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English – Back To Basics (Yr 6 Ext/S 1)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by R.I.C. Publications® 2010 Republished under licence by Prim-Ed Publishing® 2010 Copyright© Jenni Harrold 2010 ISBN 978-1-84654-249-7 PR– 6317UK

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

Titles available in this series:

English – Back To Basics (Yr 1/P 2) English – Back To Basics (Yr 2/P 3) English – Back To Basics (Yr 3/P 4) English – Back To Basics (Yr 4/P 5) English – Back To Basics (Yr 5/P 6) English – Back To Basics (Yr 6/P 7) English – Back To Basics (Yr 6 Ext/S 1)

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Foreword

Teacher notes

English – Back To Basics is a comprehensive resource designed to teach and revise basic literacy concepts. Essential skills are covered in spelling and word study, punctuation and grammar; with phonics included in Books Yr 1/P 2, Yr 2/P 3 and Yr 3/P 4. Each of the pages focuses on one concept, which is developed through relevant, graded activities. Although intended as a homework series, these books are also ideal for: •  teaching a new concept •  consolidation Titles in the series are:

•  assessment

•  revision.

English – Back To Basics – Yr 1/P 2 English – Back To Basics – Yr 2/P 3 English – Back To Basics – Yr 3/P 4 English – Back To Basics – Yr 4/P 5 English – Back To Basics – Yr 5/P 6 English – Back To Basics – Yr 6/P 7 English – Back To Basics – Yr 6 Ext/S 1

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Contents

Identifying correct spelling....................................... 28–29 Consonant digraphs................................................... 30–31 Dictionary use............................................................. 32–33 Word origins................................................................ 34–35

Teacher notes

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Overview..............................................................................iv Curriculum links ..................................................................v Spelling and vocabulary lists............................................vi Spelling rules.......................................................................vi Spelling list – word building.............................................vii Glossary..................................................................... viii – xii Additional word lists..........................................................xii Vowel sounds....................................................................xiii Consonant sounds............................................................xiv Prefixes................................................................................xv Suffixes...............................................................................xvi Word origins.....................................................................xvii Words commonly misspelt................................... xviii – xx Words easily confused or misused..................... xxi – xxii

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Capital letters.............................................................. 36–37 Sentence endings....................................................... 38–39 Commas........................................................................ 40–41 Quotation marks.......................................................... 42–43 Apostrophes................................................................ 44–45 Colons........................................................................... 46–47 Semicolons, dashes and hyphens........................... 48–49 Brackets, ellipses and forward slashes.................. 50–51 Editing........................................................................... 52–53

Grammar

Spelling and word study

Nouns............................................................................ 54–55 Verbs............................................................................. 56–57 Verb tenses.................................................................. 58–59 Pronouns...................................................................... 60–61 Adjectives.................................................................... 62–63 Adverbs........................................................................ 64–65 Conjunctions................................................................ 66–67 Prepositions................................................................. 68–69 Elements of a sentence............................................. 70–71 Phrases and clauses.................................................. 72–73 Sentences.................................................................... 74–75 Paragraphs.................................................................. 76–77 Review.......................................................................... 78–79 Editing........................................................................... 80–81

Spelling 1.......................................................................... 2–3 Spelling 2.......................................................................... 4–5 Plurals............................................................................... 6–7 Base words...................................................................... 8–9 Prefixes......................................................................... 10–11 Suffixes......................................................................... 12–13 Alphabetical order...................................................... 14–15 Syllables....................................................................... 16–17 Synonyms..................................................................... 18–19 Antonyms..................................................................... 20–21 Homophones and homographs................................ 22–23 Compound words........................................................ 24–25 Abbreviated words..................................................... 26–27

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Punctuation

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English – Back To Basics


Overview

Teacher notes

Format This series of books contains pupil and teacher pages focusing on skills in the following areas: • spelling and word study • punctuation • grammar • phonics (Books Yr 1/P 2, Yr 2/P 3 and Yr 3/P 4).

Purpose

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This series of books is ideal for: • teaching a new concept • consolidating and revising knowledge and skills • homework activities to revise skills taught in class • assessment.

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This series of books: • provides activities on each page that relate to one literacy concept • follows an organised format in which concepts are repeated and expanded across year levels • uses a focal list of vocabulary • has a pupil page supported by a corresponding teachers page • has a teachers page that includes answers and detailed information explaining each concept • provides additional reference information for teachers.

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Features

Spelling and vocabulary

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There are two different lists of words used in each book: • an age-appropriate spelling list of 40 words, and • a high-frequency vocabulary list. Both lists are used frequently throughout each book in the areas of spelling and word study, punctuation and grammar.

Additional reference material

This book includes: • a word-building table which shows the base word, plural form, prefixes, suffixes, syllables, synonyms and antonyms • an extensive glossary of terms used in spelling and word study, punctuation and grammar • vowel sounds and the different ways they are represented • consonant sounds and the different ways they are represented • spelling rules • prefixes, their meanings and examples • suffixes, their meanings and examples • word origins – Latin and Greek root words with their meanings and examples • words commonly misspelt • words easily confused or misused • prepositions and prepositional phrases • words that can be used as adjectives or adverbs.

English – Back To Basics

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Curriculum links

Teacher notes

Country/Subject/Level Curriculum Objectives England

Word Structure and Spelling • secure knowledge of pluralisation, prefixes, word endings and high frequency words

Literacy

• learn from errors and corrections

Year Six progression to Year Seven

Text Structure and Organisation • organise ideas into paragraphs Sentence Structure and Punctuation • use punctuation to convey and clarify meaning

Northern Ireland

Writing

Language and Literacy

• use a variety of skills to spell words correctly • develop increasing competence in the use of grammar and punctuation to create clarity of meaning

Key Stage Two Republic of Ireland

Receptiveness to Language • improve ability to recognise and understand words by using root words, prefixes, suffixes and syllabification

English

Competence and Confidence in Using Language

Sixth Class

• understand the functions and know the names of the parts of speech • learn about and name the basic properties of nouns and verbs

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• become familiar with compound and complex sentences, and know and understand the terms ‘phrase’ and ‘clause’ • observe the conventions of grammar, punctuation and spelling Second - Reading

Literacy and English Second and Third

• develop knowledge of punctuation and grammar to read texts Second - Writing

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Scotland

• spell most words I need to communicate, using spelling rules

• use appropriate punctuation, vary sentence structures and divide work into paragraphs Second - Reading

• develop knowledge of punctuation and grammar to read texts Third - Writing

• spell most of the words I need to use and ensure spelling is accurate

English Key Stage Two

Reading - Skills

• develop phonic, graphic and grammatical knowledge and word recognition • develop understanding of the structure, vocabulary, grammar and punctuation of English, and of how these clarify meaning

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Wales

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• punctuate and structure different types of sentences with sufficient accuracy and arrange them to make meaning clear

Writing - Skills

• use a range of sentence structures, linking them coherently and developing the ability to use paragraphs effectively

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• use punctuation to clarify meaning • choose and use appropriate vocabulary • use the standard forms of English: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, connectives and verb tenses

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English – Back To Basics


Word lists

Teacher notes

Spelling list accept achieve advantage argument automatic avoid behaviour

character competition decision definite description difficult disappear

necessary nervous occasion occupation opinion permission pressure

extreme foreign frequent humour independent medicine mystery

process purpose receipt recognise require serious source

success suggest suitable unconscious various

role schedule sequence statistic structure survey symbol

technology theme traditional viewer

Vocabulary list official percentage political possible punctuation represent result

fiction function identify information instruction issue kilometre

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data decimal discussion environment essay estimate explanation

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adventure angle average awareness calendar charity concept

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Write i before e, except after c.

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Spelling rules

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For example: friend, believe, receive, receipt Some exceptions: foreign, either, science, weird, height, species

Write ie after c for words with a shuhn sound.

For example: sufficient, ancient, conscience, efficient

Write ei when the vowel sounds like an a.

For example: weigh, rein, reign, neighbour

For words ending in y: • retain the y when adding –ing; for example: crying, studying • retain the y if it is preceded by a vowel, when adding s or a suffix; for example: employs, employer • change the y to i if it is preceded by a consonant, when adding a suffix; for example: cries, studies ome exceptions: dryness, shyness. S

English – Back To Basics

Drop the final e to most words when adding a suffix beginning with a vowel.

For example: use—usable make—making

Double the consonant when adding a suffix starting with a vowel (e.g. -ing) to: • a word of one syllable ending in a single consonant, preceded by a vowel; for example: drip—dripping sit—sitting • a word of more than one syllable ending in a single consonant, preceded by a vowel if the stress is on the final syllable; for example: begin—beginning commit—committed. When the stress is not on the final syllable, the single consonant remains; for example: develop—developing—developed. Exceptions include many words ending in l, where the l is always doubled; for example: appal—appalling travel—travelling.

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Spelling list — Word building Word

Base

Plural

Prefixes

Suffixes

Teacher notes

Syllables

Synonym

Antonym

accept

un(able)

ed ing able(ly)

ac–cept

believe

deny

achieve

un(able)

ed ing er ment

a–chieve

accomplish

fail

dis

ous

ad–vant–age

gain

disadvantage

ative

ar–gu–ment

dispute

ally

au–to–mat–ic

programmed

manual

un(able)

ed ing ance able

a–void

shun

face

behaviours

mis

ist ally

be–hav–iour

actions

characters

un(ise)

ise

char–ac–ter

nature

com–pe–ti–tion

rivalry

cooperation

de–ci–sion

choice

indecision

def–in–ite

certain

unsure

de–scrip–tion

account

dis–ap–pear

vanish

appear

dif–fi–cult

hard

easy

ex–treme

excessive

moderate

fo–reign

strange

familiar

ly ed ing

fre–quent

regular

infrequent

ous less

hu–mour

funniness

seriousness

ly

in–de–pend–ent

self-sufficient

dependent

al ally

med–i–cine

drug

ious(ly)

mys–te–ry

puzzle

ly

nec–es–sar–y

essential

unnecessary

ly ness

ner–vous

anxious

calm

occasions

al ly

oc–ca–sion

event

occupations

al ly

oc–cu–pa–tion

job

ated

o–pin–ion

view

per–mis–sion

consent

ed ing

pres–sure

stress

advantages

argument

argue

arguments

automatic avoid behaviour

behave

character competition

compete

competitions

decision

decide

decisions

in

definite

in

description

scribe

difficult

appear

ly

descriptions ed ing

disappear

y

extreme

extremes

un

er ness

frequent

in

humour independent

depend medicines

mystery

mysteries

un

nervous

nerve

occasion occupy

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occupation

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necessary

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medicine

opinion

opinions

permission

permit

pressure

press

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foreign

ly ist ity ness

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advantage

pressures

un(ed)

process

processes

ed ing

pro–cess

procedure

purpose

purposes

ful(ly)

pur–pose

intent

receipt

receipts

ed

re–ceipt

acknowledgment

ed ing able tion

re–cog–nise

identify

require

ed ing ment

re–quire

need

serious

ly ness

ser–i–ous

solemn

recognise

un(able)

invoice

lighthearted

source

sources

re

ed ing (re)ful

source

basis

success

successes

un(ful)

ful(ly) or

suc–cess

achievement

failure

ed ing ion able ive

sug–gest

propose

oppose

ly

sui–ta–ble

appropriate

unsuitable

suggest suitable

suit

unconscious

conscious

ly ness

un–con–scious

unaware

conscious

vary

ly

var–i–ous

assorted

same

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English – Back To Basics


Glossary

Teacher notes

Spelling and word study

Abbreviation

Digraph

Plural

An abbreviation is a word written in shortened form. A full stop may be used to show part of the word is missing. However, if the last letter of the word is used, there is no full stop. For example: Mon. for Monday Dr for Doctor

Two letters representing one phoneme. For example: th, sh, wh, er, ck, ou

Indicates more than one person or thing. For example: two books three wishes four children

Acronym A word made up from the initial letters of a phrase. For example: SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) radar (radio detecting and ranging) (Note: If it is not pronounced as a word, it is an intialism; e.g. LPG.)

Eponyms Eponyms are words that come from a person’s name or name of a place. For example: Jules Leotard Anders Celsius Earl of Cardigan

Etymology

Prefix Used at the beginning of a base word to change meaning. For example: inedible, unconscious, illegal, disobey

The study of the origin and history of words. For example: annual from the Latin word annu, meaning ‘year’

Singular

Antonyms

Grapheme

Words that are opposite in meaning. For example: hot/cold dark/light wet/dry

The written representation of a sound. For example: ew, ing, th

Used at the end of a base word. For example: working, lonely, walked, editor

Compound word

Any letter of the alphabet that is not a vowel. For example: b, c, d, f, g, h, j

Contraction A shortened form of a word. An apostrophe is used to replace the deleted letters. For example: I’m, we’re, they’ll, she’d, can’t

Derivative A word made from adding prefixes and suffixes to a base word. For example: sleeping, unusual, happily English – Back To Basics

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Homophones Words that sound the same but are spelled differently. For example: peace/piece threw/through bored/board

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Two or more words joined together. For example: pancake, teaspoon, underground

Consonant

Words that are spelt the same but have different origins and meanings and are sometimes pronounced differently. For example: cricket, wind

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The root word or main part of the word. Prefixes and suffixes can be added to the base word. For example: reading, misguided, carefully

Homographs

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Base word

Only one person or thing. For example: one book, a table, an apple

Morpheme The smallest unit of meaning. For example: house/keep/ing

Phoneme The smallest unit of sound in a word that can be represented by one, two, three or four letters. There are 44 phonemes in English. For example: to, shoe, through

Syllable A unit of sound which contains a vowel sound. All words are made up of one or more syllables. For example: talk, nerv-ous, in-de-pen-dent

Synonyms Words that are similar in meaning. For example: big/large small/tiny wet/damp

Thesaurus A reference book which groups words by meaning. For example: promise—pledge, guarantee, engagement, commit, assure, secure

Trigraph Three letters representing one phoneme. For example: high, fudge, pear

Phonetics

Vowel

System of spelling words that represents sounds by symbols.

The five letters of the alphabet that are not consonants. These are: a, e, i, o and u.

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Glossary

Teacher notes

Punctuation

/ :, (: ; -

Apostrophe

Exclamation mark

Quotation marks

Used to show ownership and in contractions to show where letters have been dropped. For example: Jackie’s dog wasn’t barking.

Used to show strong emotion. For example: That’s fantastic news!

Used to indicate direct speech, quotations and specific titles. For example: ‘Did you know the Spanish word “siesta” means a short nap?’ Ben asked.

Colon Used to introduce additional information. For example: Use the following: eggs, bacon, milk, salt and pepper.

Comma

Hyphen

Used to join words and word parts, clarify meaning and divide words at the end of a line. For example: re-signed a contract brother-in-law three-quarters

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Parentheses

Used to enclose additional information such as a comment, explanation or example. For example: Tia (my sister) showed me how to use the program.

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Dash

Used at the end of a sentence or in some abbreviations. For example: His birthday was on 21 Feb.

Used to separate short, balanced and linked phrases or clauses. It is stronger than a comma, not as strong as a full stop. It can also be used to separate items in a list of phrases or clauses. For example: I bought new shoes; they were on sale. I need 12 pens, pencils and rulers; 24 books, six erasers and two bags.

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Used as a short pause to separate parts of a sentence and items in a list. For example: The boy, a great athlete, was competing in most events. I took pens, pencils, paper and paints to the class.

Full stop

Semicolon

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Used to start a sentence, as the first letter of proper nouns, for the pronoun I, in titles, and to start direct speech.

Used to show options, shortened forms, in web addresses and instead of per, an or a. For example: true/false 60km/h

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Capital letters

Forward slash

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Used to provide additional information or show that something is unfinished. For example: I opened the gift—it was just what I wanted.

Ellipsis Used to mark letters or words that have been left out and a pause or interruption For example: Her birthday party was wonderful … the best ever!

Question mark Used at the end of a sentence to show a question to be answered. For example: Did you finish everything you wanted to?

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English – Back To Basics


Glossary

Teacher notes

Grammar

Abstract noun

Auxiliary verb

Conjunction

A word which describes things that cannot actually be heard, seen, smelt or tasted. For example: anger, beauty, danger, jealousy, loyalty, pain

A ‘helping’ verb that is used in forming tense, mood and voices with other verbs. The verbs to be, to have and to do are often used as auxiliary verbs. For example: I was thinking of you. He does leave his room in a mess. We have seen it.

A joining word for words, phrases, clauses and sentences. For example: I ate an apple and a pear. I was tired but I had to work because the assignment was due.

The voice of the verb which shows that the subject of the sentence is performing the action. For example: Her friend drove the car. The dog frightened the child.

Adjective

Clause A group of words with a subject and its verb. For example: She walked to the station.

A describing word used to add meaning to a noun or pronoun. For example: He wore a blue shirt. The meal was delicious.

Collective noun

Adverb

Command verb (imperative)

Adds meaning to a verb, adjective or other adverb. It can tell how, where or when. For example: He worked carefully. Yesterday, they walked to school. She finally finished.

A verb used as an order or command. For example: Stop talking so loudly.

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A word naming general rather than particular things. For example: apple, river, table, colour

Complex sentence

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Shows that linked words or phrases agree in terms of case, number, gender and person. For example: He is welcome. They are welcome. She tried to write the story herself.

Article A subclass of determiners where a and an are indefinite and the is definitive. For example: a computer, an apple, the dog

English – Back To Basics

A connecting word that tells order and what is coming next. For example: I’ll finish the dishes first and then watch a film.

Determiner A word that is used in front of a noun or pronoun to tell something about it. For example: a tiger, the tiger, some tigers, both tigers, that tiger, three tigers

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A group of persons or things. For example: a class of pupils, a flock of sheep, a herd of elephants

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Agreement

Connective

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Active voice

Has a main (independent) clause and at least one subordinate (dependent) clause. For example: I like swimming before I walk along the beach.

Compound sentence Has two or more independent clauses with a linking word. For example: The nurse worked hard and helped the sick child.

Direct speech Exactly what is spoken, enclosed in quotation marks. For example: ‘Are you feeling thirsty?’ she asked.

Double negative When two negatives are used together, with the effect of cancelling each other so the negative meaning is lost. For example: She wasn’t doing nothing. He didn’t get no lunch.

Finite verb A verb that has a subject. A finite verb must be a part of every sentence and agree with its subject. For example: The ball rolls. The balls roll.

Idiom A phrase that is not meant literally. For example: over the moon frog in my throat

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Glossary

Teacher notes

Grammar

Indefinite pronoun

Passive voice

Preposition

A pronoun that refers to people or things generally and not specifically. For example: anybody, anything, everybody, everyone, somebody, something

The voice of the verb which shows that the subject is having an action done to it. For example: Max was tickled by his sister. She was surprised by the visitors.

Used in front of a noun or pronoun to describe the relationship. For example: under the water, to him, at the concert, before lunch, around them

Main (independent) clause A group of words that can stand alone and make sense without being dependent on any other part of a sentence. For example: I decided to go shopping after I had my lunch.

Modifier

Text may be written as the first, second or third person and is indicated by the use of pronouns and verbs. For example: I wrote the book. It must be yours. Did he write the book?

Personal pronoun

Used in place of a person. First person personal pronouns are: I, me, mine, we, us, ours. Second person personal pronouns are: you, yours. Third person personal pronouns are: he, his, him, she, hers, her, it, its, they, them, theirs.

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A word or group of words that affect the meaning of another word in some way by giving more information. They might describe, define or make a meaning more precise. For example: The TV is in the largest room. Bright-eyed and inquisitive, the squirrel searched for food.

Person

A word that names a person, place, thing, feeling or idea. For example: doctor, Paris, suitcase, fear, courage

Object Shows what or whom the verb affects. For example: They purchased a house. She wore blue jeans.

Paragraph A group of sentences that are about one main idea. The sentences should follow in a logical order.

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Used in place of a noun to reduce repetition. For example: Peter is conscientious. He works quietly.

Proper noun Used to specifically name a person or thing. For example: Jemma, Antarctica, Sahara Desert

Relative pronoun Used to connect or relate one part of a sentence to another. For example: Here is the house that I want to buy. I met the man whose story I had read.

Sentence

A group of words in a sentence which does not contain a finite verb. For example: She walked towards the house. The car crashed into the tree.

A group of words that makes sense on its own. It may have one or more clauses. It must have a finite verb, a capital letter at the start and end in a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark. For example: I’ll eat breakfast after I’ve had a shower.

Possessive pronoun

Simple sentence

Phrase

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Noun

Pronoun

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Reports, and often alters, direct speech without the use of quotes. For example: I asked her to be quiet. She told me she would leave early.

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Indirect speech

A pronoun used to show ownership. For example: That book is his. I think it’s hers. I have mine here. It must be yours.

A sentence with only one verb (part of the predicate) and one subject. For example: I played a game. They ate dinner together.

Slang

Predicate What is written or said about the subject of a sentence. For example: The teacher was tired and hungry. The kitchen was clean and tidy.

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Words or phrases in common use that are not considered to be part of standard English. For example: aggro, dude.

Statement A sentence which states a fact. For example: We will not be leaving today. English – Back To Basics


Glossary

Teacher notes

Grammar

Subject

Tense

The person or thing who is doing the action in a sentence. For example: Mrs Green taught music. The football team won the game with the last kick.

Verb tenses tell whether the action is happening in the past, present or future. For example: I walked, I walk, I am walking, I will walk.

Subordinate (dependent) clause

An action or state of being word. For example: She read the book. He has written a story. They will eat dinner. We thought about it.

Verb

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A group of words that cannot stand alone and make sense. It is dependent on the main clause for its meaning. For example: I ate everything on the plate because I was hungry.

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Additional word lists Words used as prepositions in inside into like near of off on onto out

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beyond but by concerning despite down during except for from

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among around at before behind below beneath beside besides between

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aboard about above across after against along alongside amid amidst

over past per round since through throughout till to towards

under until up upon via with within without

in regard to in spite of instead of in view of

on account of on board out of owing to

Prepositional phrases according to ahead of apart from as far as

aside from as to back of because of

behind in due to in addition to in the back of

in front of in lieu of in light of in place of

Words used as adjectives or adverbs bad better bright cheap close deep English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics

doubtless early enough even fair far

fast first hard high late little

loose loud low much near quick

right rough second sharp slow smooth

straight third tight well worse wrong

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Vowel sounds

Teacher notes

There are 19 vowel sounds listed below. Most of these vowel sounds can be written in a number of different ways. The letters used to represent sounds in words are called ‘graphemes’. Knowledge about common graphemes and an understanding of how to use them when selecting the particular one needed to spell a word correctly, are essential spelling skills. Some of the most commonly used graphemes for each vowel sound are found in the table below.

Sound

Graphemes a (cat)

‘a’ as in rain

ai (pain) ay (tray) a-e (plate) a (baby) ea (break) ei (rein) ey (grey)

‘ar’ as in bar

ar (car) a (class) al (calf) au (laugh)

‘air’ as in pair

air (chair) are (care) ear (bear) ere (there) eir (their)

‘aw’ as in paw

aw (yawn) or (fork) au (sauce) a (ball) ore (store) oar (roar) oor (poor) ough (fought) augh (caught) al (walk)

‘e’ as in tell

e (jet) ea (spread)

‘ee’ as in tree

ee (sheep) ea (beat) y (funny) ie (thief) ei (ceiling) ey (key) i (ski) e-e (athlete)

‘er’ as in fern

er (germ) ir (girl) ur (purse) or (word) ear (earn) our (journey)

‘ear’ as in appear

ear (near) eer (deer) ere (here) ier (tier)

‘i‘ as in bit

i (fin) y (pyramid) ui (build)

‘i’ as in hive

i (find) ie (pie) y (sky) i-e (fine) igh (sigh)

‘o’ as in top

o (clot) a (wasp) au (sausage) ou (cough)

‘o’ as in hope

o (no) oa (boat) oe (toe) ow (slow) o-e (home)

‘ow’ as in cow

ow (down) ou (loud)

‘oy’ as in toy

oy (boy) oi (coin)

‘oo’ as in cook

oo (book) u (bush) ou (should)

‘oo’ as in boot

oo (spoon) ew (flew) ue (true) ou (soup) ui (fruit) o (to)

‘u’ as in mud

u (truck) o (some) ou (young)

‘yu’ as in use

u-e (fuse) u (duty) ew (new) ue (avenue) eau (beauty)

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

‘a’ as in bat

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English – Back To Basics


Consonant sounds

Teacher notes

There are 25 consonant sounds listed below. Most of these consonant sounds can be written in a number of different ways. The letters used to represent sounds in words are called ‘graphemes’. Knowledge about common graphemes and an understanding of how to use them when selecting the particular one needed to spell a word correctly, are essential spelling skills. Some of the most commonly used graphemes for each consonant sound are found in the table below.

Sound

Graphemes b (bat) bb (rabbit)

‘c’ as in cat

c (clean) ck (pack) ch (school) k (kite) cc (occupy) que (cheque)

‘ch’ as in chin

ch (church) tch (watch)

‘d’ as in dog

d (doll) dd (rudder) ed (talked)

‘f’ as in fat

f (fed) ff (giraffe) ph (phone) gh (laugh)

‘g’ as in get

g (goat) gg (egg) gu (guide) gh (ghost)

‘h’ as in hat

h (have) wh (who)

‘j’ as in jam

j (jet) g (giant) dge (hedge) gg (suggest)

‘l’ as in look

l (lot) ll (hill) le (little)

‘m‘ as in met

m (mother) mm (hammer) mb (climb) lm (calm) mn (autumn)

‘n’ as in now

n (nurse) nn (runner) kn (knot)

‘ng’ as in sing

ng (strong) n (sink)

‘p’ as in pot

p (pin) pp (ripped)

‘r’ as in run

r (red) rr (carry) wr (write)

‘s’ as in sat

s (sun) ss (toss) c (cent) ce (rice) sc (scene)

‘sh’ as in ship

sh (sheep) s (sugar) ss (pressure) ch (machine) ci (special) ti (station) si (tension)

‘t’ as in tap

t (tent) tt (written) th (Thomas) ed (cooked)

‘th’ as in thin

th (think)

‘th’ as in then

th (that) the (breathe)

‘x’ as in box ‘y’ as in yes

w (watch) wh (when) x (fox) cks (socks) y (yell)

‘z’ as in zebra

z (zip) zz (fizz) s (has)

‘zh’ as in measure

s (treasure) si (television)

English – Back To Basics

Sa m

in g

ew

‘w’ as in was

v (vase) f (of)

Vi

‘v’ as in van

pl e

‘b’ as in big

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Prefixes Prefix

Meaning

Teacher notes

Example(s)

opposed, against

antiseptic

bi-

two, twice

bicycle

bio-

life

biography

circum-

around

circumference

co-

together

cooperate

contra-

opposite, against

contradict

de-

away, from, down

defer, descend

dis-

apart

disconnect

en- em-

make

enable, embrace

ex-

former

ex-premier

for-

not

forget

fore-

before

forecast

giga-

billion

gigabyte

hyper-

over, exclusive

hyperactive

il-

not

illegal

in-

not, in

incomplete, inside

im- ir-

not

inter-

between, among

mal-

wrong

mega-

million

micro-

small

milli-

thousand

mini-

small

mis-

wrongly

non-

not

nonsense

out-

outside, detached

outpatient

Sa m impossible, irregular interview

malfunction megabyte

microscope

in g

ew

Vi

post-

millilitre miniskirt misjudge

after

postgraduate

before

preheat

re-

again, back

repeat, return

semi-

half

semicircle

sub-

under

submarine

super-

over, above

superhuman

trans-

across

transport

tri-

three, triple

tricycle

un-

not

undone

uni-

one, single

uniform

with-

against, away

withhold

pre-

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pl e

anti-

xv

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Suffixes Suffix

Meaning

Teacher notes

Example(s)

capable of, for

adaptable, possible

-al, -ical

of, relating to

maternal, magical

-ar

like

circular

-ate

to make

aggravate

-ation

act of

invitation

-dom

state of

freedom

-er, -or

one who

farmer, actor

-ess

feminine of nouns

princess

-fold

number of parts, times

twofold

-ful

able to, full of

helpful, plateful

-ion

action, state, quality

consideration, promotion

-ise

make into

humanise

-ish

belonging, like

girlish, Swedish

-ism

state, quality, act of

heroism, baptism

-ist

one who

artist

-ive

like, connected with

native, protective

-less

without

childless

-ly

like, how, when

manly, darkly, yearly

-ment

result, state, quality of

achievement, judgment

-ous

full of

nervous

-phobia

fear, dread

claustrophobia

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

-able, -ible

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Word origins

Teacher notes

LATIN ROOT WORDS Root word

Meaning

Example(s)

writing

describe, inscribe, scribble, prescribe, transcribe

port

carry

transport, portable, report, export, import, support

ped

foot

pedestrian, pedal, pedestal, impede, expedition

spire

breathe

inspire, conspire, respire, transpire

mit

send, let go

transmit, omit, admit, permit, remit

fact

make, do

manufacture, factor, faction, satisfaction, factory

duc, duce, duct

to lead

conduct, introduce, produce, educate, conductor

cap, capit

head

capital, captain, decapitate, capitulate

flu

flow

fluid, fluent, influence, affluent, effluent

mani, manu

hand

manual, manufacture, manuscript, manipulate

aqua, aque

water

aquatic, aquarium, aquaplane, aqueduct, Aquarius

aud

hear

audio, audience, audible, audition

anni, annu

year

annual, anniversary, biannual, annuity

bene

well

benefit, beneficial, benefactor, beneficiary, benevolent

prem, prim

first

primary, prime, primitive, primer, premier

unus

one

duo

two

tres

three

quatuor

four

quinque

five

sex

six

septum

seven

Sa m

pl e

scribe

unit

duet

triangle quarter

in g

quintet

sextuplet

ew

September (7th month on Roman calendar)

octo

eight

octopus

nine

November (9th month on Roman calendar)

ten

decimal

centum

hundred

century

mille

thousand

millimetre

decem

Vi

novem

GREEK ROOT WORDS Root word

Meaning

Example(s)

meter, metre

measure

centimetre, millimetre, thermometer, barometer, pedometer, speedometer

micro

small

microscopic, microscope, microphone

aero

air

aeronaut, aerate, aeroplane, aerial

sphere

globe, ball

atmosphere, stratosphere, hemisphere

tele

far off

telephone, teleport, televise, television

logy

word, knowledge, science of

psychology, biology, zoology, neurology

auto

self

automatic, autobiography, autograph, automobile

logos

word, reason

logic, logistic, logical

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Words commonly misspelt

Teacher notes

LIST 1 choose

friend

none

their

ache

colour

guess

ocean

though

address

coming

half

often

through

afraid

cough

heard

once

together

again

could

hospital

people

tomorrow

agree

country

hour

picture

tonight

almost

couple

hungry

piece

touch

always

cousin

important

please

trouble

among

daughter

insect

promise

Tuesday

answer

decide

instead

any

definite

interesting

around

different

invite

ready

useful

August

difficult

January

reason

vegetable

aunt

discuss

knew

remember

voice

autumn

doctor

know

rough

Wednesday

balloon

does

lately

said

welcome

beautiful

don’t

laugh

separate

where

done

library

September

which

during

listen

sign

who

early

lose

since

women

behaviour

easy

making

some

won’t

bicycle

eight

many

someone

would

breakfast

every

meant

special

write

built

exercise

message

spread

writing

business

famous

might

straight

wrong

busy

February

minute

strange

wrote

buy

finish

naughty

sure

yesterday

careful

forgotten

nearly

surprise

beginning

English – Back To Basics

question

uncle

quick

used

Sa m

in g

ew

been

Vi

because

pl e

about

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Words commonly misspelt

Teacher notes

LIST 2 customer

incident

private

adventure

damage

information

procedure

aeroplane

decoration

injury

punishment

altogether

delicious

instrument

pure

ambulance

disappointing

intelligent

pyjamas

amusing

discovery

jealous

quantity

anxious

disgraceful

knowledge

reasonable

appear

distract

lawyer

recreation

appreciate

division

league

religion

argument

doubt

machine

repair

assembly

election

material

request

association

electric

medicine

scarce

athlete

enormous

migrate

separate

attendance

enough

multiplication

serious

audience

excitement

museum

silence

author

extreme

musical

skilful

failure

mystery

subtraction

fashion

necessary

support

favourite

neighbour

surround

balance

finally

nephew

technology

believe

forty

nervous

unknown

careless

frequent

niece

valuable

celebrate

generous

opinion

variety

centre

gradual

oxygen

visitor

certain

heritage

parliament

weary

chocolate

hesitate

passenger

weight

comfortable

honest

permission

weird

committee

horrible

persuade

yacht

conversation

imagination

physical

youth

curtain

immediately

population

Sa m

Vi

awful

ew

avenue

in g

automatic

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Words commonly misspelt

Teacher notes

LIST 3 convenient

foreigner

irrelevant

outrageous

silhouette

acquaintance

cooperate

fortunately

irreplaceable

paralyse

sincerely

acquire

courageous

freight

irresponsible

participant

sophisticated

admittance

curious

fugitive

itinerary

permitted

spaghetti

adolescence

deceased

furious

jewellery

phenomenon

spontaneous

anniversary

definite

gauge

kidnapped

pneumonia

statistics

anonymous

desperate

genuine

knowledgeable

politician

successful

appalling

diabetes

glamorous

labelled

possession

sufficient

Arctic

diarrhoea

government

legendary

possibility

supervisor

assistance

difference

grammar

limousine

professional

surgeon

asthmatic

disappearance

grieve

maintenance

pronunciation

suspicious

basically

disapproval

guarantee

manageable

prosecute

technique

bouquet

disastrous

guard

manually

protein

therapeutic

boutique

discipline

hallucination

millionaire

questionnaire

tragedy

bureau

discrimination

harass

miraculous

queue

transferred

campaign

discussion

hereditary

mortgage

reassurance

twelfth

casualty

disease

hilarious

muscle

rebellious

unanimous

cautious

disinfectant

humorous

mysterious

receipt

unconscious

cemetery

distinguish

hypothetical

nausea

recommend

unique

chauffeur

documentary

hysterical

negotiate

referee

unnecessary

choreography

economically

ignorance

numerous

regretted

vaccinate

coincidence

efficient

illiterate

nutritious

rehabilitation

vague

colleague

eightieth

imaginative

obedient

relevant

visibility

commercial

electrician

immaculate

obese

responsibility

volunteered

commitment

embarrass

inappropriate

obscene

restaurant

vulnerable

communicate

encourage

independence

obsessive

resuscitate

wintry

competitive

escalator

indigenous

occasion

rhythm

worshipped

concussion

essential

ineligible

occurred

rumour

congratulations

eventually

ingredient

offence

satellite

conscientious

fascinate

inseparable

omitted

schedule

conscious

fatigue

intermediate

opportunity

siege

controversial

fierce

interrupt

ordinary

significant

Sa m

in g

ew

Vi

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics

pl e

accessories

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Words easily confused or misused

Teacher notes

LIST 1 Words

Examples

in g

Sa m

pl e

We put the angel on the Christmas tree. A triangle might have a right angle. I did as I was told. I was like my sister. I ate breakfast. I have eaten breakfast. We will beat them. We should have beaten them. She became a star. She will become a star. He began the work. He has begun to work. I have been to school. I like being at school. I stood beside him. Who, besides your dad, is home? The wind blew. The papers have blown away. He took a deep breath. He can breathe deeply. She can do that. May I do that? I may do that. I might be able to do that. She came late. They will come later. I chose the apple. I will choose an apple. The milk came from the dairy. He wrote in his diary. The desert was dry. He deserted them. We had ice-cream for dessert. He did the work. He has done the work. She forgot the number. He has forgotten to bring it. She gave me the book. I will give you the book. He has gone to school. She went to school. Mum hid the Christmas presents. The presents were hidden from us. The dog is wagging its tail. It’s a sunny day. I knew the teacher. I know who she is. I wish I had known before. It was laid on the table. It had lain on the table for a while. I had to learn the words. She can teach me how to do it. I will lend you the book. Can I borrow the book? These trousers feel loose. Don’t lose your phone. The meter was running. It was a metre long. I was tired of working. I took off my hat. Cricket is an outdoor sport. We played it outdoors. I passed the test. I walked past her. He is going to football practice. He will practise his skills. She is the principal of the school. She followed a basic principle. I was very quiet. It was quite funny. I was rapt with the result. I wrapped a present. The sun had risen before I woke. The sun rose before I did. She played the role of a doctor. She ate a salad roll for lunch. I showed her where I lived. He has shown me the way to go. They lived on the top storey of the building. I read the story. That is their house. They live there. They’re going out. I threw the ball. I walked through the room. He tore the shirt he was wearing. The shirt is torn. I will wear the dress. Where are you? We’re going to school. They went an hour ago. They have already gone. I have two brothers who are older. I have two kittens which are cute. Who’s leaving now? Do you know whose dog it is?

Vi

ew

angel/angle as/like ate/eaten beat/beaten became/become began/begun been/being beside/besides blew/blown breath/breathe can/may/might came/come chose/choose dairy/diary desert/dessert did/done forgot/forgotten gave/give gone/went hid/hidden its/it’s knew/know/known laid/lain learn/teach lend/borrow loose/lose meter/metre of/off outdoor/outdoors passed/past practice/practise principal/principle quiet/quite rapt/wrapped risen/rose role/roll showed/shown storey/story their/there/they’re threw/through tore/torn wear/where/we’re went/gone who/which who’s/whose

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English – Back To Basics


Words easily confused or misused

Teacher notes

LIST 2 Words

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

Please accept this gift. Everyone went except Drew. I completed the addition problems. There is a new edition of that book. She asked for my advice. I would advise you to finish it. She was affected by the news. It had a good effect on her. They should amend the rule. He needs to emend (edit) his work. Her ballet dress was beautiful. We needed a ballot paper to vote. My belief is that you will do well. I believe you will win. He charted the data. He chartered a boat for the day. She was in continual pain. It was a continuous line. The local councillor approved the plans. The counsellor listened to her. The woman had two dependants. The child was dependent on her mother. The electronic device was expensive. She had to devise a new plan. He tried to elicit information. The drug was illicit. The school was eligible for the grant. Her writing was legible. The emigrant left his country. The immigrant arrived in his new country. There was a gas emission. The omission of her name was an oversight. The new employee worked hard. The boss was their employer. I easily forgave my best friend. I told her she was forgiven. I was dressed formally. I was formerly at another address. He is a human being. They had to treat the animal in a humane way. He had a driver’s licence. He had to license the car. She had to mediate between the groups. I took time to meditate and relax. I was mistaken about the time. I mistook the time it would take. They had overtaken the slow car. They overtook the car. The premier is the state leader. We went to the film premiere. You need the right proof first. You will have to prove it’s true. He took refuge from the storm. The refugee arrived from another country. Write a review of the book. The musical revue was very funny. I was scared of the dark. The burn scarred my skin. She scraped her knee when she fell. I scrapped the work I was doing. The train was stationary. The stationery included pencils. He wore the new suit to the party. We stayed in an expensive hotel suite. The summary was very brief. It was a fine, summery day.

Vi

accept/except addition/edition advice/advise affect/effect amend/emend ballet/ballot belief/believe charted/chartered continual/continuous councillor/counsellor dependant/dependent device/devise elicit/illicit eligible/legible emigrant/immigrant emission/omission employee/employer forgave/forgiven formally/formerly human/humane licence/license mediate/meditate mistaken/mistook overtaken/overtook premier/premiere proof/prove refuge/refugee review/revue scared/scarred scraped/scrapped stationary/stationery suit/suite summary/summery

Examples

English – Back To Basics

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Sa m

pl e

T E A C H E R I N F O R M A T I O N

ew

in g

A N D

Vi

P U P I L P A G E S

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Spelling 1

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION This list of 20 words forms part of the vocabulary consistently used throughout the book. The activities revise concepts previously introduced at other levels.

Answers 1. Answers may include: various—differing from one another, or of different kinds, as two or more things unconscious—not conscious, unaware serious—of grave or solemn disposition or character, thoughtful nervous—of or pertaining to the nerves. Highly excitable, unnaturally or acutely uneasy or apprehensive.

pl e

2. Answers may include: It is necessary to limit junk food to maintain a healthy diet. The dedicated athlete experienced success at the Olympic Games. Someone who is under pressure may find it difficult to relax. The injured man went through a long process to recover from the accident.

4. Answers may include: (a) successful (d) disappearance

(b) definitely (e) acceptable

Sa m

3. accept, argument, definite, difficult, disappear, independent, medicine, mystery, necessary, nervous, occasion, pressure, process, serious, source, success, suggest, suitable, unconscious, various (c) suggestion

8. (a) definite (d) serious

English – Back To Basics

(b) suit (e) mystery

(c) nerve (f) medicate

(b) success (e) nervous

(c) disappear (f) various

Vi

7. (a) argue (d) serious

(b) pressure—press, sure (d) suitable—suit, able, table, tab, it

ew

6. (a) source—sour, our, so (c) argument—gum, men, me

in g

5. Answers may include: (a) process—The process of making something; process the data, an idea (b) pressure—exertion of force; compression, influence

2

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Spelling 1 disappear suggest unconscious

source suitable necessary medicine argument mystery success various independent definite accept pressure serious process

occasion difficult nervous

1. Write the words that have ous as an ending. Use a dictionary and write a meaning for each word.

3. Write the words in alphabetical order.

in g

pl e

Sa m

4. Write a suffix that can be added to these words. Use a different suffix for each word. (b) definite

ew

(a) success

(c) suggest

(d) disappear

(e) accept

5. These words have more than one meaning. Write two sentences showing a different meaning for each word. (a) process

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Write the words that have a double s. Show the meaning of each word in a sentence.

(b) pressure

6. Write the small words in each. (a) source

(b) pressure

(c) argument

(d) suitable

7. Write the base word for each. (a) arguments

(b) unsuitable

(c) nervously

(d) seriousness

(e) mysterious

(f) medication

(a) unsure

(b) failure

(c) appear

(d) funny

(e) calm

(f) same

8. Write the word that is opposite.

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English – Back To Basics


Spelling 2

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION This list of 20 words forms part of the vocabulary consistently used throughout the book. The activities revise concepts previously introduced at other levels.

Answers 1. (a) opinion (d) occupation

(b) frequent (e) require

(c) receipt (f) avoid

2. (a) advantage—benefit, gain, profit; game score in tennis after deuce. (b) occupation—employment; possession as of a place; seizure, as of a foreign territory. (b) avoid (e) require (h) decide

(c) achieve (f) character

4. (a) foreign (d) humour (g) recognise

(b) advantage (e) automatic (h) extreme

(c) achieve (f) frequent

pl e

3. (a) behave (d) automatic (g) humour

(b) advantage (e) permission

(c) receipt

Vi

ew

in g

6. (a) foreign (d) avoid

Sa m

5. (a) description—representation by written or spoken words; a statement that describes (b) recognition—the perception of something as identical with something previously known (c) decision—a determination, judgment; making up of one’s mind

English – Back To Basics

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Spelling 2 automatic

opinion

avoid

foreign

decision

description

purpose

frequent

behaviour

competition

achieve

humour

require

receipt

permission occupation

recognise advantage

character

extreme

1. Write the word that means: (a) a personal view

(b) often/common

(c) proof of payment

(d) profession, job

(e) have a need of

(f) keep away from

2. These words have more than one meaning. Write two different sentences for each. (a) advantage

pl e

(b) occupation

3. Write the base word for each. (a) misbehaviour

(b) avoiding

(c) achievement

(d) automatically

(e) requirement

(f) characters

in g

(g) humorous

Sa m

(h) decisions

(a) local (c) fail (e) manual

ew

4. Write a word that is opposite.

(b) disadvantage (d) seriousness (f) rare

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(g) ignore

(h) average

5. Write a dictionary meaning for each word. (a) description (b) recognition (c) decision 6. Write a list word to complete the sentence. (a) When I am older, I’d like to travel to as many (b) Kirsty had an

countries as I can. over the other player because she was much taller.

(c) It’s advisable to keep a (d) I prefer to depressing.

after making an important purchase. people who are always whingeing because it can be

(e) We were quite nervous when we had to ask our parents for concert. Prim-Ed Publishing®

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5

to attend the

English – Back To Basics


Plurals

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION The plural of a word indicates more than one person or thing. Adding an s is the most common way to make most singular words plural. • For words ending in y, with a vowel before the y, just add s; e.g. boy—boys. • For words ending in y, with a consonant before the y, change the y to i and add es; e.g. lady—ladies. Note: Proper nouns do not change; add an s only; e.g. Mr and Mrs Henry—The Henrys. • For words ending in sh, ch, s or x, add es; e.g. dish—dishes, church— churches, box—boxes, dress—dresses. • For words ending in f or fe, change the f or fe to v and add es; e.g. leaf— leaves. Note: There are exceptions, such as chief, belief, chef and cafe. (These words would sound strange with a v sound.)

pl e

• For some words ending in o add an s; e.g. piano—pianos, avocado— avocados, radio—radios.

Sa m

For others, add es; e.g. hero—heroes, tomato—tomatoes, potato—potatoes, cargo—cargoes. Note: Some words ending in o now have two acceptable plural forms; e.g. mosquitoes—mosquitos, buffaloes—buffalos. • For words that are hyphenated, add s to the main noun; e.g. sister-in-law— sisters-in-law. • Some words retain the same form; e.g. sheep, aircraft, fish, deer.

in g

• Some words change completely; e.g. tooth—teeth, mouse—mice, child—children, foot—feet.

Answers

(c) arguments (f) estimates

(b) charities (e) difficulties

(c) identities (f) dictionaries

(b) halves (e) heroes (h) thieves

(c) replies (f) trials (i) officials

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2. (a) mysteries (d) essays

(b) advantages (e) decisions

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1. (a) successes (d) processes

3. (a) suggestions (d) results (g) viewers 4.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

schedules, weeks tourists, kangaroos, wildflowers officers, women, descriptions, men photographs, fishermen, dolphins viewers, advertisements, shows men, women, committees, ideas, charities chefs, menus, customers, restaurants

5. (a) sisters-in-law (d) lawmakers (g) mothers-in-law

(b) children (e) tattoos (h) crises

6. (a) disappearances (c) teeth

(b) mosquitoes/ mosquitos (d) scissors (e) injuries

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(c) passers-by (f) zigzags (i) people

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Plurals 1. Write these words as plurals. (a) success

(b) advantage

(c) argument

(d) process

(e) decision

(f) estimate

2. These words ends in a y. Write each word as a plural. (a) mystery

(b) charity

(c) identity

(d) essay

(e) difficulty

(f) dictionary

(b) halfs

(c) replys

(d) resultes

(e) heros

(f) trialls

(g) vieweres

(h) thifes

(i) officiales

pl e

(a) suggestiones

Sa m

4. Underline the words that should be plural. Write the correct words above them. (a) Both their schedule were full so it would take week before they could meet.

(b) Many tourist were curious to see kangaroo, koalas and the beautiful wildflower.

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(c) The two police officer spoke with three woman who had description of both man. (d) She took photograph of the three fisherman and the pod of dolphin swimming nearby.

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(e) Television viewer are not always happy with too many advertisement during show they enjoy. (f) All the man and woman on the two committee had many idea to help the three charity. (g) The group of chef created different menu to serve customer at both restaurant.

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3. These words have incorrect plural endings. Write each correctly.

5. Write the plural of each word. (a) sister-in-law

(b) child

(c) passer-by

(d) lawmaker

(e) tattoo

(f) zigzag

(g) mother-in-law

(h) crisis

(i) person

6. Write a sentence that includes the plural form of each words (a) disappearance (b) mosquito (c) tooth (d) scissors (e) injury

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Base words

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION The base word is the main part of the word; e.g. independent. Prefixes and suffixes are added to a base word to change its meaning. These new words are called derivatives.

Answers 1. (a) argue (d) define (g) permit

(b) depend (e) form (h) educate

(c) suit (f) symbol (i) verse

Answers may include: (a) plants, planted, planting, implant, implanted, plantation (b) settles, settled, settling, unsettled, unsettling, settlement, settler (c) competes, competing, competed, competition, competitive, competitor (d) issues, issued, issuing, reissue, reissued, unissued (e) occupying, occupied, occupation, unoccupied, occupational, occupant (f) differs, differed, differing, different, difference, indifferent

3.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

(b) presented

5. (a) successful

(b) succeed

6. (a) behaviour

(b) misbehaviour

(c) presents

(c) unsuccessful

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4. (a) represent

Sa m

humour, mystery sense, expect attract, athlete, promote child, usual, respect, teach, arrive fortune, nerve, able, clear, hear employ, press, vent, possible, lose, position

pl e

2.

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(c) behaving

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Base words

A base word is the main part of a word. Other words can be made from a base word by adding prefixes and suffixes. These new words are called derivatives.

1. Write each base word. (a) argument

(b) independent

(c) suitable

(d) definite

(e) information

(f) symbolic

(g) permission

(h) educational

(i) conversation

(a) plant

(b) settle

(c) compete

(d) issue

(e) occupy

(f) differ

pl e

Sa m

3. Write the base words of each underlined word above it.

(a) The book was humorous and quite mysterious in some parts.

(b) She is a sensible person and I don’t think she will do anything unexpected.

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(c) The attractive, athletic women were promoting their sport at Bondi Beach.

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(d) The children were unusually disrespectful when the new teacher arrived. (e) It was unfortunate that the nervous boy was unable to speak clearly enough to be heard. (f) The employees were under pressure to prevent the possibility of losing their positions.

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2. Write five derivatives for each base word.

4. Add to the base word present to complete each sentence. (a) The school captain was chosen to (b) The cyclist was

the other students. with an award for his outstanding results.

(c) Today’s newspaper article

an in-depth interview with the novelist.

5. Add to the base word success to complete each sentence. (a) The stage show was so (b) The best way to

it toured the country for two years. is to do something you enjoy, try hard and ask questions.

(c) Although he had trained every day, his attempt to make the team was

.

6. Add to the base word behave to complete each sentence. (a) The children’s (b) The student’s serious police.

at the birthday party was fantastic and there were no tears. meant the principal had no option but to speak with the

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badly after their team was thrashed in the final. 9

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Prefixes

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION A prefix is one or more letters added to the beginning of a base word to change its meaning; e.g. dislike, unhappy, replay, irresponsible, misunderstood, improper, disappear, preheat, illegal.

Answers 1. (a) unsuitable (c) disapprove (e) indefinite (g) preface (de-) (i) antidepressant

(b) return (down-) (d) bicyclist (motor-, tri-, uni-) (f) impossible (h) submerge (j) misbehave (b) import (e) incomplete (h) illegible (k) illegal

(c) impure (f) infrequent (i) irrational (l) irresponsible

3. (a) embrace (d) enforce (g) encourage

(b) enable (e) employ (h) ensure

(c) enlarge (f) empower

4. (a) descend (d) demolish (g) delay

(b) defrost (e) derail (h) deport

(c) depart (f) decrease

Sa m

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

deodorise—to deprive, rid of odour destabilise—to make unstable; to create uncertainty degrade—to reduce from a higher to lower rank, grade demerit—a mark against a person for misconduct or deficiency decontaminate—to make an object or area safe

in g

5.

pl e

2. (a) immature (d) inexpensive (g) irregular (j) irrelevant

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

depressed—unhappy, sad malnourished—improperly fed inhumane—cruel, lacking kindness impolite—rude, lacking manners irreplaceable—valuable, treasured, cannot be replaced illiterate—unable to read or write

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7.

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6. (a) malfunction is to fail to function (b) malformed is improperly formed (c) maladjusted is badly adjusted

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Prefixes 1. Add a prefix to each word. (a)

suitable (b)

turn (c) approve (d) cyclist

(e)

definite (f) possible (g) face (h) merge

(i)

depressant (j)

behave

2. The prefixes im-, in-, ir- and il- mean ’not’. Add one of these prefixes to each word. (a)

mature (b) port (c) pure (d) expensive

(e)

complete (f)

(i)

rational (j) relevant (k) legal (l) responsible

frequent (g) regular (h) legible

brace (b) able (c) large (d) force

(e)

ploy (f) power (g) courage (h) sure

pl e

(a)

4. The prefix de- means down, from or away. Write a word with this prefix to match each clue.

(b) to unfreeze

(d) to pull down a building

(f) the opposite of increase

(h) to send to a place of exile

Sa m

(a) to go down (c) to leave from a place (e) to leave a (train) track (g) to put off

in g

5. Write a meaning for each of these words. (a) deodorise (c) degrade (d) demerit

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(b) destabilise

(e) decontaminate

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3. The prefixes en- and em- mean ’make’. Add one of these prefixes to each word.

6. The prefix mal- means wrong. Write a sentence to show the meaning of each word. (a) malfunction (b) malformed (c) maladjusted 7. Write a clue to match each word. (a) depressed (b) malnourished (c) inhumane (d) impolite (e) irreplaceable (f) illiterate

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Suffixes

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION A suffix is one or more letters added to the end of a base word to add to its meaning; e.g. careless, helpful, thinly, walker, agreement, talking, breakable, famous, neatness, selfish.

Answers 1. (a) removal (d) signal (g) nouns

(b) arrival (e) festival

(c) criminal (f) approval

2. (a) equalise (d) sterilise (g) itemise

(b) standardise (e) civilise (h) verbs

(c) specialise (f) apologise

optimism—to be hopeful, positive, optimistic mechanism—piece of machinery organism—any living animal or plant baptism—religious rite as a sign of admission to a church; purification realism—true to form nouns

4.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

brighten—verb—make lighter, sunnier wooden—adjective—made from wood, stiff, dull strengthen—verb—make stronger lengthen—verb—make longer woollen—adjective—made from wool frighten—verb—make afraid of, scare

5.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

claustrophobia—fear of small spaces hydrophobia—fear of water arachnophobia—fear of spiders zoophobia—fear of animals haemophobia—fear of blood

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in g

Sa m

pl e

3. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

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Suffixes 1. The suffix -al means of or relating to. Write each word, with the suffix added, in a sentence. (a) remove (b) arrive (c) crime (d) sign (e) festive (f) approve (g) Are these words nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives or conjunctions?

(b) to make standard

(c) to make special

(d) to make sterile

(e) to make civil

(f) to make an apology

pl e

(a) to make equal

(g) to make items

Sa m

(h) Are these words nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives or conjunctions?

3. The suffix -ism means a state, quality or act of. Write a meaning for each word. (a) optimism (b) mechanism

in g

(c) organism (d) baptism (e) realism

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(f) Are these words nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives or conjunctions?  4. The suffix -en means of, to make or made of. Write a clue that includes the type of word;

verb

that means

to become rigid

e.g. stiffen

— a

(a) brighten

— a

that means

.

(b) wooden

that means

.

(c) strengthen —

that means

.

(d) lengthen —

that means

.

(e) woollen

that means

.

(f) frighten

that means

.

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2. The suffix -ise means to make (into). Write the correct word for each.

.

5. The suffix -phobia means fear or dread. Write a meaning for each word. (a) claustrophobia (b) hydrophobia (c) arachnophobia (d) zoophobia (e) haemophobia Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Alphabetical order

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION Answers (a) (b) (c) (d)

attempt, criminal, fashion, justice, possess, satisfy breathe, continent, editor, fuel, realise, severe appreciate, discuss, exactly, jealous, language, regret assistance, drought, injured, quantity, temperature, visible

2.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

accept, advantage, agent, argument, automatic, avoid oasis, observe, occasion, opinion, organise, oxygen tangle, technology, theme, tourist, traditional, tune wardrobe, weary, whether, wiggle, worst, wrist

3.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

decision, definite, degree, delicious, description, develop section, seize, sequence, serious, settle, severe meanwhile, mechanic, medicine, melody, memory, method backward, baffle, balance, bandage, bargain, battery

4.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

calamari, calculation, calendar, calico, calligraphy, calorie miscellaneous, miserable, misfortune, mismatch, misquote, missile expansion, experience, expiry, explosion, export, express croak, crochet, crooked, cropped, crossroad, crouton

pl e

1.

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Sa m

5. scrabble, scraggly, scram, scramble, scrapbook, scrape, scratch, scratchy, scrawl, scrawny

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Alphabetical order 1. Number each list of words to show alphabetical order. (a)

satisfy 

fashion  criminal  attempt  possess  justice 

(b)

editor 

realise  continent  breathe  severe  fuel 

(c) discuss 

regret  jealous  appreciate 

(d)

assistance 

visible 

language  exactly 

temperature  drought  quantity  injured 

2. These words start with the same letter. Use the second letter to write them in alphabetical order. (a) argument

advantage

accept

avoid

agent

automatic

(b) occasion

observe

opinion

organise

oxygen

oasis

tune

tourist

theme

technology

tangle

pl e

(c) traditional

wardrobe

wiggle

worst

Sa m

(d) wrist

weary

whether

3. These words start with the same two letters. Use the third letter to number them in alphabetical order. decision  delicious  description 

(b) serious 

sequence  seize  severe  settle  section 

(c) medicine 

memory  meanwhile 

degree  develop 

method  mechanic 

melody 

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(d) balance 

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(a) definite 

backward  bargain  bandage  battery  baffle 

4. These words start with the same three letters. Use the fourth letter to write them in alphabetical order.

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(a) calculation

(b) mismatch

calendar

miscellaneous

calorie

calamari

misfortune

calico

missile

calligraphy

miserable

misquote

(c) experience

explosion

expansion

export

express

expiry

(d) crooked

cropped

croak

crochet

crossroad

crouton

5. Write these words in alphabetical order. scrabble

scrawny

scratch

scrawl

scramble scram

scraggly scrapbook

scrape scratchy

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Syllables

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION A syllable is a unit of sound which contains one vowel sound. All words are made up of one or more syllables. Prefixes and suffixes are usually separate syllables; e.g. im/prove/ment. Compound words have two or more syllables; e.g. note/book, out/side, sun/shine. When a word has double consonants, separate syllables between these letters; e.g. yel/low, scrib/ble, gram/mar. Word endings -tle, -ble, -dle, -ple, -gle, -cle, -fle and -zle are usually separate syllables; e.g. whis/tle, sta/ble, han/dle, sam/ple, jin/gle, trea/cle, ri/fle, puz/zle. Base words with a vowel–consonant–vowel pattern usually divide before the consonant; e.g. po/lice, do/nor, o/pen, de/lete, a/gent, si/lent.

pl e

Base words with a vowel–consonant–vowel–consonant pattern usually divide between the consonants; e.g. doc/tor, pic/ture, cen/sus, con/cert.

Answers (b) frequent—2

(c) purpose—2

(d) require—2

(e) advantage—3

(f) argument—3

(g) character—3

(h) definite—3

2. (a) re/turn (d) sub/merge (g) walk/ing

(b) teach/er (e) em/bark (h) im/prove

3. (a) Face/book® (d) news/cast (g) sound/track

(b) earth/quake (e) loud/mouth (h) waist/line

(c) luke/warm (f) sports/wear

4. (a) suc/cess (d) trig/ger (g) squir/rel

(b) is/sue (e) drib/ble (h) yel/low

(c) quar/rel (f) fid/dle

(b) med/i/cine (e) in/de/pend/ent (h) safe/keep/ing

(c) un/con/scious (f) cross/cur/rent

(b) estimate (e) logical

(c) adventure (f) immigrate

(b) au/to/mat/ic (e) oc/cu/pa/tion

(c) po/li/ti/cal

6. (a) calendar (d) percentage (g) represent 7. Clues will vary: (a) un/speak/a/ble (d) tech/nol/o/gy

(c) fright/en (f) pre/face

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5. (a) per/mis/sion (d) a/ver/age (g) out/stand/ing

Sa m

1. (a) avoid—2

8. Answers will vary.

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Syllables A syllable is a word or part of a word. There is a vowel sound in every syllable. 1. Circle the vowel sounds in each word. Write the number of syllables; e.g. extreme—2 (a) avoid

(b) frequent

(c) purpose

(d) require

(e) advantage

(f) argument

(g) character

(h) definite

2. Prefixes and suffixes are additional syllables. Show the syllables in each word; e.g. re/source. (a) return

(b) teacher

(c) frighten

(d) submerge

(e) embark

(f) preface

(g) walking

(h) improve

(b) earthquake

(c) lukewarm

(d) newscast

(e) loudmouth

(f) sportswear

(g) soundtrack

(h) waistline

pl e

(a) Facebook®

(a) success

(b) issue

(c) quarrel

(d) trigger

(e) dribble

(f) fiddle

Sa m

4. When a word has double consonants, separate syllables between these letters. Show the syllables in these words. (g) squirrel

(h) yellow

5. Show the syllables in these words.

(b) medicine

(c) unconscious

(d) average

(e) independent

(f) crosscurrent

(g) outstanding

(h) safekeeping

in g

(a) permission

6. Write a three-syllable word for each clue. The first letter is provided.

c e a p l i r

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(a) a table showing the days and months of a year (b) to roughly work out

(c) an exciting experience

(d) an amount per hundred

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3. Compound words have two or more syllables. Show the syllables in each compound word; e.g. side/track.

(e) rational or reasonable

(f) to come into a new country to live (g) to stand for or symbolise

7. Show the four syllables in the words and write a clue for each. (a) u n s p e a k a b l e (b) a u t o m a t i c (c) p o l i t i c a l (d) t e c h n o l o g y (e) o c c u p a t i o n 8. (a) Write three words with five syllables. (b) Write two words with six syllables. (c) Write one word with seven syllables. Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Synonyms

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION Synonyms are words that are similar in meaning. Synonyms allow descriptions to be more precise and can avoid monotony. Although a group of words may be synonyms, there are usually slight differences in meaning; e.g. synonyms for walk include: saunter, stroll, amble, pace, go, move, hike and stride.

Answers 1. (a) disappear (d) average (g) necessary (j) competition

(b) argument (e) frequent (h) success

(c) definite (f) mystery (i) purpose

2. (a) funny (d) treat

(b) advice (e) viewer

(c) informal (f) optional

4. (a) ordinary (d) quiet

(b) linked (e) pledge

Sa m

pl e

3. Examples include: (a) receipt—acknowledgement, proof, note, tab, voucher, acceptance, delivery (b) structure—arrangement, organisation, construction, building, formation, assembly (c) essay—paper, thesis, article, story, composition, document (d) nervous—anxious, worried, edgy, jumpy, uneasy, nervy, panicky, tense (e) suggest—propose, recommend, advocate, imply, hint, indicate, evoke (c) mystery

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5. Examples include: (a) said—answered, thought, muttered, shouted, whispered, told (b) get—obtain, acquire, find, catch, become, move, progress, understand, grasp, cause, make (c) went—left, departed, exited, travelled, moved, proceeded, became, walked, sped, slowed (d) nice—pleasant, kind, lovely, polite, fine (e) good—fine, decent, respectable, pleasant, enjoyable, capable, helpful, reliable (f) saw—noticed, looked, eyed, spied, observed, witnessed, glimpsed, met, visited

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Synonyms Synonyms are words that have the same or similar meaning.

1. Choose a synonym for each word. (a) vanish

(b) disagreement

necessary

average

(c) certain

(d) normal

competition

mystery

(e) often

(f) puzzle

frequent

argument

(g) vital

(h) victory

disappear

purpose

(i) reason

(j) contest

success

definite

2. Circle the word in each list that is not a synonym. (c) official

(d) process

lead

allowed

funny

help

informal

solemn

benefit

legitimate

grim

advice

authorised

unsmiling

gain

(f) necessary

handle

perception

optional

deal with

viewer

essential

manage

theory

crucial

treat

thought

compulsory

proceed

idea

mandatory

Sa m

grave

(e) concept

pl e

(b) advantage

approved

3. Use a printed or digital thesaurus to find four synonyms for each of these words.

in g

(a) receipt (b) structure (d) nervous (e) suggest

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(c) essay

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PUPIL NAME

(a) serious

4. Circle the better of the two synonyms in each sentence. (a) The television programme was very

ordinary

(b) The dancers on stage

linked

joined

common

so I wasn’t keen to watch it again.

arms and performed high kicks in unison.

(c) The police acknowledged that the motive for the crime was still a (d) The young children at play-group were so

silent

quiet

(e) After the bushfires, our family made a cash

pledge

promise

mystery

problem .

while a story was read to them. to the Red Cross.

5. Write two synonyms for each of these overused words. (a) said

(b) get

(c) went

(d) nice

(e) good

(f) saw

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Antonyms

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION Antonyms are words that are opposite in meaning. Antonyms can add a contrast in description or feeling. Many words take a prefix to create an antonym; e.g. happy—unhappy.

Answers 1. (a) difficult (d) unconscious (g) suitable (j) disappear

(b) local (e) definite (h) automatic

(c) success (f) frequent (i) necessary

(b) modernisation

4. Answers will include:

(c) jumble

Sa m

3. (a) explain (d) lose

pl e

2. (a) The seats were uncomfortable, the food was awful and the company was terrible. (b) The film was for children and suitable for younger people to watch when they stayed in. (c) She was never dishonest and told her sister she should be the same. (d) I never seem to remember whether I put my keys under the bench or below the calendar. (e) The house was insecure; all the windows were open, the doors were unlocked and the alarm was off.

(a) generous—miserly, mean, stingy, tight, cheap

(c) import—export, send

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(b) private—public, shared, open, known, broadcast

(d) false—true, correct, right, factual, accurate, exact

5. Answers will include:

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(e) sensible—foolish, stupid, silly, idiotic, unwise, thoughtless

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(a) rough—[uneven coarse, bumpy, irregular], smooth, even, flat, regular, soft (b) bare—[naked, exposed, uncovered, empty], covered, full, packed, bursting, sheltered (c) usual—[regular, standard, normal, typical], unusual, exceptional, irregular, variable, erratic (d) wealth—[money, prosperity, fortune, abundance], poverty, scarcity, shortage, deficiency, hardship (e) ordinary—[common, everyday, average, mundane], extraordinary, special, exceptional, remarkable, wonderful

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Antonyms Antonyms are words that are opposite in meaning. suitable unconscious definite frequent difficult automatic local disappear success necessary

1. Choose an antonym to match each word. (a) easy

(b) foreign

(c) failure

(d) conscious

(e) uncertain

(f) rare

(g) incompatible

(h) manual

(i) needless

(j) materialise

2. Write antonyms above the underlined words.

pl e

(b) The film was for adults and suitable for older people to watch when they went out.

Sa m

(c) He was always honest and told her brother he should be the same.

(d) I always seem to forget whether I put my keys on the bench or above the calendar. (e) The house was secure; all the windows were closed, the doors were locked and the alarm was on. 3. Write the antonym in each list. confuse

(b) tradition

ritual series

(d) lose

find

mystify

modernisation

bewilder

custom

succession

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(c) sequence

baffle

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(a) explain

discover

system

classify

muddle

habit

belief

jumble

order

detect

identify

4. Write an antonym for each word. Use both words in a short sentence.

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(a) The seats were comfortable, the food was delicious and the company was wonderful.

(a) generous

(b) private

(c) import

(d) false

(e) sensible

5. Write a synonym and two antonyms for each word. synonym

antonyms

(a) rough

(b) bare

(c) usual

(d) wealth

(e) ordinary

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Homophones and homographs

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings; e.g. cereal – serial, know – no, feat – feet, stare – stair. Homographs are words that are spelt the same but have different meanings and may or may not sound the same. Examples: • bow (rhymes with cow)—a verb meaning to bend the body as a sign of respect • bow (rhymes with low)—a noun meaning a looped knot • fair—a noun meaning a group of sideshows • fair—an adjective meaning not cloudy.

Answers (c) currant (f) heir/ere (i) whether/wether (l) board

Answers should include: (a) queue—line up (b) cue—hint, guiding, suggestion, rod used to hit a ball in snooker (c) coarse—rough, bumpy (d) course—path, route, series

Sa m

2.

(b) allowed (e) scene (h) caught (k) through

pl e

1. (a) past (d) minor/myna (g) through (j) piece

ew

in g

3. (a) The school principals met to ensure they were upholding the same principles. (b) The doctors were required to practise their skills so they could pursue the practice of medicine. (c) I needed to purchase stationery from the store but I was stuck on the motorway where the traffic was stationary. (d) The Queen may reign over her country but she is still required to rein in any excessive spending.

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4. (a) suit—set of clothing, petition, set of cards, adapt or make appropriate (b) structure—building, supporting framework, complete system (c) reserve—lay aside, park area, book (restaurant) 5. Answers should include: (a) lead—(feed, fed)—to show the way, a type of metal (b) bow—(low, how)—a looped knot; bending the body as a sign of greeting, respect (c) row—(crow, how)—things arranged in a line, row a boat; an argument

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Homophones and homographs Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings; e.g. fare and fair. Homographs are words that are spelt the same, have different meanings and may or may not sound the same; e.g. fair and fair, wind (rhymes with kind) and wind (rhymes with tinned). 1. Write a homophone for each word. (a) passed

(b) aloud

(c) current

(d) miner

(e) seen

(f) air

(g) threw

(h) court

(i) weather

(j) peace

(k) threw

(l) bored

2. Write sentences to show the meaning of each pair of homophones.

pl e

(b) cue (c) coarse

Sa m

(d) course 3. Complete the sentences using the homophones given. (a) The school

met to ensure they were upholding

the same

.

they could pursue the

(c) I needed to purchase

of medicine.

from the store but I was

stuck on the motorway where the traffic was

ew

(d) The Queen may

their skills so

in g

(b) The doctors were required to

required to

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PUPIL NAME

(a) queue

.

principals

principles

practice

practise

stationary

stationery

rein

reign

over her country but she is still

in any excessive spending.

4. Give two different meanings for each of these homonyms. (a) suit

(b) structure

(c) reserve

5. These words are homographs. Write a rhyming word for each and explain its meaning.

rhyming words

homographs meanings

(a) lead

(b) bow

(c) row

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Compound words

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION A compound word is formed by joining two or more words. Examples include: • waterfall, desktop, notebook, driveway, football, daybreak, nightfall, downcast, halfway, footloose, fireproof, hard-wearing, long-sighted, three-quarters, do-it-yourself.

Answers (b) (d) (f) (h) (j)

2. (a) backstroke/breaststroke (c) fourteen (e) hailstone (g) seaplane (i) handbag 3. Examples include: (a) sunrise (d) benchtop (g) hairdresser (j) breakfast

daytime, timepiece flashover, overweight beforehand, handbrake bushfire, firefighter crackdown, downplay

(b) dustpan (d) greyhound (f) overarm (h) overtime (j) shoplifter

(b) firefighter (e) deadbeat (h) wineglass

(c) grandmother (f) cupcake (i) birthday

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in g

4. Answers will vary.

pl e

Answers will vary (a) footpath, pathway (c) sunlight, lighthouse (e) downplay, playground (g) daybreak, breakfast (i) overpower, powerboat

Sa m

1.

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Compound words 1. Write two compound words for each word given; e.g. back—feedback, backfire. (a) path

path, path

(f) hand

hand, hand

(b) time

time, time

(g) break

break, break

(c) light

light, light

(h) fire

fire, fire

(d) over

over, over

(i) power

power, power

(e) play

play, play

(j) down

down, down

2. Use the clue to write a compound word. (a) A swimming style

pl e

(c) A number more than ten and less than 20 (d) A fast, thin type of dog that is often raced

Sa m

(e) A rounded ice pellet that can fall from the sky (f) Cricketers need to bowl this way

(g) A means of transport than can land on water

(h) An extra period of play when scores are level

(i) Often used by women to carry personal articles

in g

(j) A person who fails to pay for a purchase in a shop

(a) perfect

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3. Write a suitable compound word that could follow these adjectives; e.g. beautiful sunset.

(b) strong

(d) spotless

(e) guilty

(f) sweet

(g) busy

(h) empty

(i) tenth

(j) warm

(c) tired

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PUPIL NAME

(b) Use this with a brush to sweep up a small area

b s d f g h o s o h s

4. Write your own clue for each compound word. Don’t use any part of the word as your clue. (a) fingernail (b) daydream (c) printout (d) breakthrough (e) download (f) championship (g) feedback (h) takeover

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Abbreviated words

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION An abbreviation is a word written in a shortened form. Generally, a full stop is used to show that part of the word is missing: • population—pop. tablespoon—tbsp. No full stop is used when the first and last letters are used; • Doctor—Dr Road—Rd Abbreviations which consist of more than one capital letter do not generally require full stops; • DOB (date of birth)

PO (post office)

A contraction is a shortened form of two words where an apostrophe is used to replace the letters omitted; she is—she’s they are—they’re

will not—won’t

Answers

Sa m

1. (a) Personal Identification Number (b) General Practitioner (c) United Nations (d) Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (e) Professor (f) Captain (g) Member of Parliament/ Military Police (h) Justice of the Peace

pl e

• e.g. I am—I’m are not—aren’t

3. (a) ad (e) bike (i) pram

(b) flu (f) ref (j) vet

4. (a) I’d (e) they’re (i) you’ve

(b) haven’t (f) can’t (j) aren’t

(c) co. (g) etc.

(d) approx. (h) i.e.

(c) deli (g) mike

(d) exam (h) bus

(c) I’ve (g) we’d (k) doesn’t

(d) she’ll (h) that’s (l) hasn’t

in g

(b) govt (f) fig.

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2. (a) pop. (e) max.

5. (a) It would take us an hour to drive 65 kilometres but they are faster. (b) She is nervous about her appointment with Doctor Stevens on Friday. (c) Use the latitude and longitude lines on the map to locate the southwest and south-east towns. (d) New York and Los Angeles are two cities in the United States of America that would be fun to visit. (e) I cannot see if they are outside but I am sure they will be having fun before it is time to go. 6. Answers will vary.

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Abbreviated words 1. Write the full form of these abbreviations. (a) PIN

(b) GP

(c) UN

(d) RSPCA

(e) Prof.

(f) Capt.

(g) MP

(h) JP

2. Write the abbreviated word of each of these. (a) population

(b) government

(c) company

(d) approximately

(e) maximum

(f) figure

(g) and so forth

(h) that is

(b) influenza

(c) delicatessen

(d) examination

(e) bicycle

(f) referee

(g) microphone

(h) omnibus

(i) perambulator

(j) veterinary surgeon

pl e

(a) advert

4. Write the contractions for each. (b) have not

(c) I have

(d) she will

(e) they are

(f) can not

(g) we would

(h) that has

(i) you have

(j) are not

(k) does not

(l) has not

Sa m

(a) I would

5. Write each sentence using the full form of all abbreviated words. (a) It’d take us an hr to drive 65 km but they’re faster.

in g

(b) She’s nervous about her appt. with Dr Stevens on Fri.

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(c) Use the lat. and long. lines on the map to locate the SW and SE towns. (d) NY and LA are two cities in the USA that’d be fun to visit.

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PUPIL NAME

3. Write the more common, shortened word for each of these.

(e) I can’t see if they’re outside but I’m sure they’ll be having fun before it’s time to go. 6. Make a list of abbreviated words that are typically used with modern technology. Write the full form of each abbreviation; e.g. blog (web log), CU (see you).

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Identifying correct spelling

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION Answers 1. (a) acceptable (d) avoidable (g) dependable (j) responsible (m) achievable

(b) irresistible (e) convertible (h) destructible (k) recognisable (n) sensible

(c) likeable (f) manageable (i) lovable (l) valuable (o) moveable

2. (a) recognising (d) annoyance (g) operator

(b) independence (e) mouthful (h) imaginary

(c) mysterious (f) requiring (i) electrical

Sa m

pl e

3. (a) The students had to decide which candidate they would vote for at the election. (b) It’s almost impossible to believe that the beginning of the year is just a week away. (c) On the first Wednesday in February we always celebrate my grandparents’ anniversary. (d) I truly don’t know if I have a decent explanation for my unacceptable behaviour. (e) The neighbours were suspicious of the foreign car parked beside the school library. (b) unconscious (e) weird (h) catalogue

(c) especially (f) guard (i) millionaire

5. medicene (medicine) peculier (peculiar)

posession (possession) ocassion (occasion) reccomend (recommend)

in g

4. (a) definitely (d) eighth (g) humorous

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6. Alice has improved her results in maths but she needs to be more careful when checking for errors. Her English creative writing is usually interesting. She should pay more attention to sentence structure and edit for spelling mistakes. Alice often loses concentration in music class and will have to develop a better sense of discipline.

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Identifying correct spelling 1. Add the correct suffix -able or -ible to each word. (a) accept

(b) irresist

(f) manage

(c) like

(g) depend

(k) recognise

(h) destruct

(l) value

(d) avoid (i) love

(m) achieve

(n) sense

(e) convert (j) response (o) move

2. These words with a suffix are incorrect. Write each one correctly. (a) recogniseing

(b) independance

(c) mysterios

(d) annoyence

(e) mouthfull

(f) requireing

(g) operater

(h) imaginery

(i) electricel

3. Underline the words spelt incorrectly. Write the words correctly above them.

pl e

(b) It’s allmost impossable to beleive that the begining of the year is just a weak away. (c) On the first Wendsday in Febuary we allways cellebrate my granparents' anniversery.

Sa m

(d) I truely dont no if I have a desent explaination for my unaceptible behavor.

(e) The neighboures were suspicous of the foriegn car parked besid the sckool libray. 4. These words are often spelt incorrectly. Write each correctly. (b) unconsious

(c) espeshially

(e) wierd

(f) gaurd

(h) cataloge

(i) millionair

in g

(a) definately (d) eigth

ew

(g) humourous

5. Rewrite the five words that are spelt incorrectly. cemetery opportunity

medicene

posession

ocassion

peculier

humorous

argument

reccomend

accommodation

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PUPIL NAME

(a) The studentes had to deside witch candadate they wood vote for at the electshion.

6. Below is a brief report written by a teacher who has forgotten how to spell. Rewrite the report correctly. Alice has improoved her rezults in maths but she needs too be more carefull wen cheking for erorrs. Her Inglish creativ wrighting is usualy intresting. She shood pay more attenshion to sentense struckure and edet for speling mistaks. Alice ofen looses consentration in music clas and will have two develep a beterr sents of disiplin. Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Consonant digraphs

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION Consonants which form digraphs (i.e. two letters making one sound) with other consonants include: • b—after m; e.g. bomb, thumb • g—before n; e.g. sign, gnome, and with h; e.g. ghost • k—before n; e.g. knee, knife • l—e.g. calm, talk • n—after m; e.g. hymn, autumn • p—before n, s and t; e.g. pneumonia, psychology, pterodactyl • t—after s; e.g. castle, listen, rustle • w—before r; e.g. write, wring, and before h; e.g. whole Some consonants are silent when in a digraph with a vowel; e.g. island, honest.

(ii) accept (v) necessary (viii) pressure (xi) awareness

(iii) disappear (vi) occasion (ix) official (xii) affectionate

Sa m

1. (a) (i) suggest (iv) difficult (vii) process (x) discussion

pl e

Answers

2. Clues will vary. (a) annual (d) intelligent

ew

in g

(b) (i) After the bushfire there were many official investigations. (ii) We were asked to suggest an appropriate location for our new computer. (iii) We are all involved in any discussion that affects our family. (iv) There was only one occasion last year when I was too ill to go to training. (v) Our new puppy is affectionate to everyone he meets. (vi) Programming the new TV and DVD recorder was a challenging process. (vii) It is absolutely necessary for young people to have a greater awareness of the harm caused by cyber-bullying. (c) opposite

3. (a) (i) character

(ii) foreign

(iii) schedule

(iv) subtle

(v) science

(vi) writer

(vii) crumbs

(viii) condemned

Vi

(b) excellent (e) permission

(b) (i) The woman painted her bedroom a very subtle shade of green. (ii) The commissioner condemned the brutal attacks on police officers. (iii) Our family schedule is quite flexible, except on a Monday and Friday. (iv) A fantastic story has at least one main character who is believable and interesting. (v) The family was delighted to accept a foreign exchange student into their home. 4. Clues will vary. (a) yolk

English – Back To Basics

(b) wrinkly

(c) signpost

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Consonant digraphs When two consonants together make one sound they are called a consonant digraph. For example: apple, knot. 1. (a) Write double consonant digraphs in each word.

(i) su

(v) nece

(ix) o

est ary icial

(ii) a

ept

(iii) disa

(vi) o

asion

(vii) proce

(x) discu

ion

ear

(iv) di

(viii) pre

(xi) awarene

icult

(xii) a

ure ectionate

(i) After the bushfire there were many

investigations.

(ii) We were asked to

(iii) We are all involved in any

(iv) There was only one

(v) Our new puppy is

(vi) Programming the new TV and DVD recorder was a challenging

(vii) It is absolutely

an appropriate location for our new computer. that affects our family. last year when I was too ill to go to training.

pl e

to everyone he meets.

.

Sa m

for young people to have a greater

of the harm caused by cyber-bullying.

2. Write a clue to match each word. Underline the double consonant digraphs. (a) annual

in g

(b) excellent (c) opposite (e) permission

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(d) intelligent

3. (a) Circle the consonant digraph in each word.

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PUPIL NAME

(b) Choose one of the above words with a double consonant digraph to complete each sentence.

(i) c h a r a c t e r

(ii) f o r e i g n

(iii) s c h e d u l e

(iv) s u b t l e

(v) s c i e n c e

(vi) w r i t e r

(vii) c r u m b s

(viii) c o n d e m n e d

(b) Choose one of the above words with a consonant digraph to complete each sentence.

(i) The woman painted her bedroom a very

(ii) The commissioner

(iii) Our family

(iv) A fantastic story has at least one main

(v) The family was delighted to accept a

shade of green.

the brutal attacks on police officers. is quite flexible, except on a Monday and Friday. who is believable and interesting. exchange student into their home.

4. Underline the consonant digraphs. Write a clue to match each word. (a) yolk (b) wrinkly (c) signpost Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

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Dictionary use

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION This is a sample of a dictionary entry for the word key. Key /ki/ n., pl. keys, adj., v., keyed, keyring 1. an instrument for fastening or opening a lock. 2. a means of understanding, solving etc.: the key to a problem. 3. a book or the like containing the solutions or translations of material. 4. the system or pattern used to decode. 5. an explanation of symbols used on a map etc. 6. one of a set of buttons or levers pushed to operate a typewriter, keyboard, piano etc. 7. tone or pitch 8. (mus.) system of related notes. 9. (bldg.) To prepare a surface by grooving, roughening etc. to receive paint. [ME key(e), kay(e) OF kei, kai] The entry word (Key) shows how to spell the word. Pronunciation (/ki/) shows how to say the word. Part of speech (n.) shows if the word is a noun, verb, adjective etc.

Usage (the key to a problem) shows how to use the word in a sentence. Word origin ([ME—Middle English]) shows where the word comes from.

pl e

Definition (1.–9.) shows the meanings of the word.

Sa m

Question 3 provides students with the opportunity to become familiar with the use of a thesaurus.

Question 4 can be completed using a compact thesaurus in which only lists of synonyms are provided.

Answers

Note: Dictionary and thesaurus examples may vary. (c) stele

in g

1. (a) verb (b) to commit theft (e) how to use the word in a sentence

(d) steak

3.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

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2. (a) model—a standard or example for imitation or comparison, a miniature representation; a person who poses for an artist or displays clothing for an audience (b) advance—to move forward; payment before it is due (c) settle—to place in a desired position, to take up residence in a place; to pay a bill, account; to bring to rest, make stable (d) vault—an underground chamber, arch, strongroom; to leap or spring over something result—remainder, follow, effect, conclusion, completion attend—accompany, be present, follow, apply the mind, medically, aid, serve leaf—part, layer, plant, of a book, turn over a new, green question—inquiry, doubt, deny, in event, topic, danger, pop the, put to the, at issue

4. (a) country—region, nation (c) right—true, straight (e) aid—help, assist

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(b) request—ask, beg (d) promise—oath, honour (f) danger—peril, risk

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Dictionary use This is a sample of a dictionary entry for the word steal. Steal /stil/, v., stole, stolen, stealing 1. to take away dishonestly or wrongfully, esp. secretly. 2. to appropriate (ideas, credit, words etc.) without right or acknowledgement. 3. to take, get or win by sneaky or subtle means. 4. (in various games) to gain a point, goal etc. by strategy, chance or luck. 5. to gain more than one’s share: she stole everyone’s attention, he stole the show. 6. to commit theft. 7. to move, go or come secretly, quietly or unobserved. 8. something acquired at very little cost or at a cost well below its true value: the furniture was a steal. [ME stele]

1. Use the entry to answer the following. (a) What type of word is steal?  (b) Write the sixth definition.  (c) From which Middle English word does steal originate? 

pl e

(e) What information do the words in italics provide? 

2. Use a dictionary to find each word. Write two sentences to show a different meaning for each.

Sa m

(a) model (b) advance

in g

(c) settle (d) vault

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A comprehensive thesaurus provides synonyms by grouping words together according to topics. Topics listed for the word star include: luminary, actor, destiny, ornament, glory, decoration, success, of fashion, in drama, fame. Each of these topics will have a number that represents the page where similar words can be found.

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PUPIL NAME

(d) Circle the guide word most likely to be at the top of the page for this entry.  save  steak  strand

3. Use a comprehensive thesaurus and write the topics listed for each word. (a) result (b) attend (c) leaf (d) question 4. Use a thesaurus and write two synonyms for each word. (a) country

(b) request

(c) right

(d) promise

(e) aid

(f) danger

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Word origins

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION Many English words are derived from Latin and Greek words. See page xvii for a list of examples. An eponym refers to a person who gives his or her name (usually last name) to words; e.g. Jules Leotard introduced a one-piece, close-fitting garment worn by acrobats and dancers. The word itself is also known as an eponym. Many commonly used words in English are derived from other languages; e.g. ’siesta’ is a Spanish word for ’small sleep’.

Answers

2.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

sphere—hemisphere, stratosphere, atmosphere meter—thermometer, barometer, speedometer, pedometer aero—aeronaut, aerate, aerial, aeroplane scribe—transcribe, describe, inscribe, scribble centum—century, centimetre, centigrade, centipede, percent (b) August (e) October (h) November (k) April

4. (a) banksia (d) biro (g) cereal (j) macadamia

(b) Harley-Davidson (e) teddy bear (h) volcano

(c) January (f) February (i) June (l) September

Sa m

3. (a) July (d) May (g) March (j) December

pl e

1. (a) biannual—twice a year (b) anniversary—celebration of a yearly event

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in g

(c) paparazzi (f) Ferris wheel (i) hygiene

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Word origins Many of the words we use come from other languages, places and people’s names. 1. The Latin word annu means ’year’. Write a definition for each word. (a) biannual

(b) anniversary

(a) sphere (Gr. globe, ball)

(b) meter (Gr. measure)

(c) aero (Gr. air)

(d) scribe (Lat. writing)

(e) centum (Lat. a hundred)

4. Find a word to match the description. Most are eponyms—words from a person or place name.

(a) Named after the emperor Julius Caesar.

(a) A small tree native to Australia and named after the English botanist Sir Joseph Banks.

(c) From the Roman god Janus, who is seen with two faces looking in different directions.

in g

(d) Possibly named after the Roman goddess Maia, the goddess of spring and fertility.

Sa m

(b) Augustus Caesar named this month after himself.

ew

(e) From the Latin word octo. Was the 8th month until Julius Caesar changed the calendar. (f) Named after the Roman feast, februa, which was held on the 15th day of this month. (g) From the Roman god Mars, the god of war.

(h) From the Latin word novem. Was the 9th month until Julius Caesar changed the calendar. (i) Named after the Roman goddess Juno, the goddess of the moon, women and marriage. (j) From the Latin word decem. Was the 10th month until Julius Caesar changed the calendar. (k) Possibly from the Latin word aperire meaning, to open. (l) From the Latin word septem. Originally the seventh month. Prim-Ed Publishing®

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pl e

3. Write the names of the months of the year next to each origin.

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PUPIL NAME

2. Write three words for each of the following. Their origin and meaning are shown in brackets.

(b) A large powerful motorcycle made by the company founded by William S Harley and Arthur Davidson. (c) An Italian word that means freelance photographers who pursue celebrities. (d) A ballpoint pen named after the Hungarian inventor László Jozsef Biró. (e) US president Theodore Roosevelt was nicknamed Teddy. A bear hunter, he once spared the life of a brown bear cub. (f) This ride is named after the American engineer George Washington Gale Ferris. (g) A breakfast food named after Ceres, the goddess of grain and agriculture. (h) From Vulcan, the Roman god of fire, this is an opening in the earth that can erupt. (i) From Hygeia, the Greek goddess of health, this is the science of good health and cleanliness. (j) An Australian tree with edible nuts, named in honour of John Macadam.

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English – Back To Basics


Capital letters

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION A capital letter is used: • to start a sentence; e.g. She is here today. • for the pronoun I, including I’m, I’ve, I’ll and I’d • as the first letter of a proper noun; e.g. Ireland, Thomas, Pacific Ocean • to start direct speech; e.g. I said, ‘She is here today’. • for the initial letter and proper nouns in titles of books, films etc.; e.g. Black Beauty, Finding Nemo. Prim-Ed Publishing® employs minimal capitalisation for titles of books and other publications, as recommended by the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, sixth edition, 2002.

pl e

Answers

2. Answers will vary.

in g

Sa m

1. (a) The Conservative Party was elected in 2010 with David Cameron as Prime Minister of Great Britain. (b) Stephenie Meyers‘s Twilight series of books have been on the Amazon bestseller list. (c) Mr and Mrs Taylor purchased a new Toyota in April from the showroom in Bordertown. (d) Dr Owen Russell operates at St Joseph Hospital and consults with patients in his Barker Rd rooms. (e) President Barack Obama and first lady Michelle live in the White House in Washington D.C.

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3. (a) Mark and Jennifer were planning to purchase their first home. They were interested in the residential areas of Ferntree, Rosebrook and Glenfield. With a mortgage from the National Bank, they were able to look at threeand four-bedroom homes. Their agent, Max Christian, had organised inspections on Saturday and Sunday afternoons. Mark‘s parents, Diane and James, were hoping the couple would buy in Rosebrook. (b) It‘s hardly surprising that, on any given day, temperatures across Australia can differ greatly. Kununurra, in the far north of Western Australia, may reach 39 °C (102 °F) while Esperance in the south can be 20 degrees lower. The capital, Canberra, might expect an overnight minimum of zero (32 °F) and, along with Hobart in Tasmania, only reach 12 °C (54 °F )during the day. The Victorian capital, Melbourne, is notorious for abrupt variations during a single day! Since the far north of Queensland is tropical, rainfall is a prominent feature. Desert locations such as Alice Springs can have temperatures ranging from near freezing at night, to extreme heat during the day. 4. Answers will vary.

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Capital letters 1. Circle the letters that should be capitals. (a) the conservative party was elected in 2010 with david cameron as prime minister of great britain. (b) stephenie meyers‘s twilight series of books have been on the amazon bestseller list. (c) mr and mrs taylor purchased a new toyota in april from the showroom in bordertown. (d) dr owen russell operates at st joseph hospital and consults with patients in his barker rd rooms. (e) president barack obama and first lady michelle live in the white house in washington d.c. 2. Complete these sentences with proper nouns. (a) I‘ve recently visited

and look forward to seeing

(b) The most humorous film I‘ve seen is (c) Famous people such as

.

and the worst I‘ve seen is and

can be seen as good role models.

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.

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(a) mark and jennifer were planning to purchase their first home. they were interested in the residential areas of ferntree, rosebrook and glenfield. with a mortgage from the national bank, they were able to look at threeand four-bedroom homes. their agent, max christian, had organised inspections on saturday and sunday afternoons. mark‘s parents, diane and james, were hoping the couple would buy in rosebrook.

and

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(b) it‘s hardly surprising that, on any given day, temperatures across australia can differ greatly. kununurra, in the far north of western australia, may reach 39 °C (102 °F) while esperance in the south can be 20 degrees lower. the capital, canberra, might expect an overnight minimum of zero (32 °F) and along with hobart in tasmania, only reach 12 °C (54 °F) during the day. the victorian capital, melbourne, is notorious for abrupt variations during a single day! since the far north of queensland is tropical, rainfall is a prominent feature. desert locations such as alice springs can have temperatures ranging from near freezing at night, to extreme heat during the day.

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(d) Clothing I like the most comes from brands such as 3. Circle the letters that should be capitals.

.

4. Write the name of two: (a) countries that begin with the letter S.

(b) famous landmarks.

(c) leaders of world countries.

(d) neighbouring secondary schools.

(e) breakfast cereals (brand names).

(f) animated films.

(g) popular authors.

(h) world-famous sporting teams.

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Sentence endings

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION A full stop ( . ) is used: • to show the end of a statement; e.g. She went to school. • for abbreviations when only the first part of the word is used; e.g. Feb., Capt. A question mark ( ? ) is used: • at the end of a sentence that asks a question; e.g. How are you? • in direct and reported speech where a question is asked; e.g. ‘How are you?’ she asked. An exclamation mark ( ! ) is used to show a strong feeling; e.g. That’s brilliant! Ouch!

Answers (b) question mark (e) question mark (h) full stop

(c) full stop (f) question mark (i) full stop

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1. (a) full stop (d) exclamation mark (g) exclamation mark

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2. Answers will vary. 3. Answers will vary. 4. Answers will vary.

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5. The storm was rolling in. You could feel the air change and the sky turn dark. I wondered how much it would rain. The first clap of thunder scared me half to death! Mum even dropped the glass she was holding! ‘Can you turn on the light, please?‘ she asked, as she picked up the broken shards. Final three sentences will vary.

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Sentence endings A complete sentence can end with a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark. 1. Write a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark at the end of each of these. (a) The result of the referendum was so close that a few votes made the difference (b) I‘m trying to decide which bank I should save with. What do you think (c) The purpose of the documentary was to highlight poverty in developing countries (d) That whole article is too disturbing (e) I know your goal is to study medicine, but do you know what specialty you prefer (f) Do you realise that the magazine pictures of models are all digitally enhanced (g) I am so angry that I want to scream

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(i) You will need to ask for permission before you can join the after-school drama club

(a) a long-term goal you have (b) a skill you‘d like to learn (c) a place where you feel comfortable

3. Write a question relating to:

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(d) attending secondary school.

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2. Write a statement about:

(a) a character from a book you’ve read

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(b) a charity you‘ve heard about (c) a foreign country

(d) an environmental concern.

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(h) The novel was so enjoyable because the characters were interesting and the plot was mysterious

4. Write an exclamation about: (a) a time you felt nervous (b) homework (c) something humorous

(d) an argument you’ve had with someone. 5. Add the correct punctuation. Then write three more sentences to end the paragraph. The storm was rolling in You could feel the air change and the sky turn dark I wondered how much it would rain The first clap of thunder scared me half to death Mum even dropped the glass she was holding ‘Can you turn on the light, please’ she asked, as she picked up the broken shards Prim-Ed Publishing®

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English – Back To Basics


Commas

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION A comma ( , ) suggests a short pause and is used to make meaning clearer by separating parts of a sentence. Use a comma to: • separate items in a list; e.g. I took pens, pencils, paper and paints to the class. • separate lists of adjectives; e.g. He is talented, smart, strong and mature. • separate clauses in a sentence; e.g. If I see him today, I’ll definitely tell him. • separate words, phrases and clauses at the start of a sentence; e.g. Firstly, I’m not going! • separate words that add extra information; e.g. Kylie, my best friend, is coming to visit. • separate the carrier (I replied) from the direct speech; e.g. ‘That is Kylie’, I replied.

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1. (a) April, June, September and November all have thirty days. (b) Unless I finish this homework, I won’t be able to watch that DVD with you. (c) My favourite relative, Aunty Ellen, is celebrating the birth of her first child. (d) Although we were anticipating a close game, the away team won easily. (e) Mrs Fisher, our teacher, announced the winner of the short-story competition. (f) She organised her schedule around the children’s school, tennis, art class, the gym and work.

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2. Answers will vary

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3. (a) She applied for her passport, which arrived by courier. (b) He started a diet yesterday, eliminating cakes, ice-cream, chocolate and pizza. (c) Unless I brush my teeth every morning, I’m not allowed out of the house. (d) How weird that Tom, Tim, Taj, Trent, Tyler and Tate are all at the same club, The Townsville Titans. (e) Although the computer expert, Nathan Jones, knew about the virus, he was unable to restore the data. 4. (a) During the storm on Saturday, there was thunder, lightning, rain and very dark skies. (b) Rob Gale, the owner of the restaurant, has advertised for a kitchenhand, pastrycook, waiter and cleaner. (c) Los Angeles, usually called LA, has mild weather, good beaches, amusement parks, celebrities and mansions. (d) Although I went to three large department stores, two sports stores and a boutique, I was unable to find exactly what I was looking for. (e) As well as promoting designer gowns, exclusive jewellery and expensive shoes, Stephanie Hawkins, the country’s most popular model, works tirelessly for charity.

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Commas A comma can be used to: • separate items in a list • separate two or more sentences or phrases that are joined together, and • separate words added for extra information.

1. Clearly show where the commas should be in the following sentences. (a) April June September and November all have thirty days. (b) Unless I finish this homework I won’t be able to watch that DVD with you. (c) My favourite relative Aunty Ellen is celebrating the birth of her first child. (d) Although we were anticipating a close game the away team won easily. (e) Mrs Fisher our teacher announced the winner of the short-story competition.

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2. Use commas in your answers to the following. (a) What four foods do you most enjoy eating?

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(b) Name four countries that end with the letter A.

(c) What four television shows do you most enjoy?

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(d) Write four synonyms for the word ‘excellent’.

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(e) Write four nouns that start with the letter P.

3. Delete the incorrectly placed commas in each sentence and show where they should be.

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(f) She organised her schedule around the children’s school tennis art class the gym and work.

(a) She applied, for her passport which, arrived by courier. (b) He, started a diet yesterday eliminating, cakes ice,cream chocolate and, pizza. (c) Unless, I brush my teeth, every morning I’m, not allowed out, of the house. (d) How weird, that Tom Tim Taj Trent Tyler and, Tate are all, at the same club The, Townsville, Titans. (e) Although, the computer expert Nathan, Jones knew about, the virus he was unable to, restore the data. 4. Clearly show where the commas should be in the following sentences. (a) During the storm on Saturday there was thunder lightning rain and very dark skies. (b) Rob Gale the owner of the restaurant has advertised for a kitchen hand pastrycook waiter and cleaner. (c) Los Angeles usually called LA has mild weather good beaches amusement parks celebrities and mansions. (d) Although I went to three large department stores two sports stores and a boutique I was unable to find exactly what I was looking for. (e) As well as promoting designer gowns exclusive jewellery and expensive shoes Stephanie Hawkins the country‘s most popular model works tirelessly for charity. Prim-Ed Publishing®

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English – Back To Basics


Quotation marks

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION Quotation marks ( ‘ ’ ) are used to: • enclose direct speech; e.g. ‘I can see you’, said Tim. • show quotations within quotations; e.g. ‘The song is called “Insects”, I think’, said Maya. • enclose words that the writer may not be using in their usual sense; e.g. The learner driver ‘kangaroo-hopped’ down the road. • enclose the meaning of a word; e.g. The Spanish word ‘siesta’ means a ‘short nap’. • enclose titles of books, songs, special names, plays etc. (in handwritten work); e.g. ‘The lion king’ was playing. Prim-Ed Publishing® follows guidelines for punctuation and grammar as recommended by the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, sixth edition, 2002. Note, however, that teachers should use their preferred guidelines if there is a conflict.

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Answers

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1. (a) ‘I’m really disappointed that I was too sick to visit’, she told her grandmother. (b) He told the gathering, ‘In my opinion, whales are the most fantastic creatures in the world’. (c) ‘This competition will be judged by three people and the decision is final’, the host said. (d) Our teacher repeated, ‘The instruction is clear. Do not include any information from unauthorised sites’.

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2. (a) ‘I really don’t like arguing with you’, she told her brother. ‘Can’t you just leave it as it is?’ (b) ‘I’m sure I’d like an occupation similar to yours’, I told my uncle. ‘I like the idea of creating things.’ (c) ‘It’s not necessary for you to behave like that,’ his father warned him. ‘I know it’s out of character, so tell me what‘s wrong.’ (d) ‘Just let me know what decision you make,’ he asked Oscar. ‘Then I can ask my parents for permission to go with you.’

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3. (a) ‘The salesman asked me, “What quote did you get from the other store?”’ she told her husband. (b) The official said, ‘I presume your coach has warned, “Don’t false start”, because I will eliminate you from the race’. (c) She said to me, ‘The film is called “Zoe’s garden” and I thoroughly enjoyed it’. (d) ‘Can I make a suggestion?’ she asked. ‘Why don‘t you simply call it “Kane’s Story”?’ 4. Owen called and asked, ‘Have you got time to come over for a visit?’ I thought about it for a second and said, ‘Sure, but I can‘t stay for long. I’m going out with my parents later’. ‘That’s fine,’ Owen said. ‘I just want to show you some designs I finished.’ ‘Great, I’ll be there soon’, I told him. 5. Answers will vary.

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Quotation marks Quotation marks are used to show the exact words that someone has spoken. 1. Show where the quotation marks should be. (a) I’m really disappointed that I was too sick to visit , she told her grandmother. (b) He told the gathering , In my opinion , whales are the most fantastic creatures in the world . (c) This competition will be judged by three people and the decision is final , the host said. (d) Our teacher repeated , The instruction is clear. Do not include any information from unauthorised sites . 2. Use quotation marks to show the speech breaks. (a) I really don’t like arguing with you , she told her brother. Can’t you just leave it as it is? (b) I’m sure I’d like an occupation similar to yours , I told my uncle . I like the idea of creating things.

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(d) Just let me know what decision you make , he asked Oscar. Then I can ask my parents for permission to go with you. Quotation marks can be used for quotations within quotations. Double quotation marks are used for the ‘inside quotation‘. 3. Use quotation marks to show the two sets of quotations in each sentence.

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(a) The salesman asked me , What quote did you get from the other store? she told her husband. (b) The official said, I presume your coach has warned, Don‘t false start , because I will eliminate you from the race .

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(c) She said to me , The film is called Zoe’s garden and I thoroughly enjoyed it . (d) Can I make a suggestion? she asked. Why don‘t you simply call it Kane’s Story ? 4. The quotation marks are incorrectly placed. Write the passage correctly. Remember, each new speaker starts on a new line.

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(c) It‘s not necessary for you to behave like that , his father warned him. I know it‘s out of character, so tell me what’s wrong.

‘Owen called and asked,’ Have you got time to come over for a visit? ‘I thought about it for a second’ and said, ‘Sure, but I can‘t stay for long.’ I’m going out with my parents later. ‘That’s fine, Owen said.’ I just want to show you some designs. Great, ‘I’ll be there soon, I told him.’ 5. Use quotation marks and write something: (a) a computer saleswoman might say to a customer (b) a director might say to an actor (c) an instructor might say to a learner driver. Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Apostrophes

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION An apostrophe ( ’ ) is used: • in contractions to show where letters have been dropped; e.g. I’ve taken it. She’s taken it. • to show ownership with nouns in the possessive case, e.g. the boy’s bag, the children’s bags • when parts of words are left out to show the way a character speaks; e.g. I like ‘em. When used to show ownership, the apostrophe is placed directly after the owner(s); e.g. a lady’s hat, the ladies’ hats, the Smiths’ dog, Mrs Jones’s cat. Possessive pronouns—its, his, hers, ours, yours—do not use an apostrophe.

Answers (b) Riley’s (e) man’s

(c) driver’s

(b) Ross’s, waiters’ (d) footballers’, coaches’

3. (a) don’t she’s I’ll mother’s (c) voters’ politcian’s wouldn’t (e) swimmer’s team’s

(b) G’day that’s he’d (d) men’s there’s everyone’s

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The charity’s members were all volunteers. It was hard to believe the child’s behaviour was so awful. We heard the referee’s decision loud and clear. I was excited before my cousin’s wedding. The man’s cigarette smoke was disgusting. The pressure on the athlete’s nerves was extreme.

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(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

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2. (a) computers’ (c) members’, council’s (e) ladies’, community’s

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1. (a) teacher’s (d) team’s

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Apostrophes An apostrophe is used to show ownership. It is placed directly after the owner(s). It can also be used to replace missing letters when two words are contracted and when parts of a word are left to show the way a character speaks.

1. Underline the owner and clearly show where the apostrophe should be. For example: Amy’s hair is blonde. (a) The teachers new car was parked in the staff car park. (b) Rileys suggestion was to design a large mural. (c) The truck was noisy so the drivers music was turned up loud. (d) I noticed that the teams uniform was red, white and black. (e) The lawnmower mans trailer was full of equipment.

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(a) All the computers hard drives needed to be updated before the start of school.

(b) Rosss restaurant was open six nights a week and the waiters shifts started at 4.30 pm. (c) Five of the members arguments were heard at the councils general meeting.

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(d) As a team, the footballers skills were terrible and the two coaches roles needed to be looked at. (e) The ladies meeting was held to discuss the communitys contributions to the fundraiser. 3. Clearly show where all the apostrophes should be in each sentence.

(a) I dont know why shes absent today but Ill get her mothers number and call her to ask.

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(b) The tourist asked if all Aussies said ‘Gday mate’ because thats what hed heard was true.

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(c) The voters reactions to the politicians speech were varied, with some saying they wouldnt want to see him elected. (d) The mens issues will be discussed when theres a suitable location found and everyones available. (e) The experienced swimmers advantage was obvious when she beat the teams younger competitors.

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2. Underline the words that need an apostrophe and clearly show where the apostrophe should be.

4. Rewrite each sentence using an apostrophe where needed; eg. I heard the screams of the passenger after the accident. I heard the passenger‘s screams after the accident. (a) The members of the charity were all volunteers. (b) It was hard to believe the behaviour of the child was so awful. (c) We heard the decision of the referee loud and clear. (d) I was excited before the wedding of my cousin. (e) The smoke from the mans cigarette was disgusting. (f) The pressure on the athletes nerves was extreme. Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Colons

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION A colon ( : ) is used to introduce more information, which could be a list of words, phrases, clauses or a quotation; e.g. Use the following: eggs, bacon, milk, salt and pepper.

Answers 1. (a) For the recipe you will need: (b) The mystery was solved: (c) Wanted: (d) The man was worried: (e) Handyman available: 2. Answers will vary. 3. Answers will vary. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

The contents included: The competitors are: The prize: Information required: Your itinerary is as follows:

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4.

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5. Answers will vary.

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Colons A colon ( : ) is a punctuation mark used to introduce additional information. It can be used to introduce: • a word or phrase that expands, summarises or illustrates what has come before • a series of items that give more information about what has come before • a dot-point series that provides more information • the subtitles of books etc.

1. Show where the colon should be in each of these. (a) For the recipe you will need lettuce, cheese, tomato, mayonnaise and mustard. (b) The mystery was solved the dog had taken the baby‘s toy. (c) Wanted junior office worker to start immediately. (d) The man was worried his wife had failed to arrive on time.

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2. Create a dot-point series to show the main responsibilities you have on a weekly basis.

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3. Write or create five book, film or game titles that have a subtitle added.

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(e) Handyman available no job too small or too big.

4. Show where the colon should be in each of these. (a) The contents included spelling, punctuation, grammar and phonics. (b) The competitors are T O’Callaghan, M Martin, S Roberts, B Baker and L Taylor. (c) The prize two first class return tickets to Paris, with accommodation and all meals. (d) Information required full name, phone number, age, gender and preference. (e) Your itinerary is as follows depart Los Angeles 5.55 pm, arrive Honolulu 8.50 pm. 5. Add more information after each colon. (a) The countries involved are as follows: (b) These celebrities were seen at the premiere: (c) Occupations advertised include: (d) Applications installed on this computer: (e) Charities benefiting from this fundraiser include: Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Semicolons, dashes and hyphens

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION The semicolon ( ; ) is stronger than a comma but not as strong as a full stop. It is used to: • separate short, balanced and linked phrases or clauses; e.g. I bought new shoes; they were on sale. • separate items in a list of phrases or clauses; e.g. I need 12 pens, pencils and rulers; 24 books, 6 erasers and 2 bags. A dash ( — ) is used to: • provide additional information; e.g. I opened the gift—it was just what I wanted. • show that something is unfinished; e.g. I’m not so sure—. The hyphen ( - ) is used to:

• clarify meaning; e.g. re-signed a contract, resigned from the job.

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• join two or more words or word parts; e.g. dark-blue, go-ahead.

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• form some compound nouns and adjectival phrases; e.g. brother-in-law, she is a well-known poet. • write whole numbers and fractions; e.g. twenty-one, three-quarters.

Answers

3. (a) role-play (d) short-sighted

(b) two-month-old (e) go-ahead

(c) co-worker (f) 45-year-old

(b) re-signed (e) experience— (h) e-book online;

(c) five-part (f) re-cover

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4. (a) forecast; (d) following: (g) re-audition are:

(c) recycled; (f) different;

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2. Answers will vary.

(b) wedding; (e) car; (h) Greece; Australia;

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1. (a) university; (d) atrocious; (g) paper;

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Semicolons, dashes and hyphens A semicolon shows a pause that is stronger than a comma but not as strong as a full stop. It is used to separate two parts of a sentence that are linked in meaning. It is also used to separate items in a list when those items already use commas. 1. Clearly show where the semicolon should be. (a) They met when they were at university now they are engaged. (b) I bought a new dress to wear to my aunt‘s wedding it was more expensive than I expected. (c) The computer had been recycled it functioned surprisingly well. (d) Their behaviour was atrocious they obviously have no effective boundaries. (e) The cyclist had been hit by a car he was lying unconscious on the road. (f) My opinion is different I don‘t believe they are correctly implementing that policy.

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(h) There is news from Spain, Italy and Greece sport from England, South Africa and Australia world weather, including rainfall, and a variety of documentaries.

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A dash is used to provide additional information, especially when the statement and list are part of the same sentence. 2. Provide your own information to complete each sentence. (a) The main character had many qualities— (b) The actor has appeared in many films— (c) She had success in four countries—

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(d) A number of emergency services were involved—

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A hyphen is used to join words and word parts, make a word clearer, create an adjectival phrase and divide a word at the end of a line. 3. Write the words that need a hyphen.

(a) It‘s important for young people to join in at least one role play.

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(g) Please use white, beige or cream paper pencils, paint or charcoal and beads or feathers.

(b) The three two month old puppies were so gorgeous that I wanted them all. (c) Her coworker was definitely not well enough to be at the office. (d) It was difficult for him to get his licence because he was short sighted. (e) The mayor gave the go ahead for the major redevelopment project. (f) A 45 year old woman was involved in an accident. 4. Add the most appropriate punctuation mark—a colon, semicolon, dash or hyphen to these sentences. (a) Another very cold day was forecast the same as yesterday. (b) The manager resigned with his company for a further two years. (c) I‘ve been watching the five part documentary series on television. (d) Ensure you bring the following calculator, pencil, ruler and eraser. (e) It was such a fantastic experience I‘ll go again next year. (f) It took six weeks for the library assistant to recover all the new books. (g) The students who need to reaudition are Cameron, Dean, Jake, Nick and Blake. (h) Some people now enjoy reading an ebook online I prefer the paperback variety. Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Punctuation Brackets, ellipses and forward slashesPunctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION Brackets are used to enclose additional information such as a comment, example or explanation. There are different types of brackets: • Parentheses, or round brackets ( ) are often used to enclose extra information that is less important than the rest of the sentence; e.g. Tia (my sister) showed me how to use the program. A comma or dash is used if the extra information is just as important. • square brackets [ ] are used to enclose extra information that is part of information already in round brackets; e.g. The woman (Jane Doe [1962–99] of Perth) wrote the book in Italy. Square brackets are also used when insertions are made by someone other than the author. • angle brackets < > are primarily used to enclose email and web addresses that are part of the text to lessen confusion with any other punctuation; e.g. Contact <jdoe@mail.com> for details. • curly brackets { } are most often used in more technical contexts; e.g. mathematical equations. • slant or diagonal brackets / / are most often used with web addresses.

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An ellipsis ( … ) is three full stops used to show where letters or words have been left out; e.g. Her birthday party was wonderful … best ever! An ellipsis can also mark a pause or interruption; e.g. I just want to say … Yes? What is it, Ali? The forward slash ( / ) is used:

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• to show options; e.g. yes/no • to show shortened forms; e.g. a/c. • instead of per, an or a; e.g. 40 km/h • in web addresses; e.g. <www.prim-ed.com>.

1. ( )

[ ]

< >

3. Answers will vary.

5.

(b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

(c) (won last year)

(d) (my cousins)

(b) 60 km/h (c) www.grammarsearch.com/punctuation

forward slash ellipsis square bracket angle brackets curly brackets

English – Back To Basics

(b) (Jack Taylor)

//

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4. (a) true/false

{ }

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2. (a) (details enclosed)

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Answers

(d) pay the a/c

The police officer stopped the man who was driving at 125 km/h. We downloaded 20 different music tracks … they were all brilliant! Robert Atkin [1929–2009] was a distinguished, humble man who passed away peacefully. Please email your details to <b.brown@brown.com> and I will contact you soon. We wrote down the first equation which was {4x + 2y} = {2y + 4x}.

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Brackets, ellipses and forward slashes

Brackets are used to enclose additional information such as a comment, example or explanation. Round brackets are often used to enclose extra information that is less important than the rest of the sentence. A comma or dash can be used if the extra information is just as important.

1. Show the different types of brackets. (a) parentheses

(b) square

(c) angle

(d) curly

(e) diagonal

2. Use round brackets to enclose the extra information in each sentence. (a) Win a luxury trip for two to beautiful Bali details enclosed. (b) The sports writer Jack Taylor believes that all umpires should be paid more.

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(d) Ethan and Jade my cousins were involved in surf lifesaving, learning various skills and having fun.

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An ellipsis is three full stops ( … ) used to show where letters or words have been left out; e.g. His strategy was perfect … the best I‘ve seen! An ellipsis can also mark a pause or interruption.

3. Provide your own information to complete each of these. (a) The coach was pleased with his two players …

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(b) She was very independent …

(c) His sense of humour irritated me …

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(d) She felt isolated watching the others …

The forward slash ( / ) can be used to show options, shortened forms, be used in web addresses and instead of per, an or a.

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PUPIL NAME

(c) His achievement award won last year takes pride of place in the living room.

4. Add a forward slash to the following. (a) true false (b) 60 kmh (c) www.grammarsearch.compunctuation (d) pay the ac 5. Write the most appropriate addition—brackets, ellipsis or forward slash—and clearly show where to include it. The first one has been completed. (a) round brackets Please define that word (the first one) before you use it in your writing. (b)

The police officer stopped the man who was driving at 125 kmh.

(c)

We downloaded 20 different music tracks they were all brilliant!

(d)

Robert Atkin 1929–2009 was a distinguished, humble man who passed away peacefully.

(e)

Please email your details to b.brown@brown.com and I will contact you soon.

(f)

We wrote down the first equation which was 4x + 2y = 2y + 4x.

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Editing

Punctuation Punctuation

Answers 1. (a) Australians celebrated when Catherine Freeman won the 400 m gold medal at the Sydney 2000 Olympics. (b) In 2008, American swimmer Michael Phelps won a record eight gold medals in Beijing. (c) Please ask Mrs Craig if she remembers who previously lived at 16 Valley Road, Brookdale. (d) I can’t believe it! How could Emma and Grace go to see High School Musical without inviting me? (e) My Uncle Jake believes that the Prime Minister of Australia and the President of the United States of America are both working to combat world issues. Do you agree with his opinion? 2. (a) Did you know that the Commonwealth Games and the Olympic Games are held every four years, with two years between each event? (b) I hope you know that January, March, May, July, August, October and December all have 31 days.

pl e

(c) It’s impossible to list all of them! I do know that Jake, James, Jackson, Jeff, Josh, Jack and Jai are all boys’ names that begin with the same letter.

Sa m

(d) Dr Martin, on his way to work, stopped to assist the St John paramedics who attended the accident on the corner of High Street and Aztec Road.

(e) Peter Davies, owner of the new store, advertised for salespeople, computer experts, an accountant, cleaners and delivery drivers. The advertisement he wrote had two bold headings: ‘Fantastic opportunity!’ and ‘Are you looking for a great challenge?’ 3. (a) ‘Did you complete the survey?’ I asked my dad. ‘Yes, though it took me nearly an hour to finish!’

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(b) The surgeon told the woman, ‘The surgery was successful, though your son remains unconscious’. ‘Can I see him?’ she asked. ‘Of course. Just give the nurse a few minutes.’ (c) ‘I don’t know who I’m going to vote for. Those dancers are all brilliant!’ ‘I agree’, said Lily. ‘I think I’ll give each of them a vote.’

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(d) ‘I am so exhausted’, Belle complained. ‘I don’t think I’ve ever played such a fast netball game.’ ‘Just watching was enough to tire me out!’ her father said. (e) ‘Before the meeting comes to an end, does anyone have anything else to add?’ asked the director. ‘Yes, I have another suggestion.’ ‘I’d also like to add something after Russell speaks’, said Christian. 4. (a) ‘Emma’s painting of Alice is brilliant!’ I told Hayley. ‘You’ll have to go over and see it for yourself.’ (b) The ladies’ table was full of empty plates, cutlery and glasses that should’ve been cleared before their coffees arrived. (c) After their dismal performance, the team’s meeting was held at the Brisbane Stadium’s conference room. (d) Her parents’ success came from determination, commitment and confidence and they always told her, ‘Believe in yourself because we believe in you’.

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Editing 1. Show capital letters and the correct sentence endings. (a) australians celebrated when catherine freeman won the 400 m gold medal at the sydney 2000 olympics (b) in 2008, american swimmer michael phelps won a record eight gold medals in beijing (c) please ask mrs craig if she remembers who previously lived at 16 valley road, brookdale (d) i can‘t believe it how could emma and grace go to see high school musical without inviting me (e) my uncle jake believes that the prime minister of australia and the president of the united states of america are both working to combat world issues do you agree with his opinion 2. These sentences need capital letters, a correct ending and commas. Clearly show the correct punctuation.

pl e

(b) i hope you know that january march may july august october and december all have 31 days

Sa m

(c) it‘s impossible to list all of them i do know that jake james jackson jeff josh jack and jai are all boys' names that begin with the same letter (d) dr martin on his way to work stopped to assist the st john paramedics who attended the accident on the corner of high street and aztec road

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(e) peter davies owner of the new store advertised for salespeople computer experts an accountant cleaners and delivery drivers the advertisement he wrote had two bold headings: ‘fantastic opportunity’ and ‘are you looking for a great challenge’ 3. Quotation marks need to be added to these sentences. Clearly show where they should be.

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(a) Did you complete the survey? I asked my dad. Yes, though it took me nearly an hour to finish! (b) The surgeon told the woman, The surgery was successful, though your son remains unconscious. Can I see him? she asked. Of course. Just give the nurse a few minutes. (c) I don‘t know who I‘m going to vote for. Those dancers are all brilliant! I agree, said Lily. I think I‘ll give each of them a vote.

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(a) did you know that the commonwealth games and the olympic games are held every four years with two years between each event

(d) I am so exhausted, Belle complained. I don‘t think I‘ve ever played such a fast netball game. Just watching was enough to tire me out! her father said. (e) Before the meeting comes to an end, does anyone have anything else to add? asked the director. Yes, I have another suggestion. I‘d also like to add something after Russell speaks, said Christian. 4. Clearly show the correct punctuation for these sentences. (a) emmas painting of alice is brilliant i told hayley youll have to go over and see it for yourself (b) the ladies table was full of empty plates cutlery and glasses that shouldve been cleared before their coffees arrived (c) after their dismal performance the teams meeting was held at the brisbane stadiums conference room (d) her parents success came from determination commitment and confidence and they always told her believe in yourself because we believe in you

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Nouns

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION Nouns are naming words. They name people, places, things and ideas. Common nouns are words naming general rather than particular things; e.g. apple, river, table, colour. Proper nouns name specific people and things and use a capital letter; e.g. England, Luke. Collective nouns name a group of people, animals or things; e.g. class, herd. Abstract nouns name an idea, concept or quality; e.g. love, danger, youth, pain. Nouns are often identified by the placement of a, an, the or some in front of the word.

Answers 1.–4. Answers will vary.

pl e

children, school, opinions accident, pain, paramedics family, schedule, fridge danger, pack, dogs, building kilometre, Dad, tent, shed

Sa m

5. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

6. Answers will vary.

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7. Answers will vary. Proper nouns—Disneyland, Matilda, London, Mr Boyd Common nouns—calendar, violin, basketball, teacher Collective nouns—orchestra, team, family, class Abstract nouns—courage, loyalty, youth, ignorance

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Nouns 1. Proper nouns name specific people and things and have a capital letter. Write six proper nouns.

2. Common nouns are general names of a kind of person or thing. Write six common nouns.

pl e

Sa m

4. Abstract nouns name an idea, concept or quality. Write six abstract nouns.

5. Circle the nouns in each of these sentences.

(a) The children were surveyed at school because their opinions were important.

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(b) After the accident, he remembered feeling pain before the paramedics arrived. (c) Our family schedule is always on the fridge so we know where everyone is.

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(d) He knew he could be in danger when he saw the pack of dogs near the building. (e) We had only travelled one kilometre when Dad realised the tent was still in the shed. 6. Write a question that could have one of these nouns as the answer.

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3. Collective nouns name a group of people, animals or things. Write six collective nouns.

(a) beauty (b) China (c) data

(d) committee 7. Write four different sentences. Choose a proper, common, collective and abstract noun from the list to include in each sentence. Disneyland orchestra courage team loyalty basketball teacher London

Matilda family youth Mr  Boyd

calendar ignorance

violin class

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Verbs

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION A verb is a word or group of words that names an action or state of being. Verbs are often called ‘doing words’; e.g. read, walks, speak, has broken, ate, will type. Verbs can indicate tense, voice, mood, number and person.

Answers 1. (a) verb—accepted (b) verb—arrived (c) verb—vacuum (d) verb—was reheated

subject—Zoe subject—Cody subject—Charlie subject—plate of food

2. Examples include: (a) frequently raining (b) nervously waiting (c) swimming across

Sa m

pl e

3. (a) The people are standing outside the theatre discussing their views. (b) He is a kind, intelligent person, who is involved in the local community. (c) She does want the pizza after all so I will call and order enough for everyone. (d) I was tired so I lay on the sofa while I watched television. 4. Answers will vary. 5. Answers will vary.

(A)—bit (A)—threw (P)—was bitten (P)—was thrown (A)—drove (A)—was driving

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6. (a) The large dog bit Alice on the leg. (b) The older boy threw the ball. (c) Alice was bitten on the leg by the large dog. (d) The ball was thrown by the older boy. (e) She drove Dale to school in the new car. (f) Dale's mother was driving the new car.

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Verbs A verb is a word that names an action or state of being of the subject. 1. Write the verb and subject in each sentence.

verb

subject

(a) Zoe accepted the award for Best New Talent.

(b) Cody arrived at the empty house on time.

(c) ‘Please vacuum your room, Charlie.’

(d) The plate of food was reheated in the microwave.

2. Write a different verb to match each of these words. (a) frequently

(b) nervously

(c)

across

Sa m

3. Underline all the verbs in each sentence.

pl e

Helping (auxiliary) verbs are added to an action verb to make the meaning clearer. The most common are forms of the verbs: ‘to be’ (e.g. am, is, are, was); ‘to have’ (e.g. has, had) and ‘to do’ (e.g. did, does). Other examples include can, may, will, must, might, could, should and would.

(a) The people are standing outside the theatre discussing their views. (b) He is a kind, intelligent person who is involved in the local community. (c) She does want the pizza after all so I will call and order enough for everyone.

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(d) I was tired so I lay on the sofa while I watched television.

(a) frighten (b) encourage (c) connect (d) develop

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4. Write five different sentences. Include the verb given and at least one other verb in each sentence. (You may add a prefix or suffix to the verbs.)

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Action verbs tell what the subject does; e.g. drop, picked, called, will invite

5. Write three verbs to show what each of these might do. (a) actor

(b) lioness

(c) dentist

(d) tourist

A verb can be active or passive. An active verb describes the action of the subject; e.g. The bull chased me. A passive verb describes what was done to the subject; e.g. I was chased by the bull. 6. Underline the subject and write whether these sentences have active (A) or passive (P) verbs. (a) The large dog bit Alice on the leg.

(b) The older boy threw the ball.

(c) Alice was bitten on the leg by the large dog.

(d) The ball was thrown by the older boy.

(e) She drove Dale to school in the new car.

(f) Dale's mother was driving the new car.

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Verb tenses

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION The tense of a verb is used to show the time at which the action of that verb takes place. Most verbs are regular and follow the same pattern for the past, present and future tense. For example, with the verb to jump; I jump/I am jumping (present tense); I jumped/I was jumping (past tense), I will jump (future tense). Irregular verbs are those that do not follow this pattern, particularly in the past tense. For example, I rise (rose), I teach (taught), I mean (meant), I win (won), I do (did), I begin (began). An auxiliary verb helps to form the tense of a verb. The verbs to be, to have and to do are auxiliary verbs; e.g. I have eaten. The auxiliary verb used in the future tense is will; e.g. I will eat.

Answers

pl e

1. Present: recognise, desert, forget, disarm, invent, process, is discovering Past: began, have done, educated, stole, did, styled, furthered, have examined Future: will require, will frighten, will breathe, will graze (b) issued, will issue (d) confessed, will confess (f) froze, will freeze

Sa m

2. (a) identified, will identify (c) messaged, will message (e) stood, will stand

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3. (a) She will eat all the fudge and will brush her teeth before she goes to bed. (b) I will write a short story about the camp I will go/be going to in the holidays. (c) Mum will employ two people who will help her manage the business. (d) My birthday is coming and I will receive what I will need for my computer.

5.

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4. (a) She behaved badly then said sorry to her parents. (b) They will be lining/will line up outside the hall, then they will vote/be voting. (c) The jury heard the facts when the lawyer spoke. (d) I never eat cabbage because Mum doesn‘t buy it. Sentences will vary. Verbs may include: (a) rode, was/were ridden, proved, was/were proven (b) speaks, is/are speaking, hears, is/are hearing (c) will follow, will depend

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Verb tenses Verbs can be changed to show what is happening in the present, what has happened in the past and what will happen in the future. 1. Sort the verbs into present, past and future. began recognise have  done forget will  frighten educated stole did process will breathe will graze

will  require desert disarm styled furthered invent is discovering have examined

Present Past Future

(b) issue

(c) message

(d) confess

(e) stand

(f) freeze

Sa m

pl e

(a) identify

3. Rewrite each sentence, changing the verbs to the future tense.

(a) She ate all the fudge and brushed her teeth before she went to bed.

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(b) I wrote a short story about the camp I went to in the holidays.

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(c) Mum employed two people who have helped her manage the business. (d) My birthday came and I received what I needed for my computer.

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2. Write the past and future tense of these present tense verbs.

4. These sentences are not written in a consistent tense. Rewrite each correctly. (a) She behaved badly then will say sorry to her parents. (past) (b) They are lining up outside the hall, then they voted. (future) (c) The jury was able to heard the facts when the lawyer speak. (past) (d) I have never ate cabbage because Mum doesn‘t bought it. (present) 5. Write sentences using the: (a) past tense of ride and prove (b) present tense of spoke and heard (c) future tense of following and depended Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Pronouns

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION A pronoun is used in place of a noun to avoid repetition. Personal pronouns refer to people. They can be singular or plural, subjective or objective and may indicate gender. Examples are: I, you, he, she, we, they, me, him, her, his, them, mine, hers, theirs, ours. Impersonal pronouns refer to everything but people. They can be singular or plural, subjective, objective or possessive. Examples are: it, they, them, theirs. Relative pronouns refer to people and objects and connect clauses and sentences. They are used in the three cases: • subjective – who, that, which • possessive – whose, of that, of which, of whose • objective – whom, that, which. Other examples of relative pronouns are whoever, whomever, whichever and whatever.

Sa m

pl e

Demonstrative pronouns replace nouns and function in the same way as nouns in a sentence. They have no gender but are used in the three cases: • subjective – this, that, these, those • possessive – of this, of that, of these, of those • objective – this, that, these, those. Other examples of demonstrative pronouns are: other, such, same, former, latter and ordinal numbers (first, second etc.)

Interrogative pronouns are used in asking questions. They include who, whose, whoever (used for people) and what, which and whatever (used for things).

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Reflexive pronouns are used in sentences that contain verbs whose actions are directed toward the subjects of the verbs. Add the suffixes –self or –selves to the personal pronouns my, your, him, her, our, them and one.

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Indefinite pronouns are words that refer to people or things without saying exactly who or what they are. Examples include all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each one, either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, little, many, more, much, neither, nobody, none, no-one, nothing, other, others, several, some, somebody, someone, something and such. Note: Some indefinite pronouns can also be used as determiners. For example, I would like some (indefinite pronoun). I would like some apples (determiner).

Answers

1. (a) She, them

(b) I, myself, I, you, it

(c) his, hers, we, it

(d) I, him, it, he

2. (a) he, they/we (b) we, her

(c) it, we, it

(d) he/she, it/him

3. (a) everyone

(b) nothing

(c) both

(d) everything

(b) which

(c) that

(d) which

4. Answers will vary. 5. (a) who

6. I know I need permission from my parents to go to your house. I want to go by myself but I am sure they will take me in their car. It is difficult to give you an exact time because they are still talking among themselves. When somebody tells me, I will send you an SMS.

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Pronouns A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. 1. Underline the pronouns in each sentence. (a) She knows the best way to avoid arguments is to ignore them. (b) The book is a biography I wrote myself so I hope you will enjoy it. (c) Our family has a his and hers bathroom and we all find it easier in the mornings. (d) I recognised him from the paper where it said he had won a competition. Personal pronouns refer to people. Impersonal pronouns refer to everything else. They can be singular or plural. 2. Write the correct pronouns to complete each sentence. would suggest a film

(c)

was a beautiful day so

both played with

.

pl e

(b) My sister‘s friend came to our house and

could watch together.

all went to the beach while

spoke to his parents about

.

Sa m

(d) Mark's teacher decided his behaviour should improve so

was still warm enough.

Indefinite pronouns are words that can refer to people or things without saying exactly who or what they are. 3. Underline the indefinite pronouns.

(a) I‘m sure the politician expects everyone to vote for her at the election.

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(b) There is nothing I like better than a mystery novel I can read at night. (c) Both are useful and are not that difficult to understand.

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(d) We require an explanation that will make everything much clearer. 4. Write a sentence that includes the indefinite pronoun given and at least one personal pronoun. (a) somebody

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(a) Adam asked his Dad if

(b) something (c) anyone

(d) anything Relative pronouns refer to people and objects and introduce a clause. 5. Underline the relative pronouns. (a) The student who wanted to study medicine was working hard. (b) I‘d like to know more about the latest release cars which are automatic. (c) We had an adventure that I never thought would be possible. (d) It is an important decision which they have to make about the charity foundation. 6. Highlight all the pronouns. I know I need permission from my parents to go to your house. I want to go by myself but I am sure they will take me in their car. It is difficult to give you an exact time because they are still talking among themselves. When somebody tells me, I will send you an SMS. Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Adjectives

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION An adjective is a word that describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun; e.g. pretty, thin, tall, delicious. It qualifies the word it describes by making it more specific; e.g. the red dress—the adjective red specifies the colour of the noun dress. Adjectives can tell about the colour, size, number, classification or quality of a noun or pronoun. They can come before or after the noun and usually after the pronoun; e.g. the beautiful bird, The bird is beautiful. It is beautiful. There are three forms of adjectives: absolute (e.g. small), comparative (e.g. smaller), superlative (e.g. smallest).

Answers Examples include: (a) assembly—quiet, crowded, large, interesting, boring (b) entertainer—funny, pretty, popular, wonderful, great (c) instrument—noisy, classic, light, musical, large, small (d) scientist—intelligent, dedicated, careful, knowledgeable, famous (e) drought—terrible, annual, devastating, heartbreaking, long (f) camera—digital, expensive, new, small, advanced, latest

2.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

Sa m

more private, most private more punctual, most punctual prettier, prettiest more severe, most severe wealthier, wealthiest lesser, least

pl e

1.

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3. (a) The nervous woman confided in her caring doctor about her troubling symptoms. (b) The young woman was given ornamental jewellery by her generous mother. (c) The most injured passengers were taken to the nearest hospital for urgent treatment. (d) The courageous athlete continued her steady training despite a swollen face. (e) He engaged in a criminal act that caused serious damage to the most expensive house. 4. Answers will vary.

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Adjectives Adjectives are words that describe or give more information about a noun or pronoun. • They can tell something about the quality, characteristic, colour or size. • You can identify an adjective by looking at the noun and asking, ‘What’s it like?’

(b) entertainer

(c) instrument

(d) scientist

(e) drought

(f) camera

pl e

(a) assembly

Adjectives can be used to make comparisons. The three forms are: nice

rare

difficult

intelligent

good

bad

comparative

nicer

rarer

more difficult

more intelligent

better

worse

superlative

nicest

rarest

most difficult

most intelligent

best

worst

Sa m

absolute

2. Write the comparative and superlative forms of each adjective.

in g

(a) private (b) punctual (d) severe (e) wealthy (f) less

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(c) pretty

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1. Write three adjectives to describe each noun.

3. Underline the matching nouns and adjectives in each sentence. (a) The nervous woman confided in her caring doctor about her troubling symptoms. (b) The young woman was given ornamental jewellery by her generous mother. (c) The most injured passengers were taken to the nearest hospital for urgent treatment. (d) The courageous athlete continued her steady training despite a swollen face. (e) He engaged in a criminal act that caused serious damage to the most expensive house. 4. Write a sentence that includes any form of the two adjectives given. (a) suitable, terrific (b) scarce, punctual (c) unique, skilful (d) fashionable, difficult (e) mysterious, remarkable Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Adverbs

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION An adverb can modify or add information about verbs (e.g. work quickly), adjectives (e.g. extremely pretty) and other adverbs (e.g. walking very quickly). They indicate when (soon), where (here), how (silently) and how often (frequently). Many adverbs end in ly; e.g. carefully, finally, nightly, exactly. Adverbs can be categorised as: • time – again, early, now, never, often, then, today, tomorrow • location – above, below, away, down, up, inside, outside, here, there • manner – fast, slowly, well, happily, creatively, politely, carelessly • degree – almost, entirely, little, much, more, rather, too, very • reason – so, why

pl e

• number – first, once, second, twice, third.

Answers (b) vacantly (e) jealously (h) annually

(c) exactly (f) seriously (i) completely

Sa m

1. (a) quickly (d) curiously (g) naturally

3. Answers will vary.

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2. (a) snored loudly (b) acted courageously (c) spoke angrily (d) always hungry (e) worked quietly and independently (f) successfully managed (g) completely exhausted, extremely wet (h) was held annually (i) Sensibly, wore

Examples include: (a) strongly—held, believed (c) thoroughly—worked, read (e) informally—talked, wrote (g) rarely—slept, cried (i) affectionately—hugged, kissed

(b) (d) (f) (h)

vacantly—stared, looked suitably—dressed, covered exactly—spoke, guessed seriously—looked, spoke

5.

Examples include: (a) difficult—extremely, very (c) athletic—amazingly, very (e) scarce—almost, rather (g) delicious—wonderfully, entirely (i) serious—definitely, completely

(b) (d) (f) (h)

intelligent—always, very expensive—terribly, more annual—first, always patient—cautiously, never

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Adverbs An adverb modifies or gives more exact information, usually about a verb and sometimes about an adjective or another adverb. Many adverbs end in -ly and most answer the questions; when? (time), how? (manner) or where? (place). It is not always clear if a word is being used as an adverb until you see what work it does in a sentence; e.g. She works carefully (adverb). She is a careful worker (adjective). 1. Change these adjectives to adverbs. (a) quick

(b) vacant

(c) exact

(d) curious

(e) jealous

(f) serious

(g) natural

(h) annual

(i) complete

pl e

(a) Her husband snored loudly. (b) She acted courageously. (c) He spoke angrily.

Sa m

(d) The children are always hungry.

(e) She worked quietly and independently.

(f) They successfully managed their small business.

(g) He was completely exhausted and extremely wet.

in g

(h) The concert was held annually. (i) Sensibly, they wore hats.

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An adverb can be placed at the beginning, middle or end of a sentence; e.g. Sometimes I listen to music. I sometimes listen to music. I listen to music sometimes. 3. Write two sentences to show each adverb used in different positions.

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2. Underline the adverb and write it and the word or parts of the sentence that are modified; e.g. He walked quickly. Quickly modifies the verb ’walked‘. She was definitely honest. Definitely modifies the adjective ’honest‘.

(a) eventually

(b) gradually 4. Write a verb to match each adverb. (a) strongly

(b)

vacantly

(c)

thoroughly

(d) suitably

(e)

informally

(f)

exactly

(h)

seriously

(i)

(g) rarely

affectionately

5. Write an adverb to go with each adjective. (a)

difficult

(b)

intelligent

(c)

athletic

(d)

expensive

(e)

scarce

(f)

annual

(g)

delicious

(h)

patient

(i)

serious

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Conjunctions

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION A conjunction is a word (or words) that connects words, phrases, clauses and sentences; e.g. and, but, because, so, that. • Conjunctions used to join sentences of equal importance are called coordinating conjunctions; e.g. I like apples and oranges. They include and, but, for, yet, or, as well as, both, so, therefore and nor. • Conjunctions used to join clauses are called subordinating conjunctions; e.g. She was happy because I arrived. They include because, before, if, while, until, like, though, although, unless, as, since, where, whenever, wherever.

Answers

Sa m

pl e

1. (a) The unconscious passenger was checked at the scene and taken to hospital. (b) The police officer has a description but it is not as clear as he would like. (c) The instructions were difficult to follow because they were translated from a foreign language. (d) The possible sequence of events is shown although we are unsure of the final result. (e) It will be impossible to get permission unless I have completed everything I‘m supposed to. (f) The campaign was aired in the media so that everyone would be aware of the dangers. 2. Answers will vary.

4. Answers will vary.

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5. Answers will vary.

(b) after, when (before) (d) if, when (but) (f) so (because)

in g

Answers may include: (a) because, as (so) (c) unless, until, so (and) (e) and, as well as (or)

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3.

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Conjunctions Conjunctions are words that join other words, phrases and sentences. 1. Circle the conjunctions. (a) The unconscious passenger was checked at the scene and taken to hospital. (b) The police officer has a description but it is not as clear as he would like. (c) The instructions were difficult to follow because they were translated from a foreign language. (d) The possible sequence of events is shown although we are unsure of the final result. (e) It will be impossible to get permission unless I have completed everything I‘m supposed to. (f) The campaign was aired in the media so that everyone would be aware of the dangers. Some joining words called coordinating conjunctions are used to connect two parts of a sentence that have an equivalent value; e.g. Either you help me now or help me tomorrow.

pl e

(a) both, and (b) not only, but

Sa m

(c) either, or

3. Write a more appropriate conjunction for the incorrect ones provided. (a) It was a suitable outfit so it was such a formal occasion.

(b) I‘m sure the players can only attend the party before the football match is finished. (c) My nanna said she wouldn‘t know how to use her new phone and I helped her.

in g

(d) Being fit is a great advantage but you want to make the team. (e) I think it‘s important to know about environmental or political issues in our country.

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(f) It really is necessary to have a sense of humour because the negatives don‘t depress you. 4. Add to each sentence after the conjunction. (a) You can watch that film, provided (b) It‘s extremely hot, though

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2. Write a sentence that includes each pair of conjunctions given.

(c) Are you serious about that or (d) I would like you to see this as soon as (e) I hope you can manage so that (f) I do recognise it; however, 5. Write a sentence that includes all the conjunctions given. (a) and, but, because (b) so, and, unless (c) but, before, or (d) after, because, so Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Prepositions

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION Prepositions are words that show the relationship between two words or phrases in a sentence. They show the relationship between time and space and are always attached to a noun or pronoun; for example: Tim walked to school. The cat was under the tree. I sat behind Max. Prepositions are usually short words such as on, above, in, with, by, near, down, off and along. More complex prepositions include instead of, apart from, ahead of, with reference to and in addition to.

Answers The medicine was in a safe place. They conducted a survey on eating habits. His role was to patrol around the area. The fiction book was near the atlas. There was a suitcase underneath the bed. The herbs are planted beside the roses.

2. Answers may include: (a) about (d) near

(b) from/of (e) onto

3. Answers will vary.

pl e

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

(c) among/in (f) down

Sa m

1.

Examples may include: (a) location—aboard, above, by, near, down, up, on, off, underneath (b) time—after, before, until, past, since, during (c) direction—across, around, from, to, toward, via

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5.

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4. (a) I think her poor behaviour was because of a sleepless night. (b) According to the fire service, the blaze was deliberately lit. (c) In spite of her best intentions, she was unable to complete everything. (d) He was very nervous when the man stood right in front of him.

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6. (a) The politician was elected by the people because of her honesty about the relevant issues. (b) The disappearance was unsolved within 24 hours despite the work of the police. (c) He was at the back of the bus and sat beside a man with a scruffy appearance. (d) We travelled via the small town and along the coast road until we reached our destination. 7. Answers will vary.

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Prepositions Prepositions are words that show how one thing is related to another. A preposition shows position, direction and time. 1. Underline the preposition in each sentence. (a) The medicine was in a safe place.

(b) They conducted a survey on eating habits.

(c) His role was to patrol around the area.

(d) The fiction book was near the atlas.

(e) There was a suitcase underneath the bed.

(f) The herbs are planted beside the roses.

2. Write a suitable preposition to complete each sentence. (a) The essay was written

politics.

(c) I couldn‘t find Tia (e) She stepped

(b) He had a description

the crowd.

the witness.

(d) We were seated

the stage to perform.

the stage.

(f) The unconscious man fell

the stairs.

pl e

(a) in place of (b) in addition to

Sa m

(c) instead of (d) aside from

4. Underline the prepositional phrases in each sentence.

(a) I think her poor behaviour was because of a sleepless night.

CLUB

in g

(b) According to the fire service, the blaze was deliberately lit.

(c) In spite of her best intentions, she was unable to complete everything. (d) He was very nervous when the man stood in front of him.

(a) location (b) time

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5. Write four prepositions that represent:

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3. Prepositions can be more than one word. Write a sentence for each prepositional phrase.

(c) direction

6. Circle all the prepositions in each sentence. (a) The politician was elected by the people because of her honesty about the relevant issues. (b) The disappearance was unsolved within 24 hours despite the work of the police. (c) He was at the back of the bus and sat beside a man with a scruffy appearance. (d) We travelled via the small town and along the coast road until we reached our destination. 7. Write a sentence that includes all of the prepositions given. (a) beneath, with, on (b) after, by, through (c) over, since, under Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Elements of a sentence

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION A sentence is a group of words that makes sense on its own. The main parts of a sentence are the verb and the subject of the verb. Other elements of a sentence include the direct object of the verb, an indirect object and modifiers such as adverbs and adjectives, phrases and clauses. To identify: • the verb ask, what action is being taken? • the subject ask, who or what is doing the action? • the direct object ask, who or what receives the action? • an indirect object ask, who or what is receiving the direct object? There must be a direct object to have an indirect object which is always a noun or a pronoun. The indirect object comes before the object and although not stated 'to' or 'for' the indirect object is understood. For example, He (subject) gave (verb) me (indirect object) the ball (object).

1.

Sa m

Answers

pl e

Modifiers affect the meaning of another word in some way by giving more information. They might describe, define or make a meaning more precise. A modifier can be one word or a group of words.

Sentence

Verb

Subject

Direct object

avoided

I

the argument

I avoided the argument.

(b)

She will deliver the invitations.

(will) deliver

she

the invitations

(c)

They recognised each other.

recognised

they

each other

(d)

The doctor prescribed medication.

prescribed

the doctor

medication

(e)

His patient required surgery.

required

his patient

surgery

(f)

Ruby suggested the novel.

suggested

Ruby

the novel

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2.

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(a)

Verb

Subject

Direct object

Indirect object

(a)

Lily cooked breakfast for her Mum.

cooked

Lily

breakfast

Mum

(b)

Jess showed me the new table.

showed

Jess

the table

me

(c)

The business offered us the car.

offered

the business

the car

us

(d)

Lewis showed the doctor his rash.

showed

Lewis

his rash

the doctor

(e)

The snake gave us a fright.

gave

the snake

a fright

us

(f)

He took them a painting.

took

he

a painting

them

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Sentence

3. Examples include: (a) expensive, exclusive (d) with the large spire

(b) annual (e) demanding

(c) completely (f) fashionable, beautiful

4. Answers will vary.

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Elements of a sentence A sentence is a group of words that makes sense on its own. The main parts of a sentence are the verb and the subject of the verb. Other elements of a sentence include the direct object of the verb, an indirect object and modifiers such as adverbs and adjectives, phrases and clauses. 1. Write the verb, subject and direct object in each sentence. Sentence

Verb

Subject

Direct object

(a) I avoided the argument. (b) She will deliver the invitations. (c) They recognised each other. (d) The doctor prescribed medication. (e) His patient required surgery. (f)

Ruby suggested the novel.

pl e

2. Write the elements of each sentence in the correct category. Sentence

Verb

(b) Jess showed me the new table. (c) The business offered us the car. (d) Lewis showed the doctor his rash. He took them a painting.

Direct object

Indirect object

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(e) The snake gave us a fright. (f)

Subject

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(a) Lily cooked breakfast for her Mum.

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Modifiers affect the meaning of another word in some way by giving more information. They might describe, define or make a meaning more precise. A modifier can be one word or a group of words. 3. One modifier is already underlined. Write another suitable modifier to complete each sentence. (a) The wealthy woman lived in an

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An indirect object is a noun or pronoun that refers to who benefits from the action of a verb.

(b) The school concert was an

house. tradition that everyone enjoyed.

(c) No-one could believe that the entire town was (d) The building

destroyed.

is situated in the centre of Sydney.

(e) She was an extremely successful athlete who retired from her (f) The

sport to raise a family.

dress looked fantastic on the confident woman.

4. Write sentences that include the three main elements: verb, subject and modifier. Include the verb given. (a) removed (b) occupied (c) inform Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

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Phrases and clauses

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION A phrase is a group of two or more words that does not contain a verb and its subject. It does not make sense on its own. For example: She walked towards the house. Towards the house is the phrase of this sentence. It gives more information, or modifies the verb walked. She is the subject. A clause is a group of words that does contain a verb and its subject. It can be a simple sentence; e.g. We had very little rain last month. There are two types of clauses: • The main or independent clause, which can stand by itself and make complete sense; e.g. I ate a salad sandwich. • The subordinate or dependent clause, which does not make sense on its own. It depends on the main clause for its meaning; e.g. because I was hungry.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

away from the school grounds as soon as possible with the short hair in the garden across the small creek

2. Answers will vary.

Sa m

1.

pl e

Answers

5. (a) phrase (d) clause

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Vi

4. Answers will vary.

ew

in g

3. (a) After the award ceremony finished, all the actors enjoyed a huge party. (b) Our family purchased a new television when we went to the store. (c) The charity event raised a substantial amount of money to help children. (d) When she arrived home from school, she realised she had left her jacket on the back of her chair. (e) The new technology represents a change at the company which is located in Asia.

(b) phrase (e) clause

(c) clause

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Phrases and clauses A phrase is a group of two or more words that does not contain a verb with a subject. 1. Write the phrase in each sentence. (a) They cycled away from the school grounds. (b) She is leaving as soon as possible. (c) The model with the short hair looks best. (d) My neighbour is working in the garden. (e) They waded across the small creek.

.

(b) An experienced nurse recognised

.

(c) The President suggested

.

(d) Her parents discussed

.

pl e

(a) The actor developed

(e) Pete explained

.

Sa m

A clause is a group of words that does contain a verb and its subject. There are two types of clauses: • The main or independent clause which can stand by itself and make complete sense. • The subordinate or dependent clause which does not make sense on its own. It depends on the main clause for its meaning.

in g

3. Highlight the main clause in each sentence.

(a) After the award ceremony finished, all the actors enjoyed a huge party. (b) Our family purchased a new television when we went to the store.

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(c) The charity event raised a substantial amount of money to help children. (d) When she arrived home from school, she realised she had left her jacket on the back of her chair. (e) The new technology represents a change at the company which is located in Asia.

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2. Add a phrase to the subject and verb given to create a complete sentence.

4. Write a sentence that includes a main clause and the subordinate clause given. (a) won the race (b) because I was early (c) when she was younger (d) where there is no security (e) as they discussed 5. Decide if the underlined words are a phrase (P) or a clause (C). (a) The groom in the new suit was waiting nervously. (b) Our tiny black and white dog was asleep on the floor. (c) My aunt knitted me a scarf to wear to the football match. (d) When school was finished, our family went on a camping trip. (e) My brother eats a lot of cereal because he is always hungry. Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Sentences

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION A simple sentence has one main idea and usually contains only one verb and one subject. It cannot be broken down into other clauses; e.g. Mark (subject) threw (verb) the ball is an example of a simple sentence. A compound sentence has two (or more) independent clauses with a conjunction; e.g. Tim and I saw the film but I didn’t enjoy it. (Clauses can be separated by a comma, semicolon or colon.) A complex sentence has a main (independent) clause and at least one subordinate (dependent) clause; e.g. The doctor worked long hours at a hospital where there were many very sick children.

Answers Answers will vary.

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ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

1.–4.

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Sentences A simple sentence has only one verb with a subject. 1. Add a subject and adverb to each verb given and write a simple sentence. Note the different sentence type required. (a) (statement) disappeared (b) (question) recognise (c) (statement) think (d) (statement) compete (e) (question) instructed A compound sentence is made up of two or more simple sentences joined by a conjunction.

pl e

(a) She proudly represented the school (b) Dale and Sam rode 10 km

Sa m

(c) Oscar planned his adventure holiday (d) The students completed a punctuation review (e) Mrs Harris requested an information package

in g

A complex sentence is made up of a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Each clause contains a verb. The main clause can go at the beginning, middle or end of the sentence. 3. Create a complex sentence by adding a subordinate clause to the main clause given.

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(a) Lucy caught the bus (b) He gave his opinion

(c) Blake wore his football boots

(d) The celebrity performed on stage

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2. Add to the simple sentence to create a compound sentence.

(e) They waited at the hospital

4. Use at least one word from each list to create three complex sentences with at least one subordinate phrase.

• Nouns—scientist, actor, Australia, Africa, class, Dr Adams, Los Angeles, Sienna, Josh, home

• Verbs—accept, identify, recognise, require, argue, decide, discuss, perform, explain, laugh

• Adverbs—annually, occasionally, seriously, happily, honestly, beautifully, horribly, successfully

• Adjectives—fantastic, youngest, national, wealthiest, average, traditional, environmental, nervous

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Paragraphs

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION A paragraph is a group of sentences about one main idea. The sentences should follow in a logical order. It is usual to start a new paragraph when introducing a person, new place, change of time or idea.

Answers 1. (a) The main idea is a family’s involvement with football. The sentence incorrectly placed is ‘She dreams of refereeing a final’. It should be placed before the sentence that starts with ‘Our whole family …’. The sentence that does not belong is ‘We did travel overseas during our last holiday’.

pl e

(b) The main idea is bullying. The sentence incorrectly placed is ‘The damage inflicted by these newer tactics is often tragic’. It should be placed before the sentence that starts with ‘Most schools …’. The sentence that does not belong is ‘Police officers often deal with traffic offences’.

Sa m

(c) The main idea is creating a healthy lifestyle. The sentence incorrectly placed is ‘It’s the time when your mind and body can repair and rejuvenate’. It should be the last sentence of the paragraph. The sentence that does not belong is ‘I already have a list of songs I’d like to listen to’.

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2. Answers will vary.

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Paragraphs A paragraph is a group of sentences in logical order about one main idea. 1. Identify the main idea of each paragraph. Write the sentence that is incorrectly placed and the one that does not belong.

The main idea is

The sentence that is incorrectly placed

The sentence that does not belong

pl e

Sa m

(b) It seems that no matter who you are or where you are, bullying behaviour is a major issue. The damage inflicted by these newer tactics is often tragic. So many young people are affected, some in extreme ways. Face-to-face bullying can involve physical altercations with a range of injuries reported. Police officers often deal with traffic offences. With the prevalence of mobile technology, victims are often persecuted through cyberspace. Most schools and parents do their best to deal with the problem, but is enough being done? The main idea is

The sentence that is incorrectly placed

The sentence that does not belong

in g

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(c) Creating a healthy, balanced life doesn‘t need to be complicated. It’s the time when your mind and body can repair and rejuvenate. Eat well, exercise often and get the right amount of sleep. Most of us know which foods are healthy and which are not. Physical activity is basically free—walk, run, jump, skip, cycle, swim … an endless list really! I already have a list of songs I'd like to listen to. A regular sleep routine is vital.

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PUPIL NAME

(a) Once the football season begins, our weekends become very busy. My youngest brother plays quite early on a Saturday morning. She dreams of refereeing in a final. Sometimes the games are held on pitches that are a long way from home. We did travel overseas during our last holiday. My eldest sister has a passion for the game and is now an referee. Our whole family supports the same team. That means we are either at the match or flopped in front of the TV. No matter when the match is on my parents always organise a barbecue, or a roast if it‘s a wintry day.

The main idea is

The sentence that is incorrectly placed

The sentence that does not belong

2. Include the sentence given in a paragraph. Think carefully about the main idea you want to convey. (a) I had an extremely interesting conversation with my parents. (b) The concept was brilliant! Prim-Ed Publishing®

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Review

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION Answers 1.

Answers will vary. Examples include: (a) proper nouns—London, Melbourne, Jennifer, Eiffel Tower, Mr Clark, Lake Ontario (b) abstract nouns—love, danger, pain, jealousy (c) collective nouns—class, hive, team, herd, pack, convoy (d) common nouns—girl, pencil, computer, country, house (e) pronouns—he, she, I, it, hers, theirs, we, they (f) conjunctions—but, and, because, so, unless, although (g) prepositions—on, behind, underneath, below, near, over, across (h) adverbs—lazily, quickly, thickly, nicely, calmly (i) adjectives—short, largest, beautiful, nasty, boring, excellent

2.

(a) (c) (e) (g)

(b) (d) (f) (h)

Examples include: (a) computer—small, large, square, heavy, black (b) Australia—vast, wonderful, varied, diverse, unique (c) mobile phone—tiny, useful, convenient, pink, expensive (d) koala—cute, furry, lazy, hungry, cuddly (e) water—plain, clear, tasteless, vital, essential

(c) frequently (g) gradually

(d) seriously (h) emotionally

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6. Answers will vary.

(b) automatically (f) extremely

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5. Adverbs: (a) nervously (e) definitely Suitable verbs will vary.

in g

4.

(b) its, someone‘s, it (d) you, me, it, I, it, myself

Sa m

3. (a) something, I, it (c) them (e) I, anyone, you

decided, will decide estimated, will estimate identified, will identify disappeared, will disappear

pl e

thought, will think argued, will argue achieved, will achieve recognised, will recognise

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Review 1. Give two examples for each. (a) proper noun

(b) abstract noun

(c) collective noun (d) common noun

(e) pronoun

(h) adverb

(i) adjective

(f) conjunction

(g) preposition

2. Write the past and future tense of each verb. (a) think

(b) decide

(d) estimate

(f) identify

(g) recognise

3. Circle the pronouns in each sentence.

Sa m

(h) disappear

pl e

(e) achieve

(a) There was something not quite right, but I couldn‘t work out what it was. (b) The best way to find its definition is to use someone‘s dictionary and look it up. (c) The doctor who had just operated told them their son would be fine now his surgery was over. (d) If you can tell me how to do it, I will go right ahead and finish it by myself.

in g

(e) I don’t know of anyone who will agree to go with you to that place. 4. Write three adjectives to describe each noun.

(b) Australia

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(a) computer

(c) mobile phone

(d) koala

(e) water

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PUPIL NAME

(c) argue

5. Change each word to an adverb and add a suitable verb. (a) nervous

(b) automatic

(c) frequent

(d) serious

(e) definite

(f) extreme

(g) gradual

(h) emotional

6. Use both conjunctions in a sentence. (a) and, because

(b) either, or

(c) although, before

(d) as soon as, unless

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Editing

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION Answers 1.

Incorrect nouns as shown. Alternative nouns are example answers. (a) disaster (holiday) Neptune (Paris) (b) countries (cities, towns) metres (kilometres) (c) spiders (bees) grass (flowers) (d) crossword (document, form) personality (identity) (e) victim (criminal, offender) vacation (imprisonment)

Answers may include: (a) Oliver wanted to go to the beach so he asked permission. (b) Mr Dean called his wife and asked her to meet him at the restaurant. (c) Captain Jones stepped into the cockpit and spoke to the copilot before they took off. (d) Natalie put her clothes in the drawer before breakfast and told anybody who would listen. (e) They were playing football outside when the ball landed on the roof and they couldn‘t get it.

pl e

2.

Sa m

3. Incorrect conjunctions as shown. Alternative conjunctions are suggested answers. (a) but (and) (b) unless (because) (c) because (unless) (d) because (so)

in g

4. (a) I‘m almost certain that these cakes and biscuits are too stale to eat. (b) My parents have decided that everyone is going to the cinema together. (c) Several of us from class are going on a camping trip to the rainforest. (d) The lawn mower and trimmer were stored in the backyard shed.

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5. (a) The national museum has artwork and exhibits on display that people can enjoy whenever they visit. (b) When we were living in a different neighbourhood, I was easily able to walk to school in less than ten minutes. (c) Mitch and Zoe have joined our group to train in first-aid and give themselves a better understanding.

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Editing 1. Underline the two incorrect nouns in each sentence and write more suitable words above them. (a) We had a wonderful disaster when we travelled overseas to Neptune. (b) The distance between the countries was 400 metres so it took us over four hours by car. (c) The swarm of spiders buzzed around the garden looking for sweet-smelling grass. (d) Complete the crossword carefully when applying for a passport; it’s proof of your personality. (e) The victim was sentenced to fifteen years’ vacation for the horrible crime. 2. Replace the incorrect pronouns and prepositions in these sentences. (a) Oliver wanted to go over the beach so she asked permission.

pl e

(c) Captain Jones stepped beneath the cockpit and spoke to the copilot after they took off.

Sa m

(d) Natalie put her clothes on the drawer during breakfast and told nobody who would listen. (e) They were playing football inside when the ball landed beside the roof and he couldn‘t get them. 3. Underline the incorrect conjunctions and write a more suitable word for each. (a) The fire officer surveyed the damage but identified where the blaze had started.

in g

(b) I can’t give any quick suggestions unless I need to think carefully about it. (c) We are all going because someone is unwell during the week.

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(d) It‘s best to wait and ask because we don‘t make a mistake. 4. These sentences have incorrect subject and verb agreements. Write the verb correctly. (a) I‘m almost certain that these cakes and biscuits is too stale to eat.

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(b) Mr Dean called his wife and asked him to meet him under the restaurant.

(b) My parents have decided that everyone are going to the cinema together. (c) Several of us from class is going on a camping trip to the rainforest. (d) The lawnmower and trimmer was stored in the backyard shed. 5. Identify the errors and write each sentence correctly. (a) The national museum have artwork and exhibit on displays that persons can enjoy wherever they visit. (b) When we was living on a different neighbourhood, I were easy able to walk past school in less than ten minute. (c) Mitch and Zoe has joined ours group to training in first-aid and give yourselves a best understanding. Prim-Ed Publishing®

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6317UK English Back to Basics Yr6 Ext/S1