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Comprehension for independent readers (Middle)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing® 2012 Copyright© Edward Connor 2012 ISBN 978-1-84654-607-5 PR– 6351

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Titles in this series:

Comprehension for independent readers (Middle) Comprehension for independent readers (Upper)

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Foreword Comprehension for independent readers – Middle offers a range of writing genres and activities to develop the skills required for comprehension. The aim is to provide pupils with the opportunity to work independently to extract information from different texts and to demonstrate the different levels of comprehension: literal, inferential and evaluative. The other title in the series is: Comprehension for independent readers – Upper

Contents

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Teachers notes......................................................................................................................................................... iv Curriculum links........................................................................................................................................................ v Space is the place (Poster) .................................................................................................................................. 2–4 The life of John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (Time line) ............................................................................................... 5–7 How to cross the road at traffic lights (Flowchart) ............................................................................................ 8–10 The jungle book and Alice’s adventures in Wonderland (Scanning) ............................................................... 11–13 Reading sense out of nonsense (Interpreting) ................................................................................................. 14–16 Random ideas (Facts and opinions) ................................................................................................................. 17–19 The human body (Diagrams) ............................................................................................................................ 20–22 Missing words (Crosswords) ........................................................................................................................... 23–24 Definitions (Crosswords) ........................................................................................................................................ 25 The rainbow bird (Poetry) ....................................................................................................................................... 26 Baby’s dream (Poetry) ............................................................................................................................................. 27 The fish (Poetry) ..................................................................................................................................................... 28 Rhyming couplets (Poetry) ..................................................................................................................................... 29 At the bottom of the garden – 1 (Story) .......................................................................................................... 30–32 At the bottom of the garden – 2 (Story) ......................................................................................................... 33–35 Simon’s School Supplies (Sales catalogue) ..................................................................................................... 36–38 Tautology and double negatives (Awkward writing) ....................................................................................... 39–41 Fishy fish (Data grid) .............................................................................................................................................. 42 Who killed Willard? (Data grid) ............................................................................................................................. 43 Classifying animals (Data grid) .............................................................................................................................. 44 Superheroes (Data grid) ......................................................................................................................................... 45 Sandra at the zoo (Comic book) ....................................................................................................................... 46–48 A lot of work for a prince (Play script) ............................................................................................................. 49–52 Understanding proverbs (Proverbs) .................................................................................................................. 53–54 Proverb word search (Proverbs) ....................................................................................................................... 55–56 Answers ........................................................................................................................................................... 57–61

Note: Prim-Ed Publishing® punctuates speech as recommended by Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edition 2002.

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Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

iii


Teachers notes Most units in the book focus on the literal, inferential and evaluative comprehension of a particular text type or the use of a specific figure of speech. Appreciation of the latter is necessary for the inferential and evaluative levels of comprehension. A number of units are puzzle-based and focus on the understanding of vocabulary and the skill of scanning as well as extracting information from text types such as time lines. Figures of speech featured • Proverbs The focus of the unit is highlighted at the top of each page.

Comprehension skills

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• Scanning • Interpreting • Fact or opinion

Text types used

• Awkward writing

The format of questions ranges from multiple choice and matching to those requiring a full written explanation.

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• Poster • Time line • Flowchart • Diagram • Poetry • Narrative • Sales catalogue • Information in table • Comic book • Play script

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Language feature

Something extra At the end of most units, is an additional activities section with suggestions for developing pupils’ understanding of the theme of the unit.

Classroom organisation The aim of the book is for pupils to work independently but there are times when discussion with peers would be beneficial to each pupil’s full understanding and enjoyment of the unit.

iv

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

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Curriculum links Country England

Subject

Level

Objectives

English (Reading)

Years 3/4

• develop positive attitudes to reading and understanding what they read • understand what they read in books they can read independently • retrieve and record information from nonfiction • explain and discuss their understanding of what they read

Language and Literacy (Reading)

KS 1

• read a selection of poetry and prose • read with some independence for information • read, explore, understand and make use of a range of texts • use a range of comprehension skills, both oral and written, to interpret and discuss texts • explore and begin to understand how texts are structured in a range of genres • express opinions and give reasons based on what they have read • begin to use evidence from text to support their views

KS 2

• read, explore, understand and make use of a range of texts • extend the range of their reading • represent their understanding of texts in a range of ways • consider, interpret and discuss texts • justify their responses logically, by inference, deduction and/or reference to evidence within the text • use a variety of reading skills for different reading purposes

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Northern Ireland

TEACHERS NOTES

Republic English of Ireland (Reading)

Wales

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Literacy and English (Reading)

• experience different types of text • engage with a variety of poetry and verse • develop basic information retrieval skills • develop a range of comprehension strategies • extend and develop his/her response to increasingly challenging reading material

First

• using what I know about the features of different types of texts, I can find, select, sort and use information for a specific purpose • identify and consider the purpose and main ideas of a text • respond to different kinds of questions and other close reading tasks • recognise the difference between fact and opinion • share thoughts about structure, characters and/or setting, recognise the writer’s message, relate it to my own experiences, and comment on the effective choice of words and other features

Second

• using what I know about the features of different types of texts, I can find, select and sort information and use this for different purposes • identify and consider the purpose and main ideas of a text and use supporting detail • respond to literal, inferential and evaluative questions and other close reading tasks • identify and explain the difference between fact and opinion • discuss structure, characterisation and/or setting, recognise the relevance of the writer’s theme and how this relates to my experiences, and discuss the writer’s style and other features

KS 2

• read in different ways for different purposes • recognise and understand the characteristics of different genres • consider what they read, respond orally and in writing, and be able to select evidence to support their views • become an enthusiastic and reflective reader • experience and respond to a wide range of texts

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Scotland

3rd/4th Class • become an increasingly independent reader

English (Reading)

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Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

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Space is the place

2

POSTER

Voyager 2 passed Uranus in 1986. The planet’s atmosphere is mainly made of hydrogen. Pioneer 11 flew by Saturn in 1979. The planet’s rings are mainly chunks of ice. Voyager 2 passed Neptune in 1989. In 1612, Galileo observed the planet but thought it was a star.

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Jupiter was examined in 1973 by Pioneer 10. The planet is 318 times larger than Earth.

The sun’s surface temperature is 5500 ºC and at its core is 20 000 000 ºC.

Mariner 4 passed Mars (the ‘Red Planet’) in 1965. Mars’ Olympus Mons is one of the largest mountains in the solar system, rising 22 km from the planet’s surface. Beautiful Earth; have we been visited?

Mariner 10 passed near Mercury in 1974. It is the closest planet to the sun.

Neil Armstrong walked on our moon in 1969. In 1978, Pluto’s largest moon, Charon, was discovered. The spacecraft, New Horizons, should be near Pluto in 2015. Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Mariner 2, in 1962, flew by Venus. The planet is a little smaller than Earth, but has no moon. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Space is the place

POSTER

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong. Use the poster on page 2 to answer the questions. For each question, shade the bubble beneath the answer you think is correct.  Which planet was visited by a spacecraft in 1974?

Paris

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Mars

Uranus

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Venus

Saturn

 Which planet is nearest in size to the Earth?

Mercury

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Neptune

Mt Everest

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 Pluto is no longer considered a planet, but one of thousands of icy rocks in that part of the solar system. How many planets are there in the solar system now? ten

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eight

one twelve

 Judging by the sizes as shown in the poster, which planet is the smallest?

Earth’s moon

Uranus

Pluto

Mercury

 Which part of the sun is its hottest?

the surface

the apple

the edges

the centre

 Which planet of the solar system has not as yet been reached by a spacecraft from Earth? Venus Saturn

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Pluto

none

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

3


Space is the place

POSTER

Use the poster on page 2 to answer the questions.  What is Charon?

a planet

the solar system

a moon

an atmosphere

 How many different types of spacecraft are mentioned on the poster? four

six

UFOs

eight

 What happened in 1969?

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A manned spacecraft landed on the moon for the first time.

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There was a storm on Mercury.

A spacecraft landed on the moon for the first time.

Charon was discovered.

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 What does the question on the poster relating to Earth mean?

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 New Horizons is set to reach Pluto in 2015, but something could go wrong to prevent this or even destroy the craft.

Suggest something that could go wrong.

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SOMETHING EXTRA • In a group, discuss and share your knowledge of the solar system, the galaxy and the universe. • Use your combined knowledge of space to create a science fiction story based on factual data. • Go a step further and record your story as a play with sound effects and a narrator. Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

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The life of John Ronald Reuel Tolkien This time line shows some of the important events in the life of the wellknown author, John Ronald Reuel Tolkien. JRR Tolkien dies.

TIME LINE

1980

Receives a CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) from the Queen.

1970

The adventures of Tom Bombardil is published.

1960

The return of the king, being the third part of The lord of the rings, is published.

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1950

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The fellowship of the ring and The two towers, being the first and second parts of The lord of the rings, are published.

(1971: Edith dies.)

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Starts work as an academic at Leeds University.

Third son, Christopher, is born.

1920

Marries Edith Bratt.

1910 His mother, Mabel Tolkien (nee Suffield), dies.

1900 Is taken to England by his mother. His father, Arthur, stays in South Africa.

The Hobbit is published.

1930

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At Oxford, with other authors (including CS Lewis) he forms a storytelling club called ‘The Inklings’.

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1940

Having enlisted in the army in 1915 as a second lieutenant, leaves at conclusion of World War One. Starts studying at Oxford University, where he achieves a first-class honours degree in English literature. His father dies while still in SA. Is born in South Africa of British parents.

1890

1880 Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

5


The life of John Ronald Reuel Tolkien

TIME LINE

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong. Use the time line on page 5 to answer the questions. For each question, shade the bubble beneath the answer you think is correct.

John Smith.

Gandalf.

Time Line.

JRR Tolkien.

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 John Ronald Reuel Tolkien is best known by the name:

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To show that time is continuous.

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To show where it begins and ends.

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 Why does the time line have arrowheads at both its top and bottom?

To show that it is a foreign concept.

To show it is exactly one hundred years in length.

 When was The Hobbit published?

1837 1932 1937 2012

 What was Tolkien’s father’s first name?

Mr Tolkien

Brian

Arthur

Ronald

 In the time line, what do the letters ‘SA’ refer to? 6

South Australia

Super Author

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

South America

South Africa

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The life of John Ronald Reuel Tolkien

TIME LINE

Use the time line on page 5 to answer the questions.  What was Tolkien’s mother’s surname before she became Mrs Tolkien?

She didn’t have one.

Suffield

Mabel

Reuel

 Why are the notices about Tolkien’s CBE and his wife’s death listed in the same information box? The box would appear too small.

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One caused the other to happen.

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They happened the same year.

It is clearer to read than each being in separate boxes.

1892 & 1924

1916

1916 & 1924

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 When was Tolkien married and when was his third son born? 1918 & 1919

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 What are the titles of the three parts of The lord of the rings?

 What is the ‘prequel’ to The lord of the rings? (‘Prequel’ means ‘comes before’.)

SOMETHING EXTRA • Find out more about Tolkien’s life. • Tolkien’s brother, Hilary, had a dog that was called Bilbo when it was good and Baggins when it was bad. Find out the connection between this and Tolkien’s work. • The time line mentions the author CS Lewis. Find out what he wrote and why not read some of his works, too! Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

7


How to cross the road at traffic lights

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FLOWCHART

By answering yes or no to the questions, this flowchart explains how to cross the road at traffic lights.

No Are the ‘walk safe’ lights green or is the figure of a ‘walk safe’ person lit up by a green light?

Yes Yes

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No

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… check both directions of the road for any vehicles that could pose a risk to you.

Is it clear and safe to cross?

No

No

Yes

Walk across the road carefully: not too quickly and not too slowly. Do not run, skip or hop.

Yes

Have the ‘walk safe’ lights turned to green or has the figure of a ‘walk safe’ person been lit up by a green light?

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It is now safe to cross the road, but it is safer to be careful, so …

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Press the button and wait patiently. Try not to fidget, press the button over and over, or pick your nose.

Have you reached the other side of the road?

Well done!

Continue safely on your way. Do not talk to strangers or step on dog poop.

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

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How to cross the road at traffic lights

FLOWCHART

Use the flowchart on page 8 to answer the questions.  What instruction to operate the ‘walk safe’ lights are you given if they are not green?  What instructions are you given first if the ‘walk safe’ lights are green?

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 What do you think would happen if the ‘walk safe’ lights were broken and stuck on red?

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 When does the flowchart indicate it is safe to cross the road?

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 According to the flowchart, does it matter how you cross the road?

Explain your answer.

 For how long do you have to keep walking across the road? Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

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How to cross the road at traffic lights

FLOWCHART

Use the flowchart on page 8 to answer the questions.  What choice does the flowchart give you immediately before crossing the road?  What is the least number of decisions that someone crossing the road has to make according to the flowchart?

No

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Yes

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Have you reached another road you want to cross?

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 (a) To which parts of the flowchart would this extra question box go?

(b) Which parts of the flowchart would the ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ arrows lead?

Yes:

No:

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SOMETHING EXTRA

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• Rewrite the instructions for crossing a road as a procedure.

In boxes from the ‘Yes’ diamonds, write: – Do you have an itch? – Is the itch in an area you can reach? – Place the fingernail tips of one hand on • Write these questions and the itch and press in a little. instructions in boxes to construct a flowchart titled – Move your fingers back and forth over the itch 10 times. ‘How to scratch an itch’. • Question boxes have arrows In boxes from the ‘No’ diamonds, write: – Then you don’t need to scratch. to Yes and No diamonds. Instruction boxes just have – If you can’t reach it, you can’t scratch it. arrows to the next box. Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

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The jungle book and Alice’s adventures in Wonderland

SCANNING

The two sets of quotations, from The jungle book by Rudyard Kipling and Alice’s adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll, have deliberately been rearranged to make them more awkward for you to read.

THE JUNGLE BOOK

ALICE IN WONDERLAND

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I have no gift of words, but I speak the truth. There is no harm in a man’s cub. None can hope to lead the Pack forever. What is the Law of the Jungle? Fire … every beast lives in deadly fear of it. The Bear is their mother. There is none like to me! None of the Jungle People like being disturbed. Well, if I am a man, a man I must become. In the jungle, life and food depend on keeping your temper. Why should I waste wisdom on a river turtle? For the strength of the Pack is the Wolf, and the strength of the Wolf is the Pack. I will remember what I was, I am sick of rope and chains. I will go out to my own kind, and the wood folk in their lairs. These are the four that are never content. A black shadow dropped down into the circle. But he had a voice as soft as wild honey dripping from a tree. ‘A brave heart and a courteous tongue’, said he. His spots are the joy of the Leopard. None of the Jungle People like being disturbed. His strength goes from him and he gets feebler.

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What is the use of a book, without pictures or conversations? Oh my ears and whiskers, how late it’s getting! Curiouser and curiouser! But if I’m not the same, the next question is, ‘Who in the world am I?’ I don’t know the meaning of half those long words, and I don’t believe you do either! I can’t explain myself, I’m afraid, Sir, because I’m not myself you see. If it had grown up, it would have made a dreadfully ugly child; but it makes rather a handsome pig, I think. We’re all mad here. Off with her head! Everything’s got a moral, if only you can find it. We called him Tortoise because he taught us. Begin at the beginning and go on till you come to the end: then stop. You’re nothing but a pack of cards! But then, shall I never get any older than I am now? A cat may look at a king. It would be so nice if something made sense for a change. Read the directions and directly you will be directed in the right direction. Why, this watch is exactly two days slow. Let me see: four times five is twelve, and four times six is thirteen, and four times seven is … oh dear! Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

11


The jungle book and Alice’s adventures in Wonderland

SCANNING

It would be too much bother to read the quotations over and over in order to answer these questions so just scan them instead. Use the extracts on page 11 to answer the questions. From The jungle book.  What two words have a double ‘p’ in them?  What two words mean ‘a human child’?

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 What word rhymes with ‘year’?

 What word has ‘th’ exactly in the centre?

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 What two parts of the body are mentioned?

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From Alice’s adventures in Wonderland.

 What word starts and ends with the letter ‘d’?

 What word is a homophone to a word that has to do with rope? (Homophones are words with different meanings that sound the same.)  What adjective is used to describe ‘words’?  According to one of the quotes, what are we all?  What word rhymes with ‘years’? 12

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

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The jungle book and Alice’s adventures in Wonderland

SCANNING

Use the extracts on page 11 to answer the questions from either set of quotations.  What two words each have the letter ‘e’ three times?  Homophones are words that sound the same but have different spelling and meaning. What word is a homophone to a word that means ‘a servant’?

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 According to the quotes, what shouldn’t wise thoughts be wasted on?

 How was a timepiece running?

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 What may a cat look at?

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 What frightens creatures very much?

 What is someone losing that is making him weaker?

SOMETHING EXTRA • Here is a game that requires the opposite of scanning. It requires that every word of the quotations is read. – Six pupils stand at the front of the class, each with a copy of the quotes. – The teacher chooses the ‘killer’ words; for example, those with double letters, that end with the letter ‘e’, that include the letter ‘t’, or that have a possessive or contraction apostrophe. – The six pupils read the quotations, just one word each at a time but missing out the ‘killer’ words. – Anyone who reads a ‘killer’ word drops out. Reading continues until the winner is left. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

13


Reading sense out of nonsense

INTERPRETING

`Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. This is possibly the most famous piece of nonsense ever written. It is the first verse of ‘Jabberwocky’ by Lewis Carroll in Through the looking-glass and what Alice found there (1872). It showed the world that nonsense could be fun as well as clever.

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It is important that no matter how nonsensical a sentence might be, it has to be grammatically correct to have any value. Although you can’t fully understand the meaning of ‘Jabberwocky’, you can still see sense in it if you understand how nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs work.

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Nouns are naming words of places, people, things and ideas; e.g. Antarctica, Miss Jones, Vikings, yacht, atmosphere, happiness.

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Adjectives are words that describe nouns—how they look, sound or feel etc.; e.g. green, loud, lumpy, seven, triangular.

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Verbs are action words and also being words; e.g. run, walk, laugh, hide, talk (action verbs) am, is, are, were, was (being verbs).

Adverbs are words that describe verbs—how an action is performed; e.g. quickly, easily, loudly, soft, unpleasantly.  In these sentences underline the nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs using different colours.

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• The red dog jumped acrobatically over the lazy lizard. • Seven sweet strawberries were greedily eaten by four furry frogs. • My little sister threw a brick at my poor head. • Delicious apples deliciously taste nothing like furry frogs.

NOUNS

ADJECTIVES

red, lazy dog, lizard seven, sweet, four, strawberries, frogs furry sister, brick, head little, poor apples, frogs delicious, furry

VERBS

ADVERBS

jumped were eaten threw taste

acrobatically greedily deliciously

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

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Reading sense out of nonsense

INTERPRETING

Here are some sentences that are nonsensical because some of the words in them are pure gibberish. But there is sense to them because, just like those in ‘Jabberwocky’, they are grammatically correct. In all sentences, the gibberish words follow these rules. Nouns begin with the letter ‘n’. Adjectives begin with the letters ‘aj’. Verbs begin with the letter ‘v’. Adverbs end with the letters ‘ly’.

 Identify each type of word in each sentence.

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Use the information on page 14 to help you rewrite the sentences.

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 Use the clue and selection of real words to rewrite each sentence so that it makes sense. Sentence (a) has been done for you.

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The nobnik obsuly vaffall a ajoral natruplex.

(a)

noun adverb verb adjective noun The sentence is about something that was devoured.

Nouns

anvil, Mt Everest, banana, cloud, monkey, moon, China

Adjectives

yellow, sour, pretty, hard, delicious

Verbs

kicked, ate, jumped, lost, kissed

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Clue

Adverbs

quickly, fast, greedily, slowly, furiously, lovingly

The monkey greedily ate a yellow banana. Your answer Of course it could have been other answers like, ‘The monkey slowly ate the delicious banana’. (b)

The neminer vod ajinol as it has ajoilic ninols but no nilooshes.

Clue

The sentence is about a marine creature.

Nouns

cat, shark, octopus, arms, trees, stars, fingers, frogs, farms

Adjectives

big, crazy, strange, happy, eight, beautiful

Verbs

ran, ate, is, die, jumps

Your answer Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

15


Reading sense out of nonsense

INTERPRETING

Use the information on pages 14 and 15 to help you rewrite the sentences.

16

(c)

The ajillol and ajify nissoes villop many noos very crickily.

Clue

The sentence is about something you can see in a garden.

Nouns

whales, bird, roses, rhinoceroses, bees, snails, beetle

Adjectives

drab, ugly, yellow, weird, red, sleepy

Verbs

fly, wrangle, skip, attract, wiggle, dream

Adverbs

clumsily, easily, madly, awkwardly, sluggishly, quickly

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Your answer

Nerri Noluck and the ajinni noops mlofly vizzy and pottily vimf.

Clue

The sentence is about a well-known princess and her friends.

Nouns

sparrow, Snow, Jack, pies, houses, Prince, dwarfs, Beauty, Ripper, apple, cats, White, Charming, strawberries

Adjectives

seven, gigantic, microscopic, bazaar, absurd, crazy

Verbs

cheat, scheme, sing, borrow, sharpen, whistle, expel

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(d)

merrily, deviously, shrewdly, wisely, sweetly

Adverbs

Your answer

SOMETHING EXTRA • Work with a partner to identify possible nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs in the verse from ‘Jabberwocky’ on page 14. • Find a copy of ‘Jabberwocky’ and, in a group, practise reading it as if it makes complete sense. Take different parts and recite the poem to the rest of the class. • In a group, prepare a dialogue of ‘nonsense’ but include little clues or drawings to give your audience a hint as to what the dialogue is about. • Research the nonsense works of authors such as Spike Milligan, Edward Lear, Ogden Nash, Mervyn Peake and John Lennon. Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

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Random ideas

FACTS AND OPINIONS

Which statement is a fact and which is an opinion? ‘Jack and Jill’ is a nursery rhyme. ‘Jack and Jill’ is the best nursery rhyme. What do you think? Facts and opinions often cause confusion. A fact is a true statement about something that can be proven to be correct; for example:

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Rome is the capital city of Italy.

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This is a fact that can be verified by finding Italy on a map, checking the key for the capital city symbol and comparing it with the symbol next to the city of Rome.

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An opinion is a statement about something that someone believes to be true. Different people hold different opinions about the same things for different reasons; for example:

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Chocolate ice-cream tastes better than strawberry ice-cream.

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This is an opinion that the speaker holds. To him or her, chocolate ice-cream might taste better but to many others it may not. It cannot be proven to be correct so it can’t be stated as a fact. Some statements are neither a matter of fact nor opinion.

A question is asked to find out information; for example, How far is it to the beach? A lie is told to try to make others believe that an untruth is true; for example: I have never in my life eaten food. A mistake can occur when someone believes they have factual information but they do not; for example: Auckland is the capital city of New Zealand.

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Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

17


Random ideas

FACTS AND OPINIONS

People are always stating facts about things but just because someone says something, it does not make it true. Use the information on page 17 to help you complete the task. Tick either TRUE or FALSE.

TRUE

 The moon is made of green cheese.

 In most countries there are four seasons in the year.

 Summer is warmer than winter.

 Planet Earth is part of our solar system.

pl e

 The sun is a star.

m

 Summer is hotter than winter but not as hot as autumn.

Sa

 There is a McDonald’s™ restaurant on the moon.

 The order of seasons is winter, spring, summer and autumn.

in g

 Jupiter is the nearest planet to our sun.

Vi ew

 The sun’s name is Sol, which is why we have such names as, the ‘solar system’ and ‘solar power’.

 The rockets that go into space are made of paper.

 Each season is about three months long.

 Venus is on one side of Earth and Mars is on the other.

 There are more suns in our solar system than planets.

 In the northern hemisphere, Christmas occurs during summer.

18

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

FALSE

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Random ideas

FACTS AND OPINIONS

Use the information on page 17 to help you complete the task.  In pairs, read and discuss the three opinions on smoking.  Give each opinion a rating out of 10. (Zero out of 10 means it is not reasonable at all and 10 out of 10 means it is very reasonable.)  Briefly explain the ratings you apply to each opinion. I think that anyone who starts smoking is very foolish. Rating

pl e

A 10

Sa

m

I think that smokers who don’t just quit are foolish.

in g

B

Rating 10

C

Vi ew

I think that smoking is cool and anyone who smokes is cool. Rating 10

SOMETHING EXTRA • As a class, discuss and compare the opinions on smoking and the ratings given by each pair of pupils. • Try this ‘friend compatibility’ activity. – Write a few sentences giving your opinions on these topics: pets, television, school, sports, homework, music, pocket money, food. – Compare your opinions with someone else and give each a rating out of 10. (Zero out of 10 if they are completely different and 10 out of 10 if they are exactly the same.) – Add the ratings out of a possible 80 (10 for each topic). – The higher the total, the more compatible you are as friends. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

19


The human body

DIAGRAMS

THE HUMAN SKELETON

A MOLAR TOOTH enamel

cranium gum

clavicle

mandible nerve

sternum humerus

ribs

AN EYE

radius

pelvis

dentine

bone

ulna

eyebrow

eyelashes

femur

eye muscle

m

patella

pl e

eyelid

fibula tibia

in g

Sa

cornea (clear covering over iris and pupil)

pupil iris (coloured part of eye)

A LEG

AN ARM

Vi ew

tear duct

shoulder

thigh

arm pit

knee calf

elbow

Hand

shin wrist thumb

pinky

20

ring

ankle

arch

middle index

(Fingers)

toes

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

sole

Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ ~ www.prim-ed.com


The human body

DIAGRAMS

Use the labelled diagrams on page 20 to help you answer the questions.  Which bones make up the chin and shoulder?

 What is the softer layer beneath a tooth’s enamel?

The chin:

 What is a tooth firmly imbedded in?

The shoulder:

 What are the top and bottom parts of the foot called?

 Which part of the leg is behind the shin?

pl e

 What are the ribs connected to?

 What are the coloured and clear parts of the eye called?

Clear part:

Vi ew

Sa

Coloured part:

 What is the finger next to the thumb called?

 What is the proper name of the bone we call the ‘funny bone’?

in g

m

 Which bone can you feel just beneath the surface of the shin?

 What is at the heart of a tooth that causes pain when the tooth decays?  Which part of the body is at the base of the hand that allows it to twist and turn with such flexibility?

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

21


The human body

DIAGRAMS

Use the labelled diagrams on page 20 to help you answer the questions.  Which bone includes the chin?

 Place the body parts in alphabetical order.

 Look at the diagrams of the leg and the eye. Are they left or the right?

The leg:

The eye:

 Which two bones make up the arm between the wrist and the elbow?

pl e

m

shoulder, elbow, wrist, pupil, iris, ankle, thigh, knee, arch, thumb

Sa

 Which is the longest bone in the body?

(a) a a e l l p t

(b) a b f i l u

(c) a c i m n r u

(d) a d i r s u

(e) e h m r s u u

(f) e f m r u

22

Vi ew

in g

 Rearrange the letters to find the names of the bones.

SOMETHING EXTRA • Explore the internet and other resources for labelled diagrams of things that interest you; for example: transport, animals, plants, buildings, sports equipment, maps. Choose one to copy and label. • Draw a labelled diagram of an imaginary creature, machine or construction. • Draw a plan of a favourite place you visit regularly. Write an explanation to describe how to get from the entrance to a particular feature. • Draw a labelled diagram of an imaginary place.

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Missing words – 1

CROSSWORDS

The first letter of the missing word is given in each clue. 1.

2.

3.

4.

7.

8.

5.

6.

9.

10.

11.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

19.

20.

pl e

18.

12.

22.

m

21.

DOWN

Sa

ACROSS

to buy some

 Have you noticed that a s up and on when down?

in g

 I went to the grocery s vegetables and fruit.

 ‘Who d you think you are?’ demanded the angry teacher.

Vi ew

 I wonder what makes water w

?

 We have a base t

is off when

number system.

 However, there are many o systems beside base ten.

number

 The teacher will e the pupil’s writing and make it even better.

 E are not snakes or giant worms; believe it or not, they are fish.

 To breathe, you must first i and then you must exhale it.

 Diana was the name of an English princess and a Greek goddess, but only one of them was called Princess D for short.

some air

 Stay s when crossing the road by checking for traffic and being sensible.  Cross with c when it is safe to cross the road. Do not run or dawdle and don’t be foolish.

 They say that the o animal of all.

is the happiest

 If someone is d it does not help to simply yell at them.

 The sun is very f away but we still feel its heat and see its brilliant light.

 ‘It wasn’t my f

 Be sensible a

 To t someone up you need some rope of thick string or a long snake.

 It is s

least once in a while.

to act foolishly.

 Did you w your name at the top of this sheet as you were told to?  I am going t

cross the road carefully.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

’, said Bart again.

 There’s north, south, west and e

 Be friendly o

.

else I will leave.

 Each time I try to do around-the-world on the y -y I hit my head with it.

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

23


Missing words – 2

CROSSWORDS

The first letter for each of the missing words and its position in the puzzle is given; for example: i (A10) = it starts with the letter ‘i’ and is at 10 across in the puzzle.

2.

R

3.

4.

7.

N

10.

11.

N

S

14.

17.

18.

16.

19.

21.

T

L 24.

I

12.

15.

V T

20.

23.

A

W

22.

m

13.

N

9.

R

6.

F

Sa

8.

5.

pl e

1.

28.

Vi ew

in g

27.

N

O

25.

M 26.

F

• S (A1) is my favourite season because i (A10) makes the flowers bloom and the (A23). birds start s

• When the business went bankrupt, one p (D2) said, ‘I am no longer the o (A21) of this (D4) home’. business, so I will g

(D6) must be clever little worms to know • I what an inch is. But do they know what n (D18) are and are they smart enough not to get e (A17) by birds?

• When sweethearts are d (D14), they o (A7) go to see a s (A15).

• I like a (A20) but it drives me g (D24) g (A27) when I look at abstract art, a (A26) I just don’t understand it. • ‘The t (A8) is, n (A19) I did not do it. I repeat, n (D22), no, no I did not rob the bank, so I did not s (D5) the loot anywhere’, said the bank robber.

24

• Have you noticed that iron is hard but wool is s (A28) and a (D20) that water i (D12) wet? If you haven’t, you should g (D25) see a doctor a (D26) once. • I can t (D8) my own shoelaces but o (D16) always comes undone. • In the desert there are places called oases. Just one is called an o (A11). They are lovely places to go i (D3) and h (D9) a rest and e (A13) this crossword.

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Definitions

CROSSWORDS

This is a typical kind of crossword, where a clue gives a short definition of the answer. To help you, some letters have been placed in the puzzle. 1.

L

2.

3.

4.

7.

8.

5.

9.

10.

L

14.

17.

T

m

16.

13.

pl e

H

in g

ACROSS

11.

T

15.

18.

20.

O

Sa

19.

21.

R R

DOWN  A fashion that lasts a short time.

 Initials added to the end of a letter to show more has been added.

 A spiritual being from heaven.

 When something is to follow another.

 Pathways leading out of a building.

Vi ew

 The part of a fire that you can see.

 Probably the most popular type of pet.  What to do when the lights turn green.  A joining word that tells in which direction something moved.

S

X

O

12.

6.

 A pronoun that refers to the speaker.  When someone or something has been standing still in one place.  A word meaning ‘not this one’.

 How long that something survived.

 Dangerous part of a bull or noisy part of a car.

 A joining word (preposition) showing that something is above another.

 A joining word (preposition) indicating where something is.

 A laughing sound.

 An animal’s hearing organs.

 To decay or go mouldy.

 Opposite of yes.

 A pronoun showing that something belongs to a female.

 It goes with 18 across to make fun of someone who has had an accident. (Not a nice thing to do!)

 Automobiles.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

25


The rainbow bird

POETRY

One line is missing from each verse of the poem. • Read through the poem and the choice of lines in the box below. • Choose a line to fit in each verse. • Write the line in the space provided. • On plain paper, copy and illustrate the poem. In summer, stones were warm to hold, And the light as bright as elfin gold. Dragonflies hummed but all else was still, (a)

pl e

Its breast was yellow, its face was red. With rainbow confetti speckled over its head.

m

(b)

Sa

When it looked at me as if to speak. Its tail as orange as the setting sun, (c)

(d)

Vi ew

in g

A purple question mark was on its back, That swirled and curled over a dot of black. It looked at me as if to say, Would it whistle or might it trill, As it gazed at me from the windowsill?

(e) It up and flew to another shore. Yet before it flew I’m sure, I think, It looked at me and gave a wink. Its feet were pointy as well as brown,

Have you ever seen a bird so bright?

Its wings were blue and as if for fun,

A rosy glow was upon each feather,

‘What shall I do to make your day?’

It flew so high it touched the sky,

But to my regret there was no more,

‘How do you do, how do you do?’

A spot of pink was on its beak,

A bird of colour came to my windowsill.

26

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Baby’s dream

POETRY

One line is missing from each verse of the poem. • Read through the poem and the choice of lines in the box below. • Choose a line to fit in each verse. • Write the line in the space provided. • On plain paper, copy and illustrate the poem. Hush, pretty baby, go to sleep, (a)

pl e

One, two, thee, four and then some more, Sheep jump over baby and go out the door. Five, six, seven, eight and nine, When you wake up, the sun will shine. Mummy sang a lullaby while Daddy rocked the cradle,

m

(b)

Sa

(c)

(d)

Vi ew

in g

She drifted off to sleep on the wings of butterflies. They took her to a land of fantasy and joy, Where baby danced and played with her favourite toy. A purple unicorn skipped over a stream, She was a part of baby’s little dream. She cared for baby all through the night. Then came the dawn and baby woke up, And mother was there with milk in a cup.

(e) She knew deep inside Mummy was the unicorn. Baby was dancing like a spinning top,

After a while the baby closed her eyes,

The moon smiled down and winked his eye,

Her horn was silver and her eyes were bright,

Baby smiled brightly just like a tiny fawn,

And Pooch barked the tune as best as he was able.

Along came a pony dressed in pink,

Sliding down a rainbow onto a bed of flowers,

Mummy will help you count your sheep.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

27


The fish

POETRY

One line is missing from each verse of the poem. • Read through the poem and the choice of lines in the box below. • Choose a line to fit in each verse. • Write the line in the space provided. • On plain paper, copy and illustrate the poem. Below the waves, above the sand The seaweed sways like a waving hand. The tuna swim and the dolphins play,

pl e

(a)

m

On the surface, seabirds sit, Their feet in danger to get bit. (b)

Sa

Suspicious of the fish that strike. (c)

(d)

Vi ew

in g

Two eyes look up but not around. The moray eel with sharpened teeth, Slips into coral and hides beneath. Two monstrous shadows dim the light, And all are frozen, all in fright. Little eyes strain through the dark,

If it’s whale they’ll breath a sigh, If it’s shark they’ll flee or die. The shadows pass and those that hide, (e) Seek a glimpse of whale or shark.

Then gliding comes the manta ray.

Clownfish dance like underwater rainbows.

The sun sets gently in the west

Some fish so dark, some fish so bright,

The shy sardines a skittish tyke,

The coral towers like candy palaces,

Hear propellers churn the tide.

The porpoise and the slow tortoise,

The flounder lays upon the ground,

28

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Rhyming couplets

POETRY

Rhyming couplets are sets of two lines that rhyme. They are often used to create entire poems but they can also be used on their own to paint small and often humorous, poetic pictures. The letters of the words in the second line of each rhyming couplet have been jumbled up.  Write each line correctly in the space provided.

(a) I went to London to visit the queen,

(b) I hate eating cabbage soup,

(c) Humpty Dumpty sat on a donkey,

(d) A soldier lost his gun and money,

(e) The lady wears so much makeup,

(f) Roses are red and violets are blue,

pl e

but esh wsa no a daet whti rM eBna.

Sa

m

ti tsstea lkie eatngi ynunb ppoo.

Vi ew

in g

ubt eh flel fof adn suqahsed a moknye.

os eh rna hmeo adn todl hsi mmmuy.

fi ehs eilmss ehr aecf illw abekr pu.

surga rtos ym theet nad os od yuo.

SOMETHING EXTRA • The teacher writes the first line of a rhyming couplet and pupils individually write the second line. Vote for whose line is the best. • Write humorous rhyming couplets using well-known characters and places as the subject. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

29


At the bottom of the garden – I

STORY

Philip was happy with the new house his family had just moved into. It was in the country and was on a large property. There were trees and shrubs and lots of room to play cricket. Philip loved cricket so much he even dreamt of it. He was a pretty good bowler for a tenyear-old and he always had a cricket ball with him wherever he went. He was at that moment tossing one up into the air and catching it, first with his right hand and then with his left. Now and again he mimicked an overarm. ‘D’ya think so, Ben?’ He heard a lilting deep voice asking from behind him. Philip turned but there was no-one there. He peered into the trees for a glimpse of whoever had spoken but saw nothing. He thought perhaps it was his imagination.

‘What is then, Bill?’ It sounded like a third voice.

pl e

‘The young gentleman might like the game but that’s not everything’, replied a different voice but with the same accent as the first.

m

‘Why, Bob O’Fugule, isn’t it clear that the lad can’t see us … just like the rest o’ the human folk?’, stated Bill in reply.

Sa

‘OK, OK, but it looks like he hears us and that’s also a part of it and if he can hear perhaps he can see’, added Ben’s voice hopefully.

in g

‘That’s the sort of hope-filled nonsense that the leprechauns gibber’, concluded Bill. But just as those words were spoken, Philip saw a puff of bluish-white smoke materialise out of nowhere and lazily float away carried by the gentle breeze.

Vi ew

The boy rubbed his eyes and squinted them for good measure, but he saw nothing more. ‘My imagination was never this good’, he said. ‘Look at him. Is he mad or a dunce?’ More puffs of smoke and a glimmer of colour appeared in front of the boy. ‘Stop talking about me if I can’t see you. It’s not good manners’, said Philip, who was by then both curious and perplexed. Then they suddenly appeared … three gnomes: two with white beards and the other with a ginger one; each wearing green, red and yellow clothing; droopy pointy caps; and one of them puffing on a long-stemmed clay pipe. ‘I do believe the lad can see us’, said one of the gnomes. ‘Pleased we are to greet you, young sir’, said another. ‘This here is Bill and this one is Mac, and at your service I’m Ben O’Whack.’ ‘Now we can play cricket’, said the one named Bill O’Leary with a cheerful smile and a shine on his rosy, chubby cheeks. 30

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


At the bottom of the garden – I

STORY

Use the text on page 30 to help you answer the questions. Shade the bubble.  What pleased Philip the most about the family’s new house?

It was close to school and friends.

There were gnomes in the garden.

It was a large house.

There was lots of room to play cricket.

Bill

pl e

 Which gnome spoke first? Bob

Ben

Baz

He liked cricket.

He could hear them.

He saw the smoke.

He was young.

Vi ew

in g

Sa

m

 What first gave the gnomes hope that Philip would eventually see them?

 What extra thing did Philip do to make sure about something?

blinked

squinted

yelled

asked

 Bill says that Leprechauns ‘gibber’. What is the meaning of gibber?  When the gnomes said ‘of’ it was written as ‘o’. Why was that?  What made the gnomes think Philip liked cricket? Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

31


At the bottom of the garden – I

STORY

Use the text on page 30 to help you answer the questions.  Why did Philip rub his eyes?  Copy a sentence (or part of it) that gives the impression that it was a quiet and peaceful setting.

pl e

 Which words in the story mean these? (a) copied:

(b) flicker:

(c) puzzled:

(d) block of land:

(e) examine closely:

(f) partly close eyes:

(g) appear out of nowhere:

(h) polite behaviour:

Sa in g

Vi ew

SOMETHING EXTRA

m

A comprehension questions game for three or more players. • Choose a story known by all players. • One player is ‘it’ and the rest each write three comprehension questions about the story on separate pieces of paper. • The player who is ‘it’ asks questions he or she thinks could be asked about the story. When a question matches one written by the other players, whoever wrote it shows it to the rest of the players. • The first player to show all three questions is the winner. • This game can also be played using people, places and things as the subject of the questions; for example: friends, celebrities, countries, machines, famous landmarks. 32

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


At the bottom of the garden – 2

STORY

When Philip first met the gnomes—Bill, Bob and Ben—he was surprised, but when they told him they wanted to play cricket he was stumped. ‘Why do you want to play cricket?’ he asked, blinking his eyes several times. ‘Daft silly question to be asking’, said Bill. ‘Don’t go being so harsh on the lad’, interjected Ben. ‘It is not polite.’ ‘And he has the cricket ball’, cautioned Bob. Philip always took a cricket ball with him wherever he went and he had done so that day when he went exploring the bottom part of the garden of his family’s new home. ‘Why do you want my cricket ball?’

pl e

‘More daft questions’, said Bill. ‘We don’t have one o’ our own o’ course.’

m

‘Don’t mind Bill, he is just too eager to play a game of the cricket to mind his manners’, Ben explained. ‘The MacDougall boys took our cricket ball thirty years ago and then went and lost it. Foolish magpies that they are.’

Sa

‘You simply could have gone to a shop and bought one’, suggested Philip.

in g

The gnomes looked at themselves and then back up at Philip as if to say, ‘Looking like this?’ Bill shook his head despairingly and added, ‘Daft boy’. ‘I understand’, said Philip. ‘I would love to play cricket with you. But where?’

Vi ew

The gnomes led him down a path that should have led to the stream at the bottom of the garden but instead led to a lovely green cricket pitch. Without wasting any time explaining anything to Philip, they started playing. They had a great time and the gnomes proved to be very good batsmen, but Philip was the best bowler. Suddenly there was a loud put-put-putting noise and the smell of petrol fumes. ‘It’s the MacDougalls’, grumbled Bob. Three gnomes appeared riding on homemade tricycles powered by old lawnmower motors. They circled around Philip and the other gnomes, yelling and jeering and tossing clumps of dried mud at them. ‘Stop that!’ yelled Philip and before he thought about his actions, he took a short run-up and bowled the cricket ball right at one of the MacDougall boys. Philip was a medium pace bowler and the ball bounced off MacDougall’s helmet with no harm done to his head, but the thump of the ball caused him to move quickly and cross the path of one of his brothers. As the ball ricocheted off the helmet, Ben hit it with his bat and sent it bouncing off the helmet of another MacDougall gnome, who lost control of his tricycle. The cricket ball was still in the air when Philip dived and caught it before it hit the ground. ‘Howzat?’ he yelled with satisfaction. ‘Out!’ replied Bill, Bob and Ben. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

33


At the bottom of the garden – 2

STORY

Use the text on page 33 to help you answer the questions.  ‘At the bottom of the garden’ is the title of the story, of which this text is the final chapter. Give the chapter its own title.  Why did Bob say, ‘And he has the cricket ball’?

pl e

 The word ‘stumped’, as used at the beginning of this chapter, means to be ‘perplexed’ or ‘bewildered’. It also has another meaning that gives it more significance in this story. What is this other meaning?

m

Shade the bubble to show your answer.

Sa

in g

 Why did Bill make several slightly nasty comments about Philip? Because he was a boy.

Because he asked ‘foolish’ questions.

Because he was a good bowler.

Because he didn’t like him.

Vi ew

 In Question 4, why is the word ‘foolish’ written in inverted commas?

Because it was a typo.

Because Bill was being nasty.

Because that was Bill’s opinion.

Because it was spoken by someone.

34

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


At the bottom of the garden – 2

STORY

Use the text on page 33 to help you answer the questions.  What is meant by, ‘Looking like this?’ (Italicised in the middle of the chapter.)  The gnomes speak English slightly differently from Philip. Give examples to show this.

pl e

m

 Why didn’t Philip think before bowling the cricket ball at MacDougall?

Sa

in g

 Why didn’t the cricket ball hurt MacDougall’s head badly?

Vi ew

 Which words in the chapter mean these?

(a) warned

(b) purchased

(c) astonished

(d) clarified

(e) exhaust

(f) rebounded

(g) evade

(h) contentment

(i) interrupted

(j) speed

SOMETHING EXTRA • Illustrate ‘At the bottom of the garden’ (Parts 1 and 2) in four pictures. • Write captions for each illustration.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

35


Simon’s School Supplies

36

SALES CATALOGUE

Supplying the public since

1938

Just ask the Pie Man.

School bags

Free!*

A must for every pupil! Colourful and practical. Assorted colours. Three sizes:

Solar-powered calculator with all the essential mathematical functions.

pl e

Large size Medium size Small size

You should have this!

Colour Marker Pens

Vi ew

in g

A big must-have item!

Sa

Lunchboxes

Other styles available.

m

*With purchases of bag and lunchbox. While stocks last.

The exec. box – Divided into

compartments to hold a drink, fruit and sandwich. Decorated with international money symbols to inspire children. Assorted colours available.

Various makes: Tekta, Giono, Pilol, Greyola and Colmpens.

All sizes: fat and slim bodies; fine-, medium- and broad-tipped. Packs of 10, 20, 50 and 100 pens. Waterproof, permanent, fluorescent, bright, child-safe and cheap.

Desktop necessities Who could refuse such essentials?

Pens: red, green, blue, black and every other

Novelty boxes – Shaped just like trucks, cars, ballet shoes and jewellery boxes for lunchtime fun. Assorted colours available.

colour you can imagine. Buy individually or in a pack of 10. (Mix the colours if you want to.) Pencils – Sets of three writing pencils, a pencil sharpener, ruler and an eraser. Packet of colour pencils – 10 pencils 20 pencils

Simon’s is simply the best!

Weekdays: 9.00 am to 5.00 pm Saturdays: 10.00 am to 3.00 pm Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Simon’s School Supplies

SALES CATALOGUE

Use the sales catalogue on page 36 to help you answer the questions.  What is the earliest time you can go shopping at Simon’s on a Wednesday?  What is Simon’s slogan or catchphrase?  How late can you stay shopping at Simon’s on a Sunday?

pl e

 Name three things that are considered essential to have on a school desk.

m

Sa

Vi ew

in g

 What three differences are there between the school bags?

 How does the catalogue try to persuade the reader to buy the items on sale?  When did Simon’s School Supplies store first open?  Explain the reason why ‘Just ask the Pie Man.’ is written under the store’s name. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

37


Simon’s School Supplies

SALES CATALOGUE

Use the sales catalogue on page 36 to help you answer the questions.  Are the calculators really free? Explain your answer.  Can customers be certain of getting a free calculator even if they meet the conditions? Explain your answer.

pl e

Sa

m

 Why is one of the types of lunchboxes available called the Exec.? (Hint: Exec. is short for Executive.)

in g

Vi ew

 List four differences between the two different types of lunchbox.

SOMETHING EXTRA Design a sales catalogue: • Include real products and prices or invent products to sell; for example: a sales catalogue for witches with products like bat wings and rat tails; or a sales catalogue of the future selling a range of robots with special features that can do jobs around the home. 38

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Tautology and double negatives

AWKWARD WRITING

There are many ways that writing can be made awkward. These include tautology and double negatives.

TAUTOLOGY

? ?

Tautology is the unnecessary use of different words to say the same thing; for example: The man returned back home. ‘Return’ means ‘to go back’ so the sentence should simply be: The man returned home. Can you find the unnecessary word in this sentence?

pl e

The repetition that this section deals with has to do with unnecessarily using a second word that uselessly repeats the meaning of the first word before it.

Examples of redundancy:

Sa

m

The word is ‘first’ because the word before the second word can only be the first word. • PIN number (The ‘N’ means number.)

• Fall down (You don’t fall up!)

• New invention (An invention is new.)

in g

• ATM machine (The ‘M’ means machine.)

• Yelled loudly (How else do you yell?)

Vi ew

• Silly fool (Both have the same meaning.)

DOUBLE NEGATIVE

A double negative is saying that something is not what you are saying it is not. That means that it is exactly what you are saying it is not; for example: The pixie is not unlovable. This means that the pixie is lovable. If it is not unlovable then it must be the opposite of unlovable which is lovable. The two negatives, ‘not’ and ‘un-’, cancel each other and leave ‘lovable’ behind. Examples of double negative statements: • He wasn’t not allowed. (He was allowed.)

• I didn’t say nothing. (I said something.)

• She isn’t unimaginative (She is imaginative.) • I’m not unsure. (I am sure.) • It wasn’t nowhere. (It was somewhere.)

• He’s not unhappy. (He is happy.)

• They haven’t done nothing wrong. (They have done something wrong.) • She was never disloyal. (She was always loyal.) Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

39


Tautology and double negatives

AWKWARD WRITING

Use the text on page 39 to help you answer the questions.  Underline the unnecessary words and write the sentences without them. (a) The armed gunman told everyone in the bank to drop down to the floor and then ordered the bank cashier to put the cash money in a bag.

(b) The tuna fish was used on the pizza pie to make the best meal ever.

m

pl e

Sa

 Underline the double negatives and write the sentences without them. (a) I was not unable to get the kitten out of the mouse hole.

(b) The creature was not non-human.

(c) The teacher did not disagree with my explanation.

40

Vi ew

in g

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Tautology and double negatives

AWKWARD WRITING

Use the text on page 39 to help you answer the questions.  Rewrite the sentences without tautologies and double negatives. (a) The naughty cheeky child doesn’t not talk back to the mother.

(b) I repeat again that these two equal halves are both not unobviously mine.

(c) The pouring down rain is never not made out of cats and dogs.

(d) You circle around to the other side and enter in through the backdoor while I won’t not hide here.

(e) Past history has shown that smoking is not non-fatal.

(f) This is the final end of this exercise and you aren’t disallowed to stop.

Vi ew

in g

Sa

m

pl e

SOMETHING EXTRA • Write a short paragraph which has a tautology or a double negative in it. Read the paragraph to the class quickly but clearly and see who can pick out the fault. Use this list of common tautologies. The words in brackets are those that are not needed: classify (into groups), connect (together), drop (down), (exact) same, follow (after), green [or blue or whatever] (in colour), (harmful) injuries, join (together), (pair of) twins, (past) history, reason (why) Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

41


Fishy fish

DATA GRID

Data is information and a grid is an arrangement of cells or boxes that stores the data in a system that is easy to read. A data grid is made up of columns (vertical) and rows (horizontal). Use the information in the text to complete the data grid below. Not very long ago a friend of mine, named Stanley, was looking very worried. (Here is the first piece of information. Enter the name ‘Stanley’ in cell numbered 1.) ‘What’s the matter, Stanley, my good sardine?’ I asked him. (Here is another piece of information; Stanley is a sardine. Enter it in cell numbered 2.)

pl e

‘Everything’s the matter, Priscilla, and it’s all the fault of that rotten Rodney.’

m

(Here are two more names. Enter ‘Priscilla’ in cell numbered 3 and ‘Rodney’ in 4.)

Sa

I’ve never liked piranhas, sharks or barracudas, so I wasn’t surprised that Rodney had been causing problems. I hoped it wasn’t too bad. I asked, ‘What has he done now?’

in g

(Do you see the next piece of information and the problem? There are three types of fish mentioned but you don’t know which of them Rodney is, so you can’t enter anything into the grid yet.)

Vi ew

‘That rotten three-metre shark ate my uncle. It’s a shame that he couldn’t swim as fast as you can or he might have escaped. Poor Uncle.’ (So Rodney is a shark and its size is 3 metres. Enter that into the grid and do the rest on your own now.) ‘Well, you can’t expect an eight-centimetre sardine to swim as fast as a 50-centimetre salmon. That’s common fish sense’, I explained. ‘I guess not, but I wish he could have’, moaned Stanley. ‘He owed me five pieces of seaweed.’

NAME

TYPE OF FISH

1

2

SIZE

3 4 42

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Who killed Willard?

DATA GRID

How good a detective are you? This story will test you out. Tick the cells in the data grid to work out who had motive, means and opportunity. I’m a detective working on the Willard murder case. I’m brilliant and I have collected a lot of the evidence, but I still can’t figure out whodunit. (‘Whodunit’ is a real word. It means a story about a murder but the readers don’t know who is guilty until the end so they keep asking, ‘Who done it?’ Of course, this is bad grammar because they should say, ‘Who did it?’) I have three suspects, Flora Fatal, Lynda Lethal and Dianna Deadly. I need to work out which of them had the motive, means and opportunity to murder Willard. (Did you get that? Motive, means and opportunity.)

Sa

m

pl e

Criminals need to have a reason to commit a crime, otherwise why would they do it? That’s what we call motive. Miss Lethal will inherit Willard’s fortune, which is a fantastic motive, but that doesn’t mean she is guilty. She still needs to have means and opportunity. Miss Deadly has hated Willard since he ran over her kitten and that is also a great motive. (Murder is usually about money, hate or love.)

in g

Criminals also need to have the means to commit the crime. ‘Means’ means having the equipment or ability to do something. So it’s obvious that since Willard was shot, the criminal had to have a gun. Both Flora and Dianna belong to a gun club, so getting a gun would be easy for them. I found a receipt for a gun that was bought recently and the name on it was Miss Lynda Lethal.

Vi ew

Finally, criminals need to have an opportunity to commit their terrible deeds. A criminal has to be in the right place at the right time, which is really the wrong place for the victim. As Willard was murdered in the library at around three o’clock in the afternoon, the criminal had to be there, too. Between 2 pm and 4 pm Flora and Lynda were with others in the dining room, which is next door to the library and both were seen to leave the dining room for a few minutes several times during that period. It would have been easy for either of them to slip into the library instead of going to the bathroom, as they claimed. That’s the evidence. Can you tell me who had motive, means and opportunity to commit the murder? Can you tell me who done it? I mean, who did it?

SUSPECT

MOTIVE

MEANS

OPPORTUNITY

Flora Fatal Lynda Lethal Dianna Deadly Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

43


Classifying animals

DATA GRID

Scientists put animals into classes or groups according to things they have in common; for example, mammals are warm-blooded with fur or hair on their bodies and they suckle their young. There are six classes of animal: bird, fish, amphibian, mammal, reptile and invertebrate (with no backbone). An animal that has a meat-only diet is a carnivore. One that eats plants only is a herbivore. An animal that will eat everything is an omnivore. Some creatures are nocturnal, meaning they are active at night. Others are diurnal, which means they are active during the daytime.  Enter the animals in the first column in alphabetical order. A few first letters of the names are already there to help you. bat, flea,

owl, eagle, cobra, preying  mantis, cow, tortoise, chicken, koala

pl e

housefly, human,

m

 For each animal, enter its class, diet and activity (diurnal or nocturnal).

ANIMAL

Sa

(A little extra help: In this list there are 4 mammals, 3 birds, 3 invertebrates (insects), 2 reptiles also 5 omnivores, 5 carnivores, 2 herbivores and 4 nocturnal, 8 diurnal.)

CLASS

ACTIVITY

in g

b

DIET

Vi ew

o

r

c

b

c h

i o m

n

o

44

c d Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Superheroes

DATA GRID

When information is presented in a data grid, it is easy for the reader to see the facts.

SUPER HERO

NORMAL NAME*

ORIGIN

POWERS

Ant Head Man

Ian Sect

Earth

Head turns into a giant ant head.

Tornado Woman

Tara Nadeo

Jupiter

Can whirl up a tornado.

B O Boy

Peter Pew

Venus

Can blast a stink from his armpits.

Lava Girl

Laverna Valcanio

Earth

Can turn into living lava.

pl e

* Name used in their normal lives.

Read the information in the data grid and answer the questions.

m

 Which two superheroes have something in common and what is it?

Sa

in g

 Which superhero’s ability is something that we all can do, but not as well?

Vi ew

 Explain the reason for the normal names used by any two of the heroes.

 Which of the super powers would you want to have and why?

SOMETHING EXTRA • Create a data grid of people you know or people who interest you. The information could include age, hair colour, eye colour, height, country of birth, favourite film, sport, book or food. • Create a data grid of landmarks that interest you. The information could include if it was natural or constructed, its location, and if it’s ancient or modern. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

45


Sandra at the zoo

46

COMIC BOOK

In comic strips, what each person says is written in speech bubbles. Daddy, can I have a lion?

No, sweet. They are too smelly.

No, sweetie. They are too dangerous .

Daddy, can I have an elephant?

No, Sandy. They are too LARGE.

in g

Sa

m

Daddy, can I have a skunk?

No, sweetie. They are too bouncy.

pl e

Daddy, can I have a kangaroo?

Vi ew

Daddy, a koala doesn’t bounce and it is not dangerous and it is not stinky and not too large, so I must be allowed to have one.

That’s right, honey. A koala is not bouncy, dangerous, smelly or too LARGE, but it is something else.

What is it, Daddy?

It is an animal you can’t have!

But I want a cute, cuddly pet that doesn’t bounce or is dangerous or smelly and not too large.

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Here, have a worm!

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Sandra at the zoo

COMIC BOOK

Use the comic strip on page 46 to help you answer the questions.  How many panels are in this comic strip?  List in order the animals that the little girl asked for.  Which animals did the father say were too:

(a) dangerous?

(b) large?

 What reasoning did Sandra use to state that she should be allowed to have a koala?

pl e

m

sweetheart

sugar

Sandy

Sands

sweet

strawberry

Sandy beach

Sandra

little one

in g

honey

Sa

 Cross out the pet names that the father did not call Sandra.

 What animal did the father offer Sandra as a pet?

Vi ew

 (a) Tick the words that you think describe Sandra’s father.

funny

mean

foolish

generous

patient

clever

serious

lazy

(b) Explain why you have chosen these words.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

47


Sandra at the zoo

COMIC BOOK

Use the comic strip on page 46 to help you answer the questions.  Do you think Sandra’s father gave a good reason why she couldn’t have a pet koala? Explain your answer.

m

pl e

 Make up reasons that Sandra’s father could have given to explain why she could not have two of the other animals in the comic.

Sa

SOMETHING EXTRA

Vi ew

in g

• Adapt a joke to make up a little comic book. Keep the drawings simple. There is usually no need to even draw a background. For example:

Q. ‘Why did the chicken cross the road?’

A. ‘To get to the other side.’

– Panel 1: Chicken crossing a road. – Panel 2: Chicken on the other side of the road with another chicken. – Panel 3: Second chicken asking, ‘Why did you cross the road? – Panel 4: First chicken answers, ‘To get to this side, of course – bird brain!’ • Work in a group and share your talents. • When the comic book is done, present it to the rest of the class. • You could use a computer drawing program to compose the comic. 48

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


A lot of work for a prince

PLAY SCRIPT

When reading a play script, the character’s name is listed on the left of the text and what he or she says is on the right. Directions for the actors are written in italics in brackets. These tell the actor what to do. They are not to be read. Characters:

Prince Charming: handsome, spoilt and not very smart Prince’s butler: a clever servant who does not think much of the prince Cinderella: lovely girl dressed in old and tattered clothing Stepmother: loud-voiced and pushy

Scene:

Front room of Cinderella’s house

(A knock at the door. Cinderella answers it.)

m

pl e

Cinderella: (Curtseying) Your Highness. You honour us, knocking on our humble front door. Your presence brightens our world like the sun.

The door is too hard. I hurt my knuckles knocking on it.

Butler:

Poor prince. His knuckles hurt. Does he want his mummy to kiss them better?

(Stepmother comes rushing into the room.)

in g

Sa

Prince:

Butler:

Vi ew

Stepmother: Did I hear someone say, ‘Prince’? Out of the way, raggedy Anne. (Pushing Cinderella away and curtseying so low that she falls over.) (To the audience) Another goofball! I am the smartest man in the kingdom and I have to do this for a living? What a life!

Stepmother: (Getting up) Welcome, Your Highness. Please enter my beautiful, if humble, home. Your presence brightens … Cinderella: (Interrupting) I’ve already said that you old witch. Prince:

(Entering) This is beautiful? Even my horses wouldn’t want to stay here.

Butler:

Now, now, Your Graciousness, mind your manners. Mummy doesn’t like her charming boy being a stuck-up snob. Get on with the task.

Prince:

Which is?

Butler:

What we’ve only been doing all day. The shoe … try on the shoe like the book says.

Prince:

Of course, silly me. We always have to do what the book says. Madam, I wish to try on your shoe.

(Stepmother immediately begins to take off a shoe but falls over.)

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

49


A lot of work for a prince

PLAY SCRIPT

Butler:

(Sighing) Not you, Sire. You don’t try on her shoe; she tries on your shoe.

(Prince begins to take off his shoe.)

Butler:

Not your actual shoe, Sire. This one. (Handing the slipper to the prince)

Stepmother: (Rushing to a chair and knocking Cinderella over on her way) You don’t have to ask me twice. (Taking off her shoe) (The other three reel back from her smelly foot.)

Butler:

Phew! It smells like a cat died in her sock.

Prince:

(Giving the slipper back to the butler) You do this one.

Butler:

As if I didn’t know.

(Hesitatingly, the butler tries the slipper on the stepmother’s foot but it does not fit.)

pl e

Sorry, madam, it won’t fit. Just like the book says, your foot is too fat.

Sa

Butler:

m

Stepmother: Keep trying, keep trying. Push harder, use a shoehorn, slap on some grease, get a hammer. Stepmother: I’ll put my foot on a diet. Come back next week.

Butler:

in g

Cinderella: (Pushing the stepmother out of the chair and sitting down) Now it’s my turn, you old beanbag. Just like the book says—watch and weep. (Trying the slipper on Cinderella) A perfect fit, just like the book says.

Vi ew

Cinderella: Waa-hoo! (To stepmother) Take that, you old fossil! (To the Prince.) My handsome hero. (To the Butler) You’re tickling my foot. Prince:

Finally! Now I can go back to the palace and get a nice warm bath with some perfumed soap and some sweeties and my soft, cosy woolly blankie.

Butler:

Not so quick, Your Magnificence. You are not finished yet.

Prince:

No? What a bore! What else does that book say I have to do? Kiss her hand? Say she is lovely? Have the old hag arrested for having fat feet?

Butler:

A little more than that, Your Incredibleness. The book says you have to sweep her up in your arms, take her to the palace and marry her.

Prince:

The book says what? I knew I should have read it. But it has so many pages and hardly any pictures. Life is so unfair!

Butler:

Poor Prince, life is so hard with all your gold and parties and fine clothes and delicious food and horses and toys.

Prince:

(Putting a hand to his ear) Hear that? Mother is calling me. Got to go. Bye all. Coming, Mummy. (Runs off stage)

50

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


A lot of work for a prince

PLAY SCRIPT

Use the play script on pages 49 and 50 to help you answer the questions.  Who do you think is the star or central character of this small play? Explain your choice.  What had the prince and butler been doing before arriving at Cinderella’s house?

pl e

m

 Do you think the Prince’s opening line suits his character? Explain your answer.

Sa

(a) Prince:

(b) Butler:

(c) Cinderella:

(d) Stepmother:

Vi ew

in g

 Write one of the directions that each character had to follow.

 What props were used in the play? (A prop is an object used on stage by an actor.)  Suggest two names each that would suit the butler and the stepmother. Butler: Stepmother: Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

51


A lot of work for a prince

PLAY SCRIPT

 List the exaggerated titles that the butler called the prince.  (a) Why do you think the butler called the prince by so many exaggerated grand titles?

(b) What ‘proper’ title did the butler use when he addressed the prince?

Sa

m

pl e

Stepsister 1:

Stepsister 2:

Vi ew

in g

 Imagine that the ugly stepsisters had entered the stage with their mother. Suggest a line for each of them to say at some point during the play.

 The play ended with the prince running away by pretending he heard the queen calling him. Write another excuse that he could he have invented.

SOMETHING EXTRA • Work in a group to compose your own play script. Use a fairytale or a nursery rhyme as the basis for it or entirely make it up. – Keep the play simple with just a few characters and props. – Stage your play for others to enjoy. – Look up <http://www.freedrama.net/>. 52

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Understanding proverbs

PROVERBS

A proverb is a short saying that offers advice on how we should behave and treat others. It uses poetic language to convey its message.  To match each proverb with its meaning, write the letter of the correct meaning next to each proverb.

PROVERBS (i) A fool and his money are soon parted. (ii) A stitch in time saves nine.

(iv) Actions speak louder than words. (v) Great oaks grow from little acorns.

m

(vi) If you play with fire, you’ll get burnt.

pl e

(iii) An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

Sa

(vii) Don’t judge a book by its cover.

(viii) Necessity is the mother of invention.

in g

(ix) Many hands make light work.

Vi ew

(x) Liars need good memories. (xi) It never rains but it pours.

MEANINGS

Eat healthily and you’ll stay healthy.

A

Everything starts off being small.

B

You pay for foolish actions.

C

Be careless with money and you’ll soon have none.

D

If you really need something, you can find a way to get it.

E

It’s how someone acts that matters, not what they say.

F

If you tell a lie, you need to remember saying it or you’ll get caught out.

G

Take care of a problem before it gets worse. It’s not how people look that makes them good or bad.

H

Cooperation is the way to achieve things.

J

It’s never just one bad thing that happens, but many.

K

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

I

53


Understanding proverbs

PROVERBS

A proverb is a short saying that offers advice on how we should behave and treat others. It uses poetic language to convey its message.  To match each proverb with its meaning, write the letter of the correct meaning next to each proverb.

PROVERBS (i) Out of sight, out of mind. (ii) Once bitten, twice shy. (iii) One good turn deserves another.

pl e

(iv) Spare the rod and spoil the child.

(v) Sticks and stones will break my bones but names will never hurt me.

(ix) First come, first served.

in g

(viii) Two wrongs don’t make a right.

Sa

(vii) The first step is the hardest.

m

(vi) The early bird catches the worm.

Vi ew

(x) Where there’s a will, there’s a way.

(xi) When the cat’s away, the mice will play.

MEANINGS

Don’t be lazy and you’ll get what you’re after.

A

Try hard, keep trying and you’ll succeed.

B

We learn from our misfortunes.

C

When the one in charge isn’t around, the others will not work. D Beginning a project is the hardest part of it.

E

Say what you like; it’s only words.

F

You help me and I’ll help you.

G

We so easily forget. Children need punishment to learn.

H

Arrive before others and you’ll be the first in line.

J

Revenge is not right.

K

54

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

I

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Proverb word search

PROVERBS

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pl e

A proverb is a short saying that offers advice on how we should behave and treat others. It uses poetic language to convey its message.

Sa

 Rearrange the jumbled words in each proverb.

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a day keeps the trdooc

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Vi ew

in g

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a right. of mind.

 Find the 20 words in the word search. They go from left to right and top to bottom. Letters are used only once.  When the word search is complete, there are 14 unused letters. Reading from left to right and top to bottom, the letters make up three words from this proverb. Underline the three words. Sticks and stones will break my bones but names will never hurt me. Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

55


Proverb word search

PROVERBS

A proverb is a short saying that offers advice on how we should behave and treat others. It uses poetic language to convey its message. i

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 Rearrange the jumbled words in each proverb.

(a) Actions kaeps

louder than sowrd

(b) A lofo

(c) stfri

(d) Great kaos

(e) Necessity is the htrmeo

(f) Once tteinb

(g) The early ribd

(h) The sifrt

(i) rasil

(j) When the cat’s away, the emci

.

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and his money are soon dpetar come, ftisr

.

served

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grow from tteill

acorns. of invention.

, twice ysh

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catches the wrmo step si

the dethras

.

will ylpa

.

need good memories.

 Find the 19 words in the word search. They go from left to right and top to bottom. Letters are used only once.  When the word search is complete, there are 10 unused letters. Reading from left to right and top to bottom, the letters make up two words from this proverb. Underline the two words. Spare the rod and spoil the child. 56

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Answers SPACE IS THE PLACE – Poster

THE JUNGLE BOOK AND ALICE’S ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND pages 11–13 – Scanning

pages 2–4

1. Mercury 2. Venus 3. eight 4. Mercury 5. the centre 6. none 7. A moon 8. four 9. A manned spacecraft landed on the moon for the first time. 10. Answers may include: aliens coming to earth, UFO’s, abductions 11. Teacher check. Answers may include: systems failure, collision with meteor THE LIFE OF JOHN RONALD REUEL TOLKIEN – Time line

1. dripping, dropped 3. fear 5. heart, tongue 7. not 9. mad 11. remember, believe 13. a river turtle 15. two days slow 17. strength

pages 5–7

READING SENSE OUT OF NONSENSE – Interpreting

1. JRR Tolkien 2. To show that time is continuous. 3. 1937 4. Arthur 5. South Africa 6. Suffield 7. It is clearer to read than each being in separate boxes. 8. 1916 & 1924 9. The fellowship of the ring, The two towers and The return of the king 10. The Hobbit

pl e

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Sa

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1. Press the button and wait patiently. (No more than this.) 2. Check both sides of the road for any vehicles that could pose a risk to you. 3. You would get stuck in a loop waiting for the lights to change. 4. When the ‘walk safe’ lights turn green. 5. Yes, only cross when it is safe. Don’t cross too quickly or slowly. Do not run, skip or hop. 6. Until you reach the other side. 7. To check and cross if it is safe. 8. Three 9. (a) After the last box on the left side of the page. (b) The ‘Yes’ arrow would lead back to the first question box and the ‘No’ arrow would lead back to the last box on the left side of the page.

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

pages 14–16

2. (a) The monkey greedily ate a yellow banana. (b) The octopus is strange it has eight arms but no fingers. (c) The yellow and red roses attract many bees very quickly. (d) Snow White and the seven dwarfs merrily whistle and sweetly sing. RANDOM IDEAS – Facts and opinions

in g

HOW TO CROSS THE ROAD AT TRAFFIC LIGHTS – Flowchart pages 8–10

2. man’s cub 4. mother 6. directed 8. long 10. ears 12. made 14. a king 16. fire

1. True 4. True 7. False 10. True 13. True

2. False 5. True 8. False 11. False 14. False

THE HUMAN BODY – Diagrams

pages 17–19 3. True 6. False 9. True 12. True 15. False pages 20–22

1. mandible and clavicle 2. calf 3. iris and cornea 4. index 5. tibia 6. dentine 7. bone 8. arch and sole 9. sternum 10. humerus 11. nerve 12. wrist 13. mandible 14. right and right 15. radius and ulna 16. femur 17. (a) patella (b) fibula (c) cranium (d) radius (e) humerus (f) femur 18. ankle, arch, elbow, iris, knee, pupil, shoulder, thigh, thumb, wrist

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

57


Answers

7. wet 13. care 21. write

8. edit 15. far 22. to

3. other 9. deaf 18. or

4. eels 12. fault 20. yo-yo

7. next 8. dog 13. lasted 16. on 20. hers 21. cars

2. angel 3. me 11. other 12. horn 17. no 20. ha

4. exits 14. at

THE RAINBOW BIRD – Poetry (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

58

THE FISH – Poetry

page 28

(a) Then gliding comes the mantra ray. (b) The shy sardines a skittish tyke, (c) The flounder lays upon the ground, (d) Seek a glimpse of whale or shark. (e) Hear propellers churn the tide. RHYMING COUPLETS – Poetry

page 29

1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

A bird of colour came to my windowsill. A spot of pink was on its beak, Its wings were blue and as if for fun, ‘What shall I do to make your day?’ But to my regret there was no more,

But she was on a date with Mr Bean. It tastes like eating bunny poop. But he fell off and squashed a monkey. So he ran home and told his mummy. If she smiles her face will break up. Sugar rots my teeth and so do you.

m

page 25

5. PS 10. to 19. rot

page 27

Mummy will help you count your sheep, And Pooch barked the tune as best as he was able. After a while the baby closed her eyes, Her horn was silver and her eyes were bright, Baby smiled brightly just like a tiny fawn,

Sa

5. stash 9. have 18. nouns 25. go

Vi ew

DEFINITIONS – Crosswords Across: 1. flame 9. go 18. ha Down: 1. fad 6. stood 15. ears

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

8. truth 10. it 15. show 17. eaten 21. owner 23. singing 28. soft 4. go 8. tie 16. one 24. ga

BABY’S DREAM – Poetry

AT THE BOTTOM OF THE GARDEN – 1 – Story

in g

Page 23 Across: 1. store 5. do 10. inhale 11. safe 16. at 19. silly Down: 1. switch 2. ten 5. Di 6. otter 14. east 17. tie Page 24 Across: 1. spring 7. often 11. oasis 13. end 19. no 20. art 26. as 27. ga Down: 2. partner 3. into 6. inchworms 12. is 14. dating 20. also 22. no 26. at

pages 23–24

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MISSING WORDS – Crosswords

page 26

pages 30–32

1. There was lots of room to play cricket. 2. Bill 3. He could hear them. 4. squinted 5. Gibber means to talk foolishly and meaninglessly, or to talk nonsense. 6. When he spoke, he did not sound the letter ‘f’ due to his lilting accent. 7. He was playing with a cricket ball. 8. He couldn’t believe what he was seeing. 9. (The smoke) lazily float away carried by the gentle breeze. 10. (a) mimicked (b) glimmer (c) perplexed (d) property (e) peered (f) squinted (g) materialise (h) manners

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Answers AT THE BOTTOM OF THE GARDEN – 2 – Story

pages 33–35

TAUTOLOGY AND DOUBLE NEGATIVES – Awkward writing pages 39–41

1. Teacher check 2. as a warning; as if Bill offended Philip, he might not play cricket with them. 3. It is a pun on the cricket term ‘stumped’ which is a way that the wicket keeper can get a batsman out. 4. Because he asked ‘foolish’ questions. 5. Because that was Bill’s opinion. 6. As they were gnomes, they would cause a stir in a shop. 7. Teacher check. Answers may include: ‘Don’t go being so harsh’, ‘he has the cricket ball’, ‘one o’ our own o’ course’ and ‘Foolish magpies that they are’ 8. He was angry. 9. He was wearing a helmet. 10. (a) cautioned (b) bought (c) surprised (d) explained (e) fumes (f) ricocheted (g) move quickly (h) satisfaction (i) interjected (j) pace

pl e

armed, down, bank, cash fish, pie not unable, I was able … not non-human, … was human not disagree, The teacher did agree … The cheeky (or naughty) child talks back to the mother. (b) I repeat that these halves are obviously mine. (c) The pouring rain is made out of cats and dogs. (d) You circle to the other side and enter through the backdoor while I hide here. (e) History has shown that smoking is fatal. (f) This is the end of this exercise and you are allowed to stop. FISHY FISH – Data grid page 42

pages 36–38

Vi ew

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

SIZE 8 cm 50 cm 3m

WHO KILLED WILLARD? – Data grid

in g

1. 9.00 am 2. Simon is simply the best! Just ask the Pie Man. 3. It is not open at all on Sunday. 4. Pens, writing and coloured pencils. 5. Size, colour, style. 6. Uses words like ‘must’, ‘should’ and ‘who could refuse’. 7. 1938. 8. It is part of the slogan and related Simon’s store to the nursery rhyme to attract attention. 9. No because you have to buy a bag and a lunchbox to be eligible. 10. No, because the stock might run out. 11. It is to inspire children to work hard at school so they get well-paid jobs later. 12. Price, shape, decoration and one is to inspire while the other is for fun.

TYPE OF FISH sardine salmon shark

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NAME Stanley Priscilla Rodney

Sa

SIMON’S SCHOOL SUPPLIES – Sales catalogue

1. (a) (b) 2. (a) (b) (c) 3. (a)

SUSPECT Flora Fatal Lynda Lethal Dianna Deadly

MOTIVE

page 43 MEANS

OPPORTUNITY

CLASSIFYING ANIMALS – Data grid ANIMAL bat chicken cobra cow eagle flea housefly human koala owl preying mantis tortoise

CLASS mammal bird reptile mammal bird invertebrate invertebrate mammal mammal bird invertebrate reptile

page 44 DIET omnivore omnivore carnivore herbivore carnivore carnivore omnivore omnivore herbivore carnivore carnivore omnivore

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

ACTIVITY nocturnal diurnal diurnal diurnal diurnal nocturnal diurnal diurnal nocturnal nocturnal diurnal diurnal

59


Answers page 45

SANDRA AT THE ZOO – Comic book

pages 46–48

60

1. Teacher check 2. Calling at other houses and trying the slipper on other ladies. 3. Teacher check 4. Choose from: (a) enters, begins to take off his shoe, reels back from stepmother’s smelly feet, gives slipper back to his butler, puts a hand to his ear, runs off stage (b) speaks to the audience, sighs, hands the slipper to the prince, reels back from stepmother’s smelly feet, tries the slipper on stepmother, tries the slipper on Cinderella (c) answers the knock on the door, curtsies, interrupts, pushes stepmother out of chair and sits down, (in one line) speaks separately to stepmother, prince and butler (d) rushes into the room, pushes Cinderella out of the way and curtsies so low that she falls over, gets up, falls over as she begins to take off her shoe, rushes to a chair and knocks Cinderella over, takes off her shoe 5. a slipper and a chair 6. Teacher check 7. Graciousness, Magnificence and Incredibleness 8. (a) Teacher check. Answers may include: he was being sarcastic, he was bored, annoyed, mischievous (b) Your Highness, Sire 9. Teacher check 10. Teacher check

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1. seven 2. kangaroo, lion, skunk, elephant, koala 3. (a) lion (b) elephant 4. Koalas don’t bounce, are not dangerous, don’t stink and are not too large. 5. sweetheart, Sands, strawberry, sugar, Sandy beach, Sandra, little one 6. a worm 7. (a) – (b) Teacher check 8. Teacher check 9. Teacher check

pages 49–52

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1. Ant Head Man and Lava Girl are both from Earth. 2. B.O. Boy can ‘blast a stink from his armpits’. 3. Ian Sect sounds like ‘insect’, which an ant is. Tara Nadeo sounds like ‘tornado’. Peter Pew is like a bad smell, which BO is. Laverna Valcanio sounds like ‘lava’ and ‘volcano’. 4. Teacher check

A LOT OF WORK FOR A PRINCE – Play script

m

SUPERHEROES – Data grid

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com


Answers pages 53–54

Page 54 PROVERBS (i) Out of sight, out of mind. (ii) Once bitten, twice shy. (iii) One good turn deserves another. (iv) Spare the rod and spoil the child.

H C G I F

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(vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi)

Sticks and stones will break my bones but names will never hurt me.

The early bird catches the worm. The first step is the hardest. Two wrongs don’t make a right. First come, first served. Where there’s a will, there’s a way. When the cat’s away, the mice will play.

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(v)

i n e c o v e r v

apple, doctor by, cover never, but turn, deserves Two, make b u t s d o c t o r

s n e v e r t u r n

d e s e r v e s n e

t s i g h t m w e W

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D H A F B C I E J G K

Page 55 1. (a) (c) (e) (g) (i) 2. n

pages 55–56

3. sticks, but, never Page 56 1. (a) speak, words (c) First, first (e) mother (g) bird, worm (i) Liars 2. m i c e s

f c o T b b a o a h

i w u w i y k r p e

Sa

Page 53 PROVERBS (i) A fool and his money are soon parted. (ii) A stitch in time saves nine. (iii) An apple a day keeps the doctor away. (iv) Actions speak louder than words. (v) Great oaks grow from little acorns. (vi) If you play with fire you’ll get burnt. (vii) Don’t judge a book by its cover. (viii) Necessity is the mother of invention. (ix) Many hands make light work. (x) Liars need good memories. (xi) It never rains but it pours.

PROVERB WORD SEARCH – Proverbs

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UNDERSTANDING PROVERBS – Proverbs

A E K J B D

l p a r t e d l f

i r f s o a k s o

a s i p w o r m o

r h r e s i p b l

s y s a p s l i f

(b) (d) (f) (h) (j)

in, nine hands, work fire, burnt Where, will sight, out

r i t o n u e k p r

e l h a n d s t l e

i l k b u r n t e r

(b) fool, parted (d) oaks, little (f) bitten, shy (h) first, is, hardest (j) mice, play f p e t k o i a t i

i m o t h e r y t r

r s t h a w a l o r i r d t d e t s s l b t e i e n r s t d

3. spare, spoil

Prim-Ed Publishing® ~ www.prim-ed.com

Comprehension for independent readers – Middle

61

6351 Comprehension for Independent Readers - Middle  
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