

m

pl e

Hello friend, I am very pleased because I have recently received some information regarding my stolen sheep that I had no probability of rescuing. I was informed by a rather shady character who is known locally to be something of a troublesome person. Initially I thought he was from Queensland but my wife told me he was from South Australia. He approached me while I was very busy teaching the children how to put on their shoes. He was an exceedingly parsimonious fellow, smelled of cheap wine, surely a coward and so unwashed that huge flies buzzed about him. Naturally most of what he said was lies but, after threatening to lock him up in the sanitary facilities, he told me that he had eaten a wonderful sausage that was made from baby kangaroo meat and my stolen sheep. I inquired how he knew it was my sheep. The fool boasted that it tasted just like the meat pie he had cooked using my chickens and sheep! Your good friend, Percival

 Strine also contains colourful phrases. Research to find which phrase matches which meaning. Join the dots.

(a) To come the raw prawn

• To be very busy

(b) Sit with the flies

• To be clever and sneaky

(c) Spit the dummy

• To be very disagreeable

(d) Cunning as a dunny rat

• To be very self-satisfied

(e) He hasn’t got a brass razoo •

• To be very stingy

(f) Flat out like a lizard drinking •

• To be sitting alone

(g) Grinning like a shot fox

• To be very poor

(h) As cross as a frog in a sock •

• To throw a tantrum

(i) As mean as monkey muck

• To be very angry

Vi ew

in g

SOMETHING EXTRA • Look at the website to discover much about Australian history and society. <http://www.artistwd.com/joyzine/australia/strine/index.php> • Using Strine in your writing is a good way to develop some of your characters and to add contrast between them. • Write a story or play that involves an interaction between people who speak in Strine and those who don’t. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

19


What is irony?

IRONY

Irony is the unplanned, unexpected outcome of an event where there is a coincidental connection or twist between the steps that led to the outcome. But not everything that happens unexpectedly is irony. Most outcomes are just coincidence, bad timing, bad luck or something of that nature.

Examples of what irony is NOT: This is unexpected but it is just a coincidence.

A woman won the lottery, so she went on the holiday she had been dreaming of all her life. Her plane crashed and she was killed.

This is unexpected but it is just bad luck.

A 98-year-old man won the lottery but died from a heart attack when he heard the good news.

Depending on the man’s health and considering his age, this may or may not be unexpected but it is tragic.

pl e

A girl had not seen a friend for many years then one day she went to the zoo and met her friend there.

m

This is not unexpected as the chances of it happening are high, but it is stupidity with a little bad luck.

Sa

A boy tried to cross the road against the lights but he misjudged the speed of the traffic and was run over.

Examples of what irony IS:

The irony is that the old man had the heart attack his children were trying to avoid.

The old man noticed they were behaving suspiciously and he feared they were plotting against him. This anxiety brought on a heart attack.

The coincidental connection is that it was brought on by their father’s response to their suspicious behaviour.

A girl lied that her dog had eaten her homework and it worked. A week later, her dog really did eat a major project and she was desperate for extra time to redo it.

The irony is that the girl failed the assignment for which she had a genuine reason for needing more time.

Vi ew

in g

A 98-year-old man won the lottery but his children feared that such news could cause him to have a heart attack, so they didn’t tell him.

Her teacher didn’t believe that it could happen a second time. He had planned to give everyone extra time to finish the project but because he believed that she had lied about it, he wouldn’t give her the extra time and she failed.

20

Comprehension for independent readers

The coincidental connection is that her teacher believed she lied about the dog eating her project, because the same thing couldn’t have happened twice. So he refused to grant her more time.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


What is irony?

IRONY

Use the information on page 20 to help you with your discussions. With a partner, discuss each example to determine if it meets the criteria for irony. If it does, explain how. If it is not irony, then what is it?

m

pl e

 Two women met and discovered that although they didn’t know each other, they were born on the same day and in the same hospital. They grew up in the same part of town, went to the same school, married men with the same names and both had three children.

Vi ew

in g

Sa

 Jason was a hero in Greek mythology who led one of the most incredible quests of all time. He had the great ship, Argos, built and with a renowned crew set sail across the known world to steal the Golden Fleece from King Aeetes of Colchis. The mission was a success but Jason’s life was not. He ended his life destitute and miserable, scavenging for food and living in the decrepit hulk of Argos that had been grounded and left to rot on the beach. One day a part of the famous ship broke off and struck him, instantly killing him.  A family was on holiday in a big city and were staying on the 80th floor of a large hotel. One evening after sightseeing they returned to the hotel to find that the lifts were out of order and they had to walk up the 80 flights of stairs. The mother suggested that to make walking up so many stairs more bearable she would tell jokes for the first 20 flights, the son would whistle for the next 20, the daughter would sing for the 20 flights after him and finally the father would tell sad stories. They did that for 60 flights of stairs until it came to the father’s turn. He said, ‘I will start by telling the saddest story I know. I left the room key in the car’. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

21


What is irony?

IRONY

Use the information on page 20 to help you with your discussions. With a partner, discuss each example to determine if it meets the criteria for irony. If it does, explain how. If it is not irony, then what is it?

A special ceremony was held when two of the seals were released back into the sea. Everyone was joyous and cheered when the seals were set free.

Within two minutes of them being released, a killer whale ate both seals.

Sa

m

 Long ago, a sadistic scientist experimented on people by injecting them with small doses of poison to see how much a person can take before either dying or developing immunity to the poison.

pl e

 After an oil spill disaster in Alaska, many seals were rescued. It took a lot of care and money but people thought it was worth it to save their lives.

Many years later, the scientist was trapped inside a burning car after a road accident. He would have died but a bystander pulled him out.

This man had been one of the scientist’s victims but they didn’t recognise each other.

While rescuing the scientist the man had cut himself, and some of his infected blood got into the scientist’s bloodstream and killed him.

Vi ew

in g

 A renowned wild animal hunter had the stuffed head of a large lion mounted on a wall in his home. He often stood beneath it bragging how he had killed the beast. One evening as he was walking past the stuffed head, the mounting holding the lion’s head to the wall broke and it fell onto the hunter, killing him.

22

Comprehension for independent readers

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What is sarcasm?

SARCASM

Sarcasm is a deliberate, provoked, witty (clever humour) response to what has been said or done by another. It is a form of irony, but while situations can be ironic, only people can be sarcastic. Sarcasm sounds positive but its true meaning is in fact negative. It is often a criticism that appears to be a compliment but is actually a put-down.

Examples of what sarcasm is NOT: Telling someone something like, ‘You’re stupid!’

This is just rude and offensive.

Someone gets badly hurt or receives bad news and you say something like, ‘I’m glad it’s you not This is insensitive and certainly not witty. me’. This isn’t provoked because the girl who speaks takes the action. Although it could be an example of sarcasm, in this case it is just hurtful.

m

This is simply foolish and shows the speaker in a bad light.

Sa

Saying to someone who is smart enough not to want to do the wrong thing, ‘You’re a wimp’, or, ‘Everyone does it’, or, ‘Loser’.

pl e

A girl walks up to a peer and says, ‘How many times do I have to flush before you go away?’

Vi ew

in g

It has been said that sarcasm is the lowest form of humour because the speaker ridicules another and laughs at his or her expense. However, when it is done purely for fun and those on the receiving end give as good as they get, it can make good banter. In such a situation, everyone involved must be laughing.

Examples of what sarcasm IS:

To a friend who has been away: ‘I felt so miserable without you, it was almost like having you here’.

These examples all begin with a positive comment but each has that sarcastic twist which gives it a different meaning.

To a friend who approaches you from a distance: ‘You were looking good from far away but up close you’re far from looking good’.

The provocation needn’t be anything substantial; just walking up to someone is enough to elicit a response from him or her. But that is very different from the speaker walking up to another person with the specific intention of mocking him or her.

To someone who has just made a silly mistake: ‘Everyone is entitled to be stupid now and again, but you abuse the privilege’. In response to someone who spends hours in front of the television: ‘I find television very educational. Every time somebody turns it on, I go into another room and read a book’. Or ‘I find television very healthy. Every time someone turns it on, I go outside and play’. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Objects are not offended if they are belittled. The final example shows a subtle way of criticising those who spend too much time in front of a television at the expense of doing something educational or healthy. Comprehension for independent readers

23


What is sarcasm?

SARCASM

Use the information on page 23 to help you with the activity.

 For each example, write the most appropriate sarcastic comment from the box.

You will need to understand the bold keywords in each example. Well, aren’t we just a ray of sunshine. I work 40 hours a week to be this poor. I started with nothing and I still have most of it left. Make yourself at home! Clean my kitchen. Not the brightest crayon in the box, are we?

pl e

Well it simply was a total waste of make-up.

m

It’s always darkest before it turns absolutely pitch black.

(a) Meryl’s assignation was a great fiasco. When I asked about it she said,

(b) I visited Nadia but she was in an audacious mood. As soon as I arrived she said,

(c) Sometimes events are unpropitious and my visage clearly displays the state of my disposition. At such a time, Joel’s greeting was,

(d) We were comparing how rudimentary we were as pubescents with our current state, and Jacob added,

(e) My friend Eden was attempting to elucidate a particularly convoluted theory that had me looking blankly. In frustration she remarked,

(f) Achmed and I found ourselves in a rather precarious situation and naturally I tried to alleviate the anxiety by spouting platitudes, whereupon he said,

(g) Once I told Allan that if he was not so apathetic and applied himself more diligently he could well improve his fiscal situation. He glared at me as he replied,

24

Sa

’.

Vi ew

’.

in g

’.

’.

’.

’.

’. Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


What is sarcasm?

SARCASM

Use the information on page 23 to help you with the activity.

 For each sarcastic comment,

write a situation in which it could have been appropriately made.

(a) He has no enemies, but is intensely disliked by his friends.

pl e

(b) Don’t be humble. You’re not that great.

m

(c) A person who aims at nothing is sure to hit it.

in g

Sa

(d) Sometimes I need what only you can provide: your absence.

Vi ew

(e) I’m impressed; I’ve never met such a small mind inside such a big head before.

(f) If you find it hard to laugh at yourself, I would be happy to do it for you.

(g) I never forget a face, but in your case I’ll be glad to make an exception.

(h) The trouble is that she lacks the power of conversation, but not the power of speech.

(i) Some cause happiness wherever they go, but with others it’s whenever they go.

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Comprehension for independent readers

25


In space you can hear the engine

DATA GRID

The detail in this story is a little hard to follow. Placing the facts in a data grid as you read will help you to answer the comprehension questions on pages 27 and 28. The small spaceship was zooming across space and although everything seemed perfectly well to the Martian and the Mercurian, Meg was looking distressingly worried. ‘Shhhhhh, listen, listen, shush-up and listen’, she urged. Mog and Mig stopped their jabbering and listened. The Martian’s two antennae, which were his ears, wiggled about as he tried his best to listen. Mog strained his tiny ears, all seven of them including the ones on the tips of his two fat toes. ‘What are we listening to?’ asked Mog, his Mercurian accent making it hard to understand him.

pl e

‘Can’t you hear? It’s going burr, burr, burrumph’, the Saturnian said. ‘I hear it’, said Mig. ‘It’s pretty.’

Sa

m

‘Pretty schmitty!’ growled Meg, her two elephant-sized ears turning blue as she strained to hear more clearly. ‘It should be going burr, burr, burrimph, dummy.’ ‘The engine can say “dummy”?’ asked Mig. Meg’s short tail was fluttering furiously in frustration. ‘The engine is sick!’

Vi ew

in g

This news coming from the engineer frightened the other two. In space if a ship has a problem with its engine it is bad. The pilot’s long tail curled up in a tight spiral as Mercurian tails do when they are frightened. ‘What shall we do?’ The engineer looked at the navigator and said, ‘We have only ten minutes before the engine explodes. Can you get us to a planet by then?’ The navigator scratched his bottom and wished he had a tail to flutter or curl as the other two had because he thought it looked cool. He would have kept thinking about it but a thump on his head from Meg brought him back to reality. ‘No’, he admitted. Then he screamed. Mog screamed, then Mig screamed louder. Meg screamed, then Mig screamed louder still. The three group-hugged and screamed more. They kept screaming for an hour without hearing the engine had started going ‘burr, burr, burrimph, burr, burr, burrimph, burr, burr, burrimph’, all the way back home.

26

NAMES

PLANET

Meg

Saturn

Mog

EARS

TAIL

POSITION/JOB

7 tiny ears

Mig Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


In space you can hear the engine

DATA GRID

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong. Use the text on page 26 to answer the questions.

 Which of the three aliens was the engineer? Mog

pl e

Mig

 Mig was from where? Mercury

somewhere

 Mog had which of these? two large ears

a long tail

in g

Mug

Mars

Saturn

an elephant

a short tail

Sa

m

Meg

Vi ew

 Why did the engine call Mig a dummy?

Because it thought he was so silly.

It didn’t, he just thought it did.

It didn’t, he misunderstood Meg’s meaning.

He misunderstood what Mog said.

 What sound did Mig like?

birr, birr, burrumph

burr, burr, burrimph

The sound of violins.

burr, burr, burrumph

 The tails of aliens from which planet curl up in a spiral when they are frightened? Earth

Mars

Mercury

Saturn

 The aliens screamed because:

they were silly.

they were afraid of Meg.

the engine was sick.

they thought the engine would explode.

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Comprehension for independent readers

27


In space you can hear the engine

DATA GRID

Use the text on page 26 to answer the questions.

 Which of these was not directly or indirectly mentioned in the story? Mars

Earth

Mercury

Saturn

Mickey Mouse

Meg

Mig

 Who screamed first?

Mog

 Who was not the pilot and did not have antennae?

Mig

Meg

Mog

pl e

 What frustrated Meg?

the engine

Meg wasn’t frustrated.

Mog screaming in her ear.

The engine having a problem.

m

Mig being so dopey.

Sa

 Who was the engineer and who was the Martian?

the engine and pilot

28

SOMETHING EXTRA NAMES

Mog and Meg

in g

Mig and Mog

Meg and Mig

Vi ew

CHARACTER

ACTION

Boxer

big, tough bully

fought against Digger and Sunny

Digger

not big but brave

Sunny

clever and cunning

REASON FOR • This data grid has information about the ACTION character and actions of three rabbits.

wanted the • Write a short story based on this information. You may include more action rare carrot and other characters but you must include all for himself of the data given. wanted to • Explain what was so special about the rare share the carrot and plan your own ending to the story. dug up the rare carrot rare carrot with the warren tricked wanted to Boxer help Digger

Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


What does it mean?

SYMBOLISM

Symbolism is using any object or action that has both a meaning in itself and also stands for something else. It can create powerful and fanciful images that force you to look beyond the obvious. Imagine a flag waving on a battlefield rallying the spirits of the soldiers. That is symbolism. Imagine looking at an eagle soaring high in a clear blue sky. Can anything be more symbolic of unfettered freedom of spirit? Symbolism in literature seeks to capture such imagery and emotion in words.

Death by Emily Dickinson Because I could not stop for Death, He kindly stopped for me; The carriage held but just ourselves And Immortality.

in g

Sa

I saw his eyes as red as flame, And then he called my name. His voice was hollow as the grave, And cold as clay and slate. I forced my hand in a lifeless wave, And found the strength to say, ‘Please wait’. He rode upon a horse of grey…

Everburning flame by Jenni Kirby The flame of life shoots inside you, but no matter what, that flame shall burn. You let your freedom hang high over the raging fire of truth…

pl e

He rode upon a horse of grey, And Greyling was its name. He thundered to my garden gate, To play the final game.

m

He came to my garden gate by Edward Connor

Vi ew

I saw his eyes as dark as night, He called my name with fierce delight. Malignant flesh fell off his bones, With green fluorescent light did glow. My flesh went cold as graveyard stones. But life still in my lungs I uttered, ‘No’. He rode upon a horse of grey… I saw his eyes as pale as dawn, He called my name and I was drawn. In silent awe I felt life drain, I knew the stranger then had won. No longer could I fight and strain, Resistance failed, my time was done.

To the poet by Valerij Brjusov You have to hold yourself high as a banner, You have to be sharp as a sword; Your cheeks, like Dante’s, forever By flames of the Hell must be burnt.

Tranquility by Silvia Hartmann Time slides, a gentle ocean waves upon waves, washing the shore, loving the shore.

I died I felt very sick but I didn’t die. Another time I was very sick but I didn’t die. But on the third time that I felt very ill I died.

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Comprehension for independent readers

29


What does it mean?

SYMBOLISM

Many of the following questions ask for opinions, so there are no right or wrong answers, but you do need to state why you have formed your opinions. Use the text on page 29 to answer the questions.

 In the poem He came to my garden gate, (a) Who is ‘He’ and why do you think he comes to the garden gate and not to the front door?

(b) Why do you think the horse is grey rather than black? (Compare the ‘fear factor’ of the two colours and how brutal and forceful was the poem.)

(c) What do you think is the significance and meaning of the last four lines?

Sa

m

pl e

 What image of death do you think the poem by Emily Dickinson presents?

in g

(Is Death a fierce and ruthless being, or thoughtful and kind, or something in between?)

Vi ew

 In the poem, Everburning flame,

(a) What do you think the line ‘The flame of life shoots inside you’, means? (The poem is about fighting oppression at great risk to life.)

(b) What do you think the line ‘But no matter what, that flame shall burn’, means?

30

Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


What does it mean?

SYMBOLISM

Use the text on page 29 to answer the questions.

 Explain the meaning and symbolism of the poem Tranquility by Silvia Hartmann.  Which of the following words do you think express the meaning of To the poet by Valerij Brjusov?

stupid

cunning

happy

shrewd

devilish

angry

determination

resolute

wild

hot

insane

proud

pl e

 Join these common picture symbols to their meanings.

Vi ew

in g

Sa

m

Baby changing room Drinking fountain Stairs Women’s toilet Telephone No entry Biohazard Radiation Peace Wheelchair access No weapons Men’s toilet Fire extinguisher Caretaker First aid No smoking

SOMETHING EXTRA I died is a rewriting of He came to my garden gate. It shows how dull writing can be without symbolism. • Rewrite this description excluding the use of symbolism. The fog sneaks into town on little mouse feet, Scurrying into every hidden corner, Scampering into every nook and cranny. And soon it is a cold blanket with its long tendrils of icy fingers Quietly suffocating our little boxes that we call home. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

31


Bringing writing to life

32

METAPHOR

Metaphors are sparks of energy that bring words to life. They do not mean exactly what the words say. They are figurative, not literal. Metaphors combine two things in such a way that they suggest a resemblance between them. Metaphors can be either single words or phrases.

MEANING

His head was spinning with ideas.

You can sense how the boy is so excited with many thoughts that his head is ‘spinning’.

Her home was a prison.

The girl is not literally locked behind bars but you can feel her claustrophobia.

pl e

EXAMPLES

Sa

m

You had better pull your socks up.

What has pulling your socks up got to do with working harder, getting a move on, being more alert? Of course it’s only figuratively raining cats and dogs, but you know that you will need a very large umbrella.

in g

It is raining cats and dogs.

Vi ew

She has a heart of gold.

Don’t be fooled, her heart is actually just a muscle, but ‘she’ is obviously very special.

More examples

You light up my life with your presence. The sound is music to her ears. Keep your eyes peeled. My brother was boiling mad. The test was a breeze.

My memory is a little cloudy about that incident. He basted her with flattery to get the job. You’ve given me something to chew on. The stench of failure should not depress you. Her bubbly personality cheered him up. Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Bringing writing to life

METAPHOR

Some words used in metaphors have symbolic meanings. – transfiguration – anger, blood lust, vengeance – power, dignity, strength – love – companion to the dead – equality, justice, harmony – death, destruction, evil – infinity, eternity, immortality – anguish – leadership, power, guidance – power, protection, authority, strength, courage Thunder – wraithlike voice Torch – intelligence, spirituality Umbrella – shelter, protection Unicorn – purity, strength Water – life, refreshment Wind – elusive, intangible Wolf – enemy, menacing Yellow – cowardice, betrayal

m

pl e

Rainbow Red Ring Rose Raven Scales Serpent Sky Spider Staff Sword

Vi ew

in g

Sa

Bells – joy, freedom Black cat – bad luck Blood – life Bridge – communication, union Candle – hope in the darkness Chicken – cowardice Circle – wholeness, perfection Dance – joy, celebration Dawn – chance for happiness Dragon – (supernatural) power, wisdom, hidden knowledge Dog – loyalty, vigilance Eagle – inspiration, victory, freedom, pride Fire – inspiration, hell Flower – youth Fog – obscurity, isolation, (approaching) death Fox – crafty Garden – life Green – envy, evil, trickery, growth, youth Horns – strength, aggressiveness Horse – (fiery-red horse) destruction and (white horse) victory Knife – death, sacrifice Knot – (when tied) continuity, fate and (when untied) freedom Lightning – (ignorance of) destruction, punishment Lion – majesty, strength, courage, justice Milk – fertility, abundance Moon – immortality, eternity Mirror – absolute truth Night – obscurity, mystery Necklace – dignity Ocean – formlessness, chaos Owl – wisdom Pearl – perfection, incorruptibility, long life Purple – royalty, justice Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

33


Bringing writing to life

METAPHOR

Use the text on pages 32 and 33 to answer the questions.

 Some symbolic words in the list have two very different

meanings. Write three of the words and their different meanings.

 Many different symbolic words in the list have the same meaning as each other. Write the missing words or shared meanings.

WORDS

SHARED MEANING

bells, eagle, knot

WORDS

SHARED MEANING

eagle, horse youth

pl e

joy horns, lion, ring, sword, unicorn

blood, garden, pearl, water

fog, knife, serpent

dragon, owl

in g

power

Sa

pearl, circle

evil

m

cowardice

destruction

moon, sky

Vi ew

inspiration sword, umbrella

justice lion, sword

 Choose two words from the list of symbolic words that could be used to describe each scene.

(a) A king is trying on new clothes when he is suddenly struck with bad luck.

(b) A sneak avoiding the truth is confronted by a ghost insisting that he become honest.

(c) Someone who was thought to be courageous and strong turns out to be a coward.

(d) You are attacked by your enemy but your friend stands by you.

(e) There is evil all around you but you still have hope for the future.

34

Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Bringing writing to life

METAPHOR

Use the text on pages 32 and 33 to answer the questions.

 Which metaphors have these meanings?

(a) Stay alert.

(b) Work harder!

(c) I liked what I heard.

(d) Something was very easy.

(e) That’s something to think about.

 Explain the meanings of these metaphors. (a) He has a heart of stone.

(b) She has the heart of a lion.

(c) For some people time is money.

(d) His silken lies went unheard by the judge.

(e) Be sure he is not just shedding crocodile tears.

Vi ew

in g

Sa

m

pl e

SOMETHING EXTRA

• Make up your own metaphors for these ideas. hungry adorable

fast ignorant

smelly naughty

poor boring

• Illustrate each metaphor on plain paper and present them in a booklet. • Work in a group to present a selection of your metaphors as tableaux.

funny laughing

Ha!

Ha!

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

35


Mixed metaphors

METAPHOR

A mixed metaphor can be made by combining two metaphors. The new metaphor may be quite ridiculous but it does make the reader think; for example, ‘As soon as we started the game, I knew I could beat him with my eyes tied behind my back’. This sentence combines the metaphors, ‘with my eyes closed’ and ‘with my hands tied behind my back’. It is a foolish sentence but it makes its own kind of sense.

 What are the two original metaphors that make up these mixed metaphors? (a) His head was spinning with cats and dogs.

36

pl e

m

(b) Keep your eyes in the bush.

in g

Sa

(c) It isn’t rocket surgery!

Vi ew

(d) The early bird gathers no moss.

(e) A stitch in time is worth a pound of cure.

(f) He has a heart as big as gold.

(g) We’ll burn that bridge when we come to it.

(h) If worst comes to shove.

Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Mixed metaphors

METAPHOR

 Combine each pair of metaphors to make a mixed metaphor.

(a) To be stuck up a tree.

To be up a creek without a paddle.

(b) The goose that laid the golden egg.

(c) Spare the rod, spoil the child.

(d) It’s like pulling teeth.

(e) Ignorance is no excuse.

Every grey cloud has a silver lining.

Too many cooks spoil the broth.

As rare as hen’s teeth.

m

pl e

Silence is golden.

Sa

SOMETHING EXTRA

• Choose four of these mixed metaphors to put into sentences.

in g

I’m sweating like a stuck pig. (Sweating like a pig. Bleeding like a stuck pig.)

Vi ew

I wish they’d hurry up and get their act in gear. (Get their act together. Get into gear.)

I want to see you go to town like greased lightning. (Go to town. Move like greased lightning.) I guess the shoe’s on the upper hand now! (Shoe’s on the other foot. Have the upper hand.) Don’t bite the bullet that feeds you. (Bite the hand that feeds you. Bite the bullet.) He’s been burning the midnight oil at both ends. (Burn the midnight oil. Burn the candle at both ends.) Bite the hand that rocks the cradle. (The hand that rocks the cradle. Bite the hand that feeds you.) A rolling stone is worth two in the bush. (A rolling stone gathers no moss. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.) • Illustrate each mixed metaphor on plain paper and present them in a booklet. • Work in a group to present a selection of the mixed metaphors as tableaux.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

37


Statistics

TABLES AND GRAPHS

Tables and graphs are an effective way to present statistical information. Similarities and differences between elements can be recognised immediately.

Average maximum temperatures in Australian cities

Celsius

World population by continents

35 30 25

South America

Hobart Brisbane Canberra

20

Europe

North America

pl e

15

Oceania

Africa

10 5 0

Asia

J

eb

F

ar

M

pr

A

ay

M

J

un

ul

J

ug

A

ep

S

ct

O

ov

N

Famous people

LIFE SPAN

Neil Armstrong Agnes Bajaxhiu Donald Bradman James Cook Albert Einstein Elizabeth Windsor

NATIONALITY

1930–2012 American 1910–1997 Macedonian 1908–2001 Australian 1728–1779 English 1879–1955 German 1926 – English

ACHIEVEMENT

Astronaut (Mother Teresa) Cricketer Explorer Physicist (Queen Elizabeth II)

Vi ew

NAME OF PERSON

in g

Sa

D

an

m

(Antarctica 0)

ec

Tallest mountains Metres 9000 8800 8600 8400 8200 8000 7800 7600 A

Expensive films and how much money they made at the box office

FILM Pirates of the Caribbean: At world's end Tangled Spider-Man 3 Harry Potter and the half-blood prince Avatar

38

COST BOX OFFICE (Million US$) 300 260 258 250 237

Comprehension for independent readers

960 560 890 933 2700

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

A = Mount Everest B = Qogir (K2) C = Kangchenjunga D = Lhotse E = Makalu F = Cho Oyu G = Dhaulagiri H = Manaslu I = Nanga Parbat J = Annapurna Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Statistics

TABLES AND GRAPHS

Use the charts and graphs on page 38 to answer the questions.

 Which two pairs of adjacent mountains on the list have the largest difference in height?

and

and

 (a) Which two cities have the same average temperature for two different months? and

(b) What are the two months?

and

 Which famous person was born in the eighteenth century?

pl e

(a) most populated?

(b) least populated?

Sa

m

 Which of the populated continents is the:

(a) least money?

(b) most money?

in g

 Which of the films listed made the:

Vi ew

 Which famous person was still alive when this table was composed?  Which mountains appear to be close in height?

and and

,

and and

 What two other aspects of the films listed could have been shown in the table?  Which famous person was not alive during the lifetime of any of the others? Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

39


Statistics

TABLES AND GRAPHS

Use the charts and graphs on page 38 to answer the questions.

 (a) Which Australian city listed in the table has the lowest average maximum temperature for any month?

(b) What is that month?

 Why do you think the table of Australian temperatures begins in December?  What is the approximate height of the smallest mountain on the chart?

pl e

 Why do you think the mountains’ height chart does not begin at 0 metres?

m

Sa

SOMETHING EXTRA

40

in g

Use computer software to present the data in tables and graphs Make charts to present the data on: – the longest roads in the world. US Interstate 80, 4682 km US Interstate 90, 5010 km Trans-Canada Highway, 8050 km Trans-Siberian Highway, 11 000 km Australia’s Highway 1, 14 484 km Pan American Highway, 4377 km – large animals (weight and length shown) African Elephant: 13 000 kg, 6.5 m Asian Elephant: 5200 kg, 6 m White Rhinoceros: 3850 kg, 3.5 m Hippopotamus: 3400 kg, 3 m Walrus: 2150 kg, 3 m Giraffe: 2100 kg, 4.5 m Black Rhinoceros: 1900 kg, 11.25 m Saltwater Crocodile: 1600 kg, 6 m Gaur: 1600 kg, 3 m Wild Asian Water Buffalo: 1250 kg, 3.5 m

Vi ew

• •

Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Who’s who in Mother Goose

BIOGRAPHY

JACK AND JILL (1828 – ?) They were twin brother and sister, both blue-eyed, fair-haired, slim and 157 cm tall. They worked fetching water from a well at the top of a hill for lazy folk who couldn’t be bothered straining their own muscles. Unfortunately they were clumsy. Their little business came to a sudden ending when Jack fell down the hill and Jill went tumbling after. They both suffered head injuries, got amnesia and wandered off in opposite directions.

HUMPTY DUMPTY (1831–1855) He was totally bald, yellow-eyed, 143 cm tall and 143 cm wide. He spent his time sitting on a wall poking fun at people. Needless to say he was very unpopular and there was doubt as to whether or not the terrible accident he had was an accident. The local paramedics, known as the King’s Men and Horses, could do nothing for him, although there is also doubt as to how hard they really tried. After the ‘accident’ the town entered the Guinness book of records for making the world’s largest omelette.

pl e

MISS MUFFET (1817–1880)

Sa

m

She had red curly hair, brown eyes and was 152 cm tall. Miss Muffet suffered from a medical condition known as arachnophobia and she was grossly overweight. She ate anything she could get into her mouth, even milk that had been left to curdle and go sour as it turned into a kind of repulsive cheese (known as curds and whey). She also had terrible halitosis (bad breath) and very few friends.

BO PEEP (aka Little Squinty Eyes) (1884 – ?)

Vi ew

in g

She was a 144 cm, 49 kg, brown-eyed, black-haired gangster. This shepherdess came into conflict with another young lady who also had a fondness for sheep, Miss Mary Had. One day after one of Bo’s sheep had disappeared, Bo saw Mary eating lamb chops and she jumped to a horrible conclusion. She took Mary’s lamb and hid it in school where it pooped on the teacher’s desk. That caused Mary a lot of trouble so she snipped off the tails of Bo’s poor sheep. The two kept at each other’s throats and there was very little laughter and play at their school from then on. However, they teamed up as adults and formed the Sheep Mafia. They made a lot of money on the black-sheep market.

MARY MARY (1789–1866)

An unattractive and envious woman, Mary was 189 cm tall when standing straight, although she was always hunched over. She had grey eyes and wispy grey hair. She was the daughter of John and Betty Mary, who were nice but unimaginative parents. However, Mary Mary was very imaginative. One day the local policeman noticed how creatively she had decorated her garden with silver bells and cockleshells. He was fascinated, but on looking closer discovered the whereabouts of the pretty maids who had mysteriously disappeared over the years.

JACK NIMBLE (1842–1865) He was a superb athlete, 180 cm tall and weighing 70 kg. There were high hopes of him winning gold at the 1864 Olympic Games in Bremen. Unfortunately, his coach had unorthodox training methods. He made Jack jump over lit candles, regardless of the fact that Jack was a swimmer. The candles got larger and taller and Jack discovered that he was not a high jumper. He spent most of 1864 in hospital recovering from third-degree burns to his feet. The following year he took up giant-beanstalk climbing with his friend, also named Jack, which ended tragically. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

41


Who’s who in Mother Goose

BIOGRAPHY

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong. Use the biographies on page 41 to answer the questions.

 What was Mary Mary’s most likely motive for murdering the pretty maids?

ambition

robbery

Mother Goose

jealousy

 Who was the tallest and shortest of those mentioned? Miss Muffet and Bo Peep

Mary Mary and Humpty Dumpty

Jack Nimble and Jill

The shortest one was shorter than the tallest one.

m

pl e

 What does ‘unorthodox’ mean? Not orthodox.

When something is deliberately kept simple.

Not following the usual method.

in g

Sa

When something is wrong.

 What does the question mark beside Jack and Jill’s name mean? They could be still alive.

The year of their death is not known.

They were twins.

It is not certain that they were born in 1828.

Vi ew

 Which two characters were partners in crime?

Bo Peep and Miss Mary Had

Jack and Jack Nimble

Jack and Jill

Bo Peep and Mary Mary

42

Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Who’s who in Mother Goose

BIOGRAPHY

Use the biographies on page 41 to answer the questions.

 In which century were most of the characters mentioned born? 17th century 18th century 19th century A century means 100 years.  What do the initials ‘aka’ mean?

anyone knows anything

another knee accident

Rest In Peace

also known as

 What does arachnophobia mean? Fear of spiders.

Bad breath.

Someone who overheats.

Being too sick to exercise.

A ship has a poop deck.

Mary’s lamb

m

 What pooped on the teacher’s desk?

pl e

Bo Peep’s lamb

Sa

Bo Peep’s sheep

 What did Jack Nimble likely die of?

a fall

in g

poison

old age

a disease

Vi ew

SOMETHING EXTRA • Write a set of short biographies on some of your class friends. Ask their permission first and ask them to answer some questions that will give you some facts to include. • Write a set of short biographies on other fictitious characters such as superheroes, super villains and fairytale characters. • Write a series of short biographies on historical figures. You will need to research first to obtain some facts to include. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

43


Biological classification

44

CLASSIFICATION

Classification systems are used to organise information. This means putting things into groups according to the features they have in common. The classification of all life on Earth uses Greek and Latin names which scientists all over the world know and understand. This means there is no confusion with translating from one spoken language to another. All life on Earth is first classified into five Kingdoms.

FUNGI

PLANTAE

ANIMALIA

PROTISTA

BACTERIA

e.g. mushrooms, toadstools, mould

e.g. flowers, shrubs, cereals, grasses, trees

e.g. humans, insects, lizards

e.g. red, brown and green algae; kelps, seaweeds

e.g. bacteria (germs), bluegreen algae

ARTHROPODA

m

CHORDATA

pl e

Each Kingdom is then classified into smaller groups called Phyla (singular Phylum). There are 36 Animalia Phyla that include:

cold-bloodied without bones but with a hard outer covering (exoskeleton), segmented body, many-jointed legs/ limbs

Sa

animals with a backbone

AVES

cold-blooded, live in water and on land e.g. frog, toad, newt

PISCES

MAMMALIA

REPTILIA

cold-blooded with fins, scales and gills e.g. shark, salmon, manta ray

warm-blooded with hair and young drink mother’s milk e.g. humans.

cold-blooded with hard skin e.g. tortoise, crocodile, lizard

Vi ew

AMPHIBIA

in g

Each Phylum is further classified into smaller groups called Classes. Classes in the Chordata Phylum are:

warm-blooded with hollow bones, feathers and wings e.g. penguin, owl

After Classes, the classification groups are Order, Family, Genus and Species.

CLASSIFICATION OF LIONS AND MOSQUITOES LIONS MOSQUITOES KINGDOM PHYLUM CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES

Animalia

Animalia

Chordata

Arthropoda

Mammalia

Hexapoda

Carnivora

Diptera

Felidae

Culicidae

Panthera

Culiseta

Leo

There are around 2500 species of mosquito.

Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Biological classification

CLASSIFICATION

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong. Use the information on page 44 to answer the questions.

 Which of these are a class in the Kingdom Animalia? Mammalia Protista Chordata The king leads the kingdom.  What kind of group is Culicidae? Family

m

pl e

Class calcium Order  Which of these sets of animals comes entirely from the Class Aves? {kangaroos, koalas, wombats, dingoes}

{hawks, magpies, emus, owls}

{galahs, wattle birds, finches, mosquitoes}

{avenue, road, street, close}

in g

Sa

Kingdom Fungi

Plantae Animalia Protista Bacteria

Vi ew

Phylum

 Which of these is a human feature?

Teeth are replaced only once in a lifetime.

Have gills to breathe in water.

Chew only strawberry-flavoured bubblegum.

Have feathered wings.

Class

Order

 In which group order do scientists classify all life on Earth?

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Genus, Species, Order, Family

Fungi, Plantae, Animalia, Protista, Bacteria, Chordata

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Genus, Family, Species

Family

Genus

Species Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

45


Biological classification

CLASSIFICATION

Use the information on page 44 to answer the questions.

 What is the singular of Phyla?

Philadelphium

Phyla

One Phyla

Phylum

 In which Class would dragonflies be classified? Class Hexapoda Pisces

Aves

 At which level of classification do lions and mosquitoes diverge?

 Are ants in the same Kingdom as tigers?

pl e

Order Phylum Genus

m

Tigers

Yes. They are both animals.

No. Tigers have fur and ants don’t.

No. Ants are insects and tigers are mammals.

Tigers don’t eat ants.

in g

Sa

Vi ew

 How many different Kingdoms is life on Earth classified into? four Life is classified into Kingdoms.

46

five

six

SOMETHING EXTRA • Conduct some research to find out about other classification systems; e.g. the Dewey Decimal System used in libraries around the globe. • Set out the classification of lions and mosquitoes as a flowchart. • Choose a plant or animal at the Species level and work backwards to find out which Genus, Family, Order, Class and Phylum it belongs to and how it is similar to and different from others in the same group. • Try some classification of your own by classifying people you know according to their personal traits. The first level could be Gender: Male and Female. This can be subdivided by Age: Adults, Teenagers, Preteens and Babies. Then you can subdivide these groups by physical features such as hair colour, eye colour, height etc. Or by values such as: what kind of music they like, what kind of food they prefer, favourite sport etc. Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Major events of the 20th century GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 2000

Good Friday Agreement brings The Troubles to an end in Northern Ireland. Princess Diana dies in a car crash in Paris.

1990

Mary Robinson becomes the first female President of Ireland. Pan Am plane blows up over Lockerbie, Scotland.

1980

Live Aid concert. Margaret Thatcher becomes the first female Prime Minister of Great Britain.

1970 Britain and Ireland join the European Community. England football team win the World Cup.

The Republic of Ireland joins the United Nations.

Vi ew

Princess Elizabeth becomes Queen.

1939: Helicopter invented. World War II begins 1934: Cheeseburger created. ‘Monopoly’ game comes out 1933: Loch Ness monster claimed to be first spotted 1932: Air-conditioning invented 1931: Empire State Building completed 1930: Pluto discovered

World War II starts.

1930

The BBC is formed.

1920

1910

1900

1909: Plastic is invented 1908: Ford introduces the Model-T 1903: First powered aircraft flight at Kitty Hawk 1902: The teddy bear is introduced 1901: First transatlantic radio signal

Easter Rising in Ireland.

Boy Scouts founded. Queen Victoria dies. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

1929: Great Depression. First Academy Awards 1928: Penicillin discovered 1927: The first talking movie, The Jazz Singer 1924: First Olympic Winter Games 1922: Tomb of King Tutankhamun discovered 1920: Bubble gum invented 1919: World War I ends 1917: Russian Revolution. USA enters World War I 1914: World War I begins. First traffic light 1913: First crossword puzzle 1912: The Titanic sinks 1910: Halley's Comet appears

World War I finishes.

World War I starts.

1957: Soviet satellite Sputnik launches space age 1953: DNA discovered 1955: Disneyland opens. McDonald's founded 1952: Car seat belts introduced. Polio vaccine created 1951: Colour TV introduced

1940

World War II finishes.

Anglo-Irish Treaty establishes Ireland as a Free State.

1969: Neil Armstrong becomes the first man on the moon. ARPANET created. ‘Sesame Street’ begins 1967: First heart transplant 1964: Nelson Mandela sentenced to life in prison 1961: Soviets launch first man in space 1960: Lasers invented

1947: Chuck Yeager breaks the sound barrier 1945: Atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. World War II ends. First computer built (ENIAC) 1944: D-Day. Ballpoint pens go on sale 1941: Japanese attack Pearl Harbour

London hosts the Olympic Games.

First Oxford English Dictionary published.

1979: Mother Theresa awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1977: Elvis found dead 1976: Tangshan earthquake kills over 240 000 1975: Microsoft founded 1972: Pocket calculators introduced 1971: VCRs introduced

1950

in g

Roger Bannister runs a mile in less than four minutes.

1986: Halley's Comet. Challenger Space Shuttle explodes. Chernobyl nuclear accident 1985: Famine in Ethiopia. Wreck of the Titanic found 1980: New plague identified as AIDS. Personal computers introduced by IBM

Sa

1960

The Beatles form in Liverpool.

1997: Scientists clone sheep. South Africa repeals apartheid laws 1994: English Channel tunnel opens 1992: Official end of the Cold War 1991: Operation Desert Storm (first US military action against Iran) 1990: Hubble telescope launched. Nelson Mandela freed

pl e

Republic of Ireland adopts the Euro currency.

THE WORLD

m

TIME LINE

Comprehension for independent readers

47


Major events of the 20th century

TIME LINE

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong. Use the time line on page 47 to answer the questions.

 In which year were the Olympic Games held in London? 1918 1928 1948 1998  Which was invented first: air-conditioning or lasers? lasers

television

both together

1952

I948

invented by Dr Jonas Salk

1963

Sa

m

 In which year was the polio vaccine created?

air-conditioning

pl e

 What also happened in the year when Queen

in g

Victoria died?

A man landed on the moon.

Plastic was invented.

First transatlantic radio signal.

Bubble gum was invented.

Vi ew

 Who was listed as having been awarded a Nobel Peace Prize?

Neil Armstrong

H Houdini

Mother Theresa

Halley Comet

 On to which two cities were atomic bombs dropped?

Tokyo and Kyoto

Yokohama and Osaka

Karaoke and Mitsubishi

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

48

Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Major events of the 20th century

TIME LINE

Use the time line on page 47 to answer the questions.

 How many times did Halley’s Comet pass by the Earth during the 20th century?

twice

once

four times

21st century

 Who was the first female political leader in Great Britain/Ireland?

Queen Victoria

Mary Robinson

Margaret Thatcher Princess Elizabeth

Bubble gum was invented.

Colour TV was introduced.

Penicillin was discovered.

A sheep was cloned.

m

pl e

 What else took place in the year the first Oxford English Dictionary was published?

Sa

 Which of these products was the last to be invented? laser

helicopter

pocket calculator

ballpoint pen

in g

SOMETHING EXTRA

8.00

Woke up. Had breakfast.

Vi ew

Nog the dwarf kept a journal in the form of a time line. Write a story based on the entries. Add some colourful detail to enhance the story. 9.00

Set out to visit Grimbo. Met Truff & Sandy.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

10.00

Arrived at G’s. Argued about Dragon’s gold. He acted suspiciously.

11.00

12.00

Left G’s. Had lunch at tavern.

1.00

Met Mugwin. Made plan to go after D’s gold.

Comprehension for independent readers

2.00

Went with M. Searched for D’s gold. Saw G hiding in bushes.

49


How to play the guessing game

50

FLOWCHART

Is there someone you can depend on thinking of a number from 1 to 10 for you to guess?

No

Yes

Was your guess correct?

m

No

pl e

Make a guess at a number from 1 to 10 that you have not guessed before.

Yes

Sa

Was this the tenth guess you made?

in g

Yes

No

Vi ew

An error has been made.

Congratulations! You have won!

Yes

Was there a prize if you won?

No

Congratulations! Collect your prize.

Do you want to play again?

No

Yes

Now you must find something else to do.

Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing速 ~ www.prim-ed.com


How to play the guessing game

FLOWCHART

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong. Use the flowchart on page 50 to answer the questions.

 In which direction must you move along the lines? Either way as it does not matter.

Only in the direction of the arrows.

Clockwise.

Opposite to the direction of the arrows.

pl e

 What can happen if players lose count of the number of guesses they made? They have to count backwards.

They could get into a loop.

They have to brush their teeth.

They have to give the prize to the winner.

Sa

m

in g

 According to the flowchart, players can get stuck in a loop when: they play with a hula-hoop.

they win the game.

there is no-one they can depend on.

there isn’t a prize.

Vi ew

 What happens on the tenth incorrect guess?

The player has to guess again.

The game ends.

If it’s 10 October, it is my birthday.

The player must restart the game.

 Some flowcharts have the ‘No’ reply in a different shape, like No . Why?

They don’t have diamond shapes.

It is more attractive to have it different.

To distinguish it from the ‘Yes’.

It has more room than a diamond shape.

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Comprehension for independent readers

51


How to play the guessing game

FLOWCHART

Use the flowchart on page 50 to answer the questions.

 When are players congratulated?

When they successfully reach the end.

When they learn to count up to ten.

When they win the game and receive a prize.

When they win the game.

 Can a player go into a loop if there is no prize? no

yes

sometimes

 According to the flowchart can you lose this game? no

yes

sometimes

on Tuesdays

m

on Tuesdays

pl e

 How many ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ choices would players who guess the correct number with their three

in g

two

Sa

third guess have to make before reaching the very end of the flowchart?

four googolplex

 What happens if players want to play the game again? They go to the start of the flowchart.

They have to find something else to do.

They fall into a loop.

They go almost back to the start of the flowchart.

Vi ew

Yes

SOMETHING EXTRA Construct a flowchart of this trip to Grandmother’s house. • Start by standing outside your house facing east down street S1. (Give your streets proper names.) Walk to the first junction. Ask if it is street S2. • If ‘No’ go back to Start. If ‘Yes’ proceed to next junction. Ask if it is street S3. If ‘No’ go back to Start. If ‘Yes’ turn into S3 and walk north to the next junction. Ask if it is street S4. If ‘No’ go back to Start. If ‘Yes’ turn west and walk into S4, looking at the house numbers as you walk. Ask if you see house number 27. If ‘No’ keep walking. If ‘Yes’ you have arrived. If you reach the end of S4 without seeing house number 27 then you are lost, so go back to Start.

52

Comprehension for independent readers

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Logical arguments

SYLLOGISM

A syllogism is a logical argument that draws, from two related statements, a conclusion about the relationship among three objects. A syllogism consists of three lines: • Statement one (the major ‘premise’) includes objects 1 and 2. All trees are plants. • Statement two (the minor premise) includes objects 3 and 1 (or 2). The prickly ash is a tree. • The conclusion includes objects 3 and 2 (or 1). Therefore, the prickly ash is a plant. This type of argument can be defined as:

A VALID SYLLOGISM If a syllogism is logically correct, it is referred to as valid; for example:

m

pl e

Lions eat meat. Grass is meat. Therefore, lions eat grass.

Sa

This syllogism is valid but the minor premise is not true so it is not sound. (We need not say it is not sound. We only indicate when a syllogism is sound.)

A SOUND SYLLOGISM

in g

If a syllogism is valid and both premises are factually correct, it is referred to as sound; for example:

Vi ew

All dogs are canines. Kelpies are dogs. Therefore, kelpies are canines

This syllogism is valid because dogs = canines, kelpies = dogs, so kelpies = canines. It is also sound because each premise is factually correct. Dogs are canines and kelpies are dogs.

AN INVALID SYLLOGISM If a syllogism is not logical, it cannot be valid and it is referred to as invalid; for example: All ants are hard workers. All hard workers are insects. Therefore, all insects are ants. This syllogism is invalid because other animals besides ants could be hard workers and ants are not the only insects. Because the syllogism is invalid, it cannot be sound.

NOT A SYLLOGISM An argument is not a syllogism if it does not have two premises, and a conclusion that shows a relationship among three objects. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

53


Logical arguments

SYLLOGISM

Use the information on page 53 to answer the questions. Shade the bubble next to the answers you think are correct.

All carrots are vegetables. All vegetables are plants. Therefore, all carrots are plants. (a) What type of syllogism is this argument?

valid

sound

invalid

not a syllogism

(b) The objects are:

carrots and plants.

the premises.

plants, carrots and vegetables.

valid and invalid.

(c) The conclusion is:

pl e

All carrots are vegetables.

All vegetables are plants.

Therefore, all carrots are plants.

There isn’t one.

Sa

in g

Every superhero is a good guy. All good guys are happy people. So, all happy people are superheroes.

m

(a) What type of syllogism is this argument?

valid

(b) The major premise is:

sound

Vi ew

Every superhero is a good guy.

So, all happy people are superheroes.

six

five

There isn’t one. four

three

three

four

(a) What type of syllogism is this argument?

sound

invalid

not a syllogism

54

All good guys are happy people.

All horses are hay-eating animals. Therefore, all cows are horses.

valid

not a syllogism

(c) How many objects in this argument?

invalid

(b) How many premises in this argument?

one

two

Comprehension for independent readers

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Logical arguments

SYLLOGISM

Use the information on page 53 to answer the questions. Shade the bubble next to the answers you think are correct. All balloons are goofy things. All goofy things are baboons. Therefore, all balloons are baboons.

(a) What type of syllogism is this argument?

valid

sound

invalid

not a syllogism

(b) How many objects in this argument?

one

two

three

four

(c) The objects are:

m

pl e

balloons and baboons.

balloons and goofy things.

balloons, baboons and goofy things.

baboons and goofy things.

Vi ew

in g

Sa

All baboons are apes. All apes are teachers. Therefore, all baboons are teachers.

(a) What type of syllogism is this argument?

valid

sound

invalid

not a syllogism

SOMETHING EXTRA

(b) The conclusion is:

All baboons are apes.

Therefore, all baboons are teachers.

All apes are teachers.

There isn’t one.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

• Rewrite Argument 5 changing only one of the objects to make it a sound syllogism. • Construct some of your own syllogisms. Be creative and true to life or outrageous and ridiculous, but always logical. Ask a friend to determine if they are valid, sound or invalid, giving reasons for their answers. • Illustrate your syllogisms.

Comprehension for independent readers

55


Sim Sala’s Magic Emporium

SALES CATALOGUE

Sim Sala’s The only place for a sagacious magician to shop. We stock all the conjuring paraphernalia you can imagine!

Capes*

Sizes to fit all. Guaranteed not to wrinkle. Only black but with a choice of silk lining: red, blue or silver. (Show us your Magician’s Union card and get your cape dry-cleaned.)

Sa

Special Sale item! Hurry!

pl e

Lots of sizes and shapes, decorated and plain. Classic magician’s wand and special ones decorated with genuine imitation jewellery. Sparkling fairy wands and powerful wizard staffs.

phone: 321 MAGIC email: abra@liame.com

m

Magic Wands

12 – 22 Potter Street, Haunton.

Doves have been trained by SSME to perch and not poop. (Conditions apply.)

Top Hats

in g

Doves

Rabbits

From bunnies, less than 0.5kg to a fully grown 2.5kg. White, black and brown. (We also dye any colour**.) Kittens and adults available.

Vi ew

They make you look sophisticated as well as having a hidden base for concealing rabbits and doves.(Large enough to hold a 2kg

rabbit or three doves.)

25% off Until sale ends.

(Free hat wax and polish for Magician’s union members.)

Next generation Saw-the-lady-in-half box. More leg room and brightly coloured. (Doubles as a storage unit) Marked cards, easily identify each card by the secret code hidden in the decoration on the back. Regular and waterproof packs available. Flash powder. Ignite it and it will flash so brightly that your audience will gasp.

This product is the best and exclusive to us. For the escapologist we have the highest quality handcuffs and straight jackets, and chains. Escape cabinets can be constructed to your specifications.

Our prices are second to none! Talk to our Houdini about your needs. * Invisibility cloak not in stock. ** All such work is done under supervision of the RSPCA Money back guarantee on all living items that naturally expire before a month after purchase.

56

Comprehension for independent readers

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Sim Sala’s Magic Emporium

SALES CATALOGUE

Use the sales catalogue on page 56 to answer the questions.

 Which two items in the catalogue are described as having a dual purpose?  In the Magic Wands description, what is meant by ‘classic magician’s wand’?  In the Top Hats description, what additional information regarding the price could have been mentioned?

pl e

m

 What item does the emporium claim you can buy only from them?

Sa

 What word in the catalogue is a synonym for the word ‘clever’? (It is used to describe

in g

magicians.)

Vi ew

 What words on the catalogue page mean magical supplies?  On which products can some magicians get a special deal?

 Oxymoron means when two opposite

meaning words appear side-by-side but still make some kind of sense, like dry ice and fine mess. What oxymoron appears on the sales catalogue page?

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Comprehension for independent readers

57


Sim Sala’s Magic Emporium

SALES CATALOGUE

Use the sales catalogue on page 56 to answer the questions.

 What information is given to reassure people about the dyeing of rabbits?  What assurance is given to customers regarding any animals they purchase?  Is it an error in the Rabbits section to say ‘Kittens’? Explain your answer.

 Which product is a new and improved model?

pl e

m

 The escapology description ends with the claim that the emporium has its own Houdini.

Sa

Explain what this means.

in g

SOMETHING EXTRA

Vi ew

 What is meant by SSME in the Doves section?

• Create your own sales catalogue. Keep it real and include actual products and prices or have fun with it and invent products to sell; for example: – a catalogue for witches with products like bat wings, rat tails, eye of newt, love potions. – a catalogue of the future selling a range of robots. Describe what they do and what special features they possess. They wouldn’t be cheap! – a catalogue for prehistoric people with stone tools for hunting, gathering, carving and weaving. 58

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Cryptic puzzles – 1

CROSSWORDS 1.

2.

3.

In this cryptic crossword the clues are given in two parts.

6.

4.

5.

7.

8.

Part one is a regular definition or a synonym which is written in bold print.

9.

10.

11.

Part two presents the answer within another word or words; for example:

13.

14.

15.

‘He wears it in Manhattan’.

16.

The word is hat which is found in ‘Manhattan’.

12.

18.

17.

19.

‘She came last night riding an animal.’ The word is camel which is found in ‘... came last ...’

24.

21.

22.

25.

26.

m

27.

pl e

23.

20.

DOWN

Sa

ACROSS

Vi ew

in g

 The heavenly creature rode a mustang elegantly.  Please arrive on a bronco merrily singing.  Hi dear, have a thought.  She will win terribly easily, as she likes the cold season sports.  At the time that was it.  In time, the Australian territory’s abbreviation was known.  Pass the fruit to the chap please.  He was so red that it hurt.  Eve read as she always did.  She makes fun of me but offers me tea served with lemon.  One who takes advantage of others is an abuser of them.  The negative is nothing new.  Wind will frequently unroof ten houses.  Now is the negative again.  Unfasten the can of propenol.  The marker will upgrade results.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

             

Forever will the social way sound best. Singing eroded the amber coloured tonsil. It is not true that lilies are purple. Mac and Les lit the wax torches. In the east erupted a volcano on the Sunday holiday. We had rope to prevent a fall. The indefinite articles are ‘a’ and another. It’s not odd that the evening is dark. The boy sternly rebuked the shellfish. Come in and meet ten terrapins. Don’t go to Grandmother’s house by the byroads but by the street. Just a single person phoned me. To never hear a melodic sound would be sad. At this time there are no weasels here.

Comprehension for independent readers

59


Cryptic puzzles – 2

CROSSWORDS 1.

2.

3.

4.

In this cryptic crossword the clues are given in two parts.

5.

Part one is a regular definition or a synonym which is written in bold print.

6.

Part two presents the answer within another word or words; for example,

11.

The word is pig which is found in ‘spigots’. ‘He took a bath then drew a shower.’

9.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

21.

22.

    

60

20.

25.

m

26.

19.

23.

24.

DOWN

 The abandoned child was found lingering around the pet shop.  The cobweb camera is watching you.  Honestly, you are all young and so foolish.  Feeling cheerful he said ‘Come up, be at ease and enjoy yourself!’  They were given a definite article.  It was a very funny cartoon.  Some fish feel sardines are silly.  Did I see bigfoot or a cow’s hoof?  My shoe kicked the garden tool.  The number is even in England.  I can hear someone talking with my auricles.  The street has a large plant growing right in the middle of it.  Colour is hereditary.  Those who speak negatively are naysayers.  We are usually much smarter than this.

in g

Jeff, lower some pretty plants to us. Stop over it. The macadamia will arrive in a minute. The sandy place can be a cheesy place. Nonetheless he replied negatively. The vision organ came yesterday to see. The matador able to kiss the bull was lovable. But yesterday he replied positively. If I show you the seahorse will you be amazed? Drape a tablecloth only over the table. The bug is hiding in sector ‘W’. The dog rested after escaping the monsters. Dr Krunur’s expert assistant. Dr Yne’s suffered from dehydration.

Vi ew

 

18.

Sa

ACROSS



10.

12.

The word is wash which is found in ‘... drew a shower ...’

     

8.

pl e

‘A little hog swallowed some spigots’.

7.

Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Missing words – 1

CROSSWORDS

To solve this crossword, write the missing word from each sentence in the puzzle. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

20.

19.

21.

23.

pl e

22.

DOWN

 Eating a a day has to be good for your eyesight because you never see a rabbit wearing glasses.  He is not completely fit yet at half way, you might say he is .  The wrestler is big in Japan in more ways than one.  I like my sister but definitely, positively, absolutely, unconditionally not .  In winter, some trees look without their leaves.  We have seven in our neck. How many do you think a giraffe has?  is the Japanese art of paper folding. However, it originated in China.  The Roman numerals are: I = 1, V = five, X = , L = 50, C = 100, D = 500 and M = 1000. But what happened to 0?  ‘Most people like the light but I prefer ’, said Dracula.  There is a saying, ‘What up must come down’. So be good to people on your way up.  The photographers had their poised to get a shot of the celebrity.  Such a foul stench! It made me .

 When the rain stopped, the spider to take in the sunshine and perhaps a fly or two.  Eating a carrot a day has to be good for your eyesight because you never see a wearing glasses.  Native Americans constructed poles to tell stories of significance.  Your home might not be a mansion but it is better than a , and many people don’t even have that much.  This it!  I wonder who was the clown ever.  She’s here, you’re here and here too.  It’s the Scotsman who the caber.  Being angry is bad but being in a is a lot more serious and dangerous.  Was the named after the colour or was the colour named after the fruit?  Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, ’s man. Bake us a cake as fast as you can.  I had an once and it was a pretty good one, but I forgot it.  Don’t giggle; an is just a donkey.  You can have this that, but not both.

Vi ew

in g

Sa

m

ACROSS

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

61


Missing words – 2

CROSSWORDS

To solve this crossword, write the missing word from each sentence in the puzzle. 1.

2.

8.

3.

4.

5.

7.

9.

10.

11.

13.

16.

6.

14.

12.

15.

17.

18.

19.

DOWN

 The idea is to the ball with the bat.  It’s not judo or karate but .  A is a small to medium-sized primate that typically has a long tail and tends to live in trees in tropical countries.  The measuring was calibrated on one side in centimetres and inches on the other.  The battle was over and the was ours because we won, of course.  To harness the power of the wind a is needed.  Want to know where in the world you are? Get an and take a good look.  Something can either be out of the box or it, unless it is the box.  Jack was nice but Jill was .  Someone who is between thirteen and nineteen years old, inclusive, is a .  I went to a concert and I was amazed by the talented who played piano, violin and cello.

62

m

ACROSS

pl e

20.

Sa

all that you could do if you were the king of the world. The of a mountain is called the summit, while that of one’s career is called the apex, that of the head is the crown, that of a wave is the crest and so on. Eleven pipers piping, Ten lords a, Nine ladies dancing … The Australian cowboy is called a . In supermarkets people should be made to get a licence before pushing around. There is a huge difference between wanting something and it. Except for the noise that drives me crazy, is the best fastener ever. The answer to the question can be , no or ‘mind your own business’. One of the most successful films of all time is Gone the wind. Just because they are called ‘little white ’ doesn’t change the fact that they are still untrue and sneaky. To be or not to be, that the question.

Vi ew

in g

  

    



Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Word search – 1

CROSSWORDS

All the answers to this crossword can be found in the lists of words below. There are also many other words that have nothing to do with the puzzle. Use the letter clues, the number of letters in the words and how the words fit with one another, to help you solve it. 1.

2.

n

3.

4.

a

5

6.

8.

l 9.

10.

g u

11.

t 13.

7.

14.

g

15.

12.

m

16.

p

18.

e

19.

20.

u 21.

s

i t

25.

t

30.

26.

d

28.

a

31.

w

in g

29.

24.

Sa

27.

23.

l

m

u 22.

pl e

17.

• at, go, ha, if, in, is, me, no, on, or, so, ta, up, we

Vi ew

• all, ask, bag, bat, end, ewe, fat, for, get, her, him, ill, let, man, new, not, off, pet, pin, rob, run, sit, sun, tea, tub, use, wig, you, zoo • able, ants, apes, born, brim, burn, call, come, cute, feet, flat, goat, hate, have, kill, kiss, like, love, made, maid, next, part, race, rise, time, toga, very, well, yawn, zone • after, awake, brick, crack, crawl, crest, first, flame, games, grade, group, house, hunts, ideal, idiot, loner, loans, money, mummy, night, north, nutty, pilot, queen, quick, rusty, roast, strap, strip, strop, taper, topic, tuner, under, urged, voter, wager, yeses, young, zebra • always, animal, anyway, battle, broken, catnap, cracks, dancer, dinner, fishes, flight, goblin, hobble, hustle, jogger, kitten, laughs, lights, minute, moment, monkey, parsec, piston, rabbit, rattle, rustle, string, strong, wicked, wicket, zither • battery, butters, capital, capping, century, dancing, drawing, giraffe, gophers, guppies, hammers, haunted, hunters, juggler, justice, million, mutters, parable, platoon, problem, scanner, thought, through, troughs, warship, weeping, wiggler, zephyrs Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

63


Word search – 2

CROSSWORDS

All the answers to this crossword can be found in the lists of words below. There are also many other words that have nothing to do with the puzzle. Use the letter clues, the number of letters in the words and how the words fit with one another, to help you solve it. 3.

8.

a

9.

10.

17.

31.

33.

p

13.

l

19.

14.

n

n

23.

24.

26.

y

30.

a

32.

i

t

20.

o

g 29.

7.

15.

a

22.

25.

28.

o

s

18.

i

o

6.

h

12.

21.

27.

5.

11.

o 16.

4.

pl e

o

2.

r

m

o

Sa

1.

34.

t

r

in g

• as, at, be, go, in, it, me, no, or, ox, oz, pi, so, to, ta, we

Vi ew

• are, ate, bee, car, cot, doc, dot, ego, elm, fat, for, fun, gin, gun, had, hid, kit, lad, lap, lip, lit, man, men, nor, not, nut, oat, off, oil, peg, pig, pub, rug, run, say, sit, sum, tag, tap, use, ute, was, wet, yak, yes • able, barb, blob, crab, cusp, dodo, edgy, epic, flat, fold, fume, heat, hero, hire, leap, lion, logo, meek, muse, name, next, ogre, owls, oxen, part, pier, pigs, quit, rank, rose, scam, show, snob, tape, taxi, tool, trek, unit, upon, volt, wise, wish, wisp, your, zinc, zoom • angel, angle, avert, badge, bloom, cupid, cynic, digit, empty, every, feast, geese, hyper, issue, juice, juror, kiwis, lambs, lyric, media, modem, mummy, oaken, paint, quick, quite, rally, roads, rover, scalp, sheep, three, torch, truck, union, until, valve, woman, yodel • abound, always, answer, babies, battle, bottle, carton, caught, decide, easter, eleven, empire, fennel, ferret, gnomes, hamlet, hornet, horrid, icicle, indoor, italic, kindly, kitten, lather, manner, noodle, nosier, operas, pamper, pointy, putrid, retold, rotund, sachet, sacred, season, shaman, tomato, trench, umpire • abalone, airship, android, artists, banshee, bathers, canteen, defrost, dingbat, dungeon, epitaph, frogmen, glitter, growled, heroism, holiday, isolate, Jupiter, legally, magenta, musical, ostrich, patient, physics, rebound, riddles, sceptre, sheriff, tearoom, thistle, unhappy, urgency 64

Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Target words

SCANNING

Here is a plethora of nursery rhymes. If wishes were horses, beggars would ride. If turnips were watches, I would wear one by my side. And if ‘ifs’ and ‘ands’ Were pots and pans, There’d be no work for tinkers!

Ding, dong, bell, Pussy’s in the well! Who put her in? Little Tommy Thin. Who pulled her out? Little Johnny Stout. What a naughty boy was that, To try to drown poor pussy-cat. Who never did him any harm, But killed the mice in his father’s barn!

Jack and Jill went up the hill, To fetch a pail of water; Jack fell down, and broke his crown, And Jill came tumbling after.

Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall; All the King’s horses, and all the King’s men Couldn’t put Humpty together again.

m

Rain, rain, go away, Come again another day; Little Johnny wants to play.

I had a little pony, His name was Dapple-Grey, I lent him to a lady, To ride a mile away. She whipped him, she slashed him, She rode him through the mire; I would not lend my pony now For all the lady’s hire.

Vi ew

in g

Hush-a-bye baby, on the treetop. When the wind blows the cradle will rock; When the bough breaks the cradle will fall, And down will come baby, cradle and all.

Little Miss Muffet, sat on a tuffet, Eating her curds and whey. There came a big spider, Who sat down beside her, And frightened Miss Muffet away.

Sa

Little Bo-Peep has lost her sheep, And can’t tell where to find them; Leave them alone, and they’ll come home, Wagging their tails behind them.

Tweedledum and Tweedledee Agreed to have a battle. For Tweedledum said Tweedledee, Had spoiled his nice new rattle. Then flew by a monstrous crow, As black as a tar barrel, Which frightened both the heroes so, They quite forgot their quarrel. Cry, baby, cry, Put your finger in your eye, And tell your mother it wasn’t I. Ring a ring o’ roses, A pocketful of posies. Atishoo! Atishoo! We all fall down.

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Bat, bat, come under my hat, And I’ll give you a slice of bacon. And when I bake I’ll give you a cake If I am not mistaken. ‘Pussy-cat, pussy-cat, Where have you been?’ ‘I’ve been to London To look at the Queen.’ ‘Pussy-cat, pussy-cat, What did you there?’ ‘I frightened a little mouse Under the chair.’

pl e

Donkey, donkey, old and grey, Open your mouth and gently bray; Lift your ears and blow your horn, To wake the world this sleepy morn.

Baa, baa, black sheep, Have you any wool? Yes, sir, yes, sir Three bags full. One for my master, One for my dame, And one for the little boy Who lives down the lane.

Georgy Porgy, pudding and pie, Kissed the girls and made them cry. When the boys came out to play, Georgy Porgy ran away. See a pin and pick it up, All the day you’ll have good luck. See a pin and let it lay, Bad luck you’ll have all the day. Hey diddle diddle the cat and the fiddle, the cow jumped over the moon. The little dog laughed to see such fun and the dish ran away with the spoon!

I’ll tell you a story About Jack a nory, And now my story’s begun; I’ll tell you another About Jack and his brother, And now my story is done. Old Mother Hubbard Went to the cupboard, To give her poor dog a bone; But when she got there The cupboard was bare, And so the poor dog had none. Needles and pins, needles and pins, When a man marries his trouble begins. There was a little girl who had a little curl, Right in the middle of her forehead. When she was good, she was very, very good, And when she was bad she was horrid.

Comprehension for independent readers

65


Target words

SCANNING

Reading each nursery rhyme carefully in order to answer each question would be onerous and time consuming. Scan the nursery rhymes to find what could be the target word and then check more carefully. The column number or the upper part (UP) or the lower part (LP) of the table of nursery rhymes is given with each clue, most of the time. Sometimes, there is more than one word that matches the target and any of them will do but take note that sometimes you are asked for more than one answer. Use the nursery rhymes on page 65 to solve the clues.

pl e

 A word that starts with the letter ‘c’ and has six letters (column 1)

Sa

m

 A word that has a double ‘d’ (column 2)

in g

 A word that rhymes with ‘glory’ (column 3)

Vi ew

 A six-letter word that ends with a ‘y’ (UP)  A word that rhymes with ‘bell’ (LP)

 Two words, each containing three different vowels (column 3)

 A word that rhymes with ‘gem’ (LP)

 Two five-letter words with a vowel as the middle letter (column 1)

 Four different animals (column 2)

66

Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Target words

SCANNING

Use the nursery rhymes on page 65 to solve the clues.

 A three-syllable word (UP)  A word that contains the smaller word ‘her’ (column 1)  A word that contains a smaller word which is a part of the body (LP)  A word that is the noise made by an animal (column 2)

pl e

 Two adjacent two-syllable words, not names (column 2)

Sa

m

 A palindrome (column 1)

in g

 A word that has the same vowel repeated three times (LP)

Vi ew

 A word that is a synonym for centre (column 3)  An antonym of ‘old’ (column 1)

 Two words that appear in three and only three different nursery rhymes.

SOMETHING EXTRA • Scan the poems to find some more words for which you can write clues. Challenge a partner to find them. • Choose a piece of text, either fiction or nonfiction. Write clues for others to find by scanning words within the text.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

67


Time line

SCANNING

The time line lists some important events in world history from 3500 BC to 2000 AD. Some dates are approximations and others note one year of an event that occurred over several years.

3500

The wheel is used in Mesopotamia

4

3000

First Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptians create 365-day calendar Egyptians build first known dam

70

68

Work begins on Stonehenge in England

550

Minoan culture destroyed

570 657 795 1023

Trojan War Iron used for weapons and tools Magnetic compass invented Phoenicians develop alphabetic script Chinese develop gunpowder

1096

Olympic Games start in Greece Homer writes the Iliad and the Odyssey Earliest coins appear First sewer system built in Rome Herodotus the first historian 300 Spartans stand at Thermopylae

The Parthenon in Athens is completed Sparta finally defeats Athens

1099 1140 1147 1206 1215 1223 1271 1281

The Romans destroy Jerusalem Colosseum is built Beginning of the Classic period for the Maya Rome sacked by Visigoths under Alaric Persians use windmills to power irrigation pumps Muhammad is born The earliest poem written in English Vikings start raiding Ireland The Chinese issue the first paper money University of Oxford is founded in Oxford, England The first crusade captures Jerusalem

m

According to legend, Rome is founded

Jesus is born

Angkor Wat is built in Cambodia Second Crusade

Sa

1100 1000 776 753 750 650 578 484 480 432 404 399 356 338 334 332 323 290 218 210 73 44 51

Great Pyramid at Giza in Egypt

in g

1120

250 410

Vi ew

2750 2575 2500 1450 1185

AD

pl e

BC

Socrates is put on trial

Alexander the Great is born

Philip of Macedon conquers Greece Alexander the Great defeats Persia

Alexander the Great conquers Egypt Alexander dies near Babylon The Pharos Lighthouse is built Hannibal attacks Roman army

First emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, dies Spartacus rebels against Rome Julius Caesar assassinated Cleopatra comes to power in Egypt

1285 1300 1346 1431 1440 1441 1476 1487 1489 1492 1500 1514 1519 1521 1533 1556

Comprehension for independent readers

Genghis Khan leads the Mongol armies King John of England signs the Magna Carta Genghis Khan invades Russia Marco Polo starts on his alleged trip to China Kublai Khan conquers most of Asia Spectacles for the farsighted are invented in Italy Anasazi of Arizona abandon their cliff dwellings The bubonic plague starts in China Joan of Arc burned at the stake Johann Gutenberg invents the printing press First African slaves imported into Europe The Inca defeat the Chimu civilisation Aztec ruler Ahuitzotl sacrifices 80 400 prisoners Johann Widmann starts using ‘+’ and ‘–’ Christopher Columbus lands in the Bahamas Cabral accidentally discovers Brazil Copernicus writes the earth revolves around the sun Magellan the first to circumnavigate the globe Cortés conquers the Aztec people Pizarro conquers the Inca empire Earthquake in China kills 830 000

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Time line

SCANNING

1588 1619 1687 1712 1728 1770

Spanish Armada is defeated by England

1776

American Declaration of Independence First submarine, Turtle, used in war First manned hot air balloon flight in Paris

1883 1888 1890 1895 1896 1899 1900 1901 1903 1905 1911 1912 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1926 1929 1930 1935

Newcomen creates the first steam engine James Cook (Capt.) is born Cook arrives on the east coast of Australia

The French Revolution begins The metric system is introduced in France Napoleon is crowned Emperor of France Napoleon defeated at Waterloo

1945

Atomic bombs destroy Hiroshima and Nagasaki End of World War II India and Pakistan gain independence

1947 1948 1949 1950 1954 1955

The charge of the Light Brigade Charles Darwin’s Origin of species

D Day

Gandhi assassinated Mao Zedong leads China’s revolution Start of Korean War Nautilus, the first nuclear powered submarine Disneyland opens Sputnik I becomes the first human-made satellite Yuri A Gargarin the first human in space Cuban missile crisis President John Kennedy assassinated Japan’s Bullet Train opens Martin L King and Robert Kennedy are slain

Sa

Pasteur shows that germs spread disease

1961 1962 1963 1965 1968 1969 1978 1984

Enrico Fermi builds the first nuclear reactor

pl e

Samuel Morse demonstrates the telegraph

Start of World War II

m

England outlaws slavery

Mendel works on genetics

The Hindenburg explodes

1957

Telegraph cable laid across the Atlantic

Alexander Bell patents the telephone The battle of the Little Big Horn The island volcano of Krakatoa explodes

in g

1876

Isaac Newton writes of gravity

Jack the Ripper strikes in Whitechapel

Hollerith invents the electronic calculator Marconi invents the radio

Vi ew

1783 1789 1795 1804 1815 1833 1837 1854 1859 1864 1865 1866

Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion

1937 1939 1942 1944

1990 1991

First modern Olympic Games in Athens

1994

Boer War

1997 1999

Sigmund Freud begins psychoanalysis First Nobel prizes awarded

Neil Armstrong walks on the moon First test-tube baby born Indira Gandhi assassinated Nelson Mandela released from jail after 27 yrs Apartheid ends in South Africa First US-Iraq war Communism ends in Soviet Union Mandela becomes president of South Africa Hutus massacre 800 000 Tutsis in a few weeks Mother Teresa dies The Euro becomes the new European currency

Wright brothers fly the first aeroplane Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity Roald Amundsen reaches the South Pole The Titanic disaster Start of World War I The Gallipoli campaign Battle of the Somme The first aircraft carrier, HMS Argus World War I is officially over Television invented The Great Depression Pluto discovered Watson-Watt invents radar

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Comprehension for independent readers

69


Time line – number puzzle

70

SCANNING

The answers to this number puzzle are dates from the World History time line. The clues given are two words from the description of the required date. Scan the time lines to find the date for the given clues. Use the time lines on pages 68 and 69 to solve the clues. (i)

(ii)

(iii)

(vi)

(viii)

(xi)

(iv)

(v)

(vii)

(ix)

(x)

(xii)

(xiii)

(xiv)

(xv)

(xvi)

(xvii)

(xxii)

(xxiii)

(xx)

(xxi)

(xxiv)

(xxv)

ACROSS

(xxvii)

Sa

(xxix)

m

(xxvi)

(xxviii)

pl e

(xix)

(xviii)

DOWN

(ii) Trojan War (iii) Cook arrives (iv) Napoleon defeated (v) Power irrigation (vii) Alexander the (ix) Games start (xi) Bubonic plague (xiv) HMS Argus (xv) Colosseum is (xviii) Gandhi assassinated (xix) US-Iraq (xxi) Hannibal attacks (xxiii) legend Rome (xxvi) Spartacus rebels

Vi ew

in g

(i) Nobel prizes (iii) Titanic disaster (v) Cleopatra Egypt (vi) Genghis Khan (viii) Sewer system (x) Nelson Mandela (xii) The Odyssey (xiii) Rome sacked (xvi) Is born (xvii) Visigoths under (xx) Enrico Fermi (xxii) Earliest poem (xxiv) Mother Teresa (xxv) Spanish Armada (xxvii) Caesar assassinated (xxviii) Start of (xxix) Outlaws slavery

Comprehension for independent readers

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Time line – word puzzle – 1

SCANNING

The answer to each two-word clue is the missing word from the event description. For each clue, the time line (1 or 2) where the event can be found, has been given. Scan the appropriate time line to find the event description for each clue. Use the time lines on pages 68 and 69 to solve the clues. 1.

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

9.

10.

pl e

11.

8.

13.

m

12.

15. 21.

17.

18.

in g

20.

16.

Sa

14.

19.

22.

24.

25. 26.

Vi ew

23.

ACROSS     

abandon (1) of (2) start raiding (1) coast of (2) First hot (2)

    

World War (2) (word) in is (1) The aircraft (2) three of (2) of Krakatoa (2)

   

is the the 300 period

    

Ripper in (2) of planetary (2) weapons tools (1) is on (1) England outlaws (2)

 writes Iliad (1)  Polo starts (1)  starts ‘+’ (1)

of The

imported Europe. (1) Alexander near (1) earliest written (1) in Union (2)

DOWN     

in (1) defeats (1) are (1) stand (1) the (1)

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers

71


Time line – word puzzle – 2

SCANNING

The answers to this word puzzle are key words in the event descriptions for the given dates. Scan the time lines to find the solution to each clue. Use the time lines on pages 68 and 69 to solve the clues.

ACROSS

72

pl e

3.

5.

9.

12.

6.

7.

8.

Sa

m

4.

10.

in g

1945 1945 1795 1833 1687 1441 550 1776 1947 1185

2.

13.

Vi ew

         

1.

11.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

DOWN

20.

          Comprehension for independent readers

795 1120 1963 1285 1912 1942 1997 1859 44 1783

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Answers

Vi ew

in g

Sa

1. (a) The Daily Script (b) Cityton (c) 1893 (d) Wednesday (e) 2012 (f) Cloudy with showers 2. Nosey Parker. Answers may include: second article on front page, the only complete article on the front page, senior reporter 3. (a) Stolen Painting Found by Tree (b) It is the only one that doesn’t continue on another page. 4. It says it is the only cola with pixie-sugar, yet it also states that it contains no additives. 5. (a) Contents page (b) Teacher check. Answers may include: shipping, television, tributes 6. Stolen Painting Found by Tree – Answers may include: it has information about the history of the painting, the French word for the French police as well as its pronunciation 7. The SSS Alpboat on its maiden voyage, 2001. 8. (a) Its reporter is the only one to get that news information. (b) It is highlighted to attract attention and impress readers with its significance. 9. Some of the other ships were nuclear-powered and they could have exploded, causing more deaths. 10. (a) A man writing using a quill. (b) The paper has a long history and is a classic in its own right. A man writing with a quill indicates wisdom and a formal education. 11. It is larger print to attract attention. THE MEANING OF PROVERBS – Proverbs pages 5 – 8

5. (a) 3 (b) 7 (c) 16 (d) 23 (e) 29 (f) 20 6. You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear. Fools and their money are soon parted. Absence makes the heart grow fonder. 7. Spare the rod and spoil the child. 8. Teacher check 9. (a) When the cat’s away the mice will play. (b) The first step is the hardest. (c) You can’t teach an old dog new tricks. (d) The early bird catches the worm. (e) A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. (f) Two wrongs don’t make a right. 10. (a) They can who believe they can. (b) Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. (c) A stitch in time saves nine. (d) Actions speak louder than words. (e) Great oaks grow from little acorns. (f) All that glitters is not gold. 11. (a) Different people have different opinions about what looks good and what doesn’t. (b) Bad things/times don’t last forever and eventually things will get better. (c) Everything tastes good when you are hungry. (d) People who have a positive attitude about their abilities are more likely to succeed. J R R TALKMAN’S TRAVELLING CIRCUS – Poster pages 9 – 11

pl e

pages 2 – 4

m

DAILY SCRIPT – Newspaper

1. (a) 13 (b) 21 (c) 27 (d) 24 and 30 (e) 12 (f) 1 2. (a) 16 (b) 3 3. (a) Too many people doing the same task get in each other’s way and can ruin the outcome. It’s better to leave it to one or two people to do the task properly. (b) A lot of people joining in to help will get the job done more quickly; for example, picking up litter in the class after a craft activity day. 4. (a) 14 (b) 11 Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

1. The circus coming to town. 2. Hilarious 3. Ten 4. 5 September 5. Able to use both hands equally well. 6. There is more information about the cost. 7. To be barefooted. 8. They are actual names. 9. They come from words connected with the acts. 10. horse JULY/AUGUST 1969 – Diary pages 12 – 16 1. Julie 2. (a) Its (been such a good weekend) should be It’s (b) Mrs Gs (chair) should be Mrs G’s (c) wasn’t none (of her business) should be either was none or wasn’t any 3. It describes the landing on the moon of the first manned spacecraft. 4. He had left it out, but it is quoting him as he meant to say it. Comprehension for independent readers

73


Answers

m

pl e

bloke, who everyone knows is a larrikin. At first I reckoned he was a Banana Bender but me trouble ‘n’ strife told me he was a Crow Eater. He came up to me when I was flat out like a lizard drinking teaching the billy lids how to put on their canoes. He was as mean as monkey muck, smelt of plonk, a wuss and so dirty that dunny budgies hung on him. ‘Course most of what he said was pork pies, but after I threatened to stuff him in the dunny he told me that he had scoffed down a bonzer mystery bag made from joey meat and me knocked off jumbuck. I asked how he reckoned it was me jumbuck. The drongo skited that it tasted like the dog’s eye he had cooked using me chooks and jumbuck! Your ol’ mate, Perc 7. (a) to be very disagreeable (b) to be sitting alone (c) to throw a tantrum (d) to be clever and sneaky (e) to be very poor (f) to be very busy (g) to be very self-satisfied (h) to be very angry (i) to be very stingy WHAT IS IRONY? – Irony pages 20 – 22

Sa

5. (a) a hairstyle (b) extremely satisfactory (c) getting scared (d) ok, fine, cool 6. (a) Don’t have a cow!/Don’t flip your wig! (b) Up your nose with a rubber hose. (c) Peace! (d) Out of sight! 7. Teacher check. Answers may include: Easily manipulated, quick to jump to conclusions, overly romantic and hopeful, doesn’t take the initiative 8. Teacher check. Answers may include: Manipulative, sneaky, possessive 9. Teacher check 10. A new girl, Marcie, came to school today. She is weird. We tried to be friendly. Betty asked her what she ate under there, and she said, ‘Under where?’ Betty said, ‘Eww, you ate underwear’. We laughed but Marcie said it wasn’t funny. It was just a joke. 11. (There are many possible answers.) tele = television zit = pimple hunk = handsome skuzz = loathsome far out, fab, psychedelic, a gas and out of sight = very good; dipstick and dork = a fool chicken = coward teach = teacher drag = boring 12. Answers may include: far out, fab, psychedelic, a gas and out of sight. 13. Answers may include: tele, zit, hunk, skuzz, dipstick, dork, chicken, drag and teach. 14. Saturday 1 August and Thursday 20 August STRINE – AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH – Language pages 17 – 19

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in g

1. This is coincidence; nothing more than that happens. 2. This is irony. The great ship had made Jason a hero and it was possible that it would be the cause of his death when he sailed it on his quest, but not that it would kill him in this way. 3. No. This is just being foolish. 4. This is irony. The great care taken was all for nothing. That a whale would eat the seals was probable but the coincidence that it would happen during the ceremony to celebrate their freedom and escape from a disaster was ironic. 5. This is irony. There is a coincidental connection between the sadistic scientist and his ex-patient but there was no deliberate act by the patient to exact revenge, as would have been anticipated if he had recognised the scientist. 6. Not irony, just bad workmanship. (Had the accident happened while the hunter was bragging about killing the lion then it would have been ironic.) WHAT IS SARCASM? – Sarcasm page 23 – 25

1. Answers may include: billy lids, Captain Cook, canoes, cherry plum, dog and bone, dog’s eye, pork pie, wooden pegs 2. (a) look (b) price (c) wife (d) thief 3. (a) great (b) great (c) rumour (d) money 4. (a) squiz (b) crook (c) billy lids (d) pork pie (e) bonzer 5. Buckley’s 6. Teacher check. Answers should be similar to below paragraph: G’day mate. I’m stoked ‘cos I just got some oil ‘bout me knocked off jumbuck that I had Buckley’s of getting back. I was told by a crook

74

Comprehension for independent readers

1. (a) Well it simply was a total waste of make-up. (b) Make yourself at home! Clean my kitchen. (c) Well, aren’t we just a ray of sunshine. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Answers

EARS 2 elephantMeg Saturn sized ears Mog Mercury 7 tiny ears Mig Mars 2 antennae

TAIL

POSITION/JOB

short

engineer

long no tail

pilot navigator

in g

PLANET

Vi ew

NAMES

1. Meg 2. Mars 3. a long tail 4. It didn’t, he misunderstood Meg’s meaning. 5. birr, birr, burrumph 6. Mercury 7. they thought the engine would explode. 8. Earth 9. Mig 10. Meg 11. Mig being so dopey 12. Meg and Mig WHAT DOES IT MEAN? – Symbolism pages 29 – 31 Teacher check. Answers may include: 1. (a) Death – He is waiting for the writer inside to give up the fight for life and come to him. (b) In this case, death is not a brutal force but is determined and patient. His horse reflects this. (c) The writer can no longer resist the pull of death. He gives himself up and dies. 2. Death is gentle and obliging, not to be feared but to be readily accepted. 3. (a) A fierce determination or great strength or desire Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

(b) You will never give in or give up, and oppression or challenges will be overcome. 4. The passage of time, a gentle aging – irresistible and constant as waves on the shore. 5. shrewd, determination, hot, cunning, resolute, wild, proud 6. Baby changing room

Drinking fountain

Stairs

Women’s toilet

Telephone

No entry

Biohazard

pl e

Radiation

m

Peace

No weapons

Sa

(d) I started with nothing and I still have most of it left. (e) Not the brightest crayon in the box, are we? (f) It’s always darkest before it turns absolutely pitch black. (g) I work 40 hours a week to be this poor. 2. Teacher check. Examples of situations could include: (a) Introducing a friend to someone. (b) When someone is showing off. (c) To someone unambitious. (d) On parting with a friend. (e) To someone who had just had a good idea. (f) To someone being too serious. (g) On parting with a friend. (h) To one friend about another, preferably while the one you are talking about is present. (i) On meeting a good friend especially when it is unexpected. IN SPACE YOU CAN HEAR THE ENGINE – Data grid pages 26 – 28

Fire extinguisher

Wheelchair access Men’s toilet

Caretaker

First aid No smoking BRINGING WRITING TO LIFE – Metaphor pages 32 – 35 1. fire: inspiration, hell; green: envy, evil, trickery, growth, youth; horse: destruction, victory; dragon: wisdom, hidden knowledge; dog: loyalty, vigilance; eagle: inspiration, victory; lion: strength, justice; purple: royalty, justice; torch: intelligence, spirituality; unicorn: purity, strength 2. WORDS SHARED MEANING bells, eagle, knot bells, dance blood, garden, pearl, water chicken, yellow pearl, circle dragon, ring, staff, sword dragon, owl eagle, fire sword, umbrella eagle, horse flower, green horns, lion, ring, sword, unicorn

freedom joy life cowardice perfection power wisdom inspiration protection victory youth strength

Comprehension for independent readers

75


Answers

3. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 4. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 5. (a) (b) (c)

Sa

purple/lion, black cat fox, mirror lion/sword, chicken/yellow wolf, dog green/serpent, candle Keep your eyes peeled! Pull your socks up! The sound is music to my ears. It’s a breeze. You’ve given me something to chew on. He is insensitive/cold/uncaring. She is very brave. For some people, time should not be wasted when there is work to be done and money to be earnt. (d) He lied well but not well enough. (e) Be sure his tears and distress are genuine. MIXED METAPHORS – Metaphor pages 36 – 37

2. (a) Canberra and Hobart (b) May and September 3. James Cook (1728) 4. (a) Asia (b) Oceania 5. (a) Tangled (b) Avatar 6. Elizabeth Windsor 7. K2 (B) and Kangchenjunga (C); Lhotse (D) and Makalu (E); Cho Oyu (F), Dhaulagiri (G) and Manaslu (H); Nanga Parbat (I) and Annapurna (J) 8. Teacher check. Examples could include: genre, year made, location, studio, stars, director 9. James Cook 10. (a) Canberra (b) July 11. To group the months in seasons, starting with summer 12. 7900 metres 13. When comparing differences in height, it is only necessary to begin at a point close to the summit of the lowest mountain. WHO’S WHO IN MOTHER GOOSE – Biography pages 41 – 43

pl e

SHARED MEANING evil death destruction immortality, eternity justice courage, strength

m

WORDS green, serpent fog, knife, serpent horse, lightning, serpent moon, sky lion, purple lion, sword

Vi ew

in g

1. jealousy 2. Mary Mary and Humpty Dumpty 3. Not following the usual method. 4. The year of their death is not known. 5. Bo Peep and Miss Mary Had 6. 19th century 7. also known as 8. fear of spiders 9. Mary’s lamb 10. a fall BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION – Classification pages 44 – 46

1. (a) His head was spinning with ideas. It’s raining cats and dogs. (b) Keep your eyes peeled. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. (c) It isn’t rocket science. It isn’t brain surgery. (d) The early bird catches the worm. A rolling stone gathers no moss. (e) A stitch in time saves nine. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. (f) He has a big heart. He has a heart of gold. (g) Don’t burn your bridges. We’ll cross that bridge when we come to it. (h) If the worst comes to the worst. If push comes to shove. 2. Teacher check. STATISTICS – Tables and graphs pages 38 – 40 1. Mount Everest (A) and K2 (B); Makalu (E) and Cho Oyu (F)

76

Comprehension for independent readers

1. Mammalia 2. Family 3. {hawks, magpies, emus, rosellas} 4. Teeth are replaced only once in a lifetime. 5. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species 6. Phylum 7. Hexapoda 8. Phylum 9. Yes. They are both animals. 10. five MAJOR EVENTS OF THE 20TH CENTURY – Time line pages 47 – 49 1. 1948 2. air-conditioning 3. 1952 4. First transatlantic 5. Mother Theresa radio signal. 6. Hiroshima and Nagasaki 7. twice 8. Margaret Thatcher 9. Penicillin was 10. pocket calculator discovered. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Answers 1. Only in the direction of the arrows. 2. They could get in a loop. 3. there is no-one they can depend on. 4. The player must restart the game. 5. Teacher check 6. When they win the game. 7. no 8. no 9. four 10. They go almost back to the start of the flowchart. LOGICAL ARGUMENTS – Syllogism pages 53 – 55

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Vi ew

1. Top Hats and ‘Saw-the-lady-in-half’ box. 2. The most familiar, common, traditional wand. 3. The end-date of the sale and the price before and after the sale. 4. flash powder 5. sagacious 6. conjuring paraphernalia 7. capes and top hats 8. genuine imitation 9. RSPCA supervision 10. There is a money-back guarantee in the event of natural death of the animal within one month of purchase. 11. No. Kitten is the correct term for a young rabbit. 12. ‘Saw-the-lady-in-half’ box 13. Harry Houdini was a famous escapologist. 14. Sim Sala’s Magic Emporium CRYPTIC PUZZLES – 1 – Crossword page 59 Across: 1. angel 9. as 15. ever 23. often

4. come 6. idea 8. winter 10. NT 11. apple 13. sore 16. tease 18. user 20. not 25. no 26. open 27. grader

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4. candles 12. even 21. one page 60

Across: 1. flowers 5. top 6. nut 8. beach 9. no 10. eye 11. adorable 13. yes 14. fish 16. on 17. insect 21. ogres 24. nurse 26. dryness Down: 1. foundling 2. webcam 3. really 4. upbeat 5. the 7. too 12. eels 14. foot 15. hoe 18. nine 19. ears 20. tree 22. red 23. say 25. us MISSING WORDS – 1 – Crossword page 61 Across: 1. carrot 4. semifit 10. my brother 13. bare 15. origami 17. ten 20. goes 22. cameras Down: 1. came out 2. rabbit 4. shed 5. is 7. I’m 8. tosses 12. orange 14. baker 19. ass 21. or MISSING WORDS – 2 – Crossword

Sa

1. (a) sound (b) plants, carrots and vegetables (c) Therefore, all carrots are plants. 2. (a) invalid (b) Every superhero is a good guy. (c) three 3. (a) not a syllogism (b) one 4. (a) invalid (b) three (c) balloons, baboons and goofy things 5. (a) valid (b) Therefore, all baboons are teachers. SIM SALA’S MAGIC EMPORIUM – Sales catalogue pages 56 – 58

Down: 1. always 2. ginger 3. lie 5. Easter 7. drop 9. an 14. oyster 17. enter 19. road 22. tone 24. now CRYPTIC PUZZLES – 2 – Crossword

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pages 50 – 52

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HOW TO PLAY THE GUESSING GAME – Flowchart

Across: 1. hit 10. tape 15. atlas 18. teenager Down: 2. imagine 6. jackaroo 11. velcro 14. lies

9. sumo 14. bones 18. darkness 23. retch 3. totem 6. funniest 11. rage 16. idea page 62

5. jujitsu 11. victory 16. in 20. soloists

8. monkey 13. windmill 17. nicer

3. top 7. trolleys 12. yes 19. is

4. leaping 9. needing 13. with

Comprehension for independent readers

77


Answers page 63

8. easter 9. riddles 15. no 16. icicle 23. fold 25. peg 29. not 31. oil 34. rug

4. isolate 11. eleven 17. indoor 23. feast 30. tag pages 65 - 67

1. cradle 2. Answers may include: pudding, diddle, fiddle 3. story 4. Answers may include: Humpty, Dumpty, gently, sleepy, Johnny 5. tell 6. Answers may include: mistaken, cupboard, another 7. them 8. Answers may include: Stout, drown, great, again, sheep, where, leave, alone, tails, blows, bough, black, quiet, their 9. Answers may include: horses, donkey, pony, spider, dog, cat, cow 10. mistaken, another 11. Answers may include: father’s, where, heroes, mother 12. whipped 13. bray

78

Across: 3. Arizona 5. charge 9. Australia 11. manned 13. Athens 14. first 17. explodes 20. into 23. poem 26. Soviet Down: 1. founded 2. great 7. Spartans 8. for 11. motion 16. and 19. slavery 21. the 25. using TIME LINE – WORD PUZZLE – 2 – Scanning

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3. yes 10. doc 14. at 22. ego 28. lit

Across: (i) 1901 (iii) 1912 (v) 51 (vi) 1223 (viii) 578 (x) 1990 (xii) 750 (xiii) 410 (xvi) 356 (xvii) 410 (xx) 1942 (xxii) 657 (xxiv) 1997 (xxv) 1588 (xxvii) 44 (xxviii) 1939 (xxix) 1833 Down: (ii) 1185 (iii) 1770 (iv) 1815 (v) 550 (vii) 334 (ix) 776 (xi) 1346 (xiv) 1917 (xv) 70 (xviii) 1984 (xix) 1991 (xxi) 218 (xxiii) 753 (xxvi) 73 TIME LINE – WORD PUZZLE – 1 – Scanning page 71

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5. bat 10. get 19. sun 27. if page 64

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Across: 1. holiday 6. or 12. it 13. flat 19. oat 21. avert 26. every 27. tool 32. airship 33. part Down: 1. horrid 2. lad 5. heat 7. retold 12. in 13. for 18. lap 20. nor 24. lyric 27. tap TARGET WORDS – Scanning

9. lights 17. after 22. burn 29. feet

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Across: 1. catnap 4. able 8. toga 11. brim 13. urged 14. topic 18. yeses 20. group 21. ill 24. pilot 25. end 28. at 30. animal 31. ewe Down: 1. century 3. troughs 3. all 6. no 7. hammers 8. tub 12. rattle 15. problem 16. capital 23. use 24. pin 26. new WORD SEARCH – 2 – Crossword

14. Answers may include: horses, beggars; tumbling, after; after, donkey; donkey, donkey; tuffet, eating; little, pony; diddle, diddle 15. eye 16. needles 17. middle 18. new 19. frightened, fall TIME LINE – NUMBER PUZZLE – Scanning page 70

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WORD SEARCH – 1 – Crossword

Comprehension for independent readers

Across: 1. destroy 9. England 16. power 20. Trojan Down: 2. raiding 7. Italy 12. Teresa 18. in

6. Vikings 12. two 15. laws 22. dies

4. farsighted 10. strikes 18. put 24. Marco page 72

4. war 11. gravity 17. American

5. metric 15. Europe 19. India

3. iron 8. Titanic 13. origin

6. president 10. nuclear 14. Caesar

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6352 Comprehension for Independent Readers - Upper