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The English workbook (Book D) Published by Prim-Ed Publishing 2013 Copyright© Diane Henderson, Rosemary Morris, Jenepher Snell 2007

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ISBN 978-1-84654-642-6 PR–6279

Titles available in this series:

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The English workbook (Book A) The English workbook (Book B) The English workbook (Book C) The English workbook (Book D) The English workbook (Book E) The English workbook (Book F) The English workbook (Book G)

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Published by Prim-Ed Publishing 2013 www.prim-ed.com

Copyright Notice No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by an information retrieval system without written permission from the publisher.

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Introduction

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This workbook is all about procedures, recounts, expositions, narratives and reports. These are called writing formats. There are two units of work based on each format. Completing the exercises in your workbook will help you to understand the five different formats and to learn how to plan and write them yourself. You will be: • discussing and working out the structure of each format • checking that you understand the text by doing some comprehension exercises • working to improve your vocabulary, spelling, punctuation and grammar • practising different writing skills • learning how to check your writing by editing and proofreading • checking how much you have learned by doing a test at the end of each unit.

Procedure – 1

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Remember: Good writers need to think about, plan and review their writing; it doesn’t just happen.

Mini pizza Pages 1–19

Recount – 1

Contents Letter from Singapore Pages 20–39

Text.......................................... 1 Speaking and listening........... 2 Structure of a procedure........ 3

Analysis Pages 20–22

Text ........................................ 20 Speaking and listening......... 21 Structure of a recount.......... 22

Working with text Pages 4–9

Reading................................ 4–5 Vocabulary............................... 6 Spelling................................ 7–9 Suffixes......................... 7–8 Short vowels...................... 8 Consonants....................... 9 Syllables............................ 9

Working with text Pages 23–27

Reading............................ 23–24 Vocabulary............................. 25 Spelling............................ 26–27 Vowels and consonants................ 26–27

Language features Pages 10–12

Verbs.................................10–12 Command verbs.............. 10 Verbs – tense.............. 11–12

Language features Pages 28–32

Nouns.................................... 28 Proper nouns......................... 29 Recognising nouns............... 30 Conjunctions................... 30–32

Writing Pages 13–17

Review procedures............... 13 Activities................................ 14 Writing a procedure.........15–16 Editing and proofreading..... 17

Writing Pages 33–36

Review recounts................... 33 Activities................................ 34 Writing a recount.................. 35 Editing and proofreading..... 36

Evaluation Pages 18–19

Test your knowledge.......18–19

Evaluation Pages 37–39

Test your knowledge...... 37–39

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Analysis Pages 1–3

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Contents Exposition – 1 Hats

Narrative – 1

Pages 40–58

Beach cricket Pages 59–75

Text ........................................ 40 Speaking and listening......... 41 Structure of an exposition... 42

Analysis Pages 59–61

Text ........................................ 59 Speaking and listening......... 60 Structure of a narrative........ 61

Working with text Pages 43–47

Reading............................ 43–44 Vocabulary............................. 45 Spelling............................ 46–47 ‘e’ sound.......................... 46 Question words............... 47

Working with text Pages 62–66

Reading............................ 62–63 Vocabulary............................. 64 Spelling............................ 65–66 There and Their................ 65 They’re............................. 66

Language features Pages 48–51

Punctuation..................... 48–51 Question marks......... 48–50 Apostrophes for ownership.................. 50–51

Language features Pages 67–69

Writing Pages 52–55

Activities..........................52–53 Writing an exposition........... 54 Editing and proofreading..... 55

Writing Pages 70–74

Evaluation Pages 56–58

Test your knowledge...... 56–58

Evaluation Page 75

Activities................................ 70 Planning a narrative....... 71–73 Editing and proofreading..... 74

Pages 76–93

Test your knowledge............ 75

Procedure – 2

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Adjectives........................ 67–68 Punctuation: commas........... 69

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Report – 1 Dolphins

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Analysis Pages 40–42

Getting to school Pages 94–114

Text ........................................ 76 Speaking and listening......... 77 Structure of a report............. 78

Analysis Pages 94–96

Text ........................................ 94 Speaking and listening......... 95 Structure of a procedure...... 96

Working with text Pages 79–85

Reading............................ 79–80 Vocabulary....................... 81–82 Spelling............................ 83–85 Plurals........................ 83–84 The ‘F’ sound................... 85

Working with text Pages 97–103

Reading............................ 97–98 Vocabulary..................... 99–100 Spelling......................... 101–103 Suffixes.................. 101–103

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Analysis Pages 76–78

Language features Pages 86–88

Prepositions.................... 86–88

Language features Pages 104–109

Verbs.................................... 104 Adverbs........................105–109 Adverbs of place .............................. 105–106 Adverbs of time...........106–107 Adverbs of manner......108–109

Writing Pages 89–91

Activities................................ 89 Writing a report..................... 90 Editing and proofreading..... 91

Writing Pages 110–111

Writing a procedure.............110 Editing and proofreading.... 111

Evaluation Pages 92–93

Test your knowledge...... 92–93

Evaluation Pages 112–114

Test your knowledge....112–114

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Contents Recount – 2

The beach Pages 115–131

Exposition – 2

Save Lake Wilson Pages 132–145

Text .......................................115 Speaking and listening........116 Structure of a recount.........117

Analysis Pages 132–134

Text ...................................... 132 Speaking and listening....... 133 Structure of an exposition ...................................... 134

Working with text Pages 118–122

Reading..........................118–119 Vocabulary.................... 119–121 Spelling.........................121–122 Changing short vowels to long vowels... 121 Double consonants........ 122

Working with text Pages 135–138

Reading.........................135–136 Vocabulary....................136–137 Spelling.........................137–138 Long ‘e’ sounds.....137–138 Long ‘a’ sounds........... 138

Language features Pages 123–125

Collective nouns..........123–124 Pronouns......................124–125

Language features Pages 139–140

Punctuation......................... 139 Capital letters...................... 140

Writing Pages 126–128

Activities.............................. 126 Writing a recount................ 127 Editing and proofreading... 128

Writing Pages 141–143

Activities.............................. 141 Writing an exposition......... 142 Editing and proofreading... 143

Evaluation Pages 129–131

Test your knowledge....................129–131

Evaluation Pages 144–145

Test your knowledge...144–145

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Narrative – 2 Princess Sophie and the Prince

Pages 146–166

Text ...................................... 146 Speaking and listening....... 147 Structure of a narrative...... 148 Reading.........................149–150 Vocabulary....................151–153 Spelling.........................153–154

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Working with text Pages 149–154

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Analysis Pages 146–148

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Analysis Pages 115–117

Report – 2 Skateboarding Pages 167–185

Analysis Pages 167–169

Text ...................................... 167 Speaking and listening....... 168 Structure of a report....168–169

Working with text Pages 170–176

Reading.........................170–171 Vocabulary....................172–173 Spelling.........................173–176 Long vowel sounds... 173–174 Plurals....................... 174–175 Words ending in ‘o’... 175–176

Language features Pages 155–160

Adjectives.....................155–156 Punctuation: Paragraphs...................156–158 Direct speech................159–160

Language features Pages 177–178

Prepositions in a sentence.......................177–178

Writing Pages 161–164

Activities.......................161–162 Writing a narrative.......162–163 Editing and proofreading... 164

Writing Pages 179–182

Activities.............................. 179 Planning a report................ 180 Writing a report................... 181 Editing and proofreading... 182

Evaluation Pages 165–166

Test your knowledge...165–166

Evaluation Pages 183–185

Test your knowledge...183–185

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Procedure – 1

Mini pizza ANALYSIS

Read the procedure for making mini pizzas.

Preparation time: Cooking time:

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Mini pizza

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This procedure explains how to do something. The main purpose is to direct, inform or explain.

20 minutes 12 minutes

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Ingredients: 6 long bread rolls pinch dried basil 100 g butter, melted 300 g grated Mozzarella cheese 1 teaspoon dried oregano 2 peppers finely diced 1 cup tomato puree 200 g ham diced 1 tablespoon tomato paste pinch sugar 1 x 225 g can pineapple pieces, drained

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Method 1. Preheat oven to 200 ÂşC. 2. Cut rolls in halves lengthways and brush both cut sides with melted butter. 3. Combine tomato puree and paste, herbs and sugar and spread on rolls. 4. Add grated cheese, diced peppers, ham and pineapple on top. 5. Bake for 12 minutes or until golden brown. 6. Serve hot.

Taste and enjoy!

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ANALYSIS

Speaking and listening

A recipe is a list of instructions which tell how to prepare food. Instructions are very common in our lives. We hear and read them daily. Partner activity 1. (a) Discuss instructions you have heard today. Complete the table below telling what the instruction was, who gave it and where you heard it. BY WHOM

WHERE

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INSTRUCTION

At school At school

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At home

(b) Choose one instruction from the list above and tell your partner exactly how to do this activity.

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At home

Make sure that your instructions are: very clear

short

complete and include all the steps in the correct order

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2. Ask your partner to choose an activity and to tell you how to do it.

My partner told me: How to

The instructions:

were clear..........................................

yes

no

made sense.......................................

yes

no

were short..........................................

yes

no

included all the steps.........................

yes

no

were in the correct order...................

yes

no

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Structure of a procedure

ANALYSIS

Structure

A goal:

Requirements:

Steps:

Test:

This is at the beginning and tells us what is to be done. These are items needed to complete a task. This is a list, in order, of what you must do. Was the task completed successfully?

Goal What does this procedure tell us?

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Requirements What items do you need to complete this task?

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Steps The order of the steps in a procedure can be very important. Colour the task you would do first. Brush the bread.

OR

Cut the rolls in halves.

(b) Spread the paste on the bread.

OR

Preheat the oven.

(c)

Add the cheese.

OR

Mix herbs, sugar and paste.

(d)

Dice the peppers.

OR

Add ham, peppers and pineapple.

(e)

Bake for 12 minutes.

OR

Serve hot.

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(a)

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1. Reread the procedure for making mini pizzas. Answer the questions.

Test How will you know if you have followed the procedure correctly?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Reading for information True or false? Colour the correct answer. true

false

2. This recipe uses both tomato paste and tomato puree.

true

false

3. You need to turn the oven on before you start to make the pizzas.

true

false

4. This recipe will make six mini pizzas.

true

false

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1. You need to cook these pizzas for 20 minutes.

5. The cheese must be grated before you add it to the pizzas.

Reading for understanding

true

false

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Use complete sentences to explain your answers to these questions. 1. Would these pizzas be suitable to make with a class at school? Explain your answer.

(a) (b)

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(c)

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2. What are three things that pupils could learn in cooking class?

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3. Do you think eating pizza is good for your health? answer.

Explain your

4. (a) Which country is known for making pizza?

(b) Name another popular food from this country.

5. (a) Do you like cooking?

(b) Name some foods that you have cooked.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading Applying your knowledge 1. (a) What is your favourite food?

(b) Can you make it yourself? yes

no

(e) Can you make it yourself? yes

(c) Is it healthy?

no

(f) Explain why you like it.

yes

because

2. (a) Do you enjoy cooking?

(b) Who does most of the cooking in your house?

(c) Who do you think is the best cook you know?

Why?

is the best cook because

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I like

no

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(d) What is your favourite healthy food?

3. (a) Name two things you like about cooking.

(b) What are two things you dislike about cooking?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

1. Use your dictionary to find the meaning of these words.

(a) melt

(b) dice

(c) oregano

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(d) puree

p

e

p

p

e

r

u

c

g

r

a

t

e

c

u

d

e

f

g

i

h

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p

u

r

e

e

d

m

o

z

z

a

e

j

k

l

l

p

a

t

b

r

2. Find the words in the word search.

b

a

b

a

s

r

s

u

e

o

i

g

r

e

l

l

a

m

i

s

l

n

r

s

t

e

e

s

o

p

e

a

d

o

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sugar rolls pepper cheese basil dried grate cup paste puree bread mozzarella oven melt

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3. Unscramble the letters in these words to name equipment found in the kitchen. Each one contains an extra letter. The extra letters spell out something you can eat.

(a) NZOSOP

s

(b) PPCU

c

(c) SGSZLA

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(d) ENKIFI

k

(e) KRAFO

f

(f) The extra letters are

The word is

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(g) What can you eat? Draw the picture.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

Suffixes

A suffix is a group of letters attached to the end of a word. For example:

test tests tested tester testing

Rule

The general spelling rule for adding a suffix to a word is simply to add it.

1. Add suffixes to these words.

(b)

spread

(c)

add

(d)

cook

(e)

brown

(f)

mix

(g)

clean

(h)

enjoy

(i)

pinch

(j)

roast

(k)

brush

ed

ing

est

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boil

er

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(a)

s/es

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Word

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Sometimes adding a suffix is more complicated and there are spelling rules to help you.

RULE

When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel (ing, er, est, ed) to a word ending with a silent e, drop the e.

For example:

A simple way to remember part of this rule is:

e

hope hoping

make making

goes away when ing comes to stay.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

2. Use the rule to add ing to these words. (a) grate

(b) dice

(c) halve

(d) combine

(e) taste

(f) bake

(g) serve

(h) decide

(i) paste

(j) perpare

(l) save

(k) take

dice

(b)

bake

(c)

taste

(d)

serve

(e)

combine

(f)

decide

(g)

halve

(h)

grate

(i)

save

ed

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(a)

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Word

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3. Use the rule to add er and ed to these words.

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Short vowels 4. Read these words with the five different short vowel sounds and add one of your own.

(a) cat

bad

track

(b) pet

bed

bread

(c) fit

trick

six

(d) hot

sock

model

(e) bus truck

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

Consonants Any letter of the alphabet except a, e, i, o, u is called a consonant. 5. (a) Use two of these consonants and a short vowel sound to make as many words as you can. t m s n d f h b o

u

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i

(b) How many words did you make?

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a

Syllables

Words are made up of syllables or parts. Each syllable must contain a vowel sound. Words may have one or more syllables. Saying the word slowly and clapping each part helps to spell the word.

For example:

bread (one syllable) tomato (three syllables)

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6. Find words from the procedure with: 1 syllable

2 syllables

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4 syllables

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Verbs Verbs are doing words and decide an action. For example: sit

run

hop

Action verbs telling someone to do something are called commands.

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For example: Add the eggs. Write your name. 1. Underline the command verbs.

Butter the bread.

Make a cake. Cook a pizza.

Slice the tomatoes.

Wash the dishes.

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Eat the sandwich.

2. Match each command verb to a suitable noun (naming word).

(f) Chop

the eggs.

(g) Drain

the flour.

the dishes.

(h) Roll

the pastry.

the cake.

(i) Add

the carrots.

the meat.

(j) Boil

the rice.

(a) Stir

the salad.

(b) Cook

the sauce.

(c) Turn

(d) Toss

(e) Wash

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Writing commands using command verbs 3. Read these command verbs and choose a suitable one for each sentence. Don’t forget the capital letters.

cut

grate bake add

(a)

the cheese.

(b) half.

the rolls in

(c)

the ham.

(d) ten minutes.

the pizza for

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serve dice eat

(e) while hot.

the pizzas

(f) ham.

the diced

(g)

the pizza.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Verbs – tense

Verbs can change according to WHEN an action

is happening

I cook

present tense

will happen

I will cook

future tense

has already happened

I cooked

past tense

(a) I will open the oven door.

tense

(b) She made a pizza.

tense

(c) Rebecca likes to eat cakes.

(d) My mother cooked scones for afternoon tea.

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1. Read each sentence and decide if the action is happening now (present tense), will happen (future tense) or has already happened (past tense).

tense

tense

(e) The children love cooking lessons.

tense

(f) They will visit the bakery.

tense

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Changing verbs from present to past Adding the suffix ed to words is the most common way of changing the tense from present to the past. Present Past

For example:

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cook cooked bake baked

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2. Change these verbs from the present to the past by adding ed. See the spelling rule on page 7. Present

Past

Present

(a)

drain

(g)

grate

(b)

mix

(h)

halve

(c)

wash

(i)

combine

(d)

add

(j)

serve

(e)

melt

(k)

bake

(f)

brush

(l)

taste

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Past

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Past tense Many verbs are changed from the present tense to the past tense by adding ed, but there are some verbs that look quite different. present tense

past tense

present tense

past tense

write, writes

wrote

bring, brings

brought

come, comes

came

think, thinks

thought

buy, buys

bought

see, sees

saw

take, takes

took

run, runs

ran

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Read these:

3. Circle the correct verb in each sentence. (a) My sister took/takes me to see a film last Saturday.

(b) Juan can write/wrote an interesting story.

(c) A new girl comes/came to our school on Friday.

(d) Dad walks into the shop and bought/ buys Ben an ice-cream.

(e) Yesterday James runs/ran home from school.

(f) Chloe thinks/thought she is a very fast runner.

(g) John takes/took his football and went home.

(h) I can see/saw my school from here.

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4. Write sentences using these past tense verbs.

(a)

slept were threw swam

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(b)

(c)

(d) (e)

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WRITING

Review procedures

Text organisation

Language features

A procedure has: A goal

A procedure uses: Short clear statements

A list of requirements

Steps to follow

A test to measure success

Text organisation

Command verbs

Present tense

Mini pizza

Title summarises the goal

6 long bread rolls 250 g melted butter 1 teaspoon dried oregano 1 cup tomato purée 1 tablespoon tomato paste pinch sugar pinch dried basil 500 g grated mozzarella cheese 2 peppers, diced 250 g ham, diced 1 x 225 g can pineapple, drained

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Method

Test

Language features

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Ingredients:

Equipment and requirements

Steps

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1. Preheat oven to 200 °C. 2. Cut rolls in halves lengthways and brush both sides with melted butter. 3. Combine tomato puree, paste, herbs and sugar and spread on rolls. 4. Add grated cheese, diced peppers, ham and pineapple on top. 5. Bake for 12 minutes or until brown. 6. Serve hot.

Command verbs often begin each sentence. Short, clear statements Use of present tense

Taste and enjoy!

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WRITING

Activities

Writing statements Procedural text depends on short and clear statements. For example:

Remove the milk from the refrigerator and pour enough to fill one cup and then add it to the mixture.

should read – Add one cup of milk.

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1. Change these sentences into short, clear, concise statements. Record the number of words used.

(a) Before you start to cook, you will need to turn on the oven by setting the dial to 180 ºC.

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words)

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(

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(

words)

(e) When all ingredients are mixed together so that there are no air bubbles, place the mixture in a large baking pan.

words)

(d) Mix the self-raising flour and the plain flour together in a large mixing bowl before adding the dried oregano, basil, mint and rosemary.

(

(c) In a medium-sized mixing bowl place eggs, half a cup of milk and one cup of sugar and then stir.

words)

(b) Place the bread rolls on a breadboard and cut along their length with a sharp knife.

(

(

words)

(f) The cake will be ready to eat after it has been in a hot oven set at a temperature of 180 ºC and cooked for forty-five minutes.

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Writing a procedure

WRITING

The children in Class 1 have bought the ingredients to make crumpets. Unfortunately their teacher has lost the notes explaining the steps. Read the ingredients and help the class by writing in order the method you think they would need to follow to successfully make crumpets.

CRUMPETS 1 cup self-raising flour

½ teaspoon bicarbonate of soda

2 tablespoons sugar

1 egg

½ cup milk

60 g butter

Method:

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Ingredients

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Test:

How will you know if your steps are correct?

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WRITING

Writing a procedure

Use the plan below to write a procedure of a recipe of your choice. It is important not to copy from a cookery book. Write something from memory or make it up.

TITLE:

GOAL: (What you need to do)

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STEPS: (What you need to do)

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REQUIREMENTS: (Things you’ll need)

TEST: (How you’ll know if your procedure is successful)

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Editing and proofreading

Editing and proofreading are very important parts of writing. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your procedure. You will be self editing for:

Your partner will edit for:

Spelling Punctuation

Clear instructions

Grammar

Correct order

Sentence structure

Making sense

Capitalisation Verb tense

Checklist

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Title of the procedure:

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WRITING

1. Does your procedure make sense to you?......................................

yes

no

2. Did you include a goal?....................................................................

yes

no

3. Did you list the things you needed?................................................

yes

no

4. Have you included all the steps in the correct order?......................

yes

no

5. Did you add a test to check that your procedure works?.................

yes

no

6. Have you corrected any spelling errors? (a) Did you check that your words look right?...............................

yes

no

(b) Did you use a dictionary?.........................................................

yes

no

(c) Did you ask someone?.............................................................

yes

no

7. Have you used command verbs?.....................................................

yes

no

8. Are your verbs in the present tense?..............................................

yes

no

9. Are your statements short and clear?.............................................

yes

no

10. Does each sentence make sense when you read it on its own? ..........................................................................................

yes

no

11. Do your statements all start with a capital letter and end with a full stop?...............................................................................

yes

no

12. Ask a partner to read your procedure. (a) Did he or she find it easy to understand?................................

yes

no

(b) Did your partner find any errors?..............................................

yes

no

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge

1. Choose a topic from the box, then plan and write a procedure on a separate sheet of paper. Cooking pasta

Making nachos

Grooming a pet

Cooking rice

Baking a potato

Washing your hair

Playing a game; e.g. hopscotch, snakes and ladders

pl e

Making a sandwich

2. Complete the following statements. Text:

Language:

A procedure uses clear

sa m

A procedure has a goal, a list of

, steps and a

at the end.

statements.

3. Answer these questions.

(a) Why do procedures usually have a list of requirements at the beginning?

in g

(b) When following the steps in a procedure, is order important?

Vi e

no

w

Why?

yes

(c) Why do statements in a procedure need to be short?

(d) Why do statements need to be clear?

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Test your knowledge

4. A suffix is added to the

EVALUATION

of a word.

5. Write each word with the suffix ing added. (a) eat

(b) taste

(c) bake

(d) grate

(e) cook

(f) toss

(g) dice

(h) drain

6. Underline the words with the short vowel sound.

pl e

cup

break

sa m

crack dice ham drain add

hot

7. How many syllables in these words?

(a) pizza

(c) tomato

(e) long

(g) mozzarella

(b) sugar

w

in g

(d) pepper

(f) pineapple

(h) basil

Vi e

8. Underline the command verb in each sentence.

(a) Cook the pasta.

(b) Stir the sauce.

(c) Wash the dishes.

(d) Boil the water.

9. Write present, future or past to indicate the tense of the highlighted verbs.

(a) I enjoy eating pizza.

(b) My mother often made pizza for the family.

(c) This pizza is tasty.

(d) I will try to cook dinner.

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Recount – 1

Letter from Singapore ANALYSIS

pl e

This recount is a retelling of past events in time order. Recounts can be written in the form of a diary, a letter or a newspaper article. Read the following recount.

sa m

Letter from Singapore Dear Jessica,

We arrived in Singapore this afternoon. Everything went smoothly. I enjoyed watching the in-flight film. It was a murder mystery called ‘Insomnia’.

w

in g

The first thing I noticed about Singapore was the smell. It was quite unusual and I am not certain as to its source. It could be the cigarette smoke, then again it could be the cooking smells created from exotic oriental spices. Kylie and Bec noticed it too. Kylie commented that it had a ‘really tropical smell’.

Vi e

After we had checked in at our hotel on Orchard Road, we went for a walk. I was keen to drop our suitcases in the room and go out, but Bec insisted we unpack first. I was a bit annoyed. The streets were fairly busy. It was Sunday evening and many Singaporeans were enjoying a stroll and eating in the street cafes. I was captivated by the sights and sounds. The shops with their bright window fronts and lights were very inviting and I can’t wait to explore. Well Jess, it’s late and I want to get an early start in the morning. I hope you are doing well and studying hard. I’ll write again soon. Lots of love Your sister, Melissa

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Speaking and listening

ANALYSIS

1. Think about a holiday that you enjoyed. Complete the table of information below.

My Holiday Where did you go?

pl e

When did you go?

How long did you stay?

What was the weather like?

sa m

Who went with you?

What are some things that you saw?

in g

What are some things that you did?

What did you enjoy the most?

w

Did you have any problems? What were they?

Vi e

How do you feel about this holiday?

Partner activity Using the notes you have made about your holiday, discuss with a partner what you enjoyed the most.

Here are some possible beginnings for your recount. You may like to choose one.

(a) I would like to tell you about my holiday to ...

(b) The holiday I really enjoyed happened ...

(c) I hope you’ll enjoy this recount about my holiday to ...

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ANALYSIS

Structure of a recount

Structure

A recount has:

A title: Telling: What the recount is about

A setting: Telling: Who the recount is about Where the events happened When the events happened Why the events happened

pl e

The events: Telling: What happened Events are told in the order in which they happened. Each major event is written in a new paragraph.

sa m

An ending and comment: Telling: The ending and what the writer thinks about the events. Read the recount about the holiday in Singapore again. Answer these questions. Title What is the recount about? Setting To whom did she write?

Who went to Singapore?

Why did they go?

in g

Who wrote the letter?

When did they arrive?

w

Events 1. How was the flight to Singapore?

Vi e

2. What did they do on the aircraft? 3. What was the first thing they noticed about Singapore? 4. What did they do after they checked in to the hotel?

5. What did they see on their walk? Ending/Comment What is Melissa’s opinion of Singapore?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Reading for information True or false? Colour the correct answer. true

false

2. Jessica and Melissa are cousins.

true

false

3. The special smell of Singapore could have been something to do with the way the Singaporeans cooked their food.

true

false

true

false

5. Melissa was feeling annoyed because she couldn’t go exploring Singapore as soon as she arrived.

true

false

6. Jessica is a student.

true

false

Reading for understanding

sa m

4. Melissa is travelling with her parents.

pl e

1. Melissa unpacked her bag before she went for a walk.

Use complete sentences to explain your answers to these questions.

in g

1. Do you think Melissa is older than Jessica? Explain why you think this.

w

Vi e

2. Do you think that Melissa has been to Singapore before?

Why do you think this?

3. Melissa told Jessica that she was going to get up early the next morning. Why do you think she wanted to do this? Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

4. Bec insisted that they unpacked their bags before they went for a walk. Why do you think Melissa did what Bec wanted?

5. Do you think you would enjoy a holiday in Singapore?

Explain your answer.

Applying your knowledge

sa m

pl e

2. 3.

Vi e

4.

w

1.

in g

Make a list of five things Melissa liked about her visit to Singapore.

5.

Did you include shopping in your list? What are three differences between shopping in Singapore and in small towns and cities? 1. 2. 3.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary 1. Write all the small words you can find in these words. (a) Singapore

(b) window

(c) everything

(d) captivate

(e) afternoon

sa m

pl e

in g

(f) studying

2. Use a dictionary to find the meanings of these words. (a) insomnia

(b) exotic

Vi e

w

(c) oriental

(d) captivate

(e) cafe

(f) source

(g) spice

3. Unjumble these words from Melissa’s letter.

(a) l m f i

(b) l s l m e

(c) h o s p s

(d) p c u a n k

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

Vowels and consonants There are 26 letters in the English alphabet. 1. (a) Write the alphabet in order.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

(b) Circle the 21 consonants.

sa m

pl e

1.

2. (a) Write the 5 vowels in alphabetical order.

in g

(b) Say the names of these vowels. Their names are long vowel sounds.

(c) Say the short sound of the vowels.

Vi e

w

e.g.

a

as in ant

e

as in egg

i

as in India

o

as in orange

u

as in umbrella

There is at least one vowel sound in every word, but in English there are many different ways of representing these vowel sounds.

For example, the long a sound can be represented many different ways, including:

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6279PR English WB D 20-39.indd 26

a

as in baby

ey

as in they

ai

as in rain

ei

as in rein

a-e

as in made

eigh

as in eight

ay

as in tray

e

as in cafe

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

3. Read these words with long o sounds and circle the letters used to represent the long sound in each word. The first one has been done for you.

(a) s m o k e

(b) r o a d

(c) s h o w

(d) g o

(e) h o p e

(f) m o s t

(g) n o t i c e d

(h) w i n d o w

4. Read these words with long e sounds and circle the letters used to represent the long e sound in each word. (b) r e a l

(d) w e

(e) b e

(g) K y l i e

(h) s t r e e t

(j) f a i r l y

(k) f r e e

(c)

mystery

(f)

keen

(i)

busy

(l)

evening

pl e

(a) t r o p h y

sa m

5. Choose the correct way to represent the long i sound in these words and finish each sentence. i

ie

y

i-e

igh

.

(a) Turn off the l

(b) That dog might b

(c) There wasn’t a cloud in the s

(d) Bob can’t see to read because he is b

(e) Dad bought a new shirt and t

in g

you. .

w

. .

Vi e

6. Choose the correct way to represent the long u sound in these words. ue

u-e ?

(a) Is that story really tr

(b) I think that puppy is very c

(c) He is proud of his shiny n

(d) Try to ch

your food.

(e) I don’t know how to

s

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ew

t

. car.

a computer.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Nouns Nouns are names for people, places and things. Read this passage. The nouns have been highlighted. Julia and Claire enjoy travelling to other countries. They are always keen to learn about the way people live and the things that they do differently. Visiting famous buildings like Buckingham Palace in London or the Eiffel Tower in Paris is also great fun. The girls usually travel during their Christmas holidays.

sa m

pl e

1. (a) List the highlighted nouns as people, places or things. People Places

Things

(b) Underline the noun in each sentence. (i) They were running to school. (place)

Vi e

w

in g

(ii) My mother is waiting for me. (person)

(iv) Where did you leave your new bike? (thing)

(iii) Please close the door. (thing)

(v) Why didn’t she take her raincoat? (thing)

(vi) We all wanted to visit Antarctica. (place)

(c) Some of the highlighted nouns have capital letters. These are called proper nouns. Write the proper nouns.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Proper nouns Proper nouns have capital letters because they are the special names of days, months, people and places. For example: Wednesday, January, Dr Wilson, Japan

(a) melissa, kylie and bec went to singapore.

sa m

(c) It was very busy at changi airport in january.

(d) bec told melissa that her favourite shop was chans in orchard road.

Vi e

in g

(b) The three girls went shopping on tuesday.

w

pl e

2. Circle the proper nouns in these sentences and write each sentence correctly.

(e) The girls went to visit sentosa island and arab street.

(f) melissa returned home and showed jessica her photos of singapore.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Recognising nouns

One way to recognise a noun is to see if you can say a, the or some in front of the word in the sentence.

For example:

I went for a swim.

I can swim fast.

Swim is a noun. Swim is not a noun.

(a) The team likes to train every week.

(b) They catch the train to school.

(c) The children rush into the classroom.

pl e

1. Is the highlighted word a noun? Remember to use the clue. Colour yes or no.

no

yes

no

yes

no

(d) If you leave early you will miss the rush.

yes

no

(e) Can I please have a bit of cake?

yes

no

(f) The monkey bit me.

yes

no

sa m

yes

Conjunctions

Conjunctions are joining words. They are used to join sentences to make one longer sentence.

For example:

in g

Sentence 1:

The girls went for a walk.

Sentence 2:

They unpacked their suitcases.

New sentence (sentence 1 and sentence 2). The conjunctions are highlighted. The girls went for a walk after they unpacked their suitcases. or

Vi e

w

Before the girls went for a walk, they unpacked their suitcases.

1. Underline the conjunctions in these sentences.

(a) I looked for my passport, but I couldn’t find it.

(b) Leave the room key at reception when you are leaving the hotel.

(c) Melissa had to buy new sunglasses because she lost her old ones.

(d) Take an umbrella with you if it looks like rain.

(e) Please wait for me until I have finished writing this postcard.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES 2. Write the two shorter sentences that have been joined with the highlighted conjunctions. Don’t forget capital letters.

(a) Bec wasn’t feeling well so she went to bed.

(b) Finish unpacking your clothes then you may go for a walk.

pl e

(c) You must put a stamp on the postcard before I can post it for you.

sa m

3. Join the two sentences using one of these conjunctions.

(b) Have some afternoon tea. Go back to the hotel.

Vi e

in g

(a) I want you to clean your teeth. You can go to school.

w

while and before then

(c) Let’s go to Sentosa Island. It is still light.

(d) We watched the fireworks. We went to bed.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Conjunctions are sometimes written in the middle of a sentence but they can also be at the beginning.

For example:

Wipe your feet before you come into the house.

Before you come into the house, wipe your feet.

(a) Turn off the lights before you go to bed.

sa m

(b) Please don’t use my shampoo when you wash your hair.

(c) Try not to make a noise while she is having a rest.

in g

pl e

4. Write each sentence starting with the highlighted conjunction. Make sure that your sentence makes sense. Don’t forget the capital letters.

5. Write each sentence with the highlighted conjunction in the middle.

Vi e

w

(a) While the baby was asleep his mother had a rest.

(b) After the important football match the team all went out for dinner.

(c) Until you tidy up your room you cannot watch television.

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WRITING

Review – recounts

Language features

A recount has: A title (tells what the recount is about)

A recount uses: Specific characters

A setting (who, where, when, why)

Simple past tense

Action verbs

Events (in order – first to last)

Conjunctions

Concluding statement or comment

Nouns

Text organisation

sa m

We arrived in Singapore this afternoon. Everything went smoothly. I enjoyed watching the in-flight film. It was a murder mystery called ‘Insomnia’.

Setting

Language features

Simple past tense Specific characters

in g

The first thing I noticed about Singapore was the smell. It was quite unusual and I am not certain as to its source. It could be the cigarette smoke, then again it could be the cooking smells created from exotic oriental spices. Kylie and Bec noticed it too. Kylie commented that it had a ‘really tropical smell’. After we had checked in at our hotel on Orchard Road, we went for a walk. I was keen to drop our suitcases in the room and go out, but Bec insisted we unpack first. I was a bit annoyed.

w

Events

Letter from Singapore Dear Jessica,

Title

pl e

Text organisation

Vi e

The streets were fairly busy. It was Sunday evening and many Singaporeans were enjoying a stroll and eating in the street cafes. I was captivated by the sights and sounds. The shops with their bright window fronts and lights were very inviting and I can’t wait to explore.

Comment

Well Jess, it’s late and I want to get an early start in the morning. I hope you are doing well and studying hard. I’ll write again soon.

Action verbs

Nouns

Conjunctions

Lots of love Your sister, Melissa

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WRITING

Activities

Concluding statements 1. Read each passage and write a suitable brief concluding statement. The first one has been done for you. (a) HOUDINI

Houdini was a famous man who enjoyed freeing himself from chains, handcuffs and from inside packing cases. One day, chained and handcuffed inside a packing case, Houdini was thrown into the New York harbour. It took him fifty-seven seconds to free himself and swim to the surface.

pl e

Concluding statement: I think Houdini was a brave and clever man.

(b) BEETHOVEN

(c) CHARLES DICKENS

sa m

Beethoven, a famous musician and composer, was born in Germany in 1770. As a young man he played the viola but later composed beautiful operas and symphonies. About 1801 he lost his hearing and eventually people could only converse with him by writing notes.

in g

Concluding statement:

Charles Dickens was born in England in 1812. Although his formal education was limited, he became well-known for his writing. While he was still quite young his father was imprisoned and Charles had to work in a factory to help his family. Later he became a journalist. By the time he was twenty-five, Dickens began to write books including The Pickwick papers, Nicholas Nickleby and Oliver Twist.

w

Concluding statement:

Vi e

(d) ITALY

Italy is a country in southern Europe. Its northern border is in the Alps and it extends southwards to the Mediterranean Sea. Italy is well-known for its agriculture, including grapes, olives, fruit, vegetables and sheep. There are many picturesque villages and towns with beautiful buildings.

Concluding statement:

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Writing a recount

WRITING

Choose a topic from the list given. On a separate sheet of paper, plan and write a recount in the form of a letter to a friend.

Camp

Sports day

Swimming gala

Excursion

Meeting a well-known person (e.g. sportsperson, musician)

TITLE:

pl e

SETTING: Who? Where? When? Why?

sa m

EVENTS: 1.

Vi e

4.

w

3.

in g

2.

5.

CONCLUDING STATEMENT/COMMENT: Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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WRITING

Editing and proofreading

After you have written your recount in full, use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. You will be self-editing for:

Your partner will edit for:

Spelling Punctuation

Checking sequence and sense

Sentence structure

Checklist

1. Does your recount include:

sa m

Title of Recount:

pl e

Grammar

(a) Specific characters?.........................................................................

yes

no

(b) Location or setting?.........................................................................

yes

no

(c) Time when the events took place?..................................................

yes

no

(d) Why the events occurred? ..............................................................

yes

no

2. Were your events listed in the correct order?........................................

yes

no

3. Did your recount finish with a concluding comment or statement? ........................................................................

yes

no

4. (a) Have you corrected any spelling errors?..........................................

yes

no

(b) Have you used capital letters and full stops correctly?....................

yes

no

(c) Did you include past tense?.............................................................

yes

no

(d) Did you include action verbs?..........................................................

yes

no

(e) Did you include conjunctions?.........................................................

yes

no

Vi e

w

in g

5. Ask a partner to read your recount.

(a) Did he/she understand the sequence?............................................

yes

no

(b) Does your recount make sense?.....................................................

yes

no

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

1. Choose a topic from the box. On a separate sheet of paper, plan and write a recount in the form of a letter to a friend or relative. A narrow escape

My birthday

The day everything went wrong

The best picnic

My big adventure

I was lost

pl e

2. Complete the following: (a) Text

What is a recount?

sa m

(b) Structure of a recount

A title

A recount has:

in g

(a) The title tells

Vi e

w

3. Complete each sentence.

(b) The setting discusses

and

,

,

the events happen.

(c) The events tell

and

(d) The concluding statement

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge

4. Choose one word from the list for each meaning.

spice

cafe insomnia source

(a) unable to sleep.

(c) a substance of vegetable origin used in cooking to improve the taste or smell

(d) to hold one’s attention by its beauty or excellence

(e) a room or building where coffee and light refreshments are served

sa m

(b) the place from which something comes

pl e

captivate

5. (a) Write one word for each long and short vowel sound. Short

in g

Long a e

o

e i o u

Vi e

u

w

i

a

(i) they

(ii) leg

(iii) mad

(iv) stay

(v) fin

(vi) key

(vii) neigh

(viii) cot

(ix) under

(x) few

(xi) fairly

(xii) flow

(xiii) elf

(xvi) coat

(b) Write L for a word with the long sound and S for the short sound.

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(xiv) ant

The English workbook

(xv) fit

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge

6. (a) Nouns are names for

,

and

.

(b) Which words can be nouns? Put a tick or a cross in the box. cat

Singapore

skip

fly

Jack

jump

aeroplane

Mary

insect

street

Sydney

bowl

March

play eat

pl e

7. Circle the proper nouns in this passage.

Ana and Chin were special friends of Melissa and Bec, who lived near Changi

sa m

Airport. Before they arrived, Melissa had sent an email to Chin to arrange a meeting at the Raffles Plaza near the Raffles Hotel on Wednesday evening. The girls were very excited to meet their friends. When they arrived, Ana had brought along her younger brother, Patrick.

words.

in g

8. (a) Conjunctions are

(b) Circle the conjunctions in these sentences. (i) Mr Chan climbed the ladder and reached for the box.

(ii) The smells came from cigarettes or the cafes.

(iii) Bec had to buy a new bag because her other one was too small.

(iv) Please wait for me until I have finished putting away my clothes.

Vi e

w

9. Write a sentence for each conjunction.

before

while

because

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Exposition – 1

Hats ANALYSIS

pl e

Expositions are written or spoken to persuade others to think or do something. The weather in some countries is a lot hotter and sunnier than ours. The schools in these countries have different rules. Read what the principal of Murray Primary School in Australia said at a school assembly.

sa m

Hats We have a rule about hats at our school. It is, NO HAT, NO PLAY.

in g

But only yesterday I had to speak to a boy and two girls who were in the playground without hats. They all knew the rule, but they were hoping that noone else would see them. One girl even had her hat in her bag. This made me wonder if everyone understands why we have this rule. It is simply to protect your health.

w

The sun is very dangerous for your skin. Skin cancers are common and responsible for many deaths. You’ve all seen the TV ads. They are scary but they are true.

Vi e

Your school hats have been specially designed to offer maximum protection for your face and neck. I know that you all own one and that your parents spent money buying it for you. Now is the time to develop good habits and we hope that if you learn to protect your skin while you’re young, you’ll do so for the rest of your lives. Remember that the sun is at its most dangerous in the middle of the day, at lunchtime when you like to play outside. I hope that you’ll think about what I’ve said and that you’ll make sensible decisions about hats, not only at school, but also during the weekends and in our summer school holidays when we are not there to remind you.

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Speaking and listening

ANALYSIS

Class activity Does your school have a NO HAT, NO PLAY rule?

Compile a list of reasons for and against this rule.

Decide on the three strongest arguments for wearing hats.

Were all three of these arguments mentioned in the principal’s talk?

pl e

Partner activity

With your partner, plan a speech that you might give at your school assembly to persuade pupils to wear their hats.

Remember to:

sa m

Say what you think.

Give some good reasons and arguments.

Finish by restating your opinion.

An exposition tries to persuade others.

How well do you think you did this?

in g

Facts and opinions

It is not always easy to work out the difference between facts and opinions.

The crow is black.

The crow is friendly.

Vi e

w

Read these sentences. One is fact and the other is opinion.

Class activity Compile lists of facts and opinions about wearing hats. 1. (a) Which is fact?

(b) Which is opinion?

(c) Write another fact about crows.

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ANALYSIS

Structure of an exposition Structure

This exposition has:

A title:

An overview:

Reason:

Conclusion:

Tells what the exposition is about Tells what the speaker wants to happen Arguments to persuade people Final comment and summing up

pl e

Read the principal’s talk about hats again. Answer the questions.

sa m

Title What is the principal talking about?

Overview What does the principal want pupils to do?

Reasons 1. Why does the principal think that children do not understand?

in g

2. Why does the school have this rule?

Vi e

w

3. Why is the sun so dangerous?

4. What are the school hats designed to do?

5. When is the sun most dangerous? 6. Why is it important to develop the habit of wearing a hat?

Conclusion What does the principal hope the children will decide?

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Reading

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading for information True or false? Colour the correct answer. true

false

(b) All the children at this school have school hats......................................

true

false

(c) The most dangerous time to go out in the sun is the middle of the day................................................................................................

true

false

(d) The principal doesn’t care if the children wear hats during the holidays.............................................................................................

true

false

(e) The principal wants the children to make wise decisions for themselves........................................................................................

true

false

Reading for understanding

sa m

pl e

(a) The principal saw two boys and one girl not wearing their hats.............

Use complete sentences to explain your answers to these questions. (a) Do you think the principal is more concerned about children breaking a school rule or knowing how to look after their health?

in g

Explain why you think this.

w

Vi e

(b) Do you wear a hat when you play outside? Why?

(c) What is one rule in your school? (d) Why is it important to learn good habits when you are young?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Applying your knowledge (a) Do you think it is important for pupils at your school to understand why a rule was made?

Explain your answer.

pl e

sa m

(b) If you could change any rule at your school, what would you change and why? Rule: Change: Why?

in g

(c) What is one good rule you have at your school?

Vi e

w

(d) Why do schools have rules?

(e) (i) Who makes the rules at your school?

(ii) Who do you think should make your school rules?

(iii) Why?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary Read these words. They can all be used to describe hats.

large green fur

Some words tell us about the size of the hat, the others describe the colour and material it is made from.

small cotton red

1. (a) Write the boxed words in the correct places.

white medium straw

Hats Colour

Material

sa m

pl e

Size

(b) Find some other words you could use to describe a hat and add them in the correct columns.

(c) Design a hat that you would like to wear. Write a word to describe its:

size

colour

in g

material

Vi e

w

shape

use

2. Read these words that could be used to describe a hat. funny

beautiful

attractive

ugly

awful

plain

dull

boring

(a) Are these words FACT or OPINION?

(b) What do you think about the hat you designed? Write three words to describe your opinion.

I think my hat is

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

There are many different ways to write an e sound. 1. (a) Read these e words from the exposition ‘Hats’.

we speak been only money

(b) Circle the letter or letters used to write the e sound in each word.

The e sound can be written in other ways, but the most common are: e ea ee y ey

pl e

2. (a) Sort these e words from the exposition and write each one in the correct list. see even

many specially very weekends me

ea speak

scary

ee seen

y only

ey money

w

in g

e we

been simply

sa m

(b) Find some more e words to add to each list.

(c) Look in the y and ey lists. Were these letters used to write the e sound at the end of every word in your list? yes no

(d) Why would it be incorrect to write the word they in the ey list?

Vi e

(e) Which letters make the long e sound in:

(i) Murray?

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Spelling

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Question words

when why which where who what how

These words are often used to ask questions and some people find them difficult to spell.

pl e

3. Which two letters start most of these words? 4. Choose the correct word to complete each question. Make sure that you spell it correctly. is your name?

(b)

are you late for school?

(c)

is your birthday?

(d)

do you live?

(e)

do you spell your name?

(f)

book would you like to read?

in g

sa m

(a)

(g)

is your favourite TV star?

(a)

Vi e

w

5. Choose five of the (wh) question words above and write a question starting with each word. Take care to spell the words correctly.

(b)

(c)

(d) (e) Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Punctuation Punctuation is very important because it helps us to communicate more clearly. The most important punctuation divides writing into sentences. We usually do this by starting the sentence with a capital letter and ending it with a full stop. 1. (a) Read this passage.

it was hot the sun was burning my skin and my mouth felt very dry

pl e

I just had to have a drink of cool water but I had forgotten my water bottle what could I do luckily my sister had hers she was very

sa m

generous and said that we could share hers isnt she kind (b) Why isn’t it easy to read and understand?

in g

(c) Work with a partner to decide where the sentences start and finish and add punctuation to show this.

(d) Reread the passage to check that it makes sense. It should be easier to read if you have punctuated it correctly.

Vi e

w

Question marks

Did you notice the question mark at the end of the passage you punctuated? ‘Isn’t she kind?’ asks a question so it needs a question mark, not a full stop at the end.

2. Reread the passage.

There is another question in this passage. What is it? Write it below. Don’t forget the question mark at the end.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES 3. Write a question for each answer. Don’t forget the question marks and capital letters.

A. I live in London.

Q. A. My home is made of bricks.

pl e

Q. A. I like ice-cream the best.

Q.

A. My mother is a teacher.

in g

Q.

A. I don’t have any brothers or sisters.

w

Q.

A. My favourite actor is Nicole Kidman.

Vi e

sa m

Q.

A. I go to Allendale Primary School.

Q.

A. My favourite subject is art.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES 4. Write four interesting questions you would like to ask your favourite film or television star. Don’t forget the capital letters and question marks. 1.

pl e

2.

sa m

3.

in g

4.

Vi e

w

Apostrophes for ownership

An apostrophe is used to show that someone or something is the owner. For example:

John’s hat

The hat belongs to John.

The teacher’s desk

The desk belongs to the teacher.

Notice that the apostrophe is placed after the owner. If there is more than one owner, the apostrophe is still placed after the owners’ name, but it looks different. For example:

The girls’ playground

The playground belongs to the girls.

The classrooms’ doors

The doors belong to the classrooms.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES 5. Underline the owner or owners in each of these. Remember, the apostrophe is placed after the owner or owners.

(a) the teachers’ car park

(b) the child’s desk

(c) the principal’s office

(d) the gardener’s shed

(e) footballers’ jumpers

(f)

the rubbish bin’s lid

(a) the car belonging to my father

my

the

in g

(c) the tail belonging to the cat

the

shirts

the

illustrations

the

icing

(f) the icing belonging to the cake

tail

(e) the illustrations belonging to the books

Vi e

the

surgery

(d) the shirts belonging to the men

w

car

(b) the surgery belonging to the doctors

sa m

pl e

6. Write these using an apostrophe to show ownership. The letter s will need to be added to some owners.

(g) the cars belonging to the ladies

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the

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WRITING

Activities

Preparing an exposition 1. (a) Write your ideas in the spaces provided on this exposition plan. Title

‘Sunburn is dangerous’

Overview

1.

sa m

Arguments

pl e

I believe

2.

in g

3.

w

Vi e

Conclusion

(b) Your arguments need to be strong if they are to persuade others to think or do what you want them to. Which of your three arguments do you think is the most persuasive?

Why?

(c) You should write your most persuasive argument first. Did you?

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yes

no

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Preparing an exposition

WRITING

Persuasive arguments 2. What do you believe?

Write two arguments either for or against these statements. Decide your opinion first then use strong arguments to support it.

(a) Cake is good for you.

pl e

(i)

sa m

(ii)

(b) Homework should be banned.

(i)

(ii)

in g

(c) Computer games are a waste of time.

w

(i)

Vi e

(ii)

(d) Children should be seen and not heard.

(i)

(ii)

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WRITING

Writing an exposition

Write an exposition. It can be in the form of a speech, an essay (a short piece of writing on a subject) or a letter. Choose a topic from the box. Use the plan to help organise your ideas, then write your exposition in full on a separate sheet of paper. • School uniforms

• Unlimited TV viewing

• Pocket money for jobs

• Minimum age for riding a bike to school

TITLE:

sa m

INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT (What do you believe?):

pl e

Vi e

w

in g

ARGUMENT (Thoughts and ideas which support what you believe):

CONCLUSION (Link your ideas together to form a final comment):

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WRITING

Editing and proofreading

After you have written your exposition, use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. Your partner will edit for:

Spelling Punctuation

Sense

Grammar

Arguments sequenced from strongest to weakest

Sentence structure

Checklist

sa m

Title of exposition:

pl e

You will be self-editing for:

1. Do you understand the purpose of an exposition?................................. 2. Does your exposition:

yes

no

clearly state a problem in the introduction?.....................................

yes

no

provide background information?.....................................................

yes

no

list reasons to support your belief or view?.....................................

yes

no

use facts to support arguments?.....................................................

yes

no

sequence arguments from strongest to weakest?..........................

yes

no

include a final paragraph which reinforces and summarises main points?....................................................................................

yes

no

3. Have you used persuasive words? ........................................................

yes

no

Vi e

w

in g

4. Ask a partner to read your exposition.

Did she/he understand your point of view?.....................................

yes

no

Did it make sense?..........................................................................

yes

no

Were you able to persuade your partner to agree with your point of view?..........................................................................

yes

no

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge

1. Choose a topic from the box and write an exposition in full on a separate sheet of paper. The exposition may be in the form of a speech, an essay or a letter. Plan your exposition using the framework on page 52. • Dogs on beaches

• Keeping fit

Free admission to zoos and museums

Dogs make the best pets

pl e

2. Complete the following. What is an exposition?

sa m

An exposition can be in the form of a

Structure of an exposition

An exposition has

a title

in g

w

Vi e

3. Complete these statements about expositions.

(a) The title tells

(b) The overview tells what the writer or speaker

(c) The the audience.

(d) The conclusion is the

are the arguments used to persuade

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

4. Read the words below used to describe shoes and underline the facts and circle the opinions.

ugly brown

leather boots soft

big

lace up comfortable

size 6

pl e

heavy

sa m

5. Write fact or opinion after each sentence. (a) The sun can cause skin cancer.

(b) Sunny days are better than rainy ones.

(c) My hat is comfortable.

(d) Brian’s hat is blue.

(e) It is summer.

(f) Our school rules are silly.

w

in g

Vi e

6. (a) Circle the long e sound in these words.

h a p p y

r e p o r t

donkey

f a m i l y

s h e

key

l e a f

m e a l

s h e e p

street

(b) Which one of these words has a long e sound? Underline it.

b r e a d

g r e y

s k y

wet

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windy

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge

7. (a)

why

where

when

what

which

who

Look at these words which are often used to ask questions. Which two letters do they start with?

(b) Use each of the words to ask a question. Don’t forget the question marks at the end.

pl e

(i)

sa m

(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

in g

(c) How is also a question word. Write a question starting with how.

w

8. Is a full stop or a question mark needed at the end of each of these sentences? (a) Do you like hats

(b) Where is my hat

(c) Who took it

(d) How did it get there

(e) I’m sure my brother put it there

(f) Why didn’t he give it back to me

(g) I need to wear it today

Vi e

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Narrative – 1

Beach cricket ANALYSIS

pl e

A narrative tells about a series of events often involving fictitious characters.

Beach cricket

sa m

Alex and his family were staying in a caravan park near the beach for their summer holidays. One day, Alex and his sister Hannah were playing beach cricket with some of the children from the caravan park. There were twelve of them. Alex was the bowler. He thought he was pretty good and that a few Test cricketers might be faster than he was, but only just. They were having a great time. Then the grown-ups came down to the beach. There were six of them; Alex’s mum and dad and four of their friends. They all wanted to play cricket.

in g

‘Ok’, said Dad. ‘Let’s get organised. We’ll pick two teams and have a real game.’

‘Isn’t that just like grown ups?’ thought Alex. ‘As soon as they see us doing something, they want to change it and do it their way.’

w

They picked two teams. Dad was on one and Alex was on the other. Dad decided that his team would bat first, of course, and he would be the first batter. Hannah was bowling, but because she was only seven, they let her throw the ball. It bounced twice on its way to Dad. He took a huge swing at it and missed. The ball bounced one more time and knocked over the wickets. ‘Howzat? Out!’ Alex yelled raising his finger in the air.

Vi e

‘Don’t be silly, Alex’, said Dad. ‘That doesn’t count because the ball must have hit a shell or something’. ‘Boy, if I’d been batting, got out and come up with a weak story like that, Dad would’ve told me not to be such a bad sport’, thought Alex. Anyway, Dad hit Hannah’s bowling all over the beach. Then it was Alex’s turn to bowl. He ran in fast, the tennis ball hit the ground and then shot up in the air. Dad took a mighty swing, missed—and the ball hit him on the nose. Dad held his nose. His eyes were watering. ‘That’s enough Alex’, he muttered. ‘Slow down, this is just a friendly game, not a Test match.’ Dad hit the next ball with the edge of his bat. It flew high in the air and Alex caught it. ‘Howzat? Out!’ Alex yelled. ‘Right that does it, Alex’, said Dad. His face was red. ‘If you can’t play a friendly game, go and sit over there on the sand.’ ‘But, Dad, what did I do wrong?’ asked Alex as he slowly walked away.

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ANALYSIS

Speaking and listening

Class activity Cricket, like all organised sports has rules. Brainstorm some of the rules of cricket. Choose another sport and brainstorm the rules of that sport.

pl e

Partner activity 1. (a) Choose a game that you both play or understand well and discuss the rules. Choose four rules to write below.

sa m

(b) Number these rules, starting with the one you think is the most important.

(c) Discuss why games need rules and choose two of the reasons to write below.

1.

Vi e

w

2.

in g

2. Dad was not a good sport.

(a) Discuss with your partner some of the things good sports do and don’t do and record two of your best ideas about each. Good sports do ...

Good sports don’t ...

(b) Discuss your ideas with another pair and choose one of each to share with the class.

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Structure of a narrative

ANALYSIS

This narrative has:

A title:

Indicates what the story is about

Gets the attention of the reader

Who

Orientation:

Main character(s) and possibly minor characters

What Event that starts the story Where The setting or location Complication:

The problem which involves the main character(s)

Resolution:

How the problem is solved

Conclusion:

What happened in the end

sa m

pl e

When The time the story takes place

Reread the story, Beach cricket and answer the questions. Title What is the title of this story? Orientation Who is the main character?

in g

Who else is in the story? What were the doing?

w

Where were they?

Vi e

When did this happen?

Complication What wouldn’t Dad do?

What did Alex do?

Resolution How did Dad make sure he could keep on batting?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Reading for information True or false? Colour the correct answer. true

false

2. Hannah bowled the ball that hit Dad on the nose.

true

false

3. Alex though that he was a good bowler.

true

false

4. Alex held his finger in the air to show that the batter was out.

true

false

5. Dad and Hannah were on the same team.

Reading for understanding

pl e

1. Hannah was eight years old.

true

false

Why?

sa m

1. Do you think that Dad should have been out when Hannah’s ball hit the wickets?

w

in g

2. Why do you think Dad made Alex go and sit in the sand and stop playing?

Vi e

3. Do you think Dad set a good example for the other children? Give reasons for your answer.

4. Do you think the adults and the children were enjoying their cricket game?

Why?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading Applying your knowledge

1. (a) Would you enjoy a game of beach cricket if you were staying near the beach? (b) Make a list of activities you could do if you were staying at the beach in a caravan park during the summer.

sa m

pl e

(c) Write O after the activity if you would do it outside. Write I if you would do it inside. Write B if you could do it both inside and outside.

(d) How many of the activities you listed were games?

in g

How many could you do alone?

How many would need to be done with other people?

w

Vi e

2. (a) Have you ever stayed in a caravan?

(b) Write two advantages and two disadvantages of having a caravan holiday.

Advantages

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Disadvantages

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

1. Choose suitable words to make an acrostic poem for HOLIDAY. You may like to use words from the box or make up your own words. idea off

long

over

daring in

idle

heavenly all

island daily

always overseas luxury

yearly

driving in

H

O

L

I

D

A

Y

outside yacht dancing

sa m

happy

lazy lovely

pl e

you heavy having away

at

A

R

A

V

A

N

w

C

Vi e

in g

2. Use your own words for this acrostic.

3. Contractions are a shorter way of writing words. For example; would’ve for would have. Write the contractions of these words. (They were all used in the narrative.)

(a) let us

(b) how is that

(c) do not

(d) does not

(e) I had

(f) that is

(g) can not

(h) we will

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

There and Their These two words are often confused. They sound the same, but have different meanings and are spelled differently. They are called homophones because they sound the same. (same) (sound)

r i

the the

e r

pl e

They are not hard to spell if you remember that they both have five letters and they both start with the same three letters:

sa m

The word with the letter i in it is only used if something belongs to them. (You could think ‘I belong to them’.)

their house

(The house belongs to them.)

their car

(The car belongs to them.)

their children

(The children belong to them.)

their feelings

(The feelings belong to them.)

in g

4. Choose the correct words and underline them. (a) I think there/their football team will probably win today.

(b) There/Their are so many star players in there/their forward line and they are all very fit.

(c) We’ll all be trying hard anyway and there/their is always a chance we’ll beat them because things may not all go there/their way.

(d) Our team really wants to win and there/their is no way that we’ll just give in.

Vi e

w

5. Complete these sentences by using there or their.

(a) They lost

(b) Go and look over

(c) near the umbrella.

car keys on the beach. . are no keys here, but I think that they might be

(d) They found

(e)

keys and went home. are many seagulls on the beach.

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,

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

They’re There is a third homophone for there and their. They’re is a contraction of they and are.

They’re my friends.

They’re sitting on the sand.

pl e

For example:

1. Rewrite these sentences using the contraction for they are. (a) I hope that they are not going to be late.

(b) They are working hard.

(c) I wonder why they are looking at me.

in g

(d) They are beautiful.

w

sa m

Vi e

2. Write there, their or they’re to complete each sentence.

(a) I don’t know where

(b) Why don’t you ask

(c) She is over

going after school. teacher? , near the library.

3. Write three sentences using there, their and they’re. (a)

(there)

(b)

(their)

(c)

(they’re)

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Adjectives Adjectives are describing words. They tell us more about people, places and things. For example: the beautiful, cool, inviting water

pl e

Good writers choose their adjectives wisely to make their writing more interesting and informative. 1. Choose an interesting adjective to describe each of these nouns (naming words). ball

(b)

(c)

boat

(d)

(e)

seagull (f)

sand

surfboard

sa m

(a)

umbrella

2. Choose two suitable adjectives to describe your favourite:

(b) person

(c) sport

(d) shoes

(e) place

in g

(a) food

w

Vi e

3. Replace the highlighted adjectives to give the opposite meaning.

(a) a tall boy

(c) an exciting book

(e) a beautiful flower

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(b) a giant wave

(d) the wild sea

(f)

a peaceful park

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

pl e

4. (a) Write some adjectives you could use to describe a great beach towel.

sa m

(b) Design and draw a beach towel that you would like to take to the beach.

(c) Write an advertisement for the towel you have designed, explaining its best features.

Vi e

w

in g

(d) Highlight or underline the adjectives you used.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES Punctuation Commas Commas are punctuation marks used to make a sentence easier to understand. They can: He dropped the catch, even though he tried to keep his eye on the ball.

• separate items

We placed our towels, hats, surfboards and sunscreen on the sand and raced into the cool water.

• separate spoken words from the rest of the sentence

‘I’ll race you to the water’, yelled Tom.

• be at the end of a letter

Dear Mrs Black,

Your friend, Martin

Jumping to his feet, he charged across the sand and dived into the sea.

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• separate parts of a sentence

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• be at the beginning of a letter

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• mark a pause

It is not always easy to know when a comma is needed, but if you read the sentence aloud it helps.

I searched for my bag in my room in the car and in the kitchen.

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1. Read this sentence.

Is your room in the car? Add a comma so that the sentence makes sense, then read your sentence aloud.

2. Add a comma to each sentence so that it makes sense.

(a) I climbed up the tree fell out and broke my arm.

(b) She tripped over the rock running to catch the bus.

(c) When he arrived at my house looking for his lost bird he rang the door bell.

(d) When walking home from your school take care crossing the main road and don’t talk to strangers.

(e) I like eating carrots fruit and most green vegetables.

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WRITING

Activities

A story = characters + complication + resolution Characters:

are described so that the reader can ‘see’ and understand them. Good writers make their characters seem real and interesting by telling what they look like, their personalities and their likely actions.

Complication: the problem(s) facing the characters. It is something the main character wants to happen and what is preventing it from happening. tells how the problem is solved. The main character must do something about the problem. If there is no action there is no story.

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Resolution:

Analysing a narrative

TITLE:

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Beach cricket has been analysed using a narrative plan. Study the plan to help you understand the different parts of a narrative. Beach cricket

ORIENTATION: Characters (appearance, personality, likely actions)

Alex—sporty, competitive, friendly Hannah—younger, less sporty

Dad—bossy, competitive, controlling Setting/location Time

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Friends

A caravan park near the beach One day in the summer holidays

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INITIATING EVENT:

A cricket game on the beach

How does this involve the characters?

Dad arrives and takes over the game.

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What event starts the action?

COMPLICATION:

What problems do the characters have?

Dad keeps getting out and won’t go.

What caused the problem?

Alex is a good cricketer.

RESOLUTION: How are the problems solved?

Dad becomes angry and won’t let Alex play.

CONCLUSION: What happened in the end?

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Alex walked away.

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Planning a narrative

WRITING

1. (a) Use your imagination to complete the narrative plan that has been started for you. Don’t forget the title.

TITLE: ORIENTATION: Miss Abbott – young, kind, caring, friendly teacher

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Characters (appearance, personality, likely actions)

Jill – short, spiteful, bully Other pupils School

Time

Friday afternoon

INITIATING EVENT:

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Setting/location

Jill takes Miss Abbott’s keys and throws them in the bin.

How does this involve the characters?

Miss Abbott is upset and searches everywhere for them.

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What event starts the action?

COMPLICATION:

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What problems do the characters have?

What caused the problem?

She can’t drive her car or get into her house. Jill’s nasty nature

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RESOLUTION:

How are the problems solved?

CONCLUSION:

What happened in the end?

(b) Write the story in full on a separate sheet of paper using this plan as a guide.

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WRITING

Planning a narrative

Sequencing

The order of the events in stories is very important because the reader needs to understand what is happening.

(a) Dad organised them to pick two teams.

(b) Twelve children were playing beach cricket.

(c) The ball hit Dad on the nose.

(d) Hannah bowled Dad out.

(e) Alex caught the ball he bowled to Dad.

(f) The adults came down to the beach.

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2. Show the correct order of sequence of the events in Beach cricket by writing the numbers 1–6 in the boxes.

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Writing a narrative

Choose a topic from the box below and write a narrative. Use the plan on the next page to guide your ideas. When you are ready, write the story in full on a separate sheet of paper. • Fun in the sun • A bad sport • Caravan holiday • Holiday disaster • The bully

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Plan a narrative

WRITING

Use this framework to help you plan your story.

TITLE: ORIENTATION:

What event starts the action?

Time

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INITIATING EVENT:

Setting/ location

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Characters (appearance, personality, likely actions)

How does this involve the characters?

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COMPLICATION:

What caused the problem?

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What problems do the characters have?

RESOLUTION:

How are the problems solved?

CONCLUSION: What happened in the end?

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WRITING

Editing and proofreading

When you have completed your story, proofread and edit it using the following questions as a guide.

Checklist Title: yes

no

Does it get the attention of the reader?....................................................

yes

no

Does the beginning draw readers into the characters’ world?..................

yes

no

Are the characters believable?...................................................................

yes

no

Do their actions fit their personalities?......................................................

yes

no

Is the setting realistic?...............................................................................

yes

no

yes

no

Is the problem believable?.........................................................................

yes

no

Are the events in logical sequence?..........................................................

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

• Have you used a dictionary or asked someone?..................................

yes

no

• Have you included capital letters, full stops and commas?..................

yes

no

• Have you used a separate paragraph for new ideas?...........................

yes

no

yes

no

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Does the title indicate what the story is about?........................................

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Orientation:

Initiating event:

Is the problem known at the beginning of the story?...............................

Resolution:

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Complication:

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Does the resolution fit the complication?.................................................. Have the problems been solved?..............................................................

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Conclusion:

Is the ending satisfying to the reader?......................................................

Punctuation and spelling: Check the following:

Vocabulary: Have you used some interesting adjectives?............................................

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge

1. Choose a topic from the box, then plan and write a narrative on a separate sheet of paper. A fishy tale

Cricket hero

Dad does it again

Trouble at the beach

2. (a) A narrative has five parts which are a t

, an orientation, a

c

and a conclusion.

(b) The orientation tells who,

(c) The resolution tells how the problem is

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,ar ,

and when. .

(a) didn’t

(c) I’d

(f) what’s

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(e) she’ll

(d) we’re

(b) wouldn’t

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3. Write the two words that have been used to make these contractions.

4. Complete these sentences using their, there or they’re. (a) They lost

(b) I think it’s over

.

going to look for it.

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(c)

ball at the beach.

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5. Choose two adjectives to describe your favourite:

(a) TV character

(b) school subject

(c) toy

6. Add a comma to each of these sentences so that it makes sense.

(a) I like dogs riding horses and watching television.

(b) The boy sat on the seat waiting for his father.

(c) Trying to climb the tree she fell and broke her arm.

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Report – 1

Dolphins ANALYSIS Reports give facts clearly without unnecessary information or opinions.

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Read this report about dolphins.

Dolphins

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Dolphins are toothed-whales and belong to the biggest group of mammals, called cetaceans.

Dolphins may range in size from the largest, called the killer whale (or orca), which can be about 7 metres long and four tonnes in weight to the smallest, called Commerson’s dolphin, which is about 1.2 metres long and 30 kg in weight.

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In general they are not brightly coloured and their dull greys and blacks help them merge in with the sea. The killer whale, however, has distinctive black and white patterns. Dolphins have sharp, cone-shaped teeth, set in both the upper and lower jaws. Most species have from 100 to 200 teeth, for gripping slippery squid and fish. Larger dolphins can also eat seabirds, sharks, turtles, seals and other dolphins. They must work hard to survive and need a regular food supply.

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A dolphin’s nose, known as a ‘blowhole’, is located on top of its head. This opens when it comes to the surface of the water to breathe, then closes very tightly when it is underwater.

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Dolphins have a bony skeleton, intestines, lungs and the other usual mammal body parts. Their flippers (front limbs) help them to steer and turn, while their tail flukes help them swim by moving up and down. Baby dolphins (or calves) are born live, feed on milk and remain with their mothers until they are able to care for themselves. Common dolphins are found in oceans all over the world and are usually in family groups (or pods). They are famous for their friendly nature and are among the most ‘intelligent’ of animals. Dolphins remain under threat from pollution, fishing nets and decreasing supplies of fish. Care will be needed to ensure that these fascinating and interesting creatures are preserved.

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Speaking and listening

ANALYSIS

Class activity 1. Discuss and list similarities and differences between dolphins and humans. Partner activity 2. (a) Choose the two differences that you think are the most important and explain to your partner why you think this.

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Differences

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Similarities

(b) Listen carefully while your partner explains his or her choices.

(c) Write the difference you now believe is the most important.

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(d) Was your opinion about differences influenced by your partner’s explanation?

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3. (a) Choose the two similarities you think are the most important and explain why you chose them.

(b) Listen to your partner’s explanations.

(c) Write the similarity you now believe is the most important.

(d) Did your partner influence your opinion about similarities?

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ANALYSIS

Structure of a report

Structure This report has:

A title:

Classification:

Tells what the report is about What is it? Gives information about the focus of the report.

Description: Features – What it looks like Where it lives What it does

Conclusion:

A summary or comment

Title: What is the title of this report?

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1. Reread the report Dolphins and answer the questions.

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Classification: What kind of animal is the dolphin?

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Description: What do dolphins look like?

How do dolphins breathe?

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How do dolphins move?

Conclusion: Why are dolphins under threat?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading Reading for information True or false? Colour the correct answer.

true

false

2. Dolphins are usually brightly coloured....................................................

true

false

3. Killer whales are large dolphins..............................................................

true

false

4. There are increasing numbers of dolphins in the ocean.........................

true

false

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1. Dolphins have teeth................................................................................

5. Dolphins use their tail flukes to steer.....................................................

true

false

6. Dolphins can breathe underwater..........................................................

true

false

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Reading for understanding

1. Explain why baby dolphins stay so long with their mothers.

2. Why do dolphins need sharp teeth?

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3. Explain how dolphins breathe.

4. Why are dolphins usually grey?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Applying your knowledge 1. Design a poster advertising a dolphin show at Sea Cove Park using the plan below. Give details about: the names of the dolphins the tricks they will be doing the dolphins’ trainer the time the cost Make your poster attractive and informative.

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the place

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DOLPHIN SHOW

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary Word worms

s

1. Cross out every second letter in these word worms to make a word from the report. hoat rck (a) c popl etrss oip l (b) f o urtritoa (c) p r o a l m l o n

For example:

lane

mane

(b) care

(c) most

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pale

(a) nose

male

pole

hole

hold

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late

hate

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2. Change one letter at a time to make as many new words as you can.

(d) Which word did you make the most new words from?

3. Write each word under the correct picture. One has been done. look

talk

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grab

feel

hear

smell chew sniff

sneeze blink listen noise watch sound

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touch smile wink perfume stare bite thunder clap

yell throw aroma

look

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

4. Crossword Across

1.

2. Mammals feed their young on

2.

3.

4.

. (4) 5.

4. A hole on the top of the head to breathe. (8)

7.

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6.

6. Bony framework. (8) 10. 1000 grams equal one . (8)

8.

11. Found at the rear of most animals. (4) 11.

13. Used to help in swimming. (7) 14. Dolphins on fish. (4) 16. Baby dolphins are called

Down

12.

13.

.

14.

15.

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(6)

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10.

9.

1. Causes harm to our environment. (9)

16.

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3. Opposite of high. (3)

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4. Opposite to smallest. (7)

5. A group of dolphins is known as a

. (3)

6. One of the groups of animals and plants. (7)

7. A warm blooded animal that feeds its young on milk. (6) 8. A toothed-whale. (7)

9. A killer whale. (4)

12. 100 centimetres equals one 14. Dolphins live mainly on

. (5) . (4)

15. Opposite to bright. (4)

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

Plurals Changing a word from singular (one) to plural (more than one) can be easy. For example:

one dolphin

ten dolphins

one whale

two whales

one beach one dish one fox one dress one bus one waltz

two beaches two dishes two foxes two dresses two buses two waltzes

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Sometimes ‘es’ is added to make the plural easier to say. For example:

Notice that these words end in ch, sh, x, s, ss and z.

1. Write plurals of these words. It may help to say the words.

(c) match

(e) group

(g) brush

(b) box

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(a) flipper

(d) jaw (f) glass

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(h) animal

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These words ending with y have the y changed to i before es is added. For example:

one body one fly

two bodies ten flies

2. Write plurals of these words.

(a) lady

(b) supply

(c) family

(d) lolly

(e) puppy

(f) fairy

(g) ferry

(h) city

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

These words ending with f have the f changed to v before es is added. For example:

one calf one knife

three calves two knives

(a) half

(b) self

(c) wolf

(d) shelf

(e) wife

(f) thief

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3. Write plurals of these words.

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4. The elves rode the calves through the leaves, as they ran for their lives,

away from the hungry wolves.

(a) Underline all the plurals in the sentence above.

(b) Carefully copy the sentence then draw the funny picture in the box.

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(c) Write a funny sentence of your own using five plurals and draw a picture of it.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling The F sound

5. Circle all the f sounds in these sentences. Make sure that you find all 16 words. (a) The family watched the dolphins frolic in the pool.

(b) They laughed when the dolphin’s calf splashed water into Dad’s cup of coffee.

(c) After the show they had enough money to buy their favourite muffins to take home for their friends Sophie and Phillip.

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6. (a) Write words showing the four different ways of representing the f sound. You may use those from the sentences above or make up some of your own. f ff gh

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ph

(b) Use one of each type in a sentence. Write the word in the box first and circle the f sound.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Prepositions Prepositions are words that connect one thing with another. They show how things are related. For example: The dolphin is in the pool. It swam through the water.

near

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1. Use these prepositions to tell the story of Jade and Kellie’s trip to the park. among above beside off to on

under with along

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through over

Jade went t

the park w

o

the bus and walked a

b

the lake. They jumped o

then walked u crawling t a

Kelly. They got the path the stepping stones,

the bridge n

the trees. After

the tunnel they sat o

the grass

the flowers and watched the birds flying a

their heads.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

(a) The boy was accused (of, with) breaking the window.

(b) The teacher was disgusted (on, with) Jason’s behaviour.

(c) Mark prefers swimming (than, to) tennis.

(d) My picture is different (that, from)

(e) Georgia is popular (with, for)

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2. Choose the correct preposition to write in each sentence.

yours.

her friends.

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Prepositions can tell about time or place. For example:

I go to basketball on Tuesday. (time) The party is at John’s house. (place)

3. Write time or place after each sentence. The prepositions are highlighted. (a) Dad arrived home after dinner.

(b) The school is near the park.

(c) The horse ran around the paddock.

(d) The surfer carried his board to the beach.

(e) It rains a lot in winter.

(f) Don’t go near the edge of the cliff.

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(g) I’ll meet you about six o’clock.

4. Use these words as prepositions of time in a sentence.

(a) before

(b) during

(c) about

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LANGUAGE FEATURES 5. Use these words as prepositions of place in a sentence.

(a) between

(b) towards

(c) behind

6. Underline the preposition in each sentence. (a) Put the dishes in the dishwasher.

(b) Is your house near the school?

(c) My sister sat down beside the swimming pool.

(d) That horse came from France.

(e) I enjoy ice-skating with my friends.

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7. Write sentences with the opposite meaning by changing the highlighted prepositions.

(b) My family came from England.

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(a) After school I went to hockey training.

(c) I went to school with my brother.

(d) Clean your teeth before you have a bath.

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Activities

WRITING

Reports contain FACTS (true statements) and not OPINIONS (what the author believes).

(a) Dolphins are mammals.

(b) Dolphins are friendly creatures.

(c) A baby dolphin is called a calf.

(d) Sharks are not as good as dolphins.

(e) Fish are dolphins’ favourite food.

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1. Write fact or opinion after these statements.

2. (a) Write three facts and three opinions about your school. My school

Facts

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Opinions

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(b) Ask a partner to read your facts and opinions and either put a tick or a cross in the box to indicate if he/she agrees or disagrees with you about each one.

3. Make a list of resources you could use to find facts.

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WRITING

Writing a report

Choose a topic for a report from the box below and use the plan to record your ideas. Remember to use facts not opinions. You may need to research your facts from a variety of resources. Make sure that the information you include is relevant. starfish whales

prawns sharks

seahorses turtles

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TITLE: CLASSIFICATION (Type):

What do they look like?

What do they do?

Where are they found?

Any special features?

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DESCRIPTION:

CONCLUSION:

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WRITING

Editing and proofreading

Write your report in full on a separate sheet of paper. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. Your partner will edit for:

Spelling Punctuation

Checking sense.

Grammar

Checking that you have used facts.

Sentence structure

Checklist

1. Does your report include:

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Title of report:

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You will be self-editing for:

What the creature looks like?.................................................................

yes

no

Where the creature is found?.................................................................

yes

no

What the creature does?........................................................................

yes

no

Special features?....................................................................................

yes

no

2. Have you written facts not opinions?.....................................................

yes

no

3. Do you have a concluding statement? ...................................................

yes

no

4. Have you corrected any spelling errors?.................................................

yes

no

yes

no

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Have you used capital letters and full stops?..........................................

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5. Did your peer editor:

(a) understand your report?..................................................................

yes

no

(b) believe your facts are true?..............................................................

yes

no

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge

1. Choose a topic from the box below and write a report on a separate sheet of paper. Use a report plan to help you organise your ideas. Remember, you may need to research to find interesting facts.

seagulls

lizards

tortoises

frogs

sea snakes

whale sharks

2. Complete the following statements: (a) Reports give

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(b) Structure of a report

A report has:

At

cl

d

co

(c) A report should give

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not opinions.

(a) wish

(c) crab

(e) boss

(b) boat (d) teacher

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3. Write the plurals of these words.

(f) church

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4. Write the plurals of these words.

(a) baby

(b) bunny

(c) shirt

(d) daisy

(e) copy

(f) colour

5. Write the plurals of these words.

(a) knife

(b) leaf

(c) caravan

(d) doctor

(e) half

(f) desk

(g) spoon

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge 6. Choose the correct preposition to write in each sentence.

(a) The rabbit is going (under/through)

(b) The dentist is coming (down/across)

(c) He put his bike (between/against)

the wall.

(d) My grandmother lives (close/near)

our house.

(e) The football match was played (at/on)

(f) Why is that truck travelling without/along motorway?

(g) I put my books up/on

the wall. the stairs.

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my school. the

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the table.

7. Write time or place after each sentence. The prepositions are highlighted. (a) Clean your teeth before you go to bed.

(b) My cousin’s birthday is in January.

(c) I like to read after dinner.

(d) The dog ran around the house.

(e) Wear a hat when you’re playing outside.

(f) Our teacher likes us to wash our hands with soap.

(g) Dad parked his car under a tree.

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8. Write sentences with the opposite meaning by changing the preposition.

(a) I went out into the rain without an umbrella.

(b) Wash your hair after dinner.

(c) The doctor went to the hospital before she went to her surgery.

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Procedure – 2

Getting to school ANALYSIS

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Ryan moved into Davies Road, the street where Jeremy and his family live. He will be attending Jeremy’s school. Ryan’s mother, Mrs Gill, was asked to attend an interview with the principal. Mrs Gill asked Jeremy for directions to the school. Read the discussion between Ryan’s mother and Jeremy.

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This procedure explains how to do something. The main purpose is to direct, inform or explain.

Getting to school

Jeremy, can you please explain to me how I get to your school?

Jeremy:

Of course! It’s not very far. First you have to drive along Davies Road until you reach the T-junction at the end. This is Gallop Road. Turn right into Gallop Road and continue until you reach the next T-junction.

Mrs Gill:

OK. You mean go to the end of this road and then turn right. What happens at the T-junction?

Jeremy:

That’s correct. Gallop Road forms a T-junction with Adelma Road. Turn left into Adelma. You will go past Watkins Road on your right and a littler further on you will see Edna Road on your left. Continue past these two streets. You will come to a roundabout which has a large oak tree in the middle. This road is Brook Avenue.

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Mrs Gill:

Mrs Gill:

Is that the street with the shopping centre?

Jeremy:

Yes. Go straight ahead at the roundabout and continue along Adelma Road. After you cross Riley Road, which is the next street, you will see the school playing fields. Turn right into Colin Street. There is a car park for visitors near the main entrance. Then you will see the signs to the principal’s office.

Mrs Gill:

Thank you, Jeremy. I should be able to follow your directions quite easily.

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Speaking and listening

ANALYSIS

Partner activity Following directions 1. Choose one of the destinations listed below. 2. Using the map, start at Dianne’s house and give clear concise instructions to your partner on how to reach the destination you chose. 3. Ask your partner to listen carefully and mark the route on the map.

pl e

4. When you finish, swap roles. Destinations:

• the library

the park

• the shopping centre

the swimming pool.

sa m

SHOPPING CENTRE

WELLS ST

in g

COOK AVE

REED STREET

Vi e

w

SWIMMING POOL

CAR PARK

WHITFORDS AVE

POWER RD

BASS ST

FLINDERS ST

SHACKLETON WAY

PARK

the day care centre

DAY CARE CENTRE

DIANNE’S HOUSE

LAKE

LIBRARY

MARMION AVE

1. Did your partner follow your directions correctly? 2. Did you need to repeat any instructions? 3. Did you need to change any instructions? 4. What could have happened if your partner took a wrong turn?

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Structure of a procedure

ANALYSIS

Structure

The format of the procedural text Getting to school is different from the one studied previously (Mini pizzas). Getting to school is a set of directions to follow.

Answer the following questions on the structure of this procedure. 1. Does this procedure have a goal? What is it?

2. Are there any requirements listed? Explain why/why not.

3. Are there instructions to follow?

sa m

no

pl e

yes

Is it important that they are followed in a particular order?

yes

no

yes

no

yes

no

Brook Ave

Shopping centre

Colin Street

Adelma Road

Adelma Road

Vi e

Watkins Road

Bruce Street

w

Kurt Avenue

Riley Road

Sutcliffe Street

Edna Road

Jeremy’s house

Ryan’s house

Gallop Road

Davies Road

in g

4. Use the map to mark the route Mrs Gill needed to follow. Draw the school and the oak tree.

5. Write a list of the important steps Mrs Gill had to follow to reach the school.

Test 6. How would you know if Mrs Gill followed this procedure correctly?

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Reading

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading for information True or false? Reread the discussion between Jeremy and Mrs Gill. You will need to refer to the map. Colour the correct answer. true

false

2. The school is in Colin Street.

true

false

3. There is a roundabout where Brook Avenue crosses Adelma Road.

true

false

4.` The shops are in Riley Road.

true

false

true

false

5. The oak tree is in the middle of the roundabout.

sa m

Reading for understanding

pl e

1. Mrs Gill lives in Gallop Road.

1. Which street do you think is the busiest? Why?

in g

2. On which two streets would you expect to find a person to help pupils cross the road safely?

Vi e

w

Why?

3. The shops are located close to the school. What is one advantage of this?

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What is one disadvantage of this?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Applying your knowledge 1. (a) How long does it take you to travel from home to school? (b) Do you walk to school?

(c) Draw a map showing the way from your home to school.

(d) Use your map to explain to a partner how you travel to school.

Class activity

in g

sa m

pl e

(c) How many travel by car?

Vi e

w

2. (a) How many children usually walk to school?

(b) How many ride a bike?

(d) How many travel by bus?

(f) Complete the bar graph showing this information.

(e) How many travel by train?

How children travel to school 25 – 20 – 15 – 10 – 5– 0

walk

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bike

car

bus

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

Homophones

Homophones are words that sound the same but have a different meaning. For example:

hare and hair

(b) weather

(c) weak

(d) threw

(e) plane

• a marker which floats on water

• the state of the atmosphere – hot, cold, wet, dry

sa m

• a male child

• a sheep

• seven days

• liable to break or fall down • tossed or flung in the air

• to go in at one place and out of another

in g

(a) buoy

• a tool for smoothing wood

• not fancy

• a member of a small band of soldiers who carry out surprise attacks

w

pl e

1. Tick the correct meaning. You may need to use a dictionary.

Vi e

(f) gorilla

• the largest kind of ape

2. Circle the correct homophone.

It was Ryan’s first day at school. He did not like being a (knew, new) (boy, buoy). As he (road, rode) to school he wondered (weather, whether) he (would, wood) (meet, meat) (some, sum) (knew, new) friends. He had already met Jeremy, but he was sick today and (would, wood) (not, knot) (bee, be) at school. As he arrived at the school (gate, gait), he was greeted (by, buy) the school principal.

‘Welcome Ryan. I have (heard, herd) a lot about (you, ewe). You are just the sort of (boy, buoy) we like to have (hear, here) at our school.’

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

3. Write a homophone for each word.

(a) road

(b) meet

(c) new

(d) for

(e) two

(f) read

(g) past

(h) right

(j) see

(l) through

(k) which

pl e

(i) you

course

plane

sa m

4. Read the words in the box. Complete the sentences using the correct word. Circle the correct homophone in the brackets.

boarder mourning

morning witch

coarse

which

border

plain

(a) The (dew, due) covered the grass early in the

(b) During the (rain, reign) of Queen Victoria, women used to (wear, where)

jewellery after their husbands died.

in g

(c) When we were in France we had to undergo very strict security (cheques, checks)

at the

.

(d) My mother was (cent, sent) to school as a age of (eight, ate).

(e) My friend asked me (to, two, too) (meat, meet) her at the local golf

from the

w

Vi e

.

(f) The fabric on the (knew, new) sofa was very

(g) I don’t know team next (weak, week).

(h) The wicked gained (weight, wait).

(i) My

.

.

footballers will be playing in (our, hour) poked Hansel to (sea, see) if he had landed at (for, four) o’clock.

(j) The tourists (rode, road) (their, there) horses across the towards the desert.

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Spelling

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Suffixes

A suffix is a group of letters attached to the end of a word. For example:

love lovely loves loved lover loving loveless

Rule

The general spelling rule for adding a suffix to a word is simply to add it. For example:

Adding ly

soft – softly

sad – sadly

sudden – suddenly

1. Add the suffix ly to these words. (a) glad

(c) proud

(e) quick

(g) bad

(b) rude

sa m

pl e

(d) slow

(f) sure

(h) serious

(j) savage

in g

(i) brave

(k) swift

(l) light

(m) rapid

Rule

To add ly to words ending in le after a consonant, change the e to y. For example:

w

(n) coward

Vi e

horrible horribly (b is a consonant so the e is changed to y) 2. Use this rule to add ly to these words. Is there a consonant before the le?

(a) simple

(b) terrible

(c) visible

(d) idle

(e) noble

(f) feeble

(g) comfortable

(h) noticeable

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

3. Complete these sentences.

(a) The boy sat comfortably

(b) The teacher explained simply how

pl e

(c) After

(d) The girls watched idly while

(e) The girl looked noticeably different

(f) He was terribly frightened by

in g

(g) Everything went horribly wrong when

(h) She was dressed sensibly for

Vi e

w

sa m

was visibly distressed.

Adding suffixes to some words is more difficult and there are other spelling rules we need to know.

The one-one-one rule

To apply this rule you need to understand:

• short vowels (see page 8)

• consonants (see page 9)

• syllables (see page 9)

Rule

When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel (for example: er, ed, est, ing) to words of one syllable, with one short vowel followed by one consonant, double the consonant.

For example:

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get – getting

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shop – shopper

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Spelling

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

4. (a) Look at each word and write yes or no to decide if you need to use the one-oneone-rule.

Word

one syllable

one short vowel

one final consonant

belt

yes

yes

no

boat

yes

no

yes

chop

pl e

skip nest grind

sa m

stick map swim

(b) How many words fit the one-one-one rule? (Remember you need a yes in each column.)

(c) Choose three of these words and add two different suffixes. (Remember to double the consonants).

in g

Word and suffix

Word and suffix

Vi e

w

Word

(d) How many words do not fit the one-one-one rule?

(e) Choose three of the words and add two different suffixes. (Remember to just add the suffix.)

Word

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Word and suffix

Word and suffix

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Verbs Verbs are the most important words in sentences. There are:

doing verbs being verbs and having verbs He swims. It is hot. He has a cold.

explain drive

turn go

is

follow has

cross

be

have

in g

Having

Did you notice that most of the verbs in the procedure Getting to school are doing verbs?

w

Being

see continue

sa m

Doing

pl e

1. Here are some doing, being and having verbs from the procedure Getting to school. Write them in the correct boxes.

Vi e

2. Think about some of the tasks people in your school do. Write two doing verbs for each person. Person

Verb

Verb

librarian

stamps

lends

cleaner

gardener teacher principal pupil

secretary

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Adverbs An adverb is a word which can add meaning to a verb. They are used to tell where, when or how something happens. For example: Adverbs of time (when):

Adverbs of manner (how):

above, below, outside, inside, near, behind

today, often, soon, then, later, never

sweetly, suddenly, quickly, roughly

He ran outside.

He often walks.

Place, time and manner

pl e

Adverbs of place (where):

She sang sweetly.

Adverbs of place

inside upstairs yesterday

lazily early loudly

. (how)

(c) The cat stretched

Vi e

w

(b) Ryan sang very

inside here everywhere (a) The art room is a long way from our class but the library is

. (when)

behind out close

(a) Jeremy’s shoes were lost

in g

sa m

1. Choose one adverb from the box below 2. Choose an adverb of place from the box to tell where, when or how these things below. happened.

. (how)

(b) The librarian wants the returned books placed

papers went

(d) Mum put her key her handbag. (where)

(e) The principal greeted Ryan

(f) The children ran

. (when)

.

(e) Mr Smith’s class came into the library

. (where)

6279PR English WB D 94-114.indd 105

.

(d) The teacher told us to go

as we went

.

(f) When I went back to class I left my pencil case

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.

(c) The librarian dropped the box and the

.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES 3. Use each adverb of place in a sentence.

(a) outside

(b) upstairs

pl e

(c) below

sa m

(d) somewhere

(e) nowhere

Vi e

w

(f) near

in g

Adverbs of time

Adverbs of time tell when something happens. 4. Choose an adverb of time from the box below to replace the words highlighted in each sentence. yesterday early often later now

today

(a) We will make some cakes the day it is now.

(b) The teacher bought the ingredients we needed to school the day before today.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

(c) The children arrived at school before the usual time.

(d) Our class has cooking lessons lots of times.

(e) The cakes need to go into the oven straightaway.

(f) We will eat the cakes at a future time.

5. Write sentences using these words as adverbs of time (when). (a) never

pl e

(b) soon

sa m

(c) before

(d) seldom

(e) often

Vi e

w

in g

(f) occasionally

(g) sometimes

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LANGUAGE FEATURES Adverbs of manner Adverbs of manner tell how something happens. 6. Circle the adverb of manner to complete each sentence.

7. Change the word in brackets into an adverb of manner to complete each sentence.

(a) Ryan ran (quick, quickly).

(a) Mary cheered

(b) Jeremy jumped the hurdle (easy, easily).

(b) Kate ran

(c) Nicky hurt herself

(d) Ann cleared the high jump

(d) Alex swam (strong, strongly) to win the race.

(e) All the children dressed (warm, warmly) for the ski trip.

(f) Tom wrote the letter (careful, carefully).

. (bad)

pl e

(c) Richard showed his medal (proud, proudly).

. (slow)

. (safe)

sa m

. (loud)

(e) Kay tucked her shirt in (neat)

(f) After the race, Jessie ate

.

. (quick)

8. Write sentences using the words as adverbs of manner (how). (a) softly

(b) sadly

Vi e

w

in g

(c) angrily

(d) roughly

(e) suddenly

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Activities

WRITING

sa m

pl e

Look carefully at the map of Ryan’s new school.

Write the steps to help Ryan find his way from the car park to his classroom to collect his library bag and then go on to the library. To reach the library

in g

GOAL:

EQUIPMENT: Library bag STEPS:

Vi e

w

TEST:

Ryan arrives at the library.

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WRITING

Writing a procedure

Write a procedure to explain:

How I get to school

Use the planner below.

GOAL:

pl e

EQUIPMENT: STEPS:

sa m

in g

Vi e

w

TEST:

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WRITING

Editing and proofreading

Editing and proofreading are very important parts of writing. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. You will be self-editing for:

Your partner will edit for:

Spelling Punctuation

Clear instructions

Grammar

Correct order

Sentence structure

Checklist

sa m

Title of the procedure:

pl e

Capitalisation

1. Does your procedure make sense?.................................................

yes

no

2. Did you include a goal?....................................................................

yes

no

3. Did you need any equipment or tools?............................................

yes

no

4. Are the steps in the correct order?..................................................

yes

no

5. Did you add a test to check that your procedure works?.................

yes

no

6. Have you used common verbs?......................................................

yes

no

7. Are your statements short, clear and concise?...............................

yes

no

8. Does each sentence make sense when you read it on its own?....

yes

no

9. Have you corrected any spelling errors? yes

no

(b) Did you use a dictionary?.........................................................

yes

no

(c) Did you ask someone?.............................................................

yes

no

10. Have you used capital letters and full stops correctly? ...................

yes

no

(a) Did he/she find it easy to understand?....................................

yes

no

(b) Did your partner find any errors?..............................................

yes

no

w

in g

Vi e

(a) Did you check that your words look right?...............................

11. Ask a partner to read your procedure.

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge

1. Choose a topic from the box and write a procedure on a separate sheet of paper.

How to get to:

the principal’s office from your class the library from your class

the sports hall from the office

the shops from your home

a train or bus stop from home

the bedroom from the kitchen

pl e

2. Complete the following statements.

Text:

What is a procedure?

sa m

Language: The statements in a procedure must be

and

in g

3. Answer the questions.

(a) Why do some procedures include maps?

(b) Why is order important in procedures?

Vi e

w

4. (a) Homophones are words that sound the same but have meaning(s).

(b) Find a homophone for each word.

to

knew

four

witch

write

sea

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

5. Complete the following:

(a) A suffix is added to the

(b) Add a suffix to each word:

of a word.

(ii) serious

(iii) slow

(iv) proud

(v) hard

(vi) soft

pl e

(i) quick

6. Use the rule for adding ly to words ending in le to change these words so that they end in ly. (a) horrible

(c) sensible

(e) feeble

(b) idle

sa m

(d) visible

(f) possible

7. Use the one-one-one rule to add ing to these words.

(c) ban

(e) stop

(g) chop

(b) shut

in g

(a) hit

Vi e

w

(d) let (f) slap (h) quit

8. Add er to these words. (Hint: Some words will need the one-one-one rule, some won’t.)

(a) shake

(b) thin

(c) farm

(d) ride

(e) bat

(f) paint

(g) slip

(h) find

(i) hold

(j) swim

(l) wipe

(k) jump

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge

9. There are doing verbs, being verbs and having verbs.

(a) Read Melissa’s first day at school.

(b) Underline the verbs and write them in the boxes below.

Melissa’s first day at school

in g

(c) Most of the verbs in the story are

w

Being verbs

sa m

Doing verbs

pl e

It was Melissa’s first day at Warren Primary School. After school, she walked home by herself. She carefully crossed the road and then, instead of turning left, she turned right. Suddenly she realised that she was hopelessly lost. She sat on a wall and cried. Luckily, an older pupil from her school saw her, and had time to walk her home.

Having verbs

verbs.

Vi e

10. Adverbs tell when (time), where (place) or how (manner) something happens and they add meaning to verbs.

(a) Circle the adverbs in the story above. (The underlined verbs will be helpful.)

(b) List the adverbs and write time, place or manner after each. The first one has been done for you.

home

place

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Recount – 2

The beach ANALYSIS

pl e

This recount is a retelling of past events in time order. Recounts can be factual, personal or imaginative. Read the following recount.

sa m

The beach

It was a really hot, sticky day and my brother Luke and I kept asking Mum and Dad to take us down to the beach for a swim. Eventually they agreed and told us to gather our gear and get into the car. On the way, Dad had to stop for petrol. We sat impatiently in the horribly hot car. He took ages to fill the car and pay for the fuel.

w

in g

At long last we arrived. The water looked cool and inviting but Dad drove around and around looking for a car park. Luke was really annoying and tried to tell Dad where to park—in handicapped parking bays and loading zones! Dad was so angry that he threatened to just drive home again. Mum suggested that we got out while Dad continued to look for a spot. Dad didn’t look too pleased, but in the end I think he wanted to get away from Luke so we climbed out. Boy, was it hot!

Vi e

We picked up our boogie boards and raced into the water. It was great, beautifully cool and there were some perfect waves. We had a ball. Dad, who had finally managed to park the car, found us and soon cooled down and joined the fun in the water. We all agreed that it was a great way to spend the day and that it was well worth the effort to get to the beach.

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ANALYSIS

Speaking and listening

Partner activity 1. (a) Discuss some of the activities you can do at the beach. Make a list in the column headed ‘Beach Activities’.

Equipment

swimming

swimsuit, towel, sunscreen, goggles

in g

sa m

pl e

Beach Activities

(b) Discuss the equipment or things you need to carry out each activity. List these in the equipment column.

(c) Which activity would you most like to do? Explain to your partner why you would like to do this.

(d) (i) Which activity would your partner most like to do? (ii) What is one reason he or she told you for choosing this activity?

Vi e

w

(e) Which activity would you least enjoy? Tell your partner why you wouldn’t like this activity.

(f) (i) Which activity would your partner least enjoy?

(ii) What is one reason he or she gave for this decision?

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Structure of a recount

ANALYSIS

Structure

A recount has: A title: A setting: The events: An ending/comment:

What the recount is about Who, where and when it happened What happened and the order of events The ending and what the writer thinks about it

pl e

Read the recount The beach again and answer these questions. Title What is the recount about?

Where did they go?

Who went?

sa m

Setting

When did they go?

Why did they go?

in g

Events 1. Why did they stop on their way to the beach?

w

2. What problem did they have when they arrived at the beach?

Vi e

3. How did they solve this problem?

4. What did the children do as soon as they got out of the car?

5. What did Dad do when he got on to the beach? Ending 6. How did they all feel about their day? Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Reading for information True or false? Colour the correct answer. true

false

2. There were lots of people at the beach.................................................

true

false

3. Luke wandered down to the water........................................................

true

false

4. The water was very calm.......................................................................

true

false

pl e

1. The children waited patiently while Dad bought fuel.............................

5. Dad was annoyed with Luke..................................................................

Reading for understanding

sa m

1. Why was Dad angry?

2. Do you think it was fair that Dad had to keep looking for a car park while the children and Mum enjoyed the beach?

Explain why you think this.

yes

false

no

in g

true

Vi e

(a)

w

3. After he got into the water, Dad ‘cooled down’. There are two meanings for this. What are they?

(b)

Applying your knowledge Luke was described as ‘annoying’ because he kept trying to persuade his father to just park anywhere so that he could get into the water. 1. (a) What could have happened to Dad if he had done as Luke wanted?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

(b) Write about one ‘annoying’ thing a younger child you know has done.

What did s/he do?

Where was it?

What happened?

Do you think it was fair?

yes

no

pl e

Why?

sa m

2. Some parking bays are reserved for people with disabilities.

(a) Do you think this is a good idea?

(b) Explain why you think this.

yes

no

in g

3. What are loading bays used for?

w

Vi e

Vocabulary

1. Improve your vocabulary by writing one word for these phrases. For example:

• Mr Jones doesn’t have any hair.

• The girls began to shake with fear.

Mr Jones is bald. The girls began to tremble.

(a) We picked up our boogie boards and raced into the water.

(b) I think he wanted to get away from Luke.

(c) At long last, we arrived at the beach. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

Some words are spelled the same and have more than one meaning. They are called homographs. For example:

nut

–

1. the nut you eat; e.g. peanut

2. the nut that fits on the end of a bolt

pl e

2. Write two meanings for these words. (a) park

sa m

(b) ball

(c) wave

(d) cricket

(e) spot

Vi e

w

in g

3. Find words that mean the opposite.

(a) hot

(b) stop

(c) day

(d) angry

(e) brother

(f) arrived

(g) down

(h) pleased

(j) fill

(i) in

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

Some opposites are formed by adding letters in front of the word. These letters are called prefixes. 4. Use a prefix from the box to create a new word which is opposite in meaning.

un dis im

(a) continued

(b) wanted

(c) perfect

(d) patiently

(e) agreed

(f) inviting

(g) What do you think the prefixes you used mean?

sa m

pl e

Spelling

Changing short vowels to long vowels Read these words aloud. They all have short vowel sounds.

cut man pet not bit

in g

If the letter e is added to these words they are changed and have long vowel sounds. Read these words aloud.

cute mane Pete note bite

Spelling Rule

The letter e at the end of a word changes a short vowel sound to a long vowel sound.

Vi e

w

1. Add the letter e to these words to make words with long vowel sounds.

(a) cub

(b) rid

(c) can

(d) rod

(e) shin

(f) hat

2. Take the letter e from these words to make words with short vowel sounds.

(a) cape

(b) pine

(c) use

(d) code

(e) pane

(f) fine

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

Double consonants Some words have double consonants before a suffix. (A suffix is group of letters added to the end of a word; e.g. ing, ly, ed.) For example:

swimming shopping batting running

and some words don’t.

For example:

pl e

hoping riding making fading

Look at the vowels in the words above. Are they short or long in:

• the second four words? Now read the spelling rule.

sa m

• the first four words?

Spelling rule

When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel to words with a short vowel sound followed by one consonant, double the consonant before adding the suffix to keep the vowel sound short.

in g

Vi e

w

3. Before adding ing to the words below, count the consonants after each vowel and write the numbers in the brackets provided. Remember to keep the vowels short. The first one has been done for you.

milking

(a) milk ( 2 )

(c) ask (

)

(d) fill

(e) rot

(

)

(f) skip ( )

(g) cost (

)

(h) shut ( )

(b) step ( ) ( )

(i) wish ( )

(j) bat ( )

(k) chop (

)

(l) dust ( )

(m) toss (

)

(n) mind ( )

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Collective nouns Collective nouns are names we use for groups of people, animals and things.

For example:

a swarm of bees

(a) A troop of

(b) There was a herd of

(c) I saw a flock of

(d) A school of

(e) Mum picked a bunch of

pl e

1. Read these sentences. Each sentence has a collective noun highlighted. Add a suitable noun. marched along the road.

grazing in the paddock.

sa m

in the sky.

swam past.

.

(f) The team of

played well last Saturday.

in g

2. Research to find nouns for these collective nouns and write a sentence using each. Hint: They are all different types of birds. (a) murder

(a)

Vi e

(b)

(c) gaggle

w

(b) parliament

(c)

3. Find a collective noun for these nouns.

(a) elephants

(b) sheep

(c) monkeys

(d) bees

(e) lions

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LANGUAGE FEATURES Research question 4. Explain the difference between:

a gaggle of geese

and

a skein of geese

pl e

Pronouns For example:

sa m

A pronoun takes the place of a noun.

Ben has a new bike and every weekend he enjoys riding it.

The pronoun he is taking the place of the noun Ben. The pronoun it is taking the place of the noun bike. 1. Use a suitable pronoun in each space.

(a) I like my teacher because

(b) When my brother fell over

(c) I was looking for my book for an hour before I found

(d) I don’t play with those children because

(e) My mother was cross because I didn’t tell home.

cut his foot. . are mean to me.

Vi e

w

in g

is kind to me.

when I would be

Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are used to refer to people or things. Read these personal pronouns.

I, me, we, us

1st person

you

2nd person

he, she, it, they, him, her, them

3rd person

Personal pronouns should go at the end of a list of people because it’s good manners and grammatically correct to put yourself at the end. (Remember that lists need commas between the items.) For example:

Melinda, Chloe, Sarah and I went to the cinema.

She gave Melinda, Chloe, Sarah and me an ice-cream.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES 2. Correct these sentences.

(a) He gave the puppy to me and Dad.

(b) I and Jane are learning to speak Italian.

(c) The coach chose Tony, me and Shane to play in the school cricket team.

pl e

sa m

(d) My sister, I and Mum went to see the school play.

(e) Nana bought me and Jamie an ice-cream.

in g

Me or I?

Read these sentences:

She gave the puppy to Tom and me.

She gave the puppy to Tom and I.

w

Do you know which one is correct? A simple way to decide is to leave out the other person and say: She gave the puppy to me.

Vi e

She gave the puppy to I.

The first one sounds better and it is correct.

3. Write me or I in the spaces provided. Try leaving out the other person to work out which pronoun is correct.

(a) That pizza is for Ron and

(b) Mel and

(c) Where can Ben and

hide?

(d) Why can’t Emily and

play with you?

(e) She came to the beach with my family and

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. went for a swim.

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WRITING

Activities

Interesting vocabulary Read these two sentences. The meaning is the same, but one has more descriptive and interesting vocabulary. • It was a really hot, sticky day and my brother Luke and I kept asking Mum and Dad to take us down to the beach.

pl e

• Wednesday was hot and humid so Luke and I pestered Mum and Dad to drive us to the beach.

1. Try to use descriptive and interesting vocabulary to rewrite the following sentences in such a way that the meaning is not changed. (a) The water looked nice and we wanted to go and get in for a swim.

sa m

(c) Mum said to get out of the car because Dad had to look for a parking spot.

Vi e

in g

(b) Luke ran and got his boogie board and went into the surf.

w

(d) We had a good day at the beach and then we went home.

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Writing a recount

WRITING

Choose a topic from the box below and write a recount on a separate sheet of paper.

Playing football (cricket, netball, rugby, hurling or hockey etc.)

The swimming gala

A hot day I’ll never forget

My sports injury

Use the plan as a guide. TITLE:

pl e

SETTING: Who?

sa m

Where? When? Why? EVENTS: 1.

in g

Vi e

3.

w

2.

4.

CONCLUDING STATEMENT/COMMENT:

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WRITING

Editing and proofreading

Use the checklist to edit and proofread your recount.

You will be self-editing for:

Your partner will edit for:

Spelling Punctuation

Checking sequence and sense

Sentence structure

Checklist

1. Does your recount include:

sa m

Title of Recount:

pl e

Grammar

(a) specific characters?.........................................................................

yes

no

(b) location or setting?..........................................................................

yes

no

(c) time when the events took place?..................................................

yes

no

(d) why these events occurred? ..........................................................

yes

no

2. Were your events listed in the correct order?........................................

yes

no

3. Did your recount finish with a concluding comment or statement? ........................................................................

yes

no

4. (a) Have you corrected any spelling errors?..........................................

yes

no

(b) Have you used capital letters and full stops correctly?....................

yes

no

(c) Did you include action verbs?..........................................................

yes

no

(d) Did you use conjunctions?...............................................................

yes

no

(e) Did you use past tense?..................................................................

yes

no

Vi e

w

in g

5. Ask a partner to read your recount.

(a) Did he/she understand the sequence?............................................

yes

no

(b) Does it make sense?.......................................................................

yes

no

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

1. Choose a topic from the box and use a recount plan to organise your ideas. Then write a recount in full on a separate sheet of paper. A picnic at the park (beach/lake/river)

Sailing (rowing, canoeing) on the river

Fishing from the jetty, wharf, bridge or beach

Sunburnt

2. Complete the following statements: (a) Text

What is a recount?

(b) Structure of a recount

A recount has: • T

sa m

pl e

in g

• S • E

w

• Concluding statement or comment

3. Complete each sentence. (a) The setting discusses w

Vi e

and w

(b) The events tell

,w . happens and are in correct

(c) The comment is a concluding statement which tells

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge

4. Write a suitable word to replace the highlighted phrase.

(a) Dad had to stop for petrol.

Dad had to

(b) Luke tried to tell Dad where to park.

Luke where to park.

at the beach.

we arrived

but more

5. (a) Homographs are words which have the same

sa m

than one

Dad

pl e

(c) At long last we arrived at the beach.

.

(b) Write two meanings for these words.

(ii) light

in g

(i) train

w

6. Match the opposites.

7. Write opposites for these.

(a) before •

• good

(b)

back •

• dull

(c)

high •

• small

(d)

bright •

• after

(e)

under •

• front

(f)

adult •

• low

(g)

bad •

• over

(h)

large •

• child

Vi e

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(a) happy

(b) dark

(c) asleep

(d) hot

(e) run

(f) man

(g) true

(h) give

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

8. Add ing to these words. Remember the spelling rule. (a) run

(b) sit

(c) sing

(d) hit

(e) hop

(f) jump

(g) skip

(h) stop

pl e

(a) A herd of

(b) A flock of

(c) A swarm of

(d) A bunch of

(e) A gaggle of

in g

sa m

9. Collective nouns are names used for groups. Add a noun to each collective noun.

10. Read the passage and circle the 7 pronouns.

My best friend John lives near the beach. I think that he and his family are so lucky. All they need to do is grab their gear and carry it across the road. When I stay with them we go swimming every day.

Vi e

w

11. Me or I?

Write the correct pronoun in the space.

(a) Anna and

(b) That muffin is for

(c) You and

(d) Mary said that drink was for

(e) Please hold the bag for

(f) If it rains, you and

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Exposition – 2

Save Lake Wilson ANALYSIS

pl e

Expositions can analyse, interpret and evaluate the environment around us. Their purpose is to persuade by presenting one side of an argument.

The Mayor South District Council Dear Sir

sa m

Save Lake Wilson

The Class 5 pupils from Wilson Primary School are very concerned about the inadequate facilities at our local lake and we are seeking your assistance in making it a safe and pleasant place for children to play.

in g

During the ‘National Spring Clean’ our class, wearing gloves and carrying rubbish bags, spent hours at the lake. We collected rubbish and examined the facilities provided there. We would like to propose the following measures which we believe would help to restore Lake Wilson and ensure that more people enjoy this lovely place. There is a need for

Vi e

w

• more rubbish bins with lids, located close to walking paths, picnic areas and car parks • plastic bags so that dog owners can clean up after their pets • improved lighting to discourage groups from meeting there to drink and misbehave • having the public toilets cleaned regularly, especially during the weekend • planting of native trees • repainting of signs.

We believe that this lake is a wonderful facility which is not being fully used by the community. Our proposals would not cost a huge amount of money and it is time for action. Yours sincerely, Class 5, Wilson Primary School

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Speaking and listening

ANALYSIS

• Are they around a lake, near a river or on the beach?

• What are some other places parks are found?

• What makes a good park?

• List activities your class members enjoy doing in parks.

sa m

2. Write two good things about parks.

pl e

Class activity 1. Discuss some of the parks near your school.

Partner activity 3. Choose a park near your school to discuss with a partner.

• What are some of the good things about this park?

• What could be improved?

in g

Remember the purpose of an exposition is to persuade by presenting one side of an argument.

w

A case should be argued logically and should include information to persuade the audience that the speaker’s (or writer’s) ideas are correct.

Vi e

4. After your discussion, one partner should plan, then present, a one-minute talk to persuade others. The talk should start with:

I think that

Park is a good place.

5. The other partner then plans and presents an opposite view, starting with:

I am concerned about

Park.

6. After listening carefully to what your partner had to say, decide which of his or her ideas you think was the best and write it below.

My partner’s best and most persuasive idea was:

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ANALYSIS

Structure of an exposition

Structure

Expositions are written or spoken to persuade others.

This exposition has: A title:

An overview:

Reasons:

Conclusion:

Tells what the exposition is about Briefly tells what the writer thinks about the topic Arguments to persuade people Final comment and summing up

pl e

Read Class 5’s exposition about Lake Wilson again. Answer these questions.

sa m

Title What is the exposition about? Overview What do Class 5 want the mayor to do?

Reasons 1. How did the children find out about the problems at the park?

in g

2. Why do they want the park improved?

Vi e

w

3. How do they want the park made a cleaner place?

4. What new facilities do they think are needed at the park?

5. How do they want the appearance of the park improved? Conclusion When do they want these improvements made?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading Reading for information True or false? Colour the correct answer.

true

false

2. There were already gas barbecues at the park.

true

false

3. Lake Wilson is in the South District.

true

false

4. The children wanted to stop people taking their dogs to the park.

true

false

pl e

1. The children used bins to collect the rubbish at the park.

5. The children wanted the council to put in extra lights to make the lake a safer place for families.

false

sa m

Reading for understanding

true

1. Do you think that there were many trees around Lake Wilson Park?

Why do you think this?

in g

2. Why do you think the signs at the park need repainting?

w

3. Why would the toilets need to be cleaned more often during the weekend?

Vi e

4. Why would the children want the council to provide bins near car parks, paths and picnic areas?

RUBBISH

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Applying your knowledge 1. The children asked for bins with lids. Why would these be better than open bins? 2. Do you think that the children’s letter is polite and respectful? Explain why you think this.

pl e

sa m

3. How do you think the mayor will feel when he/she receives this letter?

w

Vocabulary

in g

4. What do you think the mayor will do?

Vi e

Read these longer words that Class 5 used in their letter. They probably used these words because they wanted to sound mature, so that the mayor would take their suggestions seriously. 1. Choose a word to match these:

(a) help

(b) placed

(c) worried

(d) to bring back

(e) suggest

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concerned assistance propose located restore

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

Words with the same or similar meanings are called synonyms.

2. Write a synonym to match these. facilities

(a) often

(b) equipment

(c) not enough

(d) supplied

(e) make sure

inadequate provided

pl e

regular

sa m

ensure

3. Words with the opposite meaning are called antonyms. Write antonyms of these words. (a) regular

(c) often

(d) enough

w

Spelling

(b) inadequate

in g

Long e sounds

Vi e

There are many different ways to write a long e sound. On page 46 there are five different e sounds.

e ee ea ey y

1. (a) Read Save Lake Wilson to find one word with each of these e sounds. e

ee ea ey y

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

(b) Which word in the exposition has a long e sound made with the letters ie?

(c) Which word has a long e sound made with the letters ee?

Long a sounds

Read these words from the exposition. They all have a long a sound. The letter or letters used to write the a sound have been highlighted.

pl e

Lake safe repainting day installation save place

sa m

located

play

a–e

ai

ay

a

2. Write a word with the correct long a sound to complete these sentences. (a) She carried the cups of tea and coffee to the table on a tr

(b) There were lots of clouds in the sky so they thought that it might r

(c) They played a g

(d) They were frightened when they saw a sn path.

(e) The school provided the pupils with a very good edu

(f) He suffered great p

after he fell over and broke his arm.

(g) Horses like to eat h

.

(h) I am good at spelling and d

in g

. .

Vi e

w

of cricket. slithering across the .

.

3. (a) Which long a is often used at the end of a word?

(b) Which long a is used before ‘tion’?

(c) Which long a do you think you use the most?

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Punctuation

Punctuation is important because it helps the reader to understand and makes communication clearer. It is most important to show where a sentence starts and ends and to distinguish between statements and questions.

1. Add punctuation to these sentences. (a) why did the children go to the lake

(b) do you know why they needed more rubbish bins

(c) I think that the lake could be a really beautiful place

(d) please pick up your rubbish before you leave

(e) when would be a good time to plant some more trees

sa m

pl e

The punctuation you added above distinguished statements from questions, but it didn’t really make communication much clearer because they were all single sentences.

in g

2. Separate the sentences in this passage to make it easier to understand. You’ll need full stops, capital letters and question marks. Write the passage below.

i don’t really like picnics what do you think about them there are often too many flies i hate flies another problem is

w

that there is nowhere comfortable to sit do you enjoy balancing a plate on your knee while sitting on a rug it’s

Vi e

not my idea of fun

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Capital letters

Capital letters are not only used at the beginning of a sentence but for names. For example:

Ben Smith

Dr Harris

Mrs Brown

Spanish Point

Monash University

Germany

Wednesday

Mount Everest

January

Mickey Mouse

Sleeping Beauty

Easter

Finding Nemo Fanta Smarties ™

Loch Ness

pl e

1. Capital letters are used for names of people, places, days, months, special occasions, books, films and products. Write the names above in the correct category and add some of your own. Don’t forget the capital letters.

sa m

People Places Days Months

Products

in g

Books/films

Special occasions

(a) my favourite book is black beauty, but i lost it last tuesday.

Vi e

w

2. Write the words in these sentences that need capital letters.

(b) last christmas my family went to coral beach for a holiday.

(c) our house is in green street, close to the aviva stadium.

(d) i love listening to music, especially kylie minogue, who is the singer i enjoy the most.

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Activities

WRITING

Getting the message across Messages should be clear and persuasive. Write C (clear), P (persuasive) or CP (both) next to the following signs often found in parks. Circle the one you like best. No rubbish

Bin it. Don’t drop it.

• No skateboards.

• Don’t pick the flowers.

• Walk on the paths.

• Don’t feed the animals.

• No dogs allowed.

in g

sa m

1. Design a sign for a park with one of the following messages. Make sure your sign is clear and persuasive.

pl e

2. Sometimes people respond better to positive rather than negative messages. For example: Keep off the grass.

Vi e

w

Walk on the paths.

Change these negative messages to more positive ones.

• No parking on grass

• Open fires prohibited

• No children over 14 in the playground

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WRITING

Writing an exposition

Write an exposition on a separate sheet of paper. It may be in the form of an essay (a short piece of writing on a subject) or a letter. Choose a topic from the box. Use the plan to help you to organise your ideas. •

Caring for parks

Protecting wildlife

Playground equipment

Dogs in parks.

TITLE:

sa m

OVERVIEW (What do you believe?):

pl e

Vi e

w

in g

ARGUMENT (Thoughts and ideas which support what you believe):

CONCLUSION (Link your ideas together to form a final comment):

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WRITING

Editing and proofreading

After you have written your exposition in full, use the following checklist to edit and proofread your work. You will be self-editing for:

Your partner will edit for:

Spelling Punctuation

Sense

Grammar

Arguments sequenced from strongest to weakest.

Sentence structure

Checklist

sa m

Title of the exposition:

pl e

1. Do you understand the purpose of an exposition?..........................

2. Does your exposition:

yes

no

clearly state a problem in the introduction?.............................

yes

no

provide background information?.............................................

yes

no

list reasons to support your view?...........................................

yes

no

use facts to support the argument? (e.g. statistics, diagrams, photographs, references from books, journals, etc)........................................................

yes

no

sequence points from strongest argument to least effective?.........................................................................

yes

no

include a final paragraph which reinforces and summarises the main points?...........................................

yes

no

3. Have you used persuasive words?..................................................

yes

no

4. Ask a partner to read your exposition.

Vi e

w

in g

Did he/she understand your point of view?.............................

yes

no

Did it make sense?...................................................................

yes

no

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge

1. Choose a topic from the box and write an exposition in full on a separate sheet of paper. The exposition may be in the form of an essay or a letter. Plan your exposition using the framework on page 142. • Keeping parks clean

• Skateboards in parks

• Walking on grass

2. Complete the following. by presenting

(a) The purpose of an exposition is to

pl e

side of an argument.

(b) An exposition has:

• overview

• conclusion

sa m

3. Answer these questions about expositions. (a) What does the title tell?

(b) In which part of an exposition does the writer state what he or she believes about

the topic?

(c) What do the arguments in an exposition try to do?

Vi e

w

in g

(d) What should the conclusion do?

4. Synonyms are words with the

or a

meaning.

5. Choose a word from the box which is a synonym for these. assistance concerned

suggest

located

(a) worried

(b) placed

(c) propose

(d) often

(e) help

(f) equipment

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

6. Write these words in alphabetical order. safe park walk path enjoy peaceful

pl e

7. Add full stops, capital letters, apostrophes, commas and questions marks. (a) why dont we go to the park more often

(b) my favourite park is quite close to where we live it only takes 10 minutes to walk there

(c) i cant understand why people drop rubbish and spoil such a beautiful place they are so selfish.

(d) Jess what would you like for your birthday next monday you can have money if you like

(e) did you enjoy reading treasure island by robert louis stevenson he is my favourite author

(f) we enjoyed our holiday in france it was march but the weather was very pleasant

On thursday I went to chatfield shopping centre in york street with sophie and

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claire. We bought some presents for our friend brittanie. I decided to buy her a book but I couldn’t decide if she would like

or

.

8. (a) Complete the above story by adding two book titles.

(b) Correctly write all the words in the story that should have capital letters.

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Princess Sophie and the prince

Narrative – 2

ANALYSIS

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A narrative tells about a series of events often involving fictitious characters.

Princess Sophie and the prince

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Once upon a time there lived a kind, young princess whose name was Sophie. People came from all over the kingdom to gaze at her beauty and shower her with gifts. Princess Sophie’s father adored her. He had been a rich and powerful king, but he’d fallen on hard times. The crops had failed and the poor people were hungry. The king was frail and ill.

Princess Sophie had a younger brother, Prince Nicholas, who was jealous of her beauty and the attention she received. Prince Nicholas wanted his sister out of the way so that he could rule the kingdom.

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There was another wealthy king in a neighbouring kingdom whose wife had died and he was lonely. He needed a mother for his five children. Prince Nicholas wanted Princess Sophie to marry him so that their lands would be joined and they’d once again be rich, but Sophie couldn’t bear the thought. She was secretly in love with Prince Alex, who lived in a faraway kingdom.

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One day, Prince Alex came to visit and was upset when he learned of Sophie’s plight, because he was in love with her.

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The clever prince devised a plan to rescue the princess. Disguised as a servant, he searched for some mushrooms. These mushrooms were no ordinary mushrooms, they had healing powers. The prince knew that if he could heal the king he would surely be given the princess’s hand in marriage. The mushrooms were not easy to find. They grew on dark, cool rocks inside the mouth of caves on the other side of the river. The stones across the water were very slippery and there was an evil troll who lived in the cave. The troll didn’t like to be disturbed, so the prince knew he had to be very quiet. Meanwhile, Prince Nicholas heard of the plan. He rushed to the river with his servants. He ordered them to make lots of noise. The troll, hearing the commotion, awoke. He was very grumpy and rushed out of the cave. Prince Alex also heard the noise and hid behind some bushes. When the troll rushed out, he ran into the cave and picked the mushrooms. The troll saw Prince Nicholas and his servants and he was furious. He pounced on them. They fought hard but when the troll lost his footing on the wet stones they all tumbled into the river. They were swept away and never seen again. As for the handsome prince, he cured the king and married the princess. They lived happily every after.

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Speaking and listening

ANALYSIS

Partner activity 1. (a) Discuss some of the problems that Princess Sophie had to deal with.

(b) Discuss Prince Alex’s problems.

(c) Choose one problem and discuss some possible ways of solving it.

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Problem: Solutions

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2. Many fairytales have a moral or lesson. These are used to give advice and suggestions on how to live our lives. What lesson do you think could be learnt from Princess Sophie and the prince. Discuss ideas with your partner and choose the best two to write below.

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Class activity Discuss the message or lessons which can be learned from the following tales. Jack and the beanstalk The Emperor’s new clothes Little Red Riding Hood Hansel and Gretel Snow White and the seven dwarfs

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ANALYSIS

Structure of a narrative A narrative has:

A title: Indicates what the story is about

Gets the attention of the reader

Orientation: Who

Main character and possibly minor characters are introduced

What Initiating event that starts the story Where The setting or location

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When Time the story takes place Complication: Is the problem which involves the main character

Resolution: How the problem is solved

Conclusion: What happened in the end

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Reread the story Princess Sophie and the prince and answer the questions. Title What clues does the title give about the story?

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Orientation Who are the main characters?

Who are the minor characters?

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Where does the story take place?

When does the story happen?

What main event starts the story?

Complication What is the main difficulty the major characters have to overcome?

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Resolution How is the difficulty resolved?

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Reading

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading for information True or false? Colour the correct answer. true

false

(b) The king had become very ill..................................................................

true

false

(c) Princess Sophie and Prince Nicholas were great friends........................

true

false

(d) The troll was friendly and cooperative....................................................

true

false

(e) The mushrooms were readily available..................................................

true

false

Reading for understanding (a) Why do you think the king had become frail and ill?

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(a) People came from all over the kingdom to see the princess..................

(b) Prince Alex was a clever man. What information is given in the story that supports this statement?

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(c) Why do you think the mushrooms grew in dark, cool places?

(d) What made the rocks slippery? (e) Why do you think Prince Nicholas made a lot of noise when he arrived at the river?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Applying your knowledge 1. Prince Nicholas disappeared.

Read this missing person poster and draw a picture in the space provided.

Name:

Eyes:

blue

Hair:

long, fair

Height:

tall

Clothing:

Expensive, blue velvet jacket with gold buttons, cream trousers, long, black boots with gold buckles

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Prince Nicholas

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Description:

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MISSING PERSON

Personality: Nasty

Last seen:

In the river, near the caves

Missing since: Last spring

Contact:

The Royal Palace Guards

2. There are many unpleasant characters in fairytales; for example – wolves, trolls, witches, stepmothers, giants.

Choose one and make your own Missing Person poster on a separate sheet of paper. Include relevant information to help people find your missing person.

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Vocabulary

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

1. What do you think these statements mean.

(a) ... he’d fallen on hard times ...

(b) Prince Nicholas wanted his sister out of the way ...

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(c) Prince Alex would surely be given Princess Sophie’s hand in marriage.

Dictionary skills

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(a) plight

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2. Use a dictionary to locate the meaning of these words.

(b) frail

(c) gaze

(d) jealous

(e) ordinary

(f) devise

(g) commotion

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

Masculine and feminine nouns In the story there is a prince and a princess. Prince is a masculine noun and princess is a feminine noun.

In the past, a lot more masculine and feminine nouns were used, mainly because some jobs were done only by men and others by women. Now we have words that can mean both masculine and feminine (neutral).

For example:

• A policeman is now called a police officer because there are many female officers.

• Actors are now both male and female and the word actress is rarely used.

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(a) plumber

(c) mechanic

(e) pilot

(g) doctor

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3. Write M (masculine), F (feminine) or MF (both) after each of these. (b) waiter

(d) salesman

(f) parent

(h) air hostess

(i) flight attendant

(j) fireman

(k) worker

(l) author

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4. Complete the table below. Add one of your own.

(a)

Feminine

king

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(b)

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Masculine

Neutral monarch

mother

parent

(c)

son

(d)

brother

sibling

(e)

emperor

ruler

(f)

grandfather

grandparent

(g) (h)

daughter

girl husband

child spouse

(i)

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

5. We still use masculine and feminine nouns for animals. Match the pairs below. Masculine Feminine lioness

(b) buck

peahen

(c) rooster

mare

(d) billy

sow

(e) bull

nanny

(f) lion

hen

(g) boar

doe

(h) peacock

cow

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Spelling

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(a) stallion

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Many words in the story end in ly; for example, surely, lonely, secretly and happily.

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Adding ly to a word can change it to an adjective or an adverb. When adding ly to a word ending in y, the y is changed to i; for example, funny – funnily.

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1. Add ly to these words, making sure that if the word ends in y you change the y to an i first.

(a) furious

(b) kind

(c) happy

(d) frail

(e) jealous

(f) rich

(g) easy

(h) quiet

(i) grumpy

(j) ordinary

(k) powerful

(l) common

(m) busy

(n) silent

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

2. Use some of the ly words you made to complete the following sentences.

(a) Our elderly neighbour we were away.

(b) The ancient castle was tapestries.

(c) My older brother

(d) The obedient children worked to a parent.

offered to look after our dog while decorated with paintings and

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solved the puzzle in a short time. while their teacher spoke

Rhyming words don’t necessarily need to be spelt the same.

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For example – one, two, buckle my shoe.

3. Choose a word to rhyme with these words from the story. (a) shower

(c) tumbled

(e) clever

(g) noise

(d) rule

(f) plight (h) mother (j) thought

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(i) married

(b) heal

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4. Find a word from the story using the letters in the squares. (a)

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n

s

v a

s

e

r

(d)

r

e

l

p

s

i

y

p

t

s

(b)

s (e)

m

(c)

f

u o

s

i

r

u

d

d

s

f s

m

(f)

d

o

i

h

o

n

e

i

g

g

k

n

e

a

d

u

i

s

k

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LANGUAGE FEATURES Adjectives 1. Read the first three paragraphs of Princess Sophie and the prince and write adjectives that describe these characters:

(a) the princess

(b) the king (in the past)

(c) the king (now)

(d) the people

(e) the neighbouring king

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2. Adjectives can provide information about people, places and things.

(a) Choose two people, two places and two things you like and write appropriate adjectives to describe them in the table below. One has been done for you.

Remember: Adjectives can describe many different characteristics, including appearance, personality, location, purpose and feelings.

People, places and things I like Person: doctor

tall

Adjectives helpful

Place: beach

sandy

yellow

inviting

delicious

cold

sweet

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Nouns

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Thing: ice-cream

clever

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Person: Place:

Thing:

Person: Place: Thing:

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

(b) Choose two people, two places and two things you dislike and write appropriate adjectives in the table below.

People, places and things I dislike Nouns

Adjectives

Person:

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Place:

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Thing:

Person:

Place:

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Thing:

Paragraphs

Paragraphs are used to break stories into parts and to make them easier to read and understand.

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Punctuation

Some simple stories have three paragraphs, to show:

the beginning,

the middle, and

the ending.

Most stories have more than three paragraphs. Look at Princess Sophie and the prince to find out how many paragraphs there are.

Writers usually use a new paragraph to introduce a new idea. This makes it easier for the reader to understand what is happening.

Paragraphs start with a new sentence, so there is a capital letter. The first sentence often tells what the paragraph is about. Sometimes, the first word is indented.

Usually there is a line space left between paragraphs.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES 3. Answer these questions about the paragraphs in Princess Sophie and the prince. (a) How many paragraphs are there?

(b) Has space been left between the paragraphs?

(c) What is the first word in Paragraph 2?

(d) What is the last word in Paragraph 3?

(e) Who is Paragraph 2 describing?

(f) Who is Paragraph 3 describing?

(g) How many paragraphs tell the beginning of the story?

(h) How many tell the middle?

(i) How many tell the ending?

(j) Why do writers use paragraphs?

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Princess Sophie and the prince is a fairytale. It begins with ‘Once upon a time’ and ends with ‘They lived happily ever after’.

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4. (a) List the names of five other fairytales.

(b) How many have a princess in the story?

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LANGUAGE FEATURES 5. Think about another fairytale you know. Use this planning grid to work out what information you would use in each paragraph to retell this tale. The number of paragraphs you choose may vary, so add more if needed.

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Title:

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Paragraph 1

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Paragraph 2

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Paragraph 3

Paragraph 4

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LANGUAGE FEATURES Direct speech Read the speech bubbles. 1.

I don’t want to marry that horrible king.

Princess Sophie sobbed, ‘I don’t want to marry

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that horrible king’.

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2.

This stupid little troll will be sorry that he tried to fight me.

‘This stupid little troll will be sorry that he tried to fight me’,

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thought the proud prince.

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Writers can’t use speech bubbles to tell what someone is saying or thinking. Instead, they use speech marks ‘ ‘ around the actual words spoken. 1. Look carefully at the sentences beside the drawings above and answer the questions. (a) Is the first word inside the speech marks written with a capital letter?

yes

no

(b) Do the words inside the speech marks always start on a new line?

yes

no

(c) Can you use speech marks to show what someone is thinking?

yes

no

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2. (a) Circle the speech marks in each sentence.

(b) Which punctuation mark follows the second speech mark in

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LANGUAGE FEATURES 3. Use speech marks to punctuate these. (a)

I don’t like being woken up.

I don’t like being woken

(b)

The poor king groaned, I feel

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I feel too sick to get out of bed today.

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up , grumbled the troll.

too sick to get out of bed

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today .

(c)

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How dare you make so much noise!

(d)

The troll yelled, How dare you make so much noise !

Please marry me, Princess Sophie. Please marry me, Princess Sophie , begged Prince Alex.

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Activities

WRITING

A story = characters + complication + resolution Complication: the problems encountered by the main character. It is often something the main character wants and what stops him from getting it. tells how the problem is solved. The main character must do something about the problem—if there is no action, there is no story.

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Resolution:

Writing resolutions

• Resolutions that are satisfying to the reader must develop out of the situation confronting the main character.

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• The action taken must also relate to the personality of the character involved. • Stories can have two possible endings:

– the ending the reader hopes will happen: (... and the woodcutter saved Little Red Riding Hood).

– the ending your reader fears will happen: (... and the wolf ate Little Red Riding Hood).

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Tips for writing resolutions

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Remembering this advice about resolutions will improve your narrative writing. Do

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1. Make certain the main character works out the solution.

2. Create suspense by keeping the characters from reaching their goal too easily or quickly. 3. Create additional difficulties. That is, have more than one attempt to solve the problems.

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Don’t 1. Depend on coincidence to solve the problem. (Bill just ‘finds’ a gun in his pocket). 2. Introduce a new character to save the day. 3. Have the main character announce, ‘And then I awoke from a dream’.

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WRITING

Activities

1. Read the following complications. Write a possible resolution for each. (a)

Leonard was riding his surfboard. The waves were pretty rough, boiling like a pot of water over a hot flame. Suddenly, he realised he was in difficulty. From the corner of his eye, Leonard caught a glimpse of something silver. He knew he had to get to shore quickly. (How was Leonard going to solve his problem?)

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(b)

Jess heard the sound behind her cracking, like glass shattering. Her heart pounded in her chest and at that moment she remembered her mother warning her not to skate on the lake today. In the next instant, her foot slipped down. (How will Jess recover from this situation?)

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Writing a narrative

Choose a title from the box below and write a narrative. Use the plan on the next page to guide your ideas. When you are ready write the story in full on a separate sheet of paper.

• The evil troll

• Poisonous mushrooms

• Prince for a day

• Lost in the caves

• The magic kingdom

• The sad princess

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Writing a narrative

WRITING

Use this framework to help you plan your story.

TITLE: ORIENTATION: Setting/ location

What event starts the action?

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INITIATING EVENT:

Time

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Characters

How does this involve the characters?

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COMPLICATION: What caused the problem?

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What problems or conflicts confront the characters?

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RESOLUTION:

How are the problems solved?

CONCLUSION:

What is the final outcome for the characters?

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What was learned from the experience?

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WRITING

Editing and proofreading

When you have completed your story, proofread and edit using the following questions as a guide.

Checklist Title: yes

no

Does it get the attention of the reader?....................................................

yes

no

Orientation: Does the beginning draw readers into the character’s world?..................

yes

no

Are the characters believable?...................................................................

yes

no

Do their actions fit their personalities?......................................................

yes

no

Does the conflict start at the beginning?..................................................

yes

no

Is the setting suitable for the story?..........................................................

yes

no

Does the setting add to the mood?...........................................................

yes

no

Initiating event: Is the problem known at the beginning of the story?...............................

yes

no

Complication: Is the problem believable?.........................................................................

yes

no

Are the events in sequence?.....................................................................

yes

no

Resolution: Does the resolution grow naturally from the complication?......................

yes

no

Have the problems been resolved?...........................................................

yes

no

Conclusion: Is the ending satisfying to the reader?......................................................

yes

no

Punctuation and spelling: Check the following: • Spelling – use a dictionary or ask someone.........................................

yes

no

• Punctuation – include capital letters, full stops, question marks and commas...............................................................

yes

no

• Quotation marks – starting on a new line............................................

yes

no

• Paragraphs for new ideas............................................................................

yes

no

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Does the title indicate what the story is about?........................................

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

1. Choose a title from the box and plan and write a narrative. The wicked troll

The poor princess

Lost in the caves

Rescued

A terrifying tale

Secret treasure

2. A narrative has five parts. (a) The

indicates what the story is about.

(b) The

tells who, what, where and when.

(c) The

tells the problem facing the main character(s).

(d) The

tells how the problem is solved.

(e) The

tells what happened at the end.

3. Match the pairs.

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Masculine Feminine

(b) lion

mare

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(a) husband

princess

daughter

(d) prince

wife

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(c) stallion

lioness

(f) bull

queen

(g) king

cow

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(e) son

4. Add ly to these words, making sure that if the word ends in y, you change the y to an i first.

(a) soft

(b) lazy

(c) rude

(d) silent

(e) busy

(f) noisy

(g) happy

(h) quiet

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge

5. Adjectives describe people, places and things. Choose two adjectives to describe two people, places and things you see every day.

Nouns

Adjectives

Person:

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Place: Thing:

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Person: Place: Thing:

6. (a) When do writers start a new paragraph?

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(b) What is done to show a new paragraph has started?

(a)

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7. Use speech marks to punctuate these.

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Look, I think that boat is sinking.

(b) Steady there boy, steady.

Look, I think that boat

The girl whispered, Steady

is sinking , yelled the man .

there boy, steady .

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Report – 2

Skateboarding ANALYSIS

Read this report about skateboarding.

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Reports give facts without unnecessary information or opinions.

Skateboarding

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Skateboarders stand on boards with wheels to roll on and ‘trucks’ to steer. History The sport has been around for about 100 years, almost as long as roller skating. It evolved from roller skating at the time when surfing was popular and it provided a way for people to surf on dry land, by nailing roller skates to flat boards. In the 1960s the first factory-made skateboards were produced and ‘sidewalk surfing’ became popular. More than one million boards were sold, but the clay wheels were very hard and the boards were hard to turn and dangerous, so people lost interest. In the 1970s, urethane wheels, which were softer, gripped the road and rolled over cracks, were being used on rollerskates. Frank Nasworthy decided to make parts especially for skateboards to allow riders to do more tricks and have more fun. Description Modern skateboards have a board or deck made of fibreglass or plywood about 76 cm long and 20 cm wide with the nose and tail usually curled up. The wheel base, which is the distance between the trucks, varies. The closer they are the tighter the turns and the less stable the board. If the board is flexible, it is quite stable, but trick riders prefer less flexible, less stable boards. Softer wheels turn better, but harder ones go faster. Wheels are becoming smaller, 45–46 mm, which is good for tricks, but larger wheels are faster and easier to control. Safety Skateboarders now often custom-make boards to suit their individual needs. It is important to maintain skateboards by checking them regularly. The wheels usually wear out first and can wear unevenly. The nuts and bolts on the trucks also need to be checked. Skateboarders usually wear safety equipment to protect themselves from injury. Popular equipment includes helmets, wrist guards, knee and elbow pads, gloves and ankle-height footwear to protect the ankles. Conclusion Skateboarding is a popular sport around the world and in many cities special facilities are provided to enable riders to practise in a safe environment.

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ANALYSIS

Speaking and listening

Class activity 1. (a) Make a list of the different physical activities enjoyed by the pupils in the class.

(b) Beside each activity list the place or places that they do this activity.

(c) List the equipment used for each activity.

What it is

Where you do it

When you do it

Why you enjoy it

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Tell:

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Partner activity 2. (a) Discuss your favourite activity with your partner.

(b) Think about what your partner has told you and ask two questions about his or her favourite activity.

(c) Tell your partner what you found most interesting about his or her activity.

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A title:

Classification:

Tells what the report is about What is it? Gives information about the focus of the report

Description: Features –

Structure

This report has:

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Structure of a report

Conclusion:

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How it developed What is needed Who does it Where it happens Special features

A summary or comment

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Structure of a report

ANALYSIS

1. Reread the report Skateboarding and answer the questions. Title: What is the title of this report?

Is it an appropriate title?

yes

no

Description: (a) From which two sports did skateboarding develop?

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(b) What problems did they have with the first skateboards?

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(c) Why were urethane wheels so important?

(d) Where does skateboarding happen?

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Classification: What is a skateboard?

(e) What safety features are important?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Reading

Reading for information True or false? Colour the correct answer. true

false

2. Skateboarding started in the 1960s.

true

false

3. Urethane wheels made it easier to roll over cracks in the road.

true

false

4. Skateboard wheels need to be checked regularly.

true

false

pl e

1. The trucks on skateboards are used to steer.

5. Softer wheels go faster.

true

Reading for understanding

false

(a)

very flexible less flexible

(c)

larger wheels

sa m

1. If you were designing a skateboard for a beginner, tick the features it would need. (b)

closer trucks wider trucks

(d)

in g

smaller wheels

clay wheels

urethane wheels

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2. Why was skateboarding called ‘sidewalk surfing’?

3. Why were the early skateboards dangerous?

4. Why do you think people started to build special skateboarding parks?

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Reading

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Applying your knowledge Draw and label the features of a safe skateboarder.

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A safe, well-equipped skateboarder

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Vocabulary

1. Choose two different sports to add to this information table. One has been done for you. Sport

Equipment

Venue

People

hockey stick

hockey field

players

ball

hockey stadium

umpire

shin pads

Hockey

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goals

pl e

mouthguard

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2. Write an acrostic poem using the letters of your favourite sport. You may like to illustrate your poem.

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Vocabulary

WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Overused words

Some words are used so often that they become meaningless. There are many better, more descriptive words that writers can use.

For example:

a nice car

a powerful car or a comfortable car

(a) a nice person

(b) a nice hat

(c) a nice cake

(d) a nice game

(e) a nice picture

(f) a nice house

(g) a nice mess

(h) a nice job

sa m

pl e

3. Find two more descriptive words to replace the adjective nice in these.

in g

4. Read this description of a football match and change all the highlighted words to make the sentences more interesting. (a) ‘Last Saturday the weather was good. We went to the football.’

(b) We got onto the train.

(c) We had a good trip.

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(d) ‘Come on, you Reds!’ said Mum.

(e) ‘Do you really think that they will win?’ said Dad.

(f) Dad’s team got the first goal.

(g) At half-time Mum got the lunch.

(h) Then we had a hot drink.

(i) The captain played a good match.

(j) He scored a good goal.

(k) We all had a nice time.

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

Long vowel sounds 1. (a) Underline the long o sounds in these words. toe

open

coat

slope

potatoes throat

soap

blow

though

bony

echo

throne

hoe

chose

although throw

(b) How many different ways of writing the o sound were used?

(c) Write each word in the correct column. oa

o

ough

sa m

o–e

own

pl e

ow

dough

oe

in g

2. Underline all the long i words in these sentences. (a) The tired child cried all night.

(b) Dad will drive me to the shops to buy an ice-cream.

(c) Scott tried to measure his brother’s height.

(d) Mum can type quite fast.

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(e) The shy girl smiled when I said she could ride my bike.

(f) You may have either a slide or a swing.

3. Write a word using each of these long i sounds.

(a) i–e

(b) y

(c) uy

(d) i

(e) eigh

(f) ie

(g) igh

(h) ei

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

4. Which long u sounds have been used in these words? (The last two are interesting.) (a) new

(b) duty

(c) tube

(d) due

(e) unit

(f) argue

(g) fuse

(h) stew

(j) nuisance

(i) view

Plurals

sa m

Writing the plurals of most words is easy, just add s. For example: skateboard skateboards

pl e

Most words ending in ch, sh, s, x and z add es because it is easier to say. For example: beaches, wishes, buses, boxes and waltzes These words ending in y change the y to i and add es. For example: lady ladies bunny bunnies

in g

Most words ending in f or fe change to v then add es. For example: wolf wolves knife knives 5. Write the plurals of these words. (a) fox

(c) park

(e) calf

(f) life

(g) atlas

(h) cross

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(i) lunch

(b) dish (d) purse

(j) baby

6. Which plural words in Question 5:

(a) added es because it was easier to say?

(b) changed y to i and added es?

(d) changed f or fe to v and added es?

(c) just added s?

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WORKING WITH THE TEXT

Spelling

Words ending in o Some words ending with a single o add es and others add s. Study these lists. banjos

zeros

potatoes

solos

photos

echoes

pianos

patios

cargoes

radios

goes

duos

dingoes

sopranos

heroes

trios

mangoes

altos

pl e

tomatoes

avocados

ratios

sa m

hobos

You may be able to learn to spell some of the words by making up a memory trick. For example: Add just s to these words related to music. banjos, solos, pianos, sopranos, radios, duos, altos, trios

If you are unsure, consult a dictionary. You may find that some dictionaries now allow both spellings.

in g

Other interesting plurals are: A. Words that change

For example:

w

gentleman gentlemen geese

die

dice

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goose

B. Words that stay the same

C. Words which have no singular

For example:

For example:

sheep

shorts

reindeer

scissors

salmon

trousers

Work in small groups to compile lists of interesting plurals. Some of your family members may also have some words to contribute. A. Words that change

tooth teeth

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B. Words that stay the same deer

The English workbook

C. Words without singulars goggles

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LANGUAGE FEATURES

Prepositions in a sentence Prepositions show the relationship between words. They can tell about time and place. For example: He jumped on his skateboard and went to the park on Saturday afternoon. on his skateboard tells about place.

pl e

to the park tells about place. on Saturday afternoon tells about time.

sa m

1. What are these prepositions telling about? Write ‘time’ or ‘place’ after each sentence.

(a) I like to read after dinner.

(b) Our house is between the school and the park.

(c) We start football training on Thursday.

(d) Who left those balls on the field?

(e) Every Thursday my dad plays golf after work.

w

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2. Choose your own prepositions to complete these sentences. (a) Would you like to come to the cinema

(b) He threw his schoolbag

(c) Brush your teeth

(d) My favourite television programme starts the news.

(e) The birds flew

(f) Do you have a shower

(g) The skateboarder jumped

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me? the bench. you leave

school.

the trees. dinner? the garden.

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LANGUAGE FEATURES 3. Use both prepositions in one sentence. Try to make your sentences interesting.

(a) while, through

(b) between, around

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(c) until, for

(d) during, on

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(e) along, towards

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4. Circle the prepositions in the following sentences.

(a) The teacher growled at the noisy children in the library.

(b) Several people were waiting for the train on Saturday.

(c) The horse jumped over the gate and galloped towards the road.

(d) Last weekend we watched the dolphins diving under and over the waves.

(e) During the holidays we camped by the river at Alexander Bridge.

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Activities

WRITING

Report descriptions When writing the description part of a report, the information or facts provided change according to the focus of the report as stated in the classification. For example: If you were writing a report about yourself, you might include some of the following facts.

Classification

Your name

Description:

What you look like (age, height, weight, hair colour, eye colour, special features)

Where you live

What you do (sports, hobbies, school, clubs)

sa m

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1. Write a description about yourself or a friend that is suitable for a report. Make sure you include facts not opinions.

Remember to start a new paragraph for each section. It may help you to reread the report Dolphins on page 76 before you start. Classification:

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Description:

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WRITING

Planning a report

If you were writing a report about doctors, nurses or teachers you would provide more facts about the job rather than about the person. Classification: doctor/nurse/teacher

Description:

What they do What they need

How they do their job

Where they work

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2. Write a description about a doctor, nurse or teacher suitable for a report. Remember to start a new paragraph for each section and to provide interesting information about all aspects of this occupation.

Classification:

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Description:

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Writing a report

WRITING

Choose an occupation for a report from the box below and use the plan to prepare it. Remember to write facts not opinions. You may need to research to find some important facts. lawyers builders

golfers dentists

architects plumbers

accountants electricians

pl e

TITLE: CLASSIFICATION (Type):

What they do

How they work

What they need

Where they work

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DESCRIPTION:

CONCLUSION:

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WRITING

Editing and proofreading

Write your report in full on a separate sheet of paper. Use the checklist below to edit and proofread your work. You will be self-editing for:

Your partner will edit for:

Spelling Punctuation

Checking for sense

Grammar

Checking that your report is factual

Sentence structure

Title of report:

What they do?........................................................................................

yes

no

What they need?....................................................................................

yes

no

How they do it?......................................................................................

yes

no

Where they do it?...................................................................................

yes

no

2. Have you written facts, not opinions?....................................................

yes

no

3. Do you have a concluding statement? ...................................................

yes

no

4. Have you corrected any spelling errors?.................................................

yes

no

5. Have you used capital letters and full stops correctly?...........................

yes

no

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1. Does your report include:

sa m

Checklist

pl e

Checking that you have provided sufficient information

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6. Did your peer editor:

(a) understand your report?..................................................................

yes

no

(b) believe your facts are true?..............................................................

yes

no

(c) consider that you have provided sufficient, interesting information?.....................................................................................

yes

no

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

1. Choose any occupation you know about to write a report on a separate sheet of paper. Use a report plan to help you to organise your ideas. 2. (a) Reports should provide facts not

.

(b) Report should not have unnecessary

.

3. Find two more descriptive words to replace the highlighted adjective.

(b) a nice book

(c) the good football match

(d) the good holiday

(e) a big noise

(f) a big truck

pl e

(a) a nice computer

sa m

4. Write a more interesting verb to replace ‘said’. (a) ‘I hope I’m not too late’, Mai said.

(b) ‘We almost left without you’, said her coach.

(c) ‘You’re always late’, said Tom.

(d) ‘It’s not fair, now we won’t have time to warm up properly before we play’, said Julia.

(e) ‘Don’t carry on, it’s not her fault. She has to wait for her mum to get home from work before she can leave’, Olivia said.

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5. Rewrite this sentence replacing the highlighted words with more interesting, descriptive words. Scott got a nice bike for his birthday and took it for a nice ride along a good track through the park.

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EVALUATION

Test your knowledge

6. Circle the long o sounds in these words. (a) goat

(b) grow

(c) hoe

(d) o’clock (e) though

(f) show

(g) choke

(h) tomato (i) float

(j) rope

cried

buy

height

sight

find

shy

guy

igh

ie

neither

tyre

nine

i

ei

uy

eigh

y

in g

i–e

flight

sa m

bite

pl e

7. Write these words with long i sounds in the correct columns.

8. Underline the long u words in this sentence. (a) That new boy is a nuisance because he likes to argue and won’t wear uniform.

(b) Write four different ways of writing the long u sound.

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9. Write the plurals of these words.

(a) fox

(b) baby

(c) tomato

(d) half

(e) piano

(f) dish

(g) lunch

(h) tooth

(i) fly

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Test your knowledge

EVALUATION

10. Choose your own prepositions to complete these sentences.

(a) The cat’s food is

(b) Mum parked her car

(c) Put your bike away

(d) It fell

(e) Why did you leave your skateboard

the fridge. the shopping centre. it rains. the floor and rolled

the cupboard.

pl e

the driveway?

11. Use both prepositions in one sentence.

(a) before, to

sa m

(b) for, on

(c) with, by

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(d) between, along

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12. Circle the prepositions in the following sentences.

(a) Put your bag in your room before you watch television.

(b) I like to walk to school in summer.

(c) When did your class travel to the zoo on the bus?

(d) After dinner I would like to have a swim in the pool.

(e) He fell into the water.

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