Page 1

6315UK

in g

ew

Vi pl e

Sa m


English – Back To Basics (Book Yr 5/P 6))

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by R.I.C. Publications® 2010 Republished under licence by Prim-Ed Publishing® 2010 Copyright© Jenni Harrold 2010 ISBN 978-1-84654-247-3 PR– 6315UK

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

Titles available in this series:

English – Back To Basics (Yr 1/P 2) English – Back To Basics (Yr 2/P 3) English – Back To Basics (Yr 3/P 4) English – Back To Basics (Yr 4/P 5) English – Back To Basics (Yr 5/P 6) English – Back To Basics (Yr 6/P 7) English – Back To Basics (Yr 6 Ext/S 1)

pl e

For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase.

Sa m

Name of Purchaser:

Date of Purchase:

School Order# (if applicable):

Signature of Purchaser:

Vi

ew

in g

Supplier:

Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

View all pages online

Website: www.prim-ed.com


Foreword English – Back To Basics is a comprehensive resource designed to teach and revise basic literacy concepts. Essential skills are covered in spelling and word study, punctuation and grammar; with phonics included in Books Yr 1/P 2, Yr 2/P 3 and Yr 3/P 4. Each of the pages focuses on one concept, which is developed through relevant, graded activities. Although intended as a homework series, these books are also ideal for: •  teaching a new concept •  consolidation Titles in the series are:

•  assessment

•  revision.

English – Back To Basics – Yr 1/P 2 English – Back To Basics – Yr 2/P 3 English – Back To Basics – Yr 3/P 4 English – Back To Basics – Yr 4/P 5 English – Back To Basics – Yr 5/P 6 English – Back To Basics – Yr 6/P 7 English – Back To Basics – Yr 6 Ext/S 1

pl e

Contents Identifying correct spelling....................................... 30–31 Double and silent consonants.................................. 32–33 Dictionary use............................................................. 34–35 Word origins................................................................ 36–37

Teachers notes

Sa m

Overview..............................................................................iv Curriculum links...................................................................v Spelling and vocabulary lists............................................vi Spelling rules.......................................................................vi Spelling list – word building.............................................vii Glossary..................................................................... viii – xii Additional word lists..........................................................xii Vowel sounds....................................................................xiii Consonant sounds............................................................xiv Prefixes................................................................................xv Suffixes...............................................................................xvi Word origins.....................................................................xvii Words commonly misspelt................................... xviii – xx Words easily confused or misused..................... xxi – xxii

ew

in g

Capital letters.............................................................. 38–39 Full stops...................................................................... 40–41 Question marks........................................................... 42–43 Exclamation marks..................................................... 44–45 Commas........................................................................ 46–47 Quotation marks.......................................................... 48–49 Apostrophes................................................................ 50–51 Editing........................................................................... 52–53

Vi

Grammar Nouns............................................................................ 54–55 Verbs............................................................................. 56–57 Verb tenses.................................................................. 58–59 Pronouns...................................................................... 60–61 Adjectives.................................................................... 62–63 Adverbs........................................................................ 64–65 Conjunctions................................................................ 66–67 Prepositions................................................................. 68–69 Sentences.................................................................... 70–71 Sentences – compound and complex..................... 72–73 Paragraphs.................................................................. 74–75 Word usage.................................................................. 76–77 Review.......................................................................... 78–79 Editing........................................................................... 80–81

Spelling and word study Spelling 1.......................................................................... 2–3 Spelling 2.......................................................................... 4–5 Plurals............................................................................... 6–7 Base words...................................................................... 8–9 Prefixes......................................................................... 10–11 Suffixes......................................................................... 12–13 Alphabetical order...................................................... 14–15 Syllables....................................................................... 16–17 Synonyms..................................................................... 18–19 Antonyms..................................................................... 20–21 Homophones and homographs................................ 22–23 Compound words........................................................ 24–25 Contractions................................................................ 26–27 Abbreviated words..................................................... 28–29

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

Punctuation

iii

English – Back To Basics


Overview

Teacher notes

Format This series of books contains pupil and teacher pages focusing on skills in the following areas: • spelling and word study • punctuation • grammar • phonics (Books Yr 1/P 2, Yr 2/P 3 and Yr 3/P 4).

Features

in g

This series of books is ideal for: • teaching a new concept • consolidating and revising knowledge and skills • homework activities to revise skills taught in class • assessment.

Sa m

Purpose

pl e

This series of books: • provides activities on each page that relate to one literacy concept • follows an organised format in which concepts are repeated and expanded across year levels • uses a focal list of vocabulary • has a pupil page supported by a corresponding teachers page • has a teachers page that includes answers and detailed information explaining each concept • provides additional reference information for teachers.

ew

Spelling and vocabulary

Vi

There are two different lists of words used in each book: • an age-appropriate spelling list of 40 words, and • a high-frequency vocabulary list. Both lists are used frequently throughout each book in the areas of spelling and word study, punctuation and grammar.

Additional reference material

This book includes: • a word-building table which shows the base word, plural form, prefixes, suffixes, syllables, synonyms and antonyms • an extensive glossary of terms used in spelling and word study, punctuation and grammar • vowel sounds and the different ways they are represented • consonant sounds and the different ways they are represented • spelling rules • prefixes, their meanings and examples • suffixes, their meanings and examples • word origins – Latin and Greek root words with their meanings and examples • words commonly misspelt • words easily confused or misused • prepositions and prepositional phrases • words that can be used as adjectives or adverbs.

English – Back To Basics

iv

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Curriculum links

Teacher notes

Country/Subject/Level Curriculum Objectives England

Word Structure and Spelling • know and use less common prefixes and suffixes

Literacy

• group and classify words according to their spelling patterns and their meanings

Year Five

Text Structure and Organisation • experiment with paragraphs Sentence Structure and Punctuation • punctuate sentences accurately, including using speech marks and apostrophes Writing

Northern Ireland Language and Literacy

• use a variety of skills to spell words correctly • develop increasing competence in the use of grammar and punctuation to create clarity of meaning

Key Stage Two Republic of Ireland

Receptiveness to Language • identify words by reference to word parts, prefixes and suffixes

English

Competence and Confidence in Using Language

Fourth Class

• discuss the meanings and origins of words • become familiar with the functions of words: e.g. noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition

pl e

• learn to use a wider range of punctuation marks with greater accuracy • learn to write with increasing grammatical accuracy • improve command of spelling Second - Reading

Literacy and English Second

• develop knowledge of punctuation and grammar to read texts Second - Writing

Sa m

Scotland

• spell most words I need to communicate, using spelling rules

• use appropriate punctuation, vary sentence structures and divied work into paragraphs

English Key Stage Two

Reading - Skills

• develop phonic, graphic and grammatical knowledge and word recognition

in g

Wales

• develop understanding of the structure, vocabulary, grammar and punctuation of English, and of how these clarify meaning Writing - Skills

ew

• use a range of sentence structures, linking them coherently and developing the ability to use paragraphs effectively • use punctuation to clarify meaning • choose and use appropriate vocabulary

Vi

• use the standard forms of English: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, connectives and verb tenses

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

v

English – Back To Basics


Word lists

Teacher notes

Spelling list address amount around Australia balance beginning believe

calm careful cheap common cruel dangerous decide

heavy important manage message nature notice promise

discover either except excuse famous figure handle

public reason reply sign straight thief though

through usually useful visitor weight

ready really strange suddenly thought thousand watch whole

window woken young

finally garden heard hexagon important leave might million

minutes money nearly octagon often pentagon prism pyramid

Sa m

children clothes decided different during earth everybody eyes

in g

arrived balloon being billion breakfast brought caught change

pl e

Vocabulary list

Spelling rules Drop the final e to most words when adding a suffix beginning with a vowel.

ew

Write i before e, except after c.

For example: friend, believe, receive, receipt Some exceptions: foreign, either, science, weird, height, species

Vi

Double the consonant when adding a suffix starting with a vowel (e.g. -ing) to:

Write ie after c for words with a shuhn sound.

For example: sufficient, ancient, conscience, efficient

• a word of one syllable ending in a single consonant, preceded by a vowel; for example: drip—dripping sit—sitting • a word of more than one syllable ending in a single consonant, preceded by a vowel if the stress is on the final syllable; for example: begin—beginning commit—committed. When the stress is not on the final syllable, the single consonant remains; for example: develop—developing—developed. Exceptions include many words ending in l, where the l is always doubled; for example: appal—appalling travel—travelling.

Write ei when the vowel sounds like an a.

For example: weigh, rein, reign, neighbour

For words ending in y: • retain the y when adding –ing; for example: crying, studying • retain the y if it is preceded by a vowel, when adding s or a suffix; for example: employs, employer • change the y to i if it is preceded by a consonant, when adding a suffix; for example: cries, studies ome exceptions: dryness, shyness. S

English – Back To Basics

For example: use—usable make—making

vi

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Spelling list — Word building Base

Plural

address

addresses

amount

amounts

balance

balances

beginning

begin

believe

belief

a–round

about

ed ing

bal–ance

equalise

unbalanced

be–gin–ning

start

finish

dis un-(able) ed ing er able

be–lieve

trust

disbelieve

un

ed ing er est ly

calm

serene

wild

ly

care–ful

cautious

careless

er est ly

cheap

affordable

expensive

er ly

com–mon

usual

rare

er est ly ty

cruel

nasty

nice

ly ness

dang–er–ous

unsafe

safe

de–cide

choose

hesitate

dis–cov–er

find

ei–ther

whichever

ed

ex–cept

but

ed ing able

ex–cuse

reason

ly

fa–mous

well-known

ed ing

fig–ure

shape

ed ing

han–dle

hold

er est ly

heav–y

weighty

light

ly ance

im–port–ant

vital

trivial

mis un-(able) ed ing er able ment man–age

cope

fail

re

ed ing

mess–age

note

un-(al)

ally al ist

na–ture

environment

un-(ed)

ed ing able ably

no–tice

see

ed ing

prom–ise

assure

ly an

pub–lic

community

danger

cover

un-(ed)

ed ing edly

un re

ed ing er

either except excuse

excuses

un-(ed)

fame

in figures

handle

hand

heavy

heave

handles

dis

in g

figure

mis un

un

ew

important manage

messages

Vi

message nature notice

total

un re im

un

decide

famous

a–mount

Aus–tra–li–a

cruel

discover

ed ing

n

cheap

dangerous

residence

note

promise

notices

Antonym

un-(n)

care

common

Synonym

ad–dress

beginnings

calm

Syllables

ed ing ee

round

Australia

careful

re un-(ed)

Suffixes

Sa m

around

Prefixes

promises

public

pl e

Word

Teacher notes

including

unknown

private

reason

reasons

un-(able)

ed ing able (ly)

rea–son

cause

reply

replies

un-(ed)

ed ing

re–ply

answer

sign

signs

de re un-(ed) ed ing al

sign

notice

straight

even

thief

robber

though

however

through

into

use–ful

handy

useless

u–su–al–ly

normally

exceptionally

vis–i–tor

guest

weight

heaviness

straight

er est

thief

thiefs

though

al

through useful

use

un

usually

usual

un

visitor

visit

visitors

weight

weigh

weights

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

ly ness

ed ing less vii

question

crooked

lightness English – Back To Basics


Glossary

Teacher notes

Spelling and word study

Abbreviation

Digraph

Plural

An abbreviation is a word written in shortened form. A full stop may be used to show part of the word is missing. However, if the last letter of the word is used, there is no full stop. For example: Mon. for Monday Dr for Doctor

Two letters representing one phoneme. For example: th, sh, wh, er, ck, ou

Indicates more than one person or thing. For example: two books three wishes four children

Acronym A word made up from the initial letters of a phrase. For example: SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) radar (radio detecting and ranging) (Note: If it is not pronounced as a word, it is an intialism; e.g. LPG.)

Eponyms Eponyms are words that come from a person’s name or name of a place. For example: Jules Leotard Anders Celsius Earl of Cardigan

Etymology

Prefix Used at the beginning of a base word to change meaning. For example: inedible, unconscious, illegal, disobey

The study of the origin and history of words. For example: annual from the Latin word annu, meaning ‘year’

Singular

Antonyms

Grapheme

Words that are opposite in meaning. For example: hot/cold dark/light wet/dry

The written representation of a sound. For example: ew, ing, th

Used at the end of a base word. For example: working, lonely, walked, editor

Compound word

Any letter of the alphabet that is not a vowel. For example: b, c, d, f, g, h, j

Contraction A shortened form of a word. An apostrophe is used to replace the deleted letters. For example: I’m, we’re, they’ll, she’d, can’t

Derivative A word made from adding prefixes and suffixes to a base word. For example: sleeping, unusual, happily English – Back To Basics

pl e Suffix

Sa m

Homophones Words that sound the same but are spelled differently. For example: peace/piece threw/through bored/board

Vi

Two or more words joined together. For example: pancake, teaspoon, underground

Consonant

Words that are spelt the same but have different origins and meanings and are sometimes pronounced differently. For example: cricket, wind

ew

The root word or main part of the word. Prefixes and suffixes can be added to the base word. For example: reading, misguided, carefully

Homographs

in g

Base word

Only one person or thing. For example: one book, a table, an apple

Morpheme The smallest unit of meaning. For example: house/keep/ing

Phoneme The smallest unit of sound in a word that can be represented by one, two, three or four letters. There are 44 phonemes in English. For example: to, shoe, through

Syllable A unit of sound which contains a vowel sound. All words are made up of one or more syllables. For example: talk, nerv-ous, in-de-pen-dent

Synonyms Words that are similar in meaning. For example: big/large small/tiny wet/damp

Thesaurus A reference book which groups words by meaning. For example: promise—pledge, guarantee, engagement, commit, assure, secure

Trigraph Three letters representing one phoneme. For example: high, fudge, pear

Phonetics

Vowel

System of spelling words that represents sounds by symbols.

The five letters of the alphabet that are not consonants. These are: a, e, i, o and u.

viii

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Glossary

Teacher notes

Punctuation

/ :, (: ; -

Apostrophe

Exclamation mark

Quotation marks

Used to show ownership and in contractions to show where letters have been dropped. For example: Jackie’s dog wasn’t barking.

Used to show strong emotion. For example: That’s fantastic news!

Used to indicate direct speech, quotations and specific titles. For example: ‘Did you know the Spanish word “siesta” means a short nap?’ Ben asked.

Colon Used to introduce additional information. For example: Use the following: eggs, bacon, milk, salt and pepper.

Comma

Hyphen

Used to join words and word parts, clarify meaning and divide words at the end of a line. For example: re-signed a contract brother-in-law three-quarters

?

Parentheses

Used to enclose additional information such as a comment, explanation or example. For example: Tia (my sister) showed me how to use the program.

ew

Dash

Used at the end of a sentence or in some abbreviations. For example: His birthday was on 21 Feb.

Used to separate short, balanced and linked phrases or clauses. It is stronger than a comma, not as strong as a full stop. It can also be used to separate items in a list of phrases or clauses. For example: I bought new shoes; they were on sale. I need 12 pens, pencils and rulers; 24 books, six erasers and two bags.

in g

Used as a short pause to separate parts of a sentence and items in a list. For example: The boy, a great athlete, was competing in most events. I took pens, pencils, paper and paints to the class.

Full stop

Semicolon

pl e

Used to start a sentence, as the first letter of proper nouns, for the pronoun I, in titles, and to start direct speech.

Used to show options, shortened forms, in web addresses and instead of per, an or a. For example: true/false 60km/h

Sa m

Capital letters

Forward slash

Vi

Used to provide additional information or show that something is unfinished. For example: I opened the gift—it was just what I wanted.

Ellipsis Used to mark letters or words that have been left out and a pause or interruption For example: Her birthday party was wonderful … the best ever!

Question mark Used at the end of a sentence to show a question to be answered. For example: Did you finish everything you wanted to?

,

<

-/ <. . . . ( “ !):? ? -;

? <

; ,

..?.(

.../

, / “ ; ( ) . : . , . .; ?.. ;/./< ? ;?/ . “.. Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

ix

English – Back To Basics


Glossary

Teacher notes

Grammar

Abstract noun

Auxiliary verb

Conjunction

A word which describes things that cannot actually be heard, seen, smelt or tasted. For example: anger, beauty, danger, jealousy, loyalty, pain

A ‘helping’ verb that is used in forming tense, mood and voices with other verbs. The verbs to be, to have and to do are often used as auxiliary verbs. For example: I was thinking of you. He does leave his room in a mess. We have seen it.

A joining word for words, phrases, clauses and sentences. For example: I ate an apple and a pear. I was tired but I had to work because the assignment was due.

The voice of the verb which shows that the subject of the sentence is performing the action. For example: Her friend drove the car. The dog frightened the child.

Adjective

Clause A group of words with a subject and its verb. For example: She walked to the station.

A describing word used to add meaning to a noun or pronoun. For example: He wore a blue shirt. The meal was delicious.

Collective noun

Adverb

Command verb (imperative)

Adds meaning to a verb, adjective or other adverb. It can tell how, where or when. For example: He worked carefully. Yesterday, they walked to school. She finally finished.

A verb used as an order or command. For example: Stop talking so loudly.

in g Common noun

A word naming general rather than particular things. For example: apple, river, table, colour

Complex sentence

Vi

Shows that linked words or phrases agree in terms of case, number, gender and person. For example: He is welcome. They are welcome. She tried to write the story herself.

Article A subclass of determiners where a and an are indefinite and the is definitive. For example: a computer, an apple, the dog

English – Back To Basics

A connecting word that tells order and what is coming next. For example: I’ll finish the dishes first and then watch a film.

Determiner A word that is used in front of a noun or pronoun to tell something about it. For example: a tiger, the tiger, some tigers, both tigers, that tiger, three tigers

Sa m

A group of persons or things. For example: a class of pupils, a flock of sheep, a herd of elephants

ew

Agreement

Connective

pl e

Active voice

Has a main (independent) clause and at least one subordinate (dependent) clause. For example: I like swimming before I walk along the beach.

Compound sentence Has two or more independent clauses with a linking word. For example: The nurse worked hard and helped the sick child.

x

Direct speech Exactly what is spoken, enclosed in quotation marks. For example: ‘Are you feeling thirsty?’ she asked.

Double negative When two negatives are used together, with the effect of cancelling each other so the negative meaning is lost. For example: She wasn’t doing nothing. He didn’t get no lunch.

Finite verb A verb that has a subject. A finite verb must be a part of every sentence and agree with its subject. For example: The ball rolls. The balls roll.

Idiom A phrase that is not meant literally. For example: over the moon frog in my throat

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Glossary

Teacher notes

Grammar

Indefinite pronoun

Passive voice

Preposition

A pronoun that refers to people or things generally and not specifically. For example: anybody, anything, everybody, everyone, somebody, something

The voice of the verb which shows that the subject is having an action done to it. For example: Max was tickled by his sister. She was surprised by the visitors.

Used in front of a noun or pronoun to describe the relationship. For example: under the water, to him, at the concert, before lunch, around them

Main (independent) clause A group of words that can stand alone and make sense without being dependent on any other part of a sentence. For example: I decided to go shopping after I had my lunch.

Modifier

Text may be written as the first, second or third person and is indicated by the use of pronouns and verbs. For example: I wrote the book. It must be yours. Did he write the book?

Personal pronoun

Used in place of a person. First person personal pronouns are: I, me, mine, we, us, ours. Second person personal pronouns are: you, yours. Third person personal pronouns are: he, his, him, she, hers, her, it, its, they, them, theirs.

in g

A word or group of words that affect the meaning of another word in some way by giving more information. They might describe, define or make a meaning more precise. For example: The TV is in the largest room. Bright-eyed and inquisitive, the squirrel searched for food.

Person

A word that names a person, place, thing, feeling or idea. For example: doctor, Paris, suitcase, fear, courage

Object Shows what or whom the verb affects. For example: They purchased a house. She wore blue jeans.

Paragraph A group of sentences that are about one main idea. The sentences should follow in a logical order.

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

Used in place of a noun to reduce repetition. For example: Peter is conscientious. He works quietly.

Proper noun Used to specifically name a person or thing. For example: Jemma, Antarctica, Sahara Desert

Relative pronoun Used to connect or relate one part of a sentence to another. For example: Here is the house that I want to buy. I met the man whose story I had read.

Sentence

A group of words in a sentence which does not contain a finite verb. For example: She walked towards the house. The car crashed into the tree.

A group of words that makes sense on its own. It may have one or more clauses. It must have a finite verb, a capital letter at the start and end in a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark. For example: I’ll eat breakfast after I’ve had a shower.

Possessive pronoun

Simple sentence

Phrase

ew

Vi

Noun

Pronoun

pl e

Reports, and often alters, direct speech without the use of quotes. For example: I asked her to be quiet. She told me she would leave early.

Sa m

Indirect speech

A pronoun used to show ownership. For example: That book is his. I think it’s hers. I have mine here. It must be yours.

A sentence with only one verb (part of the predicate) and one subject. For example: I played a game. They ate dinner together.

Slang

Predicate What is written or said about the subject of a sentence. For example: The teacher was tired and hungry. The kitchen was clean and tidy.

xi

Words or phrases in common use that are not considered to be part of standard English. For example: aggro, dude.

Statement A sentence which states a fact. For example: We will not be leaving today. English – Back To Basics


Glossary

Teacher notes

Grammar

Subject

Tense

The person or thing who is doing the action in a sentence. For example: Mrs Green taught music. The football team won the game with the last kick.

Verb tenses tell whether the action is happening in the past, present or future. For example: I walked, I walk, I am walking, I will walk.

Subordinate (dependent) clause

An action or state of being word. For example: She read the book. He has written a story. They will eat dinner. We thought about it.

Verb

pl e

A group of words that cannot stand alone and make sense. It is dependent on the main clause for its meaning. For example: I ate everything on the plate because I was hungry.

Sa m

Additional word lists Words used as prepositions in inside into like near of off on onto out

in g

beyond but by concerning despite down during except for from

ew

among around at before behind below beneath beside besides between

Vi

aboard about above across after against along alongside amid amidst

over past per round since through throughout till to towards

under until up upon via with within without

in regard to in spite of instead of in view of

on account of on board out of owing to

Prepositional phrases according to ahead of apart from as far as

aside from as to back of because of

behind in due to in addition to in the back of

in front of in lieu of in light of in place of

Words used as adjectives or adverbs bad better bright cheap close deep English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics

doubtless early enough even fair far

fast first hard high late little

loose loud low much near quick xii

right rough second sharp slow smooth

straight third tight well worse wrong Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com


Vowel sounds

Teacher notes

There are 19 vowel sounds listed below. Most of these vowel sounds can be written in a number of different ways. The letters used to represent sounds in words are called ‘graphemes’. Knowledge about common graphemes and an understanding of how to use them when selecting the particular one needed to spell a word correctly, are essential spelling skills. Some of the most commonly used graphemes for each vowel sound are found in the table below.

Sound

Graphemes a (cat)

‘a’ as in rain

ai (pain) ay (tray) a-e (plate) a (baby) ea (break) ei (rein) ey (grey)

‘ar’ as in bar

ar (car) a (class) al (calf) au (laugh)

‘air’ as in pair

air (chair) are (care) ear (bear) ere (there) eir (their)

‘aw’ as in paw

aw (yawn) or (fork) au (sauce) a (ball) ore (store) oar (roar) oor (poor) ough (fought) augh (caught) al (walk)

‘e’ as in tell

e (jet) ea (spread)

‘ee’ as in tree

ee (sheep) ea (beat) y (funny) ie (thief) ei (ceiling) ey (key) i (ski) e-e (athlete)

‘er’ as in fern

er (germ) ir (girl) ur (purse) or (word) ear (earn) our (journey)

‘ear’ as in appear

ear (near) eer (deer) ere (here) ier (tier)

‘i‘ as in bit

i (fin) y (pyramid) ui (build)

‘i’ as in hive

i (find) ie (pie) y (sky) i-e (fine) igh (sigh)

‘o’ as in top

o (clot) a (wasp) au (sausage) ou (cough)

‘o’ as in hope

o (no) oa (boat) oe (toe) ow (slow) o-e (home)

‘ow’ as in cow

ow (down) ou (loud)

‘oy’ as in toy

oy (boy) oi (coin)

‘oo’ as in cook

oo (book) u (bush) ou (should)

‘oo’ as in boot

oo (spoon) ew (flew) ue (true) ou (soup) ui (fruit) o (to)

‘u’ as in mud

u (truck) o (some) ou (young)

‘yu’ as in use

u-e (fuse) u (duty) ew (new) ue (avenue) eau (beauty)

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

‘a’ as in bat

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

xiii

English – Back To Basics


Consonant sounds

Teacher notes

There are 25 consonant sounds listed below. Most of these consonant sounds can be written in a number of different ways. The letters used to represent sounds in words are called ‘graphemes’. Knowledge about common graphemes and an understanding of how to use them when selecting the particular one needed to spell a word correctly, are essential spelling skills. Some of the most commonly used graphemes for each consonant sound are found in the table below.

Sound

Graphemes b (bat) bb (rabbit)

‘c’ as in cat

c (clean) ck (pack) ch (school) k (kite) cc (occupy) que (cheque)

‘ch’ as in chin

ch (church) tch (watch)

‘d’ as in dog

d (doll) dd (rudder) ed (talked)

‘f’ as in fat

f (fed) ff (giraffe) ph (phone) gh (laugh)

‘g’ as in get

g (goat) gg (egg) gu (guide) gh (ghost)

‘h’ as in hat

h (have) wh (who)

‘j’ as in jam

j (jet) g (giant) dge (hedge) gg (suggest)

‘l’ as in look

l (lot) ll (hill) le (little)

‘m‘ as in met

m (mother) mm (hammer) mb (climb) lm (calm) mn (autumn)

‘n’ as in now

n (nurse) nn (runner) kn (knot)

‘ng’ as in sing

ng (strong) n (sink)

‘p’ as in pot

p (pin) pp (ripped)

‘r’ as in run

r (red) rr (carry) wr (write)

‘s’ as in sat

s (sun) ss (toss) c (cent) ce (rice) sc (scene)

‘sh’ as in ship

sh (sheep) s (sugar) ss (pressure) ch (machine) ci (special) ti (station) si (tension)

‘t’ as in tap

t (tent) tt (written) th (Thomas) ed (cooked)

‘th’ as in thin

th (think)

‘th’ as in then

th (that) the (breathe)

‘x’ as in box ‘y’ as in yes

w (watch) wh (when) x (fox) cks (socks) y (yell)

‘z’ as in zebra

z (zip) zz (fizz) s (has)

‘zh’ as in measure

s (treasure) si (television)

English – Back To Basics

Sa m

in g

ew

‘w’ as in was

v (vase) f (of)

Vi

‘v’ as in van

pl e

‘b’ as in big

xiv

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Prefixes Prefix

Meaning

Teacher notes

Example(s)

opposed, against

antiseptic

bi-

two, twice

bicycle

bio-

life

biography

circum-

around

circumference

co-

together

cooperate

contra-

opposite, against

contradict

de-

away, from, down

defer, descend

dis-

apart

disconnect

en- em-

make

enable, embrace

ex-

former

ex-premier

for-

not

forget

fore-

before

forecast

giga-

billion

gigabyte

hyper-

over, exclusive

hyperactive

il-

not

illegal

in-

not, in

incomplete, inside

im- ir-

not

inter-

between, among

mal-

wrong

mega-

million

micro-

small

milli-

thousand

mini-

small

mis-

wrongly

non-

not

nonsense

out-

outside, detached

outpatient

Sa m impossible, irregular interview

malfunction megabyte

microscope

in g

ew

Vi

post-

millilitre miniskirt misjudge

after

postgraduate

before

preheat

re-

again, back

repeat, return

semi-

half

semicircle

sub-

under

submarine

super-

over, above

superhuman

trans-

across

transport

tri-

three, triple

tricycle

un-

not

undone

uni-

one, single

uniform

with-

against, away

withhold

pre-

Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com

pl e

anti-

xv

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Suffixes Suffix

Meaning

Teacher notes

Example(s)

capable of, for

adaptable, possible

-al, -ical

of, relating to

maternal, magical

-ar

like

circular

-ate

to make

aggravate

-ation

act of

invitation

-dom

state of

freedom

-er, -or

one who

farmer, actor

-ess

feminine of nouns

princess

-fold

number of parts, times

twofold

-ful

able to, full of

helpful, plateful

-ion

action, state, quality

consideration, promotion

-ise

make into

humanise

-ish

belonging, like

girlish, Swedish

-ism

state, quality, act of

heroism, baptism

-ist

one who

artist

-ive

like, connected with

native, protective

-less

without

childless

-ly

like, how, when

manly, darkly, yearly

-ment

result, state, quality of

achievement, judgment

-ous

full of

nervous

-phobia

fear, dread

claustrophobia

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

-able, -ible

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics

xvi

Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com


Word origins

Teacher notes

LATIN ROOT WORDS Root word

Meaning

Example(s)

writing

describe, inscribe, scribble, prescribe, transcribe

port

carry

transport, portable, report, export, import, support

ped

foot

pedestrian, pedal, pedestal, impede, expedition

spire

breathe

inspire, conspire, respire, transpire

mit

send, let go

transmit, omit, admit, permit, remit

fact

make, do

manufacture, factor, faction, satisfaction, factory

duc, duce, duct

to lead

conduct, introduce, produce, educate, conductor

cap, capit

head

capital, captain, decapitate, capitulate

flu

flow

fluid, fluent, influence, affluent, effluent

mani, manu

hand

manual, manufacture, manuscript, manipulate

aqua, aque

water

aquatic, aquarium, aquaplane, aqueduct, Aquarius

aud

hear

audio, audience, audible, audition

anni, annu

year

annual, anniversary, biannual, annuity

bene

well

benefit, beneficial, benefactor, beneficiary, benevolent

prem, prim

first

primary, prime, primitive, primer, premier

unus

one

duo

two

tres

three

quatuor

four

quinque

five

sex

six

septum

seven

Sa m

pl e

scribe

unit

duet

triangle quarter

in g

quintet

sextuplet

ew

September (7th month on Roman calendar)

octo

eight

octopus

nine

November (9th month on Roman calendar)

ten

decimal

centum

hundred

century

mille

thousand

millimetre

decem

Vi

novem

GREEK ROOT WORDS Root word

Meaning

Example(s)

meter, metre

measure

centimetre, millimetre, thermometer, barometer, pedometer, speedometer

micro

small

microscopic, microscope, microphone

aero

air

aeronaut, aerate, aeroplane, aerial

sphere

globe, ball

atmosphere, stratosphere, hemisphere

tele

far off

telephone, teleport, televise, television

logy

word, knowledge, science of

psychology, biology, zoology, neurology

auto

self

automatic, autobiography, autograph, automobile

logos

word, reason

logic, logistic, logical

Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com

xvii

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Words commonly misspelt

Teacher notes

LIST 1 choose

friend

none

their

ache

colour

guess

ocean

though

address

coming

half

often

through

afraid

cough

heard

once

together

again

could

hospital

people

tomorrow

agree

country

hour

picture

tonight

almost

couple

hungry

piece

touch

always

cousin

important

please

trouble

among

daughter

insect

promise

Tuesday

answer

decide

instead

question

uncle

any

definite

interesting

quick

used

around

different

invite

ready

useful

August

difficult

January

reason

vegetable

aunt

discuss

knew

remember

voice

autumn

doctor

know

rough

Wednesday

balloon

does

lately

said

welcome

beautiful

don’t

laugh

separate

where

Sa m

in g

ew done

library

September

which

during

listen

sign

who

Vi

because

pl e

about

early

lose

since

women

easy

making

some

won’t

bicycle

eight

many

someone

would

breakfast

every

meant

special

write

built

exercise

message

spread

writing

business

famous

might

straight

wrong

busy

February

minute

strange

wrote

buy

finish

naughty

sure

yesterday

careful

forgotten

nearly

surprise

been beginning behaviour

English – Back To Basics

xviii

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Words commonly misspelt

Teacher notes

LIST 2 customer

incident

private

adventure

damage

information

procedure

aeroplane

decoration

injury

punishment

altogether

delicious

instrument

pure

ambulance

disappointing

intelligent

pyjamas

amusing

discovery

jealous

quantity

anxious

disgraceful

knowledge

reasonable

appear

distract

lawyer

recreation

appreciate

division

league

religion

argument

doubt

machine

repair

assembly

election

material

request

association

electric

medicine

scarce

athlete

enormous

migrate

separate

attendance

enough

multiplication

serious

audience

excitement

museum

silence

author

extreme

musical

skilful

failure

mystery

subtraction

fashion

necessary

support

Sa m

ew

avenue

in g

automatic

awful

favourite

neighbour

surround

balance

finally

nephew

technology

believe

forty

nervous

unknown

careless

frequent

niece

valuable

celebrate

generous

opinion

variety

centre

gradual

oxygen

visitor

certain

heritage

parliament

weary

chocolate

hesitate

passenger

weight

comfortable

honest

permission

weird

committee

horrible

persuade

yacht

conversation

imagination

physical

youth

curtain

immediately

population

Vi Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

pl e

accident

www.prim-ed.com

xix

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Words commonly misspelt

Teacher notes

LIST 3 convenient

foreigner

irrelevant

outrageous

silhouette

acquaintance

cooperate

fortunately

irreplaceable

paralyse

sincerely

acquire

courageous

freight

irresponsible

participant

sophisticated

admittance

curious

fugitive

itinerary

permitted

spaghetti

adolescence

deceased

furious

jewellery

phenomenon

spontaneous

anniversary

definite

gauge

kidnapped

pneumonia

statistics

anonymous

desperate

genuine

knowledgeable

politician

successful

appalling

diabetes

glamorous

labelled

possession

sufficient

Arctic

diarrhoea

government

legendary

possibility

supervisor

assistance

difference

grammar

limousine

professional

surgeon

asthmatic

disappearance

grieve

maintenance

pronunciation

suspicious

basically

disapproval

guarantee

manageable

prosecute

technique

bouquet

disastrous

guard

boutique

discipline

hallucination

bureau

discrimination

harass

campaign

discussion

hereditary

casualty

disease

cautious

disinfectant

cemetery

distinguish

chauffeur

documentary

choreography

economically

coincidence

Sa m

pl e

accessories

protein

therapeutic

millionaire

questionnaire

tragedy

miraculous

queue

transferred

mortgage

reassurance

twelfth

hilarious

muscle

rebellious

unanimous

humorous

mysterious

receipt

unconscious

hypothetical

nausea

recommend

unique

hysterical

negotiate

referee

unnecessary

ignorance

numerous

regretted

vaccinate

efficient

illiterate

nutritious

rehabilitation

vague

colleague

eightieth

imaginative

obedient

relevant

visibility

commercial

electrician

immaculate

obese

responsibility

volunteered

commitment

embarrass

inappropriate

obscene

restaurant

vulnerable

communicate

encourage

independence

obsessive

resuscitate

wintry

competitive

escalator

indigenous

occasion

rhythm

worshipped

concussion

essential

ineligible

occurred

rumour

congratulations

eventually

ingredient

offence

satellite

conscientious

fascinate

inseparable

omitted

schedule

conscious

fatigue

intermediate

opportunity

siege

controversial

fierce

interrupt

ordinary

significant

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics

Vi

ew

in g

manually

xx

Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com


Words easily confused or misused

Teacher notes

LIST 1 Words

Examples

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

We put the angel on the Christmas tree. A triangle might have a right angle. I did as I was told. I was like my sister. I ate breakfast. I have eaten breakfast. We will beat them. We should have beaten them. She became a star. She will become a star. He began the work. He has begun to work. I have been to school. I like being at school. I stood beside him. Who, besides your dad, is home? The wind blew. The papers have blown away. He took a deep breath. He can breathe deeply. She can do that. May I do that? I may do that. I might be able to do that. She came late. They will come later. I chose the apple. I will choose an apple. The milk came from the dairy. He wrote in his diary. The desert was dry. He deserted them. We had ice-cream for dessert. He did the work. He has done the work. She forgot the number. He has forgotten to bring it. She gave me the book. I will give you the book. He has gone to school. She went to school. Mum hid the Christmas presents. The presents were hidden from us. The dog is wagging its tail. It’s a sunny day. I knew the teacher. I know who she is. I wish I had known before. It was laid on the table. It had lain on the table for a while. I had to learn the words. She can teach me how to do it. I will lend you the book. May I borrow the book? These trousers feel loose. Don’t lose your phone. The meter was running. It was a metre long. I was tired of working. I took off my hat. Cricket is an outdoor sport. We played it outdoors. I passed the test. I walked past her. He is going to football practice. He will practise his skills. She is the principal of the school. She followed a basic principle. I was very quiet. It was quite funny. I was rapt with the result. I wrapped a present. The sun had risen before I woke. The sun rose before I did. She played the role of a doctor. She ate a salad roll for lunch. I showed her where I lived. He has shown me the way to go. They lived on the top storey of the building. I read the story. That is their house. They live there. They’re going out. I threw the ball. I walked through the room. He tore the shirt he was wearing. The shirt is torn. I will wear the dress. Where are you? We’re going to school. They went an hour ago. They have already gone. I have two brothers who are older. I have two kittens which are cute. Who’s leaving now? Do you know whose dog it is?

Vi

angel/angle as/like ate/eaten beat/beaten became/become began/begun been/being beside/besides blew/blown breath/breathe can/may/might came/come chose/choose dairy/diary desert/dessert did/done forgot/forgotten gave/give gone/went hid/hidden its/it’s knew/know/known laid/lain learn/teach lend/borrow loose/lose meter/metre of/off outdoor/outdoors passed/past practice/practise principal/principle quiet/quite rapt/wrapped risen/rose role/roll showed/shown storey/story their/there/they’re threw/through tore/torn wear/where/we’re went/gone who/which who’s/whose

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

xxi

English – Back To Basics


Words easily confused or misused

Teacher notes

LIST 2 Words

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

Please accept this gift. Everyone went except Drew. I completed the addition problems. There is a new edition of that book. She asked for my advice. I would advise you to finish it. She was affected by the news. It had a good effect on her. They should amend the rule. He needs to emend (edit) his work. Her ballet dress was beautiful. We needed a ballot paper to vote. My belief is that you will do well. I believe you will win. He charted the data. He chartered a boat for the day. She was in continual pain. It was a continuous line. The local councillor approved the plans. The counsellor listened to her. The woman had two dependants. The child was dependent on her mother. The electronic device was expensive. She had to devise a new plan. He tried to elicit information. The drug was illicit. The school was eligible for the grant. Her writing was legible. The emigrant left his country. The immigrant arrived in his new country. There was a gas emission. The omission of her name was an oversight. The new employee worked hard. The boss was their employer. I easily forgave my best friend. I told her she was forgiven. I was dressed formally. I was formerly at another address. He is a human being. They had to treat the animal in a humane way. He had a driver’s licence. He had to license the car. She had to mediate between the groups. I took time to meditate and relax. I was mistaken about the time. I mistook the time it would take. They had overtaken the slow car. They overtook the car. The premier is the state leader. We went to the film premiere. You need the right proof first. You will have to prove it’s true. He took refuge from the storm. The refugee arrived from another country. Write a review of the book. The musical revue was very funny. I was scared of the dark. The burn scarred my skin. She scraped her knee when she fell. I scrapped the work I was doing. The train was stationary. The stationery included pencils. He wore the new suit to the party. We stayed in an expensive hotel suite. The summary was very brief. It was a fine, summery day.

Vi

accept/except addition/edition advice/advise affect/effect amend/emend ballet/ballot belief/believe charted/chartered continual/continuous councillor/counsellor dependant/dependent device/devise elicit/illicit eligible/legible emigrant/immigrant emission/omission employee/employer forgave/forgiven formally/formerly human/humane licence/license mediate/meditate mistaken/mistook overtaken/overtook premier/premiere proof/prove refuge/refugee review/revue scared/scarred scraped/scrapped stationary/stationery suit/suite summary/summery

Examples

English – Back To Basics

xxii

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Sa m

pl e

T E A C H E R I N F O R M A T I O N

ew

in g

A N D

Vi

P U P I L P A G E S

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

English – Back To Basics


Spelling 1

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION This list of 20 words forms part of the vocabulary consistently used throughout the book. The activities revise concepts previously introduced at other levels.

Answers 1. (a) reason, cheap

(b) heavy

2. (a) care (d) use (g) usual

(b) danger (e) fame (h) hand

(c) visit (f) cover

3. Australia is a proper noun. Sentences will vary. Proper nouns require a capital letter. 4. (a) guest (c) helpful (e) total/number

(b) signal/symbol/notice/authorise (d) serene/quiet (f) find

5. (a) safe (d) careless

(b) light (e) unknown

pl e

(c) expensive (f) excitable/rough

Sa m

6. Sentences will vary. Different meanings include: (a) handle – a door handle, handle with care, to get a handle on something, to manage (b) figure – body form, number, to solve (c) excuse – an explanation, to let off, to make allowance for, to forgive (d) reason – logic, sound judgement, explanation, persuade, draw a conclusion

Vi

ew

in g

7. amount, around, Australia, calm, careful, excuse, handle, heavy, nature, sign, usually, visitor

English – Back To Basics

2

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Spelling 1 calm Australia visitor careful dangerous manage

usually excuse reason

sign

amount heavy cheap famous

handle around discover

nature useful figure

1. Which word(s) with the letters ea have: (a) a long e sound? (b) a short e sound?

(a) careful

(b) dangerous

(c) visitor

(d) useful

(e) famous

(f) discover

(g) usually

(h) handle

pl e

3. (a) Which word is a proper noun?

(b) Write a sentence that contains three other proper nouns.

Sa m

4. Write a synonym for each. (a) visitor

(b) sign

(c) useful

(d) calm

(e) amount

(f) discover

in g

5. Write an antonym for each.

(d) careful

(b) heavy

(c) cheap

(e) famous

(f) calm

ew

(a) dangerous

6. These words have more than one meaning. Write two sentences showing a different meaning for each word.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Write the base word for each.

(a) handle

(b) figure

(c) excuse

(d) reason

7. Write the first twelve words in alphabetical order. Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com

3

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Spelling 2

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION This list of 20 words forms part of the vocabulary consistently used throughout the book. The activities revise concepts previously introduced at other levels.

Answers 1. thief, believe either, weight 2. Answers will vary. Examples include: (a) notices, noticed, noticing, noticeable, noticeably (b) crueller, cruellest, cruelty, cruelly (c) promises, promised, promising, promissory (d) importantly (e) messages, messaged, messaging (f) commonly, commoner, commonest (b) addresses (d) notices (f) messages

pl e

3. (a) replies (c) thieves (e) weights

4. address, beginning, common, message

Sa m

5. beginning, believe, common, cruel, except, message, promise, public, reply, straight, thief, through

in g

6. (a) kind/compassionate (b) crooked/bent (c) private/personal (d) special/uncommon/rare (e) unimportant

ew

7. (a) robber/burglar (b) notice/bulletin – idea/meaning (c) guarantee/swear/pledge (d) answer/respond (e) start

Vi

8. The ‘c’ in each word makes a ‘s’ sound. 9. (a) re/ply (c) no/tice (e) be/gin/ning

(b) im/port/ant (d) com/mon

10. Sentences will vary.

English – Back To Basics

4

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Spelling 2 important weight straight

address either though balance except public thief promise common believe reply

decide beginning cruel

notice through message

1. Write the words that use the letters ie or ei. 2. Rewrite each word and add a suffix. (a) notice

(b) cruel

(c) promise

(d) important

(e) message

(f) common

(a) reply

(b) address

(c) thief

(d) notice

(e) weight

pl e

(f) message

4. List the words that have double letters.

Sa m

5. Write the last twelve words in alphabetical order.

in g

6. Write an antonym for each word. (a) cruel

(b) straight

(c) public

(e) important

ew

(d) common

7. Write a synonym for each word. (a) thief

Vi

PUPIL NAME

3. Write each word as a plural.

(d) reply

(b) message

(c) promise

(e) beginning

8. What do these words have in common? decide

notice

balance

except

9. Mark the syllables in each word. (a) reply

(b) important

(c) notice

(d) common

(e) beginning

10. Write each word in a sentence to show its meaning. (a) through (b) though (c) either (d) except Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com

5

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Plurals

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION The plural of a word indicates more than one person or thing. Adding an s is the most common way to make most singular words plural. • For words ending in y, with a vowel before the y, just add s; e.g. boy—boys. • For words ending in y, with a consonant before the y, change the y to i and add es; e.g. lady—ladies. Note: Proper nouns do not change; add an s only; e.g. Mr and Mrs Henry—The Henrys. • For words ending in sh, ch, s or x, add es; e.g. dish—dishes, church—churches, box—boxes, dress—dresses. • For words ending in f or fe, change the f or fe to v and add es; e.g. leaf—leaves. Note: There are exceptions such as chief, belief, chef and cafe. (These words would sound strange with a v sound.) • For some words ending in o add an s; e.g. piano—pianos, avocado—avocados, radio—radios.

pl e

For others, add es; e.g. hero—heroes, tomato—tomatoes, potato—potatoes, cargo—cargoes. Note: Some words ending in o now have two acceptable plural forms; e.g. mosquitoes—mosquitos, buffaloes—buffalos.

Sa m

• For words that are hyphenated, add s to the main noun; e.g. sister-in-law—sisters-in-law. • Some words retain the same form; e.g. sheep, aircraft, fish, deer.

• Some words change completely; e.g. tooth—teeth, mouse—mice, child—children, foot—feet.

Answers (c) excuses (g) messages

2. (a) replies (c) replays

(b) countries (d) worries

4. (a) halves (e) wives (i) calves 5. (a) men (e) feet (i) sheep 6.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

ew (b) brushes (e) addresses (h) perches

Vi

3. (a) watches (d) churches (g) remixes

(d) balances (h) notices

in g

1. (b) managers (e) promises

(c) boxes (f) crashes

(b) thieves (f) elves (j) cafes

(c) chiefs (g) safes

(d) wolves (h) beliefs

(b) women (f) mice

(c) children (g) salmon

(d) teeth (h) geese

emails, friends tests, results brothers, countries celebrities, places, photos kangaroos, koalas, visitors

English – Back To Basics

6

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Plurals 1. Add an s if you can make a plural of these words. (a) careful (e) promise

(b) manager

(f) around

(c) excuse

(g) message

When a word ends in y, change the y to i before adding es. This rule only applies if there is a consonant before the y. If there is a vowel before the y, just add s.

(a) reply

(b) country

(c) replay

(d) worry

(h) notice When a word ends in x, s, sh or ch add es.

3. Write each word as a plural. (a) watch (b) brush (c) box

Sa m

pl e

When a word ends in f or fe, change the f or fe to v and add es. (d) church This rules applies to most words but there are exceptions (e) address because some words would sound strange with a v sound. (f) crash 4. Write each word as a plural.

(b) thief

(c) chief

(d) wolf

(e) wife

(f) elf

in g

(a) half

(g) safe

(h) belief

(g) remix (h) perch

(j) cafe

ew

(i) calf

5. Sometimes words change completely or stay the same to make them plural. (a) man (d) tooth

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Underline the letter before the final y. Write each word as a plural.

(d) balance

(g) salmon

(b) woman

(c) child

(e) foot

(f) mouse

(h) goose

(i) sheep

6. Correctly write the words in each sentence that should be plural. (a) I wrote two email to my friend Drew and Mitchell.

(b) The teacher had to mark 25 test and record all the result in the file.

(c) My two brother are backpacking around four (d) The three famous celebrity went to public different country. place to have lots of photo taken.

(e) Australia has many kangaroo and koala that visitor love to see. Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com

7

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Base words

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION The base word is the main part of the word; e.g. independent. Prefixes and suffixes are added to a base word to change its meaning. These new words are called derivatives.

Answers 1. (a) use (d) visit (g) woke (j) cover

(c) fame (f) usual (i) near (l) final

decides, deciding, decided, undecided replies, replied, replying managing, managed, unmanageable believes, believable, unbelievable visits, visited, visiting, visitor

pl e

2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

(b) danger (e) hear (h) leave (k) arrive

in g

Sa m

3. Answers could include: (a) cover – covers, covered, covering, uncover, uncovered, uncovering, discover, discovered, discovering, undiscovered, recover, recovered, recovering (b) use – uses, used, using, unused, reused, reusing, reuses, useable, unusable, disused (c) hand – hands, handed, handing, handle, handled, handling, mishandle, mishandling, mishandled (d) near – nears, neared, nearing, nearer, nearest, nearby, nearly (e) notice – notices, noticed, noticing, noticeable, unnoticed, unnoticeable

ew

4. (a) The teachers all respected the school principal. (b) The people were quiet and respectful at the Remembrance Day service. (c) Police officers can have trouble when people are disrespectful to them while they are doing their job.

Vi

5. (a) The teacher called to inform my parents that I wasn’t feeling well. (b) We watched the class perform their play at the assembly. (c) My parents went to a very formal/informal/informative meeting at the town hall. 6. Sentence will vary.

English – Back To Basics

8

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Base words A base word is the main part of a word. Other words can be made from a base word by adding prefixes and suffixes; e.g. care – cares – cared – caring – careful – carefully – uncaring 1. Write each base word. (a) useful

(b) dangerous

(c) famous

(d) visitor

(e) heard

(f) usually

(g) awoken

(h) leaving

(i) nearly

(j) discover

(k) arrived

(l) finally

2. Write the base words to complete these. (a) I will decide. She d.

(b) She will reply. She

s. She

(c) He will manage. He is (d) I believe. He

s. It is

(e) I visit. She

d. She is

ing. He has

s. She or.

ing.

d. It is un

able.

able. It is un

ed. She is

able. ing. She is a

3. Write five new words for each base word. (a) cover

in g

(b) use

(d) near (e) notice

ew

(c) hand

4. Add to the base word respect to complete each sentence.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

d. I am

pl e

un

ing. I have

Sa m

s. I am

(a) The teachers all

(b) The people were quiet and

the school principal. at the Remembrance Day service.

(c) Police officers can have trouble when people are while they are doing their job.

to them

5. Add to the base word form to complete each sentence. (a) The teacher called to (b) We watched the class (c) My parents went to a very

my parents that I wasn’t feeling well. their play at the assembly. meeting at the town hall.

6. Create two new words from the base word hear. Write a sentence that includes both. Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

9

English – Back To Basics


Prefixes

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION A prefix is one or more letters added to the beginning of a base word to change its meaning; e.g. dislike, unhappy, replay, irresponsible, misunderstood, improper, disappear, preheat, illegal.

Answers 1. Answers could include: (a) uncommon (d) un/dislike (g) unfair (j) unhappy

(c) un/misheard (f) disagree (i) return

3. (a) inaccurate (d) invisible (g) inconsistent

(b) incorrect (e) incomplete (h) inappropriate

4. Sentences will vary.

(c) irregular (f) irrational (i) impersonal (l) irregardless

Vi

ew

6. Answers will vary.

(b) imperfect (e) irremovable (h) impractical (k) impure

(c) informal (f) inconvenient

in g

5. (a) immobile (d) impatient (g) improper (j) irrelevant

pl e

tricycle – three-wheeled cycle tricolour – having three colours triangle – three-sided shape trilogy – series of three related literary works triplet – set of three (children, notes, lines of verse) triplane – a plane with three supporting wings, one above the other tripod – three-legged or three-footed stand, support, seat trisect – to divide into three parts that are usually equal

Sa m

2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

(b) dis/re/uncover (e) undecided (h) re/display

English – Back To Basics

10

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Prefixes A prefix is used at the beginning of a base word to change its meaning. 1. Add a prefix to each of these words. (a)

common (b) cover (c)

heard (d) like

(e)

decided

(f)

agree (g) fair

play

(j)

happy

(h)

(i)

turn

The prefix tri- means ‘three’ or ‘triple’.

(b) tricolour

(c) triangle

(d) trilogy

(e) triplet

(f) triplane

(g) tripod

(h) trisect

pl e

(a) tricycle

The prefix in- means ‘not’ or ‘in’.

Sa m

3. Use the prefix in to write the opposite of each word. (a)

accurate

(b)

correct

(c)

(e)

complete

(f)

convenient (g)

formal

(d)

visible

consistent

(h)

appropriate

in g

4. Write a sentence to show the meaning of each word. (a) inside

(c) input (d) invest

ew

(b) install

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. What does each word mean?

(e) incoming

The prefixes im- and ir- mean ‘not’.

5. Write the correct prefix for each word. (a)

mobile (b) perfect (c) regular (d) patient

(e)

removable

(f)

rational

(i)

personal

(j)

relevant (k) pure

(g)

proper

(h)

practical

(l)

regardless

6. Finish each sentence. (a) It’s always possible to

but

(b) It is mature to

but

possible to mature to

. .

(c) I am patient when

but

patient when

.

(d) It is responsible to

but

responsible to

.

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

11

English – Back To Basics


Suffixes

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION A suffix is one or more letters added to the end of a base word to add to its meaning; e.g. careless, helpful, thinly, walker, agreement, talking, breakable, famous, neatness, selfish.

Answers (b) sadder/est/en/ly (d) sleeps/ing/less (f) cares/ed/ing/ful/less/er/fully (h) thanks/ed/ing/ful/less/fully (j) sails/ed/ing/or (b) messaging (e) handling (h) excusing

(c) managing (f) deciding (i) balancing

3. (a) fame (d) religion (g) glamour

(b) danger (e) courage (h) anxiety

(c) nerve (f) mountain (i) caution

4. (a) laughable (d) enjoyable (g) readable

(b) reasonable (e) employable (h) payable

(c) catchable (f) answerable

Sa m

2. (a) promising (d) noticing (g) believing

pl e

1. Answers could include: (a) younger/est (c) edits/ed/ing/or (e) walks/ed/ing/er (g) taller/est (i) firsts/firstly

5. Answers will vary. Underlined words are valuable, reasonable, believable, edible, manageable.

English – Back To Basics

in g

An artist – creates/practises art A cartoonist – draw cartoons A geologist – studies the Earth A novelist – writes novels A dentist – attends to teeth An optometrist – tests eyes A nutritionist – studies food A psychiatrist – studies the mind A manicurist – attends to nails A journalist – writes news articles

ew

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j)

Vi

6.

12

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Suffixes A suffix is used at the end of a base word to add to its meaning. 1. Add a suffix to each of these words. (a) young

(b) sad

(c) edit

(d) sleep

(e) walk

(f) care

(g) tall

(h) thank

(i) first

(j) sail

2. Write a new word by adding –ing. (a) promise

(b) message

(c) manage

(d) notice

(e) handle

(f) decide

(g) believe

(h) excuse

(i) balance

(b) dangerous

(c) nervous

(d) religious

(e) courageous

(g) glamorous

(h) anxious

Sa m

(a) famous

pl e

3. Write the base word to decide what each word is ‘full of’; e.g. gracious means ‘full of grace’. The base word is ‘grace’.

(f) mountainous (i) cautious

The suffix –able means ‘capable of’.

in g

4. Add the suffix –able to each word.

(b) reason

(c) catch

(d) enjoy

(e) employ

(f) answer

(g) read

(h) pay

ew

(a) laugh

5. Underline the words with the suffix –able and finish the sentences. (a) The item that is most valuable to me is

.

(b) The most reasonable rule in our house is

.

(c) Something that I don’t find believable is

.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

The suffix –ous means ‘full of’.

(d) I don’t think

are very edible.

(e) The school subject that I find most manageable is

.

The suffix –ist means ‘someone who’. 6. Use the base word to help work out what these people do; e.g. botanist – studies plants. (a) An artist

(b) A cartoonist

(c) A geologist

(d) A novelist

(e) A dentist

(f) An optometrist

(g) A nutritionist

(h) A psychiatrist

(i) A manicurist

(j) A journalist

Prim-Ed Publishing

®

www.prim-ed.com

13

English – Back To Basics


Alphabetical order

Spelling and word study

Answers 1. (a) arrive, trouble (d) believe, useful

(b) beautiful, weather (e) around, weight

(c) autumn, winter

2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

address, believe, common, dangerous, either, famous beginning, discover, nature, reason, sign, though cheap, figure, promise, straight, through, useful amount, cruel, excuse, manage, reply, visitor careful, except, important, notice, thief, usually

(2, 1, 4, 3, 6, 5) (6, 3, 4, 2, 5, 1) (5, 1, 3, 2, 6, 4) (2, 4, 6, 5, 1, 3) (4, 5, 6, 1, 2, 3)

3. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

across, address, almost, amount, around, Australia dangerous, decide, discover, doctor, dragon, during paper, pentagon, piece, promise, public, pyramid famous, fever, figure, forty, frame, funnel calm, cease, children, common, cruel, curfew

(3, 1, 6, 2, 5, 4) (2, 1, 3, 6, 4, 5) (4, 2, 6, 1, 3, 5) (6, 5, 3, 1, 2, 4) (3, 4, 5, 1, 6, 2)

4. Answers will vary.

(2, 4, 3, 1, 5) (2, 4, 5, 1, 3) (4, 2, 1, 5, 3) (5, 1, 2, 4, 3) (5, 4, 1, 2, 3)

Sa m

major, manage, massive, matter, maybe example, excuse, exercise, exit, extreme before, beginning, behind, believe, beneath nobody, nocturnal, none, nosey, notice habit, hacker, hammer, handle, happiest

Vi

ew

in g

6. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

pl e

5. Answers will vary.

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics

14

Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com


Alphabetical order 1. Write the words that come first and last. (a) cousin picture often trouble every really arrive finish (b) until beautiful different weather early noise laugh (c) summer autumn winter spring thousand million billion (d) manage decide believe thief useful public heavy calm (e) usually balance important weight around cruel public

believe

address

dangerous

common

famous

either

(b)

though

nature

reason

discover

sign

beginning

(c)

through

cheap

promise

figure

useful

straight

(d)

cruel

manage

visitor

reply

amount

excuse

(e)

notice

thief

usually

careful

except

important

pl e

(a)

almost

across

Australia

address

around

amount

(b)

decide

dangerous

discover

during

doctor

dragon

(c)

promise

pentagon

pyramid

paper

piece

public

(d)

funnel

frame

figure

famous

fever

forty

(e)

children

common

cruel

calm

curfew

cease

Asha Chris

Tara Mia

ew

in g

(a)

Sa m

3. These words start with the same letter. Use the second letter to show alphabetical order.

4. Write your six favourite foods in alphabetical order.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Number each list to show alphabetical order.

5. Write the names that come directly before and after yours if they were written in alphabetical order. My first name is

Lily Brad

Ella Ricky

.

Zac Jake

comes before and

comes after.

6. These words start with the same two letters. Use the third letter to show alphabetical order. (a)

manage

matter

massive

major

maybe

(b)

excuse

exit

extreme

example

exercise

(c)

believe

beginning

before

beneath

behind

(d)

notice

nobody

nocturnal

nosey

none

(e)

happiest

handle

habit

hacker

hammer

Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com

15

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Syllables

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION A syllable is a unit of sound which contains one vowel sound. All words are made up of one or more syllables. Prefixes and suffixes are usually separate syllables; e.g. im/prove/ment. Compound words have two or more syllables; e.g. note/book, out/side, sun/shine. When a word has double consonants, separate syllables between these letters; e.g. yel/low, scrib/ble, gram/mar. Words ending in -tle, -ble, -dle, -ple, -gle, -cle, -fle and -zle are usually separate syllables; e.g. whis/tle, sta/ble, han/dle, sam/ple, jin/gle, trea/cle, ri/fle, puz/zle. Base words with a vowel–consonant–vowel pattern usually divide before the consonant; e.g. po/lice, do/nor, o/pen, de/lete, a/gent, si/lent.

Answers 1. There are two syllables in each word. (b) re/ply

(c) pub/lic

(d) oft/en

(e) wok/en

(f) rea/son

(g) de/cide

(h) heav/y

2. There are three syllables in each word.

Sa m

(a) no/tice

(b) dang/er/ous

(c) be/gin/ning

(d) dis/cov/er

(e) im/port/ant

(f) pen/ta/gon

(g) oc/ta/gon

(h) hex/a/gon

3. (a) care/ful (d) dis/like (g) sad/ly

(b) use/ful (e) in/side (h) reach/ing

(c) start/ed (f) calm/ness

(b) soft/ware (e) earth/worm (h) pass/port

(c) by/pass (f) out/line

5. (a) ar/rive (d) com/mand (g) rob/ber

(b) hid/den (e) mat/ter (h) siz/zle

(c) let/ter (f) nar/row

6. (a) cra/dle (d) tan/gle (g) driz/zle

(b) ta/ble (e) trea/cle (h) cas/tle

(c) sim/ple (f) sti/fle

Vi

ew

in g

(a) vis/i/tor

4. (a) eye/brow (d) out/law (g) lip/stick

pl e

Base words with a vowel–consonant–vowel–consonant pattern usually divide between the consonants; e.g. doc/tor, pic/ture, cen/sus, con/cert.

7. one syllable – calm, sign, earth, young, type two syllables – common, reply, armchair, garden, window three syllables – employer, tomorrow, outgoing, computer, pentagon

English – Back To Basics

16

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Syllables A syllable forms a word or part of a word. There is a vowel sound in every syllable. 1. Circle the vowel sounds in each word; e.g. sadly. How many syllables in each word? (a) notice (e) woken

(b) reply (f) reason

(c) public (g) decide

(d) often (h) heavy

2. Circle the vowel sounds in each word; e.g. heavily. How many syllables in each word? (a) visitor (e) important

(b) dangerous (f) pentagon

(c) beginning (g) octagon

(d) discover (h) hexagon

(a) careful

(b) useful

(c) started

(d) dislike

(e) inside

(f) calmness

(g) sadly

(h) reaching

(b) software (f) outline

(c) bypass (g) lipstick

Sa m

(a) eyebrow (e) earthworm

pl e

4. Compound words are separate syllables. Show the syllables in these words. (d) outlaw (h) passport

5. When a word has double consonants, separate syllables between these letters. Show the syllables in these words. (b) hidden (f) narrow

(c) letter (g) robber

in g

(a) arrive (e) matter

(d) command (h) sizzle

6. These endings are usually kept as separate syllables –ble, -cle, -dle, -fle, -gle, -ple, -tle and -zle. Show the syllables in these words. (b) table (f) stifle

(c) simple (g) drizzle

ew

(a) cradle (e) treacle

(d) tangle (h) castle

7. Put these words into groups of one, two or three syllables.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

3. Prefixes and suffixes are separate syllables. Show the syllables in these words.

common outgoing

employer computer

One syllable

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

calm tomorrow sign reply armchair earth garden window young pentagon type Two syllables

Three syllables

17

English – Back To Basics


Synonyms

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION Synonyms are words that are similar in meaning. Synonyms allow descriptions to be more precise and can avoid monotony. Although a group of words may be synonyms, there are usually slight differences in meaning; e.g. synonyms for walk include: saunter, stroll, amble, pace, go, move, hike and stride.

Answers 1. (a) guest – visitor (d) start – beginning (g) choose – decide

(b) robber – thief (e) answer – reply (h) reason – excuse

(c) nasty – cruel (f) signal – sign (i) peaceful – calm

2. (a) useless (d) crooked

(b) talk (e) rare

(c) safe

Answers will vary. Examples include: (a) remember – recall (c) nearly – almost/approximately (e) watch – see/observe/notice (g) different – unusual/unique (i) discover – find

(b) (d) (f) (h)

strange – weird/peculiar/queer leave – depart/abandon thought – idea whole – complete/total

pl e

3.

English – Back To Basics

ew

Answers may vary. Examples include: (a) nice - pleasant, good, fine, kind, lovely (b) awesome – great, brilliant, terrific, wonderful, fantastic (c) manage – handle, cope, control, survive, make-do, run (d) amount – total, cost, quantity, sum (e) worry – fret, fear, concern, nervousness, discomfort, anxiety, unease (f) ready – prepared, set, organised, complete, arranged, willing, game, eager, keen

Vi

5.

in g

Sa m

4. Answers will vary. Examples include: (a) Eating lots of fresh vegetables is beneficial for your health. (b) I like the football but hate it when my team is playing poorly. (c) The coach gave some terrific tips about staying healthy and keen to train. (d) My mum enjoys watching specific programmes but gets irritated with all the advertisements. (e) I don’t think it would be great to be famous and always have to appear wonderful.

18

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Synonyms Synonyms are words that have the same or similar meaning. 1. Choose a synonym from the list below to match each word. (a) guest

(b) robber

(c) nasty

(d) start

(e) answer

(f) signal

(g) choose

(h) reason

(i) peaceful

reply

thief

sign

calm

visitor

decide

cruel

excuse

beginning

2. Circle the word in each list that is not a synonym. (b) message

(c) dangerous

(d) straight

(e) common

note

safe

even

ordinary

valuable

letter

unsafe

crooked

usual

useless

notice

unstable

level

regular

practical

talk

risky

direct

rare

Sa m

3. Write a synonym for each word.

pl e

handy

(b) strange

(c) nearly

(d) leave

(e) watch

(f) thought

(g) different

(h) whole

(i) discover

in g

(a) remember

4. Rewrite each sentence using a synonym for the underlined words.

ew

(a) Eating plenty of fresh vegetables is good for your health.

(b) I enjoy the football but dislike it when my team is playing badly.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(a) useful

(c) The coach gave some wonderful tips about staying fit and eager to train. (d) My mum likes watching certain programmes but gets annoyed with all the commercials. (e) I don’t think it would be fun to be well-known and always have to appear perfect. 5. Write two synonyms for each word. (a) nice

(b) awesome

(c) manage

(d) amount

(e) worry

(f) ready

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

19

English – Back To Basics


Antonyms

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION Antonyms are words that are opposite in meaning. Antonyms can add a contrast in description or feeling. Many words take a prefix to create an antonym; e.g. happy—unhappy.

Answers 1.

(a) (c) (e) (g) (i)

rare – common nice –cruel private – public restless – calm expensive – cheap

(b) (d) (f) (h)

wobble – balance light – heavy crooked – straight safe – dangerous

(b) often – never/rarely (d) whole – part (f) strange – ordinary

3. (a) lie (c) still (e) serious

(b) doubt (d) afraid

pl e

2. (a) leave – arrive (c) young – old (e) caught – dropped

uncomfortable, cosy warm, cool lengthy, brief cooked, raw forget, remember

ew

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

Vi

5.

in g

Sa m

4. Answers will vary. Examples include: (a) The book I am reading is difficult to understand and very boring. (b) We watched a happy film that made Jasmine laugh and Kristy feel cheerful. (c) Dale gave a small amount of money to buy something unimportant. (d) Morgan worked loudly at the front and everyone ignored him. (e) The electrician said it was unsafe to turn on the switch even though it was working.

English – Back To Basics

20

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Antonyms Antonyms are words that are opposite in meaning. 1. Choose an antonym from the list below to match each word. (a) rare

(b) wobble

(c) nice

(d) light

(e) private

(f) crooked

(g) restless

(h) safe

(i) expensive

public

balance

common

heavy

straight

cheap

dangerous

cruel

calm

(a) leave

(b) often

(c) young

(d) whole

(e) caught

(f) strange

pl e

3. Circle the antonym in each list.

(a) promise vow guarantee assure agree lie (b) think believe consider doubt accept trust (d) courageous afraid brave daring heroic fearless

Sa m

(c) still lively occupied busy hectic active

(e) amusing funny humorous entertaining serious comical

4. Rewrite each sentence using an antonym for the underlined words. (a) The book I am reading is easy to understand and very interesting.

in g

ew

(b) We watched a sad film that made Jasmine cry and Kristy feel miserable.

(c) Dale received a huge amount of money to buy something important.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Write an antonym for each word.

(d) Morgan worked quietly at the back and no-one noticed him. (e) The electrician said it was safe to turn off the switch even though it was faulty. 5. Write the two antonyms from each list. (a) armchair uncomfortable couch cosy sofa lounge (b) warm oven tasty cool delicious cake (c) lengthy lanky chief brief grief thief (d) tasted cooked roast dinner raw gravy (e) forget memory dreams forever remember always

Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com

21

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Homophones and homographs

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings; e.g. cereal – serial, know – no, feat – feet, stare – stair. Homographs are words that are spelt the same but have different meanings and may or may not sound the same. Examples: • bow (rhymes with cow)—a verb meaning to bend the body as a sign of respect • bow (rhymes with low)—a noun meaning a looped knot • fair—a noun meaning a group of sideshows • fair—an adjective meaning not cloudy.

(b) soul – sole (e) way – weigh (h) break – brake

(c) haul – hall (f) strait – straight

in g

2. (a) wood – would (d) sighed – side (g) bored – board

Sa m

1. (a) I can only write with my left hand. (b) I can usually work out the right answer. (c) My weight is in the healthy range. (d) I don’t like to wait around after school. (e) I heard the bird cheep. (f) I have a cheap pair of sunglasses. (g) We never waste food at our house. (h) The plastic doll had a very tiny waist. (i) He chews his food slowly. (j) He had to choose the right food to eat.

pl e

Answers

Vi

ew

3. (a) She went to the cinema with two friends and they all ate too much popcorn. (b) She bought a cheap scent for just a 50 cent coin and sent it to her friend. (c) There is a party at their house and they’re all going to celebrate. 4. Sentences will vary.

5. Sentence will vary. Different word meanings are: (a) fine – a fine day, feeling fine, pay a fine, very thin or slender (b) bill – amount to pay, charge to, bird’s beak, bank note, draft of proposed law (c) row – a boat, of people, argument or disturbance (d) dear – precious, expensive (e) cycle – ride a bike, recurrent period, complete set or series, a bicycle

English – Back To Basics

22

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Homophones and homographs Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings; e.g. fare and fair. 1. Write the correct word for each sentence. write (a) I can only with (b) I can usually work out the right my left hand. answer.

(c) My healthy range.

weight wait

(d) I don’t like to after school.

.

cheap cheep

(f) I have a

food

waste waist

(h) The plastic doll had a very tiny

is in the

(e) I heard the bird

pl e

choose (j) He had to (i) He his food chews slowly. food to eat.

2. Write a homophone for each word. (b) soul

(e) way

(f) strait

(c) haul

Sa m

(a) wood

(g) bored

around pair of sunglasses. .

the right

(d) sighed (h) break

3. Complete the sentences with homophones. (a) She went to the cinema with

friends and they all ate

(c) There is a party at

coin and

in g

(b) She bought a cheap scent for just a 50

house and

much popcorn. it to her friend.

all going to celebrate.

(a) plane, plain

ew

4. Write a sentence for each pair of homophones.

(b) caught, court

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(g) We never at our house.

(c) steal, steel (d) knot, not

(e) steal, steel Homographs are words that are spelt the same, have different meanings and may or may not sound the same; e.g. fair and fair, wind (rhymes with kind) and wind (rhymes with tinned). 5. Write two different meanings for each word. (a) fine (b) bill (c) row (d) dear (e) cycle Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

23

English – Back To Basics


Compound words

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION A compound word is formed by joining two or more words together. Examples include: • waterfall, desktop, notebook, driveway, football, daybreak, nightfall, downcast, halfway, footloose, fireproof, hard-wearing, long-sighted, threequarters, do-it-yourself.

Answers 1. software, undertake, screenplay, newborn, rattlesnake, breakfast, sightseeing, gatecrash, somewhere, masterpiece

3. (a) baseball (d) teardrop

(b) briefcase (e) speedway

4. Answers will vary.

It took me one hour to finish my workout at the gym. The swimmer was underwater until the lifesaver rescued him. I use toothpaste and a toothbrush to clean my teeth twice a day. I wear sunglasses to shield my eyes whenever I am outside for very long. (e) I turned my laptop computer to standby mode while I ate dinner.

in g

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(c) doormat (f) lighthouse

Vi

ew

5.

Sa m

pl e

2. Answers will vary. Examples include: out – side, door, rage, wit, smart, spoken, standing, going, look, board, class, come, dated, grow play – ground, mate, pen, out, over, down, back, horse fire – fighter, storm, place, side, proof, cracker, bug, fly, wood, brand, arm, trap hand – write, shake, ball, spring, stand, rail, cuff, bag, made, out, pick work – man, out, room, shop, book, day, horse, over, foot, home

English – Back To Basics

24

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Compound words 1. Match words from each list to write ten compound words; e.g. out + side = outside. soft

under

screen

new

rattle

break

piece

ware

born

fast

sight

gate

some

master

where

play

snake

seeing

take

crash

2. Write five words that can be added to make compound words. fire

hand

work

pl e

play

Sa m

3. Use the clue to write a compound word.

b

(b) Something used to carry documents and belongings.

b

(c) This is used to wipe your feet on before entering a house.

d

in g

(a) A team game that uses a long bat and four bases.

t

(e) A place where cars drive around very fast.

s

(f) A tall building with a bright light built near water.

l

ew

(d) Something small that falls from your eye if you cry.

4. Write your own clue for each compound word. Don’t use any part of the word as your clue. (a) sunrise

Vi

PUPIL NAME

out

(b) earpiece

(c) seaweed (d) dishwasher (e) footpath (f) toothpick 5. Write a compound word to complete each sentence. (a) It took me one hour to finish my w (b) The swimmer was u (c) I use t (d) I wear s Prim-Ed Publishing

®

w

p

and a t g

(e) I turned my l www.prim-ed.com

o

at the gym.

until the l b

s

rescued him.

to clean my teeth twice a day.

to shield my eyes whenever I am o t

computer to s

b 25

s

for very long.

mode while I ate dinner. English – Back To Basics


Contractions

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION A contraction is a shortened form of two words where an apostrophe is used to replace the letters omitted; e.g. I am – I’m, she is – she’s, will not – won’t, are not – aren’t, they are – they’re.

Answers 1.

(a) (c) (e) (g)

2. (a) (d) (g) (j)

she’s, she’ll, she’s, she’d it’s, it’ll, it’s, it’d we’re, we’ve, we’ll they’re, they’ve, they’ll can not would not have not were not

(b) (e) (h) (k)

(b) he’s, he’ll, he’s, he’d (d) that’s, that’ll, that’s, that’d (f) you’re, you’ve, you’ll

will not should not do not is not

(c) could not (f) has not (i) was not (l) are not

Sa m

pl e

3. (a) I’m going straight home after I’ve finished netball training. (b) She’s deciding if she’d like to visit Australia when she’s saved enough. (c) I can’t promise that I’ll be the best player but I’m going to try. (d) I’d like to know if they’re still coming because it’s raining a lot. (e) It’ll be too dangerous if we don’t know what we’re doing.

Vi

ew

in g

4. (a) I don’t want to go to bed until I’ve finished my book because it’s so interesting. (b) They’ve found that they shouldn’t waste time because they won’t get it all done. (c) We’re certain they’ll leave after the game so they’ve go plenty of time to get home. (d) She isn’t going to believe that story and she’ll only laugh if you don’t get it right. (e) We’ve only got an hour until it’s time to go, so make sure there aren’t any things you’ve forgotten to do. (f) We’re going to ask how they’re getting there so we don’t get lost.

English – Back To Basics

26

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Contractions 1. Complete the tables by writing the contraction. is

will

has

would

are

(a) she

(e) we

(b) he

(f)

(c) it

(g) they

have

will

you

(d) that

(b) won’t

(c) couldn’t

(d) wouldn’t

(e) shouldn’t

(f) hasn’t

(g) haven’t

(h) don’t

(i) wasn’t

(j) weren’t

(k) isn’t

(l) aren’t

pl e

(a) can’t

3. Rewrite these sentences using contractions.

Sa m

(a) I am going straight home after I have finished netball training.

(b) She is deciding if she would like to visit Australia when she has saved enough.

in g

(c) I can not promise that I will be the best player but I am going to try.

ew

(d) I would like to know if they are still coming because it is raining a lot.

(e) It will be too dangerous if we do not know what we are doing.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Write both words for each contraction.

4. Show where the apostrophe should be in each contraction. (a) I dont want to go to bed until Ive finished my book because its so interesting. (b) Theyve found that they shouldnt waste time because they wont get it all done. (c) Were certain theyll leave after the game so theyve got plenty of time to get home. (d) She isnt going to believe that story and shell only laugh if you dont get it right. (e) Weve only got an hour until its time to go, so make sure there arent any things youve forgotten to do. (f) Were going to ask how theyre getting there so we dont get lost.

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

27

English – Back To Basics


Abbreviated words

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION An abbreviation is a word written in a shortened form. Generally, a full stop is used to show that part of the word is missing: • population—pop. tablespoon—tbsp. No full stop is used when the first and last letters are used; • Doctor—Dr Road—Rd Abbreviations which consist of more than one capital letter do not generally require full stops; • DOB (date of birth) PO (post office)

Answers (b) Street (e) paid (h) minute (k) telephone

(c) year (f) number (i) hour

pl e

1. (a) Road (d) each (g) second (j) page

2. Teacher check map completion. Abbreviations are WA, NT, SA, Vic., NSW, Qld, ACT, Tas.

4. (a) Eng. (c) NZ

(b) RSA (d) USA

Sa m

3. electronic mail, instant messaging, liquid crystal display, high definition

5. Clockwise from the top – N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW

Vi

ew

in g

6. Answers will vary.

English – Back To Basics

28

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Abbreviated words An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word. Abbreviations that use the first and last letter of a word do not need a full stop; e.g. Mr (Mister) and Ave (Avenue). Abbreviations that do not use the last letter of a word do need a full stop; e.g. Dec. (December) and temp. (temperature). Abbreviations which consist of more than one capital letter, do not generally require full stops; e.g. DOB (date of birth) and PO (post office).

(b) St

(c) yr

(d) ea.

(e) pd

(f) no

(g) sec.

(h) min.

(i) hr

(j) p.

(k) tel.

pl e

(a) Rd

2. Write the abbreviations for the states and territories of Australia on the map. 3. What do these abbreviations stand for?

Sa m

(a) email (b) IM (c) LCD

in g

(d) HD 4. Write the abbreviation for each country.

ew

(a) England (b) Republic of South Africa (c) New Zealand

Vi

PUPIL NAME

1. Write the word for each abbreviation.

5. Label the compass points using the correct abbreviations.

(d) United States of America 6. Make a list of abbreviated words you would see or use on a computer or a mobile phone. Write the standard form of each abbreviated word.

Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com

29

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Identifying correct spelling

Spelling and word study

Answers (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

I don’t believe there are aliens. The police officer caught the thief. I’ll either go to the cinema or the pool. We are usually quiet when we are working. There was only a brief shower before the sun came out. Our neighbourhood is full of friendly people. The family suffered a lot of grief after the tragic accident. The trainer lifted a huge weight.

2. Final e is missing. (a) picture (d) notice (g) excuse 3.

(b) surprise (e) nature (h) strange

Each word has a double letter error. (a) address (b) beginning (d) message (e) really (g) different (h) million

(c) promise (f) figure

(c) common (f) arrived (i) balloon

pl e

1.

(c) bodies (f) hurries (i) sheep

in g

(b) watches (e) teeth (h) windows

Vi

ew

5. (a) replies (d) wives (g) mice

Sa m

4. (a) I was very careful to handle the piece of broken glass. (b) She tried to balance and walk across the beam in a straight line. (c) The famous woman had an important message to give to the public. (d) We usually have to run around the school field before we start a team game. (e) The judge gave advice to the twelve people so they could reach the right decision.

English – Back To Basics

30

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Identifying correct spelling Spelling rule: Write i before e, except after c. (There are exceptions to this rule; e.g. their and ancient.) Write ei when the vowel sounds like an a. 1. Complete these words correctly by adding ie or ei. (a) I don’t bel (c) I’ll

ve there are aliens.

(b) The police officer caught the th

ther go to the cinema or the pool. (d) We are usually qu

t when we are working.

(e) There was only a br f shower before (f) Our n ghbourhood is full of fr the sun came out. people. (g) The family suffered a lot of gr after the tragic accident.

f

f.

(h) The trainer lifted a huge w

ndly

ght.

(b) surpris

(c) promis

(d) notic

(e) natur

(f) figur

(g) excus

(h) strang

pl e

(a) pictur

3. Each of these words has the same error. Identify the error and write each correctly. (b) begining

(d) mesage

(e) realy

(f) arived

(g) diferent

(h) milion

(i) baloon

Sa m

(a) adress

(c) comon

4. Underline the words spelt incorrectly. Rewrite each sentence correctly.

in g

(a) I was very carefull to handel the peace of brocken glass.

ew

(b) She tried to balanc and walk acros the beam in a strait line.

(c) The famos woman had an importent messaje to give to the publick.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Each of these words has the same error. Identify the error and write each correctly.

(d) We usualy hav to run arround the scool feild befor we start a teem game. (e) The judg gave advice too the twelv peple so they could reech the write desision. 5. These plurals are incorrect. Rewrite each correctly. (a) replys

(b) watchs

(c) bodyes

(d) wifes

(e) teeths

(f) hurryies

(g) mices

(h) windowes

(i) sheeps

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

31

English – Back To Basics


Double and silent consonants

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION Consonants which form digraphs (i.e. two letters making one sound) with other consonants include: • b—after m; e.g. bomb, thumb • g—before n; e.g. sign, gnome, and with h; e.g. ghost • k—before n; e.g. knee, knife • l—e.g. calm, talk • n—after m; e.g. hymn, autumn • p—before n, s and t; e.g. pneumonia, psychology, pterodactyl • t—after s; e.g. castle, listen, rustle • w—before r; e.g. write, wring, and before h; e.g. whole

Answers

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

(c) knife – k (f) know – k (i) design – g

what is owed – debt a plan or idea – design truthful – honest uncertain feeling – doubt a piece of land surrounded by water – island incorrect – wrong a blade with a sharpened edge – knife

in g

2.

(b) island – s (e) debt – b (h) column – n

Sa m

1. (a) doubt – b (d) wrong – w (g) honest – h

(b) massage (e) tomorrow (h) yellow

(c) excellent (f) accident (i) dribble, drizzle

(b) travelling (e) discovering (h) cancelling

(c) visiting (f) fearing (i) stirring

5. (a) cancelled (d) levelled

(b) labelled (e) equalled

(c) modelled (f) snorkelled

6. (a) sadden (d) forgotten

(b) woollen (e) gladden

(c) rotten (f) flatten

7.

(a) (c) (e) (g) (h) (i) (k)

Vi

ew

3. (a) message (d) horrible (g) possible (j) addition 4. (a) forgetting (d) greeting (g) rotting

pl e

Some consonants are silent when in a digraph with a vowel; e.g. island, honest.

a mistake – error (b) your stomach – tummy a mystery – puzzle (d) a thief – robber where you live – address (f) garbage – rubbish a green vegetable – cabbage, broccoli a season of the year – summer a dog’s home – kennel (j) used for hitting nails – hammer the opposite of top – bottom (l) an orange vegetable – carrot

8. Answers will vary.

English – Back To Basics

32

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Double and silent consonants 1. Circle the silent consonant in each word. (a) doubt (f) know

(b) island (g) honest

(c) knife (h) column

(d) wrong (i) design

(e) debt

2. Match a word above to each meaning. (a) what is owed

(b) a plan or idea

(c) truthful

(d) uncertain feeling

(e) a piece of land surrounded by water

(f) incorrect

(g) a blade with a sharpened edge

3. Write the missing double letters in each of these words. (a) me

age (b) ma ident (g) po

ible (h) ye

ent (d) ho ow

(i) dri

ible (e) tomo le (j) a

ow ition

(b) traveling

(c) visitting

(d) greetting

(e) discoverring

(g) roting

(h) canceling

Sa m

(a) forgeting

pl e

4. The suffix –ing has been added to these words but the spelling of the new word is incorrect. Add or delete a double letter before rewriting the word.

(f) fearring (i) stiring

5. Add ed to each word. Write the new word. (b) label

in g

(a) cancel (d) level

(e) equal

(c) model (f) snorkel

(a) sad (d) forgot

ew

6. Add en to each word. Write the new word.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(f) a

age (c) exce

(b) wool

(c) rot

(e) glad

(f) flat

7. Write a double-lettered word for each clue.

(a) a mistake

(b) your stomach

(c) a mystery

(d) a thief

(e) where you live

(f) garbage

(g) a green vegetable

(h) a season of the year

(i) a dog’s home

(j) used for hitting nails

(k) the opposite of top

(l) an orange vegetable

8. Write your own clue for each of these double or silent consonant words. (a) hurry

(b) apple

(c) thumb

(d) bottle

(e) Wednesday

(f) knitting

(g) middle

(h) plumber

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

33

English – Back To Basics


Dictionary use

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION This is a sample of a dictionary entry for the word key. Key /ki/ n., pl. keys, adj., v., keyed, keyring 1. an instrument for fastening or opening a lock. 2. a means of understanding, solving etc.: the key to a problem. 3. a book or the like containing the solutions or translations of material. 4. the system or pattern used to decode. 5. an explanation of symbols used on a map etc. 6. one of a set of buttons or levers pushed to operate a typewriter, keyboard, piano etc. 7. tone or pitch 8. (mus.) system of related notes. 9. (bldg.) To prepare a surface by grooving, roughening etc. to receive paint. [ME key(e), kay(e) OF kei, kai] The entry word (Key) shows how to spell the word. Pronunciation (/ki/) shows how to say the word.

Definition (1.–9.) shows the meanings of the word. Usage (the key to a problem) shows how to use the word in a sentence.

Sa m

Word origin ([ME—Middle English]) shows where the word comes from.

pl e

Part of speech (n.) shows if the word is a noun, verb, adjective, etc.

Answers

The entry word – shows how to spell the word Pronunciation – shows how to say the word Parts of speech – shows if the word is a noun, verb, adjective etc. Usage – shows how to use the word in a sentence Word origin – shows where the word comes from Definition – shows the meanings of the word

3.

(b) No. Because the word cannot be made plural. (d) adjective (f) aisie (h) eastern

Vi

2. (a) five (c) ease (e) adverb (g) it’s an easy fit

in g

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

ew

1.

Note: Dictionary and thesaurus examples may vary.

Sentence will vary. Different meanings for each word include: (a) stick – adhere, short piece of wood, liquorice stick (b) drop – let go, small amount, sink to lower level (c) iron – metal, press clothes (d) second - after first, inferior (second-rate), part of a minute, second-hand, transfer (e) frame – shape, fit, construct, a construction, concoct false allegations, border, skeleton, single picture

English – Back To Basics

34

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Dictionary use This is a sample of a dictionary entry for the word easy.

easy /izi/ adj. easier, easiest, adv. 1. not difficult; requiring no great effort: easy to read. 2. free from pain, worry or care: she is resting easy. 3. not harsh or strict: he is easygoing. 4. not tight, fitting loosely: it’s an easy fit. 5. not forced or hurried: an easy pace. [ME aisie, of EASE, v]

shows where the word comes from

(b) Pronunciation

shows how to use the word in a sentence

(c) Parts of speech

shows the meanings of the word

(d) Usage

shows if the word is a noun, verb, adjective etc.

(e) Word origin

shows how to spell the word

(f) Definition

shows how to say the word

2. (a) How many definitions are given for the word?

pl e

(a) The entry word

Why? (c) What is the base word of ‘easy’?

Sa m

(b) Does this entry show how to spell the plural of the word?

(d) What type of word is ‘easy’?

(f) How was the word ‘easy’ originally written in

in g

(e) What type of word is ‘easier’?

Middle English?

ew

(g) Write the usage for entry 4.

(h) Which guide word is more likely to be at the top of the page for this entry? ‘eastern’ or ‘even’?

Vi

PUPIL NAME

1. Match the following labels to their meanings.

3. Use a dictionary to find each word. Write two sentences that show different meanings for each. (a) stick (b) drop (c) iron (d) second (e) frame

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

35

English – Back To Basics


Word origins

Spelling and word study

TEACHER INFORMATION Many English words are derived from Latin and Greek words. See page xvii for a list of examples. An eponym refers to a person who gives his or her name (usually last name) to words; e.g. Jules Leotard introduced a one-piece, close-fitting garment worn by acrobats and dancers. The word itself is also known as an eponym. Many commonly used words in English are derived from other languages; e.g. ‘siesta’ is a Spanish word for ‘small sleep’.

Answers 1. (a) telephone (d) phonics (g) hydrogen (j) autobiography

(b) asterisk (e) hydrophobia (h) biography

(c) autograph (f) astronomy (i) hydroplane

Sentences will vary. Word meanings include: (a) autopilot – automatic pilot (guide) (b) automatic – self-moving or self-acting (c) astronaut – person trained as a pilot, navigator etc. to take part in the flight of a spacecraft (d) dehydrated – deprived of water (e) asteroid – star-like, planetoids with orbits (b) sandwich (d) leotard (f) saxophone

Vi

ew

in g

3. (a) Granny Smith apple (c) cardigan (e) stetson (hat)

Sa m

pl e

2.

English – Back To Basics

36

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Word origins Many words come from other languages and are used to form some of the English words we use. These are word parts originally from the Greek language. Next to each is its meaning. auto – self graph – write bio – life phone – sound hydro – water astro, aster – star 1. Write the correct word to match each definition. biography hydrogen

autobiography hydrophobia

telephone astronomy

phonics asterisk

An instrument used to send a message by speaking.

(b)

A reference mark in the shape of a star used in writing.

(c)

A signature written in a person’s own handwriting.

(d)

The sounds of spoken language.

(e)

A fear of water.

(f)

The study of the motions, positions, distances and sizes of celestial bodies.

(g)

A gas which combines with oxygen to form water.

(h)

The written life of a person.

(i)

An aeroplane that can land and take-off on water.

(j)

The writing of a person’s own life story.

in g

Sa m

pl e

(a)

(a) autopilot (b) automatic (c) astronaut

ew

2. Write a sentence to show the meaning of each word.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

autograph hydroplane

(d) dehydrated (e) asteroid

Some English words are named after a person. They are called eponyms. 3. Write the word that is named after each of these people. a Maria Ann Smith, also known as Granny Smith, was an Australian gardener.

b The Earl of Sandwich snacked on cold beef between two slices of bread.

c The Earl of Cardigan wore a knitted jacket fastened with buttons.

d Jules Leotard was a French acrobat who wore a onepiece, close-fitting garment.

e John Batterson Stetson designed a wide-brimmed, high-crowned felt hat.

f Adolphe Sax was a Belgian who invented this brass instrument.

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

37

English – Back To Basics


Capital letters

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION A capital letter is used: • to start a sentence; e.g. She is here today. • for the pronoun I, including I’m, I’ve, I’ll and I’d • as the first letter of a proper noun; e.g. Ireland, Thomas, Pacific Ocean • to start direct speech; e.g. I said, ‘She is here today’. • for the initial letter and proper nouns in titles of books, films etc.; e.g. Black Beauty, Finding Nemo. Prim-Ed Publishing® employs minimal capitalisation for titles of books and other publications, as recommended by the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, sixth edition, 2002.

pl e

Answers

Vi

ew

2–4. Answers will vary.

in g

Sa m

1. (a) Casey and I went for horseriding lessons at the Baker Hill Equestrian Centre. (b) My Aunt Leah and Uncle Mark travelled from Brisbane to Bali for a two week holiday. (c) Mr and Mrs Jackson live at 7 Rosehill Avenue and I live at 7 Roseberry Street. (d) South Africa and Australia will play a test match at the Sydney Cricket Ground in January. (e) My penfriend will spend Christmas morning at her Nanna Jean’s and then go to Bondi Beach.

English – Back To Basics

38

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Capital letters 1. Circle the letters that should be capitals. (a) casey and i went for horse riding lessons at the baker hill equestrian centre. (b) my aunt leah and uncle mark travelled from brisbane to bali for a two week holiday. (c) mr and mrs jackson live at 7 rosehill avenue and i live at 7 roseberry street. (d) south africa and australia will play a test match at the sydney cricket ground in january. (e) my penfriend will spend christmas morning at her nanna jean’s and then go to bondi beach. 2. Write an example for each use of a capital letter. (a) The beginning of a sentence. (b) A person’s name.

pl e

(d) The name of a street, road etc.

(f) The name of a month of the year. (g) The name of a special day. (h) The title of a book, film, song etc. (i) A person’s title.

Sa m

(e) The name of a day of the week.

in g

(j) The name of a building.

3. Use capital letters when you answer each of these.

ew

(a) What is the city/town/village and (b) What are the names of four people you country you live in? feel close to?

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(c) The name of a place.

(c) Name a famous building.

(d) Name three countries.

(e) What do you think is the most famous place in the world? 4. Write a question to match each answer given. (a) Paris (b) Manchester United (c) Mt Everest (d) Mrs Thomson (e) Saturday (f) Harry Potter (g) Valley Brook Farm Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

39

English – Back To Basics


Full stops

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION A full stop ( . ) is used: • to show the end of a statement; e.g. She went to school. • for abbreviations when only the first part of the word is used; e.g. Feb., Capt.

Answers 1.

The complete statements are: (a) Here is all my money. (d) Please send a message. (e) It’s freezing. (f) The melon was sweet. (h) She wrote her address down. (j) They made an excuse. (k) It’s a new beginning. (l) The garden was lovely.

(c) Feb. 14 (i) 15.5 cm

(e) 8.30 pm

ew

3. (b) No. (h) 25.12.10

in g

Sa m

pl e

2. (a) It’s important to manage your time. I have a routine every school day to do what I need to do. (b) I really enjoy the summer months. When it’s too cold in winter I can be a bit grumpy. (c) All of my friends play in the same netball team. We play on Saturday mornings. (d) My brother turns nine next week. All he wants is a new computer game. (e) The two fire trucks were travelling fast. They were obviously attending an emergency. (f) Our teacher prefers us to line up in two straight lines after lunch. It doesn’t always happen though. (g) I made a promise to my parents that I would finish any homework. Thankfully, the work was easy. (h) People can only water their gardens on certain days. I think our days are Monday and Thursday.

Vi

4. If I could travel anywhere in the world, it would be around Australia. Tasmania is cold, so I’d go there in summer. I’d visit Alice Springs in winter and take a tour to Uluru. Tropical Queensland would be great to spend time in, so long as there were no cyclones or floods. The museums and art galleries in Canberra would definitely be worth seeing. It would be interesting to be there when parliament is in session. Broome is the kind of place I think I’d spend lots of time in. That way I could lie on the beach, ride camels and relax in the warm weather.

English – Back To Basics

40

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Full stops A full stop always ends a complete statement. 1. Tick the complete statements and show where the full stop should be. (a)

Here is all my money

(b)

I caught

(c)

Have they arrived

(d)

Please send a message

(e)

It’s freezing

(f)

The melon was sweet

(g)

This is my dog who

(h)

She wrote her address down

(i)

Is the answer right

(j)

They made an excuse

(k)

It’s a new beginning

(l)

The garden was lovely

2. There are two statements in each line below. Add the full stops and any capital letters.

pl e

(b) I really enjoy the summer months when it’s too cold in winter I can be a bit grumpy (c) All of my friends play in the same netball team we play on Saturday mornings

Sa m

(d) My brother turns nine next week all he wants is a new computer game (e) The two fire trucks were travelling fast they were obviously attending an emergency (f) Our teacher prefers us to line up in two straight lines after lunch it doesn’t always happen though

in g

(g) I made a promise to my parents that I would finish any homework thankfully, the work was easy

ew

(h) People can only water their gardens on certain days I think our days are Monday and Thursday 3. Which of these use a full stop correctly? (b)

No.

(c)

Feb. 14

(d)

ENTRY.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(a) It’s important to manage your time I have a routine every school day to do what I need to

(a)

4 mm.

(e)

8.30 pm

(f)

Rd.

(g)

U.S.A.

(h)

25.12.10

(i)

15.5 cm

(j)

Dr P.J. Brown

4. Show where the full stops should be. Add a capital letter where needed. If I could travel anywhere in the world, it would be around Australia Tasmania is cold, so I’d go there in summer I’d visit Alice Springs in winter and take a tour to Uluru tropical Queensland would be great to spend time in, so long as there were no cyclones or floods the museums and art galleries in Canberra would definitely be worth seeing it would be interesting to be there when parliament is in session broome is the kind of place I think I’d spend lots of time in that way I could lie on the beach, ride camels and relax in the warm weather

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

41

English – Back To Basics


Question marks

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION A question mark ( ? ) is used: • at the end of a sentence that asks a question; e.g. How are you? • in direct and reported speech where a question is asked; e.g. ‘How are you?’ she asked.

Answers 1.

Answers to questions will vary. (a) What time do you usually leave home to go to school? (b) What makes you feel grumpy? (c) What is the best excuse you could use for not doing homework? (d) What is something that always calms you down if your feel worried?

2–3. Answers will vary.

pl e

‘Will you keep your promise to me?’ she asked. ‘Have you decided what to do?’ Dad asked. ‘Are there more than a thousand days in two years?’ Kane asked. ‘May I have some water and see the menu?’ she asked. ‘May we walk to the park?’ asked Pari and Sunil.

Sa m

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

Vi

ew

in g

4.

English – Back To Basics

42

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Question marks A question mark is always used at the end of a sentence which asks something. 1. Show where the question marks should be. Write answers. (a) What time do you usually leave home to go to school (b) What makes you feel grumpy (c) What is the best excuse you could use for not doing homework (d) What is something that always calms you down if you feel worried 2. Write a question for each answer given. (a) It begins at six o’clock.

(c) Ice-cream, chocolate and cupcakes.

pl e

(d) It’s the 1st of April. (e) Australia, of course!

Sa m

3. Draw a picture of your bedroom. Answer the questions. (a) What is the largest item in the room? (b) How many windows in the room?

in g

(c) What colour are the walls? (d) How many chairs are there?

ew

(e) What electronic items are in the room?

An indirect question is a sentence that tells you what question was asked. It is not a question itself, so it does not have a question mark; e.g. ’He asked the teacher if he could go to the library‘.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(b) At the airport.

4. Write a question to match each indirect question. (a) She asked me to keep my promise to her. (b) Dad asked if I had decided what to do. (c) Kane asked if there were more than a thousand days in two years. (d) She asked the waiter if she could have some water and see the menu. (e) Pari and Sunil both asked if they could walk to the park. Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

43

English – Back To Basics


Exclamation marks

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION An exclamation mark ( ! ) is used to show a strong feeling; e.g. That’s brilliant! Ouch!

Answers 1.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

I can’t believe how fantastic that film was! ‘Don’t be late again!’ the coach yelled. ‘I love this surprise! Thank you so much!’ Don’t go there! It’s too dangerous. That’s a good reason for me to ground you! She absolutely loved the gift!

2. Answers will vary.

pl e

Answers may include: (a) Don’t do that again! (b) Tell your brother to turn the music down! (c) I’m only joking! (d) This kitchen is such a mess! (e) It’s very important to do your best work! (f) Keep away from my room!

Sa m

3.

4. Teacher check

Vi

ew

in g

5. Individual answer required.

English – Back To Basics

44

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Exclamation marks An exclamation mark is used at the end of a sentence to show strong feeling. It can mark humour, surprise, excitement, anger, danger or fear. It can also show when someone is shouting or giving an order. A quoted exclamation mark is included within quotation marks. 1. Add the exclamation marks where needed. (a) I can’t believe how fantastic that film was

(b) ‘Don’t be late again ’ the coach yelled.

(c) ‘I love this surprise Thank you so much ‘

(d) Don’t go there It’s too dangerous.

(e) That’s a good reason for me to ground you

(f) She absolutely loved the gift

2. Finish these so each sentence needs an exclamation mark. (a) I was shocked to hear ’ ’ ordered the rescue worker.

pl e

(c) ‘ (d) The boss surprised him by saying, ‘

’ shouted the famous actor.

(f) I was so frightened,

Sa m

(e) ‘

3. Rewrite each sentence so it becomes an exclamation. (a) Just tell her not to do that again.

in g

(b) Please let your brother know he has to turn that music down.

ew

(c) Matilda told me she was only joking.

(d) Mum was really angry to see the kitchen in such a mess.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(b) She was so excited she screamed, ‘

(e) The teacher told us how important it was to do our best work.

(f) My big sister let me know she wanted me to keep away from her room. Using an exclamation mark too often can make a piece of writing difficult or annoying to read. If you use too many, they can lose their effect. One is usually enough! 4. Draw a line (/) through the exclamation marks that are not needed. (a) Look at those spiders!!!!! They’re (b) I felt so angry! that I could hardly speak!!! everywhere!!! I went to my room and slammed the door!!!! (c) It’s arrived!!! Finally!! I’m so excited!!!

(d) I won’t say a word! I promise!!!!! Not ever!!

(e) That tastes horrible!! I’m not eating it!!! Take it away or throw it out!! 5. Write a paragraph (4–6 sentences) on the back of this sheet to describe the kind of day you would love to have tomorrow. Use exclamation marks to show strong feelings. Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

45

English – Back To Basics


Commas

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION A comma ( , ) suggests a short pause and is used to make meaning clearer by separating parts of a sentence. Use a comma to: • separate items in a list; e.g. I took pens, pencils, paper and paints to the class. • separate lists of adjectives; e.g. He is talented, smart, strong and mature. • separate clauses in a sentence; e.g. If I see him today, I’ll definitely tell him. • separate words, phrases and clauses at the start of a sentence; e.g. Firstly, I’m not going! • separate words that add extra information; e.g. Kylie, my best friend, is coming to visit. • separate the carrier (I replied) from the direct speech; e.g. ‘That is Kylie’, I replied.

pl e

Answers

Sa m

1. (a) I had juice, cereal and toast for breakfast this morning. (b) My parents told me I should make a decision and focus on football, basketball, judo or swimming. (c) I prefer science fiction to adventure, romance, horror or animated films. (d) There were sheep, horses, cows, dogs, cats and chickens on the farm we visited last weekend.

Vi

ew

in g

2. (a) Unless I work after tennis on Saturday, I’m not going to finish my essay in time. (b) The book I read last week was great, though the ending was a little weird. (c) I was really looking forward to writing some emails, then Mum called and said we were going out. (d) Karla promised not to tell anyone our secret, then she went and spoke to her sister. (e) Although Mum thought of installing satellite TV, she decided it was too expensive right now. (f) I don’t mind wearing our school uniform, though I’m glad to change when I get home. 3. (a) The neighbours, who were usually very quiet, had a huge party last night. (b) Our cricket coach, John, who played for England, makes sure that we all love training. (c) The bus I catch, which was already running late, was crowded and noisy. (d) The park across the road, Stirk Park, is where we often get together on Sunday afternoons. (e) I left a message for Mum, who was still at work, to say I was at Casey’s house. (f) Belle, the captain of our netball team, asked her mum to help train us on Wednesday after school. 4. Our school has two classes for each year level. There are more than 20 teachers and over 350 pupils. Our principal, Mr Atwell, is fair to everyone and runs the school well. We also have music, art and library classes. There is an assembly each Friday. This is the only school I’ve been to. I think the teachers and the kids are great because there is never any trouble.

English – Back To Basics

46

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Commas A comma can be used to separate items in a list. 1. Show where the commas should be. (a) I had juice cereal and toast for breakfast this morning. (b) My parents told me I should make a decision and focus on football basketball judo or swimming. (c) I prefer science fiction to adventure romance horror or animated films. (d) There were sheep horses cows dogs cats and chickens on the farm we visited last weekend. A comma can be used to separate two or more sentences or phrases that are joined together.

pl e

(a) Unless I work after tennis on Saturday I’m not going to finish my essay in time. (b) The book I read last week was great though the ending was a little weird.

Sa m

(c) I was really looking forward to writing some emails then Mum called and said we were going out. (d) Karla promised not to tell anyone our secret then she went and spoke to her sister. (e) Although Mum thought of installing satellite TV she decided it was too expensive right now.

in g

(f) I don’t mind wearing our school uniform though I’m glad to change when I get home. Use a comma to separate words added for extra information.

ew

3. Show where the commas should be.

(a) The neighbours who were usually very quiet had a huge party last night. (b) Our cricket coach John who played for England makes sure we all love training.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Show where the commas should be.

(c) The bus I catch which was already running late was crowded and noisy. (d) The park across the road Stirk Park is where we often get together on Sunday afternoons. (e) I left a message for Mum who was still at work to say I was at Casey’s house. (f) Belle the captain of our netball team asked her mum to help train us on Wednesday after school. 4. There are too many commas in this paragraph. Circle those that should be left out. Our school, has two classes, for each year level. There are more than, 20 teachers and, over 350 pupils. Our principal, Mr Atwell, is fair to everyone, and runs the school well. We also have, music, art, and library classes. There is an assembly, each Friday. This is the only, school I’ve been to. I think the teachers, and the kids, are great because, there is never any trouble.

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

47

English – Back To Basics


Quotation marks

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION Quotation marks ( ‘ ‘ ) are used to: • enclose direct speech; e.g. ‘I can see you’, said Tim. • show quotations within quotations; e.g. ‘The song is called “Insects” I think’, said Maya. • enclose words that the writer may not be using in their usual sense; e.g. The learner driver ‘kangaroo-hopped’ down the road. • enclose the meaning of a word; e.g. The Spanish word ‘siesta’ means a ‘short nap’. • enclose titles of books, songs, special names, plays etc. (in handwritten work); e.g. ‘The lion king’ was playing.

pl e

Prim-Ed Publishing® follows guidelines for punctuation and grammar as recommended by the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, sixth edition, 2002. Note, however, that teachers should use their preferred guidelines if there is a conflict.

Sa m

Answers

in g

1. (a) ‘Please decide what you want for lunch’, my mum said. (b) I replied, ‘I’d like a chicken sandwich, an apple and a juice box, please’. (c) I spoke to Nan on the phone and said, ‘We’re coming to visit next Sunday after lunch’. (d) The doctor looked at his notes and said, ‘I’d like to do another test before we make a decision’.

Vi

ew

2. (a) ‘I can’t manage this’, the pupil said. ‘I need some help please’. (b) ‘I don’t have a very good excuse,’ I admitted, ‘but I’ll finish everything in the morning’. (c) ‘Please clean up around the room,’ said Mr Carter, ‘so it’s ready for the next class’. (d) ‘I need to print these pages,’ I told my brother, ‘so can you find the new ink cartridges, please?’ 3. Answers will vary. 4. Answers will vary. 5. (a) ‘I’m going to try harder’, said James. (b) ‘I’d like a banana’, he said, ‘then an apple’. (c) ‘Don’t touch that. It’s mine!’ my sister yelled. (d) ‘Keep up!’ I shouted. ‘We’re nearly there.’ (e) ‘Four laps of the pool‘, said the coach, ‘and then you’re done‘. (f) ‘The game was great‘, I told my brother after they had won.

English – Back To Basics

48

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Quotation marks Quotation marks are used to show the exact words that someone has spoken. 1. Add quotation marks to the spoken words in each sentence. (a) Please decide what you want for lunch, my mum said. (b) I replied, I’d like a chicken sandwich, an apple and a juice box, please. (c) I spoke to Nan on the phone and said, We’re coming to visit next Sunday after lunch. (d) The doctor looked at his notes and said, I’d like to do another test before we make a decision. 2. Use quotation marks to show the speech breaks. (a) I can’t manage this, the pupil said. I need some help please.

pl e

(c) Please clean up around the room, said Mr Carter, so it’s ready for the next class. (d) I need to print these pages, I told my brother, so can you find the new ink cartridges, please?

(a) The sports reporter said, (b) The older boy shouted, (c)

explained the nurse. whispered Cooper.

in g

(d)

Sa m

3. Complete each sentence by adding direct speech.

(e) The store manager said,

ew

(f) Sophie cried out,

4. Use quotation marks and write something: (a) a music teacher might say to a pupil

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(b) I don’t have a very good excuse, I admitted, but I’ll finish everything in the morning.

(b) a visitor might say to his/her host

(c) a politician might say to a voter

(d) an American might ask an Australian

(e) a famous singer might say in an interview

(f) a parent might say to a child’s teacher

5. The quotation marks are incorrectly placed in each sentence. Show them correctly. (a) I’m going to try harder,‘ said James.’

(b) I’d like a banana,‘ he said, then an apple.’

(c) ‘Don’t touch that.’ It’s mine, my sister yelled. (d) ‘Keep up! I shouted. We’re nearly there.’ (e) ‘Four laps of the pool, said the coach, and then you’re done.’ (f) ‘The game was great,’ I told my brother after they had won.’ Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

49

English – Back To Basics


Apostrophes

Punctuation

TEACHER INFORMATION An apostrophe ( ’ ) is used: • in contractions to show where letters have been dropped; e.g. I’ve taken it. She’s taken it. • to show ownership with nouns in the possessive case, e.g. the boy’s bag, the children’s bags • when parts of words are left out to show the way a character speaks; e.g. I like ‘em. When used to show ownership, the apostrophe is placed directly after the owner(s); e.g. a lady’s hat, the ladies’ hats, the Smiths’ dog, Mrs Jones’s cat. Possessive pronouns—its, his, hers, ours, yours—do not use an apostrophe.

Answers

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

The visitor’s knock was very loud. The ocean’s waves were huge. The public’s votes are very important. The vase's flowers are pink. The woman’s excuses were unbelievable. The artist’s work has a message in each piece.

Vi

3.

ew

in g

2. (a) Lucas’s shirt has a blue collar. (b) The children’s work was on display. (c) The sisters’ bikes were stolen. (d) The boss’s chair is black leather. (e) The women’s meeting started. (f) Ross’s goal won the game. (g) All the soldiers’ uniforms are clean. (h) The tradesmen’s tools were in the truck.

Sa m

pl e

1. (a) Jasmine’s homework (b) cat’s tail (c) Mum’s coffee (d) plant’s flowers (e) Mark’s helmet (f) Charlie’s laptop

4. (a) Eliza’s dinner is cold because she couldn’t eat it all. (b) The woman’s bills are piled up so she’ll need to sort them so they’ll all be paid on time. (c) The children’s parents are meeting tomorrow and they’re going to talk about how they’ll pay for the trip. (d) Tyler’s arm is broken so he can’t write neatly and that’s annoying him. (e) I’d like to see Alice’s new house but I don’t know when Mum can take me there. (f) I don’t know where I could’ve put Jye’s video game so I’ll look harder before he’s due to arrive.

English – Back To Basics

50

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Apostrophes An apostrophe is used to show ownership. It is placed directly after the owner(s). It can also be used to replace missing letters when words are contracted. 1. Underline the owner and clearly show where the apostrophe should be. For example, Dad’s hat is blue. (‘Dad’ is the owner. He owns the hat.) (a) Jasmines homework was finished.

(b) The cats tail is white.

(c) Mums coffee is cold.

(d) The plants flowers were yellow.

(e) Marks helmet is green and white.

(f) Charlies laptop is black.

If the name of the owner ends in an s, you need to add another s after the apostrophe; e.g. Chris’s hat is blue.

(b) The childrens work was on display.

(c) The sisters bikes were stolen.

(d) The bosss chair is black leather.

(e) The womens meeting started.

(f) Rosss goal won the game.

Sa m

pl e

(a) Lucass shirt has a blue collar.

(g) All the soldiers uniforms are clean.

(h) The tradesmens tools were in the truck.

3. Rewrite each sentence using an apostrophe; e.g. The leaves of the tree are green. The tree’s leaves are green.

in g

(a) The knock of the visitor was very loud.

(b) The waves of the ocean were huge.

ew

(c) The votes of the public are very important. (d) The flowers in the vase are pink. (e) The excuses of the woman were

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Underline the owner and clearly show where the apostrophe should be in each sentence.

(f) The work of the artist has a message in each

unbelievable.

piece.

4. Apostrophes are also used for contractions. Show where all the apostrophes for ownership and contractions should be in each sentence. (a) Elizas dinner is cold because she couldnt eat it all. (b) The womans bills are piled up so shell need to sort them so theyll all be paid on time. (c) The childrens parents are meeting tomorrow and theyre going to talk about how theyll pay for the trip. (d) Tylers arm is broken so he cant write neatly and thats annoying him. (e) Id like to see Alices new house but I dont know when Mum can take me there. (f) I dont know where I couldve put Jyes video game so Ill look harder before hes due to arrive.

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

51

English – Back To Basics


Editing

Punctuation

Answers 1. (a) Mr and Mrs Baker travelled to France and Italy for a six week holiday. (b) It’s amazing how many goals Jeff Franklin scored for the team! (c) Aleisha’s birthday is in December and mine is in January. (d) Do you know who the president of the United States of America is? (e) I love it! Did you buy this in Bali? I’m going to wear it to Ellen’s party. (f) Elvis Presley was a famous singer who lived in a mansion called Graceland. (g) Can you remember how many of the animated ‘Shrek’ films were made? (h) Lucy and Rose play for Ashworth Football Club every Sunday. (i) My address is 122 Market Street, Cooper Hill. We live close to Pacific Beach. (j) Leave it alone, Scott!

in g

Sa m

pl e

2. (a) Australia is a country, an island, a continent and a great place to live. (b) Oscar invited Jaxon, Cody, Blake, Lani and Hayley to his party. (c) My older brother had homework to do in maths, science, history and music. (d) You will need to bring warm clothes, boots, socks, water and a hat. (e) I’m not interested in reading, watching a film, riding, playing or visiting anyone. (f) Jade’s sister, who was working part-time, saved enough to buy a car. (g) Mr Lyons, who is a relief teacher, enjoys working at different schools. (h) I’m so surprised that Oliver, who is only four, can read, write and draw so well. (i) The off-duty officer, who was going to the cinema, stopped to help, called an ambulance and talked to the injured person. (j) The restaurant, which was very expensive, had crystal glasses, fine china and linen napkins.

Vi

ew

3. (a) ‘Go ahead and order from the menu’, Mum told me. (b) ‘It’s too cold to wear that dress’, I told my friend Asha. (c) Lewis called and asked, ‘We’re going to the beach. Do you want to come?’ (d) ‘I don’t want any more of this’, Mark complained. ‘It tastes horrible.’ (e) ‘You will need to stay another day’, explained the doctor, ‘and then we’ll check the results again’. 4. (a) Alice’s computer stopped working because the battery wasn’t charged. (b) Kylie’s and Kelly’s last names also begin with the letter K. (c) All the birds’ nests were carefully built and scattered through the branches. (d) Dad’s cooking isn’t very tasty so we’re all glad he cooks only on Tuesdays! (e) Tara’s huge dog scares me so she’ll always put it outside when she’s having visitors.

English – Back To Basics

52

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Editing 1. Use capital letters and the correct sentence endings to edit these. (a) mr and mrs baker travelled to france and (b) it’s amazing how many goals jeff franklin italy for a six week holiday scored for the team (c) aleisha’s birthday is in december and mine (d) do you know who the president of the is in january united states of america is (e) i love it did you buy this in bali i’m going to (f) elvis presley was a famous singer who wear it to ellen’s party lived in a mansion called graceland (g) can you remember how many of the animated ‘shrek’ films were made

(h) lucy and rose play for ashworth football club every sunday

(i) my address is 122 market street cooper hill (j) leave it alone, scott we live close to pacific beach

(d) You will need to bring warm clothes boots socks water and a hat.

Sa m

(c) My older brother had homework to do in maths science history and music.

pl e

(a) Australia is a country an island a continent (b) Oscar invited Jaxon Cody Blake Lani and and a great place to live. Hayley to his party.

(e) I’m not interested in reading watching a film (f) Jade’s sister who was working part-time riding playing or visiting anyone. saved enough to buy a car. (h) I’m so surprised that Oliver who is only four can read write and draw so well.

in g

(g) Mr Lyons who is a relief teacher enjoys working at different schools.

ew

(i) The off-duty officer who was going to (j) The restaurant which was very expensive the cinema stopped to help called an had crystal glasses fine china and linen ambulance and talked to the injured person. napkins. 3. Clearly mark where the quotation marks should be in each sentence. (a) Go ahead and order from the menu, Mum told me.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Clearly mark where the commas should be in each sentence.

(b) It’s too cold to wear that dress, I told my friend Asha. (c) Lewis called and asked, We’re going to the beach. Do you want to come? (d) I don’t want any more of this, Mark complained. It tastes horrible. (e) You will need to stay another day, explained the doctor, and then we’ll check the results again. 4. Clearly mark where all the apostrophes should be in each sentence. (a) Alices computer stopped working because the battery wasnt charged. (b) Kylies and Kellys last names also begin with the letter K. (c) All the birds nests were carefully built and scattered through the branches. (d) Dads cooking isnt very tasty so were all glad he cooks only on Tuesdays! (e) Taras huge dog scares me so shell always put it outside when shes having visitors.

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

53

English – Back To Basics


Nouns

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION Nouns are naming words. They name people, places, things and ideas. Common nouns are words naming general rather than particular things; e.g. apple, river, table, colour. Proper nouns name specific people and things and use a capital letter; e.g. England, Luke. Collective nouns name a group of people, animals or things; e.g. class, herd. Abstract nouns name an idea, concept or quality; e.g. love, danger, youth, pain. Nouns are often identified by the placement of a, an, the or some in front of the word.

Answers people, band visitor, thief, house crowd, Town Hall, protest Dublin city, Ireland toast, juice, yoghurt, breakfast

pl e

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

Sa m

1.

2. Proper nouns – Emily, Brazil, Paris, Max, Africa Common nouns – monkey, computer, head, water, star Collective nouns – team, mob, crew, gang, fleet ants – colony lions – pride dogs – kennel geese – gaggle wolves – pack

4.

(a) (c) (e) (g) (i) (k)

musicians – orchestra listeners – audience directors – board players – team relatives – family pupils – class

English – Back To Basics

(b) (e) (h) (j) (l)

bees – hive dolphins – pod fish – school locusts – swarm kittens – litter

(c) birds – flock (f) elephants – herd

in g

(a) (d) (g) (i) (k)

(b) (d) (f) (h) (j) (l)

dancers – troupe sailors – crew members – committee churchgoers – congregation soldiers – army thieves – gang

Vi

ew

3.

54

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Nouns Nouns are naming words. They name people, places, things and ideas. Proper nouns name specific people and things and have a capital letter; e.g. Australia, Luke. Common nouns are words naming general things; e.g, country, boy, pencil. Collective nouns name a group of people, animals or things; e.g. class, herd. 1. Write the nouns in each sentence. (a) The young people danced while the band was playing. (b) The visitor arrived and saw a thief run from the house. (c) The crowd gathered outside the Town Hall for a protest. (d) Dublin is the capital city of Ireland.

pl e

2. Underline the nouns only in the list below. Sort them into proper, common and collective nouns.

Sa m

below Emily team invite crew myself gang Brazil slowly fleet monkey carefully Paris visiting computer inside water star oldest drive Africa head later Max mob Common nouns

Collective nouns

ew

in g

Proper nouns

3. Write the collective noun for each of these animals. flock

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(e) I had toast, juice and yoghurt for breakfast.

colony

gaggle

pride

swarm

pack

kennel

hive

litter

pod

herd

(a) ants

(b) bees

(c) birds

(d) lions

(e) dolphins

(f) elephants

(g) dogs

(h) fish

(i) geese

(j) locusts

(k) wolves

(l) kittens

school

4. Write the collective noun for each group of people. team orchestra army board gang troupe class congregation family audience committee crew (a) musicians

(b) dancers

(c) listeners

(d) sailors

(e) directors

(f) members

(g) players

(h) churchgoers

(i) relatives

(j) soldiers

(k) pupils

Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com

(l) thieves 55

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Verbs

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION A verb is a word or group of words that names an action or state of being. Verbs are often called ‘doing words’; e.g. read, walks, speak, has broken, ate, will type. Verbs can indicate tense, voice, mood, number and person.

Answers 1. Answers will vary. Examples include: (a) She walked to school. (b) (c) Look at that! (d) (e) He will find Mum. (f) (g) I can catch the train. (h) (i) She always walks slowly. (j)

My brother worked hard today. Brush your teeth carefully. It tasted great! Leave the room, please. Write the answer neatly.

2. spoke, leave, woke, caught, arrived, buy, kneel, spoilt, began, shook, make, paid.

Sa m

in g

Answers will vary. Examples include: (a) lifesaver – swim, surf, save (b) bee – buzz, fly, work (c) boat – float, sway, sink (d) teacher – talk, teach, read (e) baby – cry, eat, sleep (f) dentist – drill, clean, look (g) dog – bark, eat, sleep (h) musician – play, sing, perform (i) dolphin – swim, eat, play (j) flower – grow, die, bloom

Vi

5. Answers will vary.

ew

4.

pl e

3. (a) made, ate, washed, rode (b) invited, swam (c) noticed, reading, memorising (d) writing, read, found (e) sent, checked, had replied (f) are, practising, making, talking

English – Back To Basics

56

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Verbs A verb is a ‘doing word’. It describes what a person or thing is doing or being. All sentences need a verb. 1. Add a verb to each sentence. (a) She

to school.

(c)

(b) My brother

at that!

(d)

hard today. your teeth carefully.

(e) He will

Mum.

(f) It

(g) I can

the train.

(h)

the room, please.

(j)

the answer neatly.

(i) She always

slowly.

great!

desk leave kneel spoilt

woke nicely began twice

Japan oldest caught arrived little buy anybody shook egg make paid between

pl e

spoke first

3. Circle the verbs in each sentence.

Sa m

(a) I made my bed, ate breakfast and washed the dishes before I rode to school. (b) I invited my neighbour over and he swam in our pool.

in g

(c) The teacher noticed the pupil reading and memorising the classroom rules. (d) After writing a story, I read it again and found it boring.

ew

(e) Ashley sent his brother a text message and later checked to see if he had replied. (f) My hobbies are sci-fi books, practising athletics, making cards and talking on the phone. 4. Write two verbs that describe what each of these might do.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Write the words that can be used as verbs.

(a) lifesaver

(b) bee

(c) boat

(d) teacher

(e) baby

(f) dentist

(g) dog

(h) musician

(i) dolphin

(j) flower

5. Write a sentence to include both given verbs. (a) teach, learn (b) spend, drive (c) discover, kept (d) broke, hang (e) think, lost Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

57

English – Back To Basics


Verb tenses

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION .The tense of a verb is used to show the time at which the action of that verb takes place. . ost verbs are regular and follow the same pattern for the past, present and M future tense. For example, with the verb to jump; I jump/I am jumping (present tense); I jumped/I was jumping (past tense), I will jump (future tense). .Irregular verbs are those that do not follow this pattern, particularly in the past tense. For example, I rise (rose), I teach (taught), I mean (meant), I win (won), I do (did), I begin (began). .An auxiliary verb helps to form the tense of a verb. The verbs to be, to have and to do are auxiliary verbs; e.g. I have eaten. The auxiliary verb used in the future tense is will; e.g. I will eat.

reply – was replying/replied believe – was believing/believed promise – was promising/promised buy – was buying/bought hear – was hearing/heard forget – was forgetting/forgot worry – was worrying/worried fight – was fighting/fought burn – was burning/burnt/burned begin – was beginning/began feel – feeling/felt choose – choosing/chose

Sa m

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l)

in g

1.

pl e

Answers

ew

2. (a) I threw the ball and Ben caught it. (b) My brother watched a film while I typed my messages. (c) Mum asked for help so I finished my work quickly. (d) I gave some chocolate to Jason and ate the rest. (e) The athlete ran around the track and checked her times. (f) Dad signed my form and I took it to the teacher.

Vi

3. (a) Julia will drive to work and will stay late. (b) Azami will draw the picture and will display it in the room. (c) The spiders will scare me so I will close the shed door. (d) I will write a lot in my journal and will use coloured pens. (e) The book will be published and many people will buy it. 4. (a) He pays for the ticket and tries to sit near the front. (b) He drinks a litre of water after he finishes the game. (c) She behaves badly so I tell her to go away. (d) I copy the work and give it to the teacher. (e) I hide my jewellery so it isn't stolen. (f) I wash, brush and style my hair before dinner.

English – Back To Basics

58

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Verb tenses Verbs can be changed to show what is happening in the present, what happened in the past or what will happen in the future. For example, She is walking to school (present). She walked to school (past). She will walk to school (future). Some verbs change more than just by adding a suffix. For example, He is thinking about it (present). He thought about it (past). He will think about it (future). 1. Write these present tense verbs in the past tense. (a) reply

(b) believe

(c) promise

(d) buy

(e) hear

(f) forget

(g) worry

(h) fight

(i) burn

(j) begin

(k) feel

(l) choose

pl e

(a) I throw the ball and Ben catches it.

(b) My brother watches a film while I type my messages.

Sa m

(c) Mum asks for help so I finish my work quickly.

(d) I will give some chocolate to Jason and eat the rest.

(e) The athlete is running around the track and checking her times. (f) Dad is signing my form and I’m taking it to the teacher.

in g

3. Rewrite the verbs to show the future tense.

(a) Julia is driving to work and staying late. Julia will

to work and will

late.

ew

(b) Azami has drawn the picture and displayed it (c) The spiders scared me so I closed the shed in the room. door.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Underline the verbs and write them in the past tense.

(d) I have written a lot in my journal and used coloured pens.

(e) The book was published and many people bought it.

4. Rewrite the verbs to show the present tense. (a) He paid for the ticket and tried to sit near the front. He

for the ticket and

to sit near the front.

(b) He drank a litre of water after he finished the (c) She has behaved badly so I told her to go game. away.

(d) I copied the work and gave it to the teacher. (e) I hid my jewellery so it wasn't stolen.

(f) I washed, brushed and styled my hair before dinner. Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

59

English – Back To Basics


Pronouns

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION A pronoun is used in place of a noun to avoid repetition. Personal pronouns refer to people. They can be singular or plural, subjective or objective and may indicate gender. Examples are: I, you, he, she, we, they, me, him, her, his, them, mine, hers, theirs, ours. Impersonal pronouns refer to everything but people. They can be singular or plural, subjective, objective or possessive. Examples are: it, they, them, theirs. Relative pronouns refer to people and objects and connect clauses and sentences. They are used in the three cases: • subjective – who, that, which • possessive – whose, of that, of which, of whose • objective – whom, that, which. Other examples of relative pronouns are whoever, whomever, whichever and whatever.

Sa m

pl e

Demonstrative pronouns replace nouns and function in the same way as nouns in a sentence. They have no gender but are used in the three cases: • subjective – this, that, these, those • possessive – of this, of that, of these, of those • objective – this, that, these, those. Other examples of demonstrative pronouns are: other, such, same, former, latter and ordinal numbers (first, second etc.). Interrogative pronouns are used in asking questions. They include who, whose, whoever (used for people) and what, which and whatever (used for things).

in g

Reflexive pronouns are used in sentences that contain verbs whose actions are directed toward the subjects of the verbs. Add the suffixes –self or –selves to the personal pronouns my, your, him, her, our, them and one.

ew

Indefinite pronouns are words that refer to people or things without saying exactly who or what they are. Examples include all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each one, either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, little, many, more, much, neither, nobody, none, no-one, nothing, other, others, several, some, somebody, someone, something and such. Note: Some indefinite pronouns can also be used as determiners. For example, I would like some (indefinite pronoun). I would like some apples (determiner).

1. (a) she (d) we/she

Vi

Answers

(b) he (e) their/he/they

(c) they

2. Singular – I, he, she, it, me, her, mine, his, hers, its Plural – we, they, us, them, ours, theirs 3. (a) somebody (d) each

(b) nothing (e) some

(c) something (f) anyone

4. Answers will vary. 5. (a) Australia is a big country. It has over 20 million people. (b) Sally was reading. I think she liked the author. Her book was from the library. (c) Mike and Dean went to the pool. They were training for the race. It’s good to see them having fun. (d) That’s the towel Kirsty brought. She had it at my house. I think it actually belongs to her brother. (e) Brad and Lewis spoke to Miss Smith. They told her that Matt was ill. She asked them where he was.

English – Back To Basics

60

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Pronouns A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun; for example, Dale draws well. He is talented. Dale is the noun and he is the pronoun. Use a pronoun so you don’t have to repeat the noun in a sentence. 1. Circle the pronouns. (a) Mia spoke first and then she sat down.

(b) Jack decided to sit down because he had a headache.

(c) Kyle and Adam worked in the library so they could concentrate. (d) We are going to see Abbey after she is finished. (e) Their house is next door to Mr Russel’s and he collects the mail when they are away. Pronouns can take the place of one noun or more than one noun. he

we

she

they

us

it

me

her

them

mine

ours

his

hers

theirs

its

pl e

I

(a) Singular –

Sa m

(b) Plural –

Indefinite pronouns are words that refer to people or things without saying exactly who or what they are. For example, everyone was dancing, nobody was dancing, somebody was dancing. These words still take the place of nouns even though they are not specific.

in g

3. Write the indefinite pronoun in each sentence. (a) Somebody gave her a

(b) There was nothing for

(c) Something will happen.

me to do.

ew

birthday gift.

(d) I saw each person get

(e) He had some left over.

(f) Anyone can come in.

a meal.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Sort the pronouns into singular and plural.

4. Write a sentence that includes the indefinite pronoun given. (a) anything

(b) someone 5. Pronouns have not been used in the following sentences. Put a line through the repeated nouns and write pronouns. (a) Australia is a big country. Australia has over 20 million people. (b) Sally was reading. I think Sally liked the author. Sally’s book was from the library. (c) Mike and Dean went to the pool. Mike and Dean were training for the race. It’s good to see Mike and Dean having fun. (d) That’s the towel Kirsty brought. Kirsty had it at my house. I think the towel actually belongs to Kirsty’s brother. (e) Brad and Lewis spoke to Miss Smith. Brad and Lewis told Miss Smith that Matt was ill. Miss Smith asked Brad and Lewis where Matt was. Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

61

English – Back To Basics


Adjectives

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION An adjective is a word that describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun; e.g. pretty, thin, tall, delicious. It qualifies the word it describes by making it more specific; e.g. the red dress—the adjective red specifies the colour of the noun dress. Adjectives can tell about the colour, size, number, classification or quality of a noun or pronoun. They can come before or after the noun and usually after the pronoun; e.g. the beautiful bird, The bird is beautiful. It is beautiful. There are three forms of adjectives: absolute (e.g. small), comparative (e.g. smaller), superlative (e.g. smallest).

Answers

(a) (c) (e) (g) (i)

calm – calmer, calmest heavy – heavier, heaviest angry – angrier, angriest bossy – bossier, bossiest young – younger, youngest

(b) (d) (f) (h) (j)

straight – straighter, straightest near – nearer, nearest light – lighter, lightest round – rounder, roundest unhappy – unhappier, unhappiest

in g

2.

Sa m

pl e

1. (a) I bought a cheap bracelet from the small shop. cheap, small (b) The happy child laughed while watching the funny programme. happy, funny (c) I love sleeping in on cold days and pulling up the thick blanket. cold, thick (d) We ate spicy prawns, white rice and crispy wontons. spicy, white, crispy (e) I promised to write any important message on the coloured pad near the cordless phone. important, coloured, cordless

Vi

4. Answers will vary.

ew

3. (a) That’s good work. It’s better than your last effort. It’s probably the best you’ve done! (b) Devin had many toys. He had more than I. He had the most of all our friends. (c) That’s only a little piece. It’s littler than this one. It’s the littlest of all.

English – Back To Basics

62

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Adjectives Adjectives are describing words that tell more about a noun. Identify an adjective by looking at the noun and asking, ‘What’s it like?’ e.g. My wonderful mother cooked a delicious meal. The nouns are 'mother' and 'meal'. The adjectives that describe the nouns are highlighted. 1. Underline the nouns in each sentence and write the adjectives. (a) I bought a cheap bracelet from the small shop. (b) The happy child laughed while watching the funny programme. (c) I love sleeping in on cold days and pulling up the thick blanket. (d) We ate spicy prawns, white rice and crispy wontons. (e) I promised to write any important message on the coloured pad near the cordless phone.

pl e

Adjectives can be used to compare people and things; for example, The bracelet is cheap. It is cheaper than the necklace. It is the cheapest of all the jewellery.

Sa m

2. Write two more comparing adjectives for each word given. (a) calm

(b) straight

(c) heavy

(d) near

(e) angry

(f) light

in g

(g) bossy (i) young

(h) round (j) unhappy

ew

Adjectives that are used to compare do not always follow the same pattern; for example, I’m having a bad day. It’s worse than yesterday. It’s the worst day ever. 3. Write two more comparing adjectives to complete these.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(a) That’s good work. It’s

than your last effort. It’s probably the

(b) Devin had many toys. He had

than I. He had the

(c) That’s only a little piece. It’s

than this one. It’s the

you’ve done! of all our friends. of all.

4. Write a noun and five adjectives for each. (a) famous person (b) TV show

(c) sport

(d) film

(e) song

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

63

English – Back To Basics


Adverbs

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION An adverb can modify or add information about verbs (e.g. work quickly), adjectives (e.g. extremely pretty) and other adverbs (e.g. walking very quickly). They indicate when (soon), where (here), how (silently) and how often (frequently). Many adverbs end in ly; e.g. carefully, finally, nightly, exactly. Adverbs can be categorised as: • time – again, early, now, never, often, then, today, tomorrow • location – above, below, away, down, up, inside, outside, here, there • manner – fast, slowly, well, happily, creatively, politely, carelessly • degree – almost, entirely, little, much, more, rather, too, very • reason – so, why

pl e

• number – first, once, second, twice, third.

1. (a) slowly (c) quickly, heavily (e) easily, closely

(b) neatly, carefully (d) early, quietly

2. Answers will vary.

Sa m

Answers

in g

3. Answers will vary. Examples include: (a) how – angrily, awkwardly, truthfully, exactly, gradually, strangely, silently, perfectly (b) where – here, there, inside, above, below, under, away, up, down (c) when – soon, usually, again, today, often, now, possibly, never, later

Vi

ew

4. (a) She arrived early. adverb (b) It is very early. adjective (c) He wrote that well. adverb (d) The class did well in the test. adverb (e) It is a fast boat. adjective (f) The boat was travelling fast. adverb (g) It was a late night. adjective (h) I returned the book late. adverb (i) He jumped high over the bar. adverb (j) The bar was high. adjective

English – Back To Basics

64

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Adverbs An adverb gives more exact information, usually about a verb and sometimes about an adjective or another adverb. Many adverbs end in ly and most answer the questions when (time)? how (manner)? or where (place)? 1. Write the adverbs in each sentence. The verbs are underlined. (a) He walked slowly to school because he was waiting for Blake. (b) She neatly wrote the paragraph and carefully checked for errors. (c) Michael ran home quickly because it was raining heavily. (d) They arrived early and quietly helped the teacher.

pl e

An adverb can be placed at the beginning of a sentence, in the middle or at the end. The best way to know where it belongs is to read the sentence and decide if it sounds right. For example, Recently, I read a book. I recently read a book. I read a book recently. 2. Write two sentences that show the adverb placed in different positions.

Sa m

(a) suddenly (b) yesterday

in g

(c) usually

(d) calmly

ew

3. Write four different adverbs that tell how, when and where.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(e) The player easily hit the ball and won a closely contested match.

(a) How

(b) Where (c) When It is not always clear which word is an adverb until you see what work it does in a sentence. For example, She works hard (adverb). She is a hard worker (adjective). 4. Write whether the underlined word works as an adverb or adjective in each sentence. (a) She arrived early.

(b) It is very early.

(c) He wrote that well.

(d) The class did well on the test.

(e) It is a fast boat.

(f) The boat was travelling fast.

(g) It was a late night.

(h) I returned the book late.

(i) He jumped high over the bar.

(j) The bar was high.

Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com

65

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Conjunctions

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION A conjunction is a word (or words) that connects words, phrases, clauses and sentences; e.g. and, but, because, so, that. • Conjunctions used to join sentences of equal importance are called coordinating conjunctions; e.g. I like apples and oranges. They include and, but, for, yet, or, as well as, both, so, therefore and nor. • Conjunctions used to join clauses are called subordinating conjunctions; e.g. She was happy because I arrived. They include because, before, if, while, until, like, though, although, unless, as, since, where, whenever, wherever.

Answers

2. (a) because (c) but (e) whether

(b) so (d) since/after (f) though/but

3. Answers will vary. 4. (a) and, before (c) so, unless (e) after, and

(b) or, so (d) where, because

Vi

ew

in g

5. Answers will vary.

(c) because (f) unless (i) or

pl e

(b) and (e) before (h) before

Sa m

1. (a) but (d) so (g) if

English – Back To Basics

66

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Conjunctions Conjunctions are words that join together other words, phrases and sentences. 1. Circle the conjunctions. (a) Our garden is messy but theirs is lovely.

(b) It would be crazy and dangerous to do that.

(d) That’s cruel, so please don’t do it.

(e) I had a shower before I got (f) I’m not buying it unless I dressed. can get it more cheaply.

(g) I’ll give you my email (h) It’s important to leave a address if you promise to message before you go write. out.

(c) I bought it because it is useful.

(i) Are you going to make an excuse or say you’re sorry?

2. Write a suitable conjunction for each. I want to buy a gift for my friend. everyone could see the results.

pl e

(b) He put the notice up

the house is a mess.

(d) Our class isn’t quite the same

Mrs Levit left to have her baby.

(e) I predict she’ll be famous

Sa m

(c) I would ask you to come over

she likes it or not.

(f) We usually travel through the tunnel, 3. Finish each sentence.

it was closed for some reason.

in g

(a) I’m going to finish my homework although (b) You need to get dressed before

ew

(c) It’s impossible to do that unless

(d) Do you remember that place where (e) Our house is so different since

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(a) I have saved an amount of money

(f) I think I’m really going to do it whether 4. There can be more than one conjunction in a sentence. Circle the conjunctions in each. (a) Jess put on her uniform and brushed her teeth before she left for school.

(b) I can’t decide if I should stay with ballet or athletics so I’m asking for your advice.

(c) That will be too heavy for you, so ask for help unless you want to hurt yourself.

(d) I loved that store where I found my jeans because they are so comfortable.

(e) I’m going to watch the programme after I’ve finished the dishes and had a shower. 5. Write a sentence for each pair of conjunctions shown. (a) after, although (b) since, and (c) whether, or (d) where, before Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

67

English – Back To Basics


Prepositions

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION Prepositions are words that show the relationship between two words or phrases in a sentence. They show the relationship between time and space and are always attached to a noun or pronoun; for example: Tim walked to school. The cat was under the tree. I sat behind Max. Prepositions are usually short words such as on, above, in, with, by, near, down, off and along. More complex prepositions include instead of, apart from, ahead of, with reference to and in addition to.

Answers 1. (a) after (d) during (g) off

(b) across (e) through (h) between

(c) around (f) near (i) against

pl e

2. (a) position – above, near, behind, outside, by, in, underneath, below (b) direction – to, across, through, down, around (c) time – after, during, before

ew

4. Answers will vary.

in g

Sa m

3. (a) Mum took the pot off the stove. off (b) The dog was by the tree. by (c) Corey played at Mark’s house. at (d) The submarine was under the water. under (e) Don’t pour the milk down the drain. down (f) Please put the dishes on the table. on (g) Larissa is going with Mia’s family. with (h) The ball is over the road. over (i) The book fell behind the desk. behind (j) Callum lives near the library. near

Vi

5. The makeover show was on TV. They started work after the family left. Jane painted inside the house before putting new furniture around the rooms. Mike and his team worked on the garden. They planted native shrubs against the fence and roses beside the gazebo. A spa was installed between the patio and shed. A hammock was set up under the tree. When the family looked throughout their house, they loved it!

English – Back To Basics

68

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Prepositions A preposition is a word which shows how one thing is related to another. A preposition can show position, direction or time. Prepositions are used with a noun or pronoun. In the sentence, ‘The cat is underneath the desk’, the preposition is underneath. It tells how the cat is related to the desk. 1. Circle the preposition in each sentence. (a) Her name was called out (b) The driver travelled across (c) She looked around the room. after mine. the bridge. (f) The printer is near the (d) The game will be played (e) They walked through the computer. during the day. maze. (i) The girls are playing against (g) He fell off his skateboard (h) The forks are between the the boys. yesterday. spoons and knives.

above outside

to

down

by

during in

behind underneath

before around

across below

Sa m

(a) position

near

pl e

after through

(b) direction (c) time

3. Circle the preposition and underline the nouns it relates to in each sentence. (b) The dog was by the tree.

(c) Corey played at Mark’s house.

(d) The submarine was under the water.

(e) Don’t pour the milk down the drain.

(f) Please put the dishes on the table.

(g) Larissa is going with Mia’s family.

(h) The ball is over the road.

(i) The book fell behind the desk.

(j) Callum lives near the library.

ew

in g

(a) Mum took the pot off the stove.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Sort the prepositions into three groups that show position, direction and time.

4. Write sentences by adding a verb and preposition to the two nouns given. (a) Hawaii, beaches (b) television, sofa (c) thief, mansion (d) stadium, fans (e) musician, stage 5. Underline all the prepositions in this paragraph. The makeover show was on TV. They started work after the family left. Jane painted inside the house before putting new furniture around the rooms. Mike and his team worked on the garden. They planted native shrubs against the fence and roses beside the gazebo. A spa was installed between the patio and shed. A hammock was set up under the tree. When the family looked throughout their house, they loved it! Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

69

English – Back To Basics


Sentences

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION A sentence is a group of words that makes sense on its own. It must have a finite verb (a verb with a subject), a capital letter at the start, and end with a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark.

Answers 1.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

statement, Aunty Joan, grew statement, firefighter, saved question, birthday, is statement, Rashid, played statement, Cooper, replied statement, children, ate command, book, bring statement, Lucas, whispered

Answers will vary. Examples include: (a) He carefully caught a beautiful butterfly in the garden. (b) He slowly walked his new bike to the shed. (c) Have you completely cleaned your study room? (d) My lovely grandma made delicious cupcakes. (e) The qualified electrician professionally installed the lights.

Sa m

3.

pl e

2. Answers will vary.

Vi

ew

in g

4. Answers will vary.

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics

70

Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com


Sentences A simple sentence usually has only one subject and one verb; e.g. The bird (subject) flew (verb). It can be a statement, question or command and adjectives and adverbs can be added. 1. Complete the table to show whether these sentences are statements, questions or commands. Write the subject and verb for each. Sentence

Type of sentence

Subject

Verb

(a) Aunty Joan grew lovely flowers. (b) The brave firefighter saved the child. (c) When is your birthday? (d) Rashid played football with the team.

pl e

(f) The children ate sandwiches for lunch.

(h) Lucas whispered a secret. 2. Write a sentence that is a: (a) statement about your family. (b) question about your idol.

Sa m

(g) Bring the book here.

in g

(c) command your parents might give you.

3. Rewrite these sentences. Add an adjective and adverb to each.

ew

(a) He caught a butterfly in the garden. (b) He walked his bike into the shed. (c) Have you cleaned your room?

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(e) Cooper replied to my message.

(d) My grandma made cupcakes. (e) The electrician installed the lights. A phrase is a group of words which does not make complete sense on its own. It is not a complete sentence because it does not contain a verb with a subject; e.g. down the hill. 4. Add a subject and verb to each phrase and write the complete sentence. (a) near the window (b) over the fence (c) during the day (d) without her watch (e) beside the sofa Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com

71

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Sentences – compound and complex

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION A simple sentence has one main idea and usually contains only one verb and one subject. It cannot be broken down into other clauses; e.g. Mark (subject) threw (verb) the ball is an example of a simple sentence. A compound sentence has two (or more) independent clauses with a conjunction. For example, Tim and I saw the film but I didn’t enjoy it. (Clauses can be separated by a comma, semicolon or colon.) A complex sentence has a main (independent) clause and at least one subordinate (dependent) clause; e.g. The doctor worked long hours at a hospital where there were many very sick children.

Answers

pl e

1. Answers will vary. A conjunction is a word or words that connect words, phrases, clauses and sentences; e.g. and, but, so that.

Sa m

2. (a) Rob slept late because he was extremely tired. because he was extremely tired (b) I always drink a glass of water before I eat dinner. before I eat dinner (c) She is shopping in the city so call later today. so call later today (d) Mia and I saw a film while we ate ice-creams. while we ate ice-creams (e) She bought a chocolate muffin which she left on the counter. which she left on the counter 3. Answers will vary.

Vi

ew

in g

4. Answers will vary.

English – Back To Basics

72

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Sentences – compound and complex A compound sentence is made up of two simple sentences each with a verb and its subject and joined together by a conjunction. 1. Add a conjunction and another simple sentence that makes sense by itself to create a compound sentence. (a) Tara watched her favourite film (b) Scott and Luke were careful (c) The famous chef cooked a meal (d) The birds landed in the large tree (e) The hairdresser styled Emma’s hair

pl e

A complex sentence is made up of two parts which both have a verb and its subject. One part of a complex sentence is dependent on the other.

Sa m

2. Underline the verbs. Circle the clause that is dependent on the other clause. (a) Rob slept late because he (b) I always drink a glass of (c) She is shopping in the city was extremely tired. water before I eat dinner. so call later today. (d) Mia and I saw a film while (e) She bought a chocolate muffin which she left we ate ice-creams. on the counter.

in g

3. Finish your own complex sentences. (a) I play my favourite game before

ew

(b) Yesterday, we were late for school because (c) It is great to have a group of friends who (d) Our family enjoys going on picnics, although

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(f) Dr Morgan operated on the man

(e) We will need to purchase another computer when (f) My brother has been unable to exercise since 4. Sometimes a conjunction can go at the beginning of a sentence. Add a simple sentence to form a longer, complete sentence. (a) Although I’m tired, (b) Unless you go, (c) As soon as I leave, (d) Since she arrived, (e) Before I write, (f) Whether you come or not,

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

73

English – Back To Basics


Paragraphs

Grammar

TEACHER INFORMATION A paragraph is a group of sentences about one main idea. The sentences should follow in a logical order. It is usual to start a new paragraph when introducing a person, new place, change of time or idea.

Answers 1.

The following sentence does not belong in the paragraph because it has nothing to do with the main idea. (a) The teacher said to finish the maths activities.

The following sentence is incorrectly placed. It should be the third sentence. (b) She took the lawnmower out of the shed and pushed it around the back.

pl e

The following sentence does not belong in the paragraph because it has nothing to do with the main idea. (c) There were so many people in the shopping centre.

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

2. Answers will vary.

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics

74

Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com


Paragraphs A paragraph is a group of sentences that are about one main idea. The sentences should follow in a logical order. 1. Write the sentence that does not belong or is in the wrong order. (a) Jasmine wanted to change her room around. She needed some help to move the bed because she wanted it closer to the window. She liked the view into the garden. Right now, her study desk was in the way. The teacher said to finish the maths activities. She decided to ask her older brother for help.

pl e

Sa m

(c) There were so many people in the shopping centre. My aunt and uncle came for a visit and stayed all afternoon. Josh and I played with our cousins while the adults sat in the spa. My mum and aunt made some salad and Uncle Eric cooked some steak and sausages on the barbecue. It was a really good day and we were all tired after dinner.

in g

2. Write a paragraph about each subject given. Include some of the following: simple sentence, compound sentences, complex sentences, direct speech and indirect speech. (a) A recent enjoyable day.

ew

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(b) Mum decided that the lawn needed mowing and Dad was working away. She was determined to do it herself. I went outside to watch. It didn’t take long before I was laughing because Mum couldn’t even start it! She took off her jacket and tried again. She took the lawnmower out of the shed and pushed it around the back. This time it started with a loud roar.

(b) A favourite piece of technology. (c) A special person Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

75

English – Back To Basics


Word usage

Grammar

Answers 1. (a) I began my homework at 4.30, but then my cousin came to see me and brought a new game. (b) He just didn’t see anything that was different from what had already been done. (c) I was annoyed when Mark took my cards from me because he could have asked first. (d) Before I lay down I asked Mum if she would lend me her new pillow.

3. Alternatives for each sentence: (a) Tyler couldn’t believe there wasn’t anybody surfing today.

pl e

2. Answers will vary. Examples include: (a) very – extremely, especially; nice – lovely, appropriate (b) get – take, remove; said – asked, pleaded (c) good – interesting, fun; got – became, felt; see – watch, view (d) went – walked, travelled; said – suggested, hinted; good – perfect, great; get – eat, buy (e) said – stated, pronounced; like – love, be keen; nice – perfect, fine; fun – enjoyable, pleasant

(b) an address (e) an excuse (h) an important idea

(c) an amount (f) a useful tool

Vi

4. (a) a beginning (d) a message (g) a pyramid

ew

in g

Sa m

(b) When I called Holly, she said she wasn’t going anywhere today. When I called Holly, she said she was going nowhere today. (c) The teacher decided that he wouldn’t correct any of the words until we had edited our work. The teacher decided that he would correct none of the words until we had edited our work. (d) The principal asked what happened but I told him that I didn’t see anything. The principal asked what happened but I told him that I saw nothing (c) I promised myself that on Sunday I wouldn’t watch any sport on TV. I promised myself that on Sunday I would watch no sport on TV.

English – Back To Basics

76

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Word usage 1. These sentences each contain two words that are often misused. Identify the errors and rewrite the words correctly above them. (a) I begun my homework at 4.30 but then my cousin come to see me and bought a new game. (b) He just didn’t see nothing that was different to what had already being did. (c) I was annoyed when Mark took my cards off me because he could of asked first. (d) Before I lied down I asked Mum if she would loan me her new pillow.

pl e

(a) I was very careful about choosing a really nice present for my Nanna.

Sa m

(b) ’Can you please get all that junk off the table?’ said Mum.

(c) The beginning of the film was good but then I got too tired to see the end. (d) After we went to the beach, I said it would be good if we could get lunch.

in g

(e) Rachel said, ‘I would like to go to the basketball court because it’s a nice day and it will be fun’. 3. Double negatives can completely change the intended meaning of a sentence. Replace one of the negatives and rewrite each sentence.

ew

(a) Tyler couldn’t believe there wasn’t nobody surfing today.

(b) When I called Holly, she said she wasn’t going nowhere today.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

2. Some words are used too often. Write a more interesting sentence by replacing the underlined words. Create the new word above each underlined word.

(c) The teacher decided that he wouldn’t correct none of the words until we had edited our work. (d) The principal asked what happened but I told him that I didn’t see nothing. (e) I promised myself that on Sunday I wouldn’t watch no sport on TV. 4. Write ‘a’ or ‘an’ for each. (a)

beginning

(b)

address

(c)

amount

(d)

message

(e)

excuse

(f)

useful tool

(g)

pyramid

(h)

important idea

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

77

English – Back To Basics


Review

Grammar

Answers

1. Answers will vary. Examples include: (a) common noun – house, tree, book (b) proper noun – Jane, Max, France (c) collective noun – flock, crowd, family (d) verb – walk, talk, eat (e) pronoun – I, he, they (f) indefinite pronoun – anyone, someone, it (g) adjective - soft, beautiful, large (h) adverb – eagerly, slowly, loudly (i) conjunction – and, but, because (j) preposition – on, above, behind Nouns

Verbs

Adjectives

Adverbs

Conjunctions

near

while

she, her, they

and

my, her, we, them

invited, to sit, ate

delicious

(b) Nan, cakes

baked, finished

lovely, special gladly

(c) Sam, bed

called, told, was, was feeling

when, sick, in weakly

(d) Oscar, work,

completed, wanted to go

easily

(e) girl, room,

is sat

3. (a) taught – past (d) discover– present (g) will try – future

(b) will learn – future (e) thinks – present (h) went – past

Pronouns

I, he, me

down to

because

his, he

in near

so

her

(c) drove – past (f) chose – past

ew

sentence – A group of words that makes sense on its own. phrase – A group of words without a verb. simple sentence – A group of words with a subject and a verb which makes sense by itself. compound sentence – Two groups of words, each with a verb and its subject, joined together by a conjunction. (e) complex sentence – Two groups of words, each with a verb and its subject, joined by a conjunction, but one is dependent on the other. (f) paragraph – A group of sentences about one main idea.

Vi

4. (a) (b) (c) (d)

new, smallest, thoughtful

in g

teacher, front

because

Sa m

(a) Kelly, lunch

park

happily

Prepositions

pl e

2.

English – Back To Basics

78

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Review 1. Give two examples of each. (a) common noun

(b) proper noun

(c) collective noun

(d) verb

(e) pronoun

(f) indefinite pronoun

(g) adjective

(h) adverb

(i) conjunction

(j) preposition

2. Complete the table using words from the following sentences. (a) She happily invited Kelly to sit near her while they ate a delicious lunch. (b) My lovely Nan gladly baked her special cakes and we finished them.

pl e

(d) Oscar easily completed his work because he wanted to go down to the park. (e) The new girl is the smallest in the room so the thoughtful teacher sat her near the front. Verbs

Adjectives

Adverbs

Prepositions

Sa m

Nouns (a) (b)

Conjunctions

Pronouns

in g

(c) (d)

(a) taught

ew

(e)

(b) will learn

(c) drove

(d) discover

(e) thinks

(f) chose

(g) will try

(h) went

3. Write whether these verbs are written in the present, past or future.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(c) When I called Sam he weakly told me he was in bed because he was feeling sick.

4. Write the word to match each definition. complex sentence sentence compound sentence

paragraph simple sentence

phrase

(a) A group of words that makes sense on its own. (b) A group of words without a verb. (c) A group of words with a subject and a verb which makes sense by itself. (d) Two groups of words, each with a verb and its subject, which are independent but joined together by a conjunction. (e) Two groups of words, each with a verb and its subject, joined by a conjunction, but one is dependent on the other. (f) A group of sentences about one main idea. Prim-Ed PublishingÂŽ

www.prim-ed.com

79

English â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Back To Basics


Editing

Grammar

Answers 1. (a) Tessa had to move her chair so she could see the screen. (b) Scott wanted some pizza so his mother sliced it for him. (c) I walked to the station and waited for the train to arrive. (d) She had to wipe the floor after dropping the glass she was drinking from. 2.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

3.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Emma rode to school and parked his (her) bike. Ben is going to see Jeff and we (they) are playing cricket. I will ask Jack if she (he) wants to sit with all of ours (us). Mr Owens drove her (his) car then parked him (it) in the garage. Is that my (mine) or yours because myself (I) don’t remember.

pl e

The baby is lightest (lighter) than I am. We managed to get the cheaper (cheapest) price of all. The very later (latest) news from the disaster is terrible. My brother is oldest (older) than I and my sister is the younger (youngest). (e) She was so angrier (angry) with me that I didn’t think things could get any best (worse).

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

4. (a) He and I worked on the same project yesterday. (b) Dad reminded me he was going to work late tonight so Mum would pick me up. (speech marks unnecessary) (c) It sounded like Max didn’t do anything to annoy Zac, but he was upset anyway. (d) I was so surprised when Nan called and told me I was going to the city with her tomorrow. (speech marks unnecessary)

English – Back To Basics

80

Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com


Editing 1. The verbs in these sentences are written in the wrong tense. Rewrite each sentence correctly. (a) Tessa had to moved her chair so she could seeing the screen. (b) Scott want some pizza so his mother slices it for him. (c) I walk to the station and waits for the train to arrived. (d) She had to wiping the floor after drops the glass she was drank from.

pl e

2. Underline the incorrect pronouns. Write the correct pronoun for each. (a) Emma rode to school and parked his bike.

(b) Ben is going to see Jeff and we are

Sa m

playing cricket.

(c) I will ask Jack if she wants to sit with all

(d) Mr Owens drove her car then parked him

of ours.

in the garage.

(e) Is that my or yours because myself don’t remember.

in g

3. The adjectives in these sentences are incorrect. Underline the adjectives and write them correctly.

ew

(a) The baby is lightest than I am.

(b) We managed to get the cheaper price of all. (c) The very later news from the disaster is terrible.

Vi

PUPIL NAME

(d) My brother is oldest than I and my sister is the younger. (e) She was so angrier with me that I didn’t think things could get any best. 4. Each of these sentences has errors. Rewrite each correctly. (a) He and me are working on the same project yesterday? (b) Dad reminded me ‘she was going to work late tonight so Mum would pick me up’. (c) It sounded like Max didn’t do nothing to annoy Zac, but she was upset anyway. (d) I was so surprising when Nan called and told me ‘I was going to the city with her yesterday’. Prim-Ed Publishing®

www.prim-ed.com

81

English – Back To Basics

6315UK English Back to Basics Yr5/P6  
6315UK English Back to Basics Yr5/P6