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6326


Prime-time comprehension (Upper primary)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing® 2012 Copyright© Lee-Ann Holmes 2010 ISBN 978-1-84654-345-6 PR– 6326

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

Titles in this series: Prime-time comprehension (Lower primary) Prime-time comprehension (Middle primary) Prime-time comprehension (Upper primary)

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Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

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Foreword Prime-time comprehension (Upper primary) is one title in a three-book series. In each book are 20 varied and interesting original texts. For each text there are comprehension questions (encompassing three different levels of reasoning). A related activity is also provided for some texts. Included in each book are: • 5 fiction texts • 5 comic strips • 5 nonfiction texts • 5 poems. The books in this series are:

Prime-time comprehension (Lower primary) Prime-time comprehension (Middle primary)

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Prime-time comprehension (Upper primary)

Contents

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Teachers notes................................................................................... iv – vi Curriculum links........................................................................................vii For Pete’s sake (Fiction)........................................................................2–5 Keeping up with the Joneses (Comic)....................................................6–9 School bullying (Nonfiction)................................................................10–13 Emergency mobile phone (Poetry)......................................................14–17 Cries in the night (Fiction)..................................................................18–21 Worms! (Comic)................................................................................22–25 Comets and meteors (Nonfiction).......................................................26–29 Initiation (Poetry)................................................................................30–33 Treasure hunters (Fiction)..................................................................34–37 A half-hearted apology (Comic)..........................................................38–41 Tips on body language (Nonfiction)....................................................42–45 The burping competition (Poetry).......................................................46–49 High school sweethearts (Fiction)......................................................50–53 Pizza (Comic)....................................................................................54–57 World Wars I, II and III (Nonfiction)....................................................58–61 Grandad’s secret (Poetry)..................................................................62–65 Just like clockwork (Fiction)...............................................................66–69 Hammer horror! (Comic)....................................................................70–73 Seven Wonders of the World (Nonfiction)..........................................74–77 Amazing Australian animals (Poetry)...................................................78–81 Answers............................................................................................82–86

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Prime-time comprehension

iii


Teachers otes n There are 20 age-appropriate texts from four different formats (fiction, comic strips, nonfiction and poetry) included in this book. The level of difficulty of the text among the formats differs. For example, the comic strips are generally much shorter and easier to read than the fiction and nonfiction texts and the poetry tends to be more challenging. The questions are organised into three categories—Levels A, B and C—which are outlined below. Four pages accompany each of the 20 texts. Each group of four pages consists of the following: The text, in the style of one of the four formats with appropriate illustrations included.

Pupil page 2 OR

The text continued. Questions related to the text – Level A (i.e. literal) and Level B (i.e. interpretive).

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Pupil page 1

Pupil page 3 OR

Questions related to the text – Level C (i.e. evaluative). Questions related to the text – Level C (i.e. evaluative).

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Questions related to the text – Level A (i.e. literal) and Level B (i.e. interpretive).

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OR Pupil page 4

An activity related to the text.

The three levels of questioning are: Literal – the answer is provided in the text.

Level B

Interpretive – The answer is inferred using information in the text.

Level C

Evaluative – The answer requires associations to be made between the text’s content and personal experience and knowledge.

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Level A

Activity pages These may require pupils to apply knowledge gained from the text, from their personal experiences and, in some cases, to use their imagination.

Answers Answers to all questions are provided on pages 82–86. Levels B and C answers are provided as a guide only as answers to interpretive and evaluative questions will vary. Teachers may need to assess answers individually and judge whether they are acceptable. iv

Prime-time comprehension

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Teachers otes n The text The format is stated.

Levels A and B questions The title of the text is given.

Literal questions are presented.

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The text is presented.

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Note: In some groups of four pages, the text continues onto a second page.

Interpretive questions are presented.

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Evaluative questions are presented.

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Level C questions

Activity

Varied and interesting activities expand on some of the concepts presented in the text provided.

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Prime-time comprehension

v


Notes

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vi

Prime-time comprehension

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Curriculu

m links

ENGLAND

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English, Key Stage Two (Reading) Objectives: • use inference and deduction • look for meaning beyond the literal • make connections between different parts of a text • use their knowledge of other texts they have read • scan texts to find information • obtain specific information through detailed reading • express preferences and support their views by reference to text • respond imaginatively, drawing on the whole text and other reading Literacy, Year Five and Six (Text) Objectives: • 5 – use evidence from across a text to explain events or ideas • 5 – infer writers’ perspectives from what is written and from what is implied • 6 – understand underlying themes, causes and points of view

NORTHERN IRELAND Language and Literacy, Reading

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Key Stage Two Objectives: • read, explore, understand and make use of a wide range of texts • extend the range of their reading and develop their own preferences • represent their understanding of texts in a range of ways • justify their responses logically, by inference, deduction and/or reference to evidence within the text • use a variety of reading skills for different reading purposes

REPUBLIC of IRELAND

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English (Reading), 5th/6th Class Objectives: • read widely from a more challenging range of reading material • read and respond to a range of poetry • use comprehension skills • support arguments and opinions with evidence from the text • relate personal experience to the ideas and emotions conveyed in the text

SCOTLAND

Literacy and English (Reading) Second Objectives: • identify and consider the purpose and main ideas of a text and use supporting detail • respond to literal, inferential and evaluative questions and other close reading tasks • discuss structure, characterization and/or setting • recognise how the writer’s theme relates to own experiences

WALES English (Reading), Key Stage Two Objectives: • develop their ability to read with fluency, accuracy, understanding and enjoyment • read in different ways for different purposes; e.g. scanning, detailed reading, using prediction, inference and deduction • recognise and understand the characteristics of different genres • consider what they read and select evidence to support their views • experience and respond to a wide range of texts Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

vii


For Pete ’s

n

Fictio

sake – 1

We are up to the fourth shop … and my last shred of patience. ‘Right, where do you stand in this shop?’ ‘Next to you’, chant Ben and Kate, my six-year-old twins. Why isn’t twelve-year-old Mandy answering? Because she hasn’t spoken a word to me since Jeff left. The last thing she said to me—well, actually, screamed at me—was, ‘It’s all your fault Daddy left! You yelled at him’. The four of us walk into the newsagent’s shop. Old Mrs Hendricks, who lives in our street, spots me. She walks over for a chat.

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‘Stay next to me’, I warn the children.

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They do—for the first twenty seconds. Mrs Hendricks is prattling on about the high price of wrapping paper when a basketball narrowly misses hitting her head. As such, I quickly round up my three children and walk them outside the shop without buying the card I went in for. ‘Right, there will be no Xbox tonight’, I announce.

‘Oh, Mum!’ whinge Ben and Kate. Mandy rolls her eyes.

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‘Well, I told you to stay beside me. Not play basketball.’

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We cross the road without argument and head towards the car. I hear a noise. I stop. I look down. ‘Oh, look!’ I gush.

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‘Wow! A baby bird’, says Kate. ‘Can we keep it?’ asks Ben. ‘It’s so cute’, says Kate. Mandy rolls her eyes.

I pick up the bird—all seven centimetres of it. I check its legs and wings. ‘It doesn’t seem to be hurt. It must have fallen out of a nest.’ ‘Can we take it home, pleeeeease?’ asks Ben. ‘Well, we can’t leave it here. It would freeze overnight’, I say. We get in the car and put the tiny bird in Ben’s lunch box. A friend of mine used to be a wildlife carer, so I give her a ring. 2

Prime-time comprehension

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For Pete ’s

n Fictio

sake – 2

When Wendy comes by she tells us the bird is a zebra finch and it is probably about ten days old. She shows me how to mix up a special paste and to feed the bird with it by using an eye-dropper. It keeps closing its eyes, wanting to rest. ‘Prepare the children’, warns Wendy. ‘It might be dead by morning.’ It wasn’t. The kids gather around for the first feed of the morning. I have to hold his beak open to put some of the paste into it. ‘I think we’d better give him a name’, I say.

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‘What about “Harry”?’ suggests Ben. ‘Is it a boy or a girl?’ asks Kate.

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‘I don’t have a clue’, I answer, truthfully.

Suddenly, Mandy says, ‘Why don’t we call it “Peter”? Peter can be a boy or a girl’s name’. ‘What a great idea’, I say. ‘Peter it is.’

I can hardly see the end of the eye-dropper through the tears in my eyes.

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Two weeks later, Pete, who is starting to develop his male colours, has graduated to eating seed. He enjoys riding on the kids’ shoulders and loves to be scratched under the chin. One night, I wake up at midnight and walk downstairs for a drink. I see Mandy pouring her heart out to Pete. Mandy is telling Pete that she’s angry with her dad for leaving.

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After tiptoeing back to my bed with tears trickling down my cheeks, I realise how important Pete has become to all of us. The next morning, I ring Wendy. She thinks I might need a permit to keep Pete. I’m going to look into it. Not only for Pete’s sake, but for ours.

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Prime-time comprehension

3


For Pete ’s

n

Fictio

sake – 3

Level A 1. What were the names of the twins? 2. How old was Mandy? 3. What type of bird was in the story? 4. What length was the bird when they first found it?

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5. What did they take the bird home in?

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Level B

1. How are the family feeling at the beginning of the story?

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Why are they feeling like this?

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2. What is the name of the children’s father?

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3. Which character is telling this story?

4. Do you think this story happened in summer or winter?

5. How many times does Mandy roll her eyes in this story?

Why?

Explain why she does this.

4

Prime-time comprehension

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For Pete ’s

n

Fictio

sake – 4

Level C 1. How did the baby bird attract Mum’s attention? 2. Do you think Mum should have punished the children?

Yes

No

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Explain why you think this.

3. Why did the mother cry when Mandy suggested a name for the bird?

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4. How do you think Pete helped the family grow closer together?

5. Do you think it’s a good idea for families to have a pet?

Yes

No

Explain your answer.

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Prime-time comprehension

5


Keepin g

c

Comi

up with

the Joneses – 1

Hey, Evan, what are you building? A nice big playhouse for the kids. What are you building?

Hi, Scott. Did you watch the football last night? You building a shed, eh? Me too, actually.

Yep. Good game.

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Yep.

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A nice big sandpit for my kids.

Wow, Sarah, is that a new diamond and sapphire ring you’re wearing?

Yes, it is! Evan bought it for my birthday. Isn’t it lovely?

It sure is.

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Prime-time comprehension

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Keepin g

c

Comi

up with

the Joneses – 2

Level A 1. What were the names of the two men in the text? 2. What was the first structure Evan was building in the comic strip story? 3. Who was the first to build a shed? 4. Who was Sarah the wife of?

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5. Why was Sarah given a new ring?

Level B

1. Circle the words that describe the relationship of the two men in the story. brothers

neighbours

enemies

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workmates

friends

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2. What did the men build for their own use?

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3. What did the children end up with from the competition between the men?

4. What age do you think the children in the story might be to play with these items? 5. Why was Evan looking pleased with himself as he was listening to the two wives talking?

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Prime-time comprehension

7


Keepin g

c

Comi

up with

the Joneses – 3

Level C 1. Do you think the title of the comic strip was well chosen?

Yes

No

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What does it mean?

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2. The cunning characters in this story were the wives! What did they do to deserve this title?

3. Did their plan work?

Yes

No

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Why/Why not?

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4. If the children tried something similar, do you think it would work?

Yes

No

Why/Why not?

5. In this story, the men wanted to outdo each other. When can this become a problem in real life?

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Prime-time comprehension

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W ha t ’ s importa

ity

Activ

nt to me?

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Having bigger and better things than other people doesn’t always make us happy. Make a list of the things and activities that are important to you and which make you happy.

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Prime-time comprehension

9


School b

tion

c Nonfi

ullying – 1

Nonfiction School bullying is the persistent and deliberate harassment of a pupil at school, or on the way to and from school. Bullying can be emotional, social or physical harassment. The playground is the most common place for bullying to occur, but cyberbullying is becoming more common. The target often has done nothing to cause the bullying. Forms of bullying Verbal (e.g. teasing and name-calling) Antisocial (e.g. exclusion, gossip and non-verbal body language) Extortion (e.g. demanding money)

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Threats Nasty rumours

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Physical violence Damage to property

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Cyber (e.g. through use of computers and mobile phones)

When does bullying occur and for how long? A pupil can be bullied by one child or by a group and it can happen now and then or over a long period of time. Some children are bullied wherever they go. Bullying can occur in any school. Who are the bullies and targets? Both girls and boys can be bullies and targets. Parents and teachers can bully or may have experienced bullying within the school community. Pupils’ thoughts on bullying Most children think that bullying can’t be stopped. They believe that if they report it, nothing is done to solve it or it becomes worse. Most children feel happier and learn better if they feel safer at school. 10

Prime-time comprehension

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School b

tion

c Nonfi

ullying – 2

Statistics Most children have either been bullied, bullied others or have seen others bullying at school. In some schools, more than one in five children are bullied regularly and about one in five children will bully others. Most bullies realise that their behaviours are mean and hurt others. Boys tend to bully more openly and experience more physical types of bullying and threats. Girls tend to use teasing, taunting, isolation of the victim from the social group and the spreading of nasty rumours to bully. These types are usually less apparent to teachers than physical bullying. Bullying is one of the biggest reasons children ring help lines.

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How can school bullying be reduced?

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Bullying can be reduced by the use of effective school anti-bullying policies, programmes and procedures. Schools need to teach pupils how to take action to protect each other. All pupils need to develop their social survival skills. Then they can create true, supportive friendships and prevent bullying. As for the bully, he or she needs to learn more effective ways of relating to people.

Families For mothers and fathers, good parenting and being good role models for children are very important. Children need to feel safe and loved, but also need to know rules and boundaries and the consequences for bad behaviour. Information for bullies Bullies need to learn how to treat people properly, otherwise they are likely to be in and out of trouble all their lives. Bullies need to learn how to make ‘real’ friends. A friend is not someone who hangs around with a person because they’re scared not to. Once bullies change their behaviour and the way they treat others, they will probably find that they are happier and able to learn more at school as well. Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

11


School b

tion

c Nonfi

ullying – 3

Level A 1. Which gender tends to experience more physical bullying?

Boys

Girls

2. How do girls tend to bully others? 3. What two examples of verbal bullying are included in the text?

4. What is extortion?

Level B

Yes

No

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5. Can bullying happen at any school?

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1. Why don’t many targets of bullying report the problem?

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2. Do all children who bully stop doing so when they are older?

No

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How do you know this?

Yes

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3. Bullying by girls doesn’t seem to be noticed as much. Why is this?

4. What are social survival skills? 5. Why might more victims phone help lines rather than report bullying to their teachers?

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Prime-time comprehension

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School b

tion

c Nonfi

ullying – 4

Level C 1. Bullies deliberately hurt other people. Why do you think they do this? 2. One way for children to develop better ways of relating to people is for them to watch others be good or nice when interacting. Can you list some ways in which to, or where to, learn this?

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Yes

No

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Yes

No

Why/Why not?

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What happened?

4. Do you think other people who see bullying should do something about it?

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3. Have you ever witnessed bullying at school?

5. Bystanders who see bullying and do nothing are also bullies because they don’t help the target. What are some things a bystander could do to help the victim? 6. Make up an anti-bullying slogan or phrase here; e.g. No bullies allowed!

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Prime-time comprehension

13


Emerge ncy m

y

Poetr

obile phone – 1

I had a mobile phone For an emergency. Only to be used in A matter of urgency. Like if there’s an accident, Or something is on fire. So … I called Jan to say

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Her brother is a liar.

What she was watching on TV. Rang Bev for homework help: Maths problem Number Three.

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Of course, I called Sharon

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I rang and asked Rachel

When Bill was dumping Gail. And rang Michaela when

I had to see if Clare

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I broke my fingernail.

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Had bought a new dress. I rang to tell Maree about My sleepover with Jess.

But now all that has changed. Mum took my phone off me. Now what will I do In an emergency? Mum won’t give it back. It’s driving me up the walls! All just because I made 300 emergency calls!

Lee-Ann Holmes 14

Prime-time comprehension

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Emerge ncy m

y

Poetr

obile phone – 2

Level A 1. Why did the mother give her daughter a mobile phone? 2. How many ‘emergency’ calls did the girl make? 3. What was the girl’s first emergency call? 4. Why did she call Michaela?

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5. At whose house was the sleepover?

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Level B 1. Did the girl use her phone responsibly?

Yes

No

2. Does the girl enjoy talking to her friends?

Yes

No

Explain why you think this.

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Explain your answer.

3. Would it have been better if the girl had used a landline telephone?

Yes

No

Why/Why not? 4. Which three friends did the girl call to ask a question? 5. Which friend do you think the girl wanted to go shopping with? Explain why you think this. Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

15


Emerge ncy m

y

Poetr

obile phone – 3

Level C 1. List some real emergencies the girl might have had to use the mobile phone for. 2. Do you agree with the mother’s decision to take the phone from her daughter? Yes

No

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Why/Why not?

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Explain why you think this.

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3. At what age do you think pupils can responsibly use mobile phones?

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4. Suggest three ways the girl could help pay for all the calls she made.

• • 5. What responsibilities should/would you adopt with your mobile phone usage?

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Prime-time comprehension

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ity

Activ

Emergen

cy pho n

e conversation

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Imagine you have come across a relative who is lying unconscious on the ground with a bruise on his/her head. You call 999. Write the phone conversation you have with the emergency call service operator.

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Prime-time comprehension

17


Cries in

the night – 1

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n Fictio

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The old house had seemed so much friendlier and welcoming when the estate agent took me through it that opening day. But my first night there brought a very different feeling.

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All of a sudden the house seemed big, empty and draughty. There were too many unfamiliar groans and creaks. And there was an eerie feeling of being watched. At one point I was almost sure I had caught a glimpse of something else in the house. I saw a black streak! Was it a shadow? A ghost?

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The worst thing was the crying. ‘It’s only the wind’, I told myself. But it sounded so much like children crying that I wanted to pack my bags and leave. The storm didn’t help matters. The roof leaked, the shutters banged, and when the power went out, I started to cry. Then, suddenly, I saw two eyes staring at me through the window. As the next bolt of lightning lit the night sky, I saw it was a black cat. It meowed … then it was gone. The next morning, after a restless night, I placed a saucer of milk outside the door. I wondered if the previous owners had left their cat behind. The estate agent had said they’d left suddenly. Maybe this was the cat’s home? That day, I decided to borrow a few novels from the local town library. The librarian’s long, unruly grey hair reached down the back of her black dress to thigh level. Her conversation startled me. ‘So, you’re the girl brave enough to live in the old house on the hill, eh?’ 18

Prime-time comprehension

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Cries in

n Fictio

the night – 2

‘Brave enough? What do you mean?’ ‘Rumour is that the old place has been haunted for years. Everyone who lives there seems to leave quickly, for one reason or another. They usually exit with a few cards short of a deck, if you know what I mean.’ ‘I see’, I said. ‘Would you happen to know if the previous owners had a black cat?’ ‘No, I wouldn’t know. And don’t worry about the ghost stories—all codswallop if you ask me, love.’ ‘Thank you. I’m sure I’ll be alright.’

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When I returned to the house, I saw that the saucer was empty, but the black cat was nowhere to be seen. Surely a ghost couldn’t drink milk?

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Ghost or not, I refilled the saucer. I thought it would be nice if the cat came to stay. It would be good to have company.

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That night, another electrical storm swept through the district and the mournful cries in the house seemed worse than ever. I sat in front of the bay window in anticipation of seeing the black cat. This time I opened the window a bit, hoping to encourage it in. For an hour I sat there, waiting … then, suddenly, there it was! The black streak shot through the open window, but ignored the milk and went straight to the staircase.

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The black cat meowed as if beckoning me to follow it. I went over to it. It pawed at the panelling under the stairs.

‘What’s up, puss?’ I asked. I tapped on the panel. It made a hollow sound as if there was a void behind it. I gave it a little push. A panel opened! The cat dived in through the small gap. I raced to grab my torch. ‘I-i-i-s anyone in there?’ I stammered. Two green eyes stared back at me. It was the black cat. I shined my shaking torch in her direction … and breathed a sigh of relief. Kittens! Of course! That would explain the crying and scratching noises at all hours. ‘Looks like I’ll be buying more milk’, I said, as I stroked a gorgeous black kitten.

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Prime-time comprehension

19


Cries in

n Fictio

the night – 3

Level A 1. When did the young lady regret her decision to buy the house? 2. What happened to the house during the storm? 3. What did the lady in the story tell herself was making the crying noises?

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4. How many times did the lady place a saucer of milk for the black cat?

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5. What were the rumours about the old house?

Level B

1. What clues about the story does the first picture give?

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2. What was the black streak the lady noticed at the beginning of the story?

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3. What did the author wish us to think of the librarian when she described her ‘long, unruly grey hair’ and that she wore a black dress?

4. Why did the black cat ignore the saucer of milk when it ran into the house? 5. What did the lady think could have been under the staircase? How do you know? 20

Prime-time comprehension

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Cries in

n Fictio

the night – 4

Level C

pl e

1. What does the phrase ‘a few cards short of a deck’ mean?

2. Why do you think this young lady bought the old house?

Sa m

3. Describe what occurs during an electrical storm.

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4. Why do you think past tenants of the old house always left suddenly?

5. Would you have stayed?

Yes

No

Why/Why not?

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Prime-time comprehension

21


Worms! – 1

c

Comi

On the left I have a glass of water, and on the right is a glass of lemonade. One worm is in each glass.

Today we are going to do an experiment.

Sa m

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As you can see, the worm in the water is fine. But the worm in the lemonade is dead.

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What does this tell us about soft drinks?

Anyone?

Yes, Thomas?

22

Prime-time comprehension

If we have enough soft drink, we won’t get worms!

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Worms! – 2

c

Comi

Level A 1. What was in both glasses of liquid? 2. What is the scene for this text? 3. Who was the audience for the teacher’s experiment?

5. What happened to the worm in the lemonade?

Sa m

Level B

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4. What was the name of the pupil who answered the question?

1. How were the contents of the glasses different?

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2. Why do you think the teacher used lemonade instead of cola drink for the experiment?

3. What subject do you think the class was studying at the time?

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4. Look at the faces of the pupils in the fifth panel. What do you think they are thinking?

5. Why did Thomas put his hand up?

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Prime-time comprehension

23


Worms! – 3

c

Comi

Level C

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1. What is an experiment?

Sa m

2. What did the teacher want the pupils to realise by doing this experiment?

in g

ew

3. Why didn’t any of the pupils answer the teacher’s question straightaway?

Vi

4. Do you think the answer Thomas gave was what the teacher expected?

Yes

No

Explain why you think this.

24

Prime-time comprehension

5. Do you think the pupils understood the teacher’s reason for doing the experiment?

Yes

No

Why/Why not?

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


Create a

ity

Activ

comic

The comic strip ‘Worms’ was created from a well-known joke. Complete the speech bubbles in the comic strip below, to turn this joke into a comic strip.

Joke Question: Why was number 6 frightened of number 7? Answer: Because 7, 8, 9!

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

(Explanation: Because 7 ate 9!)

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

25


Comets

n

ctio i f n o N

a nd m e

teors – 1

Sa m

pl e

Nonfiction

in g

If you lie outside on a cloudless night for an hour, you might see a few shooting stars. A shooting star looks like a light that darts across the sky then disappears. It travels at about 240 000 km per hour. What we commonly refer to as shooting stars are actually meteors, or occasionally, comets.

ew

Comets are one of many stargazers’ most loved space objects. Their simple beauty as they streak across the sky, fills people of all ages with awe.

Vi

Though beautiful, comets are merely giant balls of frozen water and rock! A comet’s centre (or nucleus) is often described as a dirty snowball because it is made of bits or rock and dust held together with ice. We can see comets because they reflect sunlight as they pass close to the sun. There are four parts to a comet: the nucleus, which is the centre; the coma, which surrounds the nucleus; the plasma tail; and the dust tail. The nucleus is the only permanent part of the comet.  The brightness of the comet depends on how large the nucleus’s diameter is, as they scatter sunlight like a giant mirror. Comets orbit the sun. As they move closer to the sun, they develop a glowing tail. When they travel away, the tail becomes shorter and then disappears. We usually see different comets at regular intervals as they pass by Earth on their orbit. Halley’s Comet is one such comet, which is visible in the sky every 76 years. 26

Prime-time comprehension

plasma tail

dust tail

nucleus coma Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


Comets

n

ctio i f n o N

a nd m e

teors – 2

Meteors, too, are beautiful … and are more numerous. Meteors can be seen individually, or as meteor showers appearing to radiate from one point in the sky and seen at the same time each year. Unlike comets, which are balls of ice and bits of rock, meteors are chunks of rock and metal that burn up as they enter the Earth’s atmosphere. When in space they are known as meteoroids. They are only named meteors when they enter Earth’s atmosphere, which they ‘hit’ at a speed much faster than a bullet (travelling at speeds of up to 240 000 km per hour). The heat this creates is so intense that it leaves a bright glowing tail in the sky. Because the meteors travel so fast and are usually very small, they mostly burn up about 90 km above Earth’s surface.

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

Occasionally, meteors do not burn up completely in the Earth’s atmosphere and they fall to Earth. A meteorite is the fragment of a meteor that reaches the Earth. Scientists believe that about 50 000 years ago, a meteorite (or huge rock) weighing about 150 000 tonnes caused a crater (cavity in the ground) in Arizona, USA. The hole it has left is more than one kilometre in diameter. A more recent example is from 25 August 1995, when a meteorite between that of a baseball and basketball in size fell to Earth. Scientists also believe meteorites may have been responsible for the extinction of many of Earth’s early animal species.

Art Meteor shower

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

27


Comets

n

ctio i f n o N

a nd m e

teors – 3

Level A 1. What is the family in the first picture of the story doing? 2. What is a ‘shooting star’? 3. How fast does a shooting star travel?

pl e

4. When in space, what is an orbiting frozen ball of ice usually known as?

Sa m

5. Name the four parts of a comet.

Level B 1. What is a meteor shower?

in g

2. List three things you have learnt about comets that you did not know before.

ew

• •

Vi

3. List two things that you have learnt about meteors. • • 4. Could a person see Halley’s Comet twice in a lifetime?

Yes

No

Explain your answer.

28

Prime-time comprehension

5. Have you ever seen a shooting star or comet?

Yes

No

Describe what it looked like.

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


Comets

n

ctio i f n o N

a nd m e

teors – 4

Level C 1. Why do you think stargazers like comets so much? 2. Explain why we only see comets for a short time at regular intervals.

pl e

3. Explain why so few meteors become meteorites.

Sa m

Yes

No

in g

4. Do you think it would be better if there were more meteorites?

Vi

ew

Explain why you think this.

5. Imagine what a cave-dweller might have thought if he or she saw a meteor shower. What do you think he or she would have felt and done? Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

29


Initiation –

y

1

in g

Sa m

pl e

Poetr

ew

Surely, it couldn’t be that terribly bad—a simple little stroll in the dark. Perhaps it will be down my own street at night,

Vi

Or at late afternoon in the park.

But what if they say that my stroll in the dark has to be in the cemetery, Of which I’ve heard stories of spirits and goblins? Now that wouldn’t sit well with me. Maybe they’ll hide and jump out of the shadows to yell when it’s least expected. Or perhaps they’ll have vicious dogs there to chase me— I’m sure their plan’s been perfected. And why should I join their gang anyway? I don’t need to prove that I’m tough. I would rather sit home and play chess all day long, Or do other things not quite so rough.

Lee-Ann Holmes 30

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


Initiation –

y

Poetr

2

Level A 1. Where does the boy think he might have to go in the afternoon? 2. What did the boy fear the spirits and goblins would do? 3. What game did he want to play at home? 4. Where was the boy quite happy to walk?

pl e

5. What did the boy think the dogs would do?

Level B

Sa m

1. What did the gang say the boy had to prove for him to join their group?

2. Explain what the expression ‘That wouldn’t sit well with me’ means.

in g

Yes

No

ew

3. Did the boy really know what the gang’s plan for him was?

Vi

Write some of the words used in the poem that tell you this.

4. How do you think the boy feels about cemeteries?

5. Why is the boy considering doing the dare?

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

31


Initiation –

y

Poetr

3

1. Describe how you think the boy is feeling.

Sa m

pl e

Level C

2. Do you think this boy is rough and tough or quiet and shy? Explain why you think this.

in g

Yes

No

Vi

Why/Why not?

ew

3. Do you think completing the dare would win the boy real acceptance?

4. Talk with a partner to decide what you think the boy will do next and write your answer.

5. What would you do if you were in the same situation?

32

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


Initiation –

ity

Activ

4

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

Design your own ‘Teens against gangs’ poster.

Critically analyse each other’s posters to identify the features of each, then vote to select your favourites. Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

33


Treasu re h

n

unters – 1

Sa m

pl e

Fictio

Two years, four months, three days and thirteen hours …

Vi

ew

in g

That’s how long it had taken the treasure hunters to reach their final destination— the Church of the Twelve Saints—where the Bel Ayr fortune was supposedly kept, lying hidden for centuries. The four adventurers had escaped from the savage and cannibalistic Warri Warriors of Indonesia, a flash flooding at the Red River in Vietnam, and a barbaric band of pirates in the Black Sea, all to be brought to this point in time: sitting on a pew in an old abandoned church at the top of a hill in war-torn Kushka. And the place was such a mess, as it looked like it had been ransacked long ago. Matilda held in her hand their last clue: a chalice bearing the engraved letters S,G and W on the bottom. ‘They might be somebody’s initials?’ she suggested hopefully. ‘The name of one of the saints’ statues, perhaps?’ Her three friends sat—dumbfounded, exhausted and disheartened. All were fearful of dismal failure. ‘S-G-W? Think again, guys’, encouraged Samuel. ‘We can’t have come all this way for nothing.’ ‘Looks like someone may have beaten us to the treasure anyway’, stated Emily. ‘It’s useless! Hopeless! All the time we’ve spent! All the money! It’s just been a huge waste of time’, grumbled Michael. ‘Don’t be so negative, eh!’ With tears of frustration, Matilda got down on her knees to pray. The statue of Our Lord had fallen victim to vandals long ago, so, instead, Matilda turned her eyes to a lovely leadlight window of coloured glass, depicting Jesus praying 34

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


Treasu re h

n Fictio

unters – 2

Sa m

Suddenly Matilda felt overwhelmed by a sense of sadness for the thirty-something-year-old man in the picture, pleading with His father in Heaven that he would not have to endure what was to come. How terrified He must have been! And how well the emotion had been depicted in the beautiful glass in the window, through the vibrant colours of ruby red, sapphire blue and emerald green.

pl e

on His knees in the garden before He was taken by the soldiers to be crucified. It was the only window in the whole of the church that had remained intact, spared from damage by the many vandals over the years.

ew

in g

Was that a tear she could see under one eye? No, not one, but three. Three tears glistening with the sunlight pouring through them. From this angle, thought Matilda, they almost looked like shiny diamonds. Suddenly Matilda stood up for a closer look.

Vi

‘Of course!’ shouted Matilda. ‘S-G-W. stained-glass window! Those are real rubies, sapphires and emeralds.’ Her friends ran over to scrutinise the window. Cheering erupted in the Church until Matilda quietened the other treasure hunters with a smile on her face. ‘Shhh, this is a House of God.’ Matilda looked around. The church would be beautiful after the restoration that would surely follow this discovery. People would now travel from all over the world to visit this site with its amazing features—not to mention the one window with the hidden treasure! With a smile on her face, Matilda sighed. The treasure hunters’ journey was at an end. Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

35


Treasu re h

n

Fictio

unters – 3

Level A 1. Where was the treasure hunters’ final destination? 2. How long had it taken them to reach their destination?

4. What had the friends seen in Vietnam?

Sa m

pl e

3. What were the names of the treasure hunters in the story?

5. What did the letters S, G and W stand for?

Level B

in g

1. Why did Matilda tell Michael he was being negative?

ew

2. What three colours could Matilda see in the stained-glass window?

Vi

3. Describe the state of the church when the treasure hunters arrived.

4. Find and underline the following words in the text. Explain what you think they mean. Dumbfounded: Exhausted: Disheartened: 5. Why did Matilda take a closer look at the window?

36

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


Treasu re h

n

Fictio

unters – 4

Level C 1. Why would the treasure hunters’ search have cost them a lot of money?

pl e

Yes

No

Sa m

2. Do you think war-torn Kushka would now be able to pay for the restoration of the church?

Where might the money come from?

in g

ew

3. About how old do you think the treasure hunters were?

Vi

Why do you believe this?

4. Do you think Matilda had been in a church 5. Do you think the treasure hunters should before? receive a reward?

Yes

No

Why do you think this?

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Yes

No

Why/Why not?

Prime-time comprehension

37


A half-h

c

Comi

Deer Mr Habberknackle

I don’t know why I even have to write this stupid letter.

earted apo logy – 1 This is just not fair!

I am writeing this letter to appologise for my terrable behavya yesterday.

My friends and I were not thinking and we made a bad choyce.

Only because Mum is making me.

Sa m

pl e

I am happy to mow your lorn if there is any damage to pay for.

I hope we can still be friends.

ew

It wasn’t even my fault.

Vi

Still going, Mum.

in g

Have you written that letter yet?

It will not hapen agen.

I bet the other mums aren’t making their boys write a letter. From your naayber, Billy Matherson Here, Mum. Okay, before you take this next door, sit down.

38

Prime-time comprehension

Now, tell me the whole story.

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


A half-h

c

Comi

earted apo logy – 2

Level A 1. What was Billy doing in this comic strip ? 2. To whom was the letter being written? 3. Does the story tell us what Billy and his friends did?

Yes

No

4. What did you notice about Billy’s spelling? 5. How many spelling mistakes can you count in the second panel?

pl e

Level B

1. What do you think the words in italics represent?

Sa m

2. How does Billy know Mr Habberknackle?

in g

3. Who is Billy angry with?

Vi

ew

Why is he angry?

4. How was Billy feeling when he wrote the letter? (List two or more feelings.)

5. In the comic strip, why were there clouds as well as circles containing text?

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

39


A half-h

c

Comi

earted apo logy – 3

Level C 1. List some things Billy and his friends might have done to get into trouble with Mr Habberknackle and Billy’s mum.

Yes

No

3. Do you think Billy has learnt his lesson?

Yes

No

Why/Why not?

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

Explain your answer.

pl e

2. Do you think Billy is sorry for what he did?

4. Do you think the mother in the story did the right thing by making Billy write a letter of apology?

Yes

No

Why/Why not?

5. Why do you think his mother made Billy write the letter before she asked him to explain what happened?

40

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


ity

Activ

Be the t eacher

1. Some of the words in the comic strip were Billy’s thoughts. Write what the actual letter he wrote to Mr Habberknackle would have said.

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

2. You may have noticed the spelling errors Billy made when writing his letter. Re-read the letter and correct the mistakes.

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

41


n

ctio i f n o N

Tips on b

ody language – 1

Sa m

pl e

Nonfiction

ew

in g

Eye contact: Eye contact is one of the most important things to be mindful of when dealing with others, especially with someone you’ve just met. Keeping good eye contact shows respect and interest in what the other person has to say. You should try to keep eye contact around 60–70% of the time when listening or talking, though this differs in some cultures. By doing this, it will give a person a feeling of comfort in your company. However, more than 70% eye contact and you can appear too intense; any less, and you give a signal that you lack interest in the speaker and the conversation.

Vi

Head position: When you want to feel confident and self-assured, hold your head up. You should do this when you want what you’re saying to be taken seriously and to sound authoritative. When you want to appear friendly and that you are listening, tilt your head just a little to one side or the other. Posture: Posture is the next thing to master. Make sure your posture is right and you’ll automatically start feeling and looking better. The next time you notice you’re feeling a bit down, take a look at how you’re standing or sitting. Chances are you’re slouched over with your shoulders drooping. This can make you look and feel nervous or uncomfortable. Angle of the body: We tend to angle our body towards people we find attractive, friendly and interesting, and angle ourselves away from those we don’t—it’s that simple! Distance from others: This is crucial if you want to give the right signals to people you’ve just met. Stand too close and you’ll be marked as ‘Pushy’ or ‘In your face’. Stand or sit too far away and you’ll appear as if you are ‘Keeping your distance’ or ‘Standoffish’. If you are close to someone and he or she backs away, you should pull back a little too. 42

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


n

ctio i f n o N

Tips on b

ody language – 2

Hand gestures: Palm position is very important when it comes to handshaking. Holding your palm down can be seen as dominating and possibly aggressive. Offer a handshake with your palm facing up, before turning it to a vertical position. This is more likely to convey equality.

Sa m

pl e

Arms: Generally, keep your arms to the side of your body or behind your back. This shows that you are not scared to take on whatever comes your way. Usually, the more outgoing you are, the more you tend to make big gestures with your arms. The quieter you are, the less you move your arms. So, try to strike a natural balance with your arm movements. Do not cross your arms across your chest in front of others unless you want to show disapproval.

in g

Legs: A person’s legs tend to move a lot more than normal when that person is feeling nervous or stressed or is being deceptive. It is a good idea to keep them as still as possible in most situations, especially during interviews or work meetings. Be careful in the way you cross and uncross your legs. If you bring your leg up to rest on the knee of the other leg, it is known as the ‘Figure four’. If you change to this position when someone tells you something, it may mean you are doubtful about what he or she said.

Vi

ew

Ears: Your ears play a vital role in communication with others. You have two ears and one mouth, so try to use them in that order. If you listen twice as much as you talk, you will come across as a good communicator who knows how to strike up a balanced conversation without being ‘me-me-me’ or appearing as a wallflower who says nothing. Mouth movements: One’s mouth can give away all sorts of clues. You might purse or pucker your lips (and sometimes twist them to the side) when you’re thinking, or when you want to hold back an angry comment you don’t wish to reveal. Different types of smiles can also communicate different things.

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

43


n

ctio i f n o N

Tips on b

ody language – 3

Level A 1. What was the second paragraph of the text about? 2. What does it tend to indicate when we angle our body towards another person? 3. How much eye contact should we maintain with people? 4. Why shouldn’t people move their legs around a lot during an interview?

pl e

5. What can crossing your arms show?

1. What does body language mean?

ew

in g

2. What is posture?

Sa m

Level B

Vi

3. How would someone the author describes as a ‘me-me-me’ person communicate?

4. Write two things you learnt from this article that you didn’t know before.

5. Describe how a person’s lips can provide information about what he or she is thinking. 44

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


n

ctio i f n o N

Tips on b

ody language – 4

Level C 1. Estimate what you think would be a natural distance to stand from a teacher when talking to him or her. Would you stand the same distance from a good friend?

Yes

No

Why/Why not?

pl e

2. Describe how you feel when someone invades your personal space.

Sa m

Yes

No

Vi

ew

Why/Why not?

in g

3. If being interviewed for a job, do you think that leaning back in your chair with your hands clasped behind your head would portray a good image?

4. Do you think people will find the information in the text helpful?

Yes

No

Why/Why not?

5. Which do you think is the best body language tip for you? Why?

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

45


The bur

y

Poetr

ping com

petition – 1

My family was sitting down Having afternoon tea, When Daniel did a burp— On the Richter scale, a three!

in g

We all started laughing. All except for Mum. Then little sis prepared For her big burp to come.

Sa m

She expected Dad to say, ‘Now, don’t be rude, you boys!’ But instead Dad inhaled To make a bigger noise!

pl e

I glanced up at my mum And I recognised ‘the look’. She was prompting my dad But the hint he never took.

ew

It was a little ripper! Louder than my dad. ‘Good heavens’, said my mum. ‘Your manners are so bad!’

Vi

We were all still laughing When we felt the table shake. Dad said, ‘Quick, on the floor. We’re having an earthquake’.

Then came an explosion Like you’ve never heard before. It started as a rumble, And ended in a ROAR! When we all got up Mum was sitting at her place. The biggest, proudest smile, Was planted on her face.

Lee-Ann Holmes

46

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


y

Poetr

The bur

ping com

petition – 2

Level A 1. Who was the author of this piece of writing? 2. What was the family doing when the burping competition started?

3. Who was the first to burp in the family?

pl e

4. What number did the burp measure on the Richter scale? 5. How many people are in this family?

Sa m

Level B

1. What did Dad do that surprised Mum when she hinted that he should tell the boys that burping was rude?

ew

in g

2. Explain the meaning of the expression ‘little ripper’.

3. Was the little sister’s burp softer or louder than Dad’s burp?

Vi

4. Why did the mother say ‘Your manners are so bad’?

5. Why didn’t Mum drop to the floor when they heard the ‘explosion’?

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

47


The bur

y

Poetr

ping com

petition – 3

Level C 1. Usually we try not to burp in public, or excuse ourselves if it happens. Why is this?

Yes

4. Is this type of behaviour something your parents would normally encourage?

Sa m

3. Do you think that Mum should have had the ‘biggest, proudest smile’?

pl e

2. The mother was not laughing, but she did have a sense of humour. How do you know this?

No

No

Why/Why not?

Vi

ew

in g

Why/Why not?

Yes

5. This family was having a little bit of fun together! Name some other fun activities this family could do together.

48

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


ity

Activ

The Rich

ter scale

A seismograph is an instrument that measures energy released by earthquakes. It records a zigzag line, which shows variations depending on the strength of the earthquake. Its strength, the time it occurred and its location anywhere in the world are recorded at the seismograph station. The Richter scale was developed by a man called Charles Richter in 1935. It measures the magnitude or size of an earthquake on a decimal scale. Size on Effect Richter scale

Approximate number recorded per year

Less than 2.5 Not felt by humans

Numerous

Felt by sensitive people

3.0–3.9

Vibration felt like a heavy vehicle passing by

50 000

4.0–4.9

Hanging objects swing, dishes and windows rattle

6000

5.0–5.9

Vibrations felt by all people; strong enough to move furniture

1000

6.0–6.9

Buildings may suffer substantial damage

120

7.0–7.9

Widespread damage: few buildings remain intact; landslides; cracks in ground

15

8.0–8.9

Complete devastation

0.33

300 000

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

2.5–2.9

Answer the following questions by using the information above.

Vi

1. What is a seismograph?

2. How does it work?

3. What information is recorded at a seismograph station?

4. Who developed the Richter scale? 5. What damage would one expect from an earthquake measuring 5.3 on the Richter scale?

6. About how many earthquakes powerful enough to make windows rattle occur each year? 7. What size of earthquake would cause complete devastation? Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

49


High sch

n

Fictio

ool sweeth

earts – 1

Lynne opened the door to the pizza delivery man. ‘Lynne! Is that you?’ ‘Yes, it is. And you are?’ ‘Blake Fuller … your old boyfriend.’

‘Yes … thank you. Is that my pizza?’

Sa m

‘Gee, you’re looking alright, Lynnie. Nice place you got here, too’, said Blake. He poked his head inside the door for a better look.

pl e

Lynne stared hard and cringed. It was Blake … and he’d changed. He’d put on weight and his hair was longer. It was one of those hairstyles known as a ‘mullet’.

‘Yup! You gonna eat all that by yourself?’

‘I have a good appetite’, said Lynne while handing over the money. ‘Thank you, Blake. Goodnight.’

Vi

ew

in g

Lynne shut the door and physically tried to shake off her tension. He brought back memories she had chosen to forget. Blake was considered the ‘prize catch’ when she was seventeen. All the girls were after him, but he chose Lynne because of her slim body and long blonde hair. With Blake’s height and chiselled good looks, they looked like the perfect pair. At first, Lynne enjoyed the attention. She would arrive at school in Blake’s red sports car and be the envy of every girl. But, slowly, Blake started to show his true colours. ‘Hey, Carrothead’, he’d call to Adam Miller. ‘What’cha doin’, Carrothead?’ It always got a laugh from Blake’s mates, but not from Lynne. Each time it happened, Adam would calmly ignore Blake, politely say hello to Lynne, and continue on his way. Lynne admired his restraint, but sometimes wished he would stand up to Blake. Four weeks later, Lynne ordered pizza again, quite forgetting who’d delivered them the last time … until the doorbell rang. She dreaded answering it. ‘Hi, Lynnie. Teaching must pay really well, eh? You’ve got a nice joint here.’ ‘Yes, it’s alright I guess.’ ‘Remember that nerd, Carrothead Miller, at high school? He always had his nose in his books. I wonder what he ended up doing. Do you ever see him?’ ‘Yes, I do. Often’, answered Lynne. ‘Last time I ran into him, he was lecturing at the University.’ ‘Yeah? Well he’s done alright then. Sure you don’t need a hand eating those pizzas?’ ‘I’ll be fine. Here’s your money. Goodnight, Blake.’ 50

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


n Fictio

High sch

ool sweeth

earts – 2

Lynne winced as she recalled the day she and Blake split up. He had been tormenting Adam again. ‘What’cha reading, Carrothead?’ And when there was no response, he’d yelled again, ‘I said “What’cha reading, Carrothead?”’, while knocking Adam’s book out of his hands. ‘Why don’t you leave him alone, Blake?’ Lynne had protested (as usual). ‘Why don’t you shut your mouth?’ Blake had spat back. ‘Hey! You don’t speak to a lady like that!’ Adam had responded.

pl e

Lynne remembered how small Adam had looked while standing front-on to Blake. Only a few shoves from both boys had taken place before the teacher on duty had separated the two of them.

Sa m

That was the last time Lynne had seen Blake until he’d delivered her pizza four weeks ago. His father had moved him to another school to avoid suspension after a series of unpleasant incidents. Three weeks later, Lynne ordered pizza again … and psyched herself up to meet the delivery man. ‘You know, I could come in and help you eat those pizzas, Lynnie’, suggested Blake.

in g

‘I already have help’, replied Lynne. ‘I have Jimmy’s help’ said Lynne as a small frecklyfaced boy stood beside her. Blake laughed, ‘You know, his hair is the same colour as Carrothead’s used to be’.

ew

‘Yes,’ said Lynne, ‘he gets that from his father���. ‘Who’s that man, Mummy?’ asked Jimmy.

Vi

‘Someone I went to school with, darling’, said Lynne. ‘Yes’, added Adam from behind. ‘Say goodnight to the pizza delivery man, Jimmy.’

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

51


n

Fictio

High sch

ool sweeth

earts – 3

Level A 1. What colour is Lynne’s hair? 2. Lynne had a boyfriend at high school. What was his name? 3. What hairstyle does Blake have?

5. Did Lynne share her pizza with Blake?

No

Sa m

Level B

Yes

pl e

4. What is Adam Miller’s job?

1. Why did Lynne get lots of attention when she started going out with Blake?

ew

in g

2. Why didn’t Lynne recognise Blake when he first came to her door?

3. How did Lynne feel when she saw Blake at the door?

Vi

Why did she feel like this?

4. Who is Lynne’s partner?

5. How long was it between Blake’s first and third deliveries to Lynne’s house?

52

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


n

Fictio

High sch

ool sweeth

earts – 4

Level C

Sa m

pl e

1. What can we learn from this story in regards to studying hard at school?

in g

2. When Lynne ordered the first pizza, why do you think she said, ‘I have a good appetite’, instead of saying ‘My husband and son will help me eat the pizza’?

Vi

ew

3. Adam didn’t stand up for himself when called ‘Carrothead’, but stood up for Lynne when Blake spoke unkindly to her. Why?

4. Why did Blake keep asking to be invited in to eat pizza?

5. Do you think the story has a good ending?

Yes

No

Why/Why not?

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

53


Pizza – 1

c

Comi

Come on, kids. Come and help me make lunch.

Pizza. You can each make your own.

Yay!

Ok, Mum, what are we having? Great!

Cool!

Each put a tortilla on your plate.

Sa m

pl e

Smear tomato paste all over it.

What next?

Sprinkle cheese all over the top. Then bake it for 10 minutes in the oven.

ew

in g

Now choose your toppings. There’s tomato, ham, pepperoni, pineapple, chicken, pepper, mushroom and anchovies.

Done!

Vi

Let’s get to it!

Mmm— meatlovers!

54

Mmm—ham and pineapple.

Prime-time comprehension

Mmm—chicken, mushroom and anchovy.

Mmm—the works!

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


Pizza – 2

c

Comi

Level A 1. When are they going to eat the pizzas? 2. How many people were being fed? 3. What did they use as a base? 4. What did they first put on the base?

Level B

Sa m

1. What will happen to the cheese on the pizzas?

pl e

5. What went on last?

2. Do you think the children had made pizzas before?

Yes

No

ew

in g

Why/Why not?

Vi

3. Which toppings would a meatlovers pizza have on it?

4. Whose pizza had the most toppings on it? 5. What do you call a pizza with every topping on it?

Prim-Ed PublishingŽ – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

55


Pizza – 3

c

Comi

Level C 1. Do you think the children would have enjoyed eating the homemade pizzas more than shop-bought pizzas?

Yes

No

Explain why you think this.

2. How often do you eat pizza?

Sa m

pl e

Explain why you like/dislike pizza.

3. Do you think pizza can be healthy to eat?

No

in g

Why/Why not?

Yes

ew

4. If you were to make your own pizzas, what would your preferred toppings be?

Vi

5. Survey a group of friends to find out their favourite pizza toppings and complete the table. Type of pizza

Meatlovers

Tally

Total

Hawaiian (ham and pineapple) Vegetarian Margherita (cheese and tomato) Pepperoni Seafood

56

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


Making pi

ity

Activ

zza

Write the steps, then draw how to make your own pizza with your preferred toppings.

pl e

Step 1

ew Vi

Step 3

in g

Sa m

Step 2

Step 4

Prim-Ed PublishingŽ – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

57


n

ctio i f n o N

World W ar

s I, II and III – 1

Nonfiction World War I was fought mainly in Europe from 1914 to 1918. This conflict involved most of the world’s most powerful countries at the time. On one side were the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Russia, the United States and some smaller powers. On the other side were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. More than 65 million military people, including 60 million Europeans, went to war.

Sa m

pl e

It began because of the rivalry among some powerful European countries. Fighting started when the Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia. A Serbian man, Gavrilo Princip, had assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who was the heir to the throne of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. This was the trigger that started the war.

in g

The conflict started with the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia, the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France; and a Russian attack against the German Empire. Fighting took place on land, at sea and in the air.

Vi

ew

Within weeks, the most powerful countries in Europe were at war with each other. The conflict also involved their colonies around the world. Australia, a colony of the United Kingdom, sent troops to Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. Germany surrendered on 11 November 1918. This day is now known as Armistice Day or Remembrance Day. By the end of the war, Russia had become the Soviet Union. The map of central Europe was completely redrawn into numerous smaller countries. An organisation known as the League of Nations (similar to the United Nations) was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. In a peace treaty created after the war, called the Treaty of Versailles, the Germans admitted they were the cause of the war and were forced to pay huge fines to other countries. Many Germans believed the size of the fines were unfair. Germany was not happy, and this eventually contributed to the beginning of World War II.

58

Prime-time comprehension

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n

ctio i f n o N

World W ar

s I, II and III – 2

World War II, lasting from 1939 to 1945, involved many of the world’s nations, including the United Kingdom, France, China, the Soviet Union, the USA and their allies. They fought against Germany, Italy, Japan and their allies. In 1939, German tanks and bombers attacked Poland and the bloodiest war in history began. One of the major causes of the war was the rise to power of the National Socialist German Worker’s Party (or Nazi party), led by Adolf Hitler. The Nazis wanted to wipe out the memory of defeat in World War I. Within a year of the invasion, the German Army, with the help of Italy, had taken over much of Europe. Only the United Kingdom was not defeated. In 1941, Hitler invaded part of the Soviet Union, but the Soviet people fought hard and millions died defending the nation.

Sa m

pl e

On 7 December 1941, Japanese warplanes bombed the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, in Hawaii. This brought the United States into the war. During the final stages of World War II (in 1945), the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan: one on the city of Hiroshima, and the other on Nagasaki. The war ended with the surrender of both Germany and Japan in 1945. (Italy had surrendered earlier.)

Vi

ew

in g

After Germany surrendered, Allied troops discovered the German government had murdered many millions of people. These were people the Nazis had considered as ‘undesirable’, and included the murder of six million Jews. Many had been held in horrifying concentration (prison) camps that had been built throughout eastern Europe. In these camps, the prisoners had to do hard physical labour under terrible conditions and suffered from cruel treatment. Many captives were starved or tortured, with many gassed to death in places known as death camps. This is now known as the Holocaust.

By the end of the war, about 60 million people had died, much of Europe and South-East Asia was in ruins, and two new ‘superpowers’, the Soviet Union and the United States, dominated world politics. The United Nations was then established, replacing the League of Nations. One of its roles was (and still is) to help countries cooperate and, hopefully, prevent wars from happening. World War III If there is ever a third world war, people expect it will involve nuclear weapons and be very destructive. This idea has featured in many works of fiction, some of which even include the total destruction of the planet! Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

59


n

ctio i f n o N

World W ar

s I, II and III – 3

Level A

art WW I soldier

1. When was World War I fought? 2. Which other countries fought with the United Kingdom?

pl e

3. When did Germany surrender in World War I?

Sa m

4. Who lead the National Socialist German Workers’ Party?

5. What is the name of the organisation set up after World War II to help countries cooperate?

Level B

in g

1. How long did World War II last?

ew

2. Why might the other countries have made Germany pay huge fines after World War I?

Vi

3. Why did countries outside of Europe send soldiers to fight in World War I?

4. What was the Holocaust?

5. Why do you think a ‘Cold War’ (lasting 46 years) began between the United States and the Soviet Union at the end of World War II?

60

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


n

ctio i f n o N

World W ar

s I, II and III – 4

Level C 1. Why do you think the Japanese chose the ships at a naval base as their first target when they attacked the United States?

Sa m

pl e

2. Why do you think World War II ended so quickly after the atomic bombs were dropped on Japan?

in g

3. Why do you think Australia became involved in the two wars?

4. Do you think there is likely to be a World War III?

No

Vi

ew

Why/Why not?

Yes

5. Name two similarities and two differences between World Wars I and II. Similarities

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Differences

Prime-time comprehension

61


Granda

y

Poetr

d’s secret – 1

My grandad is cool and we get along great. I sometimes even think that he’s my best mate.

pl e

He’s awesome when we both play hide-and-go-seek. He’s so hard to find and he wins … the old sneak.

Sa m

Because he’s quite deaf, I shout ‘Grandad, found you!’ ‘Okay,’ is his answer, ‘prepare for round two!’ My mum is his daughter, and she’s so cool, too. Each Christmas and Easter, you know what we do?

in g

Mum cooks for the uncles and aunties and cousins. They all arrive early. They come by the dozens.

ew

While Mum’s busy cooking the food in the kitchen, My aunts in the lounge all start causing some friction.

Vi

They argue and plan and they scheme and they plot They talk about Grandad and who will get what. Poor Grandad just sits there. He can’t hear a thing. My aunts treat him nicely, as though he’s a king. I know that they’re selfish and treat him like honey ‘Cos Grandad is rich and they just want his money. Would you like to know about our latest big secret? Mum took my grandad to see Dr Egrett. The doctor inserted a small hearing aid. Invisible, but what a difference it’s made! We won’t tell my aunties, so please do not fret. My grandad says that they don’t need to know yet!

Lee-Ann Holmes 62

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


Granda

y

Poetr

d’s secret – 2

Level A 1. Which word in the poem rhymes with cousins? 2. Does Grandad have little or lots of money? 3. Who took Grandad to see the doctor? Why?

pl e

4. What is the name of the doctor?

5. What game does the boy enjoy playing with his grandad?

Sa m

Level B

1. In the poem, which characters are keeping a secret?

in g

2. Why do you think the aunties do not help in the kitchen?

ew

Vi

3. Do you think there is a large or small group at the boy’s house for Christmas and Easter?

How do you know?

4. Why won’t the aunties know that Grandad can hear them? 5. Re-read what the aunties do each Easter and Christmas. What are some words to describe them?

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

63


Granda

y

Poetr

d’s secret – 3

1. Why won’t they tell the aunties about the hearing aid?

Sa m

pl e

Level C

2. Do you think it’s okay to keep this news from the aunties and uncles? Yes

No

Vi

ew

Why/Why not?

in g

3. Describe how you think the boy was feeling before Grandad went to see Dr Egrett? 4. What do you think Grandad might do after he hears the aunties plan, scheme and plot?

64

Prime-time comprehension

5. What would you do if you were in Grandad’s situation?

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


ity

Activ

Families

No family is perfect but both children and adults should all try to be kind and get along with each other. All families are different, too. Show your family tree in the chart below. Enter the names on each line and draw a picture. Include yourself and any brothers and sisters you may have in the boxes at the bottom of the chart. You may have to add or take away boxes to suit your family structure.

The

family tree

Grandad

Grandad

Grandma

in g

Sa m

pl e

Grandma

Mum

Vi

ew

Dad

Prim-Ed PublishingŽ – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

65


n

Fictio

Just like

clockwork – 1 Samantha looked at him across the candlelit table. She knew Brad was nervous by the way he kept rearranging the position of the salt and pepper shakers. Dinner had been lovely. The wine, the music— everything had been perfect. Suddenly, Brad grabbed his serviette from his knees and slammed it down on the table. He stood abruptly, then knelt on one knee and said, ‘Samantha, will you marry me?’

Sa m

pl e

She had loved him from the first moment they met all those years ago. Many times she had dreamed of this day. Of this moment. Tears welled up in her eyes as she responded, ‘But Brad, I can’t marry you’. Brad looked at her, shocked. ‘But you love me, don’t you?’

in g

‘Yes, yes, I love you dearly. But I can’t marry you because ...’

Vi

ew

BONG! BONG! BONG! Jessica’s clock began to strike 11.00 pm. ‘Darn, darn, darn! Darn that stupid clock. It always chimes at the most important moment of a film. That’s it! I’m throwing it out tomorrow’, yelled Jessica to thin air. But she knew she wouldn’t throw it out. The clock was one of the items left to Jessica by her mother. Jessica would often just sit in her mum’s favourite wooden rocking chair and stare at the clock, thinking about her. She would listen to the chimes, which rang every quarter of an hour. Mostly the chimes were comforting … but when they rang during the most exciting part of a good film, they were annoying! Jessica sighed as she turned off the television. Like clockwork, Jessica began her routine of checking all the doors in turn to make sure they were locked. Lastly, Jessica picked up her cat, and headed to the back door for the final job of the evening. ‘Now you be quick, Muesli. It’s a bit chilly out tonight.’ As Jessica opened the door, Muesli let out a squeal and jumped out of her owner’s arms. ‘That’s odd’, thought Jessica. Suddenly, someone else’s hand was on the door, trying to yank it open! ‘Hey!’ yelled Jessica, as she struggled with the door. But the man overpowered her and pushed her inside the house, locking the door behind him. 66

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


n Fictio

Just like

clockwork – 2

With her heart pounding, Jessica turned around to face the intruder. He was wearing a black hood with two holes cut for his eyes. Jessica took a breath in readiness to scream, but the man slammed his hand over her mouth, pulled a tie from his pocket and gagged Jessica tightly. He threw Jessica down into her favourite chair and bound her hands with a length of rope that had been tied around his waist. ‘Make yourself comfortable, Miss Parker. I’m sure it will take me a while to check for all your valuable possessions.’ Jessica took note of a tattoo of a spider’s web on the intruder’s left arm, to later tell the police.

pl e

It was then that she noticed the clock behind him. It was 14 minutes past 11. In one minute, the clock would chime loudly into the man’s ears. Jessica would be ready.

Sa m

With the first bong of the clock, the man was startled and flung his head around towards the noise. In a flash, Jessica leaned forward and rocked the chair. In one movement, she stood, pulled the chair onto her back, turned, and rammed it into the intruder. The force of the push flung him into the fireplace, where the electric fire was still hot. The chair broke on impact, freeing Jessica to run. As she grappled with the door, she heard the man scream in pain as he burnt his hands trying to get out of the fireplace.

in g

Jessica ran to the home of one of her neighbours and called the police. It was only after doing this that her body began to shake as shock set in, and she broke down and cried.

Vi

ew

Soon after the arrival of the police, she was told that the intruder had been apprehended. The police applauded Jessica for her courage and quick thinking. Jessica silently thanked her mother for the gift of the clock.

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

67


Just like

n

Fictio

clockwork – 3

Level A 1. How often did Jessica’s clock chime? 2. What time of the night was Jessica watching television? 3. What was Jessica’s cat’s name? 4. Describe Jessica’s favourite chair.

pl e

5. What tattoo did the intruder have?

1. Was Jessica’s mother alive?

Yes

How do you know?

No

in g

Sa m

Level B

Vi

ew

2. Why did Jessica plan to make her escape at precisely 11.15 pm?

3. Why did the cat jump out of Jessica’s arms? 4. Write the description of the intruder that Jessica would have given to the police. 5. How do you know Jessica wasn’t married?

68

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


n

Fictio

Just like

clockwork – 4

Level C 1. Do you think the rocking chair was old or new? Explain why you think this.

2. Write a description of Jessica’s personality.

Sa m

3. Do you think the intruder knew Jessica? Explain why you think this.

Yes

in g

pl e

ew

4. Do you think Jessica will still want to throw away the clock?

No

Yes

No

Vi

Why/Why not?

5. Write two or three things you could learn from this story if you ever found yourself in a similar situation to Jessica’s.

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

69


Hamme

c

Comi

r horror! – 1

Is that man looking at me? What’s in his hand?

Why is he hitting that hammer into his hand? Why is he looking at me? What’s he going to do with that hammer?

He’s creeping me out. That’s it, I’m leaving!

ew

Oh my goodness, he’s following me! I have to get out of here.

in g

Sa m

pl e

Hello there!

Vi

He’s after me! Where can I hide?

Thank goodness, a police officer.

Ah …

Excuse me, Miss.

OFFICER!

Excuse me, Miss. You dropped some money back there, at the shop.

Hello, Officer, I need your help.

Oh … thank you. Yes Ma’am?

70

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


Hamme

c

Comi

r horror! – 2

Level A 1. What was the man doing with his hammer? 2. Why did the woman leave? 3. What did the woman want to buy at the hardware store?

5. What did the man want to give the woman?

Level B

pl e

4. What did the man buy at the hardware store?

Sa m

1. How do you know this comic strip is set in a hardware store?

in g

2. How did the man try to let the woman know he wanted to talk to her?

Vi

ew

3. How do you think the woman wanted the police officer to help her?

4. How was the woman in the story feeling? 5. In the comic strip, why were there clouds as well as ovals containing text?

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

71


Hamme

c

Comi

r horror! – 3

Level C 1. There is a saying: ‘Don’t judge a book by its cover’. Do you think the saying is relevant to this story? Explain your answer. Yes

2. Was the ending of the story the outcome you expected?

pl e

Why/Why not?

No

Sa m

Vi

ew

in g

3. What other possible endings could there have been?

4. Do you think the woman in the story did the right thing?

Yes

No

Explain your answer. 5. If you had found the money, would you have kept it?

Yes

No

Why/Why not? 72

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


Write a p rofile

ity

Activ

The lady in the story assumed the man was nasty when, instead, he acted very kindly. What do you think he is like? Create a profile about the man with the hammer.

Character profile Name: Weight:

pl e

Height: Complexion:

Age:

Sa m

Occupation:

Vi

ew

Hobbies/Interests:

in g

Clubs/Associations he is a member of:

Family members:

Future goals:

Prim-Ed PublishingŽ – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

73


Seven W onders o

n

ctio i f n o N

f the World – 1

Nonfiction If you look on the internet for information about the Seven Wonders of the World, you will find lists of wonders in many different categories. There are magnificent and wonderful things people built over 2000 years ago or from more recent times, as well as amazing gifts from nature. There have been many arguments about which things should be included in these lists because there are so many amazing things to choose. You may have heard of many of these marvels, all of which are interesting to view or read about.

Sa m

pl e

The Architectural Wonders of the Middle Ages is one such list. The list is: • Stonehenge • the Colosseum • the Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa • the Great Wall of China • the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing • Hagia Sophia • the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

In 2001, a private initiative began to choose the New Seven Wonders of the World. Wonder

Christ the Redeemer Machu Picchu Chichen Itza Taj Mahal

Vi

The Colosseum

ew

Petra

Location

5th century BCE – 16th century CE

China

c. 100 BCE

Jordan

1922–1931

Brazil

c. 1450 CE

Peru

c. 600 CE

Mexico

c. 70 CE – c. 80 CE

Italy

1631 CE – 1648 CE

India

in g

The Great Wall of China

Date of construction

Great Pyramid of Giza (honorary candidate) Completed c. 2560 BCE

Egypt

But what many find truly amazing, are the Seven Natural Wonders of the World. Again, there has been much debate over what should be in this list. One of the many lists compiled contains: • the Grand Canyon • the Great Barrier Reef • the harbour of Rio de Janeiro • Mount Everest • aurora borealis (northern lights) and aurora australis (southern lights) • Parícutin • Victoria Falls.

74

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


n

ctio i f n o N

Seven W onders o

f the World – 2

Let’s learn a little about each of these natural wonders.

An aurora is a natural light display seen in the sky in which particles created by the sun create amazing streams and bands of red, green, purple and blue light. They occur mainly within the polar circles. In the Northern Hemisphere, the phenomenon is known as aurora borealis (northern lights); while in the south it is named aurora australis (southern lights). An aurora lights the horizon with its colours, sometimes looking as if the sun is rising from an unusual direction.

Sa m

The Great Barrier Reef is the world’s largest reef system and is composed of over 2900 individual reefs and 600 islands. It stretches over an area of 344 400 km2. The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland in north-east Australia. The Great Barrier Reef can be seen from outer space and is the world’s biggest single structure made by living organisms.

The highest place in the world attracts both well experienced and less experienced climbers. There are both easy and more difficult routes to climb on the mountain. Some climbing dangers include altitude sickness, very cold weather and wind. The government of Nepal requires climbers to buy a permit, costing US $25 000 per person. By the end of 2010 Everest had claimed 218 lives, including eight who perished high on the mountain during a storm in 1996.

pl e

The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided gorge created from erosion caused by the Colorado River in the state of Arizona in the United States. The Grand Canyon is 446 km long and ranges in width from 500 m to 30 km. It has a depth of over 1.5 km. Before European immigration, the area was inhabited by Native Americans, who built settlements within the canyon and in its many caves.

Vi

ew

in g

The harbour of the city of Rio de Janeiro, one of the largest cities in Brazil, is spectacular. Located along Brazil’s coastline with the Atlantic Ocean, the harbour is the largest bay in the world (based on the volume of water it holds). The harbour is surrounded by many mountains and hills which are made of granite. The most famous of these is Sugar Loaf Mountain, which is 404 metres tall. The bay contains several beaches, which are very popular with the inhabitants of the city and with visitors. Along its shoreline, celebrations and festivals are often held. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain above sea level on Earth and it is the highest point on the Earth’s surface. It is 8848 metres tall. The mountain is part of the Himalayas. It is located on the border of Nepal and China.

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Parícutin is the name of a cinder cone volcano in the Mexican state of Michoacán. It is named after a village that once existed, but was then covered in lava from the eruption. Parícutin is part of a volcanic field which covers much of western-central Mexico. The volcano began as a crack in 1943. It grew quickly, reaching five storeys tall in just one week and it could be seen from afar only one month later! Much of the volcano’s growth occurred during its first year, when it grew to 336 metres tall. Victoria Falls is a huge waterfall located on the border of Zambia and Zimbabwe, in southern Africa. While it is neither the tallest, nor the widest waterfall in the world, it is claimed to be the largest. This claim is based on its width of 1708 metres and height of 99 metres making it the largest curtain of falling water in the world.

Prime-time comprehension

75


n

ctio i f n o N

Seven W onders o

f the World – 3

Level A 1. Which word best describes an aurora?

bears

stars

lights

2. What is ‘leaning’ in Pisa? 3. In which country is the Colosseum? 4. From the ‘New Seven Wonders of the World’ list, name a famous building in India.

pl e

5. How high is Mount Everest?

Sa m

Level B

1. How do architectural and natural wonders differ?

in g

Vi

ew

2. Write three things you learnt about the Seven Natural Wonders of the World that you didn’t know before.

3. Explain why altitude sickness could affect climbers on Mount Everest. 4. What is so interesting or unusual about the Parícutin volcano? 5. How might Native Americans have used the caves in the Grand Canyon? 76

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


n

ctio i f n o N

Seven W onders o

f the World – 4

Level C 1. In 2001, a decision was made to compile a list called the ‘New Seven Wonders of the World’. Read the list carefully and then explain why you think it was given this name.

pl e

2. If you had to choose between both, do you think seeing the Seven Natural Wonders or the Seven Architectural Wonders of the world would be more interesting?

Sa m

Why?

Yes

No

ew

Why/Why not?

in g

3. Would you like to visit the Great Barrier Reef?

Vi

4. If you could choose to see any two of the 22 wonders from the three lists provided, which would they be and why would you select them?

5. Throughout history, auroras have been given many names; e.g. ‘Dance of the Spirits’. Can you imagine what early civilisations might have thought when they first saw an aurora? Describe how you think they may have felt.

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

77


y

Poetr

Amazing

Australia n animals – 1

Australia’s a wonderful country. A great place to live or visit. The people are nice and friendly And the scenery is exquisite.

in g

For instance, there’s the kangaroo Who likes green grass to eat. But if you get too close to him, He’ll kick you with his feet.

Sa m

The animals of Australia Are a varied kind of bunch. Some might sting or bite you, Others eat you for their lunch!

pl e

Now let’s search round Australia For creatures we can spot. Some are vicious, others shy— Australia’s got the lot!

ew

Have you heard of red-back spider, With the danger sign of red? She gives a very nasty bite Which makes you sick in bed.

Vi

The creatures of the ocean Are another sight to see. But unless you are a fish, It’s not where you want to be.

Don’t be fooled by crocodile, Good at hiding day and night. He’ll creep right up behind you And eat you with one bite. Now jellyfish look graceful, And float in groups to chat. But if you feel their tentacles, You’ll soon be lying flat. His brother, irukandji, is A tiny little fellow. But get in this bloke’s way And he’s sure to make you bellow. 78

Prime-time comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


y

Poetr

Amazing

Australia n animals – 2 Did I mention great white shark Who roams the oceans blue? If your boat sinks, make a raft— Well, that’s what I would do! The taipan is quite fierce And if his fangs hit you, Getting to the hospital’s The first thing you should do.

Sa m

pl e

Another very deadly snake Is the eastern brown. But stamp your feet when you’re outside And you won’t see him around.

Vi

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Not all the animals will hurt you. There is the gentle curlew. That is, unless you touch her chicks, Then attack is what she’ll do. The quiet, cuddly koalas Will hardly make a peep. But boy, do they get cranky If they’re woken from their sleep! Plovers are very maternal, So don’t walk near their nests. They’ll dive and hit you with their spurs, ‘Cos that’s what they do best. Magpies are also motherly, And very protective at that. If you’re riding or walking up their street, Wear a helmet or a hat. The lovely cassowary has Some armour on its head. It lowers this when running, So be wary where you tread. So do come visit Australia, Have a barbie and play cricket. Just think of the money you’ll save Not needing a return ticket!

Lee-Ann Holmes Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

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Poetr

Amazing

Australia n animals – 3

Level A 1. What was the first animal described in the poem? 2. What does the poem warn us about crocodiles? 3. What do jellyfish have that can harm us?

Level B

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1. Why should you wear a helmet or hat in a street where a magpie is nesting?

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5. Name an Australian animal that could eat you.

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4. What in the poem gets cranky if woken from its sleep?

2. Name two Australian animals that have a venomous bite. 3. Name all the birds mentioned in the poem. 4. What kind of animal is an irukandji? 5. Write the names of the animals in the poem that you have actually seen.

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Prime-time comprehension

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Amazing

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Australia n animals – 4

Level C 1. Why might stamping your feet deter an eastern brown? 2. Which animal would you fear most?

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Why?

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3. Do you think this poem is educational? Yes

No

Yes

No

Why/Why not?

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Why/Why not?

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4. Do you think this poem could scare tourists from visiting Australia?

5. Which Australian animal do you think would attract the most tourists? Why? Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

Prime-time comprehension

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Answers For Pete’s sake ........................................2–5

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Level A 1. Evan and Scott 2. a playhouse 3. Scott 4. Evan 5. It was her birthday. Level B 1. neighbours, friends 2. Sheds 3. playhouses and sandpits 4. 2 to 10 5. He knew he had outdone his neighbour. Level C 1. Answers will vary. It means competing to match or be better than someone else. 2. They tricked their husbands into buying them a new ring./They used their husbands’ egos to get what they wanted. 3. Yes. Their husbands wanted to outdo each other by buying the nicer ring. 4. Answers will vary. 5. Answers will vary; e.g. It can be a problem when people spend money on needless things that should be spent on important things like rent or food.

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3. Yes. Landline calls are less expensive. 4. Rachel, Bev and Clare 5. Clare. She had already bought a new dress. Level C 1. Possible answers: She had missed the school bus. She had fallen off her bike. There was an accident. Something was on fire. She was lost. 2. Possible answers: Yes. The daughter did not act responsibly. The daughter needs to learn what type of calls are important before she gets her phone back. 3. Answers will vary. Possible answer: It depends on the maturity of the child. 4. Possible answers: Performing odd jobs around the house, babysitting, getting a part-time job. 5. Possible answers: Keeping track of the amount of calls. Texting instead of calling. Getting a part-time job before buying a phone. Only using the phone when necessary.

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Keeping up with the Joneses ........................................6–9

Level A 1. Boys 2. teasing, taunting, isolation and rumours 3. teasing and name-calling 4. demanding money 5. yes Level B 1. Most children think that bullying can not be stopped. They believe that if they report it, that nothing is done or it becomes worse. 2. No. Even some parents and teachers may be bullies. 3. Girls don’t often use physical bullying. Girls tend to use teasing, taunting, isolation from the friendship group and spreading nasty rumours to bully, which are all less obvious to teachers. 4. Social survival is learning to get along with other people and standing up for or protecting yourself. 5. They believe that if they report it to teachers then nothing is done or it becomes worse, and they don’t want to be called a snitch. Level C 1. Possible answers: Sometimes they don’t realise they are doing it. They have learnt these behaviours at home and think it is normal. They want to make themselves feel more important or to be the boss. 2. Watch other children or adults at school, family functions or wherever you go. 3. Answers will vary. 4. Yes. Bullying can be stopped and school will be a better place. 5. Possible answers: Tell a teacher or get a group of children to stand up to the bully. 6. Answers will vary.

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Level A 1. Ben and Kate 2. twelve 3. a zebra finch 4. 7 cm 5. Ben’s lunch-box Level B 1. Answers will vary; e.g. Sad, their dad had left them/Impatient. They were sick of shopping. 2. Jeff 3. the mother 4. Winter. The mother said the baby bird would freeze if they left it out overnight. 5. Two. She is unhappy. Level C 1. It chirped/made a noise. 2. Answers will vary. 3. She was happy because it was the first time Mandy had spoken since her father Jeff had left. 4. They all cared for Pete. 5. Answers will vary.

School bullying .................................... 10–13

Emergency mobile phone .................................... 14–17 Level A 1. For emergencies 2. 300 3. She called Jan to say her brother is a liar. 4. To tell her she broke her fingernail. 5. Jess Level B 1. No. She made many unnecessary calls. 2. Yes. She called them about anything and everything.

Prime-time comprehension

Cries in the night .................................... 18–21

Level A 1. The first night she stayed there. 2. The roof leaked, the shutters banged and the power went out. 3. the wind 4. twice 5. People said the old house was haunted. Level B 1. The house looks spooky and haunted—and there is a black cat. 2. a running black cat 3. That she was a witch. 4. The mother cat was more worried about seeing her kittens. 5. The ghost of a child/children who may have previously lived in the house. Level C 1. That a person is a little bit ‘crazy’ or unusual. 2. Possible answers: The house had looked friendly and welcoming during the day. She had just moved to the town and this old house was cheap. 3. Lots of loud thunder and lightning 4. They thought there were ghosts in the house because it croaked and groaned. It was big and draughty. 5. Answers will vary.

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Answers

Level A 1. to the park 2. hide, jump out and yell at him 3. chess 4. down his street or in the park 5. chase him Level B 1. He had to prove he was tough. 2. It means that the person saying it wouldn’t like something or wouldn’t be comfortable with it. 3. no, perhaps, surely, but, maybe, what if, or 4. scared, apprehensive 5. Possible answers: He wants to be accepted. He wants to make friends. Level C 1. He is feeling scared, worried, confused and lonely. 2. Quiet and shy. He is scared of cemeteries. He would rather play chess or other things not quite so rough. 3. Possible answers: No. They would probably keep asking him to do other things. They weren’t his friends before. Real friends wouldn’t want to scare you.

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Comets and meteors .................................... 26–29 Level A 1. They are looking at a shooting star. 2. The name given to comets or meteors that appear in the sky. 3. about 240 000 km per hour 4. a comet 5. nucleus, coma, plasma tail, dust tail Level B 1. A group of meteors or falling stars seen in close succession 2. Possible answers: • Comets travel at 240 000 km per hour. • Shooting stars are actually either comets or meteors. • Comets are giant balls of frozen water and rocks. Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com

4. Answers will vary. 5. Possible answers: Not do the dare. Find friends who like me as I am and who like similar things to me.

Treasure hunters .................................... 34–37 Level A 1. The Church of the Twelve Saints in Kushka 2. Two years, four months, three days and thirteen hours 3. Matilda, Samuel, Emily and Michael 4. A flash flooding at Red River 5. stained-glass window Level B 1. Michael said, ‘It’s useless! Hopeless! All the time we’ve spent! All the money! It’s just been a huge waste of time’, which was making them all feel defeated and sad. 2. ruby red, sapphire blue and emerald green 3. run down, dilapidated, a mess, vandalised, ransacked, damaged, abandoned 4. Dumbfounded: confused, stumped, puzzled, defeated Exhausted: drained of energy, very tired and weary Disheartened: saddened, discouraged 5. She felt overcome with the sadness and beauty of Jesus in the stained-glass window. Level C 1. They probably had to pay for many aeroplane tickets, meals and didn’t currently have regular jobs. 2. Yes. Tourists from all over the world would pay to come and see the church. 3. Possible answer: Early 20s. Not yet married with children, but old enough to be independent. 4. Possible answer: Yes. She knelt to pray and was familiar with the story of the ‘Agony in the garden’, depicted in the stained-glass window. She also said, ‘Shhh! This is a House of God.’ 5. Possible answer: Yes. They worked hard and made a valuable discovery.

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Initiation .................................... 30–33

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Level A 1. a worm 2. a classroom 3. her pupils 4. Thomas 5. It died. Level B 1. One held water and a live worm, the other held soft drink and a dead worm. 2. The pupils would be able to see the worm through the lemonade but not through a dark liquid. 3. science 4. Possible answers: They didn’t know what answer to give. They didn’t understand the teacher’s question. They were thinking: ‘What is the teacher going on about?’ 5. Possible answers: Nobody else was answering the question. He thought he had a good answer to the question. Level C 1. Possible answers: Something you do to test a theory about something. A test to show a truth about something or discover something unknown. 2. Soft drink is not good for people’s health. 3. Possible answers: They didn’t want to think that soft drink is bad to drink. They didn’t understand the point of the experiment. 4. No. The teacher expected Thomas to say that soft drinks are bad for people. 5. No. They didn’t give her the right answer.

3. Possible answers: • Meteors are actually chunks of rock and metal. • Scientists believe meteorites may have been responsible for the extinction of many species of animals on Earth. 4. Possible answers: Yes. A person could see it first when young, then again 76 years later./ Yes. A person could see it when ten years old then again when 86 years old. 5. Answers will vary. Level C 1. Possible answer: They are exciting and beautiful to watch. 2. Possible answers: We only see them as they reflect light when they pass close to the sun. We only see them at regular intervals as they pass by Earth in their orbit. 3. Meteors usually burn up before they reach the Earth and they are not called meteorites until they actually hit the Earth. 4. Possible answers: No. They can be very damaging and dangerous and may have caused the extinction of different species. 5. Answers will vary.

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Worms! .................................... 22–25

Prime-time comprehension

A half-hearted apology .................................... 38–41 Level A 1. writing a letter of apology 2. Mr Habberknackle 3. no 4. There are spelling mistakes. 5. four

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Answers

Level A 1. head position 2. That we find the person attractive, friendly and interesting.

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Activity: The Richter scale

1. A seismograph is an instrument

that measures vibrations from earthquakes. 2. It records a zigzag line which shows variations depending on the strength of the earthquake. 3. The strength of the earthquake, the time it occurred and its location anywhere in the world. 4. Charles Richter 5. Furniture could move and be damaged and break other things, too. 6. 6000 7. An earthquake registering 8.0–8.9 on the Richter scale.

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The burping competition .................................... 46–49

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Tips on body language .................................... 42–45

3. Yes. Her burp was the loudest in the family. 4. Possible answer: No. Perhaps it would be okay on the rare occasion. 5. Possible answers: Play a board game, have a food fight, have other noise-making competitions.

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3. 60%–70% 4. This can portray nervousness, stress or deception. 5. disapproval Level B 1. Body language is the silent message you give to others by how you use your body. 2. Posture is how you position yourself sitting or standing; e.g. whether you are sitting upright or slouching. 3. As someone who wants to do all the talking and not spend much time listening to others. 4. Answers will vary. 5. Lips can be pursed or twisted when thinking, or holding back an angry comment the person doesn’t wish to reveal. Different types of smiles also communicate different things. Level C 1. One to two metres. No. You would probably stand closer to a friend because you have a closer relationship. 2. Possible answers: Uncomfortable, crowded, threatened, it makes you want to step backwards. 3. No. It would look as if you think you know everything or that you think you are superior/smarter than anyone else in the room. 4. Possible answers: Yes. We don’t want to give the wrong impression to other people unintentionally. These little tips could help us with our confidence. 5. Answers will vary.

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Level B 1. They show what Billy was thinking. 2. Mr Habberknackle was Billy’s neighbour and friend. 3. His mother. Billy is angry with his mother because she is making him write a letter of apology and making him offer to mow the neighbour’s lawn when he wasn’t the only child to blame. 4. possible answers: angry, unjustly accused, remorseful perhaps, a little guilty, sad, frustrated 5. The clouds contained Billy’s thoughts and the circles showed what he actually said aloud. Level C 1. Possible answer: The children might have thrown or kicked a ball through Mr Habberknackle’s window or run through his garden and squashed his plants. 2. Answers will vary. No. He kept whinging while he wrote the letter. Yes. In the letter he says ‘I hope we can still be friends’, and ‘it will not happen again’. 3. Possible answer. Yes. He has to pay for the damage and apologise to his neighbour. 4. Possible answers: Yes. We should apologise when we make a mistake or do the wrong thing by someone. It will teach Billy that bad behaviour has consequences. 5. She wanted to give him time to calm down before she spoke to him about what happened. Activity: Be the teacher 1. Deer Mr Habberknackle I am writeing this letter to appologise for my terrable behavya yesterday. My friends and I were not thinking and we made a bad choyce. I am happy to mow your lorn if there is any dammage to pay for. I hope we can still be friends. It will not hapen agen. From your naayber Billy Matherson 2. deer – dear, writeing – writing, appologise – apologise, terrable – terrible, behavya – behaviour, choyce – choice, lorn – lawn, dammage – damage, hapen – happen, agen – again, naayber – neighbour

Level A 1. Lee-Ann Holmes 2. Having afternoon tea 3. Daniel 4. Three 5. At least five: Mum, Dad, Daniel, the narrator and the little sister. Level B 1. He let out a big burp himself instead of scolding the boys. 2. ‘Little ripper’ means ‘a great one’ or, in this case, a nice loud burp. 3. louder 4. Because everyone was burping aloud and not excusing themselves. 5. She knew it was not an explosion or thunder—she knew it was just her burp. Level C 1. Burping is considered bad manners in most cultures. 2. She herself burped.

Prime-time comprehension

High school sweethearts .................................... 50–53

Level A 1. Blonde 2. Blake Fuller 3. mullet 4. University lecturer 5. No Level B 1. All the girls wanted to go out with Blake because he was good-looking and he had a red sports car. 2. He had changed. He had put on weight and his hair was longer. 3. She cringed. She felt tense because all the bad memories came flooding back. 4. Adam Miller 5. Seven weeks Level C 1. It can benefit you if you study hard. You could go to university or get a better job. 2. It was none of Blake’s business. She wanted to keep her private life to herself. 3. He cared for Lynne and didn’t like to see her spoken to unkindly, treated badly or not respected. 4. Possible answers: Lynne had a nice house and he wanted a better look. Perhaps he thought he could get back together with Lynne. 5. Possible answers: Yes. Lynne had married the nice boy from school, the now very successful Adam Miller, and was living happily with him and Prim-Ed Publishing® – www.prim-ed.com


Answers

Grandad’s secret .................................... 62–65

Level A 1. dozens 2. lots of money 3. Mum. He couldn’t hear very well. 4. Dr Egrett 5. hide-and-go-seek Level B 1. Grandad, the grandson (telling the story) and Mum 2. They would rather argue, scheme and plot about their father’s money. 3. A large group, the uncles and aunties and cousins come by the dozens, so there were at least 24 people. 4. The doctor inserted an invisible hearing aid and the only three who know about it are keeping it a secret. 5. selfish, greedy, lazy, uncaring, pretentious (fake) Level C 1. So Grandpa can hear all their scheming and plotting and see what the aunties are really like. 2. Possible answers: Yes. So that Grandad can find out the truth. No. It is deceptive. 3. He probably felt sad for his grandad and disappointed in his aunties. 4. He might change who gets what in his will. 5. What is reasonable, fair and just.

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Level A 1. at lunchtime 2. four 3. a tortilla 4. tomato paste 5. cheese Level B 1. It will melt over the toppings. 2. No. They asked what to do next and their mother had to give them instructions for each step. 3. Different types of meats 4. The oldest boy’s 5. A pizza with the works Level C 1. Yes. They only put on the ingredients they liked the most. 2. Answers will vary. 3. Yes. You can choose healthy toppings like tomato, chicken, pepper and mushroom. 4. Answers will vary. 5. Answers will vary.

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World Wars I, II, and III .................................... 58–61

Level A 1. from 1914 to 1918 2. France, Italy, Russia, the United States and others 3. Germany surrendered on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918. 4. Adolf Hitler 5. the United Nations Level B 1. six years, from 1939 to 1945 2. They wanted to punish Germany for starting the war, which had cost a lot of money and caused the loss of many lives. 3. They were allies or friends to those countries. Allies have an agreement to help each other in case of war. 4. The Holocaust was the imprisonment, starvation, torture and eventual death of millions of people during WW II. 5. The Soviet Union and the United States became the two strongest countries after World War II and both powers wanted to be the most

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4. It is a wooden rocking chair. 5. a spider’s web on his left arm Level B 1. No. The story says the clock was one of the items left to Jessica by her mother, in her will. 2. She knew the clock would strike behind the intruder, startling and distracting him so she could make a move towards her escape. 3. The cat had seen or smelt the stranger. 4. He was a tall male, wearing a balaclava, with a tattoo of a spider on his left arm. 5. The intruder called her Miss Parker and there was no mention of any other person in the house. Level C 1. Old. The rocking chair was her Mum’s favourite chair and it was made of wood which suggests it may have been old. 2. Jessica was sentimental, she loved her mother, was a bit of a loner, a cat lover, brave, quick thinking and she enjoyed watching old films. 3. Yes. He called her Miss Parker. 4. No. It was left to her by her mother, the chimes usually comforted her and now the clock may have saved her life. 5. Take notice of tattoos or distinguishing features on an intruder. Be brave, keep calm and don’t give up or give in. Run for help at your first opportunity.

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Pizza .................................... 54–57

prominent country in the world. Level C 1. They wanted to destroy the American ships so they could not be used in the war. 2. Japan knew that the United States had very powerful bombs that could destroy their country and its people. 3. At the time, Australia was a close ally to the United Kingdom. 4. Answers will vary. 5. Similarities: There were many deaths and much bloodshed. Germany played a big part in both wars. The duration of both wars was relatively short. Most European countries were involved. Differences: Fighting was more widespread in WW II. The atomic bomb was used in WW II. Millions were imprisoned during WW II.

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their son. The school bully was now jealous of them. At the end of the story, Adam said, ‘Say goodnight to the pizza delivery man, Jimmy’. Through this statement, Adam was standing up to Blake and was saying, ‘Goodbye, Blake. We don’t care to see you again’. Good triumphed over bad and the good guy got the girl!

Just like clockwork .................................... 66–69 Level A 1. every 15 minutes or quarter hour 2. approximately 11.00 pm 3. Muesli Prime-time comprehension

Hammer horror! .................................... 70–73 Level A 1. hitting his hand 2. The man was ‘creeping her out’. 3. a torch 4. a hammer 5. money Level B 1. The items shown in the pictures are from a hardware store. 2. He tapped her on the shoulder, said, ‘Excuse me, Miss’, and walked after her. 3. She wanted the policeman to talk to or scare off the stranger. 4. scared, worried and threatened 5. The clouds contained the woman’s thoughts while the ovals contained speech. Level C 1. The woman in the story assumed that because the man with the hammer looked dirty and scruffy, he wanted to hurt her but he only

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Answers

Seven Wonders of the World .................................... 74–77

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Level A 1. lights 2. a tower 3. Italy 4. the Taj Mahal 5. 8848 metres Level B 1. Architectural wonders have been built by people and natural wonders occur naturally in the environment. 2. Answers will vary. 3. Great heights and lack of oxygen may make some people feel nauseous or giddy. 4. It grew very quickly from a crack to reaching five storeys tall in just one week. It grew to 336 m tall in one year. 5. Some Native Americans made the caves in the Grand Canyon their homes. Level C 1. It has some more recent wonders listed than previous lists. 2. Answers will vary. 3. Answers will vary. 4. Answers will vary. 5. Possible answers: They may have thought the lights were the spirits of their ancestors. They may have thought the Gods were angry with them and wanted sacrifices made to them. They could have thought it was the end of the world. They were probably very frightened.

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3. tentacles 4. a koala 5. a crocodile/A great white shark Level B 1. A magpie might swoop at you if you are near its nest. 2. A red-back spider, the taipan and eastern brown snake. 3. curlew, plover, magpie and cassowary 4. A tiny but very poisonous jellyfish 5. Answers will vary. Level C 1. The snake would feel the vibrations on the ground, realise something big was nearby and move away. 2. Answers will vary. 3. Yes. It teaches us about dangerous animals and how to avoid being hurt by them. 4. Answers will vary. 5. Possible answers: Sharks and crocodiles because they are the largest and most ferocious. Kangaroos and koalas because they are cute.

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wanted to help her. She shouldn’t have judged him by his appearance. Answers will vary. Possible answer: When the man tapped the woman she could have turned and spoken to him, he returned her money, then she offered to buy him a coffee to thank him and … they lived happily ever after. Possible answer. No. It was broad daylight with plenty of people around and she shouldn’t have jumped to conclusions about the man. Yes. Going to a policeman if you feel threatened is a good idea. Answers will vary.

Amazing Australian animals .................................... 78–81 Level A 1. a kangaroo 2. He’s good at hiding day and night, he’ll creep right up behind you and eat you with one bite.

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Prime-time comprehension

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6326 Prime-time Comprehension - Upper