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The English workbook (Book G) Published by Prim-Ed Publishing 2013 Copyright© Diane Henderson, Rosemary Morris, Jenepher Snell 2007 ISBN 978-1-84654-645-7 PR–6282

Titles available in this series:

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Published by Prim-Ed Publishing

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The English workbook (Book A) The English workbook (Book B) The English workbook (Book C) The English workbook (Book D) The English workbook (Book E) The English workbook (Book F) The English workbook (Book G)

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Copyright Notice No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by an information retrieval system without written permission from the publisher.


Introduction

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This workbook is all about procedures, recounts, expositions, narratives and reports. These are called writing formats. There are two units of work based on each format. Completing the exercises in your workbook will help you to understand the five different formats and to learn how to plan and write them yourself. You will be: • discussing and working out the structure of each format • checking that you understand the text by doing some comprehension exercises • working to improve your vocabulary, spelling, punctuation and grammar • practising different writing skills • learning how to check your writing by editing and proofreading • checking how much you have learned by doing a test at the end of each unit.

Procedure – 1

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Remember: Good writers need to think about, plan and review their writing; it doesn’t just happen.

How to treat a bee sting Pages 1–19

Contents

Recount – 1

Looking for work Pages 20–36

Analysis Pages 20–22

Instructions............................. 20 Speaking and listening .....20–21 Structure of a recount ......21–22

Reading.................................. 4–6 Vocabulary............................. 6–8 Spelling.................................8–11 Adding suffixes ...................8 Short vowels .......................9 Consonants.........................9 Syllables .......................10–11

Working with text Pages 22–27

Reading..............................22–23 Vocabulary.........................24–25 Spelling..............................26–27 Confusing words.............. 27

Language features Pages 11–14

Verbs ...................................11–14

Language features Pages 28–30

Nouns ..................................... 28 Collective nouns ......... 29–30 Pronouns ..........................30 Personal pronouns ............30

Writing Pages 15–17

Review – procedures .............. 15 Writing a procedure ................ 16 Editing and proofreading ....... 17

Writing Pages 31–34

Activities ............................31–32 Writing a recount ................... 33 Editing and proofreading ...... 34

Evaluation Pages 18–19

Test your knowledge ........ 18–19

Evaluation Pages 35–36

Test your knowledge ........35–36

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Working with text Pages 4–11

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Instructions................................1 Speaking and listening ......... 1–3 Structure of a procedure ...... 3–4

Analysis Pages 1–4

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Contents Exposition – 1

Save the Flinders Range Pages 37–54

Narrative – 1

Mum’s homework Pages 55–75

Instructions..............................37 Speaking and listening ..... 37–38 Structure of an exposition .......................... 38–39

Analysis Pages 55–57

Instructions..............................55 Speaking and listening ...........56 Structure of a narrative .... 56–57

Working with text Pages 39–47

Reading.............................. 39–40 Vocabulary......................... 41–43 Spelling.............................. 44–47 Plurals ......................... 44–45 Contractions .....................45 Confusing contraction.......46 Syllables ............................47

Working with text Pages 58–64

Reading.............................. 58–59 Vocabulary......................... 60–61 Spelling.............................. 61–64 Suffixes ....................... 62–63 Soft c and g sounds ..........63 Adding suffixes .................64

Language features Pages 48–49

Punctuation ....................... 48–49

Language features Pages 64–68

Colloquial .......................... 64–65 Adjectives .......................... 65–67 Punctuation ....................... 67–68

Writing Pages 50–53

Activities ..................................50 Review procedures .................51 Writing an exposition ....... 51–52 Editing and proofreading .......53

Writing Pages 69–73

Evaluation Pages 54

Test your knowledge ..............54

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Test your knowledge ........ 74–75

Evaluation Pages 74–75

Procedure – 2

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Homework Pages 76–94

Activities ............................ 69–71 Writing a narrative ..................72 Editing and proofreading .......73

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Report – 1

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Analysis Pages 37–39

Instructions.............................. 76 Speaking and listening ...........77 Structure of a report ......... 77–78

Analysis Pages 95–97

Instructions..............................95 Speaking and listening ..... 95–96 Structure of a procedure .. 96–97

Working with text Pages 79–86

Reading.............................. 79–80 Vocabulary......................... 81–84 Spelling.............................. 85–86 Plurals ...............................85 Confused words ...............86

Working with text Pages 97–104

Reading.............................. 97–99 Vocabulary......................100–101 Spelling.......................... 102–104 Plurals ......................102–103 Spelling rules ...........102–103 Syllables .......................... 103 Separating syllables ........ 104

Prepositions ...................... 87–88

Language features Pages 105–107

Command verbs ................... 105 Suffixes .......................... 105–106 Adverbs ......................... 106–107 Adverbial phrases ................. 107 Adverbial clauses.................. 107

Writing Pages 89–92

Activities ............................ 89–90 Writing a report ................. 90–91 Editing and proofreading .......92

Writing Pages 108–110

Review procedures ............... 108 Writing a procedure .............. 109 Editing and proofreading ......110

Evaluation Pages 93–94

Test your knowledge ........ 93–94

Evaluation Pages 111–112

Test your knowledge ......111–112

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Language features Pages 87–88

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Analysis Pages 76–78

Safe cycling Pages 95–112

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Contents Recount – 2

Diary Pages 113–130

Exposition – 2

Smoke damaged Pages 131–147

Instructions............................ 113 Speaking and listening ......... 114 Structure of a recount .......... 115

Analysis Pages 131–132

Instructions............................ 131 Speaking and listening . 131–132 Structure of an exposition .............................. 132

Working with text Pages 116–121

Reading........................... 116–117 Vocabulary...................... 117–119 Spelling.......................... 120–121 Word origins ................... 120 Confusing words............. 121

Working with text Pages 133–140

Reading.......................... 133–134 Vocabulary..................... 134–138 Spelling.......................... 138–140 Apostrophes for possession.............. 139–140 Apostrophes in contractions .................... 140

Language features Pages 122–125

Conjunctions ................. 122–123 Nouns ............................ 123–124 Noun phrases ........................ 124 Pronouns ............................... 125 Pronouns with implied verbs ...................................... 125

Language features Pages 141–143

Punctuation ................... 141–143

Writing Pages 126–128

Activities ................................ 126 Writing a recount .................. 127 Editing and proofreading ..... 128

Writing Pages 143–145

Activities ................................ 143 Writing an exposition ........... 144 Editing and proofreading ..... 145

Evaluation Pages 129–130

Test your knowledge .... 129–130

Evaluation Pages 146–147

Test your knowledge .... 146–147

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The old farmhouse Pages 148–166

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Narrative – 2

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Analysis Pages 113–115

Report – 2

Acne treatment Pages 167–186

Analysis Pages 167–170

Instructions............................ 167 Speaking and listening ......................... 168–169 Structure of a report ..... 169–170

Reading.......................... 151–152 Vocabulary..................... 152–155 Spelling.......................... 155–158 Prefixes ................... 155–156 Suffixes ................... 156–157 Rule ........................ 157–158

Working with text Pages 170–178

Reading.......................... 170–171 Vocabulary..................... 172–175 Spelling.......................... 175–178 Missing e’s ...................... 175 Missing o’s ...................... 176 Ar words ..................176–177 Confused words ......177–178

Language features Pages 158–160

Adjectives .............................. 158 Adjectival phrases ................ 158 Adjectival clauses ................. 159 Comparatives and superlatives ................... 159–160

Language features Pages 178–180

Prepositions .................. 178–179 Preposition or adverb? . 179–180

Writing Pages 161–164

Activities ........................ 161–162 Writing a narrative ................ 163 Editing and proofreading ..... 164

Writing Pages 180–183

Activities ........................ 180–181 Writing a report ..................... 182 Editing and proofreading ..... 183

Evaluation Pages 165–166

Test your knowledge .... 165–166

Evaluation Pages 184–185

Test your knowledge .... 184–185

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Working with text Pages 151–158

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Instructions............................ 148 Speaking and listening ......... 149 Structure of a narrative ........................ 149–150

Analysis Pages 148–150

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Procedure – 1

How to treat a bee sting ANALYSIS This procedure explains how to do something. The main purpose is to direct, inform or explain. Read this procedure.

How to treat a bee sting If a bee stings someone it is important to:

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remove the stinger as soon as possible by scraping it with your fingernail (a small sac attached to the stinger can continue to pump venom into the body for 20 minutes)

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2. apply a cold compress. This will reduce swelling and the spread of histamines (it is the histamines that cause itching) OR immerse the site of the sting in cold water, if a cold compress is unavailable 3. administer an antihistamine tablet to further reduce the spread of histamines in the body 4. observe the patient carefully for 24 hours after the sting, in case of severe reaction 5. seek immediate medical attention if there is a severe reaction. redness spreading outwards from the site swelling difficulty swallowing laboured breathing weakness and confusion

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• • • • •

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Some of the symptoms of a severe reaction are:

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A life threatening reaction may lead to the closure of a patient’s airway, resulting in a loss of consciousness. This is treated by administering epinephrine. People who are likely to react in this way usually carry an Ana-Kit or EpiPen® containing a dose of medication.

Speaking and listening Class activity 1.

(a) Using a semantic web, brainstorm information about bees. (b) Record some facts on the semantic web on page 2. You may need to research to find further information.

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ANALYSIS

Speaking and listening

Semantic web – bees

Queen

Worker

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• wings

Bees

Body parts

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Pollen

Hive

Sting

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Drone

• painful • dangerous

2.

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Compasses

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• mates with Queen

Bees are very good at finding their way, but people often use a compass to help them do this. (a) Brainstorm what you know about compasses. (b) In what direction does the needle on a compass always point? (c) Discuss different reasons for using compasses and list some below.

2

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Speaking and listening

ANALYSIS

Mnemonics A useful way to remember the four points of the compass, starting with north and going in a clockwise direction, is: Never Eat Shredded Wheat This is called a mnemonic. You might like to use this one or make up one of your own that will help you remember.

Partner activity Find the Queen bee’s chamber Use your knowledge about the points of a compass to follow the steps in this procedure and locate the Queen’s chamber. Choose who will read the instructions and who will follow the procedure. Procedure Start at the square which is one place north of the one in the middle of the bottom line.

B

C

D

E

F

Move one square west and two north.

G

H

I

3.

Go one square east and one north.

J

K

L

4.

Go one square east and two south.

M

N

O

5.

You will find the queen one square west.

P

Q

R

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2.

Change the procedure

(a) Give instruction to your partner on how to find the Queen bee. (She is in box K.) He or she must start at F and pass through D. Your information will need to be clear and he or she will need to listen carefully.

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4.

A

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3.

(b) Take turns at this activity. Use these starting points or make up some of your own.

• Start at D and pass through B.

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• Start at Q and pass through M. • Start at A and pass through D.

Structure of a procedure

Procedures usually have: A goal Requirements Steps Test

This is at the beginning and tells what is to be done. These are items needed to complete the task. A list of instructions to be followed in a specific order. Was the task completed successfully?

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ANALYSIS

Structure of a procedure

Reread the procedure for treating a bee sting. Answer the questions.

Goal

Requirements

What is the purpose of this procedure?

What equipment may be needed?

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Steps

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Write the steps you would follow to help a bee sting victim.

Test

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How would you know that your treatment has been successful?

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Reading for information 1.

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True or false? Colour the correct answer. (a) Apply a cold compress before removing the sting. .................................

true

false

(b) Bee stings are not painful........................................................................

true

false

(c) A cold compress reduces the swelling. ..................................................

true

false

(d) Antihistamine tablets are helpful.............................................................

true

false

(e) Some bee sting victims have difficulty breathing....................................

true

false

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Reading

2.

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Highlight the one you would do first. (a)

Observe the victim for 24 hours.

OR

Apply a cold compress.

(b)

Remove the stinger.

OR

Take the victim to the doctor.

(c)

Administer an antihistamine tablet.

OR

Try to reduce the swelling.

Reading for understanding Use complete sentences to explain your answers to these questions. 1.

Why is it important to remove the sting quickly?

3.

How could you avoid being stung on the foot?

5.

List some items found in the home that could be used to reduce the swelling.

Why can bee stings be life threatening?

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2.

If you suffer strong reactions to bee stings, what are some precautions you should take?

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4.

Applying your knowledge 1.

What are some ways you could protect yourself from bee stings?

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2.

List any other insects that should be avoided because they sting or bite.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

3.

Reading

(a) What problems do mosquito bites cause?

(b) How can you protect yourself from mosquito bites?

Vocabulary

(a) gtsni

(b) ychit

(c) sufnicono

(d) tcmdeianoi

(e) mdtameeii 2.

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Sort the jumbled letters to form words from the procedure.

(f)

Write synonyms (similar meanings) for these words. (a) apply

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(d) observe

submerse

Write antonyms (opposites) for these words. (a) important

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(c) reduce

(f)

3.

gwawllonsi

(b) continue

(b) sting

(e) attached

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1.

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Jumbled words

(c) remove (d) immediate (e) available (f)

later

Collecting compounds

The same word can be used in front of each group of words to form either a compound word or words commonly used together. The first one has been completed for you. Use your dictionary to add two more examples.

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4.

(a)

yard house

court

(5)

room case

court – martial Court of Appeal

ship (b)

set rise (3)

flower stroke glasses

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Vocabulary

(c)

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

hold wife (5)

work maid keeper

(d)

stage drop (4)

ground wards bone

(e)

e

stood (5)

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dog growth neath

(f)

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taker bag

shake

(4)

writing stand

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cuffs

Solving similes

5.

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Similes compare one thing with another using the words as or like. For example: as white as snow, swims like a fish. Complete these well-known similes using a person’s name.

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For example, as game as Ned Kelly. (a) As pleased as (b) As patient as (c) As old as (d) As happy as (e) As wise as 6.

Research to find out where one of the above similes originated.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

The answers to the following similes are all animals or insects. Complete them. (b) As happy as a

(c) As hungry as a

(d) As drunk as a

(e) As stubborn as a

(f) As brave as a

(g) As weak as a

(h) As sick as a

(i)

(j)

As busy as a

(k) As wise as an

(l)

As strong as an

(m) As quiet as a

(n) As slippery as an

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As slow as a

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(a) As cheeky as a

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7.

Vocabulary

(o) As fat as a

Spelling

Adding suffixes

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A suffix is something added to the end of a word. For example: spread – spread/s – spread/ing – spread/er – spread/able

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The general rule concerning suffixes is simply to add them, but there are other rules. Words ending with a silent ‘e’

1.

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When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel, the silent e is dropped, because the vowel takes its place. For example: scrape – scraping

Add er, ing, ible or able to these words. (a) breathe

(b)

submerse

(c) close

(d)

proceed

(e) remove

(f)

observe

(g) continue

(h)

reduce

One-one-one rule When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel, to words of one syllable, with one short vowel followed by one consonant, the consonant is doubled to keep the vowel short. For example: hum – humming – hummed

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Spelling

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Short vowels, consonants and syllables Check your understanding of short vowels, consonants and syllables by completing the following exercises.

Short vowels Short vowels are: a as in rat, e as in red, o as in hot, i as in sit and u as in cut. Highlight the words with a short vowel sound. close

scrape

site

sting

treat

so

cold

fell

find

swell

shut

think

crash

fill

up

Consonants

e

snake

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2.

3.

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Any letter of the alphabet, except a, e, i, o, u, is called a consonant. (a) How many words can you make by adding only consonants to these letters? For example, an – ant, plan, and, sand, paw, pant on

match

fond

um

el

ip

stump

help

strip

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at

(b) Which was the most difficult to find words for? (c) What was your longest word? How many consonants did you use? (d) Write two words using only consonants. (e) Did your words contain the letter y? Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

yes

no

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Spelling

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Syllables A syllable is a part of a word with a vowel sound in it. For example:

part/ner/ship

(one syllable)

(two syllables)

(three syllables)

How many syllables are in each of these words? (Remember to look for the vowel sounds because the number of syllables is the same as the number of vowel sounds.) Word

5.

part/ner

Syllables

Word

Word

person

grown

away

instruction

traffic

looking

spring

return

letter

compress

cartoon

Syllables

e

jumper

pl

play

conversation hillside

Add the suffix ing, er, able or est to these words. You will need to apply the one-one-one rule. (a) thin (c) shut (e) slip

(b)

club

(d)

cram

(f)

plot

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Complete the chart. The first one has been done. Word

One syllable

One short vowel

Followed by one consonant

Word plus ‘ing’

stamp

yes

yes

no

stamping

visit defeat

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open

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6.

Syllables

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4.

part

edit

step There are exceptions to most rules and it is advisable to check a dictionary. These words of more than one syllable with a consonant following a single vowel, double the final consonant. Most of them are compound words or one syllable words with a prefix added. For example:

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outrun – outrunning

unpin – unpinning

kidnap – kidnapping

upset – upsetting

permit – permitted

handicap – handicapped

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Spelling

7.

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Find more words of more than one syllable with a short vowel followed by one consonant that double the final consonant when adding a suffix.

LANGUAGE FEATURES

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Verbs

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Verbs are the most important words in sentences. In fact, a sentence must have at least one verb to be a sentence!

Remove the stinger. Observe the patient.

The patient is weak and confused.

Some people have severe reactions.

Swelling was of concern.

The patient had difficulty swallowing.

These verbs describe a state or condition and are called being verbs.

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These verbs describe an action and are called action or doing verbs.

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Read these sentences. The verbs are in bold print.

These verbs describe ownership and are called having verbs.

Imperative or command verbs

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Action verbs used in procedures instructing someone to do something are called imperative or command verbs and are usually written at the beginning of a sentence. For example, Immerse the site of the sting.

List five other command verbs used in the procedure.

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1.

The verb to be The verb to be changes and has different forms depending on who and when. For example: I am S/he is We are You are They are

I was S/he was We were You were They were

I will be S/he will be We will be You will be They will be

Present tense (is happening now)

Past tense (has already happened)

Future tense (will happen later)

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

2.

Use the correct form of the verb ‘to be’ to complete each sentence. (a) They

removing the sting. (present tense)

(b) She

having difficulty swallowing. (present tense)

(c) You

weak and confused. (present tense)

(d) She

treated in hospital. (future tense)

(e) The antihistamine tables (f)

effective. (past tense)

The bees

returning to their hive. (future tense)

(g) My father

stung by a bee. (past tense)

e

The verb to have

I had

S/he has

S/he had

We have You have They have Present tense

S/he will have

We had

We will have

You had

You will have

They had

They will have

Past tense

Future tense

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Tense

I will have

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I have

pl

Study the different forms of the verb to have.

Tense tells when something is happening, has happened or will happen.

3.

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The verb is changed to indicate the tense.

Change the tense of each verb to complete the table. Present tense

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Verb

Past tense

Future tense

swallow

attaches removed will carry

submerse treated apply continues treat

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Changing verbs 4.

(a) Read the story. Circle the verbs.

(b)

Rewrite the story in the past tense.

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I look out the window and see a bee on the flowers. It leaves the flowers and flies towards the cold drink can which is on the outdoor table. I watch as it disappears into the can. I yell to warn my brother as he walks towards the table. He hears me and stops.

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Active and passive verbs

A verb is in the active voice if the subject of the verb is doing the action. For example:

5.

The bee stung Peter.

(The bee is the subject and does the action.)

The teacher treated his bee sting.

(The teacher is the subject and does the action.)

Underline the subject of each verb. (a) The queen bee laid her eggs in the hive. (b) The bee sting was painful. (c) Yesterday, I saw a bee hive. (d) The stinger can continue to pump venom for 20 minutes. (e) On her way to school, Jessica trod on a bee.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

A verb is the passive voice if the subject of the verb receives the action. For example:

6.

Peter was stung by a bee.

(Peter is the subject and receives the action.)

His bee sting was treated by the teacher.

(His bee sting is the subject and received the action.)

Write these sentences in the passive voice. (a) The bees gathered the pollen.

e

(b) The boy ate the honey.

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(d) His friend removed the sting.

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(c) The doctor treated the child.

(e) The ambulance transferred the child to hospital.

Write active or passive after each sentence.

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7.

(a) I gave my mother some honey.

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(b) The hive was constructed by the bees.

(c) My mother loves to have honey on toast.

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(d) The pollen from the sunflowers was gathered by the bees. (e) The grapevine was covered with bees. In sentences written in the passive voice, the person who does the action is not always named. For example: My car was stolen last night. (We are not told who stole the car.) 8.

Who could be responsible for the action in each sentence written in the passive voice? (a) The thief was taken to the police station. (b) Mrs Robinson’s cakes were judged the best at the show. (c) The painting was hung in the gallery. (d) The book was published in Ireland. (e) The house was very well built.

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Review procedures

Text organisation

WRITING

Language features

A procedure has • a goal

A procedure uses • short clear statements

• a list of requirements

• command verbs

• steps to follow

• steps to follow

• a test to measure success

• present tense

Language features

e

Text organisation

pl

Goal

sa m

Steps

Command verbs

How to treat a bee sting If a bee stings someone it is important to:

remove the stinger as soon as possible by scraping it with your fingernail (a small sac attached to the stinger can continue to pump venom into the body for 20 minutes)

2.

apply a cold compress. This will reduce swelling and the spread of histamines (it is the histamines that cause itching)

in g

1.

OR

immerse the site of the sting in cold water, if a cold compress is unavailable administer an antihistamine tablet to further reduce the spread of histamines in the body

4.

observe the patient carefully for 24 hours after the sting in case of severe reaction

5.

seek immediate medical attention if there is a severe reaction.

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3.

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Requirements

Clear statements

Some of the symptoms of a severe reaction are: •

redness spreading outwards from the site

swelling

difficulty swallowing

laboured breathing

weakness and confusion

A life threatening reaction lead to the closure of a patient’s airway, resulting in loss of consciousness. This is treated by administering epinephrine. People who are likely to react in this way usually carry an Ana-Kit or EpiPen® containing a dose of medication.

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WRITING

Writing a procedure

Write a procedure to explain how to treat a: grazed knee or blood nose or twisted ankle You will need to give instruction to suit different situations and levels of injury. You may find it useful to use the word ‘if’ in your procedure.

Goal:

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Requirements:

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Steps:

Test (How would you know that your procedure is successful?):

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Editing and proofreading

WRITING

Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work.

You will be self-editing for:

You will need to use a peer editor to:

Spelling

Punctuation

Check instructions and sense

Grammar

Concise language

Colour the correct boxes.

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Checklist

pl

Title of the procedure:

yes

no

2. Did you include a goal?........................................................................................

yes

no

3. Did you list your requirements? ..........................................................................

yes

no

4. Are the steps in logical order? .............................................................................

yes

no

5. Is there any unnecessary information? ...............................................................

yes

no

6. Did you add a test to check the procedure works? .............................................

yes

no

7. Have you corrected any spelling errors? .............................................................

yes

no

8. Have you used command verbs? ........................................................................

yes

no

9. Are your instructions easy to follow? .................................................................

yes

no

10. Do your statements all have capital letters and full stops? .................................

yes

no

11. Is your procedure written in the present tense? .................................................

yes

no

yes

no

Vi

ew

in g

sa m

1. Does your procedure make sense to you? ..........................................................

12. Ask a partner to read your procedure. (a)

Did he or she find it easy to understand? ..................................................

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

Choose a topic from the box and write a procedure. Washing up after dinner

Treating snakebite

Lighting a fire

2.

Treating a burn Treating a cut finger

Complete the following statements. Text:

Language:

A procedure explains how to

Procedures use .

The main purpose is to direct,

clear

verbs in the

or

verbs

Complete the following.

sa m

3.

tense.

pl

.

e

1.

(a) A suffix is a group of letters attached to the

of a word.

(b) Adding ed to the end of a word changes it from the present tense to the tense. (c) ed, er, ing are called

.

in g

(d) Add a suffix to each word. (i) remove (iii) observe

4.

swallow

(iv)

spread

(vi)

reduce

ew

(v) buzz

(ii)

(a) When adding a suffix to words of one syllable with one short vowel followed by one consonant, that consonant.

Vi

(b) Add ed to these words: (i) shop

(ii)

kick

(iii) milk

(iv)

slam

5. Consonants and vowels How many consonants and vowels in each word? Word

18

Consonants

Vowels

Word

(a)

compress

(b)

confusion

(c)

patient

(d)

reaction

(e)

medical

(f)

medication

(g)

symptoms

(h)

histamines

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Consonants

Vowels

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Test your knowledge

6.

(a) A syllable is a part of a word with a

EVALUATION

sound in it.

(b) How many syllables in each word? (i)

spring

(ii)

cartoon

(iii)

bike

(iv) person

(v)

letter

(vi) looking

(vii) swallow Tense Complete the box.

(c)

jumps

jumped

Verb (b)

run

look

(d)

shop

(e)

sing

(f)

write

(g)

see

(i)

search

(a) What are mnemonics used for?

Past

(h)

find

(j)

remove

9.

(a) What are similes?

(b) Give an example.

ew

(b) Give an example.

Present

e

jump

Past

sa m

8.

(a)

Present

pl

Verb

in g

7.

Vi

10. Write active or passive to describe the verb used in each sentence. (a) The book borrowed by my brother has disappeared. (b) I enjoy reading books about sporting heroes. (c) During the holidays my best friend went to a swimming camp. (d) The party was enjoyed by everyone. (e) The journey undertaken by the explorer was remarkable. (f) Our group was joined by three others. (g) Dinner was followed by sporting activities.

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Recount – 1

Looking for work ANALYSIS A recount is a retelling of past events in time order. Recounts can be in the form of a newspaper article, diary or a letter. Some recounts are personal, factual or imaginative. Read the following recount.

Looking for work

and yelling abuse at my sister, who just laughed at me. But we all knew that at 6.15 I’d be sitting on the doorstep waiting, despite anything I said or did.

Vi

ew

Well, you can imagine my surprise two days later, when once again I was enjoying myself in front of my favourite television program and Mum came marching in and told me she’d found me a job.

in g

sa m

pl

e

Mum had been nagging me for days to get a job. ‘You start at 6.30 am tomorrow. Peta will pick you ‘Alex, you’re not sitting around here for the next up at 6.15.’ eight weeks watching TV and making a mess in ‘What?’ I was furious. Peta is Mum’s friend my kitchen’, she snapped at me. who earns a living by gardening. I whinged and ‘Yes Mum, OK Mum’, I’d mutter under my breath groaned at Mum all day long. I though that if my and continue to stretch out on the sofa in front life was going to be hell, so would hers be. of the television. This was the life for me. It was just heavenly, especially since I’d just completed ‘You can’t make me work. You have to be fourteen my first year in secondary school. I’d had enough years and nine months. I’m only thirteen and eight months. I’ll report you for this.’ of hard work for a while – putting up with grumpy teachers (except for French – Madame ‘OK’, replied Mum, with a sweet look of victory on Casey was nice, she liked me), smelly her face. I was so mad. In classrooms, ‘bully boys’ and exasperation I stormed tasteless canteen food. Oh around the house yes, this was the life for me. slamming doors

Speaking and listening Partner activity 1.

20

With a partner discuss your ideal holiday. List some of your ideas below.

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Speaking and listening

2.

Do you think secondary school pupils have a difficult life?

yes

ANALYSIS

no

Discuss this and decide on the three main reasons for your decision.

What was your reaction to the main character in this story? Do you think his response to his mother was unreasonable? Prepare a one minute talk to justify your opinion of this person and present it to a small group or the class.

pl

3.

e

Individual activity – persuasive argument

sa m

Plan the talk to ensure that you provide evidence to support your views and to persuade others to agree with you. The audience should listen carefully to your talk and take notes, recording the main points presented.

in g

Structure of a recount

Structure

A title: A setting:

Vi

The events:

What the recount is about

ew

A recount has:

An ending/comment:

Who the recount is about

Where the events happened

When the events happened

Why the events happened

What happened Events are told in the order in which they happened. Each major event is written in a new paragraph. What the writer thinks about the events.

Reread the recount about the holiday job and answer these questions. Title (a) Does the title really describe what the recount is about?

yes

no

(b) Do you think that it’s an appropriate title?

yes

no

Explain your opinion.

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ANALYSIS

Structure of a recount

Setting (a) Who are the people in this recount?

(b) Where are they?

(c) When did the events occur?

(d) Why did they happen?

Events

e

Number these events in the order they occurred.

pl

Mum found Alex a job.

sa m

Alex was watching TV all the time. Alex was angry and thought it was unfair. Mum told Alex the ‘good’ news. Alex had to go to work.

in g

Alex slammed doors and yelled at his sister. Ending/comment

ew

Who eventually achieved success?

Vi

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Reading for information True or false? Colour the correct answer.

22

1.

Alex enjoyed the food provided by his school canteen..............................................

2.

Alex’s sister laughed at him because he was so mad that he was yelling and

true

false

slamming doors. ........................................................................................................

true

false

3.

Peta is Mum’s friend. ................................................................................................

true

false

4.

Alex is fourteen years old. .........................................................................................

true

false

5.

Madame Casey is a grumpy teacher..........................................................................

true

false

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Reading

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading for understanding

1.

Do you think Alex was lazy?

yes

no

yes

no

yes

pl

Use complete sentences to explain your answers to these questions.

Explain why you think this.

2.

Does Alex’s mother have a strong personality?

e

Why do you think this?

3.

Do you think Alex should have to go to work?

sa m

Give reasons to support your opinion.

Applying your knowledge 1.

no

Is watching TV good for you?

yes

no

(a) How good was the relationship between Alex and his sister?

4.

Vi

2.

ew

in g

List the advantages and disadvantages. This would be a good topic for a class debate.

Alex decided that because his mother was making his life hell, he would make hers hell too. (a) What did he do to achieve this?

(b) What could she have done to help support her brother? (b) Was he successful?

yes

no

(c) Do you think it was possible for Alex to change his mother’s mind on this issue? 3.

(a) Do you think the title Looking for work is a good one? yes (b) Suggest some alternatives.

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no (d) What are some non-negotiable issues in your home?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

Overworked words 1.

The word said is a verb (or doing word) that is often used when a more descriptive or informative verb would be preferable. (a) Read these verbs used in the recount Looking for work. (b) Use your dictionary and the knowledge gained from the context in which they are used in the recount, to give a definition of each word, explaining their differences. nag mutter

e

whinge

pl

groan

sa m

yell report NOTE:

Although it would be possible to write the word ‘say’ after each word, this would not explain their differences.

2.

in g

Vital verbs

Find ten alternatives for each of these frequently used verbs. saw

said

Vi

ew

went

Taking the time and making the effort to select appropriate verbs can make a great difference to the quality of your writing. A thesaurus is a useful writing tool. Find out what a thesaurus contains and how you can use it.

E words 3.

24

In these words some e’s have been left out. Put in the e’s to make words from the recount. (a) havnly

(b)

compltd

(c) tastlss

(d)

ight

(e) tlvision

(f)

xaspration

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Vocabulary

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Heads and tails 4.

These word start and finish with the same two letters. Use the clues to complete the word. The first one has been done for you. (a)

to ma to

A fruit used in salads

(b)

ur

A place of worship

(d)

rmi

An insect that eats wood.

(f)

sul

A drug diabetics use

(c)

i

Cutting one makes your eyes water

(e)

qui

To need something

Challenge 5.

How many ‘heads and tails’ words can you find? Your class may like to compete to find some and compile a class list.

in g

sa m

pl

e

Some parents may also enjoy the challenge.

Fancy foods

Use the clues and three groups of the letters listed below to solve the nine foods. The three groups of letters left over will make a sweet treat.

tti

bea

oms

lon

ise

ple

ate

esc

pin

ots

ghe

ant

arg

ara

cro

hro

roc

cho

iss

col

spa

asp

rna

mus

kme

eap

enc

ada

gus

hil

Vi

ew

6.

(a) long thin pasta

(b)

a tropical fruit with spiky leaves

(c) Mexican tortilla

(d)

French snails

(e) edible fungi

(f)

a cantaloupe

(g) a crescent-shaped breakfast roll

(h)

a green vegetable with edible shoots

(i)

(j)

the sweet treat is

a sauce for steak, made with butter, egg yolks and lemon

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

English spelling is complicated for a number of reasons. One is that the pronunciation has changed over time but the spelling has not. Another is that many thousands of words are of foreign origin and are therefore difficult to spell; e.g. pyjamas (India), yacht (Holland). The languages that have influenced English the most are Latin and Greek.

Latin Some examples of everyday words that have come from Latin are seen below.

Bi The Latin bi means two. Read the words and select the correct one to write on each line. bicycle

bilingual

biped

bisect

(b) to have two feet

(c) a vehicle with two wheels

(d) someone married to two people at the same time

pl

(a) to cut into two parts

(e) to happen twice in one year

(f) to speak two languages

Centum Match these definitions. cent

in g

The latin centum means one hundred. 2.

bigamist

e

biannual

sa m

1.

centigrade

centimetre

ew

(a) a hundred years

century

centenary

(b) one-hundredth of a euro

(d) one-hundredth of a metre

Vi

(c) the hundredth anniversary

centipede

(e) an animal with one hundred legs

(f)

divided into one hundred degrees

Greek There are many technical and scientific words with Greek origins. For example:

ph – making a f sound – physical, telephone ch – making a k sound – chemist, chiropractor au – making an or sound – nautical, dinosaur

3.

Find two more examples of each of the above. (a) ph (b) ch (c) au

26

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Confusing words These three words from the recount—eight, morning and knew—can all be spelled differently and have different meanings, but sound exactly the same. They are called homophones (same sound). Read these sentences. •

Alex has eight brothers and sisters.

He ate food from the school canteen.

The next morning, Alex would be waiting for Peta.

Alex was mourning the loss of his freedom.

Alex knew that he had to go to work.

He started his new job at 6.15 am.

e

Use the correct words to complete these sentences. the death of their coach’s dog, Rex, who had been their

(b) They

their breakfast quickly so that they could leave the house

before

o’clock in the

(c) I would be furious.

that my

Make the meaning clear

.

shoes were missing and that Mum

Write a sentence using each pairs of homophones correctly. (You may need to consult a dictionary – be inventive.) (a) knight, night

ew

(b) soul, sole

in g

5.

pl

(a) The team was mascot for two years.

sa m

4.

Vi

(c) serial, cereal

(d) practise, practice

(e) stationary, stationery

(f)

affect, effect

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Nouns Nouns are naming words and are used to name: people – teacher, gardener places – St Stephen’s School, canteen things – television, door qualities – anger, exasperation events – carnival, festival, Christmas

Match the nouns

People

Things

(a)

librarian

brooms

(b)

athlete

rake

(c)

gardener

sport

(d)

cleaner

books

(e)

driver

blackboard

(f)

teacher

vehicle

in g

2.

sa m

Noun categories

e

Draw a line to match the nouns in the left column (people) with the nouns (things they are associated with) in the right column.

pl

1.

Write each noun in its correct category. refrigerator

ew

ant

surfing

carrots

tractor jacket

grasshopper

truck

dictionary

netball

atlas

pumpkin

shoes

Vi

blender

(a) vegetables (b) insects

(c) vehicles (d) appliances (e) books (f)

clothing

(g) sport

28

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Collective nouns Collective nouns are commonly used for groups of people, animals or things. For example: a litter of puppies 4.

(a) a herd of (b) a pride of (c) a flock of (d) a gaggle of (e) a shoal of (f)

Find a collective noun for these groups. (a) a

of keys

(b) a

of beads

(c) a

of yachts

(d) a

of stars

(e) a

of banknotes

(f)

a pack of

a

(g) a

(g) a swarm of

5.

Abstract nouns Words used to name qualities, emotions and actions (things you cannot touch or see) are called abstract nouns.

of angels of robbers

Underline the abstract nouns in the lists below. (a) ambition, furniture, vision, accessories (b) dwarves, education, tornadoes, factories (c) sweetness, document, libraries, weakness

in g

For example: failure, happiness, life

of directors

sa m

(h) a

(h) a pod of

e

Find a suitable noun for each of these groups of animals.

pl

3.

(d) fascination, forgetfulness, crockery, maturity

ew

(e) bookshelves, popularity, greenery, responsibility

Proper nouns

Proper nouns start with a capital letter and name people, geographical places, proprietary names and so on.

Vi

Examples of proper nouns include: January, Robin Hood, Dublin, Tower of London, Harley-Davidson. 6.

Write two proper nouns for each category. (a) days of the week (b) products you drink (c) cities (d) countries (e) film characters (f)

television personalities

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29


LANGUAGE FEATURES

(g) religious festivals (h) geographical features (i)

buildings

(j)

titled people

(k) company names

Pronouns

e

A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. We need to use pronouns to avoid repeating nouns, which otherwise makes a piece of writing monotonous and boring.

pl

For example:

sa m

Alex thought that Alex should be allowed to watch television because Alex enjoyed television and Alex didn’t think television was a waste of Alex’s time. Alex thought that he should be allowed to watch television because he enjoyed it and he didn’t think it was a waste of his time.

Personal pronouns

First person

in g

Personal pronouns take different forms for each category of people they represent. This is why they are called personal pronouns.

Second person

ew

Many writers use the first person in their writing, especially if it is a recount. The narrator of a story tells the story personally and uses first person pronouns such as: I, me, mine, we us, ours.

Vi

The second person is often used in procedures and is found in instruction manuals and recipe books. Second person pronouns are: you, yours. Third person

Writers of novels often use the third person so that they can describe the thoughts, actions and feelings of a number of characters. Third person pronouns are: he, his, she, here, him, it, its, they, them, theirs.

1.

Underline the personal pronoun and write first, second or third at the end of sentences. (a) Where did you leave your basketball? (b) We worked very hard to complete our homework. (c) Mary can’t perform in the school play because she has chickenpox.

30

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Activities

WRITING

Using pronouns in your writing 1.

Write three short paragraphs using one of the two opening sentences provided in each of the three categories. (a) First person

I was home alone when I heard a very strange noise. or

You must do your best so you …

ew

(b) Second person

in g

sa m

pl

e

We looked everywhere but we couldn’t find ...

or

Vi

If you want to make this, you must …

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WRITING

Activities

(c) Third person

He yelled in terror as he saw his brother disappear. or

sa m

pl

e

They were the unluckiest people. Just when they believed they were safe...

Personal pronoun table

Person

in g

Personal pronouns have been categorised as 1st, 2nd or 3rd person, singular or plural and subject, object and possessive in this table. Subject

Object

Possessive

I

me

mine

you

you

yours

he, she, it

him, her, it

his, her, its

we

us

ours

second person plural

you

you

yours

third person plural

they

them

theirs

ew

first person singular second person singular third person singular

Vi

first person plural

Changing pronouns 1.

Rewrite each sentence in the plural, changing the highlighted pronouns. The first one has been done for you. (a) Look at the beautiful horse. I am so proud it is mine. Look at the beautiful horses. We are so proud they are ours. (b) He is sitting watching television.

(c) You were busy working on your car while he was working on his.

32

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Writing a recount

WRITING

Choose a topic from the box below and write a recount. Remember, recounts record past events, so use the past tense.

My mean mum

The job I hated

My holiday nightmare

I was a hero

Use the plan as a guide

Title

e

Setting

pl

who

sa m

where

when

2.

Vi

3.

ew

Events. 1.

in g

why

4.

Concluding statement/comment

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Editing and proofreading

WRITING

Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. You will be self-editing for:

You will need to use a peer editor to:

Spelling

Punctuation

Check sequence and sense

Grammar

Sentence structure

Sequence and sense

Checklist Title:

e

Title:

Does your title reflect the topic? .............................................................................

yes

no

Does it generate interest? .......................................................................................

yes

no

pl

1.

Setting: Does your recount include:

specific characters? .........................................................................................

yes

no

location? ..........................................................................................................

yes

no

time of the events ...........................................................................................

yes

no

the reason for the events? .............................................................................

yes

no

3.

Events:

Were the events sequenced correctly? ...................................................................

yes

no

Were all relevant events included? ..........................................................................

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

Have you checked your punctuation? ......................................................................

yes

no

Is each event recorded in a separate paragraph? ....................................................

yes

no

Have you used the past tense? ...............................................................................

yes

no

Is the vocabulary you used interesting and varied? .................................................

yes

no

Did you use a peer editor? ......................................................................................

yes

no

Did s/he make any constructive comments?...........................................................

yes

no

in g

ew

4.

sa m

2.

Concluding Statement:

Did you conclude with a statement or comment?. ................................................ Spelling:

Vi

5.

Have you corrected any spelling errors?.................................................................. 6.

7.

8.

34

Punctuation:

Language Features:

Peer Editor:

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Test your knowledge

1.

EVALUATION

Choose a topic from the box below and plan, then write, a recount in full.

My worst day at school

A true friend

A family crisis

A day I’ll never forget

(a) What is a recount?

(b) Describe its features

3.

Write five alternatives for these overworked verbs.

sa m

(a) went

(b) saw

in g

(c) got

(a) Two languages that have influenced English the most are

ew

4.

pl

e

2.

and

(b) What does bi mean? .

Vi

(c) Write a meaning for each of these words: bilingual bisect

biannual bigamist

5.

(a) What does centum mean?

(b) Write two English words from this Latin origin. and

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

The country was mourning/morning the death of its President yesterday mourning/morning.

(b)

His car was stationary/stationery outside the stationary/stationery shop.

(c)

The effect/affect of the tsunami will drastically effect/affect the island’s economy.

Write collective nouns for these groups. (a)

wolves

(b)

lions

(c)

fish

(d)

geese

school

greed

Underline the abstract nouns pride

9.

work

joy

Write two proper nouns for each category. (a) towns (b) sporting personalities

in g

(c) brand names 10. Substitute suitable pronouns for each noun

ew

(a) Andrew

furniture

e

8.

(a)

anger

sunshine

pl

7.

Choose the correct words.

sa m

6.

11. List three: (a) First person pronouns

(b) Second person pronouns

(c) Car

(c) Third person pronouns

Vi

(b) Video machine

(d) Mum

12. Rewrite this sentence changing the highlighted pronouns from singular to plural. I think it is too hot to work in the garden today. Instead I will spend the day at the beach with a friend of mine. I don’t think he would expect me to work in this heat.

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Exposition – 1

Save the Flinders Ranges ANALYSIS An exposition attempts to persuade an audience by presenting one side of an argument. Read this exposition.

Save the Flinders Ranges

e

Good evening ladies and gentlemen, welcome to Mantatoba Bay University. The purpose of this evening’s address is to convince you of the urgent need to rehabilitate the Flinders Ranges.

pl

Decades of destructive practices have contributed to the extinction of many important native species of flora and fauna. With your awareness and support, we will be able to start to reverse this situation.

in g

sa m

The Flinders Ranges are spectacular. Geologists have speculated that they may have once been comparable in size to the Himalayas, but have been worn down to their present size over eons. There are many jagged peaks and deep gorges. Claypans and salt lakes can be found in the north; in other areas, permanent underground springs produce surprising lushness. Over the last century the region’s biodiversity has been damaged. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Flinders Ranges were alive with nocturnal animals, such as bilbies, bettongs and woylies. These special small mammals have vanished due to the introduction of foxes and cats. In fact, half of the animal species known to have lived in the area before European settlement have disappeared. Changes in vegetation have been brought about by grazing animals like sheep and cattle and by rabbits. Overgrazing is also responsible for the disappearance of vast numbers of plant species. Unsound farming practices and the introduction of feral pests and weeds have caused havoc. Excessive clearing of vital trees has resulted in erosion and salination problems.

ew

Rehabilitation of this beautiful area is vital to the conservation of our precious plants, animals and soils. If we don’t accept responsibility now, we will lose the opportunity for future generations. We will have nothing to leave them but problems. Is this the legacy they deserve?

Vi

Tonight I am launching ‘Restoration Now’. This local program will be monitored and controlled in this state by the Wildlife and Parks Council. I invite and urge you to donate generously to establish this programme immediately to preserve this beautiful area for future generations.

Speaking and listening Class activity 1.

(a) Define fauna and flora. (b) Discuss and compile lists of fauna and flora found in your local area. (c) Identify those that are indigenous to your area.

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Speaking and listening

ANALYSIS

Partner activity 2.

(a) Working with a partner, identify an endangered animal. (b) Discuss what you know about this animal.

(c)

For example: • Physical characteristics • Food • How it protects itself • How it could be preserved Research further information.

• • • •

Habitat Predators Why it is endangered Why it should be preserved

(d) Prepare a joint oral presentation to share your knowledge.

pl

Structure

e

Structure of an exposition

An exposition uses persuasive language to present a point of view. This exposition has: An overview

Persuasive opinions to support a point of view

Conclusion

Final comment and summing up

in g

What is the exposition about?

Overview

What does the speaker want?

ew

Title

Why does the speaker think the ranges are worth saving?

Vi

Arguments 1.

Briefly tells what the writer thinks about the subject

Arguments

Read Save the Flinders Ranges again. Answer these questions.

Tells what the exposition is about

sa m

A title

38

2.

What damage has been done to the fauna?

3.

What caused this damage?

4.

What damage has been done to the flora?

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Structure of an exposition

Conclusion

5.

What caused this damage?

6.

What does the speaker want people to do?

ANALYSIS

Why does the speaker want people to act now?

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

e

Reading for information

pl

True or false. Highlight the correct answer. 1.

The Flinders Ranges were much bigger in the past than at present.

2.

false

The ranges are covered with lush green vegetation.

true

false

3.

Animals were the only cause of all the damage to the vegetation.

true

false

4.

Cutting down trees causes erosion and too much salt.

true

false

5.

‘Restoration Now’ is a nationwide programme.

true

false

Reading for meaning 1.

Do you think the speaker is more angry or concerned about the damage to the Flinders Ranges?

ew

Explain why you think this.

Which problem presented in this exposition do you think is the most serious?

Vi

2.

in g

sa m

true

Why?

3.

Does this exposition present more facts or opinions? Write: one fact

one opinion

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Applying your knowledge Rabbits and foxes were both introduced into Australia and have become a threat to the environment. (a) Use the information from the exposition, your own knowledge and research skills to complete the informational grid. Add two more introduced fauna of your own.

Introduced fauna What

Who

When

Where

Why

pl

e

rabbits

Vi

ew

in g

sa m

foxes

(b) What measures have been undertaken in an attempt to eradicate these pests?

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Vocabulary

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Word origins Since about 40–50 per cent of English words come from Latin, many of them are everyday words. For example:

tri meaning three triangle

1.

tripod

triplets

Find the origin and the meanings of these words from the exposition.

(b)

century

(c)

salination

(d)

conserve

(e)

rehabilitate

(f)

contribute

(g)

eons

(h)

biodiversity

(i)

geologist

pl

decade

in g

Shades of meaning

The two words in these sentences have very similar meanings. Circle the more suitable one. (a) Some people try to evade/escape paying taxes.

(b)

The children were astonished/overwhelmed to see a squirrel in their classroom.

(c) An invitation arrived requesting/desiring us to attend the wedding.

(d)

Mike wanted a suitable/satisfactory tie to wear with his new shirt.

(e) Blood cells are minute/microscopic.

(f)

The Egyptians built the pyramids in ancient/ antique times.

ew

2.

Origin

sa m

(a)

Meaning

e

Word

Very 3.

Vi

Overused words

Good writers express their opinions using precise vocabulary. The word ‘very’ is often overused. Choose a more appropriate adjective.

grotesque

terrified

delicious

concerned

tranquil

ferocious

irate

gaunt

scalding

potent

(a) very thin

(b)

very worried

(c) very hot

(d)

very tasty

(e) very angry

(f)

very fierce

(g) very ugly

(h)

very scared

(i)

(j)

very calm

very strong

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

Ambiguity Good writers express their ideas clearly, avoid confusion and convey their intended messages without ambiguity. One cause of ambiguity is the use of a word with more than one meaning. For example:

My jeans need mending badly. The word ‘badly’ can mean ‘urgently’ or ‘poorly’.

Another cause is the incorrect placement of a phrase in a sentence. For example: 4.

The car was driven by a man with tinted windows.

Rewrite these sentences, making the meaning clear and avoiding ambiguity.

sa m

(b) This school was constructed roughly fifty years ago.

pl

e

(a) Wanted: Man to weed garden with references.

in g

(c) While in preschool, my father took me to see the White Cliffs of Dover.

Vi

ew

(d) Flying above the tree, the boy watched the plane.

(e) The children were asked to leave the classrooms so they could be painted.

(f)

We had our teacher for lunch.

(g) I like vegetables more than my sister.

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Vocabulary

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Follow and Find d

e

t

i

s

c

4.

e

t

s

i 8.

u

i

o

t

h

a

t

n

o

i

e

v

e

l

n

r

p

e

l

i

u

s

b

i

t

s

i

m

t

g

c

n

a

t

a

t

t

e

n

e

t

a

h

i

o

a

a

n

h

a

i

e

e

o

n

b

l

i

s

v

r

r

t

o

m

o

n

o

16.

p

e

o

e

a

h

c

e

i

a

c

u

r

b

l

e

l

v

t

r

e

n

u

m

f

w

n

e

a

r

n

o

i

u

a

o

i

e

r

a

t

a

n

n

n

e

t

u

e

o

g

e

i

r

r

y

o

s

n

r

e

v

s

i

l

b

n

o

v

e

12.

sa m

s

20.

e

v

pl

1.

e c x e i s p s u o Starting at number one, use the clues below to find and follow words from the story. The first one has been done for you. Each word begins with the last letter of the previous word. The letters may follow horizontally or vertically. The remaining letters will complete the last word which is associated with the story. An adjective meaning destroying, ruining or spoiling (destructive) (11)

14. Wearing away of the land by water or wind (e ) (7)

2.

People from the continent of Europe (E ) (9)

15. The sum, total or count of a collection of units (n ) (6)

3.

A group with individuals having common characteristics (s ) (7)

16. Restoration to a good condition (r ) (13)

4.

A place, locality or position (s (9)

5.

Opposite of everything (n

6.

Opposite of ladies (g

7.

Original inhabitant of country. (6) (n )

8.

To set up on a permanent basis; to prove (e ) (9)

9.

Devastation, destruction (h

Vi

ew

in g

1.

) ) (7) ) (9)

) (7)

11. Belonging to you (y

) (4)

12. Reliable, trustworthy, accountable (r ) (11)

18. One part of an object divided equally. (h ) (4) 19. The animals of a region (f

) (5)

20. An indefinitely long period of time (a ) (4) 21. Right at this moment (n ) (5)

10. A hundred years (c

17. Opposite direction to south (n ) (5)

) (3)

22. A kindly greeting or reception (w ) (7) 23. The later part of the day (e

) (7)

24. The whole body of people born about the same time (g ) (10)

13. Exceeding the normal amount (e ) (9) The new word is n Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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43


WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

Plurals There are many rules in English for changing nouns (naming words) from singular (one) to plural (more than one). The simplest is to just add s, but there are many words where this is incorrect. Study these singular and plural forms of words found in the exposition The Flinders Ranges. peaks

lady

ladies

gentleman

gentlemen

university

universities

species

species

flora

flora

fauna

fauna

gorge

gorges

century

centuries

fox

foxes

half

halves

responsibility

responsibilities

1.

Write the plural form of the words above where:

2.

Write the plural of these words using one of the 6 rules as described following this exercise.

sa m

(a) s has been added.

pl

e

peak

(a) calf

(b) es has been added.

(b) opportunity

in g

(c) y changed to i and es added.

(d) the plural is the same as the singular.

f changed to v and es added.

Vi

(f)

ew

(e) a vowel in the words is changed.

(g) there is no singular form.

(c) yourself (d) baby (e) woman (f)

box

(g) biscuit (h) tooth (i)

spectacles

(j)

sheep

Rule one Just add s

e.g. cats horses

Rule two Add es to nouns that end with ch sh o s x and z Exceptions are:

44

e.g. watches, dishes, potatoes, atlases, foxes, buzzes

kangaroos, bamboos, shampoos, cockatoos, zoos, radios, banjos, sopranos, pianos, solos, photos, silos, ratios, zeros

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Spelling

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Rule three Change y at the end of a word to i and add es

e.g. babies, communities

Rule four The plural and singular forms are the same

e.g. trout, fish

Rule five Change f or fe at the end of a word to v and add es

e.g. calves, lives

Exceptions are: reefs, roofs, gulfs, waifs, puffs, staffs, sheriffs, skiffs, cliffs, chiefs, handkerchiefs Rule six e.g. men, geese, emphasis

e

Change vowel or vowels

pl

An exception is: humans

sa m

Rule seven There is no singular form

e.g. trousers, jeans, binoculars

Contractions

For example: do not – don’t

in g

When joining two words to make a shorter word, an apostrophe is written in place of the missing letters.

Note: An interesting exception is the contraction won’t – will not. Write the contractions of these words.

(b)

should not

(c) were not

(d)

they would

(e) I am

(f)

you are

(g) have not

(h)

it will

(i)

(j)

that would

(k) he would

(l)

must not

(m) who had

(n)

he is

(o) they are

(p)

Ken is

Vi

(a) is not

ew

3.

she had

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

Confusing contraction It’s The word it’s is only used as a contraction of it and is. (The word its is a possessive determiner and like his, ours, hers, yours, theirs does not have an apostrophe.)

4.

Underline the correct word in each sentence. (a) The startled joey jumped quickly into (it’s, its) mother’s pouch. (b) (Its, It’s) very difficult to walk through all this thick undergrowth. (c) Looking at those black clouds, I am sure that (its, it’s) going to rain before we can get back to our tents.

e

(d) If we don’t protect these animals (its, it’s) highly likely they will be extinct within five years.

5.

The park ranger couldn’t decide how best to protect (its, it’s) habitat and to ensure (its, it’s) survival.

sa m

(f)

pl

(e) I could see that the poor animal was terrified from the look in (its, it’s) eyes.

Write it’s or its in the spaces provided. Remember: it’s is used only as a contraction of it and is. (a)

unfortunate that the barn owl is losing

programme and

in g

(b) ‘Restoration Now’ is launching your support.

a worthwhile cause and

important to give

effect should be seen in years to come.

ew

(c)

natural habitat.

(d) We believe

the responsibility of all Irish people to protect our environment and

(e) 6.

preserved for future generations.

Vi

ensure that

essential that we educate the public to ensure

continued survival.

(a) Write two sentences using it’s correctly.

(b) Write two sentences using its correctly.

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Spelling

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Syllables A syllable is a unit of sound with one vowel sound. Breaking a word into syllables is one very helpful way of spelling difficult words. There are a number of rules to help you to syllabify words. The most important are: • divide between two consonants Flin/ders • if only one consonant, divide before it la/dies • prefixes and suffixes are usually separated from the base word. a/ware/ness

(b)

species

(c) n a t i v e

(d)

claypan

(e) u n i v e r s i t y

(f)

spectacular

(g) i n t r o d u c t i o n

(h)

rehabilitation

(i)

(j)

gorge

pl

biodiversity

e

(a) p u r p o s e

(a) Ask a partner to read to you the words you have syllabified. Test your spelling by writing them below. Cover the words of course!

in g

8.

How many syllables in each word? Separate the syllables as shown above.

sa m

7.

ew

(b) How many words did you spell correctly?

(c) Did you try to write the separate syllables?

yes

no

Vi

(d) If so, what difference did it make?

(e) Spend five minutes practising any words you misspelt, and have your partner retest you. (Cover your first attempt!)

(f)

How many words did you spell correctly this time?

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Punctuation The purpose of punctuation is to clarify meaning. Common punctuation includes:

1.

capital letters

full stops

question marks

exclamation marks

commas

quotation marks

Read this sentence from the exposition. Good evening ladies and gentlemen, welcome to the Mantatoba Bay University.

(b) Why is there a full stop at the end?

2.

Read this sentence.

in g

(c) Why is there a comma after gentlemen?

sa m

pl

e

(a) Explain why the four capital letters are used.

ew

Do you believe that before the arrival of the Normans, the towns of Kilkenny and Roscrea had castles for defence, protection and safety reasons?

Vi

(a) Explain why the four capital letters are used.

(b) Why is there a question mark at the end?

(c) Explain the purpose of the two commas.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

If you had difficulty explaining the use of the punctuation in the two sentences, read the following descriptions carefully to improve your understanding. These are used at the beginning of sentences and for names of particular people, places, days, months, special occasions, books, films and products.

Full stops

End sentences that are a statement.

Questions marks

End sentences that ask a question.

Exclamation marks

End sentences and indicate commands, powerful emotions or convey a sense of urgency.

Commas

Clarify meaning by: indicating a natural pause

(b)

separating a name or a phrase at the beginning of the sentence

(c)

separating a series of names, descriptions or actions.

e

(a)

pl

There is a space after each comma used in this passage. Write (a), (b) or (c) in the space to explain the purpose of each comma.

sa m

3.

Capital letters

My mother, ( ) a wonderful, ( ) kind, ( ) generous woman, ( )

often cared for homeless people who wandered onto our isolated

4.

in g

farm near the River Barrow. Punctuate these sentences.

(a) the long-necked turtle is one of the most endangered species

ew

found in lake monger

(b) tom cruise the well-known actor starred in the movie top gun

Vi

(c) the 6th class pupils from wellington primary school took canoes bikes tents and sleeping bags on their school camp (d) brian get down here fast (e) I cant find tara do you know where she is

Colons Colons can be used to introduce a list of things or people. For example: My favourite actors are: Tom Cruise, Leonardo di Caprio and Johnny Depp.

5.

Add colons, full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks and commas to these sentences. (a) when i travel abroad I would like to visit these places london paris and rome (b) bill john and jenny I would like you all to complete the following homework maths spelling english and japanese

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WRITING

Activities

Emotive language An exposition needs to appear clear and logical and have well reasoned arguments, but by using emotive language writers seek to achieve the effect they want, while seeming to be neutral. 1.

Rewrite these neutral sentences using more emotive language to create the feeling shown. For example: The animal was caught in a trap.

fear

anger

in g

sa m

pl

(a) The protester stated his opinions.

e

The shivering, terrified, baby rabbit was ensnared in the cold steel jaws of the unspeakably cruel trap.

peace

Vi

ew

(b) There were trees in the valley.

(c) We noticed the animals.

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Review procedures

(d) They looked at the trees.

WRITING

sorrow

e

Titles A good title is the first chance a writer has to capture the readers’ attention. A good title: relates to the topic

is brief

is easy to remember

pl

sa m

2.

attracts interest

Read the emotive descriptions you wrote in Exercise 1 and choose two appropriate titles for each.

in g

(a)

(c)

Vi

(d)

ew

(b)

Writing an exposition

Choose a title from the box below, plan and write an exposition in the form of an essay or as a letter. Controlled burning of forests Culling animals Dogs in national parks Water pollution Camping in national parks Four-wheel drive vehicles

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WRITING

Writing an exposition

Title:

pl

e

Introductory statement (your position on the issue):

Vi

ew

in g

sa m

Arguments (in support of your position – strongest arguments first):

Conclusion (a summary linking your arguments):

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Editing and proofreading

WRITING

Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work.

You will be self-editing for:

You will need to use a peer editor to:

Spelling

Punctuation

Check sense and persuasion

Grammar

Concise language

Colour the correct boxes.

e

Checklist

pl

Title of exposition:

2. Does your exposition:

sa m

1. Do you understand the purpose of an exposition?..............................................

yes

no

clearly state a problem in the introduction? ...............................................

yes

no

provide background information? ...............................................................

yes

no

• list facts to support your arguments?......................................................... (diagrams, photographs, facts and figures)

yes

no

sequence arguments from strongest to weakest? ....................................

yes

no

include a final paragraph which reinforces and summarises the yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

Have you checked your punctuation? ..................................................................

yes

no

Have you used a separate paragraph for each argument? ..................................

yes

no

in g

ew

main points? ........................................................................................................ 3. Have you used persuasive language? ................................................................. 4. Spelling:

Vi

Have you corrected any spelling errors? .............................................................

5. Punctuation:

6. Ask a partner to read your exposition.

Did s/he understand your point of view? ...................................................

yes

no

Did it make sense? .....................................................................................

yes

no

Were you able to persuade your partner to agree with your yes

no

point of view? ......................................................................................................

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

1.

Choose a topic from the box below and write an exposition in the form of an essay or a letter. Organise your ideas using a planning framework. school uniforms

2.

caging animals

pocket money

driving licences

Complete the following. (a) Expositions are written to

(b) Expositions use 3.

language.

Rewrite these sentences making the meaning clear and avoiding ambiguity.

pl

e

(a) I like chewing on bones more than my dog.

sa m

(b) The lawn needs mowing badly.

(c) Wanted: woman to clean house and a handyman.

Write the plurals of these words. (a) battery

(d) cliff (e) tooth

6.

potato

Vi

(f)

(b) Where

8.

Write the contractions of these words. (a) they have (b) that would (c) who is (d) they are (e) did not (f)

you will

Write its or it’s in the spaces provided. (a)

7.

ew

(b) reindeer (c) half

5.

in g

4.

important to protect

habitat.

damp and secluded, you’ll often find a platypus making

home.

How many syllables in each word? (a) alive

(b) special

(c) contributed

(d) mammals

(e) destructive

(f)

surprising

Punctuate these sentences. (a) my teacher mr scott has recently returned from an extended holiday in asia where he spent january and february visiting singapore hongkong and the great wall of china. (b) you will need the following a sleeping bag a pillow a torch and a waterproof jacket

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Narrative – 1

Mum’s homework ANALYSIS A narrative describes a series of events and circumstances, often involving fictitious characters.

Mum’s homework ‘Thanks, Mum’, said James, trying to regain his composure. He and Dad disappeared out the door.

‘OK, James, what is it about?’ she sighed, following him as he disappeared into his bedroom.

Mum spent the afternoon phoning libraries and bookshops, trying to replace the book. She wondered if she should make James face the consequences of leaving his homework until the last minute or give him her support. It was a difficult situation for Mum, who took a keen interest in her children’s schoolwork and was always willing to make suggestions and contribute interesting ideas. But they needed to accept more responsibility. Later that night, unable to find the book, Mum and James huddled over the computer. Dad was never to be found in moments like this. Things seemed to be going along quite well, although James was a little frustrated at times with Mum who hadn’t read the book and was trying hard to remain calm.

‘No, James, I haven’t. Who is the author?’

sa m

‘Gillian Cross.’

pl

‘We have to compare Wolf with Little Red Riding Hood. Have you read Wolf, Mum?’

e

‘Hey Mum! I need your help with some homework’, yelled James.

‘When is it due?’ ‘Tomorrow’, replied James

‘JAMES! How are you going to get it done? You’re playing football this afternoon.’

in g

‘I know, I’ll do some now, but first I need you to drive me to school to pick up my copy. I left it in my locker.’ Dad, who was listening nearby said, ‘I’ll take him, then I can put the car through the carwash on the way back’.

ew

They were gone for nearly two hours. The school was only six minutes away and Mum was anxiously watching the clock, saying nothing, preparing herself for a difficult evening. Sunday was her favourite night. She loved to have time to herself before the start of a busy week.

Vi

A few minutes later, James and Dad came through the front door. James went straight upstairs to find Mum. ‘My book has gone. It’s not in my locker. I lent it to someone, but I can’t remember who it was.’ James was really upset and fighting back tears. ‘Don’t worry about it now. We’ll do what we can tonight after the football.’ ‘I thought I was doing the right thing by sharing my book with someone else,’ James moaned. ‘You were, it’s my fault not yours. I brought you up to share and be nice to people. But there are always some who take advantage of generosity. Go, enjoy the football and we’ll work together tonight. Have you read Wolf?’

‘No, No, No!’ yelled James. The computer had crashed. ‘That’s all I need,’ screamed James. ‘This stupid computer does nothing but give trouble.’ Mum, James and his sister, Nicky, spent the next hour and a half trying to get the computer to work. By now James was hysterical. Dad heard the commotion and put his nose in, but the others took no notice because his comments were never very constructive. Even the dog started barking. ‘What am I supposed to do now?’ James moaned. ‘It has to be typed.’ ‘I’ll write a letter, you can ask for an extension’, suggested Mum. ‘He won’t do that, he hates me’, cried James. He was really panicking now. ‘What period is it due?’ asked Mum. ‘The sixth’, said James, snivelling. He could see Mum thinking. Maybe there was some way out of this mess. Good old Mum to the rescue!

‘Yes, of course.’

‘James, if you promise me you won’t leave your homework until the last minute again, I’ll take it to the library and type it up for you first thing in the morning. You can meet me at lunchtime. You can hand it in on time and no-one will know.’

‘Well, that’s a relief. We’ll try to ‘wing’ it’, Mum reassured him.

As usual, James had managed to twist them around his little finger. Mum had saved the day!

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ANALYSIS

Speaking and listening

Class activity Read the passage below and discuss your thoughts and opinions and record some of the most important points that were raised. ‘Mum spent the afternoon ringing various libraries and bookshops that were open, to see if she could replace the book. It was a difficult situation. Should James just face the consequence of leaving his homework until the last minute and be left to do it on his own or should he have Mum’s support?’

Partner activity Discuss your opinions with a partner, then record two of your most relevant ideas on the issue.

2.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of homework. Discuss its importance and relevance in today’s society. Write some of your key points below.

sa m

Disadvantages

ew

in g

Advantages

pl

e

1.

Vi

Structure of a narrative

This narrative has: A title:

Indicates what the story is about and attracts the reader’s attention.

Orientation:

WHO – main character, possibly minor characters are introduced. WHAT – initiating event WHERE – the setting or location WHEN – the time frame

Complication:

The problem which involves the main character.

Resolution:

How the problem is solved.

Conclusion:

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Structure of a narrative

ANALYSIS

Read the story Mum’s homework again and answer these questions.

Title: What information or clues are given in the title?

2.

How does the title get your attention?

e

1.

3.

Where does the story take place?

What event starts the story?

4.

When does the story occur?

ew

Complication:

2.

sa m

Who are the characters?

in g

1.

pl

Orientation:

Vi

What is the main problem confronting the character?

Resolution

How was the problem solved?

Conclusion What happened in the end?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Reading for information True or false? Highlight the correct answer. 1.

James had not read the book. ..........................................................................................

true

false

2.

The two stories had to be compared. ..............................................................................

true

false

3.

James’s book was at school. ............................................................................................

true

false

4.

Dad enjoyed helping James with his homework. .............................................................

true

false

5.

James completed his homework on the computer. .........................................................

true

false

Reading for understanding Why do you think Mum was watching the clock?

2.

Why do you think Mum was unable to locate the book at the library and bookshops?

3.

Why do you think the dog started barking?

4.

How do you think Dad could have helped the situation?

5.

Why do you think James was frustrated with Mum?

Vi

ew

in g

sa m

pl

e

1.

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Reading

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Applying your knowledge Why do you think James left it so late to do his homework?

2.

Why do you think Mum took an active interest in her children’s homework?

3.

Do you agree with the statement ‘It’s the way I have brought you up, to share and be nice to people. Unfortunately there will always be someone willing to take advantage of your generosity’? Explain your thoughts and opinions.

4.

What sort of relationship do you think James and Mum had? Give reasons to support your answer.

5.

If Mum hadn’t helped James with his homework, what do you think the consequences for him may have been?

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ew

in g

sa m

pl

e

1.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

1.

Vocabulary

Use a dictionary to find the meaning of these words. (a) obliging (b) hysterical (c) console (d) commotion (e) constructive (f)

snivelling

Prefixes

(b) un

(c) ex

(d) anti

How do these prefixes change these words? Explain their meanings. (a) review

(b) recur

(c) remind

(d) unhappy

(e) unfortunate 4.

e

(a) re

pl

3.

Use a dictionary to explain the meaning of these prefixes.

sa m

2.

(f)

Compound words

unlikely

in g

(a) What are compound words?

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(b) List some compound words used in the story; for example, homework.

(c) Use the library and Internet resources to research the origin of any two interesting compound words that have been used.

(d) Arrange your compound words from the story in alphabetical order.

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Vocabulary

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Colour combinations (a) Make a list of as many colours as you can. Try to add interesting ones; for example; aqua, turquoise, magenta.

e

5.

in g

sa m

pl

(b) Choose three colours from the list and, using a dictionary, write as many compound words as possible using that colour; for example, blackbird, blackberry.

(c) Compare your list with a partner. Do you know the meanings of all your partner’s words?

ew

If not, consult a dictionary.

Spelling

Make up an alphabetical list about homework so that each letter has a word associated with this theme. Use a dictionary for ideas and to spell the words correctly.

Vi

1.

For example:

a – article

b – books

c – computer

a

j

s

b

k

t

c

l

u

d

m

v

e

n

w

f

o

x

g

p

y

h

q

z

i

r

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

2.

Spelling

A single word can often be used to replace a phrase. For example: free time – leisure Choose one of the words in the box to replace each phrase. Ensure that you spell every word correctly because all the words could be described as ‘spelling fiends’. environment

separate

practise

February

government

practice

business

beginning

principal

enough

library

principle

(b)

carry out or perform

(c) place for books

(d)

month of year

(e) state administrator’s body

(f)

surrounding things or conditions

apart or divided

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(k) customary performance

pl

(h)

a sufficient amount

(j)

fundamental truth

(l)

start of

in g

(i)

sa m

(g) occupation, profession or trade

e

(a) head of a school

Suffixes

A suffix is a word part added at the end of a word to alter its meaning or form. The suffix ly means ‘like’ or refers to manner; for example, slowly, happily.

Vi

Rules for adding ly 1.

The general rule is simply to add ly.

2.

To add ly to words ending in le after a consonant the e is changed to y. For example:

3.

horrible – horribly

For example: quietly

simple – simply

To add ly to words ending in y, the y is changed to i before adding the suffix. For example:

happy – happily

funny – funnily

Exceptions to these rules include: true – truly

62

whole – wholly

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due – duly

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Spelling

3.

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Add the suffix ly to these words (a) near

(b) charitable

(c) busy

(d) thoughtful

(e) nice

(f)

(g) responsible

(h) noisy

(i)

(j)

airy

(k) hysterical

(l)

constructive

(m) sleepy

(n) feeble

(o) usual

(p) sensible

sloppy

understandable

pl

The letters c and g can have either a soft or a hard sound.

e

Soft c and g sounds Rules

For example:

city, cent, cyclone

When g is followed by i, e, or y the sound is soft.

For example:

giant, gentle, gym

When c is followed by a, o or u, the sound is hard.

For example:

catch, colour,

sa m

When c is followed by i, e or y, the sound is soft.

When g is followed by a, o, or u the sound is hard.

For example:

cupboard gang, goblin, gun

(a) Classify the words below. gypsy

canopy

camp

slice

gap

girl

gobble

gender

icy

centipede

ginger

germ

cotton

giraffe

cuddle

gutter

city

celebrate

cylinder

citizen

ew

4.

in g

Note: There are some exceptions to these rules.

Words with hard c or g

Vi

Words with soft c or g

(b) Use a dictionary to find words that do not follow this rule.

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Spelling

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Adding suffixes Knowing the letters that keep c and g soft is helpful when adding suffixes. For example: manageable – the e is retained before adding able to keep the soft g sound

6.

Add able to these words. (a) replace

(b) service

(c) change

(d) notice

Add ous to these words. (b) advantage

pl

(a) courage

e

5.

sa m

(c) outrage

When adding a suffix beginning with e or i to a word ending in e, there is no need to retain the e because the e or i of the suffix keeps the i or g soft. encouraging

manage

manager

fence

fenced

Add ing to these words. (a) enforce (c) service

ew

7.

encourage

in g

For example:

(b) exchange (d) notice

Vi

LANGUAGE FEATURES

Colloquial language Colloquial language is relaxed and informal everyday speech which is often adopted in writing. This form of writing is acceptable and appropriate for less formal situations. Some examples of formal and colloquial expression are:

64

Formal

Colloquial

it costs more than it should

it’s a rip off

he’s not feeling well today

he’s feeling crook

she earns a lot of money

she makes a packet

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

1.

What do you think the colloquial expression we’ll try to wing it means? Write your explanation.

2.

Rewrite each highlighted formal expression using colloquial language. (a) The teacher ordered the bully to go to the principal and accept the punishment.

pl

Read the story again. Highlight the colloquial statements and write them in more formal language below:

in g

sa m

3.

e

(b) The visiting basketball team was defeated by the home side.

Adjectives

Adjectives are words which enhance or change the meaning of nouns or pronouns. a strong, powerful athlete

ew

For example:

poor, miserable me

1.

Vi

By selecting adjectives which exactly convey the intended meaning, a writer is able to enhance his or her writing. Choose two adjectives to describe each of these nouns. (a)

team

(b)

trouble

(c)

homework

(d)

bookshop

(e)

situation

(f)

teacher

(g)

author

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

2.

How many of the adjectives you wrote described: (a) personality?

3.

(b)

appearance?

(c)

function?

Write five positive and five negative adjectives to describe: (a) homework

Adjectives often come before the noun. For example:

e

(b) parents

legible writing

Adjectives can come after the noun.

For example:

pl

Japanese food

His writing is legible.

4.

sa m

My mother is Japanese.

Choose an adjective to complete these sentences. (a) The water is

(b) The football match was

(d) Why are you so

in g

(c) The party was (e) The river is

this morning.

For example: -ing

5.

66

-ous

-ible

-ly

-ic

-less

-en

-ful

-ed

-al

-y

-ish

-able

Vi

-ive

ew

Adjectives have many different endings.

Write the nouns as adjectives by changing the endings. (a) beauty

(b)

success

(c) mercy

(d)

care

(e) poison

(f)

mischief

(g) mud

(h)

juice

(i)

(j)

disappointment

(k) classify

(l)

abandonment

(m) wood

(n)

speech

(o) electricity

(p)

person

(q) memory

(r)

comfort

(s) horror

(t)

compatibility

excite

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

6.

Choose two adjectives from Question 5 and write a sentence using them.

7.

Change the word in brackets into an adjective. The first one has been done to help you. angry

(a) an

(b) a

(c) a

discovery (fortune)

(d) an

(e) a

event (disaster)

(f)

(g) a

soldier (courage)

(h) a

(i)

army (victory)

(j)

wait (anxiety)

a

outfit (fashion) eruption (volcano)

an

offer (introduce)

e

a

father (pride)

sly

white

dry

cool

old

sober

pl

Complete the similes using these adjectives. slow

thin

clear

flat

as a cucumber

(b)

as

as a snail

(c) as

as a bone

(d)

as

as a fox

(e) as

as a pancake

(f)

as

as a ghost

(g) as

as crystal

(h)

as

as a judge

(i)

as a rake

(j)

as

as the hills

sa m

(a) as

as

in g

8.

parent (anger)

Punctuation

Direct speech

For example:

ew

The exact words spoken or thought are referred to as direct speech and must be punctuated correctly to provide clarification for the reader. These words need to be enclosed within quotation marks. ‘Hey Mum! I need your help with some homework’, yelled James. Printed texts usually use single quotation marks but double quotation marks are often used in handwritten text.

Vi

Note:

Punctuating quotation Remember:

9.

Every quotation starts with a capital letter.

A new line is required for each new speaker.

Some form of punctuation is often needed after a quotation (i.e. commas, question marks, exclamation marks or full stops).

(a) Highlight the direct speech in Mum’s homework using a different colour for each speaker. (b) How many people spoke? (c) Who spoke the most?

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

9.

(a) Rewrite the dialogue below with correct punctuation. Refer to the previous page for information.

in g

sa m

pl

e

Why do we have to do homework Mr Palmer Bill complained it really does make a mess of my social life. I really believe it’s necessary he replied because we just don’t have sufficient time to practise some aspects in class. But interrupted Bill. Perhaps Bill, you need to sort out your priorities and long-term goals continued Mr Palmer.

Vi

ew

(b) Continue the dialogue between Bill and Mr Palmer and ask one of your peers to check and discuss the punctuation you have used.

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Activities

WRITING

Planning a story Writing a good story takes careful planning. Story writers start their stories with an idea. From the idea, storytellers create a plan or plot and then the details are worked out. Where do ideas for stories come from? Everywhere! Ideas are all around us. For example: in airports, shops, shopping centres, at the beach or the football How do they look, dress? How do they walk, move, talk, behave? Where could they work/live? What could be their favourite food/television program/music/books/ sport? How do they feel? What do they think?

Movies/television/books:

The characters may remind you of a person or experience you have had. You cannot copy someone else’s idea, but it may spark a new thought or idea. Fairytales and myths and legends have been the basis of many modern day stories.

Everyday life:

Ordinary, everyday experiences can be the foundation of an idea worth writing about: Travelling on the school bus, shopping, taking the car through the car wash, moving house, new neighbours, grandparents, peer pressure, sleeping over. (The story Mum’s homework was based on a real-life event.)

Characters

pl

sa m

in g

Ideas for stories

e

Watch people:

Write notes beside this character giving him a name, age and personality traits.

2.

(a) Cut photos of people from magazines, papers or catalogues.

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1.

(b) Glue them onto a page. (c) Write notes beside each character giving them a name, age, personality traits and relationship with other characters. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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WRITING

Take a closer look at the people working in your school and write some ideas which could be the beginning of a story plan. The first has been done for you.

Character

Description

Librarian

Mature male, untidy hair, scruffy grey beard, overweight, wears brown cardigans, checked shirts, worn trousers, brown shoes that need polishing, black-rimmed glasses

Personality

Man of few words quietly spoken, never looks you in the eye when spoken to, never smiles, weak.

Situation (possible conflict) • Staff borrowing books and not returning them/filling in cards. • Disruptive pupil behaviour. • Insufficient funds to purchase current books.

pl

e

3.

Activities

Vi

School principal

ew

in g

sa m

Music teacher

Drama teacher

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Activities

WRITING

Situations The characters and events often lead to conflicts. 4.

Use your imagination for ideas to write in the following table.

Event

Characters

Situation (Possible conflict)

e

Homework

Watching television

Tim

sa m

pl

Selecting channel.

in g

Chris

Oliver

Coach

Main character gets the measles.

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Playing football

Rehearsal

The experiment goes wrong.

Science experiment

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WRITING

Writing a narrative

Choose a topic from the box below and write a narrative. Use the plan to guide your ideas. When you are ready, write the story in full.

problem child

conflict at home

surviving school

inspiration

togetherness

Title Orientation Characters

e

Setting/Location

pl

Time Initiating event

sa m

What event starts the action?

How does it involve the characters?

What problems or conflicts confront the characters?

ew

Why can’t s/he have what s/he wants?

in g

Complication

Vi

Are there major and minor difficulties? Resolution

How are the problems resolved?

Conclusion What is the final outcome for the characters?

What was learned from the experience?

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Editing and proofreading

WRITING

When you have completed your story, proofread and edit the story using the following questions as a guide.

Checklist Title of narrative: Title Does the title indicate what the story is about?..................................................

yes

no

Does it get the attention of the reader? ..............................................................

yes

no

Does the beginning draw readers into the characters’ world? ............................

yes

no

Are the characters believable? ............................................................................

yes

no

Do their actions fit their personalities? ................................................................

yes

no

Does the beginning start with conflict? ..............................................................

yes

no

Is the setting suitable for the characters? ...........................................................

yes

no

Does the setting contribute to the mood? ..........................................................

yes

no

Does the time relate to the settings and character? ...........................................

yes

no

Does the conflict result from likely causes?........................................................

yes

no

Is the sequence of events correct? .....................................................................

yes

no

Does the resolution grow naturally from the complication? ................................

yes

no

Is the end satisfying to the reader? .....................................................................

yes

no

Have the conflicts been resolved? ......................................................................

yes

no

Quotation marks for speakers’ words and dialogue? ..........................................

yes

no

Change of paragraph with each change of speaker? ...........................................

yes

no

Capitals correctly used? ......................................................................................

yes

no

Spelling checked (use dictonary/thesaurus)? .......................................................

yes

no

Full stops and commas correctly used? ..............................................................

yes

no

Do the sentences add variety? ............................................................................

yes

no

Does the description suit the characters, setting and mood? .............................

yes

no

Does the description show rather than tell .........................................................

yes

no

Has descriptive vocabulary been used? ..............................................................

yes

no

Have sensory details been included (taste, touch, smell)? .................................

yes

no

sa m

pl

e

Orientation:

Complication:

in g

Resolution:

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Punctuation and spelling: Have you checked the following:

Structure:

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

1.

Choose a title from the box then plan and write a narrative.

missing

trapped

• a dog tale

champions

a warning

• caught out

2.

(a) The orientation of a narrative introduces the and

(b) The initiating event

e

(c) The complication

sa m

pl

(d) The resolution

(e) The conclusion

Choose a word from the box to replace each phrase. You must spell the words correctly. principal

(a)

the person in charge of a school

principle

(b)

sufficient

(c)

surrounding

(d)

a fundamental truth

(e)

where books are kept

environment

library 4.

ew

enough

in g

3.

Add the suffix ly to these words.

(b)

merry

(c) horrible

(d)

magical

(e) careful

(f)

unknowing

(g) capable

(h)

whole

Vi

(a) open

5.

6.

Add the suffix able to these words.

7.

Add ing to these words.

(a) exchange

(a) force

(b) knowledge

(b) change

(c) trace

(c) deface

(d) slice

(d) police

Add the suffix ous to these words.

(e) charge (f)

(a) outrage

replace

(b) advantage

74

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Test your knowledge

(a) the appearance of a pilot

(b) the appearance of a mountain

(c) the personality of a superstar

(d) the personality of a pet

Underline the adjective in each sentence. (a) We saw an educational documentary.

(b)

The aggressive driver caused an accident.

(c) My puppy is adorable.

(d)

Why are you grumpy?

(e) Those sneakers are expensive.

(f)

The magnificent mountains were covered in mist.

(g) My grandfather is forgetful.

(h)

The results he achieved are remarkable.

e

9.

Choose two adjectives to describe:

pl

8.

EVALUATION

sa m

10. Write these nouns as adjectives by changing the ending. (a) fight

(b)

ridicule

(d)

fame

(f)

regularity

(h)

hope

as a snail

(b)

as

as a ghost

as a bone

(d)

as

as a fox

as a rake

(f)

as

as a mouse

(c) vision

(g) marvel

(a) as (c) as (e) as

ew

11. Complete these similes.

in g

(e) wonder

Vi

12. Punctuate these sentences.

(a) watch out yelled bob your shoelace is undone

(b) grab my towel ordered sarah and meet me at the pool

(c) what a great story said Jess i can’t wait to read the next one

(d) not more homework the class moaned when is it due

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Report – 1

Homework ANALYSIS Reports give facts clearly without unnecessary information or opinion.

Read this report.

Homework

pl

sa m

Homework serves many educational needs. It assists pupils to develop study habits, allows teachers to cover more of the curriculum in class and supplements and reinforces work done at school. It also develops pupil initiative, independence and responsibility and links the school and home.

e

Introduction

What is homework?

Homework is out-of-class tasks for pupils to practise, revise and extend what is learnt at school. Why is homework important?

ew

in g

In the last decade, research has focused on the relationship between homework and pupil achievement. There is continuing debate on whether homework actually increases pupils’ academic achievement, but it is generally agreed that it does develop their initiative and responsibility. Studies have generally found that to be helpful, homework assignments need to be carefully planned by teachers and to have relevance and meaning for pupils. How much time should be spent on homework? In America, reforms in education called for increased homework and as a result pupils are spending more time on homework. The recommendation from the National Education Association (NEA) is as follows: 10–20 minutes per day for K-3 20–40 minutes per day for 4–6 40–120 minutes per day for 7–12 depending on the type and number of subjects studied.

Vi

Parents and homework

Homework provides an opportunity for parents to have greater understanding of the school curriculum. Parents are advised to: • become aware of the school’s homework policy • provide a suitable study area • limit pupils’ after school activities to allow time for homework • plan a homework timetable which allows for some free time • assist younger children where necessary • check that assignments are completed on time • praise and encourage pupils. Conclusion Although unpopular with many pupils, there is evidence to suggest there is a valid purpose for and positive benefits to be gained from carefully planned and assessed homework assignments.

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Speaking and listening

ANALYSIS

Partner activity 1.

Work with a partner to discuss, then compile a list of the five most convincing arguments for and against homework. Against

sa m

pl

e

For

Class activity

The report Homework refers to America’s education system.

(a) Discuss any similarities and differences between your school system and American schools. You may need to research information concerning issues such as the school year, starting and finishing ages, curriculum, hours, holidays, teacher training, discipline, uniforms, regulations, social and sporting events, facilities, school fees and finances.

in g

2.

(b) List similarities and differences between the two systems. (c) Discuss the relevance of the American report for your school. Conduct a formal class debate on the topic.

ew

3.

Homework is a waste of time.

Vi

Structure of a report

This report has:

A title:

Identifies the subject of the report

Classification:

Provides information about the focus of the report

Description:

What is it? Why is it important? How can it help? What research shows? How much time should be involved? Who can assist? How can they assist?

Conclusion:

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A summary or comment

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ANALYSIS

Structure of a report

Reread the report Homework and answer the questions concerning the information provided.

TITLE (a) What is the title of the report? (b) Is it an appropriate title? (c) Why/Why not?

e

CLASSIFICATION

sa m

pl

What is the focus of the report?

DESCRIPTION

(b) Why is homework important?

in g

(a) What is homework?

(d) What does research show?

Vi

ew

(c) How can homework help pupils?

(f)

How can parents assist?

(e) How much time should pupils spend doing homework?

CONCLUSION In order to be of benefit, which criteria should homework meet?

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Reading

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading for information True or false? Highlight the correct answer. 1.

Pupils who complete homework tasks are more likely to become better organised and responsible. .................................................................

true

false

in tests. .........................................................................................................

true

false

3.

All 6th Class pupils should do 120 minutes homework.................................

true

false

4.

Parents should make sure that pupils have some free time. ........................

true

false

5.

Teachers should make sure that homework is carefully planned and marked. .........................................................................................................

true

false

American pupils are spending less time on homework. ...............................

true

false

e

6.

Research has proved that pupils who do homework score higher marks

pl

2.

Reading for understanding

Explain how homework helps pupils to be better organised and independent.

2.

Why do you think there is an ongoing debate about the benefits of homework?

3.

How much homework do you think a pupil of your age should do?

Vi

ew

in g

sa m

1.

Explain why you think this.

4.

In which subject or subjects do you think pupils gain the most benefit from homework assignments? Give reasons.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Applying your knowledge What do you consider to be the five most common problems pupils have with the homework teachers ask them to do?

2.

Write five rules for teachers to follow to make homework more effective for pupils.

3.

What was the most useful or interesting homework assignment you have had to do? Give reasons for your choice.

Vi

ew

in g

sa m

pl

e

1.

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Vocabulary

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Jumbled joining words 1.

Unjumble the groups of letters to make compound words (hyphenated or joined) when the common word is added. The first one has been completed. sunlight

(a) nus

moonlight

oomn

daylight

yad refi

firelight

light

lait

tail-light

tsop

stoplight or spotlight

delnac

candlelight

hrotc

(b)

pl

e

torchlight

seouh keeper

ebe kobo

(c)

tne rmefa soueh

ew

odow

in g

alog

sa m

ozo

kboo

work

ndgoru dleeen

Vi

dnah

oochls mheo tra

(d)

deb

tbah

lyap room

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trocu

(e)

gypig

prpea

rdha

dre

tcu

back

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

1.

Vocabulary

Explain the meaning of these words from the report. Refer to a dictionary if necessary. (a) initiative (b) academic (c) achievement (d) curriculum (e) relevance (f)

recommendation

(g) assignment

Connected

e

Use the clues to form two words for each line. The words are connected by a common letter, which completes the first word and begins the second. The first one has been completed. (a)

p

a

n

(c) (d) (e)

(i) (j)

Vi

(k)

(a) Sudden fear or terror: used to make chocolate (b) A banquet, a rich meal; the subject or theme (c) A ballerina’s costume; opposite of over (d) Plants without chlorophyll: an alphabetical list at the front or back of a book (e) Used by artists; an item of furniture associated with chairs (f)

c

o

a

ew

(h)

o

in g

(f) (g)

c

sa m

(b)

i

pl

2.

A strip or a band; strength, might

(i)

A form of transport which uses rails; not ever

(j)

The flowers of a particular region; opposite of before

(k) A group of workers in the same trade; a female relative (l)

Write all the common letters here.

(m) Unjumble them to find something important to writing.

(g) A restaurant food list; up to the time stated (h) An instrument with a keyboard; a vegetable that causes tears

82

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

3.

(a) Join three pairs of letters to form a hobby or pastime. se

bo

ba

or

et

sq

ll

wi

te

sp

sh

ua

ts

xi

is

ng

ng

nn

The hobbies are:

For example:

pl

Use four of the five four-letter words listed below to complete a word square reading the same down and across. One of the five words will not be needed. Words spot tool oslo sole

(a) anti sips lass stop

e

o

s

t

o

t

s

o

l

o

o

l

(b)

test goat ogre game arms

Vi

some

p

o

ew

Do the same with these.

p

in g

peso

s

sa m

4.

e

(b) Write them in alphabetical order.

The word not needed was (c) come

The word not needed was (d)

very

mean

name

over

avow

erne

move

team

ewer

The word not needed was

The word not needed was

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

The T wheel 5.

(a) Complete the circle using the clues to find six letter words ending with t. The first one has been completed.

12.

1.

i 11.

2.

n s

10.

e

e

pl

c

sa m

T

ew

8.

in g

9.

Vi

7.

3.

4.

5.

6.

1.

A creature with six legs

7.

A furry animal with long ears

2.

A yellow stone fruit

8.

Purpose

3.

To bring goods in

9.

A warning of harm

4.

He wore armour

10. To force fluid using a needle and syringe

5.

To send goods out

11. A lump of gold

6.

An Australian animal

12. A small invention

(b) The outside letters of the circle will make a sentence. The sentence is

84

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Spelling

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Plurals The plural forms of some compound words can cause difficulty because the principal word is plural. For example: mother-in-law 1.

mothers-in-law

Write the plural forms of these words (a) daughter-in-law

(b) passer-by

(c) sister-in-law

(d) comrade-in-arms

(e) maid-of-honour

cupfuls

Write the plural form of these words (a) handful

pl

2.

cupful

sa m

For example:

e

Not all compound words take this form

(b) spoonful

(c) pocketful

(d) teaspoonful

(e) truckload

For example:

axis

axes (Greek)

vertebra

vertebrae (Latin)

cactus

cacti (Latin) (Note: Now commonly ‘cactuses’) data (Latin) (Note: ‘Data’ now commonly a singular)

ew

datum

Write the plural of these words. You may need to refer to a modern dictionary because some plural forms using s or es are acceptable today, as language is continually changing.

Vi

3.

in g

Some English words that originated from other countries have irregular plurals.

(a) fungus

(b) octopus

(c) terminus

(d) radius

(e) formula

(f)

(g) oasis

(h) crisis

(i)

(j)

index

die

appendix

Confused words 1.

Write sentences to demonstrate your understanding of the difference between each pair of often confused words. (a) access, excess

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

(b) addition, edition

(c) aid, aide

pl

e

(d) altar, alter

beech, beach

Vi

ew

(g) check, cheque

in g

(f)

sa m

(e) angel, angle

(h) complementary, complimentary

(i)

86

curb, kerb

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Prepositions A preposition shows the connection between a noun (or pronoun) and the other words in the sentence. 1.

Read these sentences. The highlighted words are prepositions. Rewrite each sentence with the opposite preposition. (a) The aircraft flew below the clouds.

pl

e

(b) I watched TV after dinner.

(d) They ran around the trees.

sa m

(c) The train travelled under the bridge.

Circle the correct preposition.

Vi

2.

The patient can walk without help.

ew

(f)

in g

(e) The letter is from my penfriend.

(a) The kettle is full (of, with) water.

(b) The coach spoke (to, at) the players.

(c) The applicant was unsuitable (with, for) the position.

(d) The patient was worried (for, about) the operation.

(e) She was accompanied (with, by) her sister. 3.

Use each word as a preposition in an interesting sentence about school. (a) through

(b) except

(c) towards

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

(d) beside

(e) during

4.

Underline the preposition in each sentence. (a) The boys were accused of stealing the car. (c) The highway is always busy during the day. (e) The soldiers saluted as they marched past the general.

(b) I’m not allowed to ride my bike without a helmet. (d) There was a long queue waiting to go through the turnstile. (f)

Peter and Sarah sit opposite each other.

e

(g) You must refrain from smoking.

Write a sentence using each of these adjectives as a noun. You may need to refer to a dictionary. For example:

silent (adj)

silence (noun)

sa m

5.

pl

Changing adjectives to nouns

She was surprised when a loud noise broke the silence.

Vi

(c) warm (adj)

ew

(b) absent (adj)

(noun)

in g

(a) innocent (adj)

88

(noun)

(noun)

(d) beautiful (adj)

(noun)

(e) enormous (adj)

(noun)

(f)

(noun)

anxious (adj)

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Activities

WRITING

Facts and opinions Reports generally state facts rather than opinions, but sometimes it’s difficult to differentiate, especially if an opinion is stated in a factual way. For example: Homework is good. (opinion) Many pupils benefit from doing homework. (fact) 1.

Write fact or opinion after each statement. (a) Children enjoy English lessons.

(c) Mrs Fraser is an excellent teacher.

pl

(d) The pupils in Mrs Fraser’s class achieved above average results in the chemistry test.

Chemistry is easier than physics.

sa m

(e) There are more boys than girls in Mr Wilson’s class. (f)

e

(b) The pupils have five English classes each week.

(g) Girls achieved better results than boys in Italian this year. 2.

Choose one school subject and write three facts and three opinions about it.

ew

Vi

Facts

in g

Facts and opinions about

Opinions

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WRITING

Activities

Reports present facts clearly, without unnecessary information. Proficient report writers choose the most relevant or important facts and state them clearly. 3.

(a) Read the section Parents and homework again and choose eight important keywords to write below. Note: Keywords indicate the most relevant information provided in the text.

Keywords (b) Compare your keywords with those of another pupil and revise your list to include the six most relevant keywords.

4.

in g

sa m

pl

e

(c) Write four facts you consider to be most important.

(a) Choose and write below six keywords associated with a particular sport.

ew

Keywords

(b) Ask another pupil to identify the sport you chose. Were your words relevant enough to allow her/him to guess correctly?

no

Vi

yes

Writing a report

Choose a topic for a report from the box below and use the plan to prepare it. Remember to include facts not opinions. You may need to research relevant information. sport

hero

school event

health issue

Keywords:

90

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Writing a report

WRITING

TITLE:

CLASSIFICATION:

DESCRIPTION:

(e.g. characteristics, location, time, cause(s), effects, history, achievements)

pl

e

sa m

Vi

ew

in g

OTHER IMPORTANT FACTS:

COMMENT/CONCLUSION:

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91


Editing and proofreading

WRITING

After completing your report in full, use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. You will be self-editing for:

You will need to use a peer editor to:

Spelling

Punctuation

Check sense

Grammar

Sentence structure

Agree that information is factual

Accuracy of information

Checklist

92

Does your report include information concerning:

pl

1.

e

Title:

(a)

characteristics? ...............................................................................................

(b)

no

location? ..........................................................................................................

yes

no

(c)

time? ...............................................................................................................

yes

no

(d)

cause(s)? .........................................................................................................

yes

no

(e)

effects? ...........................................................................................................

yes

no

(f)

other facts? .....................................................................................................

yes

no

2.

Have you written facts rather than opinions? .........................................................

yes

no

3.

Are your facts accurate? ..........................................................................................

yes

no

4.

Do you have a concluding statement? ....................................................................

yes

no

5.

Have you corrected any spelling errors?..................................................................

yes

no

6.

Is your punctuation correct? ....................................................................................

yes

no

7.

Is your sentence structure correct? .........................................................................

yes

no

8.

Have you corrected any grammatical errors? ..........................................................

yes

no

9.

Did your peer editor:

Vi

ew

in g

sa m

yes

(a)

understand your report? ..................................................................................

yes

no

(b)

believe your facts are true? .............................................................................

yes

no

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Test your knowledge

1.

EVALUATION

Choose a topic from the box below and write a report. Use a report plan to organise your facts and ideas before writing the report in full. animal

2.

celebration

experiment

Reports should provide facts not unnecessary

.

(b)

pocketful

(c) lady-in-waiting

(d)

basketful

(e) die

(f)

octopus

Write sentences to demonstrate your understanding of the difference between each pair of often confused words.

sa m

4.

(a) sister-in-law

e

Write the plural forms of these words

pl

3.

and should not include

(a) angle, angel

Use each word as a preposition in an interesting sentence about homework.

Vi

5.

ew

(c) addition, edition

in g

(b) cheque, check

(a) after

(b) into

(c) between

(d) while

(e) before

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

6.

Underline the preposition in each sentence. (a) ‘Leave your homework on my table’, the teacher told the class. (b) ‘I’m sorry that I came without my homework’, Pia explained. (c) ‘You’ll have to bring it to me tomorrow’, said the teacher. (d) ‘But tomorrow is Saturday and I’ll be at the swimming pool’, Pia replied. (e) ‘I think I can wait until Monday,’ her teacher answered, ‘but don’t forget it or I’ll really be very angry’.

7.

Write a sentence using each of these adjectives as a noun.

e

(a) beautiful

sa m

pl

(b) happy

8.

Vi

(e) efficient

ew

(d) cooperative

in g

(c) wealthy

Write fact or opinion after each sentence. (a) My father is taller than yours. (b) He is a very kind man. (c) Our school is the best in the district. (d) John holds the Irish junior record for 100 m freestyle. (e) My mother’s cakes are delicious. (f)

94

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Procedure – 2

Safe cycling ANALYSIS The main purpose of a procedure is to direct, inform or explain. Read this procedure.

Safe cycling

1.

Be noticed:

Don’t blend with the road or rain.

sa m

Wear bright clothes and helmet.

pl

e

Many people are injured each year on our roads when they are riding their bikes. If you are going to ride a bike, you have a responsibility to follow some simple rules and regulations. The procedure Safe cycling will give some useful information to help you stay safe.

Use reflectors and lights at night. 2.

Stay alert:

Always be ready to stop quickly. Avoid any trouble.

Watch out for others who may do unexpected things. Wear a helmet:

Helmets must be correctly fitted to sit firmly, flat on the head.

4.

Know the road rules:

Learn all road rules.

in g

3.

Indicate early and clearly. Ride on the correct side of the road.

Care for bicycles:

Make sure your bike is in good working order. Check brakes, tyres and pedals regularly.

Vi

5.

ew

Take extra care at junctions.

Speaking and listening

Partner activity 1.

Discuss activities that require participants to wear helmets. (a) Compile a list.

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95


Speaking and listening

ANALYSIS

(b) In which of the activities you have listed is it compulsory to wear a helmet?

(c) Discuss reasons in favour of the compulsory wearing of helmets. Write three reasons.

pl

e

in g

sa m

(d) Discuss possible reasons against the compulsory wearing of helmets. Write three reasons.

(e) Discuss what could happen if a helmet was incorrectly fitted. Complete this statement.

Vi

ew

We believe the main reason helmets should be correctly fitted is

Structure of a procedure

A procedure usually has: A goal Requirements Steps Test

96

This is at the beginning and tells us what is to be done. Items needed are often listed. This is a list of what you must do. The steps are often listed in order. Was the task completed successfully?

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Structure of a procedure

ANALYSIS

Reread the procedure Safe cycling. Answer the questions. Goal What does this procedure tell us?

Requirements What equipment may be needed?

e

Steps

sa m

pl

Write the steps you would follow to cycle safely.

Test

ew

in g

How do you know if you have been cycling safely?

Reading

Vi

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading for information Tick the correct response. 1.

It is important to check your bike’s brakes regularly. .................................

true

false

2.

Lights and reflectors are required during the day. .....................................

true

false

3.

A black jacket is suitable for a bike rider. ...................................................

true

false

4.

It is important for riders to take notice of what is happening around them. .........................................................................................................

true

false

5.

Bike riders need to learn the road rules.....................................................

true

false

6.

Junctions can be dangerous. ...................................................................

true

false

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Reading for understanding 1.

Which rule do you think would be the most important in preventing cycling accidents?

Why?

Why is it a good idea for cyclists to wear light, bright clothing?

3.

What would you need to do to ensure that your bicycle is in good working order?

4.

Junctions can be quite dangerous for cyclists. Give two reasons why this is so.

pl

e

2.

sa m

(a)

(b)

Why is it more dangerous for cyclists riding at night?

6.

How old do you think a child should be before he or she is allowed to ride a bicycle on the road?

Why?

7.

Vi

ew

in g

5.

(a) When do you think drivers have the most difficulty seeing bike riders?

(b) Explain why.

98

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Reading

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Applying your knowledge Illustrations, symbols and diagrams are often used in procedures to explain what it is people should do. Read each command statement in the box on the left and add illustrations, symbols or diagrams on the right. Reread the procedure for ideas for your visual images.

pl

e

Be noticed

Vi

ew

Wear a helmet

in g

sa m

Stay alert

Know road rules

Care for bicycles

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99


WORKING WITH THE TEXT

1.

Vocabulary

Use a dictionary to locate the meaning of these words. (a) blend (b) reflectors (c) indicate (d) junction (e) cycling How many small words can you make using the letters in the word ‘reflectors’? I made

words.

e

2.

Jumbled joining words

(a)

nwso otof tskbea ten

(b)

ball

snowball football

pl

Unjumble the groups of letters to make compound words when the common word is added. The first one has been completed. tenp god ylpa byucb trocu thab

sa m

1.

house

in g

basketball netball puc klacb hitew lkcah

ew

(c)

Vi

board

(e)

(d)

tuis frieb kboo loochs

case

tcoru kbac nrab

yard

fmra

100

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Vocabulary

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Search and solve o

i

t

c

p

k

o

w

s

a

r

a

m

n

o

i

f

u

l

l

s

t

r

p

s

u

s

e

d

t

b

r

e

v

d

a

r

r

e

i

p

t

o

p

s

e

l

p

r

e

a

h

o

n

e

n

c

r

4.

Solve these mixed-up forms of writing then find them in the search and solve word puzzle. They may be horizontal, vertical or diagonal. Note: Some letters may be used more than once.

t

n

o

c

o

o

t

s

e

u

q

s

d

o

p

r

i

t

l

e

r

r

e

t

t

e

l

e

o

o

e

s

s

w

c

f

r

h

c

i

a

v

o

e

i

a

u

t

e

n

p

g

v

u

x

g

e

t

u

d

a

n

d

p

i

m

i

p

a

u

a

u

g

i

o

n

c

t

a

f

t

o

f

i

r

v

e

e

o

e

o

h

a

f

r

a

s

c

e

t

v

m

a

s

(e) yasse

t

u

n

o

u

n

e

r

i

r

i

m

s

r

t

(f)

t

n

o

a

s

t

t

r

y

t

a

a

c

t

n

s

y

n

o

n

y

m

t

c

o

i

u

r

i

a

t

n

u

o

c

e

r

e

a

t

t

o

e

c

n

o

n

l

o

n

t

i

b

o

n

j

a

n

d

h

l

d

r

o

u

d

r

r

e

p

o

i

e

s

s

a

y

m

y

n

o

t

v

t

a

b

b

r

e

v

i

a

t

e

r

e

s

e

v

i

t

a

r

r

(b) cnutore (c) istpoxenoi (d) edcourrpe

r

t

e

s

n

a

n

n

i

o

n

o

a

n

t

c

lecatir

(g) potrre

(h) rrviatean (i)

typroe

Answer the clues then also find these words in the puzzle above. (a) a naming word

ew

(b) an action word

Vi

(c) a group of letters added to the beginning of a word

(d) a group of letters added to the end of a word

(e) a word used to describe a noun

(f)

(h) used at the end of a sentence

(o) a word opposite in meaning to another

(i)

a, e, i, o, u are

(p) a word which stands in place of a noun

(j)

other letters are

in g

5.

(a) ttrele

e

n

pl

g

sa m

a

a word which describes a verb

(g) a mark used to show ownership

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(k) when one or more letters is omitted and an apostrophe is used

(l)

the shortened form of a word or phrase

(q) used at the end of a question

(r)

a tense to indicate something has happened

(s) a tense to show something is happening now

(m) a mark used to separate lists of words

(t)

(n) a word similar in meaning to another

(u) another name for a writer

a tense to show something is going to happen

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

Plurals To change a noun from singular (one) to plural (more than one), there are a number of spelling rules. Usually an s is added, but sometimes other rules apply. Read the spelling rules on pages 44 and 45. Answer the questions and complete the exercises.

1.

(a) es is added to nouns ending with:

(ii)

cross

(iii) wish

(iv)

potato

(v) box

(vi)

(c) Three exceptions to this rule are:

2.

pl

lunch

sa m

(i)

e

(b) Change these nouns from singular to plural.

go

(a) The plural of words ending with f or fe end with v

.

(i)

in g

(b) Change these nouns from singular to plural. half

(iii) life

ew

(v) yourself

(ii)

wolf

(iv)

wife

(vi)

thief

(c) Three exceptions to this rule are:

(a) Often the plural of words ending with ff just adds

Vi

3.

.

(b) Three of these words are:

Spelling rule To change some nouns from singular to plural their vowel or vowels are changed. For example:

102

tooth

teeth

oasis

oases

foot

feet

emphasis

emphases

man

men

basis

bases

goose

geese

axis

axes

woman

women

crisis

crises

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Spelling

4.

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Rewrite each sentence, changing the highlighted noun from singular to plural. (a) The boy hurt his foot.

(b) They gave the books to the man.

e

(c) Alex was chased by the goose.

We went to see the cactus in the desert.

in g

(f)

sa m

(e) I watched the woman on television.

pl

(d) The dentist needed to work on my tooth.

ew

(g) The camel driver told us where to find the oasis in the desert.

Syllables

Vi

A syllable is a part of a word with one vowel sound. Words may have one or more syllables. For example:

bike – one syllable bi/cy/cle – three syllables. Syllabification is a helpful spelling strategy.

5.

Write the number of syllables in each word. (a) avoid

(b)

injured

(c) learn

(d)

information

(e) regularly

(f)

reflectors

(g) procedure

(h)

responsibility

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103


WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

Separating syllables Most syllables begin with a consonant; for example, po/ta/to.

If there are double consonants separate them; for example, pat/tern.

If there are two consonants, separate them; for example, stab/le.

When there is a base word, separate between it and the other syllables, including suffixes and prefixes; for example, melt/ing.

Syllabify these words. The first one has been done. (b)

influence

(c) j u d g e m e n t

(d)

music

(e) c a s u a l t y

(f)

litre

(g) v i o l i n

(h)

refer

(i)

(j)

threatening

(k) e x p o r t i n g

(l)

Confused words

Cross out the incorrect word in each sentence.

The hero was asked to (except, accept) a reward.

(b)

The team members were asked not to (tyre, tire) themselves by staying out late the night before the big game.

(c)

The accused man decided to (waive, wave) his rights to a trial by jury.

(d)

I work in a twenty (story, storey) building.

(e)

We enjoy a cheese and salad (role, roll) for our lunch.

(f)

The graduating class put on a (revue, review) for the school to enjoy.

(h)

ew

in g

(a)

(g)

104

conscious

Vi

7.

pl

gadget

e

(a) hel/met

sa m

6.

It was a (quiet, quite) and peaceful journey along the country road. The author wrote a (personnel, personal) account of his fight against cancer.

(i)

My grandfather was a (minor, miner), working on the goldfields during the 1930s.

(j)

The aircraft is in the (hanger, hangar).

(k)

The basketballer had to leave the field after committing three (fowls, fouls).

(l)

Maria wrote a letter to her (idol, idle), asking for a photograph.

(m)

Brad was given a new (pair, pear) of riding boots.

(n)

The newspaper shop sells (stationery, stationary). The English workbook

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Command verbs Command verbs are action verbs and are used in procedures to tell you what to do. For example: 1.

Watch where you are going.

Read the procedure Safe cycling to find more command verbs to add to this list. be stay

sa m

Write a suitable command verb to start each sentence. (a)

on your lights.

(b)

before you cross the street.

(c)

your bike helmet.

(d)

your brakes.

in g

2.

pl

e

indicate

(e)

safely.

ew

(f)

the road rules.

Suffixes

Vi

A suffix is a group of letters added to the end of a word to change its meaning. For example:

3.

ed

ern

ful

like

Add any suitable suffix from the list above to these words. (a) life (b) dirt (c) friend (d) slow (e) health (f)

talk

(g) north (h) wonder Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

y

4.

ly

less

Write each word without its suffix. (a) appearance (b) employee (c) darken (d) lioness (e) duckling (f)

regularly

(g) eastern (h) fullness The English workbook

105


LANGUAGE FEATURES

5.

Adding a suffix changes the meaning of a word.

lioness

count

child

childlike

worm

wonder

wonderful

cheer

west

western

south

use

useless

child

engine

engineer

mountain

hero

heroism

organ

reflect

reflective

support

pl

lion

e

(a) Add the same suffix to the word on the right.

(b) Which of the suffices you used means: full of?

(ii)

a direction?

(iv)

similar to?

(vi)

one concerned with?

sa m

(i)

(iii) feminine? (v) without? (vii) a state of being?

(viii) relating to?

in g

Adverbs

Adverbs add meaning to verbs. They can tell where, when or how something happens. Adverbs of:

ew

For example:

place (where)

behind, above, inside

time (when)

tomorrow, often, now

manner (how)

carefully, slowly, suddenly

Identifying adverbs is easier if you know which word is the verb. For example:

Yesterday, I advanced slowly.

Vi

Advanced is the verb. Yesterday is an adverb of time (when). Slowly is an adverb of manner (how).

6.

8.

106

Underline the adverb of place in each sentence. Find the verb first and circle it.

7.

Underline the adverb of time in each sentence. Find the verb first and circle it.

(a) The aircraft flew above.

(a) Yesterday was my birthday.

(b) He rode his bike outside.

(b) You can play with your friends later.

(c) Put your helmet inside.

(c) We rode our bikes to school today.

(d) My school is close.

(d) We will repair your bike tomorrow.

Underline the adverbs of manner in each sentence. Find the verb first and circle it. (a) She swam strongly against the current.

(b) My father works hard.

(c) The family argued loudly.

(d) Bill cleverly avoided doing the dishes.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

9.

Adverbs of manner often end with the suffix ly. When speaking or writing a common mistake is to omit the ly. Circle the correct word in each sentence. (a) She looked (sad, sadly) at the broken bicycle as it lay by the side of the road.

(b) The boy dived (graceful, gracefully) over the handlebars.

(c) His mother (constant, constantly) asked him to be careful.

(d) The gardener yelled (angrily, angry) at my brother and told him not to ride across the lawn.

(e) It is most important to check your bike (regular, regularly).

(f)

That front wheel is wobbling very (bad, badly).

Adverbial phrases When a group of words is used instead of an adverb, it is called an adverbial phrase.

adverbial phrase of time

I lost my wallet on the school bus.

adverbial phrase of place

On my way to school, I saw a car accident.

pl

He was walking along with his new hat on.

e

For example:

adverbial phrase of manner

10. Underline the adverbial phrase in each sentence.

(b) Once upon a time there lived a very wicked witch.

(c) The elephant swung his trunk backwards and forwards.

(d) You should be able to catch a train without fear.

(e) We bought our vegetables from the supermarket.

(f)

sa m

(a) We went to a surfing carnival during the school holidays.

in g

In my opinion, soccer is the most enjoyable sport.

Adverbial clauses

When a group of words, including a verb, is used instead of an adverb, it is called an adverbial clause. If you are not well you should stay at home.

ew

For example:

She waved goodbye as she climbed onto the bus. Take your umbrella in case it starts to rain.

Vi

11. Underline the adverbial clause of time in each sentence.

12. Underline the adverbial clause of reason in each sentence.

(a) Take off your shoes and socks when you come inside.

(a) We sat close to the fire because it was so cold.

(b) I like to watch television while I do my homework.

(b) He will have to wait his turn as there are many others waiting to use the computer.

(c) Dad has worked in the bank since he left school.

(c) Take an umbrella in case it rains.

(d) Clean your teeth before you go to bed.

(d) Don’t surf here because it’s a swimming only area.

13. Underline the adverbial clause of purpose in each sentence. (a) Always wear a hat and sunscreen so you won’t get sunburnt.

(b) We went to the cinema early so that we could get a good seat.

(c) Put the water bottle back in the fridge so it will stay cold.

(d) The footballers are running onto the field in order to get into their positions.

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107


WRITING

Review procedures

Text organisation

Language features

A procedure has • a goal

A procedure uses • short clear statements

• a list of requirements

• command verbs

• steps to follow

• steps to follow

• a test to measure success

• present tense

Text organisation

Language features

Goal (Title often summarises the goal)

Safe cycling

pl

e

Short clear statements

1.

Be noticed:

sa m

Many people are injured each year on our roads when they are riding their bikes. If you are going to ride a bike, you have a responsibility to follow some simple rules and regulations. The procedure Safe cycling will give some useful information to help you stay safe. Don’t blend with the road or rain. Wear bright clothes and helmet. Use reflectors and lights at night.

Stay alert:

Always be ready to stop quickly.

in g

2.

Avoid any trouble. Watch out for others who may do unexpected things.

Wear a helmet:

Helmets must be correctly fitted to sit firmly, flat on the head.

4.

Know the road rules:

Learn all road rules.

ew

3.

Vi

Requirements incorporated in the points

5.

Command verbs

108

Indicate early and clearly. Ride on the correct side of the road. Take extra care at junctions.

Care for bicycles:

Make sure your bike is in good working order. Check brakes, tyres and pedals regularly.

Test Not stated but implied. (The rider stays safe.)

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Present tense

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Writing a procedure

WRITING

Write a procedure to explain how you could stay safe while rollerblading on a footpath.

Goal:

pl

e

Requirements:

Vi

ew

in g

sa m

Steps/Points:

Test:

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WRITING

Editing and proofreading

Editing and proofreading is important. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work.

You will be self-editing for:

You will need to use a peer editor to:

Spelling

Punctuation

Check instructions and sense

Grammar

Sentence structure

Concise language

e

Checklist

pl

Title of the procedure:

yes

no

2. Did you include a goal?........................................................................................

yes

no

3. Did you list your requirements? ..........................................................................

yes

no

4. Have you included all the steps in logical order? .................................................

yes

no

5. Did you add a test to check that the procedure works? ......................................

yes

no

6. Is there any unnecessary information? ...............................................................

yes

no

7. Have you corrected any spelling errors? .............................................................

yes

no

yes

no

in g

sa m

1. Does your procedure make sense to you? ..........................................................

Did you check that your words look right? .................................................

Did you use a dictionary? ...........................................................................

yes

no

8. Have you used command verbs? ........................................................................

yes

no

9. Are your instructions easy to follow? .................................................................

yes

no

with a full stop? ...................................................................................................

yes

no

11. Is your procedure written in the present tense? .................................................

yes

no

yes

no

Vi

ew

10. Do all your statements start with a capital letter and end

12. Ask a partner to read your procedure. Did he or she find it easy to understand? ...........................................................

110

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Test your knowledge

1.

Choose a topic and write a procedure.

EVALUATION

Staying safe on a scooter Walking on a poorly lit road Skateboard safety

2.

What is the purpose of each of the following: (a) Goal? (b) Requirements? (c) Steps? (d) Test?

5.

(b) house

(c)

thief

(d) box

(e) rule

(f)

tomato

(g) helmet

(h) cuff

(i)

shelf

(a) woman

(b) goose

(c)

foot

(d) oasis

(e) tooth

(f)

axis

(a) i n c l u d i n g

(b) s t u d y

(c)

welcome

(d) r e f l e c t i o n

(e) f o r m a t i o n

(f)

separate

(h) c y c l i n g

(i)

procedure

Syllabify these words.

(g) r e g u l a r l y

Cross out the incorrect word in each sentence.

ew

6.

pl

Change these words from singular to plural.

(a) Sporting heroes should be roll/role models.

Vi

(c) My coat is on a hangar/hanger in the wardrobe.

7.

e

(a) wife

sa m

4.

Write plurals for these words.

in g

3.

(b) Please review/revue your work before I see it. (d) He is a lazy, idol/idle boy.

(e) Please accept/except my congratulations.

(f)

My car needs one new tire/tyre.

(g) She read them a story/storey before they went to bed.

(h) I felt quiet/quite tired after working all day at the school fete.

Write a suitable command verb to start each sentence. (a)

at the next corner to make sure there is nothing coming along the road.

(b)

before you ride onto the road.

(c)

care at junctions because they can be very dangerous.

(d)

a helmet whenever you ride your bike.

(e)

out for pedestrians on walkways.

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111


Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

8.

Add a different suffix to each word. (a) firm

(b) regular

(c)

speed

(d) work

(e) care

(f)

walk

e

9.

A suffix is

pl

10. Underline the adverb in each sentence and write place, time or manner on the line provided. (a) He rode strongly against the wind.

(c) Put your helmet inside.

sa m

(b) Yesterday, we rode our bikes to the park.

(d) We can go for a ride after you’ve tidied up your room.

(e) The cycling team rode their bikes along the riverbank. He rode his bike aimlessly, thinking more about his overseas holiday than where he was riding.

in g

(f)

ew

11. Underline the adverbial phrase in each sentence. (a) They walked across the park with confidence.

(a) There is an evacuation plan at school in case we have a fire.

(b) My dog howls during electrical storms.

(b) We don’t have to do any homework because we have our school sports day tomorrow.

Vi

(c) This book was a present from my sister. (d) After the film, we had a cup of coffee. (e) For our graduation, we will need to wear our school uniform. 12. Underline the adverbial clause of time in each sentence. (a) As he walked into the room, he tripped over his shoelace. (b) I read a book while I was waiting for the bus. (c) He has been an excellent swimmer since he was four years old. (d) Mia learnt to scuba dive during the summer holidays.

112

13. Underline the adverbial clause of reason in each sentence.

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(c) As I was absent last week, I will have to sit my exam today.

14. Underline the adverbial clause of purpose in each sentence. (a) Wear a sunscreen so you won’t get sunburnt. (b) We went to the football game early so we could sit in the stands. (c) My father always catches the bus to work so he can avoid the heavy traffic on the motorway. (d) Wear your raincoat so you won’t get wet.

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Recount – 2

Diary ANALYSIS A recount is a retelling of past events in time order. Recounts can be in the form of a newspaper article, diary or a letter. Read the following recount.

17 Dec

Dear diary

18 Dec

Dear diary

in g

sa m

pl

e

I feel quite tired tonight. Peta was on time to collect me this morning. Wasn’t she cheerful, greeting me with, ‘Hi Alex. Ready to go?’ Well, no, I wasn’t ready and I didn’t want to go, but somehow I managed to drag myself down the driveway. We spent the morning at a school where Peta and her team of workers care for the gardens. It was very shady, with lots of trees. That was just as well because it was quite hot. I met Luke, who was friendly and helpful. He knows a lot about cricket so we had quite a good chat about the game and some of the Australian and Pakistani teams. Working wasn’t too bad, Peta let me have a swim in the school pool when we had finished.

19 Dec

ew

Another day, another garden. This time we went to the home of a well-known TV newsreader. She lives in a gorgeous big house overlooking the river. I had to rake the leaves. I couldn’t have done a very good job because Luke came behind me and did it again. I pretended not to notice. At least Australia is doing well in the cricket. I wish I could be there. Dear diary

Vi

I’m really dragging my feet today. My muscles are sore and I am suffering from sunburn. All I wanted to do was to lie on the sofa and watch TV or, better still, sit in a swimming pool to cool off. We spent the day at another beautiful home that had gorgeous terraced gardens, a huge pool and a tennis court. It always amazes me how people can afford these homes. What is wrong with my parents? The Australian cricket team was all out for 309.

20 Dec

Dear diary Luke and I had a great discussion today about cricket. His friend Ben is the team’s physiotherapist and has offered to collect some autographs for me. Who cares about gardening? All I want to do is go to the cricket!

21 Dec

Dear diary Payday today!! For all my hard labour and determination I have earned €124.50. Peta took me to the bank and the teller cashed my cheque. Now I have some money to spend during the holidays. I think I might buy a membership to the cricket. Maybe gardening isn’t so bad after all!

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113


ANALYSIS

Speaking and listening

Partner activity 1.

How do you think Alex really felt about working? Discuss this and give reasons to explain and support your opinions. List your arguments below. An example is given.

•

2.

With a partner, role-play a possible discussion between Luke and Alex. List some potential topics below. Perform the discussion for your group or class.

e

Alex liked working because he could discuss cricket with Luke.

3.

sa m

pl

cricket

With a partner, discuss the character traits and personalities of Alex, Mum, Peta and Luke. Complete the chart below. Alex

ew

in g

Mum

Vi

Peta

cheerful

4.

Luke friendly

(a) Discuss a likeable person at your school and some of his or her character traits. (b) Decide on which two traits best describe this person and write them below.

114

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Structure of a recount

ANALYSIS

Structure A recount has: A title:

What the recount is about

A setting:

Who the recount is about

Where the events happened

When the events happened

Why the events happened

The events:

What happened Events are told in the order in which they happened. Each major event is written in a new paragraph.

An ending/comment:

What the writer thinks about the events.

e

Read Alex’s diary again and answer these questions.

pl

TITLE

SETTING Name the main characters.

Who?

in g

When? When did these events occur?

sa m

Suggest a suitable title for Alex’s diary.

EVENTS

ew

Where? Where did the actions occur?

List the events of 17 of December.

2.

What happened on Day 2?

3.

Why was Alex feeling so bad on Day 3?

4.

Who was Luke’s friend and what was he going to do?

Vi

1.

ENDING How was Alex feeling by Day 5?

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115


WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Reading for information Indicate if each statement is true or false. 1.

Peta and Luke work alone. ...............................................................................................

true

false

2.

The school was surrounded by many trees. .....................................................................

true

false

3.

The TV newsreader lived by the ocean. ............................................................................

true

false

4.

Ben knew many of the players in Australia’s cricket team................................................

true

false

5.

Peta told Alex that he was a good gardener. ....................................................................

true

false

1.

Do you think that Peta really needed Alex to help her?

yes

Did Alex take his job seriously?

no

Alex complained that he was sunburnt. When and why do you think this probably happened?

ew

3.

yes

in g

Give reasons to support your opinion

sa m

2.

pl

Explain why you think this

no

e

Reading for understanding

Applying your knowledge

1.

Vi

Some children work quite hard to help at home. (a) Make a list of jobs you do.

(b) What are some of the jobs other members of your family do? Compile a list for each person.

(c) Who does the most? (d) Are you paid for the jobs you do?

116

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Reading

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

(e) Would you rather work at home or be employed somewhere else? (f)

Give reasons for your answer.

(g) Give three reasons why parents require their children to help at home. no

yes

no

yes

no

e

yes

pl

Tick ‘yes’ or ‘no’ after each reason: ‘yes’ you agree that this is a good reason, or ‘no’ you disagree with this reasoning.

sa m

Vocabulary

The collection of words we know and use in our speaking and writing is called our vocabulary. We all need to extend and improve our vocabularies. There are some of the many ways of doing this.

in g

Acrostics

Acrostics use each letter of a given word as the initial letter of the first word in a line of poetry. Catch the ball! Run between the wickets. In! Caught, you’re out! Keep your eye on the ball. Everyone tries to hit a six. Take a wicket.

1.

Vi

ew

For example:

Use the word gardener to make an acrostic poem. G A R D E N E R

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

Acronym An acronym is a word formed by initial letters and pronounced as a word. For example:

SCUBA – is a very frequently used acronym for: Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus. (This is a popular question at quiz nights.)

2.

These acronyms are combinations of which words? (a) AIDS

e

(b) APEC

(d) ANZAC

Note that acronyms are written without full stops. Make a list of other acronyms.

in g

3.

ew

Missing letters 4.

sa m

pl

(c) QANTAS

(a) Choose a letter to complete the first word and begin the second. The first one has been done to help you.

Vi

scam

p

arty

tut

pset

onio

urse

pani

ease

pain

rain

bea

nder

medi

fter

craf

oast

alib

ndex

pian

ccur

unio

appy

(b) The missing letters form something that is an important part of writing.

The important word is

118

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Vocabulary

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Mystery message. 5.

Use these clues to fill in the words below. (a) a naming word

1

(b) a group of letters added to the end of a word

(i)

a group of words without a verb

(j)

used to show ownership

9

2

10

(c) a doing word

(k) putting words onto paper

3

(d) one person, animal, place or thing

11

(l)

4

(e) explains more about a verb

describes a noun

e

12

(m) a series of words starting with the same letter or sound

5

use this to spell well

pl

(f)

6

sa m

13

(g) used to separate a group of names or actions 7

(h) used to compare similar things

3

4

in g

2

5

14

(o) Using the numbers under the letters, place them in the appropriate boxes below to solve the mystery message.

8

1

(n) more than one person, place, animal or thing

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

ew

The mystery message is

Confusing careers

ann

arc

ect

pen

oun

pro

6.

ter

bar

cke

ret

nci

ter

cer

car

ron

uff

sec

eur

cha

ast

pal

ris

aut

fes

pri

cri

ter

ary

sor

hit

Vi

Use the clues and three groups of the letters listed below to solve the nine-letter occupations. The three groups of letters left over will make a new occupation. (a) a personal driver

(b) someone who designs buildings

(c) a person who travels into space

(d) someone who works with wood

(e) like a lawyer

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(f)

the head of a school

(g) plays in a team and uses a bat and ball

(h) reads the news on radio or television

(i)

works in an office

(j)

the new occupation is

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

Word origins These everyday words have come from Greek. Knowing word origins can help us to understand the meaning of words and can make spelling easier. phone The Greek word phone means sound. Read the words and select the correct one to write on each line. telephone

homophones

symphony

phonics

Scope The Greek word scopeo means I see. So an instrument for looking at something often ends in scope.

microphone

For example: telescope.

(a) words that sound the same

(a) periscope

in g

(d) music composed for an orchestra

sa m

(b) a device to make sound louder

(c) the study of sounds in speech

ew

(e) an instrument for communicating sound

3.

(b) stethoscope

(c) microscope

(d) kaleidoscope

(e) stereoscope

Use a dictionary to complete this table. Element

(b)

Language of origin

Meaning

Examples

neo

Vi

(a)

120

Write a definition of these words

pl

2.

e

1.

gastro

(c)

penta

(d)

photo

(e)

prima

(f)

holo

(g)

cardio

(h)

geo

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Spelling

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Confusing words

time

thyme

no

know

where

wear

which

witch

some

sum

not

knot

be

bee

there

their

feet

feat

sore

saw

court

caught

cheque

check

buy

(a) Climbing Mt Everest was a remarkable their sore

.

pl

the attention of the world’s media, will be played

.

broomstick did the wicked

Vi

(e) The boat drifted because they had mooring rope correctly. I can work out the subtraction is more difficult.

(i)

I’m unsure about

(j)

See those boys over

book on the counter tied the

in the

of two numbers but I find

(g) If I’m not too busy and have enough in my herb garden. (h) I don’t him play.

lose?

that I didn’t leave my new

ew

(d) Please at the bank.

(f)

bye

but the climbers complained about

in g

(c)

soar

by

(b) The tennis final, which has on centre

they’re

e

Read these words. Those on the left are from the recount. Those on the right are homophones. They sound the same but are spelled differently and have different meanings. Choose the correct words to complete the sentences. If you are not sure, you may need to consult a dictionary.

sa m

4.

I will plant some

what he will do if his coach says

and won’t let

I should

my new suit.

,

going to the beach with

surfboards. (k) That (l)

sting should

We can go into town equipment, because our team has a

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removed from your arm. bus this Saturday to

some new

and we will not have to play.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Conjunctions Conjunctions are joining words. They can be used to join words, phrases and sentences. • •

one word with another word one phrase with another phrase

Jack

and

Jill

word

conj

word

at the beach and phrase

one sentence with another sentence

conj

in the sunshine phrase

I fell asleep because I was tired. sentence

conj

sentence

The most common conjunctions are: and, but, or and because. Some others are: either

yet

still

who

which

that

if

before

while

since

although

as

after

until

whether

pl

Conjunctions to join words

Add a word to make a well-known saying. The conjunctions and and or have been used. later

key

white

bone

(a) black and (c) safe and

(g) skin and (i)

heaven and

low

sound

(b)

sooner or

(d)

do or

(f)

more or

(h)

fast and

(j)

lock and

earth

less

furious

ew

Conjunctions to join sentences

die

in g

(e) high and

sa m

1.

when

e

so

Join each pair of sentences below using the given conjunction. 2.

(a) because

Vi

The protesters yelled and waved their banners angrily. The Prime Minister’s speech could not be heard.

(b) when Global warming causes polar ice to melt and sea levels to rise. Some islands in the Pacific will be seriously threatened.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

(c) although Conservationists are endeavouring to save China’s panda population. There are very few pandas remaining.

Changing conjunctions 3.

Underline the conjunction used in each sentence. Rewrite the sentence using a different conjunction. This may change the meaning of the sentence. The boys were busy completing their homework while the test match was played.

e

For example:

pl

The boys were busy completing their homework until the test match was played.

sa m

(a) Following the storm, rain and very strong winds there was great damage to property.

in g

(b) Many people immigrated to Australia after they were persecuted in their own countries.

Vi

ew

(c) The teachers suggested that the 6th Class camp should be held in first term when the pupils could form new friendship groups.

Nouns

Masculine, feminine and neutral In the past, many occupations were restricted to either males or females, so masculine and feminine nouns were required. Because many men and women now work in the same occupations, more neutral nouns are needed in today’s politically correct society. For example: police officer 4.

Write the neutral terms currently used to describe these workers. (a) fireman

(b) air hostess

(c) headmaster

(d) postman

(e) authoress

(f)

(g) chairman

(h) crewman

(i)

(j)

poetess

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cameraman

sportsman The English workbook

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

5.

Complete this table using male, female and neutral terms. Male (a)

Female

Neutral

grandfather

grandparent

(b)

sister

(c)

son

(d)

child

(e)

actor

(f)

waiter

(g)

e

queen

(h)

pl

6.

sales assistant

Find the masculine and feminine of these animals.

Feminine

sa m

Masculine (a) horse (b) goose

(e) sheep pig

Vi

(f)

ew

(d) cattle

in g

(c) fox

Noun phrases

Some nouns are made up of more than one word. For example:

a loaf of bread the actor, Tom Cruise

7.

Underline the noun phrase in each sentence. (a) A swarm of bees frightened the post officer. (b) The world’s population has increased dramatically. (c) After playing football, the boy enjoyed a bowl of soup. (d) There was a competition to solve the difficult maths problem.

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8.

Write a noun phrase using each of these words (a) programme

(b) band

(c) story

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Pronouns Confusing pronouns me or I? The pronoun I is used as the subject of a verb and me is used as the object of a verb. For example:

I looked at a photo (who looked?) subject. verb

The teacher looked at me (looked at what?) object verb

9.

Circle the correct pronouns

e

(a) The gardener said that (I, me) could pick some flowers. (b) He gave (I, me) his new clippers to cut the flowers.

pl

(c) (I, me) chose the most colourful roses.

sa m

(d) (I, me) decided to give the flowers to my grandmother. (e) She was pleased and hugged (I, me).

When there are two or more people involved it can be more difficult.

For example:

My grandfather and (I or me) enjoy watching tennis. Me enjoy watching tennis.

He gave free tickets to my grandfather and (I or me).

It is incorrect. It seems to be correct, because me is the object of the verb can run. But, if you say, Troy can run faster than I can. Then I is the subject of the verb can even when it is not written or even said, it is implied.

He gave free tickets to I.

Vi

Try saying:

Troy can run faster than me.

I enjoy watching tennis.

ew

Try saying:

Read this sentence.

in g

Hint: Try saying the sentence using only one pronoun.

Pronouns with implied verbs

He gave free tickets to me.

10. Circle the correct pronouns. (a) My brother and (I or me) had to dig up the garden. (b) The carrots Ben and (I or me) grew were delicious. (c) My auntie gave my sister and (I or me) some seeds to plant. (d) I asked Mum where Marcia and (I or me) should plant them. (e) Dad bought some fertiliser for Ben, Marcia and (I or me) to use on our garden. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

11. Add the implied verbs to these. (a) He is fitter than I

.

(b) The girl arrived later than I

.

(c) That man has been waiting here longer than I

.

(d) You look much fitter than I

.

(e) My brother can run faster than I . (f)

They always work harder than I .

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WRITING

Activities

Sequencing Recounts are written in the order the events occurred,. That is, recounts are time-sequenced. A timeline is a useful tool to help you recall, plan and order the events of your recount. For example: Woke up, dressed and had breakfast.

Unloaded boat from boatshed.

4.30 am

Rowed with crew along river. Watched sun come up.

Watched dolphins play near boat. Packed boat into shed.

Arrived at school.

6.30 am

7.30 am

8.30 am

5.30 am

Reread Alex’s diary entry for 17 December. On the timeline below, enter the key events that occurred while Alex was working.

2.

Reread all diary entries. Enter the key events on the table below. What happened

Vi

ew

Time/date

in g

sa m

pl

e

1.

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Writing a recount

WRITING

Choose a topic from the box and write a recount in full, using the plan below to guide and organise your ideas. Dear diary ...

What a wonderful time

I was mortified when ...

Be careful what you ask for.

Title

Setting: where?

sa m

pl

e

who?

Vi

ew

Events

why?

in g

when?

Concluding statement/Comment:

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Editing and proofreading

WRITING

Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. You will be self-editing for:

You will need to use a peer editor to:

Spelling

Punctuation

Check sequence and sense.

Grammar

Sentence structure

Sequence and sense

Checklist Title: Title: Does your title reflect the topic? .............................................................................

yes

no

Does it generate interest? .......................................................................................

yes

no

pl

e

1.

Setting: Does your recount include:

specific characters? .........................................................................................

yes

no

location? ..........................................................................................................

yes

no

time of the events? .........................................................................................

yes

no

the reason for the events? .............................................................................

yes

no

3.

Events:

Were the events sequenced correctly? ...................................................................

yes

no

Were all relevant events included? ..........................................................................

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

Have you checked your punctuation? ......................................................................

yes

no

Is each event recorded in a separate paragraph? ....................................................

yes

no

Have you used the past tense? ...............................................................................

yes

no

Is the vocabulary you used interesting and varied? .................................................

yes

no

Did you use a peer editor? ......................................................................................

yes

no

Did s/he make any constructive comments?...........................................................

yes

no

in g

Concluding statement:

ew

4.

sa m

2.

Did you conclude with a statement or comment? .................................................. 5.

Spelling:

6.

7.

8.

128

Vi

Have you corrected any spelling errors?.................................................................. Punctuation:

Language features:

Peer editor:

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

1.

Choose a topic from the box and plan and write a recount in full on a separate sheet of paper. Remember to edit and proofread your work using a checklist.

The day I met

My nightmare

2.

(a) What is an acronym?

Lost

It was fun!

A strange encounter

(b) Give an example. 3.

Explain the meaning of these Greek words and give an example of an English word derived from each.

e

(a) phone

4.

pl

(b) scopeo Circle the correct word to complete each sentence.

sa m

(a) Peta was on (thyme, time) (to, two, too) collect me this (mourning, morning). (b) Peta cares (for, four) a garden (witch, which) has a lot of trees. (c) Alex dragged his (sore, saw) (feat, feet) across the grass.

(d) Luke and Alex had a (great, grate) discussion about cricket while they swept the (stares, stairs).

5.

(a) Conjunctions are

in g

(e) Alex wants to (by, buy) a membership to the cricket club.

words.

(b) Use conjunctions to make one sentence. I wasn’t ready. I didn’t want to go.

ew

(i)

Vi

(ii) I want to lie on the sofa and watch TV. Better still, I want to sit in the swimming pool and cool off.

(iii) My mother made me get a job. She thinks I need to learn to be independent.

(iv) I was watching television. She was in the garden.

(v) Peta took Alex to the bank. He could cash his cheque and get some money.

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EVALUATION

6.

Test your knowledge

Complete this table Masculine

Feminine

(a) (b)

Neutral

actress headmaster

(c) (d)

cattle brother

(e)

ewe

(f) Underline the noun phrase in each sentence.

e

7.

monarch

(b) We climbed up Croagh Patrick.

sa m

(c) The teacher said that Tom’s pencils needed sharpening.

pl

(a) The crowd of people cheered loudly.

(d) We watched the Indian cricket team play yesterday. (e) My poor, old grandfather fell and broke his leg. 8.

Circle the correct pronouns.

in g

(a) Please pass (I or me) that chocolate cake. (b) Why won’t you wait for (I or me)?

(c) My father and (I or me) love cricket.

ew

(d) Save some ice-cream for Sarah and (I or me). (e) My family and (I or me) visited the museum. (f)

They gave some tickets to my brother and (I or me).

9.

Vi

(g) (I or me) will enjoy the international cricket match for the next two days.

Add the implied verbs.

(a) My father is taller than I

.

(b) Wait for Big Billy Goat Gruff, he is bigger than I (c) My friend writes more often than I

. .

(d) The teacher told me that she knows more about that computer game than I

.

(e) I was amazed to learn that Dad was just as frightened by the science fiction film as I .

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Exposition – 2

Smoke damaged ANALYSIS Expositions are written to persuade others to think or do something. Read this exposition.

Smoke damaged

pl

e

My world is shattered. I have no quality of life and for what? Perhaps I can salvage something, if by reading this one young person either gives up smoking poisonous cigarettes or decides never to start. I know you’ve heard it all before, some wheezy, grey-faced old guy carrying on about smoking and wishing he’d never begun, as he looks death in the face.

sa m

‘So what!’ I thought when I was young. ‘It won’t happen to me and what if it does? It won’t matter because by then I will be too old and past my use by date.’ But I have loads of reasons to live. I’m only 46, which doesn’t seem old to me now. Last year I bought a new Mazda RX-8, which goes like a rocket and looks really cool, especially in red with a black trim.

in g

At work I have opportunities to travel overseas, flying business class and staying in five star hotels. It’s great, but I’ve worked hard and deserve it. I have two wonderful children, one finishing school and the other at university. They’ve had their problems, but seem to have settled down, to be happy and getting on with their lives—or they were until this bombshell hit us.

ew

It’s not just my life, that would be bad enough, but I’ve had to watch what it’s done to my wife and kids. Karen tries so hard to be strong and look hopeful as we discuss more treatment that we know is unlikely to achieve the miracle we so desperately need.

Vi

It seems strange now when I think back on so many of my friends who struggled with patches and lozenges to try to break the habit. Quite a few of them succeeded, but they were bad news, badtempered and certainly no fun to be around. But how I envy them now. At the time I viewed them with arrogant amusement as they battled with something I felt I didn’t need to be concerned about. My dad and his brother smoked like chimneys and they’re still going strong, so why shouldn’t I? Well, I can’t smoke now, I can’t do much at all except sit here gasping and coughing like a half-dead fish. The oxygen helps, but for how long? Don’t be fooled by what your friends say or do – just don’t, just don’t!

Speaking and listening Class discussion Why do people smoke? Discuss then compile a list of possible reasons.

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Speaking and listening

ANALYSIS

Partner activity Select one of the reasons and try to develop some arguments against this point of view. Plan and present a two-minute talk beginning: Some people smoke because ... but we disagree ... Your exposition should be persuasive, well organised and logical. Because changing people’s opinions may be difficult, try to expand and support your arguments rather than just state them.

Expositions aim to persuade others. This exposition has: An overview

Tells what the exposition is about

sa m

A title

pl

Structure

e

Structure of an exposition

Briefly tells what the writer thinks about the subject

Arguments

Persuasive opinions to support a point of view

Conclusion

Final comment and summing up

Read Smoke damaged again and answer these questions. What is the exposition about?

Overview

What does the writer want to happen?

Reasons

1.

ew

in g

Title

Vi

Why didn’t the writer listen when he was younger?

2.

What are three reasons he gives for wanting to live?

3.

Why didn’t he join some of his friends who tried to give up smoking?

4.

What is his life like now?

Conclusion

132

The writer says ‘don’t, just don’t’. What does he mean by this?

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Reading

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading for information True or false? Highlight the correct answer. 1.

The writer believes he is dying.

true

false

2.

His two children attend university.

true

false

3.

He bought a new car last year.

true

false

4.

He tried to give up smoking using patches and lozenges.

true

false

5.

His father died last year.

true

false

What did the writer think when his friends tried to give up smoking?

2.

Do you think the writer knew how dangerous smoking could be?

sa m

pl

1.

e

Reading for understanding

Explain why you think this.

Why does he think his health problems are unfair to his wife and children?

4.

Cigarette advertising has been banned in many places. Give your opinion about this.

Vi

ew

in g

3.

Applying your knowledge

(a) What are some of the things the writer can’t do now? You will need to use your imagination.

(b) Make a list of things you enjoy doing with your father or guardian.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

(c) Do you think the writer would have stopped smoking if he had known the effect it was having on his health?

yes

no

Why do you think this?

No effect

Some effect

Great effect

pl

e

(d) How persuasive is this exposition? What effect did it have on your attitude to smoking?

sa m

(e) In your opinion, how could the writer have made his message stronger and more effective?

in g

Vocabulary

Formal and informal language

For example: really cool

and

Vi

instead of:

ew

The writer uses a number of words and expressions which are more informal than formal.

very attractive

and

goes like a rocket

extremely fast

He has used more informal language because he is trying to ‘reach out to’ or communicate with a younger audience. 1.

Write more informal words or expressions for these. (a) parents

(b)

vehicle

(c) home

(d)

clothes

(e) shoes

(f)

to do well

(g) to do poorly

(h)

hungry

(i)

(j)

to visit

(l)

to work hard

busy

(k) to become angry

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Vocabulary

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Jargon People who work together or have a mutual interest in a particular activity often use a specialised language not everyone would understand. This is known as jargon.

cricket

(b)

deuce

medicine

(c)

single lens reflex

taxi

(d)

out for a duck

surfing

(e)

flag fall

tennis

(f)

triple bypass

photography

(g)

portrait

diving

(h)

a la carte

building

(i)

chalkie

law

(j)

double pike

artist

(k)

brickie

teacher

(l)

freestyle

swimming

(m)

juror

restaurant

pl

hanging ten

sa m

(a)

e

Match the jargon on the left with its particular area of interest.

in g

2.

Tautology

ew

The unnecessary repetition of an idea or a word is called tautology. For example: The elderly old man stumbled across the road.

Find and write the unnecessary word or phrase used in each sentence.

Vi

3.

(a) Three triplets attend our school. (b) Our car was following behind a slow truck. (c) I hope my toothache will not recur again. (d) The Indians completely surrounded the stage coach. (e) The coach divided the team into two halves. (f)

The explorers returned back to their campsite.

(g) Please repeat that again. (h) The sum total of your account is fifty dollars. (i)

The plane circled around the airport.

(j) Not long ago the class recently visited the museum.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

Anagrams Anagrams are new words made by using all of the letters from another word in a different order. For example:

liar

rail

Write anagrams of these words. (a) scar

(b)

plum

(c) panel

(d)

organ

(e) battle

(f)

seaside

Write two anagrams of each of these words.

sa m

(a) naps (b) paws (c) stale

in g

(d) bruise (e) elapse

What is your first name?

ew

6.

e

5.

brake

pl

4.

break

Vi

Write any possible anagrams of your name.

(If you can’t think of any, try some other name; for example: Mary – army).

7.

(a) Crack the code and fill in the missing letters. A

B

C U

D

E

F

G H

I

J

K

S

L

M

N O

P

L

Q R

S

T D

U

V

W

X

Y

Z X

(b) Use your code to work out the message. EKIMOJQ

136

OE

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W

PSWLDP

PWXWFT

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Vocabulary

Use four of the five four-letter words listed below to complete a word square reading the same down and across. One of the five words will not be needed. (See page 83 for an example.) (a) swan

(b)

rods redo

news

ever

west

pert

anew

trod

The word not needed was

The word not needed was

(c) mend

(d)

tale

e

wine

pl

8.

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

take

open

away

sa m

ends

tram

eyes lake

in g

home

(e) iris pest ship

hire

The word not needed was (f)

perm over open rave

Vi

stop

ew

The word not needed was

drop

The word not needed was

The word not needed was

(g) Make a word puzzle for your friends to try.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Complete the word search. o

b

c

e

r

t

a

i

n

l

y

o

x

g

o

t

s

o

d

z

s

n

e

n

y

n

u

v

a

a

a

e

b

k

r

t

g

i

g

p

e

g

i

i

o

u

e

g

e

y

h

d

h

r

g

m

m

t

a

a

n

r

i

b

t

e

s

b

t

r

s

m

d

t

n

m

r

y

o

e

m

i

o

u

s

b

g

y

e

a

r

y

a

m

n

s

t

d

w

o

c

a

f

r

l

s

s

e

e

i

f

y

g

r

e

a

t

k

j

m

m

h

h

i

g

a

w

a

t

c

h

e

p

o

c

b

s

f

s

e

e

m

s

n

e

p

h

t

k

h

t

p

s

y

t

t

r

e

a

r

a

e

r

e

i

v

p

j

e

f

b

a

e

p

a

r

k

n

q

d

u

i

v

r

e

v

p

l

t

e

b

r

c

e

s

l

i seems

grey

envy

trim

don’t

hopeful

great

watch

dead

pl

n

s

x

g

n

g

o

n

l

y

f

e

n

i

o

a

coughing

habit

trying

year

patches

tempered

smoke

overseas

life

gasping

tries

cigarette

amusement

reasons

oxygen

travel

certainly

person

fish

Vi

Spelling

l

sa m

only

w

in g

break

e

d

ew

9.

Vocabulary

Spelling

ce or se? There are four words that are often misspelt. Study the table below. advice

practice

device

licence

noun

advise

practise

devise

license

verb

In order to select the correct spelling, it is first necessary to decide if it is being used as a noun (ce) or a verb (se). For example: The traffic office will license (verb) my car and post the licence (noun) to my house.

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Spelling

1.

Circle the correct word in each sentence. (a) You must practice/practise playing your guitar.

(b) Our team’s practice/practise lasted for one hour.

(c) Please follow my advice/advise.

(d) I advice/advise you to study Indonesian.

(e) He will device/devise some clever plan.

(f)

(g) My driver’s licence/license has expired.

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

What does that device/devise actually do?

(h) Please licence/license this old car because I depend on it to get to university every day.

Note. practice can also be used as an adjective. For example: Our practice sessions went well.

Passed or past Passed and past can also be confused. Passed can only be used as a verb. I passed my exam.

e

For example:

Past can be a noun, an adjective, a preposition or an adverb. noun

I enjoy reading about past events.

adjective

The river flows past our property.

preposition

The car drove past.

adverb

Circle the correct word in each sentence.

sa m

2.

In the past, people lived in caves.

pl

For example:

(a) We are very interested in learning how people lived in the past/passed.

(b) My brother past/passed me a piece of pizza. (d) We drove past/passed my friend’s house

in g

(c) Past/Passed generations of my family lived in Ireland.

(f)

ew

(e) A red sports car past/passed us at great speed.

The pilot took the aircraft past/passed thick layers of clouds and into the clear sky above.

Apostrophes for possession

An apostrophe is used to show ownership and is placed after the owner or owners. Often the letter s is added. dad’s golf clubs

Vi

For example:

the ladies’ cars

3.

Add apostrophes to each of the following. (a) the lawyers briefcase (b) the childrens playground (c) the teachers book (d) the suns rays (e) Mikes homework (f)

Mr Smiths guitar

4.

The placement of each apostrophe in these phrases will indicate whether the owner is singular (s) or plural (p). The first one has been done. (a) the sons’ bikes (b) the cabin’s windows (c) the frogs’ legs (d) the baby’s bottles

(g) the dogs leashes

(e) the flowers’ petals

(h) the trees trunks

(f)

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p

the tree’s branches

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

5.

Spelling

Use an apostrophe to show ownership. You will need to change the word order. The first one has been done. (a) the siren of the police car the police car’s siren (b) the teacher of children

(c) the uniforms of the soldiers

e

(d) the office of the principal

sa m

(f)

pl

(e) the bells of the churches

the spoilers of the cars

in g

(g) the tails of the puppies

(h) the hat belonging to Sarah

the ties belonging to the gentlemen

(j)

the boot belonging to Mr Jones

Vi

ew

(i)

Apostrophes in contractions

Apostrophes are used in some words because they are contractions. For example:

6.

they’re (they are)

it’s (it is)

you’re (you are)

who’s (who is)

Circle the correct word in each sentence. (a) (Whose/Who’s) coming to my party? (c) Bring (your/you’re) bathers because (its/it’s) going to be hot.

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(b) (Its /It’s) next Saturday and (your/you’re) very welcome. (d) The boys’ father will bring (their/they’re) bathers, because (they’re/their) coming straight here after (their/they’re) basketball game. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


LANGUAGE FEATURES

Punctuation Quotation marks The actual words people say or think are indicated by quotation marks. For example:

The desperately ill former smoker said, ‘Don’t smoke, please don’t smoke’.

Notice: •

There is a comma before the quotation marks.

The full stop is placed after the quotation marks at the end of the sentence.

The first word inside the quotation marks starts with a capital letter.

When direct speech starts the sentence, the quotation marks still only enclose what is said.

Indicate the actual words spoken in each sentence with quotation marks. Ensure that you use any necessary capital letters, full stops and commas correctly.

pl

1.

‘Don’t smoke, please don’t smoke’, gasped the desperately ill former smoker.

e

For example:

sa m

(a) People under 18 years of age are not permitted to buy cigarettes stated the politician. (b) We are fully informed about the dangers of smoking the pupils replied. (c) The teenagers yelled leave us alone we know what we’re doing.

(d) The boy’s parents cried we had no idea that he was stealing money to buy cigarettes.

in g

(e) Smoking is not permitted at this school by anyone at any time announced the principal.

Quotation marks for continued speech

For example:

ew

Sometimes the words spoken are separated within the text, requiring more than one set of quotation marks. The continued direct speech does not require a capital letter for the first word in quotation marks. ‘Smoking’, gasped the man, ‘is addictive and young people must be discouraged from having that first cigarette’.

Vi

‘I am convinced that a few cigarettes won’t harm me’, argued the young girl. ‘I know that I can stop smoking whenever I want to.’

2.

Punctuate these sentences correctly. Some require question marks or exclamation marks within the quotation marks and commas. (a) Our old growth forests argued the conservationist must be preserved. (b) If your car breaks down on an outback road advised the police officer you should stay by the car. (c) There will be a concert here next Saturday said the radio announcer you can buy your tickets at the door. (d) Why do I have to wear a helmet asked the young rider I’ll ride very carefully.

(e) No way exclaimed the boy’s mother you can’t stay out that late. (f)

Please help me the boy shouted the track has disappeared and I really don‘t know where I am.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Quotation marks for a number of speakers. If there are a number of speakers, it is necessary to begin a new line each time a different person speaks. For example:

‘When did you first start smoking, Dad?’ Daniel asked his father. ‘I think I was about fifteen’, his father replied. ‘I guess my friends all started about the same time.’ ‘Did your parents object?’

Punctuate this passage. There are a number of people speaking. Remember to start a new line for each speaker.

e

3.

‘No, they were both smokers and cigarettes weren’t expensive then’, his father explained.

ew

in g

sa m

pl

The east coast of Australia was discovered by Captain Cook explained the teacher was he impressed by the country asked one of the class yes replied the teacher another pupil asked what was the name of the botanist who travelled with him Joseph Banks the teacher told him.

Hyphens

Vi

Hyphens are used to join two or more words or to show a break in a word at the end of a line of writing. For example:

sister-in-law

vice-captain

Note:

Many modern compound words were once joined with hyphens. For example.

wetsuit football

Note:

If in doubt about adding a hyphen, consult your dictionary.

A hyphen can change the meaning. For example: Note:

The ‘black-spotted butterfly’ is different from the ‘black, spotted butterfly’.

It is advisable to avoid breaking a word at the end of a line of text, but if you do so, ensure that the break is at the end of a syllable to make it easier for the reader. For example:

142

The man should have been more responsible and given up cigarettes earlier.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

4.

List hyphenated words beginning with: (a) even (b) self (c) two (d) well

Parentheses (brackets) Parentheses are used to add additional information to the meaning of the whole sentence, to add further comment or explanation or to say the same thing in a different way. For example:

Adam Gilchrist (a Western Australian) is the Australian team’s wicketkeeper.

Add brackets where needed.

sa m

5.

pl

e

The man was paid one hundred euro (€100) for his services.

(a) As he looked in the pool, a reflection which he thought was a face caught his attention. (b) The night I was lost in the bush I remember it well I had to overcome my fears. (c) John a friend of my sister was elected captain.

Activities

in g

WRITING

Formal and informal language

These passages are written using informal language. Rewrite each one in more formal language. For example:

ew

1.

I bought a new Mazda RX-8 which goes like a rocket and looks really cool.

Vi

I purchased a new Mazda RX-8 which performs well at high speed; its modern, streamlined design is visually appealing. (a) You’ve heard it all before, some wheezy old guy carrying on about smoking and wishing he’d never started, as he looks death in the face.

(b) My dad and his brother smoked like chimneys and they’re still going strong.

(c) It won’t matter because by then I will be too old and past my use-by date.

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WRITING

Writing an exposition

Choose a title from the box below, plan and write an exposition in the form of an essay or letter.

• smoking in public places

the legal age for purchasing cigarettes

• tobacco advertising

lung transplants for smokers

Title

Vi

ew

in g

Arguments (In support of your position – strongest first)

sa m

pl

e

Introductory statement (Your position on the issue)

Conclusion (A summary linking your arguments)

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Editing and proofreading

WRITING

After you have written your exposition in full, use this checklist to edit and proofread your work.

You will be self-editing for:

You will need to use a peer editor to:

Spelling

Punctuation

Check sense and persuasion

Grammar

Sentence structure

Checklist

e

Title of exposition:

pl

1. Do you understand the purpose of an exposition?.............................................. 2. Does your exposition:

yes

no

clearly state a problem in the introduction? ...............................................

yes

no

provide background information? ...............................................................

yes

no

• list facts to support your arguments?......................................................... (diagrams, photographs, facts and figures)

yes

no

sequence arguments from strongest to weakest? ....................................

yes

no

include a final paragraph which reinforces and summarises the

main points? ........................................................................................................

yes

no

3. Have you used persuasive language? .................................................................

yes

no

yes

no

Have you checked your punctuation? ..................................................................

yes

no

Have you used a separate paragraph for each argument? ..................................

yes

no

ew

in g

sa m

4. Spelling:

Have you corrected any spelling errors? .............................................................

Vi

5. Punctuation:

6. Ask a partner to read your exposition.

Did s/he understand your point of view? ...................................................

yes

no

Did it make sense? .....................................................................................

yes

no

Were you able to persuade your partner to agree with your yes

no

point of view? ......................................................................................................

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

1.

Choose a topic from the box below and write an exposition in the form of an essay or a letter. Organise your ideas using a planning framework. pool fencing

mobile phones at school

school leaving age

fast food menus

Sunday shopping

2.

Find and write the unnecessary word or phrase (tautology) in each sentence. (a) The orange was cut into four quarters. (b) My family will be returning back to Thailand for our next holiday. (c) In a very short time we will soon be in Secondary School.

e

(d) The pupil again repeated his feeble excuses for not completing his homework. (e) The soldiers advanced forward towards the enemy. They made a duplicate copy of his statement.

pl

(f)

3.

Write an anagram of these words. (a) ramp (c) diet

4.

(b)

pets

(d)

rope

(f)

spot

in g

(e) palm

sa m

(g) The truck reversed back along the laneway.

Circle the correct words in each sentence.

ew

(a) Some people say that ‘practice/practise makes perfect’, but I believe that if you practice/ practise something you will definitely improve. (b) I advice/advise you not to swim there, but if you won’t listen to my advice/advise, there is nothing I can do.

Vi

(c) The boy past/passed his friend riding his bike past/passed the school. (d) My brother will licence/license his new car on Friday but Dad will have to pay for the licence/ license because he hasn’t saved enough money.

5.

146

Indicate whether the owner is singular (s) or plural (p). (a) the girls’ books

(b)

the lady’s shopping

(c) the cow’s calves

(d)

the birds’ nests

(e) the worker’s tools

(f)

the flower’s perfume

(g) his shoes’ laces

(h)

the table’s legs

(i)

(j)

the school’s uniforms

my aunts’ garden The English workbook

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Test your knowledge

6.

EVALUATION

Use an apostrophe to show ownership. You will need to change the word order. (a) the tools belonging to the carpenters

(b) the practice of the team

(c) the secret of Mr Jones

e

(d) the disaster of the week

Circle the correct words in each sentence.

sa m

7.

pl

(e) the tails belonging to the cats

(a) When its/it’s going to rain, my cat wipes its/it’s paws over its/it’s ears. (b) Whose/who’s inline skates are those? (c) I think they’re/their Brent’s.

in g

(d) It’s/Its sad the kitten has to leave its/it’s mother. (e) I’m not sure whose/who’s coming to my party. (f)

Punctuate these sentences using quotation marks, commas, question marks, capital letters and exclamation marks.

ew

8.

They’re/Their teacher said they’re/there all going on school camp.

(a) The worried mother said I’ve looked everywhere but I just cant find Emma.

Vi

(b) have you looked in the woodbridge library her friend suggested I know she loves to look at the picture books there. (c) Of course I have answered the distraught mother what can I do now (d) perhaps we should ask jill smith to help us she knows lots of people living in this area jane replied 9.

Add brackets where needed. (a) The charity group estimated it had raised over a thousand euro €1000 with its annual appeal. (b) Sonia O’Sullivan an Irish athlete has won many medals. (c) Uncle Jack my mother’s relative became interested in cricket at a very young age. (d) My grandfather a very wise man advised me to study engineering at university. (e) My grandmother’s roses her pride and joy won a prize in the local flower show. (f)

Please leave your writing implements pencils and pens on the desk when you go outside.

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Narrative – 2

The old farmhouse ANALYSIS A narrative describes a series of events and circumstances, often involving fictitious characters.

The old farmhouse

e

Read this narrative.

sa m

pl

I awoke early, disturbed by the sunlight pouring through the window. There were no curtains, only spider webs in the corners, throwing shadows across the ledge. The paint was cracked and peeling along the wooden frame. The house was quiet. I didn’t move, suddenly remembering. We had arrived late the night before. It had been a long journey, taking all day. I cast my eye around the room. It was an obstacle course of boxes, containing our meagre belongings, waiting to be unpacked.

in g

My mind started to clear. It was coming back to me now. I threw off the bedcovers and stood on my toes, chin on the window ledge, my nose against the grubby glass. I smelled the dust. It filled my lungs and caught my breath, suffocating me. How long had it been since someone had lived in this house?

ew

I peered thorough the window, eyes squinting, trying to focus. The old gate hung on one rope, creaking against the wind. Neglected. Just the sand blowing across the yard for company. Tumbleweed was trapped on the old wire fence, long fallen over and trampled disrespectfully, probably by wild animals. We had seen many kangaroos and wallabies the night before, feeding on the side of the road on grain that had spilled from trucks travelling north. My sister stirred in the bed beside me.

Vi

‘What are you looking at?’ She asked.

‘It looks awful’, I moaned. ‘So dry and dusty.’

She swung her legs over the side of the bed and stood beside me.

Taller, her auburn hair cascaded down her back. I thought how pretty she appeared in the sunlight. For a moment there was silence. I felt her arm on my shoulder. Tender. Then with a gentle shove, she laughed. ‘Come on, sis. Let’s go and explore. We’ll find a way to cheer up this place.’

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Speaking and listening

ANALYSIS

Partner activity Discuss the effect this story has on you. How does it make you feel? Describe some of the emotions you experience. Write down keywords that describe these feelings.

2.

Why do you think the girls are at the farmhouse? What circumstances could have brought them to this place? Discuss and choose three possibilities to write below

3.

What does the phrase ‘our meagre belongings’ mean to you? What does it tell you about the characters in the story? Jot down some key points from your discussion.

in g

sa m

pl

e

1.

Group activity

How do you think the girls will ‘cheer up this place’? Brainstorm and list some ideas.

ew

4.

Vi

Structure of a narrative

This narrative has:

A title:

Indicates what the story is about.

Attracts the reader’s attention.

Orientation:

WHO – main character, possibly minor characters are introduced WHERE – the setting or location WHEN – the time

Initiating event:

WHAT – starts the action

Complication:

Is the problem which involves the main character.

Resolution:

How the problem is solved.

Conclusion:

Tells how the story ends.

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ANALYSIS

Structure of a narrative

Read the story The old farmhouse again and answer these questions.

What information does the title give?

ORIENTATION:

Who are the characters?

sa m

Where does the story take place?

pl

e

TITLE:

What event starts the story?

ew

INITIATING EVENT:

in g

When does the story occur?

What is the main problem confronting the character?

Vi

COMPLICATION:

150

RESOLUTION:

How will the problem be solved?

CONCLUSION:

What happened in the end?

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Reading

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading for information True or false? Highlight the correct answer. 1.

It was noisy in the morning. .............................................................................................

true

false

2.

The girls loved their new home. .......................................................................................

true

false

3.

It was easy to see through the windows. ........................................................................

true

false

4.

The family had many personal belongings. ......................................................................

true

false

5.

The girls shared a bedroom. .............................................................................................

true

false

Reading for understanding The journey had taken all day. What does this tell you about their destination and how they had travelled there?

2.

Why do you think the girls had taken this journey? Give some possible reasons.

3.

In which country and what part of the country do you think this story takes place? Give reasons.

4.

Where do you think the trucks were travelling to and why?

5.

How do you think the girls were feeling?

Vi

ew

in g

sa m

pl

e

1.

Applying your knowledge 1.

What do you think these statements mean? (a) I cast my eye around the room.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

(b) It was an obstacle course of boxes.

What do you think the sister was thinking when she put her arm on the writer’s shoulder?

3.

Describe the personality of the girl’s sister.

sa m

pl

e

2.

Vocabulary 1.

Use a dictionary to find the meaning of these words.

in g

(a) meagre (b) suffocate

(d) cascade 2.

ew

(c) auburn

Rewrite these sentences, changing the highlighted word so that the meaning is still the same.

Vi

(a) It looks awful:

(b) It was so dry and dusty: (c) The old gate hung on one hinge, creaking against the wind.

(d) My sister stirred in the bed beside me.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

3.

Make up a crossword puzzle using these words. dust

boxes

web

window

wallaby

Down

sa m

pl

e

Across

bed

Abbreviations

An abbreviation is a shortened or incomplete word sometimes formed by using the initial letters of a group of words. JP – Justice of the Peace

in g

For example: 4.

(a) Find out what these abbreviations represent:

ew

(i) ASAP (ii) DOB

(iii) ETA

Vi

(iv) GPO (v) GST

(vi) ISBN

(vii) WHO (viii) MP (ix) RSVP (x) OHMS (b) List some other abbreviations you know, then ask a partner to solve them.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

Many shortened forms are used when advertising real estate. For example:

2 br. unit means a two bedroom unit mod. kit. and bath means a modern kitchen and bathroom.

5.

(a) Rewrite this advertisement for a house in full detail.

(b) Write an advertisement for your home using as many shortened forms as possible. Ask a partner to check if he/she could understand it.

Vi

ew

in g

sa m

pl

e

Modern 2 yo house featuring 4 brms (2 dble). Lge kit/meals area o/looking pleasant c/yard with w/feature. Sec dble gge off row. 1 1/2 Bthrms. R/c air/sec/outdoor bbq. Lge block. Good loc. €245K o.n.o.

Eponyms

An eponym is a word that originates from a person’s name or the name of a place. For example:

6.

braille – from Louis Braille (the French inventor).

Explain where these eponyms originated. (a) banksia

(b) biro

(c) leotard

(d) pavlova

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Vocabulary

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

(e) morse code

(f)

sandwich

(g) teddy

Research to find more eponyms and ask a partner to find their origins.

sa m

pl

e

7.

in g

Spelling

Prefixes

A prefix is a word-part added at the beginning of a word to alter the meaning or make a new word. un is a prefix meaning ‘not, opposite, reverse’.

ew

For example:

The general rule concerning a prefix is to simply add it to the word. For example:

Vi

Antonyms

clean – unclean, able – unable.

Antonyms are words with opposite meanings. 1.

2.

Write antonyms of these words from the narrative by adding un. (a) packed

(b) wrapped

(c) disturbed

(d) clear

(e) trampled

(f)

explored

List ten extra words that can be altered to mean the opposite by adding un. Hint: Check your dictionary for correct spellings.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

There are several other prefixes which can be used to give the opposite meaning when added to words. For example:

antiperspirant, contradict, counteract, illegible, impolite, invisible irregular, non-stick.

Find a word using each of the above prefixes to form an antonym.

4.

Choose anti, counter or non to change these words to their opposites. Write them below.

pl

e

3.

toxic

(b)

climax

(d)

freeze

(e)

fiction

(f)

social

(g)

sense

(h)

clockwise

(i)

sign

(j)

act

(k)

attack

(l)

septic

stop

(b)

in g

(a)

(c)

sa m

(a)

(c) (e)

ew

(g) (i)

Vi

(k)

(d) (f) (h) (j) (l)

Suffixes

A suffix is a word-part added at the end of a word to alter its meaning or form. Most suffixes consist of one syllable. The suffix ing means continuous action. For example:

5.

156

walking, talking

(a) List ten words from the narrative which end in ing, meaning continuous action.

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Spelling

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

(b) List the verb (doing word) from which each is derived. Hint: Remember, if the verb ends in e, the e is dropped before adding ing.

6.

The suffix ed indicates past tense, finished with or having. This narrative has been written in the past so it has many words with the suffix ed.

e

For example: cascaded, trampled, neglected.

sa m

pl

(a) Write a sentence using each of these words.

1.

in g

2.

3.

ew

(b) Look at these words – wrapped, stirred, planned, skidded and patted. Explain the rule for adding ed to these words.

Vi

Go back to page 8 if you have forgotten the spelling rule.

Rule

To add a suffix to a word ending with a y following a consonant, change the y to i. This rule does not apply to suffixes beginning with the letter i (e.g. ing, ish, ist) because in English we seldom write ii. For example:

7.

marry

married

marries

marrying

occupy

occupied

occupies

occupying

Add ed, er, est or ful to these words. (a) heavy

(b)

pity

(c) busy

(d)

silky

(e) reply

(f)

plenty

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

8. Add ing or ish to these words. (a) hurry

(b)

copy

(c) baby

(d)

lobby

(e) boy

(f)

shy

Rule Words ending in our omit the u before adding ous and words ending in ous omit the u before adding ity. curious

curiosity

glamour

glamorous

e

For example:

pl

9. Add ous or ity to these words. (b)

odour

(c) vigour

(d)

vapour

(f)

humour

sa m

(a) monstrous

(e) generous

LANGUAGE FEATURES

in g

Adjectives

Adjectives are words which enhance or change the meaning of nouns or pronouns. For example:

the dusty old house sad, lonely me

Choose one positive and one negative adjective to express your opinion of each of the following nouns.

Vi

1.

ew

Good writers choose the adjectives they use carefully to convey their intended meaning.

Positive

Negative

(a) football

(b) dancing

(c) classical music (d) reading 2.

Adjectival phrases

(a) Which is the road to Tipperary?

An adjectival phrase is a group of words describing a noun or pronoun.

(b) The man with a grey beard teaches science.

For example:

(c) I bought a pair of shoes with coloured laces.

The boy with the red shirt played well. You without a hat, go inside.

158

Underline the adjectival phrase in each sentence.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Adjectival clauses An adjectival clause is a group of words, including a verb, used to describe a noun or a pronoun. For example:

The girl standing by the window is my sister. Not knowing what to do, I panicked. Not wanting to be late, I ran all the way to school.

3.

Underline an adjectival clause in each sentence. (a) The boy who lost his boots was unable to play football. (b) The plums I bought from the orchard were delicious. (c) My mother who hates spiders screamed loudly.

sa m pl e

(d) The restaurant where we intended to meet was closed.

(e) The old door which needs oiling made a squeaking noise. (f)

The farm where I grew up is quite close to town.

(g) The lady whose bag was stolen complained to the police.

Comparatives and superlatives

Look closely at these three sentences to understand that adjectives have three degrees for comparison. My brother is old. (positive)

His father is older. (comparative)

His grandfather is the oldest. (superlative)

Vi ew in g

The first sentence is about one man.

The second sentence compares two men.

The third sentence compares more than two men. Many words use the pattern of:

er for the comparative and est for the superlative.

However there are exceptions: •

Some words of two syllables and those of three or more syllables use the words more and most. For example:

more careful

most careful

more responsible

most responsible

Some words change totally. For example:

well good

better

best

bad

worse

worst

much many

more

most

a little

less

least

far

farther further

farthest furthest

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LANGUAGE FEATURES 4.

Complete this table. Positive

Comparative

(a)

Superlative

louder

(b)

prettiest

(c)

capable

(d)

happy

(e)

ugliest

(f)

slim

(g)

irritable

(h) intelligent

(j)

few

less

(k) (l)

sa m

busier

pl

(i)

e

most doubtful

wonderful

(m)

more beautiful

5. Add the correct adjective to complete each sentence. tall

(b) He is

lazy

than his brother

(d) His painting was judged the

(f)

frightened

Vi

(e) I am

Her marks were the

(g) Your trainers are (h) That boy is My shirt is

(j)

My mother is the

160

of snakes than spiders. in the class.

bad

than mine.

smelly

than I. than Brad’s.

cool

(k) That teacher is the (l)

in the art competition.

good

hungry

(i)

yesterday.

stormy

ew

(c) The weather was

girl in my class.

in g

(a) I am the

cook.

good

at our school.

popular

The driver of the sports car is

The English workbook

impatient

than Dad.

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Activities

WRITING

Using the five senses When writing a descriptive passage it is helpful to use the five senses to create a vivid picture in the reader’s mind – touch, taste, smell, hearing and seeing. For example: –

‘Who are you?’ she croaked, her mouth suddenly dry.

Hearing

Her ears strained to catch the sound.

Seeing

She squinted, adjusting her eyesight.

Touch

Her hands, cold and clammy ...

Smell

Her nostrils flared as she smelled the acrid smoke.

Write a descriptive sentence for each sense.

e

1.

Taste

sa m

pl

(a) Taste/Mouth

ew

(c) Seeing/Eyes

in g

(b) Hearing/Ears

Vi

(d) Touch/Skin/Hands/Feet

(e) Smell/Nose

Show, don’t tell One of the most frequent traps a beginner narrative writer falls into is that he/she ‘tells’ rather than builds a vivid picture in the reader’s mind. For example: Mary was suddenly filled with fear. Her feet refused to move, rooted to the spot. She wanted to run but was scared, certain she’d be followed. He was hiding in the shadows, waiting to grab her if she did.

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WRITING

Activities

This tells the reader that the character is frightened. It doesn’t show the fear, describe the location or explain why these events are happening. A better example would be: Mary suddenly stopped and froze. Her mouth dry. She tried to call out but her voice failed her. Her words were drowned by the thumping of her heartbeat. She turned. Her ears strained to catch the sound, at the same moment willing the pounding in her chest not to give her away. A faint rustle from the furthest pillar of the building shrouded in darkness caught her attention. She squinted, adjusting her eyesight against the dim light. It’s him! He’s here. The second example makes the readers experience the fear, perhaps reminding them of similar feelings. When writing descriptive passages, avoid phrases and words such as: just then

and so

the reason was

e

because

sa m

pl

These words tell and must be excluded if possible because they will weaken the strength of your work.

Rewrite these sentences so that the reader can see or develop a vivid picture of each image. That is show, don’t tell.

(b) And so Tom decided to take the right-hand return instead of driving straight ahead.

Vi

ew

in g

2. (a) A man in a dark pin-striped suit ran from the shop.

(c) The bird flittered from branch to branch, calling as it went.

(d) On the table was a vase of flowers.

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Writing a narrative

WRITING

Choose a topic from the box below. Plan then write your narrative in full.

The jetty

The old fishing shack

The miner’s hut

A topic of your choice

Title Orientation Characters

e

Setting/Location

pl

Time

sa m

Initiating event

Complication

Vi

ew

What problems or conflicts confront the characters? Why can’t they have what they want? There may be a major difficulty and some minor problems or hurdles to overcome.

in g

What event starts the action and how does it involve the characters?

Resolution

How are the problems resolved?

Conclusion What is the final outcome for the characters?

What was learned from the experience?

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WRITING

Editing and proofreading

When you have completed your story, proofread and edit the story using the following questions as a guide.

Checklist Title of narrative: Title: Does the title indicate what the story is about?..................................................

yes

no

Does it get the attention of the reader? ..............................................................

yes

no

Does the beginning draw readers into the characters’ world? ............................

yes

no

Are the characters believable? ............................................................................

yes

no

Orientation:

yes

no

Does their dialogue fit their personalities? ..........................................................

yes

no

Does the beginning start with conflict? ..............................................................

yes

no

Is the setting suitable for the characters? ...........................................................

yes

no

Does the setting contribute to the mood? ..........................................................

yes

no

Does the time relate to the settings and character? ...........................................

yes

no

Does the conflict result from likely causes?........................................................

yes

no

Is the sequence of events correct? .....................................................................

yes

no

Does the resolution grow naturally from the conflict? ........................................

yes

no

Is the end satisfying to the reader? .....................................................................

yes

no

Have the conflicts been resolved? ......................................................................

yes

no

Do the sentences add variety? ............................................................................

yes

no

Does the description suit the characters, setting, mood etc.? ............................

yes

no

Does the description show rather than tell? .......................................................

yes

no

Does the narrative include descriptive vocabulary? ............................................

yes

no

Have sensory details been included (taste, touch, smell)? .................................

yes

no

Quotation marks for the speakers’ words and dialogue? ....................................

yes

no

Change of paragraph with each change of speaker? ...........................................

yes

no

Capitals letters used correctly? ...........................................................................

yes

no

Full stop and commas used correctly? ................................................................

yes

no

Spelling correct? ..................................................................................................

yes

no

sa m

pl

Do their actions fit their personalities? ................................................................

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e

Structure:

ew

Resolution:

in g

Complication:

Punctuation and spelling: Have you checked the following:

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Test your knowledge

1.

EVALUATION

Choose a title from the box then plan and write a narrative on a separate sheet of paper.

Surprised

My hero

The escape

Outdoor adventure

Cool

The reunion

2. A narrative generally has these parts.

(b) The

describes who, where, when and what.

(c) The

describes the problem(s) facing the main character(s).

(d) The

describes how the problem is solved.

(e) The

tells how the story ends.

What do these abbreviations represent?

sa m

(a) JP

e

indicates what the story is about.

pl

3.

(a) The

(b) ASAP (c) DOB (d) PO

5.

(b) An example is

.

; it originated from .

Write antonyms of these words by adding a prefix. (a) clear (c) wrapped

Vi

(e) regular

ew

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4. (a) A word that originates from a person’s name or the name of a place is called an

(b) clockwise (d) legal (f)

visible

6. Add the suffix ed to these words to form the past 8. Add ful to these words. tense. (a) plenty (a) trap (b) beauty (b) outfit (c) duty (c) trade (d) mercy (d) develop 9. Add ing or ish to these words. 7. Write the base verb for each of these words. (a) party (a) writing (b) boy (b) communicating (c) copy (c) noticing (d) grey (d) pleasing Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

10. Add ous to these words.

11. Add ity to these words.

(a) odour

(a) curious

(b) rigour

(b) generous

(c) glamour

(c) luminous

(d) humour

(d) monstrous

12. Choose one positive and one negative adjective to express your opinion of each of the following nouns.

e

(a) homework

pl

(b) ice-cream

sa m

(c) computers (d) vegetables (e) skateboarding (f)

maths

14. Underline the adjectival clause in each sentence.

in g

13. Underline the adjectival phrase in each sentence.

(a) The teacher I like best has gone on long service leave.

(b) The boy with a broken leg struggled to climb the stairs.

(b) The horse standing in that paddock has a very quiet nature.

(c) Where is the book about trains?

(c) The car I would like to buy is very expensive.

ew

(a) My mother, a fantastic cook, baked some delicious cakes.

Vi

15. Complete the table.

Positive

(a)

Comparative

busy

(b)

fussier

(c) (d)

wealthiest understanding

(e) (f)

worse powerful

(g) (h)

most careful delicious

(i)

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Superlative

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Report – 2

Acne treatment ANALYSIS Reports give facts clearly without unnecessary information or opinions. Read this report.

Acne treatment Introduction

pl

e

Acne is a condition causing frustration and anxiety among many young and some older people. It affects 85% of all teenagers, causing distress and, in some cases, both physical and emotional scars. Thirty per cent of these problems persist through adulthood. Causes

sa m

Acne occurs when sebaceous hair follicles trap sebum, which is the oily substance they produce. Causes include hormone level changes, some environmental or genetic factors and stress. Treatment

in g

There are so many products available that it is difficult to choose. Johns Hopkins University researchers recently examined the information available about 150 different acne drugs. They found that much of the reported information came from research conducted by drug companies interested in promoting their own products. Researchers concluded that there is no definitive answer on how best to treat acne. Choosing appropriate treatment

• •

Vi

ew

To date there is no cure for acne, but there are a variety of treatments that can control events that cause it. Doctors advise that it is worth first trying some of the over-the-counter remedies like glycolic or salicylic acid cleansers. These can dry the skin and an oil-free moisturiser may be needed afterwards. Some benzoyl peroxide products followed by glycolic acid cream can also be effective. Particular products may not work universally, because some people have oily complexions and need drying topical agents, while others need mild medication because their skin is dry. Dermatologists have a variety of treatments available, including: topical creams to help unclog oil ducts, including Retin-A®, Differin® and Azelex® antibacterial creams that can be used alone or in combination with oral antibiotics

anti-inflammatory medication (corticosteroids) that can be injected directly into the inflamed lesion

Accutane®, a controversial drug, with serious side effects, that is used to treat severe disfiguring and cystic acne.

Conclusion There is a confusing array of products and advice available. It is worth trying some of these products, but if they are unsuccessful, a referral to a dermatologist would appear to offer the most hopeful solution.

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ANALYSIS

Speaking and listening

Partner activity 1.

Work with a partner to complete this information chart about what you knew about acne, what you learnt from reading the report and any further information you’d would like to find out.

Topic: Acne Facts we learnt

Vi

ew

in g

sa m

pl

e

Facts we knew

168

Facts we want to know

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Speaking and listening

ANALYSIS

Class activity 2. (a) Share information from your chart with the class and discuss the facts you want more information about.

(b) If other class members are unable to answer your questions, select two questions to research using the Internet, library or health professionals. Share your information with the class.

3.

Prepare a two-minute talk to present to the class on one of the following topics:

dealing with acne

acne: who can help

tips for avoiding acne

skin protection

e

Structure of a report

pl

This report has:

Identifies the subject of the report

Classification:

Provides information about the focus of the report

Description:

What are its causes?

sa m

A title:

Which is the most effective treatment? Where to seek advice? Who can help?

in g

What treatment do they provide? A summary or comment

Conclusion:

Reread the report Acne treatment and answer the questions concerning the information provided.

ew

Title

What is the title of the report?

Does it reflect the information provided in the report?

yes

no

Vi

Why/Why not?

Classification What is the focus of the report?

Description What causes acne?

Is there a cure for acne?

yes

no

Why/Why not?

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ANALYSIS

Structure of a report

Who can provide advice?

What are some possible treatments?

Conclusion What should people with acne do?

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

pl

e

Reading

True or false? Highlight the correct answer.

sa m

Reading for information

Acne can cause both emotional and physical scars.

true

false

2.

Most of the research into acne has been instigated by universities.

true

false

3.

Environmental factors can affect acne.

true

false

4.

Glycolic and salicylic acid cleansers are available only with a prescription.

true

false

5.

AccutaneÂŽ is used to treat only severe acne because it is very expensive.

true

false

6.

All products sold by pharmacies for treating acne are a waste of money.

true

false

ew

in g

1.

Reading for understanding

Explain why acne can cause emotional problems.

2.

Why are teenagers most affected by acne?

3.

Explain what causes acne.

Vi

1.

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Reading

4.

Do you think they will ever find a cure for acne?

yes

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

no

Give reasons for your answer.

5.

What factors affecting acne can not be controlled by a person with acne?

Applying your knowledge 1.

Add some brief statements to this chart providing information about acne. Select information from the report and your own background knowledge and research.

e

ACNE

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Do:

in g

sa m

pl

Facts:

Do not:

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

Collecting compounds The same word can be used in front of each group of words to form either a compound word or words commonly used together. The first one has been completed for you. Use your dictionary to add two more examples. (a)

clip pin

hair

hairbrush

dresser

hairpiece

cut style (b)

shore anemone scape

(c)

sa m

weed

pl

(3)

e

food

conditioner force

(3)

tight

space

(d)

in g

line

how one

(e)

Vi

ew

(3)

thing

where body market out

(5)

smith board mail

(f)

step ball (4)

hill lights path

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Vocabulary

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Magic middles Add a word to the middle of these pairs of words to make two compound words or words commonly found in pairs. The first one has been completed for you.

(b) court

wreck

=

(c) time

mat

=

(d) air

suit

=

(e) arm

lift

=

(f) sun

pot

=

(g) over

scape

=

(h) sticky

measure

=

(i) hand

links

=

(j) home

room

(k) light

wife

(l) wind

saver

(m) piggy

yard

=

service

=

shelf

=

down

=

gown

=

box

=

(s) hay

less

=

(t) finger

file

=

(u) blue

cage

=

(v) bed

eagled

=

(w) some

guard

=

(x) door

work

=

(y) full

light

=

(z) cart

shoe

=

(o) note (p) trade (q) foot

Vi

(r) lamp

= = =

in g

(n) bath

cupboard + boardroom

e

=

sa m

room

pl

board

ew

(a) cup

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

e

13.

pl

14. 15.

sa m

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

in g

23 24. 25.

ew

26. 27. 28. 29.

Vi

30. 31.

The answers to these clues are all nine letter words. After you have solved them, the middle letters of the words will make a phrase important to all writing. 1.

Things to help hold your hair in place

6.

An imaginary place to find fairies and elves

(h

(f

2.

A slender swift dog used in racing

7.

Fuel for cars (p

(g

8.

Electronic apparatus found in most offices,

3. Jewellery for wrists (b

schools and homes (c

4.

A word for love or a kind feeling

9. A cascade (w

(a

10. A word puzzles with clues (c

)

11. A form of media read daily (n

)

)

)

)

5. The first meal of the day (b

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)

) )

) )

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Vocabulary

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

12. A person using any form of transport

23. A prime number between fourteen and

(p

)

13. An emergency vehicle (a

)

eighteen (s

)

24. Cards written and sent by travellers

14. Used to put letters or cards in

25. Used by teachers and pupils to record daily

(e

)

(p

)

15. A copy exactly like the original

26. Another word for lucky

(d

)

16. Three-sided shapes (t

)

17. A personal signature (a

lessons (t

)

(f

)

)

27. Large Australian marsupials

28. A synonym for pretty, nice-looking or scenic

)

)

19. Three-dimensional shapes with round tops and

29. A violent tropical cyclonic storm

)

20. A tree which loses its leaves in autumn

(d

)

(p

)

)

)

Vi

Spelling

)

ew

The mystery phrase is

(c

in g

(f

)

31. Famous, important, a (l figure

22. The most popular or best liked

(h

)

30. A sweet treat popular with most people

21. Documents needed to travel overseas

sa m

bases and straight sides (c

(b

pl

(p

(k

e

18. A tropical fruit, also a compound word

Missing e’s 1.

Three or four e’s have been left out of each word. What are the words and how many e’s are missing? For example: ndl

needle

3

(a) xrcis

(b) dgr

(c) flc

(d) btwn

(e) mssngr

(f)

(g) rfr

(h) vgtabl

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rvrs

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Spelling

WORKING WITH THE TEXT Missing o’s 2.

The words are messing o’s. What are the words? For example:

horror

hrrr

(a) bkwrm

(b)

ccn

(c) ckbk

(d)

spn

(e) flr

(f)

drknb

AR words Choose an ar word from the box to match each definition. necessary

estuary

sanitary

complimentary

mortar

(a) a place of protection

(c) free from dirt or germs

(e) material binding stones or bricks

(g) to disturb persistently

4.

Write each ar word in a sentence to show its meaning.

(a) secretary

(b) February

(c) separate

(d) library

(e) peculiar

176

(b)

sanctuary

an arm or inlet of the sea

(d)

having the same direction

(f)

cannot be dispensed with

(h)

expressing praise

Vi

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in g

sa m

harass

e

parallel

pl

3.

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Spelling

(f) vinegar

(g) burglar

5.

Write five other ar words of more than five letters.

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Confused words Write sentences demonstrating your understanding of these often confused words.

(a) loose, lose

(b) ark, arc

(c) canvas, canvass

(d) choose, chose

(e) confident, confidant

Vi

ew

in g

sa m

pl

e

6.

(f) desert, dessert

(g) dependent, dependant

(h) eligible, illegible

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177


Spelling

(i) ensure, insure

(j) weather, whether

7.

Circle the correctly spelt word.

(a) orthority

authority

althority

(b) burgular

burgler

burglar

(c) scisors

scissers

scissors

(d) seperate

separate

sepirate

(e) dangerous

dangerus

danjerous

(f) caracter

charactor

character

(g) goverment

govament

(h) recieve

receive

(i) autum

ortum

(j) proceed

procede

sa m

pl

e

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

government reseive

autumn

in g

proseed

ew

LANGUAGE FEATURES

Prepositions

Prepositions show the connection between nouns (or pronouns) and the other words in a sentence. Read these sentences. The prepositions are highlighted. Rewrite each sentence using a different preposition.

(a) He kicked the football between the goalposts.

(b) The present is from us.

(c) I phoned my friend before dinner.

178

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1.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

(d) Kate left her basketball behind the change rooms.

(e) Brad planted some tomato seeds among the flowers.

(f) She can’t see without her glasses.

2.

Write sentences using these words as prepositions.

(a) at

(b) beneath

(c) beyond

(d) with

(e) during

(f) past

(g) opposite

Vi

ew

in g

sa m

pl

e

Preposition or adverb?

Some words can be used as prepositions or adverbs. For example:

Jack fell down. (down is an adverb telling where he fell) Jack fell down the steps. (down is a preposition connecting Jack and the steps)

3.

Write a for adverb or p for preposition after each sentence.

(a) The boys jogged past.

(b) The boys jogged past me.

(c) I looked inside the box.

(d) I looked inside.

(e) We drove across the bridge.

(f)

(g) Don’t go too near.

(h) Don’t go too near the animals.

(i) Put your hat on.

(j)

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We drove across.

Put your hat on your head. The English workbook

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Write a sentence using each word as an adverb, then another sentence using it as a preposition.

(a) through

(b) outside

(c) above

(d) along

sa m

Underline the preposition in each sentence.

(a) Take that medicine after you’ve eaten your dinner.

(b) I’m trying to do my homework between my two favourite TV shows.

(c) Please put your rubbish in the bin.

(d) You’ll find your shirt under that pile of clothes.

(e) I would really like to play with the top team.

ew

in g

5.

Vi

WRITING

pl

e

4.

Activity

Descriptions When writing the description section of a report, the information or facts provided change according to the focus of the report, as stated in the classification. For example: When writing about a medical condition, the focus may be on the causes, symptoms and treatment. 1.

Write a description suitable for a report about a medical condition you have some knowledge of; for example, chickenpox, influenza, a fracture. Remember to write facts not opinions and to focus on the causes, symptoms and treatment. Use clear and concise language and appropriate medical terminology. You may need to research some information.

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Activity

WRITING

Classification:

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e

Description:

sa m

Mystery medical condition

2. (a) Write a description of a common medical condition using clear, concise medical terminology. Classification:

Mystery medical condition

Vi

ew

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Description:

(b) Ask another pupil to identify this condition.

(c) Was the condition identified correctly?

(d) Why/Why not?

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181


WRITING

Writing a report

Choose a topic for a report from the box below and use the plan to prepare it. Remember to include facts not opinions. You may need to research to obtain relevant information.

Teenage drivers

Drugs

Obesity in adolescents

Alcohol

Chat rooms

Keywords:

e

Title:

pl

Classification:

sa m

Description (e.g. characteristics, facts, research, causes, history, solutions): •

in g

Vi

ew

Other important facts:

Comment/Conclusion:

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Editing and proofreading

WRITING

After completing your report in full, use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. You will need to self-edit for:

You will need to use a peer editor to:

Spelling

Punctuation

Check sense

Grammar

Sentence structure

Agree that information is factual

Accuracy of information

Checklist Title: Does your report include information concerning:

(a) characteristics? ...............................................................................................

yes

no

(b) facts?...............................................................................................................

yes

no

(c) research? .........................................................................................................

yes

no

(d) causes? ...........................................................................................................

yes

no

(e) history? ...........................................................................................................

yes

no

(f)

yes

no

(g) other facts? .....................................................................................................

yes

no

2.

Have you written facts rather than opinions? .........................................................

yes

no

3.

Are your facts accurate? ..........................................................................................

yes

no

4.

Do you have a con