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Teachers resource book – Book E

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing 2013 Copyright© Diane Henderson and Rosemary Morris 2007 ISBN 978-1-84654-650-1 PR–6305

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

Titles available in this series:

Teachers resource book – Book A Teachers resource book – Book B Teachers resource book – Book C Teachers resource book – Book D Teachers resource book – Book E Teachers resource book – Book F Teachers resource book – Book G

Also available in this series:

The English workbook – Book A The English workbook – Book B The English workbook – Book C The English workbook – Book D The English workbook – Book E The English workbook – Book F The English workbook – Book G

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For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase.

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Name of Purchaser:

Date of Purchase:

School Order# (if applicable):

Signature of Purchaser:

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Supplier:

Prim-Ed Publishing follows the guidelines for punctuation and grammar as recommended by the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 2002, 6th edn. Note, however, that teachers should use their own guide if there is a conflict.

Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

View all pages online

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INTRODUCTION This teachers resource book provides information to support the implementation of The English workbook – Book E, designed to develop and improve pupils’ literacy skills, focusing on procedures, recounts, expositions, narratives and reports. The following sections are included within each format. • speaking and listening • writing activities • spelling • language features • vocabulary • pupil evaluation • reading comprehension • proofreading and editing

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Features of The English workbook – Teachers resource book • Descriptions of the five different writing formats • Photocopiable planning frameworks for the five writing formats • Speaking and listening notes and photocopiable charts • Additional information about vocabulary, useful reference lists and spelling rules • Clear and concise explanations of the included language features • Photocopiable pupil editing and proofreading checklists specific to each writing format • Comprehensive integrated activity sheets provide cross-curricular extension to stimulate pupil interest • Analytical notes on activities such as advertisements and cartoons • Class evaluation sheets to record information about pupil understanding and performance • Answers for pupil activities

CONTENTS

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Introduction ..........................................................................................1 Writing format descriptions ..........................................................2–3 Planning frameworks .....................................................................3–8 Editing and proofreading checklists .........................................9–14 Class evaluation record sheet ..................................................15–16 Speaking and listening ..............................................................17–21 Speaking skills .........................................................................17 Listening skills .........................................................................17 Speeches..................................................................................17 Debating .............................................................................18–19 Speaking chart ........................................................................20 Listening chart .........................................................................21 Vocabulary ....................................................................................22–24 Compound words ....................................................................22 Homographs.............................................................................22 Homophones ............................................................................22 Synonyms .................................................................................22 Antonyms..................................................................................23 Using a thesaurus ...................................................................23 Overused words ................................................................23–24 Acrostics ..................................................................................24 Similes.......................................................................................24 Alliteration ................................................................................24 Spelling .........................................................................................24–27 Syllables ...................................................................................24 Plurals .................................................................................25–26 Adding suffixes (1-1-1 rule, dropping final ‘e’, adding ‘ly’) ......................26–27 Long vowel sounds .................................................................27 Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Contractions.............................................................................27 Language features .......................................................................28–36 Parts of speech (verbs, adverbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, comparatives and superlatives, prepositions, conjunctions) ...............28–30 Idioms........................................................................................30 Punctuation (capital letters, commas, apostrophes for possession, grammatical contractions, quotation marks, paragraphs)........................................................................30–31 Collective nouns ................................................................32–33 Animal nouns ...........................................................................34 Idiom list ...................................................................................35 Integrated activities ....................................................................36–40 Graphic organisers......................................................................41–47 Mind maps................................................................................41 Flow chart.................................................................................42 Problem-solving chart ............................................................43 Senses chart ............................................................................44 Tree chart .................................................................................45 Semantic web ..........................................................................46 Reading journal .......................................................................47 Additional information ...............................................................48–50 Cartoons ...................................................................................48 Advertisements .......................................................................48 Journal/Diary writing..............................................................49 Note making .......................................................................49–50 Plays ..........................................................................................50 Scope and sequence chart ..............................................................51 Answers ....................................................................................... 52–69 The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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WRITING FORMAT DESCRIPTIONS

1. Procedure

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The main purpose of a procedure is to direct, inform or explain how something is done. It usually includes: • a goal – to tell what is to be done • a list of requirements • steps – a list of instructions in a particular order • a test – to see if the task was completed successfully. A procedure uses: • command verbs • present tense • short, clear statements. A procedure may be written in the form of instructions for a task such as playing a game, constructing something, operating an appliance, using a reference book, dealing with a problem, or as a recipe or an experiment.

2. Recount

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The purpose of a recount is to retell past events in time order. It usually includes: • a title – tells what the recount is about • a setting – who was involved and where and when the events happened • the events – what happened in chronological order • an ending or comments – how the events ended and what the writer thinks about it. A recount uses: • the past tense • paragraphs to separate significant events. A recount may be written in the form of a diary, a letter, a newspaper or magazine article, an eyewitness account, a biography or autobiography.

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3. Exposition (Persuasive writing) An exposition is written or spoken to persuade others to think or do something. It usually includes: • a title – tells what the exposition is about • an overview – a brief summary of what the writer thinks about the topic • reasons – the arguments to persuade people • a conclusion – a final comment or summing up. An exposition uses: • persuasive language • facts to support the arguments • a new paragraph for each new argument. An exposition may be written in the form of an essay, a letter, an advertisement, a review, a speech or an editorial.

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WRITING FORMAT DESCRIPTIONS

4. Narrative

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The main purpose of a narrative is to describe a series of events and circumstances often involving fictitious characters. It usually includes: • a title – gets the attention of the reader and indicates what the story is about • an orientation – introduces the main characters, the setting or location, the time of the story and the initiating event • a complication – a problem which involves the main character(s) • a resolution – how the problem is solved. A narrative uses: • descriptive vocabulary • interesting characters • suitable paragraphing. A narrative may be written in the form of a story, a play, a fairytale, a myth, a legend, a science fiction work, a ballad or a poem.

5. Report

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The main purpose of a report is to give facts clearly without unnecessary information or opinions. It usually includes: • a title – tells what the report is about • a classification – provides information about the focus of the report • a description – expands on the focus • a conclusion – a summary or comment. A report uses: • facts, not opinions • no unnecessary information • the third person • the timeless present tense. A report may be written in the form of a review, a newspaper or magazine article, an eyewitness account or a scientific report.

PLANNING FRAMEWORKS

The following pages (4–8) are photocopiable planning frameworks for each of the five writing formats, designed for pupils to use when planning their writing. They provide a structure for writing and include elements unique to each format. The planning frameworks can be used in conjunction with the ‘Editing and proofreading checklists’ (pages 10–14) to encourage pupils to review and correct their writing. Teachers can assess and then record their pupils’ understanding of the elements of each writing format on the ‘Class evaluation record’ on pages 15–16.

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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Planning a procedure Name:

Date:

Title: Goal (What you need to do):

Requirements (Things you’ll need):

Steps:

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Test (How you’ll know if your procedure was successful):

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Planning a recount Name:

Date:

Title: Setting: Who?

Where?

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When?

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Why?

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Events: 1.

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Concluding statement/comment:

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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Planning an exposition Name:

Date:

Title: Introductory statement (What you believe):

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Arguments (Thoughts and ideas which support your belief):

Conclusion (Link your ideas to form a final comment which summarises your position):

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Planning a narrative Name:

Date:

Title: Orientation: Characters (appearance, personality, likely actions):

Setting/Location:

Initiating event: What event starts the action?

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Time:

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How did this involve the characters?

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Complication: What problems do the characters have?

What caused the problems?

Resolution (How are the problems solved?):

Conclusion (What happened in the end?):

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Planning a report Name:

Date:

Title: Classification (gives information about the focus of the report):

Description (special features):

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Conclusion (summing up):

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EDITING AND PROOFREADING CHECKLISTS

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The primary purpose of writing and the use of language is communication—to get one’s message or ideas across to another person in an effective manner. It is important that the message is clear so that there are no misunderstandings. Ensuring that there are no barriers to effective communication, due to poor spelling and grammar or incorrect structure, is vital. Provided on the following pages is a series of checklists for each of the five writing formats: procedures: recounts, expositions, narratives and reports. Each of the writing formats has its own particular structure or elements which help the pupils communicate their ideas within the given format. The checklists allow pupils to ensure that these elements are included and that they have thoroughly checked and edited their work for any errors. The checklists, which list specific points, provide an opportunity for pupils and their peers to evaluate their writing and develop their writing and editing skills. Ideally, providing this opportunity for self-evaluation will allow pupils to develop a habit of always editing and proofing their work.

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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Editing and proofreading a procedure Name:

Date:

Title of procedure: Editing and proofreading are very important parts of writing. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. Checklist 1. Does your procedure make sense to you? ........................................................................... Yes No 2. Did you include a goal? ............................................................................................................ Yes No 3. Did you list the things you needed? ....................................................................................... Yes No

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4. Have you included all the steps in the correct order? ........................................................ Yes No

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5. Did you add a test to check that your procedure works? .................................................. Yes No 6. Spelling:

Have you corrected any spelling errors? .................................................................... Yes No

(b)

Did you check that your works look right? .................................................................. Yes No

(c)

Did you use a dictionary? ............................................................................................... Yes No

(d)

Did you ask someone to help you with spelling? ....................................................... Yes No

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7. Did you use command verbs? ................................................................................................. Yes No 8. Are your statements short and clear? ................................................................................... Yes No 9. Did each statement make sense when you read it on its own? ........................................ Yes No

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10. Do your statements all start with a capital letter and end with a full stop? .................... Yes No 11. Ask a partner to read your procedure. .................................................................................. Yes No Did he/she find it easy to understand? ........................................................................ Yes No

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I think my procedure is short my procedure is clear

my procedure would work

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Editing and proofreading a recount Name:

Date:

Title of recount: Editing and proofreading are very important parts of writing. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. Checklist Title: Does your title reflect the topic? ............................................................................................ Yes No Does it generate interest? ....................................................................................................... Yes No Setting: Does your recount include: • specific characters? ........................................................................................................... Yes No

• location?................................................................................................................................ Yes No

• time of the events? .............................................................................................................. Yes No

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• the reason for the events? ................................................................................................. Yes No Events: Were the events sequenced correctly? ................................................................................ Yes No Were all relevant events included? ....................................................................................... Yes No Concluding statement:

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Did you conclude with a statement or comment? ............................................................... Yes No Spelling:

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Have you corrected any spelling errors? .............................................................................. Yes No Punctuation: Have you checked your punctuation? ................................................................................... Yes No

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Is each event recorded in a separate paragraph? .............................................................. Yes No Language features: Have you used the past tense? ............................................................................................... Yes No Is the vocabulary you used interesting and varied? ........................................................... Yes No Peer editor: Did you use a peer editor? ....................................................................................................... Yes No Did she/he make any constructive comments? ................................................................... Yes No I think my recount is interesting my spelling and punctuation are the presentation of my work is Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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Editing and proofreading an exposition Name:

Date:

Title of exposition: Editing and proofreading are very important parts of writing. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. Checklist Do you understand the purpose of an exposition? 1. Does your exposition: (a) clearly state a problem in the introduction? ............................................................. Yes No (b) provide background information?............................................................................... Yes No

(d) sequence arguments from strongest to weakest? .................................................. Yes No

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(c) list facts to support your arguments? (diagrams, photos, facts and figures)...... Yes No

(e) include a final paragraph which reinforces and summarises the main points? Yes No

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2. Have you used persuasive language? ............................................................................. Yes No Spelling

3. Have you corrected any spelling errors? ........................................................................ Yes No Punctuation

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4. Have you checked your punctuation? ............................................................................. Yes No 5. Have you used a separate paragraph for each argument? ......................................... Yes No Peer edit 6. Ask a partner to read your exposition

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(a) Did he/she understand your point of view? .............................................................. Yes No (b) Did it make sense? ........................................................................................................ Yes No

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(c) Were you able to persuade your partner to agree with your point of view? ...... Yes No

I think my exposition is persuasive my spelling and punctuation are the presentation of my work is

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Editing and proofreading a narrative Name:

Date:

Title of narrative: Editing and proofreading are very important parts of writing. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. Checklist Title: Does your title indicate what the story is about? ................................................................ Yes No Does it get the attention of the reader? ................................................................................ Yes No Orientation: Does the beginning draw the reader into the characters’ world? ................................... Yes No

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Are the characters believable? .............................................................................................. Yes No

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Do their actions fit their personalities? ................................................................................. Yes No

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Is the setting realistic? ............................................................................................................. Yes No Initiating event: Is the problem known at the beginning of the story? .......................................................... Yes No Complication: Is the problem believable? ...................................................................................................... Yes No Resolution:

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Does the resolution fit the complication? ............................................................................. Yes No Have the problems been solved? ........................................................................................... Yes No Conclusion:

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Is the ending satisfying to the reader? .................................................................................. Yes No Punctuation and spelling: Check the following: Spelling – use a dictionary or ask someone. Punctuation – including capital letters, full stops, question marks, commas and direct speech. Paragraphs for new ideas. Vocabulary: Have you used some interesting adjectives? ....................................................................... Yes No Have you used any compound words? ................................................................................. Yes No Have you used more interesting verbs instead of ‘said’? .................................................. Yes No I think my narrative is interesting my spelling and punctuation are the presentation of my work is

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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Editing and proofreading a report Name:

Date:

Title of report: Editing and proofreading are very important parts of writing. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. Checklist 1. Does your report include a classification? ........................................................................... Yes No 2. Does it include an accurate and detailed description of the topic? ................................ Yes No 3. Have you ended with a conclusion? ...................................................................................... Yes No

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4. Have you written facts not opinions? .................................................................................... Yes No 5. Have you used action verbs? .................................................................................................. Yes No

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6. Have you corrected any spelling errors? .............................................................................. Yes No

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7. Have you used capital letters and full stops correctly? ..................................................... Yes No 8. Did your peer editor: understand your report? ................................................................................................ Yes No

(b)

believe your facts to be true? ........................................................................................ Yes No

I think my report is interesting

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my report gives facts

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the presentation of my work is

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Class evaluation record

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Names

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Procedure Understands the format Uses clear concise language Sequences steps logically Self-edits Recount Understands the format Sequences events Uses past tense Self-edits Exposition Understands the format Presents persuasive arguments Supports arguments Self-edits

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Class evaluation record

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Narrative Understands the format Uses descriptive language Appropriate paragraphing Imaginative ideas Self-edits Report Understands the format Uses factual language Accurate information Self-edits

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

SPEAKING SKILLS Pupils need to have a sense of audience and to learn how to engage and communicate effectively. The chart, ‘How effective are you as a speaker?’ on page 20, can be photocopied and enlarged for classroom use. It focuses attention on the preparation and presentation of information as well as oral communication skills. Opportunities are provided for pupils to organise and communicate their ideas to a partner, a small group or the class. Pupils should be encouraged to set individual speaking goals on which to focus and to evaluate their performance.

LISTENING SKILLS

SPEECHES

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Providing opportunities for pupils to engage in active listening is essential, but some pupils may need to have explicit instruction to understand the requirements of effective listening. The ‘How well do you listen?’ chart on page 21 can be photocopied and enlarged for classroom use. It is suggested that teacher and pupils decide on a particular goal as a focus for a lesson and then evaluate how well this goal was achieved.

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A speech is a talk or address delivered to an audience.

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Purpose 1. To inform the audience of the views, facts and news of the speaker. 2. To influence the audience to support the speaker’s perspective or cause. 3. To justify an action or proposed action. 4. To entertain a specific audience. Features 1. Ideas and facts must have a logical sequence. 2. Format includes: • introduction • statement of case • argument or explanation of position • conclusion 3. May include some visual presentation (video, slides, photographs, diagrams). 4. Personal experience and humour may be used to maintain interest and to emphasise point of view. 5. May include some informal language or idioms. 6. Short sentences may be used to enable members of the audience to remain focused and attentive.

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING DEBATING A debate is a formal, organised argument on a particular matter or topic, between two opposing teams. Purpose 1. To win by presenting a convincing argument and by out-scoring the opposing team.

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Features 1. A debate is made up of: • an affirmative team of three members who argue for the topic • a negative team of three members who argue against the topic • a chair • a timekeeper • an adjudicator. 2. A debate is about a topic, also known as the moot. (A moot is a claim that something is true.) 3. Team members work together to prepare their argument by researching the topic. 4. Use palm cards to summarise discussion points. 5. Speakers must consider audience intelligence and experience. 6. Humour may be used. 7. Each team member has a different task.

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Format A classroom plan could be as follows. TIMEKEEPER

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M A 2, E r E T ake V I e AT , sp r 1 M e IR er 3 eak F F k A ea sp sp

Chairperson The chair:

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1. 2. 3. 4.

AUDIENCE

CHAIR

sp NE ea G ke AT I sp r 1, VE ea sp TE ke ea AM r 3 ke r2 ,

ADJUDICATOR

states the topic introduces each speaker for both teams deals firmly with interjections or comments from the audience announces the winner at the conclusion of the debate after consulting with the adjudicator.

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING Timekeeper • The timekeeper allocates each speaker a set time to speak. • The timekeeper rings three sets of bells. 1. A single bell – warns the speaker the time is almost up. 2. A double bell – the speaker’s time is up. 3. A continuous bell – the time is up and the adjudicator will disregard any further argument.

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Speakers Each speaker has a different role: Affirmative 1 • defines the subject of the debate • outlines the argument • allocates responsibility to each member Negative 1 • must accept affirmative definition or show why it is unacceptable and amend it Affirmative 2 • restates affirmative case • deals with each argument presented by Negative 1 • may add new aspects to the affirmative argument Negative 2 • attacks the arguments put forward by the two affirmative speakers • develops his or her argument Affirmative 3 • persuades audience that Negative team’s argument is worthless • ends on a positive note that affirms the topic Negative 3 • role is similar to that of Affirmative 3 • stresses negative aspect

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Adjudicator Judges the performance of both teams based on: Matter: • subject knowledge • definition of topic • the outline and explanation of the argument • examples that support the argument Manner: the way in which the speech is presented. • language • gestures • stance • voice quality • verbal skills Method: how the matter is planned • introduction • technique • strategy

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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How effective are you as a speaker? Effective speakers … Select:

• interesting information • relevant facts

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Organise: • information logically • time efficiently • equipment if required

• with the topic • audience interest

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Engage:

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Present: • their facts and opinions • confidently • themselves well

Maintain: • eye contact • posture Speak:

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• clearly • at an appropriate volume and pace • in a lively, enthusiastic manner

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How well do you listen?

Effective listeners:

on the speaker

Avoid

unnecessary movements

Listen

carefully

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Focus

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Concentrate

courtesy

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Show

Process the information

Analyse and make connections

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of appropriate questions The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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VOCABULARY

To enrich the communication skills of pupils, it is important that they understand all of the concepts of English vocabulary. An increased vocabulary develops the pupils’ ability to communicate their ideas, making their writing and speaking more descriptive and interesting to read or listen to.

COMPOUND WORDS

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‘Compound’ comes from the Latin meaning ‘putting together’. Each part of a compound word must be a word that can stand alone. For example: toothbrush mother-in-law Note: As language changes, many words that were previously hyphenated no longer need a hyphen. Pupils should be encouraged to consult a recent dictionary.

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HOMOGRAPHS

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Homo – same graph – write Homographs are words that are written in the same way, but have different meanings, origins and sometimes are pronounced differently. Homographs that sound the same include: sack, ruler, pupil, spring, squash, stole, swallow, bear, saw, felt, train, fast, hold, park, club, court, duck, cape, chop, coach, grave, cricket, march, prune, right, ring, table, wake, dear, watch, last, kind, cross, blind, bored, down, iron

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Homographs that are pronounced differently include:

row, subject, present, object, wind, wound, bow, tear, record, desert, close, number

HOMOPHONES

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Homo – same phone – sound Homophones are words that sound the same but are spelled differently. scent, sent, cent I’ll, aisle, isle so, sew, sow they’re, their, there pain, pane lead, led knew, new bored, board threw, through ate, eight key, quay weather, whether, wether break, brake

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paws, pause, pores load, lode horse, hoarse to, two, too main, mane prey, pray court, caught hole, whole foul, fowl fare, fair idle, idol vane, vain, vein steel, steal right, write

male, mail alter, altar bare, bear weak, week road, rode peace, piece no, know, meat, meet queue, cue stationery, stationary waist, waste where, wear, ware hale, hail

berry, bury choose, chews hare, hair sauce, source sale, sail course, coarse serial, cereal sea, see blew, blue practice, practise throne, thrown stairs, stares plain, plane

SYNONYMS Synonyms are words with the same or similar meaning. 22

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VOCABULARY ANTONYMS Antonyms are words with the opposite meaning. Finding synonyms and antonyms helps pupils to develop a wider vocabulary and allows them to write more precisely and interestingly. Some antonyms are formed by adding a prefix; for example: un, dis, in, im, mis.

USING A THESAURUS The word ‘thesaurus’ comes from ‘thesauros’, a Greek word meaning ‘treasure’. It is considered a treasure trove of words that can be useful when seeking synonyms and antonyms for writing or solving word puzzles. It is divided into two parts: • a list of entries • an index.

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Pupils should look for words in the index (the second section), where they will find most words with general synonym(s) and a page reference number, followed by an abbreviant. (The index is arranged alphabetically and the headwords are in bold type.) The abbreviation indicates the part of speech; e.g. n. noun, adj. adjective.

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For example (refer to Roget’s thesaurus): fade shade off 27 vb to transparent 114 vb be dim 419 vb lost colour 426 vb deteriorate 655 vb

OVERUSED WORDS

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Choose the keyword that is closest in meaning to the way the word is to be used then turn to that page in the list of entries (first section). Refer to the abbreviation of the part of speech from the index to find synonyms and antonyms.

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Pupils should be encouraged to communicate more exact meaning by avoiding the overuse of some words; e.g. ‘asked’, ‘said’, ‘nice’, ‘got’ and ‘then’. Words that can be used instead of ‘asked’ include:

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enquired, requested, queried, questioned, begged, quizzed, appealed, demanded, beseeched, required, implored

Words that can be used instead of ‘said’ include: spoke, uttered, yelled, shouted, whispered, cried, sobbed, commented, replied, stated, talked, voiced, announced, remarked, repeated, breathed, declared, recited, expressed, protested Words that can be used instead of ‘nice’ include: agreeable, exquisite, favourite, attractive, delightful, colourful, fine, mild, neat, rare, wise, exact, fussy, right, interesting, dainty, decent, proper, friendly, careful, correct, entertaining, fitting, precise, refined, welcome, accurate, becoming, kind, delicate, pretty, pleasant, pleasing, precious, suitable, beautiful, delicious, sweet, cute, gratifying, wonderful

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VOCABULARY Words that can be used instead of ‘got’ include: received, caught, attracted, obtained, earned, had, became, achieved, bought, purchased, grew, was, was given, found, possessed, collected, acquired, took, procured, inherited, fetched, retrieved, comprehended, understood Words that can be used instead of ‘then’ include: after, following, eventually, finally, later, also, so, when, again, besides, further, therefore, in addition, consequently, while, afterwards, subsequently, on arrival, later on, during

ACROSTICS

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An acrostic is a series of lines or verses in which the first letters form a word or phrase. Completing acrostics improves pupils’ vocabulary and spelling and allows them to concisely describe a concept by their choice of appropriate words and phrases.

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SIMILES

A simile compares one thing with another and is introduced by the words ‘as’ or ‘like’.

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For example: As dead as a doornail. She ate like a horse. Similes are used to convey ideas and images and to enrich language.

ALLITERATION

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Alliteration is the repetition of consonants at the beginning of words.

For example: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Alliteration can create rhythmical or musical effects and can focus attention on qualities or attributes.

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SPELLING

Because of the complexity of the English language, there are a number of exceptions to most of the spelling rules. After pupils have learned a rule, they should be encouraged to consolidate this learning by seeking exceptions to the rule.

SYLLABLES Breaking words into syllables is very useful for pronouncing and spelling words. A syllable has one vowel sound. The following is a list of rules to determine how words are divided into syllables. 1. When two consonants (same or different) come between two vowels, divide between the consonants. swim/mer

con/test

2. When there is only one consonant between two vowels, divide before the consonant. fa/mous 24

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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SPELLING 3. When consonants make one speech sound, they are kept together. pro/phet

me/thod

dol/phin

4. The letters ‘re’ and ‘le’ cannot stand alone at the end of a word and must take the preceding consonant. me/tre

sad/dle

5. Prefixes and suffixes are usually separated from the base word. joy/ful

sub/mit

dis/o/bey

6. Compound words divide between the small words. rain/coat

la/dy-/in-/wait/ing

• Most nouns form their plural by just adding ‘s’. socks, shoes, shirts

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PLURALS

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• Words ending in ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘s’, ‘x’, and ‘z’ usually add ‘es’ to make the plural word easier to pronounce. churches, wishes, buses, boxes, quizzes exceptions include: stomachs, monarchs, matriarchs, patriarchs

Note: The ‘ch’ is pronounced like ‘ck’ in these words, so the ‘es’ is not needed for ease of pronunciation.

• Many words ending in ‘o’ also add ‘es’ in the plural form.

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tomatoes, potatoes, heroes, echoes

But there are numerous exceptions, including words ending with ‘oo’ and some words associated with music. In many recent dictionaries, both endings are included. ‘oo’ words: bamboos, kangaroos, cockatoos, zoos, shampoos

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music: banjos, solos, duos, trios, pianos, sopranos, radios, altos, cellos, videos others: ratios, zeros, merinos, silos

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• Nouns ending in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ change the ‘f’ or ‘fe’ to ‘v’ and add ‘es’. knives, wolves, halves, selves Exceptions include:

words ending with ‘ff’: stuffs, puffs, skiffs, cliffs, staffs, sheriffs

Note: Both forms of some words are accepted: dwarves or dwarfs, wharves or wharfs, hooves or hoofs.

others: reefs, gulfs, chiefs, roofs, waifs • Nouns ending with a consonant and a ‘y’ change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding ‘es’. babies, puppies, flies, spies, libraries • Some plurals are made by changing some letters of the base noun or by adding an unusual suffix. tooth – teeth oasis – oases person – people goose – geese Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

woman – women die – dice radius – radii, radiuses axis – axes

foot – feet cactus – cacti, cactuses fungus – fungi, funguses crisis – crises

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25


SPELLING parenthesis – parentheses criterion – criteria ox – oxen cherub – cherubim, cherubs

emphasis – emphases louse – lice medium – media, mediums phenomenon – phenomena sphinx – sphinges, sphinxes child – children mouse – mice, mouses (computer)

• Some words may have the same singular and plural forms. fish, cod, salmon, trout, deer, sheep, reindeer, swine, elk, dozen, score, innings, gallows • Some nouns have no singular form; many of them are thought of as ‘a pair of’. trousers, bathers, spectacles, glasses, pants, tweezers, pliers, clippers, scissors, secateurs, bellows, tongs, measles, billiards

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ADDING SUFFIXES

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A suffix can be described as a group of letters added to the end of a word. Suffixes changes the meaning of words. Examples of suffixes include:

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able, age, al, an, ance, ary, ate, en, ence, er, ery, ese, est, ful, fy, hood, ible, ic, ion, ish, ist, ive, less, ling, ly, ment, most, ness, or, ous, ship • Suffixes are usually just added to the end of the word.

work, worked, workable, working, worker • Sometimes the spelling of the base word changes.

shut–shutting, happy–happily, shape–shaping

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one-one-one rule

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The one-one-one rule for adding suffixes beginning with a vowel requires understanding of: • consonants and vowels • short and long vowels • syllables.

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When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel to words of one syllable, with one short vowel sound followed by one consonant, double that consonant. shop – shopper

cut – cutting

Note: Words of more than one syllable with a prefix or which are compound words also double the final consonant. refitting

babysitter

outrigger

dropping the ‘e’ Another rule for adding a suffix beginning with a vowel to a word, usually with a long vowel sound and ending with a silent ‘e’, is that the ‘e’ is dropped before adding the suffix. shape – shaping

close – closing

Note: An interesting exception is ‘likable’. Macquarie dictionary prefers ‘likeable’, but also acknowledges ‘likable’. A simple way for pupils to remember part of this rule is: ‘e’ goes away when ‘ing’ comes to stay

adding ‘ly’ ‘Ly’ is usually just added to words. quick – quickly love – lovely 26

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SPELLING There are some exceptions: 1. Whole – wholly. The ‘e’ is dropped before adding ‘ly’. 2. True – truly, due – duly. There are already two vowels at the end of these words so one is dropped before adding ‘ly’. 3. Horrible – horribly, simple – simply. These are two examples of words ending in ‘le’ after a consonant. The ‘e’ is changed to ‘y’.

LONG VOWEL SOUNDS Pupils need to be aware of some of the different ways the common long vowel sounds are represented in English. Compiling a class list is recommended.

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– a, a–e, ai, ay, eigh, ei – e, ee, ea, y, ey, e–e – i, ie, igh, y, i–e, uy, ei, eigh – o, oa, ow, o–e, oe, ough – u, u–e, ue, iew, ew, ui

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a e i o u

e

These include:

CONTRACTIONS

Contractions are more common in speech and dialogue. Contractions are used to make communication quicker and easier. Pupils need to be aware of the purpose and conventions of contracting words and understand that the apostrophe indicates that letters have been omitted.

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Contractions are often: • pronouns plus auxiliary verbs (e.g. am, is, are was, were, has, have, had, will, shall, would, should) Note: Proper nouns and auxiliary verbs can also be contracted; e.g. January is the hottest month, January’s the hottest month. • auxiliary verbs plus not • other words often contracted include: who, where, there, that, how, why, let, must, might, ought, need, dare

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

27


LANGUAGE FEATURES PARTS OF SPEECH Understanding the different parts of speech will help pupils construct effective sentences.

Verbs Verbs are words used to show actions or states of being or having; e.g. eat, was, has. Command verbs are imperatives and are often used in procedures at the beginning of a sentence; e.g. ‘Roast the meat’. Verb tense: There are three basic tenses. However, because there are so many irregular verbs in English, these can be complex. the present

the future

walked

walk

will walk

has walked

walks

should walk

see

will see

sees

should see

irregular saw

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has seen

Note: The future and past tenses often use auxiliary or ‘helping’ verbs to form a compound verb; e.g. have written, can open, may visit, were asleep.

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regular

the past

Adverbs

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Adverbs are words that can modify or enhance the meaning of verbs; e.g. He swam slowly, I sang yesterday. There are adverbs of time, place and manner.

Nouns

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time; e.g. tomorrow place; e.g. outside manner; e.g. quickly

Pronouns

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Nouns are words used to name people, places, things, feelings or ideas; e.g. boy, school, book, joy, courtesy. Proper nouns are used to name particular people, places or things. Proper nouns are written with capital letters; e.g. John, Singapore, February. Collective nouns are words used to name groups of people, animals or things; e.g. a team of footballers. An extensive list of common and less familiar collective nouns used to describe many of these groups is on pages 31–32. Note: Some groups have more than one collective noun and some collective nouns are used for a number of different groups.

Pronouns are words substituted for nouns; e.g. We asked them to help us. Pupils should be able to use personal pronouns in the: First person (used when talking about ourselves; e.g. I, we, me, us) Second person (used when talking to someone; e.g. you) Third person (used when talking about someone; e.g. he, she, it, they, him, her, their) I or me These pronouns can cause difficulty. ‘I’ is used for the subject of a verb. ‘Me’ is used for the object of a verb. He gave the book to me. (subject) (verb)

(object)

‘He’ is the subject of the verb. ‘Me’ is the object of the verb. 28

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LANGUAGE FEATURES Pupils often find difficulty with sentences with a pronoun and a proper noun together.

For example: • He gave the book to Mary and me/I. A simple way to work out which pronoun to use is to omit the proper noun. He gave the book to me. He gave the book to I. ‘He gave the book to me’ is usually identified by pupils as sounding ‘better’ and is correct because ‘me’ is the object of ‘gave’. • Mary and I/me went to the movies. I went to the movies. Me went to the movies. With the proper noun omitted, pupils can usually identify that ‘I’ (the subject) is correct and sounds ‘better’.

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An added complication occurs when the pronoun at the end of the sentence refers to a verb that is understood but not written or spoken. For example:

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Tom can run faster than I. (can) He is taller than I. (am) She rides her bike faster than I. (do)

Adjectives

Adjectives modify or enhance the meaning of nouns and, less commonly, pronouns; e.g. deserted playground, lucky me.

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Comparatives and superlatives

Comparatives are adjectives used to compare two things and usually use the suffix ‘er’. For example: bigger braver

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Superlatives are adjectives used to compare more than two things and usually use the suffix ‘est’. For example: biggest bravest

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If the adjective is a long word (more than two syllables), ‘more’ or ‘most’ is used. more satisfactory most satisfactory

Sometimes different words are needed for comparatives and superlatives. For example: good little far bad

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

better less farther worse

best least farthest worst

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

29


LANGUAGE FEATURES Prepositions Prepositions are words that show the relationship between nouns and/or pronouns in the same sentence. Common prepositions include: during, for, between, in, up, on. He rode through the park. Sally slept until dawn. I would like one of those. Prepositions of time: after, in, about, before, during, while, between, for, since, until, from, on, till, at, around place: beside, against, outside, inside, beyond, along, through, over, under, above, below, between, near, towards, behind, within, around, by across, beneath, down, up, on, in, upon, to, into, from

Conjunctions

IDIOMS

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hot or cold on the land and in the air sitting on the beach while watching the birds There were dark clouds in the sky so I took my umbrella.

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one word with another one phrase with another one clause with another one sentence with another

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Conjunctions are joining words. They can join different language units.

PUNCTUATION

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Idioms are sayings used in speech where the real and the literal meanings are different: to be caught red-handed See page 35 for a list of better-known idioms.

Capital letters

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Punctuation is used to clarify meaning and assist with reading and comprehension.

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Capital letters are needed for: • sentence beginnings; e.g. I like my teacher. She is kind to me. • proper nouns; e.g. people’s names (Bob Brown), names of places (Pacific Ocean), days of the week (Tuesday), months (May), countries (New Zealand), nationalities (French), languages (Russian), religious faiths (Christian), holidays and festivals (Passover). • titles; e.g. Red Cross, The sound of music, Note: Prim-Ed Publishing employs minimal capitalisation for titles ‘Goldilocks and the three bears’. of books and other publications as recommended by the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, 2002.

Commas

Pupils need to understand the purpose of commas in text and particularly how commas can change meaning. I enjoy watching horses, eating hay and galloping around a paddock. I enjoy watching horses eating hay and galloping around a paddock. Commas can be used: • to mark a pause in text. Sometimes these may be a matter of personal choice. The trend seems to be to use commas less frequently. • to separate a series of names (nouns), descriptions (adjectives) and actions (verbs—including adverbs) • to separate direct speech from the rest of the sentence

30

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LANGUAGE FEATURES • at the beginning and end of a letter • to separate parts of a sentence including the name of the person being addressed, additional information and so the reader will not connect words that do not belong together.

Apostrophes for possession Apostrophes are used to show that something belongs to someone or something. The placement of the apostrophe can be challenging but the simple rule is that it is placed after the owner or owners. (The ‘tail’ of the apostrophe ‘points’ to the owner(s).) the girl’s dresses (one girl) the baby’s shoes (one baby)

the girls’ dresses (more than one girl) the babies’ shoes (more than one baby)

Grammatical contractions

he will – he’ll it has – it’s

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should not – shouldn’t I had – I’d

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Grammatical contractions are words that have been made by joining and shortening two words. An apostrophe is used in place of the missing letters.

Quotation marks

Quotation marks (inverted commas) are used to enclose quoted speech or thoughts. Single or double quotation marks are acceptable but must be used consistently. ‘Please feed that noisy cat’, Mum shouted. ‘I fed him yesterday, it’s Ben’s turn’, Adam replied.

Note: Prim-Ed Publishing punctuates speech as recommended by the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, 2002.

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Quoted text must start on a new line unless the same speaker is continuing.

Paragraphs

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‘Look out, Ben! There’s a train coming’, Brad yelled. ‘I can see it‘, Ben replied. ‘Well get off the track’, yelled Brad. ‘You’ll need to hurry.’

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Paragraphs separate text into meaningful sections to facilitate reading and understanding. Paragraphs start on a new line. A space is often left between paragraphs. The first sentence of a paragraph should indicate and introduce the content of the paragraph. Pupils are able to make use of this writing convention when ‘skimming’ text to quickly gain an understanding of the content.

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

31


LANGUAGE FEATURES COLLECTIVE NOUNS

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32

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A herd of buffalo A caravan of camels A train of camels A clowder of cats A clutter of cats A herd of cattle A mob of cattle A coalition of cheetahs A litter of cubs A herd of deer A parcel of deer A pack of dogs A flock of dolphins A pod of dolphins A school of dolphins A herd of donkeys A drove of donkeys A herd of elephants A parade of elephants A skulk of foxes A leash of foxes A tower of giraffes A group of giraffes A trip of goats A flock of goats A tribe of goats A band of gorillas A bloat of hippopotamuses A herd of hippopotamuses A pod of hippopotamuses A stable of horses A stud of horses A team of horses A mob of kangaroos A litter of kittens A leap of leopards A pride of lions A nest of mice A troop of monkeys A herd of moose A family of otters

pl

A flock of birds A flight of birds A brood of chickens A clutch of chickens A flight of cormorants A murder of crows A head of curlews A dole of doves A flight of doves A flush of ducks A flock of ducks A team of ducks A skein of ducks A convocation of eagles A cast of falcons A charm of finches A trembling of finches A stand of flamingos A gaggle of geese A flock of geese A skein of geese A colony of gulls A kettle of hawks A mews of hawks A brood of hens A charm of hummingbirds A colony of ibises A band of jays A congregation of magpies A flock of magpies A littering of magpies A sord of mallards A flush of mallards A pride of ostriches A parliament of owls A company of parrots A pandemonium of parrots A muster of peacocks A pod of pelicans A colony of penguins

A flight of pigeons A flock of pigeons A run of poultry A bevy of quail An unkindness of ravens A conspiracy of ravens A parliament of rooks A squabble of seagulls A host of sparrows A quarrel of sparrows A chattering of starlings A cloud of starlings A congregation of starlings A mustering of storks A flight of storks A flight of swallows A gulp of swallows A herd of swans A bevy of swans A bank of swans A team of swans A flock of turkeys A raft of turkeys A pitying of turtledoves A wake of vultures A bunch of waterfowl A descent of woodpeckers A herd of wrens A flock of wrens

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Birds

Mammals A cluster of antelope A herd of antelope A tribe of antelope A troop of apes A congress of baboons A colony of badgers A cloud of bats A colony of bats A family of beavers A gang of buffalo

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LANGUAGE FEATURES COLLECTIVE NOUNS A troupe of performers A crew of sailors A squad of soldiers An army of soldiers A company of soldiers A platoon of soldiers A class of pupils A flock of tourists A congregation of worshippers

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Others

A colony of ants A flight of butterflies An army of caterpillars An intrusion of cockroaches A swarm of flies A colony of wasps A cloud of grasshoppers A swarm of grasshoppers A flock of lice A plague of locusts A swarm of mosquitos A colony of termites A cloud of gnats

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People

A troupe of acrobats A cast of actors A company of actors A chorus of angels A troupe of artists A bevy of beauties A board of directors A staff of employees A panel of experts A gang of hoodlums An audience of listeners A den of thieves A coven of witches A faculty of academics A band of men A cortege of mourners An orchestra of musicians A crowd of onlookers A crowd of people

A wing of aircraft A quiver of arrows A belt of asteroids A bunch of bananas A hand of bananas A library of books A batch of bread A fleet of cars A pack of cards A deck of cards A network of computers A clutch of eggs A bed of flowers A bouquet of flowers A patch of flowers A ring of keys A range of mountains An anthology of poems A fleet of ships A flotilla of ships A pair of shoes A choir of singers A galaxy of stars A constellation of stars A stand of trees A grove of trees A clump of trees

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A host of angelfish A fleet of bass A school of butterfly fish A swarm of eels A glide of flying fish A shoal of mackerel A flotilla of swordfish A hover of trout A float of tuna A shoal of minnows A pack of perch A shoal of pilchards A bind of salmon A leap of salmon A family of sardines A herd of seahorses A shiver of sharks A school of sharks A pod of whiting

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Insects

Fish

ew

A team of oxen A drove of pigs A herd of pigs A string of ponies A school of porpoises A pod of porpoises A colony of rabbits A colony of seals A rookery of seals A herd of seals A flock of sheep A mob of sheep A parcel of sheep A dray of squirrels An ambush of tigers A huddle of walruses A mob of wallaby A sneak of weasels A gang of weasels A school of whales A run of whales A pod of whales A pack of wolves A herd of yaks A cohort of zebras A herd of zebras

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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LANGUAGE FEATURES ANIMAL NOUNS Animal

Male

Female

Baby

sow

bee

drone

queen, worker larva

hive, swarm (in flight), bike, drift, grist

bird

cock

hen

hatchling, chick

dissimulation (small birds only), fleet, flight, flock, parcel, pod, volery

camel

bull

cow

calf

flock

cameline

tomcat

queen

kitten

clutter, clowder, litter (young born to one female), kindle (kittens)

feline

bull

cow

calf

drift, drove, herd, mob

bovine

rooster

hen

chick, pullet (young flock, brood (of hens), clutch (of chicks), hen), cockerel (young peep (of chicks) rooster)

deer

buck, stag

doe

fawn

dog

dog

bitch

pup

duck

drake

duck

duckling

reynard

vixen

kit, cub, pup

skulk, leash

bull

doe

calf

herd, corps, tower, group

buck, billy

doe, nanny

kid, billy

herd, tribe, trip

goose

gander

goose

gosling

flock, gaggle, skein (only while in flight), wedge (flying in a V formation)

guinea pig

boar

sow

pup

group

hamster

buck

doe

pup

horde

goat

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giraffe

in g

fox

herd, mob

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chicken

ursine

e

boar

cattle

sleuth, sloth

Family

bear

cat

cub

Group of animals

cervine

litter (pups from one mother), pack (wild), canine kennel badelynge, brace, bunch, flock, paddling, raft, team vulpine hircine

stallion, stud

mare, dam

foal, colt (male), filly (female)

stable, harras, herd, team (working horses), string or field (racehorses)

kangaroo

buck, boomer, jack

doe, flyer, jill, roo

joey

troop, herd, mob

lion

lion

lioness

cub

pride

feline

pig

boar

sow

piglet, shoat, farrow

drove, herd, litter (of pups), sounder

porcine

rabbit

buck

doe

kitten, bunny, kit

colony, drove, leash, nest, trace, warren

lapine

seal

bull

cow

pup

herd, pod, rookery, harem

sheep

buck, ram

ewe, dam

lamb, lambkin, cosset drift, drove, flock, herd, mob, trip

swan

cob

pen

cygnet, flapper

bevy, game, herd, team, wedge (flying in a V formation)

tiger

tiger

tigress

cub, whelp

ambush, streak

whale

bull

cow

calf

gam, grind, herd, pod, school

wolf

dog

bitch

pup, whelp

pack, rout

zebra

stallion

mare

colt, foal

herd, zeal

34

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horse

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

equine

ovine

feline lupine

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


LANGUAGE FEATURES IDIOMS A square peg in a round hole By the skin of your teeth To read between the lines To blow one’s own trumpet Sound as a bell To sit on the fence To break the ice To paddle one’s own canoe To pour oil on troubled water To rain cats and dogs Burn the candle at both ends

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To be a wet blanket To take it with a grain of salt A snake in the grass To let the cat out of the bag To mind your p’s and q’s To paint the town red To sleep like a log To be a sight for sore eyes To take under your wing To be on tenterhooks A storm in a teacup

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pl

To have a finger in every pie To hit below the belt To be taken aback Like peas in a pod As game as Ned Kelly To pay through the nose To face the music To go to rack and ruin To take the cake Next to nothing To know the ropes

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35


INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES These are a series of activities designed for each specific writing format as they appear in the pupil workbook. They will hopefully provide ideas as to how the formats can be used in relation to a variety of subjects apart from English. Procedure 1 Mathematics 1. Research how many children suffer from burns in a given time and place. Include: • types of burns • severity • treatment given • where they were treated. 2. Graph the results. 3. Compare and contrast children who are burnt with children who have suffered from other accidents; for example: car/bike accidents, cuts, broken bones.

English 1. With a partner/group, discuss an evacuation plan for your school. Include: • alarms • people in charge • best exits to use • the need to stay calm • assembly areas. 2. Discuss with your family what to do in an emergency situation at home. Report your ideas to the class. 3. Write a letter to your local fire station asking for information on fire safety at home.

The arts 1. Design a safety poster to prevent burns, including: • in the kitchen • in the bathroom (hot water) • near fires/heaters • from the sun. 2. In small groups, dramatise an emergency and role-play contacting an emergency service. 3. Remember, you need to include: • which emergency service is required • your name • your address, including the nearest crossroad • the type of emergency • the number of people involved.

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Recount 1

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SPHE 1. Research the treatment of severe burns from injury to recovery. Write your findings in project form and present them to the class. 2. Research how burns were treated 50/100 years ago. Discuss why these treatments have changed. 3. Compile a list of ways to get medical help/advice; for example: local doctor, local chemist. Include: • location of each type • how to contact each type • what type of help/advice is available • when each type would be used.

Society and environment Working animals 1. Throughout the world, many different animal species are used to help improve the lives of people. 2. Research which animals are used and explain the tasks they are trained to do. 3. Write half a page on each animal. 4. Use illustrations, photographs and writings to support your work. 5. This can be presented as a journal or on a large poster suitable for display.

Science Pets 1. Choose an animal you would like to have as a pet. 2. Write a detailed manual explaining how to care for your pet. 3. Include the following information in your manual: • Origins of your pet; how long it has been bred as a pet, its country of origin. • Detailed description, including ideal size, weight, features. • Details on how to care for the pet, including diet, accommodation. • Information on how to keep it healthy, including vaccinations, washing etc. • A comment on why you have chosen this pet.

Society and environment Animal cruelty 1. Cruelty to animals is well documented. There are several agencies whose goal is to help animals in distress and to rehabilitate them back to good health. 2. Research these agencies and write a half-page description on their role and how they help animals. If possible, contact the agency and interview the people involved (perhaps your teacher would organise an excursion/incursion).

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English Animals that save lives 1. Using the library and Internet resources, research newspaper articles and well-known stories about animals who have saved their owners’ lives. 2. Write half a page of information for each story or article. 3. Both fact and fiction may be included. However, you must acknowledge titles and authors as well as the date and name of the newspaper.

36

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INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES Exposition 1 Society and environment 1. Using the Internet or library resources, research to find out about the Commonwealth Games. Include: • when they began • where they began • why they began • how often they are held • who competes • sports involved • main emblems 2. Find out about voting rights in different countries. Include: • ages at which people can vote • does everyone have the same rights? 3. Research to find information about local schools regarding leadership. Include: • do they have prefects? • do they have sports captains? • how are they chosen/elected? • how long do they serve? • what are their main roles?

SPHE 1. Compile a list of sports played in your school. 2. Compare this list to other schools. 3. Write the rules for your favourite team sport. 4. Write the rules for your favourite individual sport. 5. Compile a list of values that a school prefect would need to have; for example; honesty.

English 1. Plan a debate on the topic: ‘All schools should have their own bus.’ 2. Research to find information to support your ideas. 3. Remember: You need to be persuasive. 4. Follow the life of a famous sportsperson. 5. Collect newspaper and magazine articles about him/ her. 6. Pretend that you are going to interview him/her and prepare a list of questions you would like to ask.

The arts 1. List as many types of music as you can. 2. Name a group and/or an individual associated with each type. 3. Design a cartoon about the story. 4. Draw the characters from the story with appropriate facial expressions; e.g. Jessica-bored, Melissa-terror, Dad-angry, Mum-suffering 5. Dramatise the story.

Language research 1. ‘A cat has nine lives’ is a proverb. Explain its meaning. 2. Find other proverbs which refer to animals; e.g. ‘Don’t keep a dog and bark yourself’; ‘You can’t teach an old dog new tricks’. Explain their meanings. 3. List other proverbs you use. 4. Research and find idioms (sayings) used in everyday speech about animals; e.g. ‘to rain cats and dogs; ‘to sound fishy’.

Design and technology 1. Design a menu for a seaside restaurant. Include entrees, main meals, desserts and drinks. 2. Find recipes for some of these dishes. 3. Plan the decor for the restaurant. Include a design for the furniture, colours used, types of crockery and cutlery and interior design features. 4. Design the exterior of your seaside restaurant.

Society and environment 1. List your nearest beaches. 2. Record the main facilities at each; e.g. shops, surf clubs, restaurants, marinas etc. 3. Draw a map to show how to travel to your nearest beach. Include approximate distances. 4. Research to find environmental problems associated with beaches; e.g. erosion, pollution. 5. Give some solutions for overcoming these issues.

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The arts 1. Design a poster to promote yourself to be elected as a school captain/prefect. 2. List some fundraising activities that could be used in a school. 3. Design a poster advertising one of them. 4. Remember to make it • colourful • eye-catching • bright • clear • simple.

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INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES Report 1

Procedure 2

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Science 1. Research to find out about amphibians. 2. Compile a list of differences between frogs and other amphibians.

The arts 1. Design a poster encouraging the protection of the Spotted tree frog. 2. Remember to make it: • colourful • informative • eye-catching • appealing 3. Illustrate the life cycle of a frog. 4. Using a frog template, make a design suitable for fabric. 5. Screen-print the design. 6. Compile a list of frogs made famous in stories; for example; ‘The frog prince’. 7. Choose your favourite, rewrite it in your own words and produce your own illustrations. 8. With the class, compile a list of songs/poems about frogs. 9. Choose one and learn it. 10. Find out about Tiddalik, the frog who drank up all the water. 11. Write a legend of your own about a frog.

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Society and environment 1. Research, using the Internet or library, to compile a list of endangered species in Australia. 2. Choose one of the species and research to gain information on why it has become endangered. 3. Compile a list of the different types of frogs found in Australia. 4. Research one of them. Include: • appearance • habitat • life cycle • food • special features 5. Pollution is a major problem for frogs. Research to find the ways you can help in: • your local area • nationwide • globally 6. Compile a list or groups/organisations in your local area which help control pollution.

The arts 1. Compile a list of things that could be made from a sock; for example, a puppet. 2. Choose one idea from the list and make it. 3. Using some old socks, felt pieces and other fabric scraps, make an interesting collage. 4. Compile a list of songs which have ‘grass’ in their titles; for example, ‘The green, green grass of home’. 5. Choose one of these to learn.

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Science 1. Research to find out about different types of grasses. Include: • fastest growing • those grown from seeds • those grown from runners • special grasses used for sporting ovals, golf courses, etc. • roll-on lawns 2. Investigate potting mixes available at your local nursery or supermarket. 3. Compare: • prices • ingredients • effectiveness • uses • health and safety instructions for use 4. Experiment with a variety of seeds to compare: • size • colour • growth rate • type of growth • conditions needed for best growth 5. Experiment with seeds to determine the best conditions for their growth. Include: • amount of water needed • amount of sunlight

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Society and environment 1. Research, using the library or Internet, to find the earliest types of crops cultivated by humans. Include: • where they were grown • how they were grown • their uses • best conditions for their growth • places where they are still grown 2. Investigate the uses of different types of grasses in various cultures. 3. Include the use of grass for: • food • animal fodder • clothing • housing materials • basket making • other crafts Mathematics 1. Make your own grass head and keep a record of the growth every day. 2. Graph the results. 3. Keep a tally of the cost involved in making your grass head. 4. Estimate the cost for the whole class to do the activity. 5. Using several grass heads, record the difference in growth when a grass head is: • placed in a dark place • not completely filled with water • placed in a cold place 6. Graph the results.

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INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES Recount 2 Design and technology Picnic basket 1. Design and make a picnic basket which can be used for excursions to the beach or river. 2. Your basket must be able to carry: • enough food for a family of four • water or other suitable drinks • plates/cups/cutlery • sunscreen/insect repellent • camera • picnic rug. 3. The basket must be of a size that one person can manage comfortably. 4. Present your basket to the class.

Society and environment Care of river systems 1. Choose a river or waterway near your home. Give a brief description. 2. Research the rules and regulations in place which ensure the following aspects of river life. • Preservation of the environment. • Animal welfare (native inhabitants). • Safety both on and off the river. • Development restrictions. • Problems facing the health and longevity of the river. • Who manages and controls the river. • A concluding statement of ways the management of the river could be improved.

Science Archimedes 1. Using the library, Internet and other resources, research the Archimedes principle. 2. Who was Archimedes? 3. When did he live? 4. What was his background? 5. What did he discover? 6. How did his discovery improve or benefit our quality of life?

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English Water sports 1. Using the Internet, library and other resources, research watersports available throughout the world. 2. Write a paragraph describing each and include its country of origin where possible.

The arts 1. Design a poster for a new brand of cereal. 2. Remember to make it • bright • colourful • eye-catching • persuasive • bold. 3. Compile a list of songs, poems or books about food; for example: ‘Food, glorious food!’ 4. Read one of the books and poems and learn one song. 5. Using clay, make a model of a hamburger, then fire and paint it. Try to include meat, cheese, tomato, lettuce etc.

Mathematics 1. Choose 12 health bars to compare costs. Graph the results. 2. Work out the ratios between the size and cost of each bar. 3. Find some recipes for healthy slices and compare the costs of making them with the purchased bars.

SPHE 1. Choose a range of muesli bars to compare as to: • fat content • calories • nutritional value • value for money • colourings added • preservatives added. 2. Find a recipe for a healthy slice or bar and make it.

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English 1. Using a newspaper or magazine, find examples of words which are used to persuade or sell. 2. Cut them out and create a collage using them. 3. Plan a debate on the topic ‘Burgers are good for you’. 4. Use the Internet or library resources to find information to support your argument. Remember to be persuasive. 5. Make up a crossword puzzle about food with at least five clues across and five down.

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES Narrative 2 SPHE 1. List some important rules for safety with boats. 2. Name the various agencies which deal with water safety. 3. List any other people who are responsible for safety in/on water. Say: • who they are • where they work • their responsibilities • the equipment they use.

Society and environment 1. Research rivers to find: • the world’s longest • how civilisations developed around their deltas • how water can be used • famous waterfalls • famous bridges 2. Research fishing in rivers • types of fish caught • different methods of catching fish. 3. List important ways to prevent pollution in our rivers.

The arts 1. Act out the scene from the narrative using mime. Remember to use lots of action and expression. 2. Make up other mimes to do with water activities. 3. Draw a cartoon series showing the events in the narrative. 4. Draw other cartoons about water. 5. Find and learn songs about boats. 6. Learn a poem about boats.

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Design and technology 1. Research boats to find: • the oldest types of boats • uses of boats • materials used for boat making • some famous boats. 2. Design a boat you would like to own. Include • size • materials used • navigational aids • sleeping quarters • a galley • safety features.

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Society and environment 1. Research to find information about the Italian inventor Galileo. Include: • when he was born • where he was born • how long he lived • any other inventions he was responsible for. 2. Choose another famous inventor and do a project on him/her. 3. Compile a list of countries which use the Fahrenheit scale to measure temperatures and compare this to a list of countries which use the Celsius scale. 4. Compile a list of places where thermometers are used. 5. Discuss their most important uses. 6. Research to find the place with the lowest minimum and highest maximum temperatures in • your own country • another country.

SPHE 1. Find out all you can about human blood temperatures. Include • normal temperature • highest temperatures • lowest temperatures • what causes high temperatures • what causes low temperatures. 2. Compile a class list of inventions/discoveries which have benefited our health; for example: antibiotics, vaccines, X-rays. 3. Complete a project on one of these. Science 1. Experiment with ice blocks to find how quickly they melt under a variety of temperatures. 2. Graph the results. 3. Add a variety of substances to the ice—e.g. salt, sugar—and see what effects they have on the melting time. 4. Compile a list of melting and freezing temperatures of a variety of liquids and solids. Design and technology 1. Design a holder/container to prevent ice from melting for as long as possible. 2. Hold a class competition to see who can make an ice block melt the quickest.

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GRAPHIC ORGANISERS

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Graphic organisers are visual frameworks that are used to represent ideas and to organise them in a way that promotes learning and facilitates understanding. They are particularly useful for planning the content, sequence and organisation of a writing task. Graphic organisers allow pupils to: • make connections and understand how things are related • develop their more complex thinking skills; e.g. analysing, categorising and evaluating • use visual representations to assist memory and facilitate recall • apply multiple intelligences simultaneously. Graphic organisers include: • mind maps • flow charts (page 42) • problem-solving charts (page 43) • senses charts (page 44) • tree charts (page 45) • semantic webs (page 46).

MIND MAPS

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Mind maps can be used for note taking and as visual prompts for oral presentations. They usually use keywords, colour, drawings and symbols linked with arrows and branches. They are intended to be understood only by their creators. Space should be left so further ideas can be added.

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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Flow chart

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Problem-solving chart

Problem Positives

Negatives

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Possibilities

Goal

Solution

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Why

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Senses chart Subject:

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Sounds

Tastes

Smells

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Tree chart

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Semantic web

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Reading journal Category

Rating

Comment

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Title

Findings

Which titles caught your interest? What did you notice about the length of these titles? How much information was given in the title? Write your comments.

H = High interest

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M = Moderate interest

L = Low interest

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CARTOONS Cartoons use a picture or a series of pictures to communicate a story or message. Cartoons are often found in newspapers and comment on current political events, politicians and prominent people; for example, Michael Jackson’s nose. Usually the cartoonist aims to make his audience laugh. There are four types of cartoons. 1. A comic strip Generally found in newspapers, they can vary from two to several panels. Often the comic strip will be a complete story; however, it can be written as a serial and continued in the next issue of the newspaper. Examples of a comic strip include Garfield, Snake, Wizard of Id.

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2. A single cartoon Also found in newspapers, the single cartoon has only one picture. Even though they are funny, often a serious message is portrayed.

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3. A comic book This is a collection of cartoons in one book or magazine. The cartoons may be presented as one long story or a series of short stories. Some well-known examples include Calvin and Hobbs, Mad Magazine, The Phantom and Archie. 4. TV and film cartoons Cartoons may be used as a series or a complete work to create a feature-length film. The detail in the drawing and the story line is more complex and may require thousands of pictures to create movement. Voice-overs, music and sound effects are also required. Some well-known animated cartoons include Beauty and the beast and The Simpsons.

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Conventions of cartoons Cartoons use the following conventions. • Thought bubble • Unusual facial features • Larger than life situations • Description of actions • Exaggerated characteristics or action • Speech balloon containing exclamation, caption or dialogue. • Cartoonist’s signature

ADVERTISEMENTS

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An aural (radio) or visual message in the form of billboards, fliers, circulars, notice, pamphlets or posters promoting a product, cause, event or person. Purpose • To tantalise, persuade and invite purchase of a service or product. • To disseminate information. • To encourage loyalty to a cause, person or product. Features • Uses concise language • May include sponsorship • Uses abbreviated language and abbreviations • Uses graphics, colour, font, size • Emphasises price, quality and reliability • Designed for a specific audience or to create a new audience 48

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

• To endorse a product over that of a competitor. • To correct actual or perceived misinformation.

• May create sense of emergency (limited availability, sale, special offer) • Includes contact information • Radio and television may include jingle or song • Excellence often claimed rather than proven or backed by research • Asterisk often refers to fine print outlining conditions, limitations or warnings Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION JOURNAL/DIARY WRITING A journal (or a diary) is a record of a person’s thoughts, feelings and experiences. Journals may be written as a summary of the day’s activities and encounters. Journals are often kept by writers, artists, politicians, travellers, pupils and businesspeople. • May be written for an audience; e.g. teachers, superiors, siblings, other family members.

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• Uses vocabulary which expresses personal feelings

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Purpose • To provide a non-threatening medium for exploring, recording and evaluating ideas. • To record personal thoughts and feelings. Features • Each entry is dated • Detailed and descriptive entries • Can be written in first person (I, me etc.) • Can include cartoons, photographs, poems, conversations

What did I learn in this unit? What did I enjoy or not enjoy? Do I need to improve my writing? Has this work helped?

NOTE MAKING

• Am I aware of the format required for this type of work? • Do I need any help with this format?

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Journal writing to reflect on a unit of work Pupils write a passage to express their thoughts, feelings, ideas and opinions about a unit of work they have completed. They are directed to ask themselves these questions and to give reasons for their responses:

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Note making is a very important skill for pupils who need to be able to record what they read, see or hear. In order for notes to be useful, pupils need to understand the information. Note making requires practice.

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Making notes from books Pupils need to: • concentrate to gain understanding • focus on the main idea • identify keywords and facts Preparation • Work out what pupils already know and want to know about the topic. • Locate appropriate resources • Use table of contents or index

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• sequence information for easy retrieval • present notes neatly.

• Skim read by: looking at the title, reading first sentence of a paragraph, glancing at visual information, subheading etc. and reading final paragraph.

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Making notes • Be aware of the purpose for recording information. • Read through each paragraph for the main idea, supporting ideas and examples. • Record information so it is organised and easily understood. A graphic organiser can be very useful to link ideas.

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Making notes from oral presentations Writing notes can be useful because it helps to focus the listener’s attention and aids concentration. • Look at the speaker. • Look for clues to what is important; e.g. emphasis, repetition and pauses. • Concentrate on the main points. • Jot down headings and subheadings. • Note any concluding comments. • Develop useful personal abbreviations.

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Revision of notes It is advisable to review notes the following day to check that they make sense while the information is retained. Pupils may benefit by comparing notes on a common subject.

PLAYS

A play is a dramatic work written in dialogue and usually presented by more than one player to an audience.

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Purpose • To present a visual and aural experience for the audience. • To entertain or provoke thought and emotion. • To provide a forum for the players to express their actions.

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Features • Characters are listed at the beginning, usually in order of appearance. • Character listings may include a brief description of age, appearance, role in story or relationship to others. • Longer scenes are divided into acts, which include scenes. • Setting is given in italics at the beginning of the text.

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• To share knowledge of other cultures and places. • To question the way we live.

• Stage directions are given in italics within square brackets. • Lines and numbers may be used as a reference and are found on the left side of the page. • Characters’ names are written in bold type. • Structure of the play includes orientation, complication and resolution.

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Speaking and listening

Reading

Brainstorming positive and negative aspects of sports, Persuasive talk

Discuss positives and negatives of waterskiing, Evaluate a speech, Brainstorming – avoiding accidents

Recount 2

For information, For understanding, Application – Sequencing

For information, For understanding, Application – Qualities of a good leader

For information, For understanding, Application – Lists of equipment

Recount 1

Exposition 1

Narrative 1

For information, For understanding, Application – Waterskiing rules

Exposition 2

For information, For understanding, Application – Poster to advertise ice-cream For information; For understanding; Narrative 2 Application – Places, Reasons for queues, Consequences of not queuing For information, For understanding, Report 2 Application – Temperature chart

Recount 2

Report 1

For information, For understanding, Application – Life cycle diagram of frog For information, For understanding, Procedure 2 Application – Evaluating activity, Poster to persuade people to value plants

For information, For understanding, Application – Diagrams to show steps in treating burns

Personal report: ‘Having a high temperature’

Report 2

Procedure 1

Brainstorm advantages of summer or winter, Explain reasons to partner

Narrative 2

Exposition 2 Popularity of burgers, Flow chart, Persuasive language

Brainstorming – purposes for plant cultivation, Being a vegetarian

Frog characters – listed, described, justifying choice

Procedure 2

Report 1

Narrative 1 Brainstorming titles, Discuss pets – descriptions

Exposition 1

Dictionary meanings, Antonyms, Synonyms, Jumbled words

Activities

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Collective nouns; Cloze; Noun categories; Pronouns – personal, 1st person to 3rd person, Identifying

Adverbs – place (time/manner), sentences to replace phrases, adverbs from adjectives

Treating a grazed knee, Procedure – ‘Treating an injury’

Prepositions – time, place, opposites; Idioms

Recount 1 Headlines, Recount – Personal recount based on text

Procedure 1

Report 2

Proper nouns – capital letters, categories; Punctuation – capitals, full stops, question marks Adjectives – positive/negative; Comparing adjectives; Narrative 2 Comparatives and superlatives; Punctuation; Commas; Direct speech

Exposition 2

Recount 2

Procedure 2

Prepositions – place, time, identifying, choosing, sentences

Adjectives – synonyms, missing pet poster, adding; Punctuation – commas

Narrative 1 Report 1

Punctuation – question marks, commas, apostrophes for ownership

Exposition 1

Verbs – being, having, action; Command verbs; Procedure 1 Tense – past/present/future; Changing tense; Identifying tense; Descriptive verbs Nouns – recognising, sentences; Recount 1 Conjunctions – placement

Genre

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Exposition 2 Narrative 2 Report 2

Word maths, Alphabetical, Nautical theme, Words using dictionary, Syllables Plurals – changing ‘y’ to ‘i’, s/es (spelling rule); Irregular plurals

Narrative 2 Report 2

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

Descriptions facts/opinions, Report – pupil choice

Character, Direct speech, Character profile, Narrative – pupil choice

Introductory statements, Exposition: Takeaway food, Persuasive arguments, Exposition – pupil choice

Recount 2 Sequencing, Recount: A visit

Rewriting text using command verbs, Procedure – pupil choice

Facts and opinions, Relevant information, Key words, Report – Animals Report 1 Procedure 2

Characters, personality scale, Resolutions, Complete a narrative, Narrative – pupil choice Narrative 1

Exposition 1 Titles, Facts and opinions, Exposition – pupil choice

Exposition 2 Word puzzle (‘bo’ words), ‘an’ or ‘a’, 2 vowels = 1 sound

‘e’-changing, Short vowels to long vowels; Recount 2 Double consonants – 2 consonants keep vowel short (spelling rule)

Suffixes – ly, three rules for adding ‘ly’ to words ending in ‘ac’ + ‘ic’

Plurals – es/s, ves; Plurals to singular

Report 1 Procedure 2

Days of week, Syllables – months of year; ‘er’ graphemes

Narrative 1

Language features

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Long/Short vowels, Rhyming words, Representing long vowel sounds

Recount 1 Exposition 1 Homophones – there/their/they’re, Contractions

Syllables, Suffixes – words ending in ‘e’, words ending in ‘y’, 1-1-1 rule

Adding ‘c’ to make new words, Double letters, Word chains, Find the letter

Antonyms; Synonyms; Making antonyms; Using prefixes – ‘un’, ‘dis’, ‘in’; Word puzzle

Acrostic – Burger Bars, Word diamond, Alliteration, Advertisement using alliteration

Procedure 1

Report 2

Narrative 2

Exposition 2

Recount 2 Synonyms, Better words for ‘nice’, Jumbled words

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Categorising words; What am I?; Alphabet search – animals, odd animal

Jumbled words, Compound words, Word meanings, Better words for ‘said’

Compound words, Alphabetical order, Cross out letters, Word search, Own word search

Procedure 2 Base words, Finding hidden words, Similes

Report 1

Narrative 1

Exposition 1

Recount 1 Compound words; Prefixes – sub, auto, multi, anti

Procedure 1

Genre

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Causes of burns and scalds, Giving instructions to avoid burns and scalds

Recount 1 Discussing snakes, Retelling a story using ‘I’

Procedure 1

Activities

Vocabulary

Spelling

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Writing

Genre

SCOPE AND SEQUENCE CHART

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ANSWERS Procedure 1 Treating burns and scalds: pages 1–18

Page 7 1. (a) 2 (d) 2 (g) 3

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Reading for information 1. (a) false (b) true (d) false (e) true Reading for understanding 1–5. Teacher check

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1. Teacher check 2. Teacher check. Answers may include: (a) hot, warm (b) maximise (c) over, above (d) dirty, non-sterile (e) dirty, unclean (f) rough (g) uncover (h) after 3. Teacher check. Answers may include: (a) intense, serious (b) guidance, information (c) continue, persevere (d) stop, hinder 4. (a) pain, cold (b) burn, scald

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Answers may include: 1. Goal: This procedure is about how to treat burns and scalds. Requirements: cold water; clean, sterile, non-fluffy material Steps: – Reassure patient – Immerse burn in water – Remove jewellery – Calm the victim Test: The pain would be relieved and the wound heals without infection.

fishing, worked, slowly, eastern bravest, hoping, liked, writer funnier, holiness, busier, likeliest shopping, skipper, biggest, chopped thanking, thanked, thankful sadder, saddest hoping, hoped, hopeful patting, patted, patter managing, managed, manager caring, cared, carer, careful thinning, thinned, thinner, thinnest using, used, user, useful

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2. (a) (b) (c) (d) 3. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

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(c) 1 (f) 2

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Teacher check

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(b) 2 (e) 3 (h) 3

1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

Burns are very painful. The young boy tipped hot water over his leg. Don’t touch the oven. Mum drank a cup of hot coffee. I burnt my hand. John had a burn on his leg. The water in the kettle is very hot. We have many burns patients in the hospital. (i) Dad has a first aid certificate. (j) The baby’s bottle was too hot. (k) His wounds were very painful. (l) The doctor treated the child. 2. being – are, is, was, were, having – had, have, has action – tipped, touch, drank, burnt, treated

Page 10 3. Teacher check 4. reassure, place, immerse, remove, cover, seek 5. Teacher check

Page 11 6. Answers may include: (a) Alex and Andrew were playing tennis. (b) Nick wanted a party. (c) Mr Shay was a popular coach. (d) I was going to cricket practice. (e) I was waiting for you after school. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


ANSWERS They will watch TV The cat will eat its dinner. The grass will grow quickly. The pool will be deserted. Sara will be lonely.

10. (a) He walked. (b) It is raining. (c) I couldn’t find my book. (d) The duck will swim.

Recount 1 Dog saves friend: pages 19–33

My mother is a fantastic athlete. (present) I will train every day. (future) My sister is working after school. (present) Where is your backpack? (present) Dad waited for twenty minutes. (past) diverted (b) educated penetrated (d) originated expired (f) sprinkled demolished (h) saturated advanced (j) obscured

Page 14 Teacher check

Page 15

Teacher check

Page 17 – Evaluation

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Page 19 1. Teacher check

Page 20 2. Teacher check 1. Title: It is about a dog saving a child from a snake 2. Setting: (a) the dog (Bonnie) (b) Jarrad Smith (c) Mum (Wendy) (d) a newspaper reporter (e) Thursday afternoon (f) in the backyard of a home in Surrey Hills 3. Events: (a) He was playing with the ball. (b) She was working in the kitchen. (c) It rolled behind the shed. (d) He went after the ball. (e) To warn Jarrad of the snake. (f) The snake was killed.

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8. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 9. (a) (c) (e) (g) (i)

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1. Teacher check 2. A procedure has a title, a list of requirements, steps and a test at the end. A procedure uses short, clear statements 3. (a) present (b) The procedure wouldn’t work. (c) They make the procedure easier to understand. They explain the procedure. 4. (a) opposite (b) same 5. (a) two (b) one (c) three (d) three (e) two (f) four 6. suffixes

Page 18 – Evaluation 7. (a) loving (b) grabbing (c) rubbing (d) finding (e) talking (f) braving 8. Teacher check 9. (a) The girl ran home from school. (past) (b) Her mother is waiting for her. (present) (c) Then she will take her to her music lesson. (future) Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Page 21 4. Ending: (a) Bonnie was rewarded with a steak and Jarrad had ice-cream. (b) Wendy was badly shaken, but very relieved. Reading for information 1. (a) true (b) false (c) false (d) false (e) false Reading for understanding 1. Teacher check

Page 22 Applying your knowledge (vi) Bonnie grabbed the snake. (i) Wendy was working in the kitchen. (iv) Jarrad was knocked over. (viii) Wendy gave Jarrad an ice-cream. (ii) The ball rolled behind the shed. (v) Jarrad screamed. (iii) Jarrad bent down to pick up the ball. (vii) Wendy put Jarrad inside. The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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ANSWERS 1. (a) ice-cream, backyard, inside, herself (b) Teacher check (c) afternoon, overlooking, behind, forward, outside, overcoming

(e) The horse tossed its rider off when it was frightened by the snake (f) Although it was hot, Sandy was wearing her coat.

Page 28

Page 23

Page 24 1. (a) be, been, flew, hoped, paint, tooth

Page 29

Teacher check

Page 30

Teacher check

Page 31

Page 25

Teacher check

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1. (b) Teacher check 2. (a) Horses like to eat hay. (b) Birds can fly high. (c) I like to ride my bike. (d) Show me your sore toe. (e) The leaf fell from the tree. (f) He rode his horse on the road. (g) Is it true that you grew those tomatoes? (h) We came home from the football game on the train.

Page 26

1. Teacher check 2. (a) yes (b) no (d) yes (e) yes

(c) no (f) no

Page 27 3. Teacher check 4. (a) If you are working late tonight, take a warm jumper to wear home. (b) I would like to visit Paris before I am too old. (c) Mandy lost her new necklace because she didn’t do it up properly. (d) Brad was disappointed when he wasn’t selected for the team. 54

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5. Teacher check 6. (a) Before I go to bed, I clean my teeth. (b) While I was asleep, my puppy chewed my socks. (c) Because Dad had a sore back, I had to mow the lawn. (d) Although I am a bit overweight, I am a fast runner. (e) When my favourite show is on TV, I stay up late.

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2. (a) Sometimes, Jarrad played with his friends in the garden. (b) He disliked having to stay inside. (c) Wendy often read the newspaper in the garden. (d) Dad built a workshop next to the garden. (e) There was a waterfall next to the pool. (f) Jarrad has a yellow raincoat. 1. Teacher check 2. Answers may include: (a) autopilot, autobiography (b) multicultural, multiskilled (c) anticlockwise, anticlimax, antiperspirant

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

Page 32 – Evaluation 1. Teacher check 2. (a) Text: A recount is a retelling of past events in time order. (b) Structure: A recount has a title, setting, events and an ending or comment. 3. (a) The setting provides information about who, where, when and tells why the events happen. (b) The events are told in the order in which they happen. (c) The concluding statement tells the reader what the writer thinks about the events. 4. (a) compound (b) Answers may include: nobody, outrun, themselves, without, footpath, inside, pathway, within, outside, run-in, runway, inside, way-out 5. (a) beginning (b) return, subway, antifreeze, postwar, multigrips (c) sub

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


ANSWERS Page 36 Reading for information 1. (a) false (b) true (d) false (e) true Reading for understanding 1–4. Teacher check

(c) true

Page 37

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Applying your knowledge 1. Answers may include: (a) attended school for 11 years, loyalty, wide interest in sport, fairness, approachable, easy to talk to, dedicated to sport and the school (b)–(c) Teacher check 2. Teacher check

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6. (a) My birthday is in January. The teacher was too busy to help his class clean up the playground. They enjoyed their visit to Waterworld. (b) January, Waterworld 7. (a) Please clean your teeth before you go to bed. (b) She burnt her leg because she stood too close to the heater. (c) Brendan was not allowed to watch TV during the week, but he could watch it on the weekend. (d) Although it was hot, he wore a jumper. 8. (a) Mike’s new kite soared high up into the sky. (b) Don’t throw your ball onto the road. (c) Please may I read my book before I go to sleep? (d) They must wait here until the teachers say that it is time to play. (e) You can use my new blue pen and a few of my coloured pencils. 9. (a) yes (b) no (c) no (d) yes

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Expositions 1 Sports prefect: pages 34–49 Page 34 Page 35

Page 39

4. (a)

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1. Teacher check

1. sidewards, outside, fundraising, towards, netball, interschool, Commonwealth 2. (a) talk, task, team, tennis, their, there, trials (b) school, sense, sport, standing, start, strong, pupil 3. (a) vote for me (b) sport is great

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2–3. Teacher check 1. Title: The speech is about Ellie MacDonald. 2. Overview: She wants people to vote for her as sports prefect. 3. Reasons: (a) She has been at the school since Year 1. (b) She knows the school, the area and most of the pupils. (c) Her sports are swimming, netball and tennis. (d) She hopes to compete internationally in archery. (e) She wants the school to buy a bus. 4. Conclusion: She wants pupils to vote 1 for Ellie MacDonald. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

p m s l o y a l t y y e

l e e p r e f e c t o l

p u p i l n t e r i u e

c a b s c h o o l m r c

a s h o p e f f b e s t

p p p r o m i s e e s e

t o o v o t e o u s e d

a r l c v k k n o w l l

i t d e i o t t e a m i

n e t b a l l r n e w e

(b) p, l, e, a, s, e, v, o, t, e, f, o, r, e, l, l, i, e (c) Please vote for Ellie 5. Teacher check

Page 40 1. (a) Their (d) there (g) their

(b) there (c) They’re (e) There (f) their (h) They’re, their

Page 41 2. (a) I’d (b) she’ll (d) won’t (e) can’t (g) weren’t (h) we’d 3. Teacher check

(c) don’t (f) didn’t (i) aren’t

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ANSWERS Page 42

An exposition has a title, an overview, reasons, a conclusion. 3. (a) The title tells what the exposition is about. (b) The overview tells what the writer thinks about the subject. (c) The reasons are the arguments which try to persuade the audience. (d) The conclusion is the final comment and summing up. 4. Answers may include: raincoat, snowball, fireball, firearm, chairman, snowman, playground, football, footman, armchair, fireplace, fireman. 5. (a) banana, bargain, before, brakes, breakfast (b) famous, fast, feet, fish, flower, follow

1. (a–d) Teacher check (e) Answers may include: One very dark, stormy night we decided to go out and buy some hamburgers. We were feeling so hungry. On the way there it started to rain. We all got very wet. By the time we arrived home, the hamburgers were cold and wet. We didn’t enjoy them much. 2. Teacher check

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Page 49 – Evaluation 6. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

They’re my shoes. The lost their way. Their dog had six puppies. Go and sit over there. There are five people in our family. I think that they’re going to be in trouble for leaving the tap on. My sister won’t attend training if it’s raining but I’ll be there. They’ll be playing tennis with us tomorrow, but I’m worried because we’re not fit and they’re super-fit and play really well. The boys enjoyed surfing. Do you like going to the beach? Why do you need to wear a hat? My uncle used to work hard, but now he enjoys reading, cooking, swimming and golf. Don’t forget to take your hat, sunscreen, towel, shoes and sunglasses to the beach.

Page 44

Page 45

(c) s (f) s

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p (b) s s (e) p the boys’ bikes the school’s computers the teams’ flags the tractors’ tyres the women’s clothing

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3. (a) The slow, old, grey dog barked at the children, but didn’t chase them. (b) Please go to the shop and buy me some bread, eggs, sugar and milk, then bring them straight home. (c) My friends yelled, shouted, jumped and waved their arms when our school won its first football grand final last Saturday. (d) On Sunday night, I am allowed to sit in the family room, eat my dinner and watch TV, then I have a shower, clean my teeth, put on my pyjamas and go to bed. 4. (a) babies (b) sons (c) sheep (d) frog (e) horses (f) table

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7. (a) (b)

8. (a) (b) (c) 9. (a)

(b)

Teacher check

Page 46 Teacher check

Page 47 Teacher check

Page 48 – Evaluation 1. Teacher check 2. Expositions are written to persuade others to think or do something. An exposition can be in the form of an essay, a letter or a speech. 56

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

Narrative 1 Home alone: pages 50–69 Page 51 1–2. Teacher check 1. Title: Home alone 2. Orientation: Who – Mum, Dad, Melissa, Jessica and Cheong. What – They were driving home from their cottage. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


ANSWERS Page 52

Page 58 1–2. Teacher check 3. (a) a little girl (b) (c) a selfish friend (d) (e) a wonderful holiday (f) (g) hot water (h) (i) an interesting hat (j) (k) new computer (l) (m) a nasty cold (n) Teacher check synonyms

Where – They are in the car. When – After Christmas 3. Complication: They had left their cat behind. 4. Resolution: They decided to go back to get him. 6. Conclusion: The cat was safe in the house. Reading for information 1. (a) true (b) true (c) false (d) false (e) false Reading for understanding 1–2. Teacher check

Page 59 Page 60

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4. Teacher check 5. Teacher check 6. (a) The old, dilapidated, wooden gate won’t close. (b) My cute, lively, friendly, soft and cuddly kitten is hiding. (c) I’ve lost my new, blue and white school jumper. (d) The fast, noisy, red racing car sped around the track. (e) Jill is a horrible, rude, selfish young girl.

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3–4. Teacher check Applying your knowledge 1–2. Teacher check

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1. (a) bait (b) hook (c) line (d) net (e) rod (f) sinker 2. Meatloaf, nothing, became, anymore, outside, countryside, beside, weekend, headphones, herself, inside, windsurfing 3. (a) loud (b) options (c) find (d) queried (e) bunk (f) lost (g) sister (h) second (i) fast (j) left

Page 55

a huge elephant a dirty shoe a useful tool a fantastic book a tasty pizza a warm coat a helpful teacher

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4. Teacher check

Page 56

1. January (4), February (4), March (1), April (2), May (1), June (1), July (2), August (2), September (3), October (3), November (3), December (3)

Page 57 2. purple, different, thirty, homework, search, journal, surprise, government 3. (a) humour (b) girls, thirsty (c) injured, player, surgery (d) early, learn, words (e) purse, journey (f) work, wonderful, worth, effort 4. Teacher check Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Page 61 7. Teacher check 8. (a) Before you can go to bed, make sure that your teeth have been cleaned. (b) Last Friday after school, our teacher took us to see a film. (c) After you’ve been for a swim and had a shower, remember to hang up your swimsuit. (d) I’ve invited my friends, Jarrad, Tom, Craig and Dale, to come to a picnic, so I hope it won’t rain.

Page 62 1. Teacher check

Page 63 2. Teacher check

Page 65 1. Teacher check

Page 66 Teacher check

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ANSWERS Page 67 – Evaluation

Spotted tree frogs 2. Classification: It is an amphibian. 3. Description: What – It is about 60 mm long. What – It varies from brown, grey or olive-green to bright green. What – They are large with horizontal pupils. When – It reproduces from October to December, laying its eggs between river stones. Where – It lives in mountain streams. What – It eats flying insects. Why – Introduced trout eat tadpoles, water quality, increased sediment, disease and forest fires disturb its habitat. 4. Conclusion: The writer is concerned that the tree frog will not survive for future generations. Reading for information 1. (a) false (b) true (c) true (d) false (e) true

Teacher check

Page 69 – Evaluation

(e) (f) (g)

Reports 1 Spotted tree frogs: pages 70–85 Teacher check

Page 72 1. Title:

58

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Reading for understanding 1. Teacher check 2. (a) to eat, to fish (b) eat tadpoles 3. They cling to vertical surfaces, which can include tree trunks. Apply your knowledge Teacher check

Page 74 1. (a) fish: shark, seahorse bird: emu, pelican, duck amphibian: toad, frog, salamander reptile: lizard, crocodile, sea snake mammal: whale, mammal, bat (b) Teacher check 2. (a) platypus (b) whale (c) bat (d) Teacher check

Page 75

Page 71 1–3.

Page 73

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(d)

worth (b) shirt (c) churn colour (e) heard (f) surprise research (h) virtual Teacher check It was a long, hot, dusty road. They noticed some large, noisy, black crows. The small, grey, frightened kangaroo jumped away. After the family reached their beach cottage, they unpacked the car. Their cat, Cheong, was asleep on the bed. The clear, calm, blue ocean looked very inviting. Before they all got into the car, Dad checked to make sure the front door was locked.

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7. (a) (d) (g) 8–10. 11. (a) (b) (c)

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1. Teacher check 2. (a) A narrative has these parts: a title, an orientation, a complication, a resolution and a conclusion. (b) The orientation tells who, what, where and when. (c) The resolution tells how the problem is solved. (d) The conclusion tells how the story ends. 3. Answers may include: toothbrush, bodysurfer, himself, windsurfer, anyone, everybody, anybody, everyone 4. Teacher check 5. (a) Wednesday (b) Thursday (c) Saturday, Sunday (d) Monday 6. (a) February (b) December (c) September (d) August

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Page 68 – Evaluation

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

3. Teacher check 4. (a) whale (b) bat (doesn’t lay eggs) (c) emu (can’t fly) (d) horse (has legs) (e) snake (doesn’t have legs)

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


ANSWERS Page 76 arches houses thieves calves suffixes buses

(c) (f) (i) (l) (o) (r)

circuses faxes brushes camels waltzes dishes

Page 77

Page 78 place time outside while at for

(b) (e) (b) (e) (b) (e)

place time through around of for

Page 79

(c) (f) (c) (f) (c) (f)

time place without after for of

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1. (a) (d) 2. (a) (d) 3. (a) (d)

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4. Teacher check 5. (a) The plane is flying above the clouds. (b) There is an amusing programme on television. (c) Breakfast is served from seven o’clock. (d) Please return your library books by Friday. (e) A lot of houses lost their roofs during the storm. (f) How did the thief break into the house? 1. (a) fact (b) opinion (c) fact (d) opinion (e) opinion

Page 80 2. Teacher check

Page 81 1–2.

Teacher check

Page 82 Teacher check

Page 83 Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

1. Teacher check 2. (a) Reports give facts clearly without unnecessary information or opinions. (b) Structure: A report has: a title, a classification, a description and a conclusion. (c) A report should give facts, not opinions. 3. (a) lions (b) foxes (c) lunches (d) dresses (e) waltzes (f) tables (g) wishes (h) gases (i) pilots (j) marches 4. (a) place (b) time (c) time (d) place (e) time (f) place

Page 85 – Evaluation

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2. (a) The crazy wives made their hungry husbands some sandwiches with pickles, radishes and carrots, then tried to cut them into halves using blunt knives. (b)–(f) Teacher check 3. (a) brush, comb, shelf (b) bus, boy, girl, marsh, school (c) pirate, treasure, island (d) glass, bench, door

Page 84 – Evaluation

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loaves (b) gases (e) novels (h) viruses (k) foxes (n) branches (q)

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1. (a) (d) (g) (j) (m) (p)

Teacher check

5. (a) through (b) beside (c) after (d) without 6. (a) from (b) into (c) for (d) between 7. Teacher check 8. (a) The library is closed between 1300 and 1400. (b) He doesn’t like going to the dentist. (c) After the party, we all went home. (d) It rained while we were waiting for the bus. 9. (a) fact (b) opinion (c) opinion (d) fact

Procedure 2 Grass head: pages 86–101 Page 86 1. Teacher check

Page 87 2. Teacher check 3. (a) Herbivore—plant eater Carnivore—meat eater Omnivore—eats plants and meat Teacher check examples (b)–(c) Teacher check 4. Teacher check

Page 88 1. Goal: To make a grass head The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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ANSWERS

4. Teacher check

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1. aqua—Latin—water (Examples include: aquarium, aquatic) bio—Greek—life (Examples include: biology, biography omni—Latin—all (Examples include: omnibus, omnivore) photo—Greek—light (Examples include: photograph, photocopy) tele—Greek—far (Examples include: telephone, television) geo—Greek—the earth (Examples include: geography, geology) cardio—Greek—heart (Examples include: cardiology, cardiovascular) 2. (a) as green as grass (b) as black as ink (c) as white as snow (d) as thin as a rake (e) as slow as a tortoise 60

Page 93

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

suitably (b) knowledgeably palely (d) vilely futilely (f) subtly noticeably (h) forcibly nobly (j) responsibly greedily (b) heavily (c) easily happily (e) tidily shyly (b) busily (c) clumsily slyly (e) mightily (f) wearily picnicked, picnicker, picnicking colicky plasticky mimicked, mimicking trafficked, trafficker, trafficking

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2. (a) (c) (e) (g) (i) 3. (a) (d) 4. (a) (d) 5. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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Reading for information 1–2. Teacher check 3. To make sure the glue is adhesive. 4. To provide the seeds with water to allow them to grow. 5–6. Teacher check Applying your knowledge 1–3. Teacher check

3. Teacher check 1. (a) horribly (b) visibly (c) idly (d) probably (e) feebly (f) terribly (g) capably (h) comfortably

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Requirements: old sock, tights or pantihose; scissors; grass seeds; potting mix; cotton thread or string; elastic band; felt scraps; fabric glue; paper cup or jar Steps: Press the seed into the sock. Leave 10 cm on the leg. Tie the sock with cotton thread. Form a nose. Cut off the foot of the sock Test: The grass will grow and make a grass head. Reading for information 1. (a) false (b) false (c) false (d) true (e) true

1. (a) He ran outside. (b) My uncle took me to the beach yesterday. (c) My sunburnt back hurt badly. (d) Tomorrow is my birthday. (e) I jumped quickly into the swimming pool. 2. (a) loudly (b) early (c) outside (d) strongly (e) today 3. Teacher check

Page 95 4–5. Teacher check 6. (a) yesterday (b) today (d) sadly (e) inside

(c) loudly

Page 96 7. (a) curiously (b) stupidly (c) comfortably (d) sensibly (e) understandably (f) carefully (g) famously Text organisation 1. To make a grass head. 2. Yes. Procedures won’t work unless the steps are followed in the correct order. Language features 3. So people can follow the instructions 4. Answers may include rereading the steps. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


ANSWERS Page 97 1. (a) Turn off the tap. (b) Keep to the left. (c) When turning, slow down. (d) Watch out for trains. (e) Before eating, wash your hands. (f) Stay behind the white line. 2. Answers may include: (a) When travelling, wear your seatbelt. (b) Mix all the ingredients together. (c) Always drive on the correct side of the road. (d) Before you eat, always wash your hands. (e) Collect your rubbish in the bin.

She arrived late. The baby laughed happily. Brad sneezed suddenly. She ate hungrily. We went outside. Take the lid off carefully then add the pasta. Tomorrow I’ll be watching my team play football. (c) Please put the cat’s food outside. (d) The band played loudly and we couldn’t sleep. (e) Yesterday I forgot my library book. 11. Teacher check 12. (a) wisely (b) truthfully (c) helpfully (d) happily (e) softly (f) sadly

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Page 98

(d) (e) (f) (g) (h) 10. (a) (b)

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Recount 2 Waterskiing at Point Watson: pages 102–118

Page 99

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Page 100 – Evaluation

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1. Teacher check 2. A procedure may have a goal, a list of requirements, steps to follow and a test at the end. A procedure uses clear, concise statements. 3. (a) Procedures are usually written in the present tense. (b) Teacher check 4. A suffix is attached to the end of a word. 5. (a) suitably (b) solely (c) horribly (d) feebly (e) responsibly (f) vilely 6. (a) happily (b) heavily (c) shyly (d) busily (e) greedily (f) slyly 7. (a) picnicked or picnicking (b) panicked or panicking (c) trafficked or trafficking (d) mimicked or mimicking

Page 101 – Evaluation 8. (a) Adverbs of place tell where something is happening. (b) Adverbs of time tell when something is happening. (c) Adverbs of manner tell how something is happening. 9. (a) The girl ran inside. (b) The boy swam slowly. (c) He crept silently. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Page 103 1–2.

Teacher check

Page 104

1. Title: The recount is about waterskiing at Point Watson. 2. Setting: (a) Bev and her sibling (the author) (b) Mr Peterson (c) Dad (d) Point Watson (e) Sunday morning 3. Events: (a) The children watch the Petersons loading up their ski-boat. (b) Mr Peterson noticed them watching, came over and asked them if they could ski. Then he invited them to go skiing the next day. (c) The children were packed and ready to go. (d) They went to the river two hours later at 9 o’clock. (e) They saw three ski-boats and skiers at Point Watson. (f) Bev tried to ski first. (g) No (h) Yes 4. Ending: (a) The writer had a wonderful morning. (b) The writer couldn’t wait until next week and was sure she/he would be able to ski.

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ANSWERS Page 105 (c) false

Page 112 3. (b) (d) 4. (a) (b)

Applying your knowledge Teacher check 1–2. Teacher check

Page 107

(c) (d) (e) (f)

3. Teacher check

Page 108 (c) sport

Page 113

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1. (a) yes (b) no 2. Answers may include: (a) bumpy, bumped, bumping, bumper (b) running, runner, runny (c) shopper, shopping, shopped (d) handing, handed, handy 3. (a) hoping (b) slopping (c) matting (d) hopped (e) sloped (f) hopping (g) mating

5. (a) (d) (g)

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1. (a) forest (b) class (c) herd (d) swarm 2. The football team was sitting, waiting for the coach to arrive. One boy had a pack of cards and wanted to play cards. Another boy was keen to show the others his stamp album. Some boys were hungry and persuaded John to share his bunch of grape. Others just sat quietly, watching a flock of birds on the oval. 3. (a) meat (b) fruit (c) countries (d) occupations (e) vegetables 4. Teacher check

Page 111 1. (a) On Saturday morning, Ben said that he wanted to go to the river. Mum said that she would take him, but she couldn’t stay long because she had to have her hair cut. (b) she 62

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

he/she, his/her (c) they, their he/she, his/her (e) they, their I like to go fishing with my dad. They enjoyed taking the boat out on the river. We learnt to waterski with friends. Bev enjoys waterskiing because it is fun. Where did Tom put it? Our teacher put her keys down and can’t find them. he (b) they (c) you she (e) I (f) it them (h) we

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Page 106

4. (a) river (b) jacket 1. Teacher check

He stopped the car. I helped him from the bus. They went to the dance. He forgot to bring the books. The bags belong to us.

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Reading for information 1. (a) false (b) true (d) true (e) true Reading for understanding 1. Teacher check

2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

1. Teacher check 2. 2, 1, 4, 3, 6, 5 3. Teacher check

Page 114 Teacher check

Page 115 Teacher check

Page 116 – Evaluation 1. Teacher check 2. A recount is a retelling of past events in time order. A recount has: a title, setting, events, ending. 3. (a) The setting discusses who, where and when the events happen. (b) The events tell what happens and are told in correct order. (c) The comment is the concluding statement which tells what the reader thinks about the events. 4. Synonyms are words with the same meaning. 5. (a) house—home (b) disappear—vanish (c) touch—feel (d) sick—ill (e) fright—scare (f) intersection—crossing Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


ANSWERS Page 122

Page 123 Applying your knowledge Teacher check

Page 124 1–2. Teacher check 3. Across 2 are 4 treat 5 tar

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6. Teacher check 7. When adding a suffix to a word, two consonants keep the vowel short. 8. (a) sloping (b) hoping (c) matting 9. Answers may include: (a) flock (b) herd (c) class (d) swarm (e) forest, orchard (f) flock (g) gaggle (h) bunch, bouquet (i) album (j) pack 10. Pronouns are used to take the place of nouns. 11. The shoemaker—He The shoemaker’s wife—She The shoemaker and his wife—They The people in the town—They The shoemaker—He 12. (a) you (b) her (c) they (d) I (e) it (f) we 13. (a) Where did you leave your bike? (b) I left my bike at school. (c) Then we will have to go back there as soon as possible.

Page 120

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Expositions 2 Burger Bar: pages 119–135

Page 121

1. Title: Burger Bars Overview: The writer wants people to try Burger Bars. Reasons: (i) They taste like a hamburger. (ii) They are wrapped in foil. (iii) They are ready when you are. (iv) You can buy them at good supermarkets. (v) You can hold them in one hand. (vi) You can carry one in your pocket. Conclusion: They are quick, easy and tasty. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

(c) false

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Page 117 – Evaluation

Reading for information 1. (a) false (b) true (d) true (e) true Reading for understanding 1. (a) No, Teacher check (b)–(d) Teacher check

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(g) swift—rapid (h) boat—ship (i) naughty—misbehaved (j) chatty—talkative

Down 1 bread 2 art 3 ear

Page 125

4. Teacher check 5. (a) five (b)–(d) Teacher check

Page 126 1. (a) elbow (b) rainbow (c) nobody (d) boast (e) newborn 1. Teacher check 2. an 3. (a) an ambulance (b) a tree (c) a hospital (d) a branch (e) an accident (f) an apple

Page 127 4. (a) She will glue the pictures in the book. (b) He can sail a boat. (c) His new shirt is blue. (d) The sheep were in the paddock. (e) There were lots of people at the show. (f) I hope the canoe will float. (g) The bee stung the boy on his toe. 1. Teacher check

Page 128 2. (a) Skateboards are popular in San Francisco, particularly on Saturday and Sunday. (b) The children from Margaret River Primary School went on an excursion to visit the Museum of Childhood in Perth. The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

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ANSWERS (d) Doctor Green works at Wesley Hospital near Queen’s Park. (e) We had a pizza for dinner last Friday.

Page 135 6. My favourite food is fish. Every Saturday night my parents take us to Joe’s, our local fish and chip shop and they buy dinner for Monica and me. We really love Saturday. I would love to have fish and chips for dinner every night of the week. 7–8. Teacher check

Page 137

Page 129

Teacher check

1. Teacher check

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Page 138

Page 130 2. Teacher check

Page 131 3–5.

Teacher check

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Page 132 Teacher check

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1. Teacher check 2. (a) Expositions are written to persuade others to think or do something. (b) Expositions use persuasive language. 3. (a) a (b) an (c) an (d) an (e) a (f) a 4. (a) The bus tried to overtake the car. (b) The dentist put fluoride on his teeth. (c) The sky is blue. (d) May I please have an ice-cream? (e) I love to eat fresh fruit. (f) The leaf fell from the tree. 5. (a) My teacher drove her new car from Limerick to Tralee. (b) Please come to my party on Wednesday. (c) During the summer holidays, David and Harry enjoyed swimming in Dunmore East.

Title: Teacher check Orientation: Who – Peter Who – The Wilson family How – Three people What – Everyone was trying to escape the heat by going out on their boats. Where – At the boat launching ramp on the river. When – On a really hot day. Complication: What – The men with the new boat pushed in on the ramp and blocked all the other boats. Resolution: What – The new boat began to sink. Why – This happened because the sailors had forgotten to replace the plugs in the back of the boat. Reading for information 1. (a) false (b) true (c) true (d) false (e) false

Page 139 Reading for understanding 1–4. Teacher check Applying your knowledge 1-2. Teacher check

Page 140 3–5.

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(c) My mother took me to see Doctor Walsh after I twisted my ankle playing hockey last Friday. (d) The combined choir from Trinity College and Presbyterian Ladies’ College is singing in London and in Wales in July. 3. Teacher check 4. Are you concerned about recycling? I am. I think that it is disgusting that fast food restaurants like Monster Burgers produce so much disposable waste. Everything is wrapped in paper or cardboard and people just throw it all away. Can’t they be made more aware of environmental issues? The government should introduce and enforce regulations to ensure that unnecessary packaging is reduced.

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

Teacher check Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


ANSWERS

hot (b) long (c) new down (e) silent (f) low sinking (h) forgotten long—short (b) pulling—pushing hard—soft (d) quick—slow expensive—cheap (f) difficult—easy quiet—noisy (h) wealthy—poor fast—quick (b) expensive—costly towing—pulling (d) hard—difficult long—lengthy (f) unhitch—undo amazed—surprised (h) silent—quiet

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Page 146 1. Teacher check 2. (a) taller, tallest (b) younger, youngest (c) smaller, smallest (d) bigger, biggest (e) thinner, thinnest

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(b) (c) (d)

unblock (b) unbothered unbelievable (d) undo unhitch (f) unclear dislike (b) dishonest disconnect (d) disagree discomfort (f) displease incorrect (b) informal invisible (d) incomplete inexpensive (f) injustice The girl wore an inexpensive dress to the party. I’m sure he is a very honest man. She told us an unbelievable story. My coach was very displeased with the way our team played. ‘Your homework is incomplete’, the teacher commented.

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4. (a) (c) (e) 5. (a) (c) (e) 6. (a) (c) (e) 7. (a)

3. Teacher check 4. (a) trail/er (b) clap/ping (c) push/ing (d) did/n’t (e) any/thing (f) re/place (g) in/tense (h) looked (i) wait/ing (j) seemed 5. eve/ry/one, spec/tat/ors, rap/id/ly, de/cid/ed, ex/ pens/ive, ob/vi/ous, irr/it/a/ble, ig/nor/ing 6. Teacher check

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1. (a) (d) (g) 2. (a) (c) (e) (g) 3. (a) (c) (e) (g)

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8. (a) 1. apes 3. antelope 5. always 7. angel (b) spelling 9. (a) Teacher check

2. 4. 6. 8.

apple all alien again

(b) theatre

Page 144 1. (a) irritable (c) forgotten (e) obvious (g) unhitched 2. Teacher check

(b) (d) (f) (h)

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expensive inexperienced everyone ignoring

Page 147 3. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) 4. (a) (d)

sad, sadder, saddest busy, busier, busiest pretty, prettier, prettiest heavy, heavier, heaviest healthy, healthier, healthiest sloppy, sloppier, sloppiest funny, funnier, funniest silly, sillier, silliest cleverest (b) fussier (c) smallest newer (e) ugliest

Page 148 5. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) 6. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

more famous, most famous more interesting, most interesting more beautiful, most beautiful more boring, most boring worse, worst more careful, most careful smaller, smallest more, most He cut the thin end of the rope. Shane was the fastest of all the runners. The better team won the football game. My horse can beat yours so it is faster. The three of us can skate but I am the best skater. (f) The dogs were all barking but Rex was the loudest.

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ANSWERS Page 149

3. (a) like—dislike (b) fair—unfair (c) broad—narrow (d) energetic—lazy (e) stupid—clever (f) help—hinder (g) sink—float 4. (a) uncut (b) uninterested (c) incorrect (d) dislike (e) disability (f) unkind 5. one syllable – boat, bait, sand two syllables – tunnel, fishing, deserved, people three syllables – happily, stupidly 6. Teacher check

1. (a) Mandy enjoys eating grapes, apples, oranges, peaches and bananas. (b) After he fell off his bike, he decided to always wear his helmet. (c) Yes, I do want you to help me wash the dog. (d) Jeremy, you must be more careful. (e) The gardener, a very hard worker, has made a huge difference to our school environment. (f) ‘I hate music practice’, Mark complained.

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1. Teacher check 2. Teacher check 3. Teacher check

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3. (a)–(c) Teacher check 4. Teacher check

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Teacher check

Page 155

Teacher check

Page 156 – Evaluation 1. Teacher check 2. (a) The title indicates what the story is about. (b) The orientation tells who, what, where and when. (c) The complication tells the problem facing the main character(s). (d) The resolution tells how the problem is solved. (e) The conclusion tells what happens in the end. 66

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2. ‘I think those people are going to push in’, complained Mum. ‘They wouldn’t dare’, said Dad. ‘Look!’ yelled Peter. ‘I don’t believe it, what do they think they’re doing?’ asked Dad. ‘What a cheek!’ Julie added. ‘Are they sinking, Dad?’ Peter asked. ‘How wonderful’, Mum laughed. ‘They got their just deserts.’

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book E

7. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

happy, happier, happiest wealthy, wealthier, wealthiest sad, sadder, saddest busy, busier, busiest interesting, more interesting, most interesting (f) good, better, best (g) hard, harder, hardest (h) comfortable, more comfortable, most comfortable 8. (a) My mother, a very wise lady, always wears a hat in the sun. (b) Take your fishing line, hooks, sinkers, bait and tackle box with you. (c) The men climbed into their boat, started the motor, set off at speed and went nowhere fast. (d) ‘Dad, can we take the boat out again next weekend?’ (e) ‘Please grab the rope and pull us in’, said Dad. (f) Waterskiing, a sport enjoyed by people of all ages, is a popular family activity. 9. ‘Must you always be so impatient?’ Dad remarked. His son replied, ‘I’m not always in a hurry Dad, but I’m really late today’. ‘You should get up earlier’, advised his father. ‘But it’s so cold’, his son replied, ‘I just can’t get out of bed’. ‘Well, it should be warmer soon’, his dad replied.

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ANSWERS

1–2. Teacher check

Page 160

close (b) clear (c) place march (e) comment lettuce (b) cabbage (c) shopping million (e) parrot (f) giggle different (h) winner toad, told, hold, hole seal, seat, feat, felt chess, chest, cheat, cheap

Page 164 4. (a) Peter (b) camel 5. (a) A thermometer is an instrument. (b) Thermometers measure temperature. (c) Doctors use thermometers.

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Across 2. expand 4. scale 8. notch 10. contract 12. tube 13. place 15. Celsius 18. temperature 20. hot 22. neck 23. select 24. fever

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1. Title: Thermometers, Teacher check 2. Classification: A thermometer is an instrument used to measure temperature. 3. Description: (a) Galileo made the first thermometer in 1592. (b) When it was hot the level of alcohol sank. (c) The level changed because the warm air expanded inside the tube. (d) The first medical thermometer was developed by Professor Sanctorius. (e) The mercury doesn’t go back down into the bulb of the thermometer when it cools down because of a small notch near the bottom of the tube. (f) The two scales used to measure temperature are Celsius and Fahrenheit. 4. Conclusion: Yes, thermometers are important today.

1. (a) (d) 2. (a) (d) (g) 3. (a) (b) (c)

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Reports 2 Thermometers: pages 158–178

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Reading for information 1. (a) false (b) true (c) true (d) false (e) false Reading for understanding Answers may include: 1. There were many different scales used to measure temperature because early scientists each devised their own scale. 2. Australia used a Fahrenheit scale in 1950 so 100˚ was very hot. Now Australia uses the Celsius scale and 38˚ is roughly the same. 3. Doctors would check a person’s brow or look at their eyes to detect a fever. 4. The small notch near the bottom of the tube prevents the mercury falling back into the bulb.

Page 162 Applying your knowledge 1. (a) Teacher check (b) at 6 am (c) at 2 pm (d) darkness Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Down 1. cold 3. doctor 5. country 6. mercury 7. instrument 9. side 11. glass 14. scientist 16. measure 17. patient 19. boils 21. water

Page 166 1. (a) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

trees (b) buses, classes lives lunches, boxes, parents elves, tricks, witches, broomsticks, bushes princesses, princes hooves, enemies, soldiers shampoo, brushes, combs, swimming caps, towels

Page 167 2. (a) (d) (g) 3. (a)

families (b) fairies (c) monkeys libraries (e) mysteries (f) flies turkeys (h) trays There are many different categories of books. (b) The truck collected milk from twenty dairies before returning to the factory.

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ANSWERS (d) He has played football since he was in primary school. (e) I’m going to practise this until I get it right. 3–4. Teacher check

Page 171 5. Answers may vary (a) under (b) through (c) into (d) under (e) by, beside, near 6. (a) After breakfast John climbed down the stairs. (b) The boys rowed the boat around the lake.

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6. (c) Our plane flew below the clouds to avoid the storm. (d) The children jumped off the trampoline inside the building. (e) The passenger train travelled under the bridge. (f) I can swim fast with my swim fins. 7. (a) To beat around the bush. (b) To give up the ghost. (c) To start from scratch. (d) To nip it in the bud. (e) To go against the grain. (f) Welcome with open arms. (g) An exception to the rules. (h) To go for broke. 8. (a) The angry elephant charged through the village. (b) I did well in all my exams except maths. (c) The train travelled towards the mountains. (d) He left his muddy boots outside the door. (e) The artist is proud of his work. (f) The children walked to school. (g) During the holidays, I’m going horse riding. (h) He was disgusted by the football fans’ behaviour.

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4. ‘s’—pianos, radios, studios, kilos, hippos ‘es’—potatoes, heroes, echoes, cargoes, torpedoes ‘either’—mosquitos, mosquitoes; dingos, dingoes; buffalos, buffaloes; mottos, mottoes; tornados, tornadoes 5. (a) feet (b) children (c) mice (d) oxen (e) women (f) geese (g) teeth (h) dice 6. (a) Mum needed her glasses to read the recipe. (b) The birdwatchers used binoculars to see the birds high up in the trees. (c) The children wore pyjamas to bed. (d) Dad was given a new belt to put on his trousers. (e) He picked the meat up from the barbecue using some tongs. (f) The hairdresser dropped her very expensive scissors on the floor and damaged them. (g) Amphibians are an interesting species of animal. (h) The police entered the premises because the security alarm was activated.

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(c) My father’s plane didn’t land until after midnight because of delays at two airports in America. (d) The harbour ferries were cancelled because of the very high winds and rough seas. (e) They completed a number of surveys before deciding where the pond would be built.

7. Teacher check 1. (a) Please refrain from talking during the film. (b) Netball is a similar game to basketball. (c) I am depending on you to to help in the garden. (d) Those children have interfered with my computer. (e) Do you think that house is worthy of another look? (f) She is so understanding that all her friends confide in her.

Page 170 2. (a) Look before you leap. (b) Would you like a coffee after work? (c) During the holidays I had the flu. 68

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Page 173 1. Teacher check

Page 174 2. Teacher check

Page 175 Teacher check Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


ANSWERS Page 176 Teacher check

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1. Teacher check 2. Reports should provide facts not opinions and should not have unnecessary information. 3. (a) churches (b) families (c) tomatoes (d) videos (e) pianos (f) teeth (g) deer (h) jeans (i) buses (j) foxes 4. (a) My grandfather told me stories about his past which I really enjoyed. (b) The wives of King Henry VIII of England were in danger of losing their lives. (c) I often visit libraries in Vienna looking for books about adventures and mysteries. 5. (a) During the weekend I played football. (time) (b) I finished my homework before dinner. (time) (c) Put your bag in your room. (place) (d) I left my bike outside last night. (place) (e) Why don’t you ride your bicycle to school? (place)

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6. Teacher check 7. (a) He ran down the stairs. (b) Beth poured the milk into the jar. (c) The tree’s roots were growing below the ground. (d) The soldiers marched over the bridge. (e) We turned the heater off. 8. (a) Head over heels (b) Saved by the bell (c) Hit below the belt (d) Fish out of water (e) To hit the nail on the head (f) To be in hot water

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6305 The English Workbook Teacher Resource Book E