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BOOK

C

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Teachers resource book – Book C

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing 2013 Copyright© Diane Henderson and Rosemary Morris 2007 ISBN 978-1-84654-648-8 PR–6303

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

Titles available in this series:

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Teachers resource book – Book A Teachers resource book – Book B Teachers resource book – Book C Teachers resource book – Book D Teachers resource book – Book E Teachers resource book – Book F Teachers resource book – Book G

The English workbook – Book A The English workbook – Book B The English workbook – Book C The English workbook – Book D The English workbook – Book E The English workbook – Book F The English workbook – Book G

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Prim-Ed Publishing follows the guidelines for punctuation and grammar as recommended by the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 2002, 6th edn. Note, however, that teachers should use their own guide if there is a conflict.

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In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

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INTRODUCTION This teachers resource book provides information to support the implementation of The English workbook – Book C, designed to develop and improve pupils’ literacy skills, focusing on procedures, recounts, expositions, narratives and reports. The following sections are included within each format. • speaking and listening • vocabulary • language features • proofreading and editing • reading comprehension • spelling • writing activities • pupil evaluation

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Features of The English workbook – Teachers resource book • Descriptions of the five different writing formats • Photocopiable planning frameworks for the five writing formats • Speaking and listening notes and photocopiable charts • Additional information about vocabulary, useful reference lists and spelling rules • Clear and concise explanations of the included language features • Photocopiable pupil editing and proofreading checklists specific to each writing format • Comprehensive integrated activity sheets provide cross-curricular extension to stimulate pupil interest • Analytical notes on activities such as advertisements and cartoons • Class evaluation sheets to record information about pupil understanding and performance • Answers for pupil activities

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CONTENTS

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Introduction........................................................................... 1 Writing format descriptions...........................................2–3 Planning frameworks......................................................3–8 Editing and proofreading checklists..........................9–14 Class evaluation record sheet...................................15–16 Speaking and listening...............................................17–21 Speaking skills........................................................... 17 Listening skills............................................................ 17 Speeches.................................................................... 17 Debating................................................................18–19 Speaking chart........................................................... 20 Listening chart........................................................... 21 Vocabulary........................................................................... 22 Compound words....................................................... 22 Homographs............................................................... 22 Synonyms.................................................................... 22 Antonyms.................................................................... 22 Overused words......................................................... 22 Spelling..........................................................................23–25 Syllables...................................................................... 23 Plurals....................................................................23–24 Adding suffixes (1-1-1 rule, dropping final ‘e’, adding ‘ly’)........24–25 Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Language features........................................................26–29 Parts of speech (verbs, adverbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions)...............................26–27 Punctuation (capital letters, commas, apostrophes for possession, grammatical contractions, quotation marks, paragraphs)................................................... 27 Collective nouns..................................................28–29 Integrated activities.....................................................30–34 Graphic organisers......................................................35–41 Mind maps.................................................................. 35 Flow chart................................................................... 36 Problem-solving chart.............................................. 37 Senses chart.............................................................. 38 Tree chart.................................................................... 39 Semantic web............................................................ 40 Reading journal.......................................................... 41 Additional information...................................................... 42 Cartoons...................................................................... 42 Advertisements.......................................................... 42 Scope and sequence chart............................................... 43 Answers.........................................................................44–57 The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

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WRITING FORMAT DESCRIPTIONS

1. Procedure

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The main purpose of a procedure is to direct, inform or explain how something is done. It usually includes: • a goal – to tell what is to be done • a list of requirements • steps – a list of instructions in a particular order • a test – to see if the task was completed successfully. A procedure uses: • command verbs • the present tense • short, clear statements. A procedure may be written in the form of instructions for a task such as playing a game, constructing something, operating an appliance, using a reference book, dealing with a problem, or as a recipe or an experiment.

2. Recount

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The purpose of a recount is to retell past events in time order. It usually includes: • a title – tells what the recount is about • a setting – who was involved and where and when the events happened • the events – what happened in chronological order • an ending or comments – how the events ended and what the writer thinks about it. A recount uses: • the past tense • paragraphs to separate significant events. A recount may be written in the form of a diary, a letter, a newspaper or magazine article, an eyewitness account, a biography or autobiography.

3. Exposition (Persuasive writing)

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An exposition is written or spoken to persuade others to think or do something. It usually includes: • a title – tells what the exposition is about • an overview – a brief summary of what the writer thinks about the topic • reasons – the arguments to persuade people • a conclusion – a final comment or summing up. An exposition uses: • persuasive language • facts to support the arguments • a new paragraph for each new argument. An exposition may be written in the form of an essay, a letter, an advertisement, a review, a speech or an editorial.

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WRITING FORMAT DESCRIPTIONS

4. Narrative

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The main purpose of a narrative is to describe a series of events and circumstances often involving fictitious characters. It usually includes: • a title – gets the attention of the reader and indicates what the story is about • an orientation – introduces the main characters, the setting or location, the time of the story and the initiating event • a complication – a problem which involves the main character(s) • a resolution – how the problem is solved. A narrative uses: • descriptive vocabulary • interesting characters • suitable paragraphing. A narrative may be written in the form of a story, a play, a fairytale, a myth, a legend, a science fiction work, a ballad or a poem.

5. Report

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The main purpose of a report is to give facts clearly without unnecessary information or opinions. It usually includes: • a title – tells what the report is about • a classification – provides information about the focus of the report • a description – expands on the focus • a conclusion – a summary or comment. A report uses: • facts, not opinions • no unnecessary information • the third person • the timeless present tense. A report may be written in the form of a review, a newspaper or magazine article, an eyewitness account or a scientific report.

PLANNING FRAMEWORKS

The following pages (4–8) are photocopiable planning frameworks for each of the five writing formats, designed for pupils to use when planning their writing. They provide a structure for writing and include elements unique to each format. The planning frameworks can be used in conjunction with the ‘Editing and proofreading checklists’ (pages 9–14) to encourage pupils to review and correct their writing. Teachers can assess and then record their pupils’ understanding of the elements of each writing format on the ‘Class evaluation record’ on pages 15–16.

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3


Planning a procedure Name:

Date:

Title: Goal (What you need to do):

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Requirements (Things you’ll need):

Steps: 1.

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2. 3.

5. 6. 7.

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4.

8.

Test (How you’ll know if your procedure was successful):

4

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Planning a recount Name:

Date:

Title: Setting: Who? Where?

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When? Why?

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Events: 1.

3. 4.

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2.

5.

Concluding statement/comment:

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Planning an exposition Name:

Date:

Title:

Arguments (Thoughts and ideas which support your belief):

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1. 2.

4. 5.

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3.

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Introductory statement (What you believe):

Conclusion (Link your ideas to form a final comment which summarises your position):

6

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Planning a narrative Name:

Date:

Title: Orientation: Characters (appearance, personality, likely actions):

Setting/Location:

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Time:

Initiating event: What event starts the action?

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How did this involve the characters?

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Complication: What problems do the characters have?

What caused the problems?

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Resolution (How are the problems solved?):

Conclusion (What happened in the end?):

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Planning a report Name:

Date:

Title: Classification (gives information about the focus of the report):

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Description (special features): 1.

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2. 3.

4. 5.

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6.

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Conclusion (summing up):

8

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EDITING AND PROOFREADING CHECKLISTS

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The primary purpose of writing and the use of language is communication—to get one’s message or ideas across to another person in an effective manner. It is important that the message is clear so that there are no misunderstandings. Ensuring that there are no barriers to effective communication, due to poor spelling and grammar or incorrect structure, is vital. Provided on the following pages is a series of checklists for each of the five writing formats: procedures, recounts, expositions, narratives and reports. Each of the writing formats has its own particular structure or elements which help the pupils communicate their ideas within the given format. The checklists allow pupils to ensure that these elements are included and that they have thoroughly checked and edited their work for any errors. The checklists, which list specific points, provide an opportunity for pupils and their peers to evaluate their writing and develop their writing and editing skills. Ideally, providing this opportunity for self-evaluation will allow pupils to develop a habit of always editing and proofing their work.

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9


Editing and proofreading a procedure Name:

Date:

Title of procedure: Editing and proofreading are very important parts of writing. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. Checklist 1. Does your procedure make sense to you?............................................................................ Yes No

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2. Did you include a goal?............................................................................................................. Yes No 3. Did you list the things you needed?........................................................................................ Yes No 4. Have you included all the steps in the correct order?......................................................... Yes No 5. Did you add a test to check that your procedure works?................................................... Yes No

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6. Spelling:

(a) Have you corrected any spelling errors?..................................................................... Yes No (b) Did you check that your work looks right?................................................................... Yes No (c) Did you use a dictionary?................................................................................................ Yes No (d) Did you ask someone to help you with spelling?........................................................ Yes No

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7. Did you use command verbs?.................................................................................................. Yes No 8. Are your statements short and clear?.................................................................................... Yes No 9. Did each statement make sense when you read it on its own?......................................... Yes No 10. Do your statements all start with a capital letter and end with a full stop?..................... Yes No

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11. Ask a partner to read your procedure.................................................................................... Yes No (a) Did he/she find it easy to understand?......................................................................... Yes No

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I think my procedure is short my procedure is clear

my procedure would work

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Editing and proofreading a recount Name:

Date:

Title of recount: Editing and proofreading are very important parts of writing. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. Checklist Title: Does your title reflect the topic?............................................................................................. Yes No

Does it generate interest?........................................................................................................ Yes No

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Setting: Does your recount include:

• specific characters?............................................................................................................ Yes No

• location?................................................................................................................................. Yes No

• time of the events?............................................................................................................... Yes No

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• the reason for the events?.................................................................................................. Yes No Events:

Were the events sequenced correctly?................................................................................. Yes No

Were all relevant events included?........................................................................................ Yes No Concluding statement:

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Did you conclude with a statement or comment?................................................................ Yes No Spelling: Have you corrected any spelling errors?............................................................................... Yes No Punctuation: Have you checked your punctuation?.................................................................................... Yes No

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Is each event recorded in a separate paragraph?............................................................... Yes No Language features:

Have you used the past tense?................................................................................................ Yes No

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Is the vocabulary you used interesting and varied?............................................................ Yes No Peer editor:

Did you use a peer editor?........................................................................................................ Yes No

Did she/he make any constructive comments?.................................................................... Yes No

I think my recount is interesting my spelling and punctuation are the presentation of my work is Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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Editing and proofreading an exposition Name:

Date:

Title of exposition: Editing and proofreading are very important parts of writing. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. Checklist Do you understand the purpose of an exposition? 1. Does your exposition: (a) clearly state a problem in the introduction?.............................................................. Yes No

(b) provide background information?................................................................................ Yes No

(c) list facts to support your arguments? (diagrams, photos, facts and figures)...... Yes No

(d) sequence arguments from strongest to weakest?................................................... Yes No

(e) include a final paragraph which reinforces and summarises the main points?. Yes No

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2. Have you used persuasive language?.............................................................................. Yes No

Spelling

3. Have you corrected any spelling errors?......................................................................... Yes No

Punctuation

4. Have you checked your punctuation?.............................................................................. Yes No

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5. Have you used a separate paragraph for each argument?.......................................... Yes No Peer edit 6. Ask a partner to read your exposition. (a) Did he/she understand your point of view?............................................................... Yes No

(b) Did it make sense?......................................................................................................... Yes No

(c) Were you able to persuade your partner to agree with your point of view?....... Yes No

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I think my exposition is persuasive my spelling and punctuation are the presentation of my work is

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Editing and proofreading a narrative Name:

Date:

Title of narrative: Editing and proofreading are very important parts of writing. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. Checklist Title: Does your title indicate what the story is about?................................................................. Yes No

Does it get the attention of the reader?................................................................................. Yes No

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Orientation:

Does the beginning draw the reader into the characters’ world?.................................... Yes No

Are the characters believable?............................................................................................... Yes No

Do their actions fit their personalities?.................................................................................. Yes No

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Is the setting realistic?.............................................................................................................. Yes No Initiating event: Is the problem known at the beginning of the story?........................................................... Yes No Complication: Is the problem believable?....................................................................................................... Yes No Resolution: Does the resolution fit the complication?.............................................................................. Yes No

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Have the problems been solved?............................................................................................ Yes No Conclusion:

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Is the ending satisfying to the reader?................................................................................... Yes No Punctuation and spelling: Check the following: Spelling – use a dictionary or ask someone. Punctuation – including capital letters, full stops, question marks, commas and direct speech. Paragraphs for new ideas. Vocabulary: Have you used some interesting adjectives?........................................................................ Yes No

Have you used any compound words?.................................................................................. Yes No

Have you used more interesting verbs instead of ‘said’?................................................... Yes No

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I think my narrative is interesting my spelling and punctuation are the presentation of my work is

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Editing and proofreading a report Name:

Date:

Title of report: Editing and proofreading are very important parts of writing. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. Checklist 1. Does your report include a classification?............................................................................ Yes No

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2. Does it include an accurate and detailed description of the topic?................................. Yes No 3. Have you ended with a conclusion?....................................................................................... Yes No 4. Have you written facts not opinions?..................................................................................... Yes No 5. Have you used action verbs?................................................................................................... Yes No

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6. Have you corrected any spelling errors?............................................................................... Yes No 7. Have you used capital letters and full stops correctly?...................................................... Yes No 8. Did your peer editor:

(a) understand your report?................................................................................................. Yes No (b) believe your facts to be true?......................................................................................... Yes No

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I think my report is interesting

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my report gives facts

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the presentation of my work is

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Class evaluation record

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Names

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Procedure Understands the format Uses clear concise language Sequences steps logically Self-edits Recount Understands the format Sequences events Uses past tense Self-edits Exposition Understands the format Presents persuasive arguments Supports arguments Self-edits

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Class evaluation record

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Names

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Narrative Understands the format Uses descriptive language Appropriate paragraphing Imaginative ideas Self-edits Report Understands the format Uses factual language Accurate information Self-edits

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

SPEAKING SKILLS

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Pupils need to have a sense of audience and to learn how to engage and communicate effectively. The chart, ‘Are you a good speaker?’ on page 20, can be photocopied and enlarged for classroom use. It focuses attention on the preparation and presentation of information as well as oral communication skills. Opportunities are provided for pupils to organise and communicate their ideas to a partner, a small group or the class. Pupils should be encouraged to set individual speaking goals on which to focus and to evaluate their performance.

LISTENING SKILLS

SPEECHES

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Providing opportunities for pupils to engage in active listening is essential, but some pupils may need to have explicit instruction to understand the requirements of effective listening. The ‘Are you a good listener?’ chart on page 21 can be photocopied and enlarged for classroom use. It is suggested that the teacher and pupils set a goal—e.g. sitting still—as a focus for a particular lesson and then evaluate how well this goal was achieved.

A speech is a talk or address delivered to an audience.

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Purpose 1. To inform the audience of the views, facts and news of the speaker. 2. To influence the audience to support the speaker’s perspective or cause. 3. To justify an action or proposed action. 4. To entertain a specific audience. Features 1. Ideas and facts must have a logical sequence. 2. Format includes: • introduction • statement of case • argument or explanation of position • conclusion 3. May include some visual presentation (video, slides, photographs, diagrams). 4. Personal experience and humour may be used to maintain interest and to emphasise point of view. 5. May include some informal language or idioms. 6. Short sentences may be used to enable members of the audience to remain focused and attentive.

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING DEBATING A debate is a formal organised argument on a particular matter or topic, between two opposing teams. Purpose 1. To win by presenting a convincing argument and by out-scoring the opposing team.

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Features 1. A debate is made up of: • an affirmative team of 3 members who argue for the topic • a negative team of 3 members who argue against the topic • a chairperson • a timekeeper • an adjudicator. 2. A debate is about a topic, also known as the moot. (A moot is a claim that something is true.) 3. Team members work together to prepare their argument by researching the topic. 4. Use palm cards to summarise discussion points. 5. Speakers must consider audience intelligence and experience. 6. Humour may be used. 7. Each team member has a different task.

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Format A classroom plan could be as follows.

TIMEKEEPER

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M A 2, E r E T ake V I e AT , sp r 1 M e IR er 3 eak F F k A ea sp sp

Chairperson The chairperson

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1. 2. 3. 4.

CHAIRPERSON

AUDIENCE

sp NE ea G ke AT I sp r 1, VE ea sp TE ke ea AM r 3 ke r2 ,

ADJUDICATOR

States the topic. Introduces each speaker for both teams. Deals firmly with interjections or comments from the audience. Announces the winner at the conclusion of the debate after consulting with the adjudicator.

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING Timekeeper • The timekeeper allocates each speaker a set time to speak. • The timekeeper rings three sets of bells. 1. A single bell – warns the speaker the time is almost up. 2. A double bell – the speaker’s time is up. 3. A continuous bell – the time is up and the adjudicator will disregard any further argument.

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Speakers Each speaker has a different role: Affirmative 1 • defines the subject of the debate • outlines the argument • allocates responsibility to each member Negative 1 • must accept affirmative definition or show why it is unacceptable and amend it Affirmative 2 • restates affirmative case • deals with each argument presented by Negative 1 • may add new aspects to the affirmative argument Negative 2 • attacks the arguments put forward by the two affirmative speakers • develops his or her argument Affirmative 3 • persuades audience that Negative team’s argument is worthless • ends on a positive note that affirms the topic Negative 3 • role is similar to that of Affirmative 3 • stresses negative aspect

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Adjudicator Judges the performance of both teams based on: • subject knowledge Matter: • definition of topic • the outline and explanation of the argument • examples that support the argument Manner: the way in which the speech is presented • language • gestures • stance • voice quality • verbal skills Method: how the matter is planned • introduction • technique • strategy

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Are you a good speaker?

Good speakers … • interesting information • relevant facts

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Choose:

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Organise: • their ideas (introductions, information, conclusion) • their time Present: • their facts and opinions

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Speak:

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• at the audience • good and don’t bury their face in what they’re reading • interested • confident

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Look:

• • • •

clearly at the right volume at the right speed in a lively manner

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Are you a good listener?

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Sit still

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Look at the speaker

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Good listeners:

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Listen carefully

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Concentrate

Think about what the speaker is saying

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VOCABULARY

To enrich the communication skills of pupils, it is important that they understand all of the concepts of English vocabulary. An increased vocabulary develops the pupils’ ability to communicate their ideas, making their writing and speaking more descriptive and interesting to read or listen to.

COMPOUND WORDS

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‘Compound’ comes from the Latin meaning ‘putting together’. Each part of a compound word must be a word that can stand alone. For example: toothbrush mother-in-law Note: As language changes, many words that were previously hyphenated no longer need a hyphen. Pupils should be encouraged to consult a recent dictionary.

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HOMOGRAPHS

Homo – same graph – write Homographs are words that are written in the same way, but have different meanings, origins and sometimes are pronounced differently. Homographs that sound the same include: sack, ruler, pupil, spring, squash, stole, swallow, bear, saw, felt, train, fast, hold, park, club, court, duck, cape, chop, coach, grave, cricket, march, prune, right, ring, table, wake, dear, watch, last, kind, cross, blind, bored, down, iron Homographs that are pronounced differently include:

SYNONYMS

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row, subject, present, object, wind, wound, bow, tear, record, desert, close, minute

Synonyms are words with the same or similar meaning.

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ANTONYMS

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Antonyms are words with the opposite meaning. Finding synonyms and antonyms helps pupils to develop a wider vocabulary and allows them to write more precisely and interestingly. Some antonyms are formed by adding a prefix; for example: un, dis, in, im, mis.

OVERUSED WORDS

Pupils should be encouraged to communicate more exact meaning by avoiding the overuse of some words; e.g. ‘asked’ and ‘said’. Words that can be used instead of ‘asked’ include: enquired, requested, queried, questioned, begged, quizzed, appealed, demanded, beseeched, required, implored Words that can be used instead of ‘said’ include: spoke, uttered, yelled, shouted, whispered, cried, sobbed, commented, replied, stated, talked, voiced, announced, remarked, repeated, breathed, declared, recited, expressed, protested 22

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SPELLING

Because of the complexity of the English language, there are a number of exceptions to most of the spelling rules. After pupils have learned a rule, they should be encouraged to consolidate this learning by seeking exceptions to the rule.

SYLLABLES

swim/mer

con/test

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Breaking words into syllables is very useful for pronouncing and spelling words. A syllable has one vowel sound. The following is a list of rules to determine how words are divided into syllables. 1. When two consonants (same or different) come between two vowels, divide between the consonants.

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2. When there is only one consonant between two vowels, divide before the consonant. fa/mous

mu/sic

3. When consonants make one speech sound, they are kept together. pro/phet

me/thod

dol/phin

4. The letters ‘re’ and ‘le’ cannot stand alone at the end of a word and must take the preceding consonant.

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me/tre

sad/dle

5. Prefixes and suffixes are usually separated from the base word. joy/ful

sub/mit

dis/o/bey

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6. Compound words divide between the small words. rain/coat

la/dy-/in-/wait/ing

PLURALS

• Most nouns form their plural by just adding ‘s’. socks, shoes, shirts

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• Words ending in ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘s’, ‘x’, and ‘z’ usually add ‘es’ to make the plural word easier to pronounce. churches, wishes, buses, boxes, quizzes exceptions include: stomachs, monarchs, matriarchs, patriarchs

Note: The ‘ch’ is pronounced like ‘ck’ in these words, so the ‘es’ is not needed for ease of pronunciation.

• Many words ending in ‘o’ also add ‘es’ in the plural form. tomatoes, potatoes, heroes, echoes But there are numerous exceptions, including words ending with ‘oo’ and some words associated with music. In many recent dictionaries, both endings are included. ‘oo’ words: bamboos, kangaroos, cockatoos, zoos, shampoos music: banjos, solos, duos, trios, pianos, sopranos, radios, altos, cellos, videos others: ratios, zeros, merinos, silos Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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SPELLING • Nouns ending in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ change the ‘f’ or ‘fe’ to ‘v’ and add ‘es’. knives, wolves, halves, selves Note: Both forms of some words are accepted: dwarves or dwarfs, wharves or wharfs, hooves or hoofs.

Exceptions include: words ending with ‘ff’: stuffs, puffs, skiffs, cliffs, staffs, sheriffs others: reefs, gulfs, chiefs, roofs, waifs

babies, puppies, flies, spies, libraries

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• Nouns ending with a consonant and a ‘y’ change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding ‘es’.

• Some plurals are made by changing some letters of the base noun or by adding an unusual suffix.

woman – women foot – feet die – dice cactus – cacti, cactuses radius – radii, radiuses fungus – fungi, funguses axis – axes crisis – crises emphasis – emphases louse – lice medium – media, mediums phenomenon – phenomena sphinx – sphinges, sphinxes child – children mouse – mice, mouses (computer)

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tooth – teeth oasis – oases person – people goose – geese parenthesis – parentheses criterion – criteria ox – oxen cherub – cherubim, cherubs

• Some words may have the same singular and plural forms.

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fish, cod, salmon, trout, deer, sheep, reindeer, swine, elk, dozen, score, innings, gallows • Some nouns have no singular form; many of them are thought of as ‘a pair of’. trousers, shorts, spectacles, glasses, pants, tweezers, pliers, clippers, scissors, secateurs, bellows, tongs, measles, billiards

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ADDING SUFFIXES

A suffix can be described as a group of letters added to the end of a word. Suffixes change the meaning of words. Examples of suffixes include:

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able, age, al, an, ance, ary, ate, en, ence, er, ery, ese, est, ful, fy, hood, ible, ic, ion, ish, ist, ive, less, ling, ly, ment, most, ness, or, ous, ship

• Suffixes are usually just added to the end of the word. work, worked, workable, working, worker

• Sometimes the spelling of the base word changes. shut–shutting, happy–happily, shape–shaping

24

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


SPELLING The one-one-one rule for adding suffixes beginning with a vowel requires understanding of: • consonants and vowels • short and long vowels • syllables.

one-one-one rule When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel to words of one syllable, with one short vowel sound followed by one consonant, double that consonant. cut–cutting

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shop–shopper

Note: Words of more than one syllable with a prefix or which are compound words also double the final consonant. refitting

babysitter

dropping the final ‘e’

outrigger

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Another rule for adding a suffix beginning with a vowel to a word, usually with a long vowel sound and ending with a silent ‘e’, is that the ‘e’ is dropped before adding the suffix. shape – shaping

close – closing

Note: An interesting exception is ‘likable’. A simple way for pupils to remember part of this rule is:

adding ‘ly’

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‘e’ goes away when ‘ing’ comes to stay

‘ly’ is usually just added to words.

quick – quickly love – lovely

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There are some exceptions: 1. Whole – wholly. The ‘e’ is dropped before adding ‘ly’. 2. True – truly, due – duly. There are already two vowels at the end of these words so one is dropped before adding ‘ly’. 3. Horrible – horribly, simple – simply. These are two examples of words ending in ‘le’ after a consonant. The ‘e’ is changed to ‘y’.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

25


LANGUAGE FEATURES PARTS OF SPEECH Understanding the different parts of speech will help pupils construct effective sentences.

Verbs

regular

the past

the present

the future

walked

walk

will walk

has walked

walks

should walk

see

will see

sees

should see

irregular saw

Note: The future and past tenses often use auxiliary or ‘helping’ verbs to form a compound verb; e.g. have written, can open, may visit, were asleep.

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has seen

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Verbs are words used to show actions or states of being or having; e.g. eat, was, has. Command verbs are imperatives and are often used in procedures at the beginning of a sentence; e.g. ‘Roast the meat’. Verb tense: There are three basic tenses. However, because there are so many irregular verbs in English, these can be complex.

Adverbs

Adverbs are words that can modify or enhance the meaning of verbs; e.g. He swam slowly, I sang yesterday. There are adverbs of time, place and manner. time; e.g. tomorrow place; e.g. outside manner; e.g. quickly

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Nouns

Pronouns

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Nouns are words used to name people, places, things, feelings or ideas; e.g. boy, school, book, joy, courtesy. Proper nouns are used to name particular people, places or things. Proper nouns are written with capital letters; e.g. John, Singapore, February. Collective nouns are words used to name groups of people, animals or things; e.g. a team of footballers. An extensive list of common and less familiar collective nouns used to describe many of these groups is on pages 28 and 29. Note: Some groups have more than one collective noun and some collective nouns are used for a number of different groups. Pronouns are words substituted for nouns; e.g. We asked them to help us.

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Adjectives

Adjectives modify or enhance the meaning of nouns and, less commonly, pronouns; e.g. deserted playground, lucky me.

Prepositions

Prepositions are words that show the relationship between nouns and/or pronouns in the same sentence. Common prepositions include: during, for, between, in, up, on. He rode through the park. Sally slept until dawn. I would like one of those.

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


LANGUAGE FEATURES Conjunctions Conjunctions are joining words. They can join different language units.

one word with another one phrase with another one clause with another one sentence with another

hot or cold on the land and in the air sitting on the beach while watching the birds There were dark clouds in the sky so I took my umbrella.

PUNCTUATION

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Punctuation is used to clarify meaning and assist with reading and comprehension.

Capital letters

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Capital letters are needed for: • sentence beginnings; e.g. I like my teacher. She is kind to me. • proper nouns; e.g. people’s names (Bob Brown), names of places (Pacific Ocean), days of the week (Tuesday), months (May), countries (New Zealand), nationalities (French), languages (Russian), religious faiths (Christian), holidays and festivals (Passover). • titles; e.g. Red Cross, The sound of music, Note: Prim-Ed Publishing employs minimal capitalisation for titles ‘Goldilocks and the three bears’. of books and other publications as recommended by the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, 2002.

Commas

Commas are used to separate items in a list or series; e.g. I like ice-cream, carrots, apples and chocolate.

Apostrophes for possession

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Apostrophes are used to show that something belongs to someone or something. The placement of the apostrophe can be challenging but the simple rule is that it is placed after the owner or owners. (The ‘tail’ of the apostrophe ‘points’ to the owner[s].) the girl’s dresses (one girl) the baby’s shoes (one baby)

the girls’ dresses (more than one girl) the babies’ shoes (more than one baby)

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Grammatical contractions

Grammatical contractions are words that have been made by joining and shortening two words. An apostrophe is used in place of the missing letters. should not – shouldn’t I had – I’d

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he will – he’ll it has – it’s

Quotation marks

Quotation marks (inverted commas) are used to enclose quoted speech or thoughts. Single or double quotation marks are acceptable but must be used consistently. ‘Please feed that noisy cat’, Mum shouted. ‘I fed him yesterday, it’s Ben’s turn’, Adam replied.

Note: Prim-Ed Publishing punctuates speech as recommended by the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, 2002.

Quoted text must start on a new line, unless the same speaker is continuing.

Paragraphs Paragraphs separate text into meaningful sections to facilitate reading and understanding. Paragraphs start on a new line. A space is often left between paragraphs. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

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LANGUAGE FEATURES COLLECTIVE NOUNS

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A herd of buffalo A caravan of camels A train of camels A clowder of cats A clutter of cats A herd of cattle A mob of cattle A coalition of cheetahs A litter of cubs A herd of deer A parcel of deer A pack of dogs A flock of dolphins A pod of dolphins A school of dolphins A herd of donkeys A drove of donkeys A herd of elephants A parade of elephants A skulk of foxes A leash of foxes A tower of giraffes A group of giraffes A trip of goats A flock of goats A tribe of goats A band of gorillas A bloat of hippopotamuses A herd of hippopotamuses A pod of hippopotamuses A stable of horses A stud of horses A team of horses A mob of kangaroos A litter of kittens A leap of leopards A pride of lions A nest of mice A troop of monkeys A herd of moose A family of otters

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A flock of birds A flight of birds A brood of chickens A clutch of chickens A flight of cormorants A murder of crows A head of curlews A dole of doves A flight of doves A flush of ducks A flock of ducks A team of ducks A skein of ducks A convocation of eagles A cast of falcons A charm of finches A trembling of finches A stand of flamingos A gaggle of geese A flock of geese A skein of geese A colony of gulls A kettle of hawks A mews of hawks A brood of hens A charm of hummingbirds A colony of ibises A band of jays A congregation of magpies A flock of magpies A littering of magpies A sord of mallards A flush of mallards A pride of ostriches A parliament of owls A company of parrots A pandemonium of parrots A muster of peacocks A pod of pelicans A colony of penguins

A flight of pigeons A flock of pigeons A run of poultry A bevy of quail An unkindness of ravens A conspiracy of ravens A parliament of rooks A squabble of seagulls A host of sparrows A quarrel of sparrows A chattering of starlings A cloud of starlings A congregation of starlings A mustering of storks A flight of storks A flight of swallows A gulp of swallows A herd of swans A bevy of swans A bank of swans A team of swans A flock of turkeys A raft of turkeys A pitying of turtledoves A wake of vultures A bunch of waterfowl A descent of woodpeckers A herd of wrens A flock of wrens

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Birds

Mammals A cluster of antelope A herd of antelope A tribe of antelope A troop of apes A congress of baboons A colony of badgers A cloud of bats A colony of bats A family of beavers A gang of buffalo

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


LANGUAGE FEATURES COLLECTIVE NOUNS

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Insects

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A colony of ants A flight of butterflies An army of caterpillars An intrusion of cockroaches A swarm of flies A cloud of gnats A cloud of grasshoppers A swarm of grasshoppers A flock of lice A plague of locusts A swarm of mosquitos A colony of termites A colony of wasps

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Others

A wing of aircraft A quiver of arrows A belt of asteroids A bunch of bananas A hand of bananas A library of books A batch of bread A pack of cards A deck of cards A fleet of cars A network of computers A clutch of eggs A bed of flowers A bouquet of flowers A patch of flowers A ring of keys A range of mountains An anthology of poems A fleet of ships A flotilla of ships A pair of shoes A choir of singers A galaxy of stars A constellation of stars A stand of trees A grove of trees A clump of trees

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A host of angelfish A fleet of bass A school of butterfly fish A swarm of eels A glide of flying fish A shoal of mackerel A shoal of minnows A pack of perch A shoal of pilchards A bind of salmon A leap of salmon A family of sardines A herd of seahorses A shiver of sharks A school of sharks A flotilla of swordfish A hover of trout A float of tuna A pod of whiting

A class of pupils A crew of sailors A squad of soldiers An army of soldiers A company of soldiers A platoon of soldiers A den of thieves A flock of tourists A coven of witches A congregation of worshippers

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Fish

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A team of oxen A drove of pigs A herd of pigs A string of ponies A school of porpoises A pod of porpoises A colony of rabbits A colony of seals A rookery of seals A herd of seals A flock of sheep A mob of sheep A parcel of sheep A dray of squirrels An ambush of tigers A mob of wallabies A huddle of walruses A sneak of weasels A gang of weasels A school of whales A run of whales A pod of whales A pack of wolves A herd of yaks A cohort of zebras A herd of zebras

People

A faculty of academics A troupe of acrobats A cast of actors A company of actors A chorus of angels A troupe of artists A bevy of beauties A board of directors A staff of employees A panel of experts A gang of hoodlums An audience of listeners A band of men A cortege of mourners An orchestra of musicians A crowd of onlookers A crowd of people A troupe of performers

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

29


INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES These are a series of activities designed for each specific writing format as it appears in the pupil workbook. They will hopefully provide ideas as to how the formats can be used in relation to a variety of subjects other than English.

Procedure 1 The arts

SPHE and science

1.

1.

Design and technology

Mathematics 1.

2.

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Design a machine which makes hot chocolate. Include: – something to heat water – a holder for the cup – something to stir the mixture – something to measure the ingredients

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2.

List drinks suitable for summer under the headings healthy/unhealthy. List drinks suitable for winter under healthy/ unhealthy. 2. Research the ingredients of canned drinks. 3. Complete a list of safety requirements in the kitchen. Include: • use of knives • use of hot liquids • use of ovens/stove tops • use of electrical appliances • adult supervision

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Using the library, Internet, magazines and home resources, collect as many recipes as possible which use chocolate as one of the ingredients. Present your recipes in your own cookbook, which could include some of the following headings: – Drinks – Biscuits/Slices – Cakes – Puddings/Desserts Include illustrations with some of the recipes. Design an interesting cover for your book. Design a box of chocolates. Make the cover attractive and colourful. List the flavours included in the box.

Recount 1 1.

Design a nutritious and balanced menu suitable for hospital patients. The meals must cover all food groups. The menu must include sufficient variety of food to cater for patients who may stay in hospital for a week. Many doctors choose to specialise in one field of medicine. Some of these are: – pathology – pediatrics – oncology – obstetrics – neurology – cardiology – haematology – radiology – ear, nose and throat (ENT) – anaesthetics – rheumatology Research and describe each specialty in no more than two sentences.

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SPHE and science

2.

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

List the ingredients needed for making hot chocolate. Using a newspaper or supermarket catalogue, estimate the cost involved. Estimate how many cups of hot chocolate you could make from a container, then try to see if you were correct. Work out the cost of each cup.

SPHE Many hospitals rely on fundraising activities to purchase additional equipment. Work with a partner and design a fundraising activity for a hospital of your choice. Consider the following and include in your project: – venue of activity – which hospital and why? – purpose—why do you need to raise money? – when do you expect to hold the functions? – what is your target? – will these functions be ongoing? (i.e. annual, biannual) – who will be involved?

The arts In small groups, dramatise a hospital visit. Consider: • Who you will visit? • Who is going with you? • What hospital staff you may meet? Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES Exposition 1 English

The arts

1.

1.

2.

Design and technology

3.

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2.

Draw a fantasy adventure playground for your local park/school. You may like to include: – a treehouse – a pool – climbing equipment – slides – swings – seesaws – trampolines. Make it as exciting and enjoyable as you can. Design a poster for a piece of playground equipment. Compile a list of songs having something to do with play/play equipment; for example, My new playground. Choose a favourite song to learn.

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Using the library as a resource, create a list of titles from books, magazines and newspaper articles. Write the titles on the worksheet on page 41. Assess each title according to its level of interest to you. H = high, M = moderate, L = low. Write your comments, such as your thoughts, ideas and opinions on each title. Choose one from each category to read. Examine the topic ‘Play is no longer important in today’s society’. Gather and organise information that either agrees or disagrees with this statement. Use library resources, the Internet or interview adults and peers to find information to support your opinion. Present your talk to the class. Remember: You will be judged on your ability to persuade your audience.

Narrative 1 Geography

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Design a playground suitable for children from 7 to 10 years of age. The playground must be safe and secure, as well as protected from the weather. Include equipment for physical exercise and challenge. Draw a detailed, labelled map of the playground. Explain each piece of equipment. Create a model.

Values List some values that Peter showed in the story; for example, caring. List some values that the old man showed; for example, kindness. Discuss some other important values. Dramatise Peter’s act of caring. Dramatise the old man’s kindness.

SPHE

Mathematics

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Research types of housing found in cities. Research types of housing found in country areas. Compare and contrast them. Research any unusual types of housing found in other countries; for example, igloos. Map out the route Peter took from his cottage to the old man’s house. (Include the ditch where he found the old man, the hill and other features of the countryside.)

Plan a healthy, nourishing meal for 20 hungry children. 1. Include all five food groups. Research the five food groups and explain why we need some foods from each group daily. List five foods from each group. 2.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Work out the approximate quantities of food needed for the meal for 20 children. Estimate the quantities of water needed for each child to have two glasses and the amount of juice needed for each child to have one glass. Estimate the size of the table needed to seat 20 children. (Hint: Use your desk as an average space for one.) Using a trundle wheel, measure how far an average child walks in 10 minutes. Use this to estimate how far Peter walked in two days. Don’t forget to allow for rest periods and sleep. The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

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INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES Report 1 Science

The arts

1.

1.

History and geography

2. 3.

On a map of the world, show where elephants are found and indicate the approximate numbers in each area. Research to find out the many ways in which elephants have been used over the centuries and compare this to the present day. Find out about the uses of ivory, both past and present. Research to find out how countries are working to control the poaching of ivory and how long elephants have been protected.

English 1.

Write and illustrate a poem. Choose one of the topics below. Rain Flood Storm Drought Heatwave Choose your favourite season and write about it. Include: • clothing worn • suitable games • sports played • food/drinks • weather • your feelings

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Procedure 2

3. 4. 5. 6.

English 1.

2. 3.

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3.

Using a paper plate, make an elephant mask. Use the mask to give a five-minute talk to the class about elephants. Find as many stories, songs or poems about elephants as you can. Choose your favourite story and make a story map for it using illustrations. Choose your favourite song and learn it. Design a poster that tells people about the need to protect elephants. Draw a well-known elephant made famous by Disney films. Research to find out about elephants used in cartoons. Make up your own cartoon about an elephant.

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2.

Research the Internet or library to find the differences and similarities between African and Indian elephants. Find a dictionary definition for: – a carnivore – a herbivore – an omnivore Choose one animal from each category and research to find: – what type of food it eats – how it finds its food – how much food it requires. Find out the differences between an elephant and another large mammal.

Plan a debate on ‘Elephants should be kept in captivity’. Use the teachers notes to help plan and judge the debate. Write an acrostic poem about elephants. Read some of the Just so stories by Rudyard Kipling, including ‘The elephant’s child’. Make up your own ‘Just so’ story to explain why the elephant has large ears.

Mathematics 1. 2.

Keep a daily record of the weather for a month. Include: • rainfall • maximum temperatures • wind • minimum temperatures • any storms Graph the results. Compare the weather patterns of 10 different cities for a week. Graph the rainfall, highest and lowest temperatures and winds.

Design and technology

SPHE

1.

1. Research to find out how much water we should drink every day. Keep a record of how much water you would drink every day for a week. 2. Compare several healthy/unhealthy drinks. Include: • fat content • calories • sugar content • preservatives • colourings

2. 3.

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Design a gauge to collect rain, using recycled materials. Record the rainfall for a month. Design a weather vane. Use it to record the wind directions for a week. Design a water-saving device for your home. Estimate how much water you would save by using it. The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES Recount 2 History and geography

The arts

1. Research to find out about trains. • who invented it Include: • the first train • where and when it was invented • different types of trains • train travel in different countries 2. Find out about train travel in your nearest city. Include: • how many lines there are • where they go • how frequent the trains are • the distances covered on each line • the number of stations on each line • approximate numbers of passengers on each line.

1. 2.

3.

Mathematics

Conduct a class debate on ‘Train travel is better than bus travel’. Write an acrostic poem on transport, trains, buses or aeroplanes. Research to find some children’s stories with ‘train’ in the title. Borrow one from your local or school library and read it.

Exposition 2

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English 1.

3. 4.

Design a poster to encourage people to use train travel. Think about safety on trains. List some things that you shouldn’t do. Make up a cartoon showing someone doing one of them and the possible consequences. Compile a list of songs about trains. Choose a favourite song and learn it. Design a ‘fantasy’ mode of travel. Include: • how it moves • its shape • passenger capacity • its size • how fast it goes • where it travels • what it’s called. (Hint: You could add wings, floats, helicopter blades, decorations, special features.)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Find out about the cost of local train travel. Graph the fares for each station to the nearest city. Research to find the time taken to travel from each station to the city. Graph the results. Estimate the cost of a train trip to the city for one adult and two children. Add the approximate costs of a drink and a sandwich for each person. Find out the distance to your nearest train station. Using a road atlas, estimate the distances between stations in your local area.

English

Design and make a model of a ride or game that would be suitable for a school fete. The activity must be suitable for children from 4 years to 9 years of age. The game must be safe. The game must have clear rules and it must be fun. Draw and label your activity before you make the model. Write a clear description and instructions.

Debate

SPHE

English

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Design and technology

Schools should not have to raise funds to purchase books and equipment. Plan a debate which will persuade your audience to support your point of view. Each team will have three speakers (see teachers notes). Each member will have two minutes to present his/her argument. You will be judged on your ability to persuade your audience.

Fete food

Fun with words Choose one (or more) words and complete the following What food is fun to eat at a fete? Design a menu which is new and fun to eat. (You cannot activities using the words below. Castle Rock School Mother’s Day fete have pies, hot dogs, chips, candy floss or toffee apples.) Describe each item on your menu. 1. Make a word snake. Illustrate your new idea. 2. How many words can you make using the letters in the title (e.g. or, cool, to)? You can only use the letters once. Label and list ingredients. 3. Make a crossword puzzle. Make a sample and share with the class. 4. Make up your own word game. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

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INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES Narrative 2 SPHE

History and geography

1. 2. 3.

1. 2. 3.

Design and technology 1. 2. 3.

Design and make a suitable carrier bag for an egg. (Hint: You need to protect it from breakage.) Design and make a hatchery for chickens. (Hint: Remember the eggs need to be kept warm.) Design and make a cave suitable for an animal to live in. (Hint: It will need food and water sources and protection from sun, wind and predators.)

1. 2. 3. 4.

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SPHE

Use crushed eggshells to make a mosaic. Decorate eggs using crayons (wax-resist), paints or food dye. Use your research on caves, then do some cave paintings of your own. Cut out some cardboard templates of bones and use them to make a design. Find some songs about bikes, then learn one. Learn the Dem bones song.

Mathematics

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1. Research to find out about teeth. Include: • how many sets of teeth we have • how many are in each set • what types of teeth we have • what each type is used for • the structure of a tooth. 2. Compile a list of things necessary for good dental hygiene. Discuss the importance of each. 3. Compile a list of the different types of dentistry. Write a definition for each type. 4. Research to compile a list of healthy and unhealthy foods or use magazine pictures to make a poster.

34

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The arts

5. 6.

Report 2

Use the library or Internet to find out about caves: • how they are made • their uses • the oldest caves known • famous caves • cave paintings Research eggs to find: • the largest type of egg • the smallest type of egg • egg-laying mammals • crafts using eggs • Fabergé eggs Plan a treasure hunt for eggs.

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4. 5.

Research: ��� safety rules for motorcycles • safety rules for bicycles • road rules for bicycles Research: • edible eggs • egg recipes Hold a games day and include an egg and spoon race. Research: • animal skeletons • human skeletons • dinosaur bones • the oldest bones Find out about X-rays. (Include how they work, where they’re used, who invented them.)

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

1. Keep a diary for two weeks showing when you brushed your teeth and how long you spent brushing them. Graph the results. 2. Research to find out the costs of toothbrushes and toothpastes. Graph the results. Note: Check the weight of the tubes of toothpaste before comparing results. 3. Choose five or six different types of toothbrushes and experiment to find out how long each will last. Hint: Try rubbing them on a rough surface. Graph the results.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


GRAPHIC ORGANISERS

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Graphic organisers are visual frameworks that are used to represent ideas and to organise them in a way that promotes learning and facilitates understanding. They are particularly useful for planning the content, sequence and organisation of a writing task. Graphic organisers allow pupils to: • make connections and understand how things are related • develop their more complex thinking skills; e.g. analysing, categorising and evaluating • use visual representations to assist memory and facilitate recall • apply multiple intelligences simultaneously. Graphic organisers include: • mind maps (page 35) • flow charts (page 36) • problem-solving charts (page 37) • senses charts (page 38) • tree charts (page 39) • semantic webs (page 40).

MIND MAPS

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Mind maps can be used for note taking and as visual prompts for oral presentations. They usually use keywords, colour, drawings and symbols linked with arrows and branches. They are intended to be understood only by their creators. Space should be left so further ideas can be added.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

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Flow chart

36

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Problem-solving chart

Problem Positives

Negatives

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Possibilities

Goal

Solution

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Why

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

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Senses chart Subject:

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Looks

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Feels

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Sounds

Tastes

Smells

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The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


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Tree chart

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

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Semantic web

40

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Reading journal Category

Rating

Comment

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Title

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Findings Which titles caught your interest? What did you notice about the length of these titles? How much information was given in the title? Write your comments.

H = High interest

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

M = Moderate interest

L = Low interest

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

41


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CARTOONS Cartoons use a picture or a series of pictures to communicate a story or message. Cartoons are often found in newspapers and comment on current political events, politicians and prominent people. Usually the cartoonist aims to make his audience laugh. There are four types of cartoons.

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1. A comic strip Generally found in newspapers, they can vary from two to several panels. Often the comic strip will be a complete story; however, it can be written as a serial and continued in the next issue of the newspaper. Examples of a comic strip include Garfield, Snake, Wizard of Id. 2. A single cartoon Also found in newspapers, the single cartoon has only one picture. Even though they are funny, often a serious message is portrayed.

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3. A comic book This is a collection of cartoons in one book or magazine. The cartoons may be presented as one long story or a series of short stories. Some well-known examples include Calvin and Hobbs, Mad Magazine, The Phantom and Archie. 4. TV and film cartoons Cartoons may be used as a series or a complete work to create a feature-length film. The detail in the drawing and the story line is more complex and may require thousands of pictures to create movement. Voice-overs, music and sound effects are also required. Some well-known animated cartoons include Beauty and the beast and The Simpsons.

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ADVERTISEMENTS

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Conventions of cartoons Cartoons use the following conventions: • Thought bubble • Unusual facial features • Larger than life situations • Description of actions • Exaggerated characteristics or action • Speech balloon containing exclamation, caption or dialogue • Cartoonist’s signature

An aural (radio) or visual message in the form of billboards, fliers, circulars, notices, pamphlets or posters promoting a product, cause, event or person.

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Purpose • To tantalise, persuade and invite purchase of a service or product. • To disseminate information. • To encourage loyalty to a cause, person or product. Features • Uses concise language • May include sponsorship • Uses abbreviated language and abbreviations • Uses graphics, colour, font, size • Emphasises price, quality and reliability • Designed for a specific audience or to create a new audience 42

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

• To endorse a product over that of a competitor. • To correct actual or perceived misinformation.

• May create sense of emergency (limited availability, sale, special offer) • Includes contact information • Radio and television may include jingle or song • Excellence often claimed rather than proven or backed by research • Asterisk often refers to fine print outlining conditions, limitations or warnings Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Speaking and listening

Reading

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Facts and opinions about elephants

Cloze, Crosswords, Letter crossouts

For information, For understanding, Application – Farm and wild animals

For information, For understanding, Application – A wanted poster

Report 2

For information, For understanding, Application – Healthy drinks For information, For understanding, Application – Sequencing For information, For understanding, Application – Your school playground For information, For understanding, Application – ‘One good turn deserves another’ For information, For understanding, Application – Endangered elephants and other animals For information, For understanding, Application – A water conservation poster For information, For understanding, Application – Story map (sequencing) For information, For understanding, Application – Fund-raising activities

Brainstorming dentists, role-plays

Narrative 2

Exposition 2

Recount 2

Procedure 2

Report 1

Narrative 1

Exposition 1

Recount 1

Procedure 1

Report 2

Match animal sounds, Mother/father/baby animals, Alphabetical order Occupations and work places, Identifying ‘odd’ Report 2 words, Jumbled sentences Compound words, Short vowels, Consonants, Procedure 1 Syllables

‘m’ graphemes, Plurals (s, es, ves)

Long/Short vowels, Adding and taking ‘e’ (spelling rule)

Report 2

‘f’ graphemes, Plurals (s, es, ves, o + es/s, words ending in y/ey), Interesting plurals

Narrative 2 ‘r’ graphemes, ‘a’ or ‘an’ (with ‘h’ words)

Exposition 2 Short ‘u’ graphemes

Recount 2

Procedure 2 Suffixes (s, er, ed, ing), 1-1-1 rule

Report 1

Narrative 1 ‘n’ graphemes, Rhyming words

Exposition 1 Compound words, Contractions

Recount 1 Vowels, Consonants, Short and long vowels

Narrative 2

Language features

Activities

Command verbs; Tense – past/present/future; Adverbs; Correct form (ly)

Prepositions – time, place, general; Read and draw

Prepositions – choosing, sentences, finding

Titles; Exposition – ‘Mother knows best’, pupil choice Parts of a narrative, Sequencing, A fairy story, Narrative 1 Narrative – pupil choice

Recount 1 Sequencing, Recount: A visit

Procedure 1 Short, clear statements; Procedure: To make toast

Report 2

Punctuation – commas; Exposition 2 Changing meaning – capital letters, full stops, question words, capital letters for proper nouns Adjectives for boats, Choosing adjectives, Narrative 2 Punctuation – direct speech

Recount 2 Collective nouns, Pronouns, Conjunctions

Procedure 2

Report 1

Recount 1

Nouns, Proper nouns, Recognising nouns, Conjunctions Punctuation – capital letters, full stops, Exposition 1 question marks; Question words; Apostrophes for ownership Narrative 1 Adjectives; Punctuation – commas, paragraphs

Procedure 1 Verbs, Command verbs, Adverbs

Genre

Facts and opinions, Report: Animals

Report 2

Procedure 2

Report descriptions, Report – Occupations

Short, clear statements; Procedure: ‘Watering a garden’ Sequencing, Before and after statements, Recount 2 Recount – pupil choice Introductory statements, Exposition 2 Expansion – pupil choice Character profiles, Complications and resolutions, Narrative 2 Planning paragraphs, Narrative – pupil choice

Report 1

Exposition 1

pl e

sa m

Exposition 2 Cloze, Category nouns

Exposition 2 Discussion on fete activities and consensus

Narrative 2 Imaginative descriptions

Recount 2 Homographs, Alphabetical order

Procedure 2 Word meanings, Word search, Jumbled words

Report 1

in g

Jumbled words, Word search, Better words for ‘ask’ and ‘said’

Narrative 1 Adjectives, Synonyms and antonyms, Prefix – ‘-un’

Exposition 1

Recount 1 Opposites, Synonyms, Prefixes, Alphabetical order

Recount 2 Comparing buses and trains

Procedure 2 Semantic web – Conserving water

Report 1

Activities

Word meanings, Using a dictionary, Procedure 1 Alphabetical order

Genre

ew

Narrative 1 Recounting a dream, Role-playing, Characters

Exposition 1 Playing areas and equipment

Recount 1 Hospital workers

Procedure 1 Speaking and listening, Taking turns, Brainstorming

Activities

Vocabulary

Spelling

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Writing

Genre

SCOPE AND SEQUENCE CHART

The English workbook – Teachers resource book – Book C

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