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SPEAKING AND LISTENING (Upper) Published by Prim-Ed Publishing 2005 Copyright© Janna Tiearney 2005 ISBN 1 920962 26 3 PR–6252

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

Additional titles available in this series:

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING (Lower) SPEAKING AND LISTENING (Middle)

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For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase. Name of Purchaser:

Date of Purchase:

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Supplier:

Offices in: United Kingdom: PO Box 2840, Coventry, CV6 5ZY Email: sales@prim-ed.com Australia: PO Box 332, Greenwood, Western Australia, 6924 Email: mail@ricgroup.com.au Republic of Ireland: Bosheen, New Ross, Co. Wexford, Ireland Email: sales@prim-ed.com R.I.C. Asia: 5th Floor, Gotanda Mikado Building, 2–5–8 Hiratsuka, Shinagawa-Ku Tokyo, Japan 142–0051 Email: elt@ricpublications.com

Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing students to access them.

View all pages online http://www.prim-ed.com


FOREWORD Speaking and listening forms an integral part of a child’s education. Our main means of communicating with the world is through speaking. Children of today generally spend hours being passively entertained by TV and computer games. Therefore, it is vital that during their time at school, children acquire skills in speaking and listening and practise them in a variety of situations. Obtaining these skills means not only do children learn to converse more freely, but hopefully they will gain confidence in speaking so that they can communicate more effectively; for example, in giving their own point of view, giving instructions, requesting information, giving a speech, discussing topics with peers, having conversations, talking about personal experiences and telling jokes. Speaking and listening – Lower (Ages 5–7) Speaking and listening – Middle (Ages 7–9) Speaking and listening – Upper (Ages 9–11)

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The books in this series are:

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CONTENTS

You’re wrong! (worksheets) ........................54–55

Four corners (worksheets) ......................112–113

Curriculum links ........................................vi–viii

And introducing ... (teacher page) ................... 56

The art of persuasion (teacher page) ............. 111

Assessment proforma.................................... ix

And introducing ... (worksheets) .................58–59

The art of persuasion (worksheets) ........114–115

Fancy words! (teacher page).............................. 2

I’m not happy! (teacher page) ......................... 57

Argue with the teacher! (teacher page) ......... 116

Fancy words! (worksheets) .............................4–5

I’m not happy! (worksheets) .......................60–61

Argue with the teacher! (worksheets)......118–119

What’s their opinion? (teacher page) ................. 3

English or not? (teacher page) ........................ 62

In fashion? (teacher page) ............................. 117

What’s their opinion? (worksheets) ................6–7

English or not? (worksheets) ......................64–65

In fashion? (worksheets) .........................120–121

Switch it on! (teacher page) ............................... 8

Take a guess! (teacher page) .......................... 63

I disagree! (teacher page) ............................. 122

Switch it on! (worksheets) ..........................10–11

Take a guess! (worksheets) ........................66–67

I disagree! (worksheets) ..........................124–125

Follow the directions! (teacher page) ................. 9

Naming or doing? (teacher page) .................... 68

When in Rome ... (teacher page) .................. 123

Follow the directions! (worksheets) .............12–13

Naming or doing? (worksheets) ..................70–71

When in Rome ... (worksheets)...............126–127

Describe it! (teacher page) .............................. 14

Which is it? (teacher page) .............................. 69

Poetry fun (teacher page) ............................. 128

Describe it! (worksheets) ............................16–17

Which is it? (worksheets) ............................72–73

Poetry fun (worksheets) ..........................130–131

Watch your tone! (teacher page) ..................... 15

I’m hungry! (teacher page) .............................. 74

Take note! (teacher page) ............................. 129

Watch your tone! (worksheets) ...................18–19

I’m hungry! (worksheets) ............................76–77

Take note! (worksheets) .........................132–133

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Teacher notes .............................................iv–v

I need a loan! (teacher page) ......................... 134

Body language (worksheets) ......................22–23

Say it! (worksheets) ....................................78–79

I need a loan! (worksheets) .....................136–137

Let’s mime! (teacher page) .............................. 21

Hello! (teacher page) ....................................... 80

Written or spoken? (teacher page) ................ 135

Let’s mime! (worksheets) ............................24–25

Hello! (worksheets) .....................................82–83

Written or spoken? (worksheets) ............138–139

Every painting tells a story (teacher page) ....... 26

Town talk (teacher page) ................................. 81

We say a lot! (teacher page) ......................... 140

Every painting tells a story (worksheets) .....28–29

Town talk (worksheets) ...............................84–85

We say a lot! (worksheets) ......................142–143

What’s the mood? (teacher page) ................... 27

Read it! (teacher page) ................................... 86

Problem page (teacher page) ........................ 141

What’s the mood? (worksheets) .................30–31

Read it! (worksheets) ..................................88–89

Problem page (worksheets) ....................144–145

Noisy humans! (teacher page) ........................ 32

The whole truth (teacher page) ....................... 87

Imagine it! (teacher page) .............................. 146

Noisy humans! (worksheets).......................34–35

The whole truth (worksheets) .....................90–91

Imagine it! (worksheets) ..........................148–149

Quite an honour! (teacher page) ..................... 33

Talk time! (teacher page) ................................. 92

Share your thoughts (teacher page) .............. 147

Quite an honour! (worksheets) ....................36–37

Talk time! (worksheets) ...............................94–95

Share your thoughts (worksheets) .........150–151

What do you think? (teacher page) ................. 38

What’s news? (teacher page) .......................... 93

What’s it all about? (teacher page) ................ 152

What do you think? (worksheets) ...............40–41

What’s news? (worksheets) ........................96–97

What’s it all about? (worksheets) ............154–155

Change that rhyme! (teacher page) ................. 39

Sell your school! (teacher page) ...................... 98

Watch TV! (teacher page) ............................. 153

Change that rhyme! (worksheets) ...............42–43

Sell your school! (worksheets) ................100–101

Watch TV! (worksheets)..........................156–157

Who are you speaking to? (teacher page) ....... 44

This is about you! (teacher page) .................... 99

Language fun (teacher page) ........................ 158

Who are you speaking to? (worksheets) .....46–47

This is about you! (worksheets) .............102–103

Language fun (worksheets) ....................160–161

Change it! (teacher page) ................................ 45

What? (teacher page) ................................... 104

Love is in the air (teacher page) .................... 159

Change it! (worksheets) ..............................48–49

What? (worksheets) ...............................106–107

Love is in the air (worksheets) ................162–163

Chat away! (teacher page) .............................. 50

On the spot! (teacher page) .......................... 105

How much do you know? (teacher page) ..... 164

Chat away! (worksheets) ............................52–53

On the spot! (worksheets) ......................108–109

How much do you know? (worksheets)..165–166

You’re wrong! (teacher page) .......................... 51

Four corners (teacher page) .......................... 110

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Body language (teacher page) ........................ 20

Say it! (teacher page) ...................................... 75

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

iii


TEACHERS NOTES Speaking and listening – Upper provides a wide range of activities to develop children’s oral language skills. Each activity consists of two pages of worksheets and one page of accompanying teacher notes.

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The answers section provides answers to all worksheet activities, to save teachers time. Some answers will vary and therefore need a teacher check, depending on children’s personal experiences and opinions. The additional activities section can be used to further develop the objectives being taught, as consolidation or extension. Suggestions for suitable websites are sometimes included, to enhance and combine language and ICT learning. Suggestions for stories and poems for children to listen to, read aloud and/or discuss, are also sometimes provided.

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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TEACHERS NOTES

CHILDREN’S WORKSHEETS Each page of teachers notes is followed by two worksheets for children to complete. A variety of worksheets are provided, which may require children to read, discuss, answer questions, write, draw, record thoughts or opinions, follow instructions etc.

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There is much group work, pair work and class work in these lessons. Teachers should not feel daunted by this. Even though it is a speaking and listening lesson, there must be structure to it. Guidelines need to be given to children as to what they can and cannot do. During group work and pair work, teachers should walk around, assisting where necessary. If a teacher thinks it is necessary, a group leader can be appointed. Change these positions from time to time. Children should be moved around in pairs or in groups so they get to communicate with children they have not had much contact with. Teachers can explain to children that this will happen from time to time and children should not show dissatisfaction when placed with others – there will be times when they can be with their friends. The teacher should decide who will make up the pairs/groups before the lesson begins.

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Some allowance has to be made for less able children, or children who are extremely shy. The teacher should, in such cases, be encouraging and try to involve the child in the activity. There are also children who are very confident about speaking out loud, and such children could dominate activities. This should be gently discouraged! The teacher is obviously the best person to set the example of how we should communicate orally. Teachers should, in most cases, correct children when they use slang or an incorrect word, but the teacher should always approach this in a friendly and sensitive manner.

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As the lessons are photocopiable, a suggestion is that all speaking and listening worksheets be kept in a folder, or children could have their own ‘speaking and listening portfolio’. Then, at the end of the year, it can be clearly seen what oral language has been covered and there won’t be worksheets lying all over the place. A few websites have been included. Although these have been checked, the teacher should check again before using them. There is a large number of great websites that would enhance many of these lessons and teachers should make use of them with their children. Interesting facts are also included on many of the worksheets. Suggestions for poetry, mostly humorous poetry, have been provided. Obviously, poetry is not always funny, but at this level we don’t want children becoming afraid of poetry. Rather, we want them enjoying and understanding it. Teachers must use their discretion about extra reading for the lessons, and use whatever they think will best suit their class. Some teachers may feel a little uneasy about teaching speaking and listening as it is a lesson of talking, something we are always telling children not to do! The teacher has the ability to set the correct tone for the lesson, and provided guidelines have been explained to the children, there should be no problems. If lessons are going to be particularly noisy, there is no harm in taking the lesson to the playground, if the weather permits! Speaking and listening lessons should be lessons that both the teacher and children look forward to. Have fun!

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

v


CURRICULUM LINKS Country

Subject

Level

Objective

England

English (Speaking and listening)

KS 2

• Speak with confidence in a range of contexts, adapting their speech for a range of purposes and audiences. • Listen, understand and respond appropriately to others. • Talk effectively as members of a group. • Participate in a wide range of drama activities and evaluate their own and others’ contributions. • Know the grammatical constructions that are characteristic of spoken standard English and to apply this knowledge appropriately in a range of contexts. • Know how language varies according to context and purpose, between standard and dialect forms and between spoken and written forms.

Yr 5

• • • • • • •

Yr 6

• Use a range of oral techniques to present persuasive arguments. • Analyse and evaluate how speakers present points effectively through use of language and gesture. • Understand and use a variety of ways to criticise constructively and respond to criticism. • Consider the overall impact of a live or recorded performance, identifying dramatic ways of conveying characters’ ideas and building tension. • Make notes when listening for a sustained period and discuss how note taking varies depending on context and purpose. • Participate in a whole-class debate. • Consider examples of conflict and resolution, exploring language used. • Improvise using a range of drama strategies. • Use techniques of dialogic talk to explore ideas, topics or issues. • Listen for language variation in formal and informal contexts. • Identify the ways spoken language varies according to differences in context and purpose of use.

KS 2

• Have opportunities, arising from classroom and first-hand experience, to develop their talking and listening in a variety of contexts. • Talk to a wide range of audiences. • Engage in talking and listening for a variety of purposes; including, conversations, discussions, talking about work and personal interests, discussing attitudes, opinions and beliefs, preparing, asking and responding to questions and formulating, giving and responding to directions or instructions. • Engage in a range of talking and listening activities. • Express their thoughts and feelings. • Present ideas and information. • Observe the conventions of discussion. • Share and co-operate in pairs or group activities. • Read aloud, inflecting appropriately, to emphasise the meaning of what is read. • Use appropriate quality of speech and voice, speaking audibly and clearly, and begin to vary the register according to the purpose and audience. • Comment on their own and others’ talk.

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English (Talking and listening)

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Northern Ireland

Tell a story using notes designed to cue. Identify some aspects of talk which vary between formal and informal occasions. Plan and manage a group task over time. Identify and use different question types. Reflect on how working in role helps to explore complex issues. Analyse the use of persuasive language. Present a spoken argument, sequencing points logically, defending views with evidence and making use of persuasive language. • Understand different ways to take the lead and support others in groups. • Recognise the impact of theatrical effects in drama.

Scotland

English (Listening, watching and talking)

C

• • • • • • • • • • •

vi

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

Listen and make notes. Work individually and in groups to produce short oral or written accounts of what they have heard. Be aware of their own role and that of others in one-to-one and group talk. Listen carefully to identify relevant information, ask and respond to questions, offer comments or opinions and recognise gestures and eye contact. Respond to texts using a discussion or dramatic approach and provide a personal response in writing. Discuss the different parts of stories, rhythm in poetry and structures of functional texts. Show an awareness of audience and their different needs. Convey information from a variety of sources and of increasing complexity. Be involved in group tasks in other curriculum areas. Express opinions and preferences confidently. Discuss and compare their own experiences to those depicted in texts. Prim-Ed Publishing

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CURRICULUM LINKS Subject

Level

Scotland

English (Listening, watching and talking)

D

Wales

English (Oracy)

KS 2

Objective • Listen to a range of functional items; for example, news and documentary materials from radio and television. • Listen to talks given by classmates and visiting adults. • Learn to ask questions appropriately. • Digest information and apply what they have learned. • Listen and respond in group discussions. • Sustain a line of argument or reasoning. • Offer and justify their own opinions, offer alternatives and raise issues. • Use language and terminology appropriate to the topic. • Recognise key points in a discussion. • Examine and assess the roles played by themselves and others. • Reflect on real-life situations and suggest resolutions. • Discuss the distinguishing features of different text types. • Show an awareness of standard English and dialect. • Offer and identify different points of view. • Convey information from a variety of sources and of increasing complexity. • Review and evaluate their own performance in providing for the needs of the listener. • Develop skills to disagree without antagonizing others. • Recognise the ideas of others’ and give them sympathetic consideration. • Prepares a talk which takes into account the purpose and needs of the audience. • Be aware of simple non-verbal skills. • Use drama to explore different situations. • Examine the diversity of spoken English, including slang.

Talk for a range of purposes. Communicate to different audiences. Listen and respond to a range of people. Make a range of contributions to discussions. Participate in a wide range of drama activities, including improvisation and role-play. Evaluate their own and others’ contributions in responding to drama. Identify and comment on key features of what they see and hear in a variety of media. Express themselves confidently and clearly. Organise what they want to say. Evaluate their own talk and reflect on how it varies. Listen carefully and recall and re-present important features of an argument, talk, presentation, reading, radio or television programme. Identify the gist of an account or the key points made in a discussion. Make contributions that are relevant. Listen to others, questioning them to clarify what they mean and extending and following up the ideas. Qualify or justify what they think after listening to other opinions or accounts. Deal politely with opposing points of view. Develop their appreciation and use of standard English, in particular the range of grammatical constructions and vocabulary characteristic of spoken standard English. Develop their understanding of the similarities and differences between written and spoken forms of English. Investigate how language varies according to context and purpose and between standard and dialect forms. Extend and enrich their vocabulary through activities that focus on words and their meanings. Speak with clear diction and appropriate intonation. Consider how formal contexts require particular choices of vocabulary. Use an increasingly varied vocabulary.

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Spe a k i n g a n d l i s t e n i n g a s s e s s m e n t p r o f o r m a Name

Class

Date

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Curriculum objective

Task(s)

Assessment

Demonstrated

Needs further opportunity

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The child:

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The child was asked to:

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

ix


FANCY WORDS!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Experience from the teacher a growing elaboration and sophistication in the use of vocabulary and sentence structure.

Activities covered

(e) Flammable – Watch the sparks from that fire – your pyjamas are flammable and you could go up in smoke! (f) Preside – As the teacher, I will preside over this class! (g) Hazard – Your skateboard, left in the middle of the path, is a hazard! (h) Affix – Please affix your race number to your shirt for the marathon. (i) Elect – We will need to elect a new class teacher! This one is too grumpy! (j) Loquacious – You girls are too loquacious – you will get no work done!

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• Listening to the teacher and writing down possible meanings of words • Discussing meanings of words • Writing what passage is about using everyday language • Pair work – choosing correct definitions • Pair work – writing sentences

Background information

Before the lesson

The teacher reads through the sentences and passage as preparation for the lesson. (See Answers section.)

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The class will be divided into pairs.

The lesson (Pages 4 and 5)

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The teacher reads sentences and children write down what they think the given words mean.

The class can discuss their answers together and correct any mistakes!

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The teacher reads a passage and children write down briefly, in everyday language, what they think the passage is all about. This can be discussed as a class. Pair work – Children circle what they think is the correct definition for each given word. Answers can be discussed as a class.

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Children use some of the new words in sentences of their own. Children can read some of their sentences to the class.

Answers

Sentences for the teacher to read. (Question 1 on the copymaster). (a) Refrain – Would you please refrain from talking! (b) Illegible – You will have to redo this work! Your writing is so illegible it may as well be Hebrew! (c) Skirmish – A skirmish between two teachers broke out on the field and the headteacher had to step in. (d) Lavish – It was a lavish dinner – even the cutlery was pure silver! 2

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

1. Meanings of words: (a) refrain – keep oneself from doing (b) illegible – unable to be read or deciphered (c) skirmish – brief or minor fight or argument (d) lavish – great in quality or riches (e) flammable – easily set on fire (f) preside – to be in charge (g) hazard – danger (h) affix – attach or fasten (i) elect – choose by voting (j) loquacious – talkative 2. Teacher check 3. (a) Passage for the teacher to read: My present profession is fraught with various anxieties. As an educator, I am constantly irked by children, who are both abominable and bothersome. I do so hanker for a submissive yet sophisticated group of youths. To be frank, my remuneration is a mere pittance for all I have to endure! (The teacher can explain that this is definitely not how he/she feels!) (b) Possible answers: The job I have at the moment involves different stresses. As a teacher, I am often annoyed by children who are bad or difficult. I long for an obedient and tasteful group of kids. To be honest, my pay is very small for all I have to put up with! 4. Teacher check 5. Collywobbles – (b) nervousness, Guffaw – (a) a noisy laugh, Piffle – (b) nonsense, Footle – (c) to act silly, Wrox – (b) rot, decay, Kibble – (a) a well’s bucket 6.–7. Teacher check

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Learning from the teacher is an ongoing process. The teacher must be aware of his/her own vocabulary and sentence structure, occasionally throwing in a difficult word. Hopefully, children will enquire what the word means. (If they don’t ask, tell them anyway!) All new words can be added to their wordbook.

Additional activities The teacher can read challenging sentences from the class reader and these can be discussed. The teacher can look up unusual vocabulary and share some words with the class www.phrontistery.info

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WHAT’S THEIR OPINION?

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Listen to opinions and interpretations and summarise them.

Activities covered

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Listening to the teacher giving an opinion Discussing and summarising the opinion Reading opinions Summarising opinions Identifying words Pair work – delivering summarised speech Assessing speech

Background information

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The purpose of this lesson is to get children to sum up other people’s opinions and to get the main idea of somebody’s opinion.

Before the lesson

The teacher should prepare a short speech on his/her opinion of something. The class will be divided into pairs.

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The lesson (Pages 6 and 7) Children listen to the opinions of the teacher on a topic.

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The class discusses the teacher’s opinion and gives a summary of it.

The words ‘opinion’ and ‘’summarise’ can be discussed here and their meanings written on the board.

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Children read the given opinions on their copymaster and summarise them in one sentence. Once enough time has been given, these answers are discussed as a class.

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Children read a headteacher’s speech and identify words that show the headteacher is angry. Pair work – Children summarise the given speech, in written and oral form. Children deliver the summarised speech to their partners. Children assess their speech.

Answers 1. Answers will vary; for example, (a) John does not like Italian food, especially pizza. (b) Shamila thinks football is a silly game. (c) Bridget cannot resist fizzy drinks. (d) Ainsley believes set bedtimes are a waste of time. 2. Teacher check 3. Mistake: ‘Fifthly’ should be ‘Fourthly’. Prim-Ed Publishing

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4. Words that show anger: behaving badly, abrupt end, revolting stuff, placed in your hair, grubby trainers, this rubbish, no more slang words, mouths washed out with soap etc. 5. Teacher check. Example of a summarised speech: There are going to be some rule changes in this school! Firstly, chewing gum is banned or it will go in your hair. Secondly, you have to wear proper school uniforms every day. Those who disobey and wear trainers will wear slippers. Thirdly, pupils must bring healthy snacks only, or they will eat broccoli for a week. Finally, pupils who use slang words will have their mouths washed out with soap. That is all. 6. Teacher check

Additional activities

Children can bring in CDs and song lyrics. Some of these can be listened to in class and the class can discuss what the writer of the song is saying. (Teachers must check song lyrics first!) Children can have a class discussion on the lyrics and their interpretations of them. Children can stand up in front of the class and talk for one minute on something they feel very strongly about. The class can then summarise their talk in one sentence. Children can read poetry that contains the author’s opinions. Children can interpret and discuss these opinions; for example, London-Tokyo by James Kirkup (travelling), Note to the hurrying man by Brian Patten, Dooley is a traitor by James Michie, or: Take it away There is something great, about takeaways for tea. They needn’t be fancy, or have courses of three. We collect our meal, in a brown paper bag, and strut down the street, as if to brag. Gourmet chefs needn’t have created our meal. We’ll settle for less, and think it’s a deal. But I think we play a very sad tune, when we prod our dinner, with a plastic spoon.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

3


Fancy words! 1

You are going to learn some

Listen to the teacher read some new words. Try to use them in your sentences and write down what writing and conversation! you think each word below means. (a) Refrain (b) Illegible (c) Skirmish (d) Lavish

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(e) Flammable

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(f) Preside (g) Hazard (i) Elect (j) Loquacious 2

Discuss your answers with the class. Correct the ones you got wrong!

This teacher is quite loquacious!

Indeed! I rather hanker for some peace and quiet.

(a) Listen to the teacher read this passage.

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(h) AfďŹ x

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My present profession is fraught with various anxieties. As an educator, I am constantly irked by children, who are both abominable and bothersome. I do so hanker for a submissive yet sophisticated group of youths. To be frank, my remuneration is a mere pittance for all I have to endure!

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(b) Rewrite the passage using everyday language.

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Discuss your answers with the class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Fancy words! Work with a partner. Guess what these strange words mean. Circle what you think is the correct definition. Collywobbles

Guffaw (a) a noisy laugh

(a) steal

(b) nervousness

(b) a silly man

(b) nonsense

(c) small lanes

(c) rubbish

(c) a pudding

Wrox (a) wrestle

(b) play fiddle

(b) rot, decay

(c) to act silly

(c) garden rockery

Kibble

(a) a well’s bucket (b) talk fast

(c) take short jumps

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(a) small shoe

Use some of the new words you have heard in this lesson in sentences of your own. (a) collywobbles

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(e) wrox

(b) guffaw

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(c) piffle

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(a) cuddly toys

Footle

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Piffle

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(d) footle

(f) kibble

(h)

(a) Circle the sentence you think is most interesting. (b) Read it to the class. (c) Rate your sentence out of five.

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

5


What’s t heir opinion? An opinion is a personal belief. In this lesson, you will be reading some opinions and you will have to summarise them. That means you must include only the most important information! Summarise the following opinions using one sentence.

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John

I really don’t like Italian food – especially pizza! All that dripping, melted cheese turns me cold and anchovies make me run a mile. It’s like eating a mishmash of food on top of crusty bread – yuck!

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I don’t know how you can like football. It’s a bunch of boys all chasing after a ball and falling over each other to get it. The whole exercise seems pointless to me, and as for all those rules, who could remember them all? I don’t know why people get so worked up about a silly game! Shamila

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I wish there was no such thing as fizzy drinks. I simply can’t help myself when I am in the shop and out of the corner of my eye, there they are, calling me. I just love most fizzy drinks, especially those loaded with sugar. They seem to give me energy and they taste so nice too! The only problem is that they are bad for me. I know I shouldn’t touch them, but I can’t resist! Bridget

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I think that kids should be able to go to bed whenever they like. I have a bedtime and although I go to bed, I don’t sleep at that time but lie awake for what seems like hours, bored out of my mind. It would be much better if I could go to bed when I was tired because then I would sleep straight away instead of wasting all that time counting sheep. Ainsley

(d) 2 6

Discuss your answers with your class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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What’s their opinion? 3

Read the following speech given by the headteacher.

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Now children, there are going to be a few rule changes around here! It has come to my attention that some children are behaving rather badly, and this is going to come to an abrupt end! First of all, there will be no more chewing gum allowed at school. Some of you have been spitting this revolting stuff all over the school, and should any of you get caught with chewing gum, it will be placed in your hair! Secondly, some of you are not sticking to wearing the correct school uniform. I have noticed some rather grubby trainers being worn and jumpers that may be part of the fashion, but are certainly not part of the uniform. Any pupils wearing trainers instead of the proper school shoes will be made to wear slippers for the entire day! Thirdly, I have noticed that some of you are not bringing healthy snacks to school. Do you want all your teeth to fall out? There will be no sweets or fizzy drinks allowed on these premises and pupils who insist on bringing this rubbish to school will be forced to eat broccoli for a whole week! Fifthly, and finally, for now, there will be no more slang words! Anyone caught not speaking formal English will have their mouths washed out with soap. That will be all! Write the mistake the headteacher has made.

Write the words or phrases that show the headteacher is angry.

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(a) Work with a partner to summarise the headteacher’s speech in a few sentences.

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(b) Take it in turns to present the summarised speech to your partner. 6

(a) Was your speech good? (b) Why/why not?

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

7


SWITCH IT ON!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Listen to radio broadcasts, discuss what has been learned and produce a short radio programme.

Activities covered

The lesson (Pages 10 and 11)

• Listening to the radio • Discussing radio • Pair work – answering questions about DJs and radio line-up • Group work – putting together a 10-minute radio show • Assessing radio show

Children listen to part of a radio broadcast. The teacher discusses with the children what they listened to. Children tick the components they heard.

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Children answer questions about the DJ and what qualities a DJ should have.

All answers will be discussed as a class.

Group work – Children put together a 10-minute radio show and present it to the class. Children can choose any aspects, as long as they have a few that are different; for example, local news, an advert, local announcements, brief discussion time, weather, film review. Children should make rough notes of what they are saying.

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Children need the opportunity to listen to the radio, which is something that may not be familiar to all of them. The television has become more popular and children are used to having the visual aspect. Radio can be used most effectively as a listening tool and should be used in more than just this lesson. Sometimes, even having the radio on softly in the background as children work can create a calming atmosphere in the classroom, especially in lessons such as art. Children get the opportunity in this lesson to present to the class something they have prepared. The teacher should organise a screen for this lesson so that the participants cannot be seen. This should give the speakers more confidence and the audience will have to focus on what is being said. Children need to be aware of the different components of radio broadcasting and these can be discussed as a class once the children have listened to part of a radio programme.

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Children look at part of a radio line-up and answer questions about it.

Background information

Answers

Before the lesson

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1. Teacher check 2. (a) Teacher check (b) disc jockey (c) Answers will vary; for example; A DJ should be friendly, up to date with the latest news, be able to converse easily, be spontaneous, be very punctual, enjoy talking to people, have knowledge of music, be confident, have a strong voice, have the ability to work under pressure etc. 3. (a) twice (b) 3.30 Local discussion – Have your say (c) 3.00 (d) Answers will vary (e) Crimes that have been recently committed, suspects wanted (f) 4.05 Book news 4–6. Teacher check

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The teacher will need to record part of a radio programme for the children to listen to. Alternatively, the teacher can check the radio line-ups and choose an appropriate time to simply listen to a programme. The teacher will need to organise some sort of screen so that the groups can present their radio show without being seen.

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The teacher can organise a microphone (if possible). The class will be divided into pairs and groups.

Additional activities Children can record their radio show, listen to it themselves, and decide how it can be improved upon. They can then record the improved version. Children can look at the website of their local radio station. Children can discuss the differences between radio and television. Children can compare line-ups of both. Children can read the poem All night DJ by Steve Turner.

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Follow detailed instructions or directions in order to test their accuracy.

Answers

• Following directions on a map • Assessing the accuracy of directions • Pair work – orally giving partner directions on map and within school • Following directions given orally • Writing directions

1. (a) No – you end up in Cereal Road. Lion Lane is the third turning, not the second. (b) Yes – Paul’s petrol station is on the left. 2–6. Teacher check

Children could look at road maps of their own area and follow the journey from home to school. Children can look at different road signs and make up some of their own.

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The teacher needs to discuss with the children words that we use when we give directions; for example, left, right, straight, south, north etc. It must be emphasised that children have to be clear and concise when they give directions. As a challenge, children should make their directions complicated for their partners!

In pairs, children could give each other instructions on how to do simple origami. Look at this website for ideas: www.enchantedlearning.com/crafts/origami

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Background information

Additional activities

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Activities covered

Before the lesson Children will be divided into pairs.

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The lesson (Pages 12 and 13)

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The teacher can check the instructions (Question 4 on the sheet) to see where the children should end up, and to make sure they are not landing in the middle of a road! (Teachers may need to adapt the instructions if they direct the children to an unsuitable place.)

The teacher can discuss with the class words that we use when giving directions.

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Children follow the written directions on the map and assess whether they are accurate. Pair work – Children give each other complicated directions to get to a certain point on the map (orally).

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Children follow given directions on the sheet to see where they will end up. (Children could go out in pairs from the start of the lesson to avoid a rush.) Still in pairs, children give directions to their partner to get to a particular place in the school (first writing it on their copymaster). As homework, children write directions as to where given items can be found in their own homes, to test parents/siblings.

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

9


Switch it on!

2

You will need to listen to part of a radio programme for this lesson.

Tick the items that you heard. news

competitions

adverts

music

discussion

interviews

traffic update

weather

announcements

(a) Who was the DJ?

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(c) What qualities do you think a DJ should have?

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(b) What does ‘DJ’ stand for?

Look at the following radio line-up and answer the questions with your partner. Play radio 4

(FM92.4-94.6) 12.00 News headlines, Shipping forecast 12.04 You and your pet

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12.57 Weather

3.00

Announcements

3.15

Competition time

3.30

Local discussion – Have your say

4.00

News headlines

Crimewatch

1.30

Famous quotes

4.05

Book news

2.00

Gardener’s question time

4.15

Film reviews

2.15

Thinking time – Can you solve this puzzle?

4.30

Politics

2.30

Your music requests

5.00

Today’s drama

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(a) How many times could you listen to the news from 12.00 to 5.00? (b) If you wished to complain about something in your town, on which programme could you do it?

(e) What do you think the programme at 1.00 is all about?

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(c) At which time might you hear a funeral notice? (d) Write down one question you could ask on the programme at 12.04.

(f) Which programme would feature news about a recent novel?

Discuss your answers with your class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Switch it on! 5

Work as a group to put together a 10-minute radio programme to present to the class. (a) Each member of the group must be doing something. List the job that each group member will do. Job

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Name

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(b) Use this space to write notes on your job. Use your notes as prompts when you perform your part.

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Remember! Your voice should be clear and friendly!

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(c) Practise your programme and perform it to the class. Try to perform your programme behind a screen so the audience can’t see you!

Did you know? The ďŹ rst radio signal was sent and received by Italian inventor, Marconi, in Italy in 1895.

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6

(a) How well did your group perform? (A is the best!) A

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(b) How could you improve your radio programme?

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

11


Follow the directions!

Follow these directions. Show whether they are accurate or not.

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Walk out of the Kerrylin general store and turn right. Walk along St. Wiklow Road until you reach the park. Turn left and walk down Gillian Street. Take the second turning on the left. You should be in Lion Lane.

Are these directions accurate?

yes

yes

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Are these directions accurate? no

Why?

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Walk out of St. Patrick’s school onto Rose Hill. Walk along Rose Hill and turn right onto Lion Lane. At the end of Lion Lane, turn right onto Gillian Street, then left onto Dorrun Drive. Continue along Dorrun Drive until you reach Dorfner Crescent. Paul’s petrol station should be on your left.

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In this lesson, you are going to follow and give directions. Look at the map.

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Why?

Work with a partner. Take it in turns to orally give and follow directions. (a) Give directions to get to the Jamlin Centre from the petrol station. (b) Give directions to get to McGovern pub from the post office.

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Remember! Be clear with your directions before you give them!

Give your partner complicated instructions to get to a certain point on the map. Did he/she get to the correct place?

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Follow the directions! 4

Walk out of your classroom and turn left. Take 6 steps and then turn right, take 4 steps and turn left. Take 7 steps backwards. Turn around and take 10 steps forwards. Turn right and take 3 big strides, and then turn left and take 12 tiny steps. Where are you?

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Work with a partner.

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(a) One person must explain how to get to a particular place in the school. Make your directions difficult, even if it means your partner is going in circles to get there! Write your directions below:

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(c) Swap roles!

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(b) Once you have finished explaining, your partner must go and find the place. (d) Did your partner end up in the correct place?

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Explain where the following can be found in your house. Write which starting point you will use here.

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yes

My starting point is

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(a) the bath towels

(b) the cutlery

(c) your socks

Homework Test your instructions on a member of your family. Were your instructions accurate enough for him/her to follow correctly? Prim-Ed Publishing

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

13


DESCRIBE IT!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Give descriptions of objects.

Guessing identity of objects from written descriptions Writing descriptions Group work – writing descriptions with given headings Reading descriptions to the class Listening to descriptions to identify mystery objects

Background information

The class can play I spy in groups, describing objects in the room; others must guess what they are. Children can record their descriptions and listen to them, and then try to improve on them.

Before the lesson The class will be divided into groups.

The teacher can have examples of descriptions using the aforementioned headings. (See the example for chocolate cake in the Answers section.)

The teacher can display headings for future writing tasks; for example, texture, smell, taste, size.

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Children read descriptions on their copymaster and guess the objects. Children write descriptions of given objects and share them orally with the class.

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Group work – Children describe objects that can be found in the given places. Children must use the given headings. Children orally give their descriptions to the class. The class guesses what the objects are.

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Answers

1. (a) coin (b) slice of bread (c) cat (d) school (e) train 2. (a) I have gills and scales and can only breathe underwater. (b) I am a place where people live. I can be one storey or more. (c) I am in charge of a classroom. (Most of the time!) (d) I keep milk, cheese and yoghurt cold.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

The teacher can bring ‘feely bags’ to school. These can be dark carrier bags or pillowcases and can have different textured objects in them. Children can describe these objects in their groups.

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The lesson (Pages 16 and 17)

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Additional activities

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The teacher can explain to children how we could describe objects by colour, size, shape, texture, smell and taste, if appropriate. These headings can be displayed in the classroom and the children can then use them in their writing when describing objects or places.

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3–6. Teacher check. For example; Chocolate cake Size – can be about the same size as a dinner plate Shape – usually round Colour – brown Smell – delicious Taste – sweet Texture – soft, moist

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Activities covered

Children can read any type of descriptive poetry; for example, Esther’s tomcat by Ted Hughes, The ghost teacher by Allan Ahlberg, or (about Christmas): Season’s great things Christmas shoppers, running in and out of tinselled haunts, clutching secret lists, Wondering how the budget will stretch that far. People, once human, lost in the spirit of reindeer and snowmen. Cheery carols measuring the tempo of their jingle-footed steps. The rain beats down outside, washing away guilt and sense. But inside is warm, and somewhere, well camouflaged in the ribbons, bows and glitter, lurks the real meaning of it all. Only now they are oblivious, and the crazed search continues, every item ticked and wrapped. Until behold, on the morning, each peace-offering is presented, accompanied with a smile and real warmth, the mad dash forgotten and forgiven, and, at last, a prayer whispered.

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WATCH YOUR TONE!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Be aware of the importance of tone of voice, gesture and facial expression in communicating with others.

Answers

• • • • •

The teacher can tell the children: When you are speaking, think of the following: the pace at which you are speaking, your pitch (no monotones!), vary the ‘power’ in your voice, and don’t have a negative tone in your voice! Your conversation will sound like music to your listener’s ears! (These points can be displayed in the classroom to remind children.)

Background information

Sa m

Our tone of voice gives much away about how we feel. It is good for children to know this, not only so that they can use an appropriate tone of voice, but also so that they may be able to ‘read’ the tone of voice of others.

1. Teacher check 2. No, because the child is being cheeky and disrespectful. 3–4. Teacher check 5. Answers will vary; for example: (a) I am so in love with you, honey. (loving, gentle tone of voice) (b) I am so afraid to see my boss! (nervous, scared tone of voice) (c) Clean up this messy room! ( angry tone of voice) (d) That boy over there called me a mean name! (upset tone of voice)

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Saying a sentence in different tones Discussing appropriate and inappropriate tone Pair work – saying sentences in different tones Having a telephone conversation Looking at pictures of faces for expression, to guess what they are saying and the tone they are using

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Activities covered

Before the lesson

The teacher can tape different adverts or parts of programmes and allow children to listen for different tones of voice. (Optional)

Additional activities

The class will be divided into pairs.

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The lesson (Pages 18 and 19)

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If the teacher has taped adverts or parts of programmes, these can be watched and discussed. Children can identify different tones of voice and when they are used. The teacher can discuss with the children how the tone in our voice communicates how we feel.

Children can cut out pictures of faces (from magazines or newspapers) and write a suitable caption to go with each, based on the facial expressions. Children can also write what tone of voice would be used.

Children can read different poems using an appropriate tone of voice; for example, Please Mrs. Butler by Allan Ahlberg or (in an angry voice):

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As a class, children read a given sentence in different tones. The class discuss appropriate and inappropriate tones.

Not me!

Pair work – Children say given sentences, choosing a tone of voice, and their partners must guess how they are feeling. The teacher should go through the list of words to make sure all children understand the meanings.

Why do you look at me? Please look away. I have nothing to give you, And nothing to say.

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Pair work – Children practise the given telephone conversations, concentrating on correct tone of voice. Children fill in speech balloons and write the tone of voice they think is being used.

You think you are ‘neighbourly’, So saccharine sweet. With armfuls of praises, Your image complete. I don’t want your presence, Role play’s not fun. The imaginary knots Will soon be undone. So don’t even glance at me, Don’t come my way. Guess what! Without you, I’ll trudge through my day.

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15


Describe it! Guess what these objects are.

(a) I am round and hard to the touch. Along the outer edge, I can have ridges. I have a number, and I bet you’d like to have a lot of me! I am a

(b) I am often square and sometimes people cut me in half. I often have delicious things on me like cheese, ham and tomato. I can be brown or white.

(c) I have fur and whiskers. I purr when I am happy.

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I am a

(d) I am a place where children come five days a week. I am full of books. I am a

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I am a

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I am cute and soft, yet some people scream when they see me!

(e) I take people from place to place. I have many wheels and my doors slide open. I travel on a track. I am a

2

How would you describe these?

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(b) A house

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(a) A fish

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(c) A teacher (be nice!)

(d) A fridge

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Read some of your descriptions to the class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Describe it! 4

Work as a group. (a) Choose an object that can be found in your classroom. Describe the object using the headings below.

Remember! Use the same headings in your descriptive writing!

Object you’ve chosen: Size: Shape: Colour:

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Smell: Texture:

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(c) Did the class guess correctly?

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(b) Read your description to the class and see if they can guess what it is. Don’t make it too obvious!

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Taste:

(a) Choose an object that can be found in your school. Describe the object using the headings below. Object you’ve chosen: Size: Colour: Smell:

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Taste:

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Shape:

Texture:

(c) Did the class guess correctly?

(a) Choose an object that might be found in a kitchen. Describe the object using the headings below.

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(b) Read your description to the class and see if they can guess what it is. Don’t make it too obvious!

Object you’ve chosen: Size:

Shape:

Colour: Smell: Taste: Texture: (b) Read your description to the class and see if they can guess what it is. Don’t make it too obvious! Prim-Ed Publishing

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(c) Did the class guess correctly? SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Watch your tone! As a class, say the following sentence in a kind tone, an angry tone and a pleading tone. ‘Please complete your homework.’

Sometimes, the tone of voice we use is inappropriate. When we speak to adults, we should have a respectful tone. 2

Do you think this is appropriate? Why/Why not?

3

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Well, Mrs. Googley, I think that giving us homework tonight would be completely unfair, as it is the weekend and we need time to relax. I really think you should know better!

The tone in our voice can give a lot of information about how we feel.

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Work with a partner.

(a) Use different tones of voice to read the statements in the table. Your partner must guess how you are feeling. (b) Write the tone of voice you used alongside each statement in the table. Statement

Tone of voice

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‘This history is too difficult.’

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‘Yes, you can come to my party.’

‘I think you should wear the white shirt.’ ‘I can’t wait to get home.’

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‘Aunt Nora is coming for tea.’ ‘Please help me lift this box.’

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Ideas for different tones: angry, happy, bored, excited, nervous, tired, shy, embarrassed, indifferent, sarcastic, terrified, sad

(c) You could probably guess how your partner was feeling by his/her tone of voice. However, did you also guess how your partner was feeling because of his/her facial expressions or gestures? Remember! The tone in your voice says a lot! Why?

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Watch your tone! Our tone of voice is important when we speak on the telephone, because the other person is not able to see our facial expressions or gestures. 4

(a) Think about the tone of voice used by each person in these telephone conversations. Write notes to help you. Enquire from a shop whether they have a book or game you would like to buy. Shopkeeper

You

Aunt

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You

Thank an aunt for £10.00 that she sent you for your birthday.

Apologise to a friend for something you did to upset them.

Friend

You

Parents

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You

Ask your parents if you can spend the night at your friend’s house.

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(b) Practise these telephone conversations. Sit back-to-back with your partner so that you cannot see each other’s faces. As well as tone of voice, facial expression and gesture tell a lot about how a person is feeling. Look at these people. Imagine how they are feeling. Write what you think they might be saying and what tone of voice they are using.

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(b)

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(a)

Tone of voice:

(c)

Tone of voice: (d)

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Tone of voice: SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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BODY LANGUAGE

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Be aware of the importance of body language in communicating with others.

Background information

Additional activities

Children can display cut-outs from magazines, newspapers, flyers, adverts etc. with people showing body language. These pictures should be labelled.

Sa m

Just as the tone in our voice gives away a lot about how we are feeling, so too does our body language. This lesson is not intended for children to learn the different aspects of body language, but rather just to make them aware that they are sometimes sending signals without saying anything!

Before the lesson The class will be divided into pairs.

Children can read poetry and use body language to express the feelings in the poem. For example, children can read the following poem and discuss and show what Bill’s body language is saying.

The teacher can have other examples of body language.

Cancelled

The lesson (Pages 22 and 23)

Bill stood on the platform, his train was nearly there. His suit dry-cleaned, his suitcase new, he’d even combed his hair.

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As a class, children show the different emotions stated on their copymaster. Children guess and write how people could be feeling.

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Pair work – Children show their partner how they are feeling by using body language only. The partner must guess the emotion they are trying to show. Children circle the feelings that were hard to show.

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Children, still in pairs, show the given statements using body language only. Children fill in speech balloons to match the body language being shown.

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Answers

1. Teacher check 2. Answers will vary; for example: (a) ashamed/embarrassed/suprised/shocked (b) lonely/sad/worried (c) nervous/determined (d) puzzled/confused/grumpy/angry/irritated/annoyed (e) woman: loving/pleased man: nervous/embarrassed/worried (f) happy/pleased/excited

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• Practising different forms of body language • Guessing how people are feeling • Pair work – showing different emotions through body language • Filling in speech balloons to match body language

3–4. Teacher check 5. Answers will vary; for example: (a) He went that way!/Come this way! (b) How dare you say that! (c) Stop! (d) Bye! See you soon./Hello! Lovely to see you. (e) Oh, no! I don’t believe it! (f) I know the answer!

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Activities covered

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

He’d planned it all meticulously, and his time had come. He looked both ways and then again, minutes he had just some. He searched for the sign of a hurtling coach, sweeping to whisk him away, and deposit him in the land of honey to forever stay. The time marched steadily on. He really needed this ride. He started to feel self-conscious, but there was nowhere he could hide. Seconds and minutes clicked over. It could be a minor delay. He richly deserved this journey, he’d been dreaming of this day. Silence filled the station, as hours and hours slurred past. The sun would soon be going down, and shadows it did cast. Bill stood on the platform, as his hopes blurred out of sight. Clutching his case, Bill trudged home, through the darkness of the night.

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LET’S MIME!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Use mime to convey ideas and communicate.

Activities covered

Answers

• • • • • •

1.

Answers will vary; for example, To mime is to act without words – actions are often exaggerated to give meaning. 2–6. Teacher check

Additional activities

Children can mime poetry; for example:

Sa m

Mime should have been covered in the previous years, but the teacher can recap what mime is. The teacher can also remind children that actions need to be exaggerated and that no talking is allowed! Children should recognise mime as a form of communication.

The teacher can set aside another lesson in which the children are doing a completely different subject, and the children must mime all the way through the lesson – no speaking allowed whatsoever. It should be a quiet lesson!

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Background information

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Defining what mime is Discussing mime Drawing pictures Presenting mime to the class Answering questions Having a class vote

Before the lesson

The teacher can have examples of situations the children can mime. This can be done at the start of the lesson to give children greater understanding.

The lesson (Pages 24 and 25)

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The teacher discusses with the children what mime is. Children write a definition of mime on the copymaster.

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Children draw a series of pictures to show how an activity could be mimed. Children must draw only the person and not add objects to the pictures!

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Children practise their mime. All the children who chose ‘shopping for clothes’ should perform their mime to the class, then the children who chose ‘making a cup of tea’ and, finally, the children who chose ‘washing and drying your hair’. Children think of two TV characters they could mime and answer questions about how these characters could be mimed.

The Olympics

The Olympics I watch with wonder and awe, The events are great, but I wish there were more! Cleaning my room should be an item, It needs discipline and speed. If staying spotless was a chosen event, I don’t think I’d take the lead. Being kind to my bratty sister, Takes ruthlessness and skill, And staying out of the cookie jar, Requires an iron will. Eating greens is an experience, Pushing limits to the end, And kissing smelly relatives, Could take you round the bend! Listening to a teacher, What a challenge that can be! Focusing on ancient Greeks, Should earn a medal or three. So, you think you could never compete, In the best sport stories told? But, if these were on the agenda, Would you take home a gold?

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Children choose one character and practise and present their mime to the class. The class can vote for the best mime. Children must write down why they think this chosen mime was the best. Children can discuss how they could improve their mime.

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Body language Look at the following possible signs of body language, and show them.

lots of eye contact nodding high blink rate Let me go feet towards door looking around buttoning jacket

2

Bored staring into space slumped posture doodling foot tapping

ďŹ nger tapping foot tapping staring

Eager

DeďŹ ant

(sprint position)

(standing) hands on hips frown

open legs feet under chair on toes leaning forward

Lying

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head tilted

Let me speak

Defensive

touches face

(standing)

shifts in seat

hand over mouth

feet pointing in

pulls ear

looks down and to left

hands clenched

eyes down

glances at you

Your body language speaks volumes!

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Listening

We can communicate with someone by saying nothing at all!

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1

Look at the body language of these people. Write how you think they are feeling. (b)

(c)

(e)

(f)

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(a)

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Body language 3

Work with a partner. (a) Take it in turns to try to communicate one of the following emotions without speaking. (Don’t do them in order!) (b) Your partner must guess which emotion you are feeling. anger, joy, doubt, nervousness, jealousy, fear, boredom, excitement, confusion, tiredness, guilt, irritation, pride, stress, love, contentment, relief, shame

4

!

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(b) Com

Which was easiest to show?

(d) I’m

OK.

Which was hardest to show?

Why?

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Why?

(c) I don’t know!

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(a) Leave me alone!

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Communicate the following to your partner, without speaking.

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(c) Circle the feelings that were difficult to show.

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(a)

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Look at the body language of these people. Write what you think they might be saying. (b)

(d)

(e)

(f)

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(c)

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23


Let’s mime! 1

What is mime?

2

Choose one of the topics below. shopping for clothes

washing and drying your hair

making a cup of tea

(b)

(c)

(e)

(f)

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(d)

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(a)

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Draw a series of pictures to show how your choice could be mimed.

3

Practise your mime. Perform your mime for the class.

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Remember! When you mime, your actions must be exaggerated. Prim-Ed Publishing

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Let’s mime! 4

(a) Think of a TV character you can mime for the class. They must guess who you are. • Which TV character are you?

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• What actions will you use?

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(b) Think of a different TV character you can mime for the class. They must guess who you are. • Which TV character are you?

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• What actions will you use?

Did the class guess who you were?

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(c) Choose one of these characters. Practise your mime before you perform it for the class. no

Have a class vote for the best mime. (a) Which character won?

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(b) Why was this mime the best?

Did you know? A person who performs mime is called a mime artist.

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25


EVERY PAINTING TELLS A STORY

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Interpret mood, attitude and emotion in paintings.

Activities covered

This information can be displayed with their picture.

• • • • • •

Children should make an oral presentation of their work to the class, combining a showing of their artwork, information researched about the artist and their opinion on the mood/ emotion of the painting.

Discussing a painting as a class and group Answering questions Discussing answers to questions Painting a picture Researching information on an artist Making an oral presentation

Additional activities

The teacher can organise a trip to an art gallery.

The class must look at different photos—from magazines, newspapers etc.—and have a class vote for the best photo, using different categories such as best scenery, most unusual, best action shot, best colour etc.

Sa m

This lesson allows children to look at the different paintings and to look at the mood and atmosphere they convey. They will have the opportunity to see the paintings in a different way, and look beyond the obvious. This lesson should include much discussion.

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Teacher check

Background information

Before the lesson

The class will be divided into groups.

Children can bring photographs from home, show the class and briefly tell everyone something about the photo. The class must decide on the mood of the photo. Have a photographic exhibition using children’s photos, getting them to write captions about the mood of their photo. Children can look at abstract art and discuss it. Children can look at various websites on art and artists.

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The teacher can have a series of copies of famous paintings showing different art and artists. The teacher should choose one painting to be discussed by the class and another painting for the children to answer questions about in their groups, and which can then be discussed as a class. The painting must be suitable for the questions on the copymaster.

Children can copy the styles of different artists. Children can choose a mood and paint/draw something that depicts it.

The teacher can look at websites and have them available for the children to look at; for example, www.abcgallery.com and www.vangoghgallery.com

Children can listen to various types of music and draw a different picture for each. Children can then discuss the differences in drawings, and how the mood of the music may have affected their drawings.

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The teacher must give each group a copy of the same painting, in colour if the original was in colour.

Children must be given time to research an artist and decide which painting they are going to copy.

The lesson (Pages 28 and 29)

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The teacher discusses a chosen painting with the class; for example, The Mona Lisa. Why is it so famous? What do you think makes it so special? What techniques have been used? The class can look at other famous paintings and discuss them, using the questions on the sheet. Group work – Each group receives a copy of the painting (the same painting) and children answer the questions on the copymaster. The groups discuss their answers with the class. Children can look at websites and/or books showing different art and artists. Children must choose one of their favourite paintings and try to copy it. Children must research and write a little bit of information about their artist and why they chose this painting to copy.

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Answers

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

Children can look at mood in literature and poetry; for example, Death in Leamington by John Betjeman, or children can look at how mood changes in this poem: Going home This morning when we were driving to school, The landscape looked dreary, the journey uncool. The sheep appeared lonely, the cattle looked glum, You’d know by the trees, winter had come. The sky was so dull, and the sun out of sight, There was nothing on earth that could make me feel bright. The air, it was freezing, I felt a big chill, The lakes looked so frozen, deathly and still. The birds, they seemed heavy, struggling to fly, The world seemed to buckle from the weight of the sky. But driving back home was a whole different scene! A breath of fresh air that felt wholesome and clean. The mountains looked wondrous, their peaks topped with snow, The sky although grey had a kind of a glow. The animals in fields looked calm and content, The gloom of the day just got up and went.

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WHAT’S THE MOOD?

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Interpret mood, attitude and emotion in advertisements.

Activities covered

Answers

• Watching adverts on TV, answering questions and giving opinions • Reading newspaper/magazine adverts, answering questions and giving opinions • Group work – making a TV advert • Presenting the advert to the class • Giving a score for performance

Answers will vary

Additional information

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The teacher can videotape the children performing their adverts. Children can critically assess their work and improve on it.

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Children can make up jingles for given products.

Children can look at websites; for example, www.pbskids.org/dontbuyit (getting media smart)

Background information

Children can display different adverts, adding captions and commenting on the mood/atmosphere displayed.

Sa m

It is easy to sit and stare at adverts and not realise what we are watching. This lesson makes children think about what they are watching by assessing the mood and emotion of the advert. Hopefully they will learn to think critically about advertising.

Children can bring adverts to school. In groups, they can look at the different aspects of the adverts they have brought in. Children can create an advert about their school.

Before the lesson

The teacher must prepare a tape with various different adverts, showing emotions and moods. The class will be divided into groups.

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The children must bring to school an advert they have cut out of a magazine or newspaper. This can be given for homework the night before the lesson.

The lesson (Pages 30 and 31)

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Children watch a tape of TV adverts that the teacher has brought. Children answer questions on their copymaster. These answers and all the adverts are discussed with the class.

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Children attach a newspaper or magazine advert to their copymaster. Children answer questions about this advert. Group work – Children make an advert for TV, with each member in the group having a part to play. The teacher points out that the advert shouldn’t be long and must convey particular moods, attitudes and emotions. The group presents the advert to the class. The class decides what moods, attitudes and emotions are being conveyed. The group must assess their advert.

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27


Ever y painting tells a stor y 1

Work as a group. Look at the painting you have been given. Discuss and answer these questions.

Writing, painting, sculpting and music are all forms of expression.

(a) What is the scene depicted?

(b) What is the mood of the painting?

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(c) What do you think the people might be saying?

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(d) What noises might they be hearing?

(e) Is there anyone in the painting showing a distinct attitude? Who?

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(f) What emotions might the people in the painting be feeling? Why?

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(g) Write down clues that tell you what time period the painting is from.

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(h) What might have driven the artist to paint this?

(i) Do you like the painting? Why/Why not?

2

Discuss all your answers with the class. Find out! Where is your closest art gallery?

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

Did you know? The lady in The Mona Lisa has no eyebrows. This is not so unusual as it was a fad during this period to shave your eyebrows! Prim-Ed Publishing

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Ever y painting tells a stor y Art is a form of communication. 3

Choose an artist and a painting he or she has produced. Artist: Painting: Create your own painting, in a style similar to your artist. Your painting won’t look exactly like his or her style, but try your best to copy it! Give your painting its own title. Don’t forget to sign your name at the bottom of your painting!

5

Research some information about your chosen artist and write notes below.

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4

Write some notes on why you chose this artist and painting to copy.

7

Write some notes on the mood, attitude and emotion in the chosen painting.

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Information about my chosen artist

8

Use these notes to make an oral presentation about your artist to the class. Your presentation needs to: •

show your artwork

contain information about the artist

include your opinion about the mood of the painting.

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29


What’s the mood? 1

Do you just stare unthinkingly at adverts? Well, don’t! Be aware of what you are watching!

Watch the adverts the teacher has brought in. (a) Choose one advert that you watched. (b) What product was being advertised? (c) What emotions did you see? yes

no

Cut out an advert from the newspaper or a magazine and glue it at the bottom of this page. (a) What product is being advertised? (b) What emotions does it show? (c) Do you think it is a good advert?

yes

no

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Why?

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Why?

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(d) Do you think it is a good advert?

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Glue the advert here

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What’s the mood? 3

Look at this newspaper advert.

Betty’s Burger Bar For the best home-made burgers money can buy.

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Betty’s burgers are grilled, not fried and are made with the freshest of ingredients. So they’re healthy, too!

4

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Special prices for kids under 12.

Work with your group to adapt this newspaper advert and make it into a TV advert. Remember, time costs money, so you want your advert to be short but effective! Think about:

(a) What part will each person in the group play? •

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in

(b) What moods, attitudes and emotions do you want to convey? How will you achieve these? Moods

Emotions

Attitudes

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(a) Present your advert to the class.

(b) Give yourself a score out of 10.

(c) How could you improve your advert?

10 Remember! Watch adverts with a critical eye!

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31


NOISY HUMANS!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Discuss how sound effects enhance the content of sound tapes, videos and films.

Activities covered

Answers

• • • • • •

Example of noises the teacher can tell the class to make together: We can whistle. We can mumble. We can laugh. We can hiccup. We can burp. (You’re not polite!) We can cry. We can sigh. We can yawn. We can blow. We can sing. We can cough. 1. (a)–(b) Teacher check (c) To make it more exciting, catchy, memorable, attention-grabbing etc. 2. (a) when we are hurt (b) when we don’t like or approve of something (c) when we are thinking of or eating something we enjoy (d) when we are angry (e) when we want quiet (f) when we are asleep 3. Answers will vary, but could include: (a) La! La! La! (b) Boo Hoo! (c) Grrr! (d) Ow! 4. Teacher check 5–6. sounds to be underlined: sizzling, windy sound, slamming, clicking, whooshing, washing, bleeping, whirr, scratching 7–8. Teacher check

Background information

Sa m

The lesson allows children to focus on music and sound effects and what impact these have. Children get the opportunity to make some noise themselves! The teacher can discuss sound effects in adverts and play adverts in class, first with the sound, then without. Sound effects make adverts/poems/stories etc. more interesting, catchy, memorable or exciting.

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Making sounds as a class Discussing sound effects Answering questions Discussing all answers with the class Reading a poem as a class Making sounds as a class

Before the lesson

The lesson (Pages 34 and 35)

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The teacher must have prepared a tape with adverts, parts of films and parts of TV programmes, all incorporating sound effects and music.

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The teacher instructs the class to make the given noises. (An unusual request! The Answers section has examples).

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The teacher shows the class the tape with adverts, films etc. all with sound effects and music. The teacher can play the tape with no sound, and then add the sound the second time. Children comment on the difference. The teacher discusses with the class the effect the sound effects and/or music have. Children can think of other examples where sound effects and music are used.

Additional activities The teacher can discuss ‘waiting room’ music and other places where music is used. Children can make animal noises – Old McDonald had a farm is suitable for this, using other animals as well! Children can write their own sound poems. Children can read poetry and add sound effects; for example, What’s that noise? by Steve Turner, The sound collector by Roger McGough or Innocence by Steve Turner.

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Children answer questions on their copymaster. Children write when we might make the given sounds. Children write the sounds the characters in the illustrations might be making. Children discuss all their answers with the class. Children read a poem together as a class, making appropriate sound effects. Children make other noises as a class. Children think of other everyday sounds.

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QUITE AN HONOUR!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Listen to authors reading and discussing their own work.

Activities covered

Answers

• Listening to an author (prior to this lesson) • Answering questions • Discussing answers

Teacher check

Additional activities The teacher could invite a poet to the class/school.

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Children could, as a class, write a thank you letter to the author who visited. Children can look at websites of their favourite authors; for example: Hans Christian Andersen – http://hca.gilead.org.il Roald Dahl – www.roalddahl.com or www.roalddahlfans.com

Sa m

It would be very beneficial for children to have an author come to the class/school and discuss his/her work. It would give children the opportunity to ask the author questions and would make the whole concept of reading books more ‘real’. Some of the author’s work should be read and fully discussed prior to the visit.

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Background information

Before the lesson

The teacher needs to acquire an author! The teacher can contact the local Arts Council or, alternatively, look on publishers’ websites.

Jacqueline Wilson – www.randomhouse.co.uk/childrens/ jacquelinewilson/home.htm JK Rowling – www.jkrowling.com

The class needs to read and discuss the author’s work – style of writing, plot, characters, mood etc.

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The lesson (Pages 36 and 37)

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The class can decide what questions they would like to ask the author. Questions can include what it’s like to be an author, time spent writing, the publishing process etc.

An author visits the school, discusses his/her work and perhaps reads excerpts from his/her writing. Children are encouraged to ask questions.

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Children answer questions on their copymaster.

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Children discuss the author’s visit and their own answers to the questions.

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Noisy humans! Sound effects and music are used in films, adverts, TV programmes, poetry, stories and even in waiting rooms! 1

Watch the tape the teacher has brought in and answer these questions. (a) Write down a film/TV programme/advert that uses sound effects.

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(b) What sound effects does it use?

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When might we make these sounds? (a) Ouch! (b) Yuck! (c) Mmm... (d) Grrrr!

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Look at these pictures and add suitable sounds. (b)

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(a)

Zzz!

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(f)

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(e) Shh!

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(c) Why are sound effects used?

(c)

(d)

Shhhh!

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Discuss all your answers with the class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Noisy humans! 5

Read the following poem together as a class. Make the sounds!

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The sizzling of burgers, in the frying pan The windy sound of the extractor fan. The slamming of the cupboard door, The clicking of heels on the tiled floor. The dishwasher whooshing and washing away, The microwave bleeping and having its say. The whirr of the fridge with its good things inside, The scratching of a mouse trying to hide. This place is special with its noise and sound, the comfiest place I’ve ever found.

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My kitchen

Write the sounds in the poem.

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As a class, try to make the following sounds. A person eating spaghetti

(f)

a kettle boiling

(b)

a washing machine

(g)

a fire

(c)

a train

(h)

a printer

(d)

a squeaky door

(i)

water running

(e)

a firework

(j)

a dog growling

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(a) Make other everyday sounds we hear.

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(b) Write a list of the sounds you were able to make well.

Did you know? Noise level is measured in decibels. A quiet room is about 40 decibels while a pneumatic chipper is about 100. How many decibels does your teacher have to put up with? Prim-Ed Publishing

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35


Quite an honour! You were very fortunate to have an author come and speak to you! 1

Fill in all the details you discovered about the author.

Author information Name of author

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Country of birth

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Place of residence

Title of some books written

Type of books written

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Title of favourite book written

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Number of books written

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How long has he/she been writing for?

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Where does the author get his/her ideas from?

Publisher of author’s books

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What else did you ďŹ nd out about the author?

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Quite an honour! 3

What did you find most interesting about the author’s visit?

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Write one good thing and one bad thing about being an author.

Do you enjoy this author’s writing? Say why or why not.

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Good Bad

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(a) Name your favourite book and its author.

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(b) Why is this your favourite book?

(c) If you met the author of your favourite book, what question would you ask him or her?

Write on the cover the title for a book you would like to write!

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Remember! Reading is like exercising the mind!

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Discuss your answers with the class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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WHAT DO YOU THINK?

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Express and communicate reactions to reading experiences.

Activities covered

Answers

• • • • • •

Answers will vary

Reading a poem as a class Drawing a picture Commenting on the poem Sharing thoughts with the group Group work – changing some lines in a poem Group work – reading a poem aloud

Additional activities

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Children read newspaper articles and discuss their reactions in groups. Children bring a favourite poem to class.

In groups, children can express their reactions to the class reader, a passage in a textbook, a short story, or any form of reading; for example, poetry such as What teachers wear in bed by Brian Moses, The light by Steve Turner, The day our teacher went batty by Gervase Phinn and Blue Christmas by Adrian Henri.

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Reading causes a reaction in us, whether it makes us feel sad, worried, happy, angry or whatever. Through discussing poems and newspaper articles in class, children will be able to express their reactions to these. It is important that children are allowed to have their own thoughts on the poems and articles, as reaction to something is personal. Children must frequently be given the opportunity to express their reactions to what they read.

Children can look at this website and comment on the poems: www.poetryzone.co.uk Children could submit their own poems to the website.

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Background information

Before the lesson

The class will be divided into groups.

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The lesson (Pages 40 and 41)

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The teacher can have other poems and various newspaper articles to discuss with the class.

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The teacher can read various poems and newspaper articles to the class and the class can discuss their reactions to them. The teacher can first discuss what a reaction is. The class reads the poem aloud together. Children draw a picture that depicts the poem. Children write their own comments on the poem. Children discuss their thoughts with their group.

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Group work – Children change alternate lines of the poem. Groups read their version to the class. The class comments on the new version of the poem.

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CHANGE THAT RHYME!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Experience interesting and relevant writing challenges.

Activities covered

Additional activities

• • • • • •

Children can read simple poetry and change some words to create a new poem.

Completing rhymes Reading rhymes aloud to the class Group work – changing the words in a rhyme Reading the new rhyme to the class Drawing a picture Assessing the new rhyme

Children complete a story by filling in the blanks with their own words. Some of these can be read out to the class and the class can discuss them.

Background information

Before the lesson

The teacher must have examples of rhymes for children to recite at the beginning of the lesson.

The lesson (Pages 42 and 43)

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The class will be divided into groups.

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As a class, children recite nursery rhymes they know and ones the teacher has brought. The teacher can discuss rhyme schemes with the class. Children complete the given rhymes by filling in words.

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Group work – Children choose a rhyme and change some of the words. The rhyme scheme should stay the same as the original! Children write the original rhyme, their rough work and their completed new rhyme. Children read their rhymes to the class.

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Children draw a small picture to go with their rhyme. Children state which rhyme is better—their rhyme or the original. If there is time, children can type their rhyme out neatly and make a group picture to go with it. These rhymes can be displayed near the classrooms of younger children.

Answers 1. Answers will vary; for example: (a) Little Miss Neat, (b) Hickory Dickory Dares, Sat on her seat, Eating her worms so vile. Along came a snake, Who caused her to shake, And made her run a mile.

Nursery rhyme websites: www.rhymes.org.uk or www.nurseryrhymes.allinfoabout.com

Children can read poems where common nursery rhymes have been changed; for example, Nasty nursery rhymes by Dave Calder, The notices by Steve Turner or Revolting rhymes by Roald Dahl.

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Children need to be given opportunities to write in a range of genres. Changing rhymes can be an effective way of getting the children to write creatively while having a format to follow. In changing the rhymes children should not be changing the structure of the rhyme, just the words. They will also have to study the original rhyme’s rhyming structure so the same format is repeated in theirs.

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The class can write a story. Each child gets to contribute a number of sentences. The story can start with: ‘Once upon a time,….’

Common nursery rhymes can be changed completely; for example: Tea time When Humpty Dumpty climbed the wall, Did his friends shout: ‘Don’t! You’ll fall!’ Did he simply ignore all of their cries? Was he shouting loudly, ‘C’mon guys!’ Was he bragging and boasting all of the way? At the top, did he claim: ‘What a view! I dare say!’ Did he then get silly, and start to do tricks? Did he lose his footing on the uneven bricks? When he fell to the ground, did his friends rush to see, If they would have scrambled or boiled egg for tea?

Children can change other poems, keeping the basic format the same but changing the ideas; for example: It’s who you know If I had a friend in the business, I think I’d like him to be, the man who owns the video shop, I’d see Shrek 2 for free. Or maybe he’d run the corner shop, I’d pay less for crisps and Coke™, he’d hand me the gaming magazine, he’d be a generous bloke. Or maybe he’d have a toyshop, he’d give me a new mountain bike, he’d let me look through hundreds, to choose the one I like. Or maybe he’d be a pilot, he’d teach me how to fly, we’d travel to unknown places, on the highways in the sky. But what if I was the friend in the business? What would my friends get? Why, absolutely nothing, I’d pretend we’d never met!

The chimp ran down the stairs, My Mum did shout, The chimp ran out, Hickory Dickory Dares.

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39


What do you think? 1

Reactions to reading are personal and may differ from person to person.

Read this poem together as a class. Draw a picture that depicts the poem. Cured ‘Oh, Mother, I have a bad stomach ache, I think it’s that lumpy porridge you make. Oh, Mother, I have a terribly sore head, I need a new pillow and a much softer bed.

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Oh, Mother, I have a terribly runny nose, I’m sure it’s those flowers our neighbour grows. Oh, Mother, I feel a little faint, I think it’s your decorating with all that paint.

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Oh, Mother, I have a horrid chest pain, From getting your washing in during the rain. Oh, Mother, I have such watery eyes, I think it’s from all those onions Dad fries.

Oh, Mother, I believe that I am queasy, To stand up straight just isn’t easy. Oh, Mother, I’ve cramps from my toes to my neck, And back down again, why I feel a wreck! Oh, Mother, I don’t think I’m up for school, With all these ailments, it would be just cruel.’

Read these comments about the poem.

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‘Oh, Molly, what a pity, to be sick on a Saturday!’ ‘It’s the weekend??? Ah well then, I guess I feel OK.’

‘This poem is silly – how can Molly suddenly feel better after all those pains she had?’ Josh, 12

‘I think this poem is good. I often feel sick on school days too!’ Katie, 9

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What do you think of the poem? Write your own comments and discuss them with your group.

Did you know? Dr Seuss did not meet with good reactions to his work at first. His first book was rejected 24 times! The sales of his children’s books are now more than 100 million! 40

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What do you think? 3

As a group, change alternate lines of the poem. Write your version of the poem here. Cured Oh, Mother, I have a bad stomach ache, Oh, Mother, I have a terribly sore head,

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Oh, Mother, I have a horrid chest pain,

Oh, Mother, I feel a little faint,

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Oh, Mother, I have a terribly runny nose,

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Oh, Mother, I have such watery eyes,

Oh, Mother, I believe that I am queasy,

Oh, Mother, I’ve cramps from my toes to my neck, Oh, Mother, I don’t think I’m up for school,

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‘Oh, Molly, what a pity, to be sick on a Saturday!’ ‘It’s the weekend??? Ah well then, I guess I feel OK.’

(a) As a group, read your poem aloud to the class.

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(b) Write some of your class’s comments.

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41


Change that rhyme! We are all familiar with at least some nursery rhymes. This is your chance to change a few of them! Try to keep the rhyme schemes the same though!

Remember!

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Nursery rhymes should rhyme!

Complete these rhymes by adding in words of your own.

(a) Little Miss Neat (b) Hickory Dickory Dares,

Sat on her

The

Along came a

ran down the

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so vile.

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Eating her

My Mum did

Who

The

ran

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Hickory Dickory Dares.

And

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Read your rhymes to the class!

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As a group, choose a nursery rhyme that you can change. The basic structure should stay the same, but the words must be different here and there.

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(a) Write the nursery rhyme you have chosen.

(b) Change the nursery rhyme. Complete your rough work below.

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Change that rhyme! 4

(a) Write your new nursery rhyme below.

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(b) As a group, read your rhyme to the class.

Draw a picture to go with your new nursery rhyme.

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(a) Which rhyme is better? The original

(b) Why?

(c) Give your rhyme a mark out of 10. 10 (d) How could you improve your rhyme?

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Yours

Did you know? The rhyme ‘Hush-a-bye baby’ probably originates from the days when women working in the hop fields would tie their baby’s cradles to the branches of trees to allow the wind to rock them to sleep.

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

43


WHO ARE YOU SPEAKING TO?

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Write for a varied audience.

Activities covered

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Discussing adverts, books etc. Deciding who adverts are aimed at Group work – creating an advert for children Answering questions Changing a paragraph Reading paragraph to the class Assessing paragraph

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• • • • • • •

3. Answers will vary; for example, focus may be different, such as on health or nutrition. 4. Answers will vary; for example, One evening, a few people were climbing a mountain in Ireland. They stopped to rest when they were tired. As they sat, they saw a flying saucer in the sky. They were afraid and ran back to the town. They went back there the next day but there was nothing there. Did they imagine it? 5–6. Teacher check

Additional activities Background information

Before the lesson

The class will be divided into groups.

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The lesson (Pages 46 and 47)

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The teacher can show the children different adverts and books, and children must decide who they are aimed at. For books, one could look at the title, cover design, information at the back of the book, writing inside, the vocabulary used, pictures, length of the book etc. Children look at two adverts the teacher brings in (one aimed at children, the other at adults) and decide who each advert is aimed at.

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Group work – Children create an advert for a given product, concentrating on attracting children. Still in groups, children change the given paragraph so that it is suitable for a 6-year-old. Children read their paragraphs to the class. Children can rewrite their paragraphs in suitable writing and draw a picture to go with it. These can then be displayed for the 6-year-old children to look at.

Answers 1. Teacher check 2. Answers will vary; for example, colour, wording, pictures.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

Children name some good children’s adverts. What makes them good? Children change their written advert from the lesson into an advert for television. Children look at websites that have been specifically designed for children and can comment on what makes them suitable. In pairs or groups, children have conversations with different age groups; for example, talking to a child, talking to an old person, talking to a teenager etc. Children can discuss formal and informal language and when each would be appropriate.

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The teacher must have ready a collection of different adverts and books, aimed at different audiences.

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Children read a story (given) and retell it as if to a younger child.

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The focus in advertising changes, according to which group of people are being targeted; for example, children’s adverts are usually full of colour and fun. The idea is to get children to ascertain which age group is being targeted in adverts. Similarly, to look at a paragraph, and judge who it is written for, children must look at content, colour, vocabulary, emphasis etc.

Change a poem into a simpler poem or story so that it is suitable for a 6-year-old. Children could add a picture, make it shorter etc. For example: Take a jump At first he scrambles on, his legs are quite unsteady. I say ‘Go on-take a jump!’ He says, ‘When I’m ready!’ He unfolds himself and stands and takes a little hop. His face says, ‘Get me out of here, I just want to stop!’ He takes a couple of little jumps, his feet barely leave the ground, ‘Come on,’ I say but his lips are tight, he doesn’t make a sound. But slowly the jumps get stronger, and out escapes a laugh. ‘Hey, Mum, can you see me? I’m as tall as a giraffe!’ The jumps get bigger and mightier. He even starts to shriek. Arms and legs flailing about, Where was that boy so meek? ‘Be careful!’ I said ‘And don’t you fall!’ He was the freest I’d ever seen. But he was in another world on his brand new trampoline.

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CHANGE IT!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Acquire the ability to give and follow detailed instructions and directions.

Activities covered

Answers

• Following written and oral instructions • Pair work – giving and following instructions

Teacher check

Additional activities

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This lesson gives children practice in following instructions, both written and oral. It is important that children be given much practice in following directions, and a good habit to start with is making sure that children take note of their homework accurately. This can be done on a daily basis until children can do it independently.

Children can write a set of instructions to go with a series of pictures. Children can describe objects in detail. They must give their descriptions to a partner, who can then draw the object based on the instructions.

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Background information

Children can write or discuss fun instructions; for example, how to make the teacher happy!

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Children can write and explain orally instructions for an alien on how to do basic human tasks; for example, making a sandwich, taking a bath etc.

Before the lesson The class will be divided into pairs.

Children will need different coloured pencils to complete the first task.

Children can read instructions on products; for example, the cooking method on a packet of rice. Children bring in the products and act out the instructions as directed.

The lesson (Pages 48 and 49)

Children can read this poem and change the ingredients and instructions.

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Children must follow written instructions on their copymaster. (The teacher should also read the instructions aloud, to aid any children with special needs.) Children compare their pictures with the class.

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Pair work – Each child makes 10 changes to one of the pictures on his/her copymaster, and then gives instructions to his/her partner as to what changes to make.

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Children must assess their instructions and pictures must be compared.

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Life recipe Take a little bit of happiness, And a huge heaped spoon of fear. Add a cupful of exhaustion, And some pride if it is near. Stir in a dollop of anger, Sift handfuls of frustration, Whisk up strong anxiety, And a lot of irritation. Throw in jugfuls of love, And just a smidgeon of hate. Blend in much uncertainty, And fold in luck and fate. Mix in disappointment, And a trickle of relief, Toss in some impatience, Some boredom, peace and grief. Now.... I think you’ve done it properly You’ve taken my advice. It really was a lot of work, But it tastes rather nice.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Who are you speaking to? Books, adverts, magazines, toys and many other things are all geared towards a certain audience.

(a) Look at this advert for chocolate peas. (b) As a group, design a different advert for chocolate peas that is aimed at children.

A new sensation! Peas in chocolate sauce! Dare you try them?

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Remember! Think of who your audience is!

YUMMY!!!!!

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May I have some more peas, please?

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How did you try to make your advert appealing to children?

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Name two ways in which it would be different if the advert were geared towards adults. (a) (b)

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Who are you speaking to? 4

(a) In your group, read this paragraph.

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On a cold and frosty evening, in January 2005, some hikers were climbing a mountain in Ireland. It was not an easy route they had chosen and they all decided at one point to take a break. They made themselves comfortable and prepared to open their backpacks to have a flask of tea and a snack. All of a sudden, there was a bright light in the sky. The group were shocked to see a flying saucer flying just above them. It looked just like a huge saucer, much bigger than any plane they had ever seen, with coloured lights flashing around it. They were afraid and excited at the same time. They decided then that they were more scared than curious and decided to try to get away. As they were running down the mountain, they heard a voice telling them not to be afraid. They ran back to the town as fast as they could. The next day they returned to the same spot where they had seen the strange object, but there was nothing there to prove what they had seen. Did they all just imagine it?

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(b) Rewrite the paragraph so that it is suitable for a six-year-old.

Read your paragraph to the class.

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(a) What is the best thing about your paragraph?

(b) How could your paragraph be improved?

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(a) Use the above comments to rewrite your paragraph. Try your best! (b) Draw a picture to accompany your paragraph. (c) Display your work for a class of six-year-olds.

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47


Change it! 1

Follow the instructions below very carefully. (a) Draw a small sun, about 1 cm in diameter, on the right-hand side of the tree, so that it is 1 cm away from the tip. (b) Colour in blue, the left half of the owerbox that is above the front door. (c) Place green spots on the bush that is on the right-hand side of the porch. (d) Colour in the pickets on the fence, on the right-hand side of the path, alternatively red and yellow, starting with red on the left. Colour in seven only.

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(e) Colour in pink the two owers that are in front of the fence on the 6th picket, to the right of the path.

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(f) Draw a box about 1 cm high in the middle of the pathway and colour it in brown.

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Compare your pictures! How many did you get right out of 6? SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Change it! Work with a partner. Choose one of the pictures each. Make ten changes to your picture. Explain the changes to your partner, who must make his/her picture the same. Then swap.

Remember! Make it challenging for your partner!

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(a) How well did you give your partner his/her instructions? Circle your score out of 10. 1

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(b) How well did you follow your partner’s instructions? Circle your score out of 10. 1 Prim-Ed Publishing

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CHAT AWAY!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Converse freely and confidently on a range of topics.

Answers

• • • • •

1. Answers will vary; for example: (a) I am fine, thank you. How are you today? (b) It certainly is. I can’t remember the last time I saw the sun! (c) Yes. Walk past the church and it is on your left, after the bank. (d) It is quarter past five. 2–6. Teacher check 7. Answers will vary; for example: (a) How was school different in your time? (b) Good day, Miss. Isn’t it a fine day today? (c) What type of photography do you specialise in? (d) It must be difficult for you to have to hunt every time you are really hungry.

Background information

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Children should have the opportunity to just ‘chat’ in class, without any restraint, except noise level! Making small talk is sometimes hard to do, especially with those we may not be too familiar with. The teacher should pair children who are not the best of friends, so they really have to make an effort to converse. A time limit should be set and during the talking time, children must keep talking!

Before the lesson The class will be divided into pairs.

Additional activities

Once ordinary conversation has been practised, children could receive a card with some facts on it about a certain subject. Children must then start their conversation with this information—it does not matter where the conversation leads!

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The teacher can have some ideas for topics that can be used in casual conversation.

The lesson (Pages 52 and 53)

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Continuing conversations (written) Pair work - having conversation Discussing as a class the main topics of conversation Rating conversation Filling in speech balloons with conversation starters

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Activities covered in this lesson

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Children fill in the speech balloons to continue a conversation. These can then be discussed as a class.

The teacher can discuss with children what type of topics can be brought up in casual conversation.

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Pair work – Children must have a conversation.

Once the time limit is up, children write down some things they spoke about. Children rate their conversation.

As a class, children discuss the main topics of conversation.

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Children fill in speech balloons to start conversation with various people. These can be discussed as a class.

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YOU’RE WRONG!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Give and take turns in an environment where tolerance for the views of others is fostered.

Answers

• • • • •

1. Answers will vary; for example: (a) There are many games that are entertaining which contain no violence at all. (b) Children need the weekend to relax and have fun. (c) Eaten in moderation they will not be harmful if you have a balanced and healthy diet. 2. Answers will vary; for example, Well, there are many different types of books so I don’t think you should generalise. I believe that a lot of what we learn comes from books. Even the TV guide is a type of book! 3–5. Teacher check

Background information

Additional activities

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The main aim of the lesson is for children to listen to others and accept their opinions, whatever they might be. They must give each other time to state their opinion without interruptions. Children will also practise arguing points they may not necessarily agree with. Later, children will complete another lesson about disagreeing in an agreeable manner. Children must realise that there is a difference between accepting others’ points of view and agreeing with them.

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Writing responses to given statements Writing a more appropriate response Discussing responses as a class Pair work – having a controlled argument Assessing the argument

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Activities covered in this lesson

Before the lesson

Children can role-play situations where they have to tolerate someone else’s point of view; for example, a parent telling a child that he/she is not allowed to go out, the headteacher telling children that homework on the weekends is compulsory etc.

The teacher can have other topics for the children to discuss as an argument.

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The lesson (Pages 54 and 55)

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Children respond to the given statements, concentrating on accepting the opinions of others, as well as stating their own views. Children write a more appropriate response. These can all be discussed as a class.

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Pair work – Children choose one (or more if there is time) topic from each list to argue. At this point, children should be given some time to decide how they will approach the argument, and perhaps write down a few points to remind themselves. Children must argue in a controlled way and not fight with each other!

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Chat away! It is often easy to chat to people we know well, but it can be a little bit harder with those we don’t know so well. 1

Continue these conversations by writing in the speech balloons.

(a)

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Good morning! How are you?

(b)

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Isn’t the weather dreadful at the moment?

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You could say ...

You could say ...

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(c)

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Excuse me, do you know the way to the library?

You could say ...

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Have you got the time on you, mate?

You could say ...

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Discuss your replies with your class.

Remember! The weather is often a safe bet when you are trying to make conversation!

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Chat away! 3

Have a conversation with your partner. You can talk about anything but don’t stop talking until your teacher tells you to. There is no need to talk loudly though!

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Write some of the things you and your partner spoke about.

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Rate your conversation with a score out of 5.

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Discuss with the class the main topics of conversation. Write them here.

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Fill in the speech balloons to show how you could start off a conversation with each of these people.

(a)

a new teacher

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your friend’s grandfather

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e

5

Vi

(c)

a famous photographer

(d) a caveman

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

53


You’re wrong! We do not always have to agree with what others are saying, but we should accept other people’s opinions. 1

Write a response to each of these statements.

e

(a) All TV games and PlayStation® games should be banned because they make children very violent.

Sa m

pl

(b) School should be open on Saturdays because then children would learn much more.

Write a more appropriate answer that Brian could give.

in

2

g

(c) Sweets, crisps and chocolate should be banned from lunch boxes as they are unhealthy and make children hyperactive.

Are you totally insane? Most of what we learn in life is from books! How would we get an education if it were not for our textbooks? What a dumb attitude you have! You might not act so dumb if you had read a few books!

Vi

ew

I think books are a total waste of time. Nobody remembers what they have read anyway. When I am older I won’t have a single book in my house!

3 54

Kevin

Brian

Discuss your answers with the class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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You’re wrong! 4

(a) Work with a partner. Choose one of the topics below. Tick the topic you have chosen. We do not need to look after the environment. It will look after itself.

All children should be taught how to swim.

Children should be seen and not heard.

e

(b) You are going to have an argument with your partner about this topic. Decide who will agree and disagree with the topic. Write some notes below to help you. agree

I will

disagree with the topic

Sa m

pl

My notes:

(c) Have your argument! Remember to stay calm and listen to your partner’s opinion. You may have to argue something you don’t believe in! (d) How did your argument go?

very well yes

(e) Did you manage to stay calm?

not well

no

(a) Choose a different topic. Tick the topic you have chosen.

g

5

well

Children aged 12 need to do at least 2 hours of homework a night.

ew

in

Zoos should be banned. It is cruel to keep animals in cages.

Pop music is evil. The lyrics are damaging to young children.

(b) Plan your argument. I will

agree

disagree with the topic

Vi

My notes:

(c) Have your argument! Remember to stay calm and listen to your partner’s opinion. You may have to argue something you don’t believe in! (d) How did your argument go? (e) Did you manage to stay calm?

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very well yes

well no

not well Remember! Have respect for the views of others! SPEAKING AND LISTENING

55


AND INTRODUCING ...

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Practise and use improvisational drama to acquire a facility in performing social functions.

Answers

• • • • • •

1–4. Teacher check. 5. When you greet or meet someone/congratulating someone/saying goodbye. 6. (c) and (e) would require a handshake 7. Teacher check

Writing introductions Pair work – practising introductions Pair work – practising handshakes Making up own handshake Pair work – practising more introductions Ticking when it is appropriate to shake hands

e

Activities covered in this lesson

Additional activities

Children can practise apologising—both in writing and orally—and can decide when it is necessary to apologise.

Sa m

Social functions need to be discussed in the classroom. Children come from varying backgrounds and although many children are taught these things at home, there is no harm in rehearsing them. It is often taken for granted that children should know how to behave socially, but these functions need to be practised on a continual basis. There should also be reminders in class about how we should behave in a socially acceptable manner.

Children can role-play different scenarios where they have to thank someone for something, and they can then go on to write thank you notes.

pl

Background information

Before the lesson

Children can read poetry about manners; for example, Would you do that at home? by Steve Turner, Said the boy to the dinosaur by Colin McNaughton and Parents like you to ... by Gervase Phinn.

The class will be divided into pairs.

in

The lesson (Pages 58 and 59)

g

The teacher can have other ideas of how greetings differ in other countries.

The teacher can discuss with the class when and how we make introductions.

ew

Children write six introductions.

Pair work – Children practise these introductions. Still in pairs, children practise shaking hands in the correct manner. Children make up their own handshake.

Vi

Children role-play different given scenarios.

Children tick when it is appropriate to shake hands. Children assess which introductions were easiest/hardest and explain why.

56

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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I’M NOT HAPPY!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Practise and use improvisational drama to acquire a facility in performing more elaborate social functions.

Activities covered in this lesson

Answers

• • • • • • •

1. (a) yes (b) yes (c) no (d) no (e) no (f) no 2–4. Teacher check 5. Solutions include: (a) The shop could order the game and charge the sale price. (b) The food could be sent back and warmed up. (c) A compromise could be reached; for example, the neighbour could play their music until an agreed time that would suit both parties. (d) The manager could make sure that the item is sent to the manufacturer to be repaired or replace it with a new one. (e) A pedestrian crossing or traffic lights would solve the problem. 6–8. Teacher check

Background information

Sa m

It is often assumed that children have learnt basic social functions, but these do have to be practised. It is also important that children know when to complain and when it would be best to be quiet! The subject of bullying can also be discussed here, because children need to know that they must speak up when they are unhappy about something.

pl

e

Discussing complaining Deciding when it is right to complain Pair work – acting out complaints Group work – acting out complaints Writing solutions Assessing a complaint Writing a caption

Additional activities

The class can read real letters of complaint.

Before the lesson

g

The teacher can have examples of complaints people have made; for example, letters to the editor in a newspaper or magazine.

in

The class will be divided into pairs and then groups.

The lesson (Pages 60 and 61)

ew

The teacher can discuss with children when it is right to complain. Children can come up with their own scenarios. The teacher should discuss with the children that we all have rights and should these rights be infringed, we have the right to say so! Stress, too, that complaining about something you are unhappy about needn’t have you flying off in a rage, but that complaints can be made in a civilized and calm way.

Vi

Children choose ‘yes’ or ‘no’ for given scenarios and decide whether a complaint should be made. Pair work – Children plan and role-play different situations. Group work – Children role-play the different situations given. Children can write one solution for each complaint. Children assess their complaint. Children write a caption to go with a picture.

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Another social function children can practise is accepting and giving compliments. The children could pretend to be the teacher, complaining about children’s work, behaviour etc. Children could discuss when it would be incorrect to complain. Children could discuss bullying—telling someone that you are unhappy or have witnessed other people being bullied. The teacher could look at this website to get more ideas: www.howtocomplain.com/info/advice.shtml

Children could read poetry about complaints; for example, Bringing up a single parent by Brian Patten or The new house by Gareth Owen. Children could read this poem and identify all the complaints: Pack your bags Carrying a map, but getting lost, Buying things, not knowing the cost, Bearing luggage that weighs a ton, Turning red from the raging sun, Eating food that makes you ill, Reeling from the restaurant bill, Being patient with a flight delay, Walking airports the entire day, Listening to language you’ve never heard, Not comprehending a single word, Looking for statues and ageless sights, Aching from walking and sleepless nights, Protecting yourself from foreign bugs, Looking for toilets, avoiding thugs, Yes, travelling is hard, and it is dear, But we’ll do it again, same time next year.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

57


And introducing ... If you bring home a new friend, you should introduce him or her to your family.

Write appropriate introductions, adding a little information each time.

Sa m

(a) Introduce a friend to your parents.

pl

1

Hi, Shane. It’s nice to meet you.

e

Mum, Dad, this is Shane. He’s new to the school and he comes from Canada.

(b) Introduce yourself to a new neighbour.

in

g

(c) Introduce your parents to your teacher.

ew

(d) Introduce yourself to a new class member.

Vi

(e) Introduce your grandparents to your friend.

(f) Introduce yourself to a new teacher.

2 58

Work with a partner to practise the introductions above. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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And introducing ... Remember! A greeting should be warm and friendly. 3

There is a correct way to shake hands! Practise with your partner. (a) Stand up straight with your right foot slightly forward. (b) Extend your right hand towards your partner. (c) Match the strength of your partner’s grip.

e

(d) Make a verbal greeting. Make up your own handshake!

5

Work with your partner to write a list of when it is appropriate to shake hands.

6

A friendly greeting is always a good thing. Practise the following with your partner. Tick the situations where a handshake is appropriate.

Sa m

g

(a) Your cousin has arrived from America. You haven’t seen him for five years.

pl

4

in

(b) Your best friend has come to visit.

7

(e) You meet a film star at a function. (f) Your neighbour pops round for a cup of coffee.

ew

(c) The prime minister visits the school.

(d) Your parents’ friends have come for dinner.

(a) Which introduction was the most difficult?

Vi

(b) Why?

(c) Which introduction was the easiest? (d) Why?

Did you know? Shaking hands is a custom that has been traced to Biblical times. It originally signalled good faith that neither party carried a weapon!

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Did you know? Shaking hands is not appropriate in all cultures. In India, they use praying hands and in Japan, they bow.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

59


I’m not happy! It is not good to always complain about everything, but sometimes it is necessary to express our disapproval. Complaining doesn’t mean that we have to be mean and nasty, we can express our dissatisfaction in a calm and friendly manner.

Colour ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to say whether you should complain in these circumstances.

yes

no

yes

(c) Your mum made chicken for dinner and she knows you don’t like chicken. yes

no

2

no

(d) Your sister spends too long in the bath. yes

no

(f) Your aunt always buys you vests which you don’t wear! yes

no

Write two other situations when you think it would be correct to complain. (a)

g

(b)

Work with a partner. Choose a situation that you would complain about. Write notes to plan what each person could say.

ew

(a) Scenario:

in

3

no

Sa m

(e) Your neighbour’s daughter says you are not allowed to use their trampoline. yes

(b) When you bought takeaway food, they overcharged you.

e

(a) The magazine you bought has a few pages missing.

pl

1

(c) The person listening to the complaint could say:

Vi

(b) The person complaining could say:

4

(a) Role-play your situation. (b) How did the complaint work? very well

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

well

not well

Remember! There’s a right way and a wrong way to complain!

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I’m not happy! 5

Work as a group to consider the following situations. Each person in the group gets the chance to be the ‘complainer’. The rest of the group must try to reason with the complainer and explain things. Write one solution for each complaint.

e

(a) You saw an advert in the newspaper for a game on sale. You travelled 10 miles to get to the shop and you were there by 10.15 a.m. The shop said they were sold out. Complain to the salesperson.

Sa m

pl

(b) The burger and chips you ordered arrived at your table ice-cold. Complain to the waiter.

(c) Your neighbour plays loud music all night and it keeps you awake until about 2 a.m. Direct your complaint at him/her.

ew

in

g

(d) You bought a portable CD player, and after two weeks it had broken. When you went to return it, the salesperson said you must have dropped it! Complain to the manager.

Vi

(e) The main street in your town is very busy, and there is nowhere to cross the street safely. Complain to the council.

6

Circle which situation you complained about.

7

(a) Do you think you complained successfully?

a

b

c

d

e

(b) Why?

8

This man is complaining! Write a caption.

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

61


ENGLISH OR NOT?

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Understand what is meant by ‘formal English’ and ‘slang’ and express examples of them in his/her own language.

Answers

• • • •

1. My family is fab. My dad is a cool bloke and my mum makes great grub. She gets in a bit of a huff when us kids go bananas, otherwise she’s pretty laid back. My dad does go ape when we veg out in front of the telly, scoffing our dinner. My eldest brother is loaded and he has a humongous car. It’s brill when he takes us out in it. With his megabucks he can afford to buy all the in clothes and he buys us prezzies. When my sister needed specs, he coughed up the dough for them. My younger brother jams on the guitar like a pro. He’s eyeing a class rock guitar that costs a grand! Well, that’s my fam. I’m outta here! 2. My family is wonderful. My father is a good man and my mother is an excellent chef. She does get rather annoyed when we act silly, otherwise she is quite relaxed. My father gets very angry when we slouch in front of the television, eating our dinner. My eldest brother is very rich and has a very large car. It’s nice when he takes us out in it. With all his money, he can afford to buy all the fashionable clothes and he buys us gifts. When my sister needed spectacles, he paid for them. My younger brother plays the guitar like a professional. He is looking at a new guitar that costs one thousand pounds! Well, that’s my family. Goodbye for now. 3. Answers will vary; for example: (a) We’ll chow down at a mate’s pad tonight. (b) My sis is an oddball because she’d rather have a cup of char instead of yummy soda. (c) We’re having a barbie today and we want you to hang with us. (d) My baby bro is a brat when he chucks his grub. (e) The mutt went nuts at the bloke on the bike. (f) The con was slung in the slammer/clink for nicking the dough. 4–6. Teacher check 7. (a) no (b) yes (c) no (d) no (e) yes 8. Teacher check

Background information

Before the lesson

The lesson (Pages 64 and 65)

g

The teacher can have more examples of slang. The children will work in groups.

Sa m

Children are using slang words more and more often, often picked-up by watching TV and through their choice of reading material. Slang may now be more accepted than it used to be, but children need to be made aware of what slang is. They should be encouraged to speak formal English.

in

The teacher discusses slang with the children, giving a few examples, and allowing children to come up with a few of their own. Children read a given passage and underline the slang words.

ew

Children rewrite the passage using formal English. Children convert formal English to slang.

Children can discuss Questions 1, 2 and 3 as a class.

Vi

Group work – Children write a list of common slang words, writing the formal form of the word next to it. Children orally put each slang word into a sentence. Group work – Children decide whether it is acceptable to use slang in the given situations. Children list other situations where the use of slang would be considered acceptable or unacceptable. Children can discuss Questions 5–8 as a class. Children must be aware all day, and perhaps for the whole week of speaking formal English, and are to correct each other when they hear slang!

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Underlining slang Rewriting slang (formal English) Converting formal English to slang Group work – writing down common slang words and the formal English versions • Deciding whether using slang is acceptable in different situations

e

Activities covered

Additional activities Children can display slang words and the formal form of the word. The teacher can hold a ‘no slang’ day once a term. It’s too much to expect children to never use slang again, but to make them aware of it every now and then should have some effect.

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TAKE A GUESS!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Understand the functions and know the names of the parts of speech.

Answers

• • • • •

1. (a) Answers will vary; for example, actor, actress, model, pop star etc. (b) Answers will vary; for example, chef, cook etc. 2–6. Teacher check

Background information

Children can make oral sentences using all the parts of speech listed by the teacher.

Before the lesson

The teacher can have examples of parts of speech for children to discuss at the start of the lesson. In this lesson, only verbs, adverbs, adjectives and nouns should be dealt with.

The lesson (Pages 66 and 67)

g

The teacher can discuss with the children: nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. The children can provide some of each and examples can be written on the board.

in

Children guess two occupations by looking at the questions and answers provided.

ew

Children sit in the ‘hot seat’ and the class must ask questions that require a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer to guess what the occupation is. It is at this point that the teacher must point out the verbs used in the children’s questions; for example, work, teach, fix, write, act etc. Children describe three occupations by using different parts of speech.

Vi

Children read one description to the class and the class must guess the occupation. Children assess their description. Children state their ideal job and describe it using parts of speech. Children read their description to the class and the class must guess their ideal job. Children assess their description.

Prim-Ed Publishing

Children can play a general knowledge game in groups – choose a letter from the alphabet, each writes down a proper noun, common noun, collective noun, abstract noun and verb that starts with that letter. Check answers after 1 minute – if only one person has the word, he/she gets 10 points; if others have it too, 5 points. Choose a different letter and repeat.

Sa m

This lesson gives the children practice at giving descriptions using parts of speech, as well as allowing them to work with them in a fun way. The teacher must be the one to point out the parts of speech being used.

Additional information

pl

Guessing an occupation Sitting in the ‘hot seat’ while class asks questions Writing a description using parts of speech Giving descriptions orally to the class Assessing descriptions

e

Activities covered

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Children can choose five occupations and rate them using the headings below. Children can give a mark out of ten for each heading. Children give their scores and others must guess the occupation. The average scores can be worked out for some of the occupations. Headings: enjoyment, salary, danger, hours, comfort, challenge, potential, perks. Children can read poetry together and colour the different parts of speech in different colours, using a key to explain; for example, Will you come to my party? by Gervase Phinn or Mr. Kahn’s shop by Fred Sedgwick, or: Just milk then What a fantastic place! I think I need it all! In this bright supermarket, In a shiny shopping mall. Why, there is canned macaroni, and easy cheesecake kits, watermelon chutney, and mousse for pesky nits. I see sun-dried tomatoes, and jelly ready-to-eat, microwave Irish stew and mash that you can heat. There is lemon-flavoured water, and a hundred types of tea, coffee that is frothy, and can be made by even me. There are spuds who’ve flown from Italy, and oranges from Spain, I see juicy grapes from Africa, where there isn’t that much rain. Yes, this outdoes the corner shop, my trolley is piled high. I’ve thrown in such delicious things, I thought I couldn’t buy. This shopping is such super fun, why hadn’t I done it before? Then a nagging doubt creeps in my head, It’s because I am quite poor.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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English or not? 1

What is slang? Underline the slang in the following passage.

e

My family is fab. My dad is a cool bloke and my mum makes great grub. She gets in a bit of a huff when us kids go bananas, otherwise she’s pretty laid back. My dad does go ape when we veg out in front of the telly, scoffing our dinner. My eldest brother is loaded and he has a humongous car. It’s brill when he takes us out in it. With his megabucks he can afford to buy all the in clothes and he buys us prezzies. When my sister needed specs, he coughed up the dough for them. My younger brother jams on the guitar like a pro. He’s eyeing a class rock guitar that costs a grand! Well, that’s my fam. I’m outta here! Rewrite the passage in formal English.

3

These sentences are written in formal English. Can you change some words into slang? Rewrite each sentence.

in

g

Sa m

pl

2

ew

(a) We will dine at a friend’s abode this evening. (b) My sister is rather a peculiar girl as she favours a cup of tea over a delicious soda.

Vi

(c) Today we shall host a barbecue and it is our wish that you attend. (d) My baby brother is mischievous when he tosses his evening meal around. (e) The dog barked and jumped at the man on the bicycle. (f) The thief was sent to prison for stealing the money.

4

64

Discuss your answers with the class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

Did you know? Dr Suess coined the word ‘nerd’! Prim-Ed Publishing

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En glish or not? 5

In your group, write down slang words that you know. Next to each slang word, write the formal version. Slang word

Formal word

bonkers

mad, crazy

cool icky

Sa m

pl

e

freebie

6

In your group, say each slang word in a sentence.

7

Colour ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to show whether it would be acceptable to use slang in these situations. (a) You are sent to the headteacher’s office. no

yes

g

yes

Write another situation ...

no

(d) You are showing a parent around your school.

no

ew

8

in

(c) You are being introduced to the mayor. yes

(b) You are having a sleepover in your friend’s bedroom.

yes

no

(e) You are watching TV with your brother. yes

no

Vi

(a) When it would be acceptable to use slang.

(b) When it would not be acceptable to use slang.

Challenge Do not use any slang for a whole day at school. Remind others when you hear them using slang! Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com

Remember! Don’t be chicken! Use formal English! SPEAKING AND LISTENING

65


Take a guess!

(a)

Do you work in an office every day?

No

Do you work outdoors every day?

No

Do you work normal daily hours?

No

Do you earn a lot of money?

Yes

Do you help people in your job?

No

Do you help children in your job? Are you famous?

No

No

Yes

Sa m

Do you run a company? Do you wear ‘cool’ clothes?

Yes

Do you travel all over the world?

Yes

We think their occupation is

Do you work outdoors every day?

g

(b)

Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are all parts of speech.

e

Work with a partner. What occupation do you think the following people have? Look at their answers to these questions and try to guess! (Look for the verbs on this page – they are in bold letters!)

pl

1

No

Yes

Do you work in the evening?

Yes

Are you busy at Christmas?

Yes

Are you famous?

No

Do you work in a shop?

No

Do you help children in your job?

No

Do you wear a special hat in your job?

Yes

Do you make things in your job?

Yes

Vi

ew

in

Do you work at the weekend?

Do the things you make last a long time?

No

We think their occupation is

2

Now you can sit in the ‘hot seat’. Think of what your occupation is and stand up in front of the class. The class must ask you questions about your occupation and you can only answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’. (a) What was your occupation? (b) Did the class guess who you were?

66

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Take a guess! 3

Use parts of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) to describe three occupations. For example, a teacher could be described this way: Noun – chalk Verb – talking (shouting?) Adjective – kind (of course!) Adverb – correctly

(a) Occupation: Noun – Verb – Adjective –

(c) Occupation:

Noun –

Noun –

Verb –

Verb –

Sa m

pl

(b) Occupation:

Adjective –

Adjective –

Adverb – 4

e

Adverb –

Adverb –

Present one of your descriptions to the class and they must guess the occupation. Don’t make it too easy for them! (a) Did the class guess your occupation?

g

(b) How would you rate your description?

very good

good

fair

in

(c) Could you improve on it?

5

ew

Try a few more orally!

(a) What would your ideal job be?

(b) Occupation: Noun –

Vi

Verb –

Adjective – Adverb –

6

Present your description to the class. They must guess your ideal job.

(a) Did the class guess your ideal job? (b) How would you rate your description?

very good

good

fair

(c) Could you improve on it?

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

67


NAMING OR DOING?

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Learn about and name the basic properties of nouns and verbs.

Answers

• Group work – playing verb and noun game • Class discussion • Writing verbs and nouns to do with themselves

1. Answers will vary; for example: (a) Cats: Nouns: paws, kitten, milk, meat, fur, whiskers, mouse, toys, teeth, basket, bed, chicken, claws, ball, sun, prey, bowl, Siamese, Burmese, Persian, Devon Rex etc. Verbs: scratch, hunt, run, sleep, eat, drink, laze, stalk, stretch, dream, see, hear, taste, claw, meow, purr, play, fight, jump, clean, lick etc. (b) Football: Nouns: ball, players, field, boots, shorts, kit, bag, referee, team, match, crowd, fans, pitch, cup, trophy, whistle, goals, scoreboard, injury, event etc. Verbs: run, kick, walk, cheer, tackle, jump, shout, applaud, stop, win, battle, clap, fight, score, bounce, injure, play, fall etc. (c) Your town: Nouns: shop, river, street, church, cars, field, playground, people, doctor, lake, road, garage, vet, Church Street, hall, chemist, pub, Sam’s Supermarket, dogs etc. Verbs: shop, walk, buy, look, swim, greet, drive, cycle, eat, run, dine, play etc. 2–3. Teacher check

Sa m

Children play a game in which they write down nouns and verbs for given topics. Examples of nouns and verbs should be displayed on the board to remind children which are which. The lesson allows children to work with nouns and verbs and to discuss them as a class.

pl

Background information

e

Activities covered

Before the lesson Children will be divided into groups.

The teacher can have his/her own list of nouns and verbs to go with the given topics.

The lesson (Pages 70 and 71)

The teacher explains to the class what a noun is and what a verb is.

g

Children give examples of each orally; some of these can be written on the board.

in

The teacher explains to the class what the groups are going to do.

The same type of game can be played to learn other parts of speech, or different classes of nouns.

ew

Group work – Children write down as many verbs and nouns as they can for each given category. Children must be reminded that they have to stick to the topic! A time limit of three minutes is set by the teacher.

Additional activities

Vi

After each time limit is up, a group is selected to give their nouns and verbs. For each noun or verb, two points are given, unless another group has that same noun/verb, when only one point is awarded. Words which have been placed in the wrong category get no points at all! The nouns and verbs must relate to the topic, otherwise no points! Each topic’s nouns and verbs are discussed after the time limits are up. Groups add their points. The group with the most points wins. Children write a paragraph of text about themselves and colour code the nouns and verbs they have used. Children can work with a partner to check whether they have coded the nouns and verbs correctly.

68

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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WHICH IS IT?

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Know and understand the terms ‘phrase’ and ‘clause’.

Activities covered in this lesson

Answers

• Discussing phrases and clauses • Pair work – identifying phrases • Pair work – deciding whether examples are clauses or phrases • Pair work – making interesting sentences, orally and in writing • Discussing answers with the class

1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) 2–3. 4. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

Before the lesson

g

The class will be divided into pairs.

The lesson (Pages 72 and 73)

e

Sa m

This lesson deals only with phrases and clauses. Children can go on to complex sentences once they have practised these. Children will need to be very clear on what a verb is before this lesson is undertaken. The teacher should keep explanations of each clear and simple, focusing on the fact that a clause has a verb and a phrase does not.

pl

Background information

over the moon, on my birthday under my desk huge, juicy, double-decker cheeseburger naughty child, beautiful, antique piano with the long, black hair as soon as possible in the immaculate garden hot, sunny days hideous green and orange striped dress smelly socks, by the armchair Teacher check Phrase (For example, ‘I ate the soggy, squishy pizza that we had left over from last week’.) Clause Phrase (For example, ‘Against all odds, I managed to complete my spider project’.) Phrase (For example, ‘The toilet paper stretched from the bathroom and all along the corridors’.) Clause Clause Clause Phrase (For example, ‘My aunt has a hooked and warty nose and always wears a pointed hat!’) Clause Phrase (For example, ‘The referee’s hat blew off his head and right into the goals’.) Teacher check

in

The teacher explains to the class what a clause is and what a phrase is and the difference between the two. Children can give many oral examples of each.

Pair work – Children identify the phrases in the sentences and underline them.

ew

Children write a sentence about themselves that contains a phrase.

(i) (j) 5–6.

Additional activities Children can identify clauses and phrases in their class reader or in poems.

Children discuss their answers with the class. Pair work – Children state whether the given examples are clauses or phrases. Sentences are made with the phrases.

Vi

Children discuss their answers with the class. Pair work – Children make up interesting oral sentences. Children write their best sentences, identifying the verb and phrase.

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69


Naming or doing? A noun is a naming word; for example, child, school, teacher, pencil, book, cat, Africa, monster etc. A verb is a doing word and denotes an action; for example, write, jump, scream, will, is, laugh etc.

e

Work as a group. For each category you will be given three minutes to think of as many nouns and verbs to do with the given topic as you can. After the three minutes are up, the class will discuss the words. You get no points if you have put your word in the wrong category, so be careful! If only your group has that particular word, you get two points for it. If another group also has that word then you get only one point for that word. So be as original as you can! But stick to the topic! (a) Cats

VERBS

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NOUNS

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1

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Your score:

NOUNS

VERBS

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(b) Football

Your score:

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Naming or doing? (c) Your town

VERBS

Your score:

2

(a) What was your group’s total score? (b) Did your group win?

yes

The group with the most points wins!

no

(a) Write nouns and verbs that have something to do with you.

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3

Sa m

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NOUNS

verbs

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nouns

(b) Write a paragraph about yourself. Use as many nouns and verbs as possible.

(c) Circle the nouns in red and the verbs in green. Prim-Ed Publishing

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Which is it? In this lesson we are going to learn about a clause and a phrase. (Don’t get confused with Santa Claus!)

Definitions A phrase is a group of words that together have one meaning; for example, ‘over the rainbow’. A phrase does not contain a verb.

A clause is a sentence or part of a sentence that contains a verb.

Example

clause

Sa m

clause

pl

e

I love school because we learn new and exciting things!

phrase

Work with a partner. Identify and underline the phrases in the following sentences.

g

1

in

(a) I was over the moon on my birthday.

(b) I hid under my desk so the teacher couldn’t see me. (c) Josh ate a huge, juicy, double-decker cheeseburger.

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(d) The naughty child painted the beautiful, antique piano. (e) The girl with the long, black hair lives near us. (f) Dad said he would come home as soon as possible.

Vi

(g) Grandma is in the immaculate garden. (h) Antonio and Samir liked to ride their bikes on hot, sunny days. (i) Orla wore a hideous green and orange striped dress. (j) The smelly socks are by the armchair.

2

(a) Write a sentence about yourself. (b) Identify and underline the phrase.

3

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Discuss your answers with the class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Which is it? 4

Work with a partner. Tick whether the following are phrases or clauses. Make sentences out of the phrases. (a) Soggy, squishy pizza phrase

clause

(b) Cats are cute phrase

clause

clause

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phrase

e

(c) Against all odds

phrase

clause

(e) Homework is horrid phrase

clause

(f) The teacher got owers! phrase

clause

(g) The headteacher is scared clause

g

phrase

Sa m

(d) All along the corridors

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(h) Hooked and warty nose phrase

clause

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(i) Jamie eats peas on toast phrase

clause

(j) Right into the goals

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phrase

clause

5

Discuss your answers with the class.

6

Work with a partner. Make some interesting sentences! One person starts a sentence and the other ends the sentence. Include phrases in your sentences. Do these orally. Write two of your best sentences. Show your phrases and verbs. (a)

(b)

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73


I’M HUNGRY!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Explore the possibilities of language and sentence structure in expressing increasingly complex thoughts.

Activities covered

Answers

• Writing down food orders • Pair work – giving and writing meal orders • Describing meal to partner

Teacher check

Additional activities

e

Children can look at different menus and discuss them.

Children could give oral restaurant reviews and read real reviews from newspapers and magazines. Children could look at and discuss world records to do with food and drink.

Sa m

There is no end to the possibilities that can be explored with this particular objective. Children are constantly practising language and especially enjoy using language in a nonformal lesson. In this lesson, children get practice ordering from a restaurant. They also get the opportunity to deal with a difficult customer.

pl

Background information

Get the children to devise a menu of their own, in groups. They can use the given menu as a guideline. These can be displayed in the school.

The teacher can present a problem to a group who must come up with a solution. Discuss the solutions as a class.

Before the lesson

The teacher can have other menus to discuss with the children. The class will be divided into pairs.

The lesson (Pages 76 and 77)

Children can look at websites of different restaurants, particularly those in their own area. Children could read up on healthy eating (library and websites) and devise a healthy eating plan.

g

The teacher can discuss with children eating out at a restaurant – the menu, the decor, the job of being a waiter/waitress, tips, service and the cost of the meal.

Possible problem: Sinead’s best friend is having a birthday party on Friday at 7 p.m. Her grandmother is also having a party for her 70th birthday at the same time. Sinead knows that both would be disappointed if she did not attend. What should she do?

in

The teacher should read through the menu on the sheet and discuss the various dishes listed.

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Children read the given menu and write down their order as if they were a waiter/waitress in a hurry. Any type of shorthand will do, as long as they understand what they have written. This is practice for the next task.

Vi

Pair work – One child is the difficult customer, the other child is the waiter/waitress. Each child must give a complicated order to his or her partner. Stress to the class they must be difficult customers and give an example of this;‘I think for starters I’ll have the mushroom soup but with a dash of cream in it, and please could I have a half a slice of brown bread to go with that and two pats of butter. For the main course, I’ll have the trout, but with just plain butter and a serving of herbs on the side with a few slices of lemon with just plain potatoes if possible, hold the garlic and a double portion of vegetables ...’ etc! The partner must write down the order in shortened form and must repeat the order to the ‘customer’ to see if he/she has it correct. (Partners can give each other a few orders if there is time.) Children then swap roles. Children must describe their favourite meal, in written form, and then describe it orally to their partner. Children must make note of whether their partner thought their meal sounded delicious or not.

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Children could read and discuss poetry on food and eating; for example, Nothing tastes quite like a gerbil by Tony Langham, Food for thought by Michaela Morgan or:

What species? My mother, angry, said to me, ‘You eat just like a bird.’ And I said, ‘That’s the vaguest thing I think I’ve ever heard.

Hungry

‘What sort of bird do I remind you of? Could you be more specific? Why, some have diets that are quite bland, and some are quite horrific! ‘Robins love to feast on worms, and bee-eaters eat bees. A vulture feeds on rotten meat, I’m sure I’m none of these! ‘Crows pick through the garbage, a sparrow will swallow a fly, an owl will hunt a timid mouse, I’m not that sort of guy! ‘A thrush will enjoy a juicy snail, a hawk will relish a rat, an egret scoffs the cattle’s fleas, I know I don’t do that! ‘Have you ever seen me lay an egg? Do I sleep in a grassy nest? So, Mum, do you think a feathery creature, Is one that describes me best?.

Mum, I’m almost withering away, I’ve had almost nothing to eat today! Why for breakfast, I munched an orange on toast, and leftover egg with Sunday roast. I slurped pea soup and a cup of tea, that isn’t enough, I know you’d agree! For lunch, all I had was a spinach pie, and chopped up liver on mouldy rye. I picked six wormy apples from the apple tree, why I’m so famished, you can clearly see! Then for dinner, I nibbled on six lamb chops, with pigs feet, brussels and corn pops. Then bread and Marmite™ mixed with ham, and two tins of outdated spam™. So, Mum, quick bring me food on a tray! I’ve had almost nothing to eat today!

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SAY IT!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Discuss the meaning, effect and diversity of sayings and expressions.

Matching sayings and meanings Underlining common sayings Explaining what sayings mean Identifying sayings Using sayings in oral sentences Writing more sayings, especially local Pair work – conversing using sayings

Background information

Sa m

This lesson has focused on general and well-known English sayings. Children should be encouraged to use these in their conversation and their writing. Local words and their effect can then be explored once children have a basic understanding of what sayings are. The teacher can point out how sayings have an effect on what is being said/read. This lesson involves whole-class participation.

spick and span – very clean piece of cake – something that is easy to do caught red-handed – caught in the act down in the dumps – depressed at the drop of a hat – immediately gave me the cold shoulder – was unfriendly to make ends meet – to cope financially goody two shoes – someone who is always good up to scratch – good enough through thick and thin – through good and bad times all bark and no bite – someone who may shout or threaten but will not take serious action (f) donkey’s years – for a long time (g) see eye to eye - get along with 3. Teacher check 4. (a) Fast food (b) Don’t lose your head (c) Keep a level head (d) Pull the wool over your eyes

e

• • • • • • •

(e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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Activities covered

Additional activities

Before the lesson

The class will be divided into pairs.

g

The teacher can have a list of other sayings not included in the lesson.

Children can read local material and discuss any local sayings or expressions. Children can ask the family at home for local and even outdated sayings and words and report back to the class with these. Children can display sayings in the classroom to remind them to make use of them.

The teacher can discuss with the children what a saying is and some examples can be given.

Children can draw pictures that depict the sayings. The pictures and sayings can be displayed in the classroom.

As a class, children match up sayings and their meanings.

Websites: www.goenglish.com and www.briggs13.fsnet. co.uk/idiomslist.htm

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The lesson (Pages 78 and 79)

Children underline the sayings in sentences and write what they think each saying means. Children discuss answers and use the sayings in oral sentences.

Vi

Children identify sayings.

Children use the sayings in oral sentences.

Children can look at and discuss sayings in literature; for example, On and on… by Roger McGough, Watch it! by John Coldwell, My Dad’s amazing by Ian Souter, The early worm by Steve Turner, or: I would

Children think of other sayings and local expressions and write them in the box.

‘We’ll head down to the beach,’ said Mum, ‘If the weather stays this good. Hopefully the rain won’t come, The sun will shine, touch wood.’

In the living room, the piano, And Grandad’s walking stick, To the ugly inherited bureau, I gave a gentle kick.

Pair work – Children have a conversation using as many sayings as possible.

I desperately wanted to swim in the surf, And wiggle my toes in the sand, If touching wood was what it took, The job I’d take in hand.

And so I went on, through the house, There was a lot to do, Cupboards, shelves and skirting boards, And all the loo seats too!

I started my task in the hallway, And touched the wooden stairs, I raced into the kitchen and Laid my hands upon the chairs.

Tables, dressers, lamp stands, bowls, CD racks and doors, Ornaments and pencils, Windowsills and drawers.

I picked up all the wooden spoons, And grabbed the kitchen door, The chopping board, the rolling pin, And stamped the wooden floor.

I even ventured on outside, Touched the kennel for the dog, I hugged each tree that I could see, And every stick and log.

I proceeded to the dining room, And tapped the table there, The large fruit bowl, the candlesticks, Of which we had a pair.

And what did the weather do that day? Well, the skies were azure blue. So if there’s something you want to happen, I’d touch wood if I were you.

I went into my bedroom, Touched my bed and photo frame, My chess set, desk and bookshelf, To my blocks I did the same.

(I hope you don’t live in a log cabin!)

Answers 1. (a) (b) (c) (d)

over the moon – very happy get the sack – lose one’s job fed up – angry, annoyed pipe dream – unrealistic goal

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75


I’m hungr y! In this lesson, you are going to be waiters or waitresses. Try to be efficient! 1

Read the following menu. Then write in shortened form what you would order. Write as if you were the waiter/waitress. Use your own abbreviations!

Starter:

Sa m

Main course:

pl

Tiger prawn cocktail, with a tikka mayonnaise dip Chinese spring roll, with an oriental barbecue sauce Cream of mushroom soup

e

Menu

Supreme of chicken with a spring onion and asparagus sauce Poached fillet of salmon with a wholegrain mustard dressing Grilled fillet of sea trout with herb and lemon butter Grilled sirloin steak with sauce of choice

Dessert:

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Your order:

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Chef’s ice-cream cake with butterscotch sauce Strawberry cheesecake Profiteroles with a duet of sauces

Remember! Make sure you understand what you have written! 76

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I’m hungr y! 2

Work with a partner. Take turns to be the waiter/waitress and customer. The customer must decide what meal he/ she wants. The waiter/waitress must listen carefully and write down the order as quickly and as accurately as possible. The customer could be quite difficult and give a complicated order. The waiter/waitress must repeat the order. The customer will decide if the order is correct or not!

Sa m

pl

e

Write the order here:

no

(a) What is your favourite meal? Describe it.

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Starter:

in

3

yes

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Did you get the customer’s order right?

Main course:

Vi

Dessert:

(b) Describe it to your partner! What did your partner think of your favourite meal? delicious

horrible

Did you know? One of the most expensive dishes is truffles, which are a type of fungus. Pigs, trained dogs and goats are used to sniff out truffles under the ground. They can cost £400–£800 per pound!

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77


Say it! There are many sayings in the English language which make the language more interesting. Try to use sayings when you speak and write.

Match up the saying and their meanings. •

was unfriendly

(b) get the sack

depressed

(c) fed up

immediately

(d) pipe dream

lose one’s job

(e) spick and span

very happy

(f) piece of cake

(g) caught red-handed

(h) down in the dumps

(i) at the drop of a hat

(j) gave me the cold shoulder • 2

pl

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(a) over the moon

caught in the act angry, annoyed

something that is easy to do

Sa m

1

I’ll love you, warts and all!

unrealistic goal

very clean

Underline the saying in each sentence and write what you think the saying means. (a) My dad has two jobs just to make ends meet. Meaning of saying:

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Meaning of saying:

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(b) That Penelope is a real goody two shoes and she’s never in trouble. (c) I don’t think this project is up to scratch. Redo it! Meaning of saying:

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(d) We’ll be friends through thick and thin. Meaning of saying:

(e) Our teacher is all bark and no bite. Meaning of saying:

Vi

(f) I haven’t seen my uncle in donkey’s years. Meaning of saying:

(g) My brother and I just don’t see eye to eye. Meaning of saying:

3

(a) As a class, discuss your answers. (b) As a class, use all of the sayings in Question 1 in oral sentences.

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

Did you know? Have you ever had a frog in your throat? Medieval physicians believed that the secretions of a frog could cure a cough. The frog was placed in the mouth and remained there until the physician said the treatment was complete!

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Say it! Write what saying each of these illustrations represents. (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

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4

As a class, use these sayings in oral sentences.

6

Write down some more sayings, especially those that are unique to your country or locality.

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5

7

Have a conversation using as many of the sayings as you can! Tick those that you use.

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HELLO!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Explore and discuss other accents and languages.

Pair work – changing a passage into formal English Pair work – identifying accents in TV programmes Saying ‘hello’ in different languages Communicating in different situations Discussing and naming traditional customs as a class Discussing answers with the class

I used to work at the takeaway but I got a little bored. I used to work with my friends. It’s good to work with your friends because you get to know them well. Now I am going to work hard, do my schoolwork and hopefully get good grades. I think I am intelligent and I am not going to fail. 2–8. Teacher check

Background information

Additional activities

Children can read poems that are written in different dialects or accents; for example, Talking turkeys! and Body talk by Benjamin Zephaniah or Down with flu by Matt Simpson (having a cold).

Sa m

Children are now exposed to different accents as more people are emigrating and moving; they are also hearing different accents on the TV. This lesson looks at other languages and how we can communicate if others don’t speak English. The lesson also looks at the children’s own traditions and customs. The teacher should tell children how important it is to accept other people’s traditions and customs and never to tease others who might have a different accent.

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• • • • • •

Answers

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Activities covered

Before the lesson

Children can read poetry about foreigners; for example, Shame by Tracey Blance, It hurts by John Foster, Arturi’s story by Penny Kent or Citizen of the world by Dave Calder.

The class will be divided into pairs.

in

The lesson (Pages 82 and 83)

g

The teacher can have examples of different dialects and accents within the children’s own country.

Pair work – Children read a passage and correct it so that it is in formal English. Children will need to rewrite the passage.

ew

In pairs, children write a list of TV programmes and the accents used in them. Still in pairs, children practise saying ‘hello’ in different languages. Children discuss their answers with the class.

Vi

Pair work – Children role-play situations where they are trying to communicate with someone who does not speak English. Still in pairs, children discuss their own culture and customs and write down what their traditional food/music/ entertainment/weather/sport/architecture is. Children draw something traditional from their country. The pairs discuss their answers and ideas with the class. The teacher can discuss with children what people from a different country might find strange about their cultures and customs.

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TOWN TALK

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Use improvisational drama to learn how local idiom, accent and dialect can influence the effect of language in particular situations.

Answers

• • • • •

1. Answers will vary; for example, How are you? Isn’t the weather great? I really like the snow! I was at a party last night and now I’m really tired. I feel like sleeping now. It was a really great night and the music was good. There was a fight, though, and a man got punched. There is no excitement in this place – there’s nothing to do. It drives me crazy! I do not like being bored. 2. (a) Wow! – when we are amazed. (b) You must be joking – when we don’t believe something. (c) OK – when we agree or want to say something is mediocre. (d) Ouch! – when we are hurt. (e) Hooray – when we’re happy. (f) For goodness sake! – when we are irritated. 3–5. Teacher check

Background information

Sa m

In this lesson, the teacher should discuss with children different accents and dialects in their own country. The teacher can explain that certain words and/or sayings will be common in specific areas. Children can discuss as a class what the common sayings are for their area. Once this lesson has been completed, children can then go on to discuss different situations, what would be appropriate in each, and how language would affect them; for example, meeting someone important, introducing themselves to a new neighbour, selling tickets for a charity, asking for information, apologising, making new friends, asking for help etc.

pl

Reading and interpreting speech Writing when we use common sayings/words Writing down common local sayings/words Group work – acting out a meeting between friends Assessing drama

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Activities covered

Before the lesson

Additional activities

Children can, in another lesson, explore how language plays a part in different situations, as described in the ‘Background information’ section. This can be completed through improvisational drama.

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The teacher can have ready examples of common sayings/ idioms/words from the local area.

in

The class will be divided into groups.

The lesson (Pages 84 and 85)

ew

As a class, children read what Jason is saying. Children write their own interpretation of it. This is then discussed as a class.

Children write down when the given sayings might be used.

Vi

As a class, children write down common sayings from their area. Group work – Children act out a scene of a meeting between friends in the town, using the sayings that have been discussed. Children assess their drama.

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Hello! Although many people speak English around the world, not everybody speaks it in the same way! 1

With a partner, read the following passage and correct it so that it is formal English. Write the passage out in formal English.

TV programme

Accent

Neighbours

Australian

Eastenders

English (London)

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With a partner, write a list of television programmes which have actors with a different accent from yours.

3

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2

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I use’ ta work at the chippie but I got kinda bored. I use’ ta work with me mates. It’s good workin’ with yer mates. Ya get ta know ‘em well. Now I’m gonna knuckle down and do me school work and I is hopin’ for a couple As. Me thinks I’m brainy and I ain’t gonna flunk.

We say ‘hello’, they say ... Try pronouncing these greetings! Irish Gaeilge

Guten Tag

Vi

German

Dia dhuit

French Dutch

Spanish

Arabic Japanese 4

82

Bonjour Hallo Buenos dias

Polish Portuguese Russian Welsh Zulu

Dzien dobry Ola Zdravstvuite Dydd da Sawubona

Geia sou Konnichi wa

Discuss your answers with the class.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

Remember! It does not matter what accents others have. To someone from a different place, you have an accent! Prim-Ed Publishing

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Hello! 5

Work with a partner. If you were in a foreign country and nobody seemed to be speaking English, how would you communicate the following? (a) Where is the bus stop?

(b) Is there a bank nearby?

(c) How do I get to Main Street?

(d) Do you sell phone cards?

(e) What is the price of a Coke?

(f) What time does this shop close?

(g) When do the buses stop running?

(h) I would like my steak well done, please.

Tick the one which was hardest to do.

e

If someone asked you what was traditional in your country, how would you explain the following?

pl

6

(a) your food

Sa m

(b) your music (c) your entertainment (d) your weather

in

g

(e) your sport

(f) your architecture

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Draw something traditional from your country.

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7

8

Discuss your answers with the class.

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Did you know? The most common language in the world is Chinese. The second is English, with about 800 million speakers! SPEAKING AND LISTENING

83


Town talk Each area in your country has a particular way of speaking. Sometimes you can tell which area people come from by their accent or the way they speak. 1

Write down what you think Jason is saying.

Sa m

pl

e

What’s up dude? Ain’t the weather wicked? I really dig that snow! I was at a bash last night and now I’m really beat! I could catch some Zs right now. It was a really awesome night and the music was cool. There was a barney, though, and some guy got a knuckle sandwich. There’s no action round this place – there’s zip to do. It drives me bonkers! I so love being bored. NOT!

Look at the following things we might say. Write down when we might use them. Wow!

(b)

(c)

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in

(a)

g

2

(d)

Vi

OK!

(e)

Hooray!

You must be joking!

Ouch!

(f)

For goodness sake!

Remember! To others, YOU might sound strange! 84

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Town talk 3

As a class, write down some common sayings from your area. Explain what the sayings mean. Meaning

Sa m

pl

e

Saying

g

Work as a group. Act out a meeting between friends in your town. Use sayings from your area. Use this space to help you plan your drama.

Vi

ew

in

4

5

Give your group’s drama a score out of ten.

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85


READ IT!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Engage with and discuss reading material in a group setting.

Activities covered

Additional activities

• • • • • •

Children could have a display in the classroom titled ‘We read all these things’, showing those things in life that we do read; for example, timetables, books, TV guides, flyers, adverts, instructions, newspapers, magazines, road signs, other signs, posters, menus, food labels, textbooks, websites, letters, comics, maps, pamphlets, street names and so on.

e

Identifying a variety of things that can be read Discussing answers with class Reading Answering questions Telling group about reading Assessing talk

Background information

Children can read poetry in groups and discuss it: www.fizzyfunnyfuzzy.com or, for reading stories online: www.magickeys.com/books

g

Sa m

Reading need not be only a solitary pastime, but can be enjoyed as a group. Teachers should, on several occasions, allow children to read together in a group setting. They can read the class reader or poetry together and help each other with difficult words. The reading can then be discussed. This lesson allows children to share what they have read with others. Children do not have to read a whole book for this lesson. They can read newspaper or magazine articles, comics, adverts, menus, food labels, letters, postcards or websites, as long as it is substantial enough for them to answer the given questions and to describe their reading to the group. Children should be encouraged to recommend to the class good things they have read. Perhaps the classroom could have a Top 10 for reading, which could be changed from time to time.

pl

Poetry about reading: Breakfast reading by Steve Turner and For word by Benjamin Zephaniah.

in

Before the lesson

Each child must bring something to class that he/she has read from start to finish. (This task can be given the night before.)

ew

Children will be divided into groups.

The lesson (Pages 88 and 89)

Children identify different things that we read. Children discuss answers with the class.

Vi

Children read something before the lesson. Children answer questions about what they have read. Group work – Children describe what they have read to the group, using their answers to the questions to guide them. (Children must bring the reading to school.) Children comment on whether they enjoyed the reading or not and why/why not. Children assess their ‘talk’.

Answers 1. (a) signs (b) letters (c) text messages (d) newspapers (e) medicines (f) food labels 2–7. Teacher check

The cure

If you’re feeling rather glum, then please do not despair. All you need is an enthralling book, and a very comfy chair.

If you’re feeling a little ill, I’d prescribe a mystery. You’ll get lost in the thickening plot, no longer sick you’ll be!

If you’re feeling a bit unloved, a romance will do the trick. You’ll find hints and tips on how to smooch, and will want a date real quick. If you’re feeling bored and tired, I’d suggest a hero’s tale, to inspire and energise you, and cheer you without fail. So for almost every ailment, a remedy you’ll find, between the covers of an honest book, to repair your soul and mind. Danger! The riskiest place you’ll ever be, Is in your local library. It should bear a warning, both harsh and clear, Watch out! Your life could change right here! For inside its seemingly innocent walls, A horror book shrieks and a love story calls, You’ll meet villains and crooks, and a pirate too, And you’ll become part of his torturous crew. You’ll shake hands with Batman®, and chat to Bruce Lee, You’ll conjure up potions, and set maidens free. You’ll head a spy mission and shoot into space, And dine with cool beings of an unknown race. You can clamber up mountains, and swim in great lakes, Encounter wild lions and venomous snakes. You’ll jump out of planes and do tricks in the air, Defeat evil armies without a care. So now you’ve been cautioned, Don’t say you weren’t told, Head down to your library, But be brave and be bold! Batman is a registered trademark of DC Comics, New York City, USA.

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THE WHOLE TRUTH

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Experience varied and consistent oral language activity as part of the pre-writing process.

Activities covered

e

Recognising possible exaggerations Completing sentences using exaggeration Writing short exaggerated paragraphs Exaggerating a statement Sharing answers with the class

Background information

Sa m

Discussion of a topic usually enhances the writing process and gives children the opportunity to discuss their ideas, which will hopefully motivate them to write. Most writing activities start with some form of oral language, which needn’t be addressed formally– this lesson simply highlights the fact.

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• • • • •

whole country, if not the world. My mother is so pretty, she won the Miss World title three times. She still takes part in beauty competitions and wins most of them. She’s forty-eight but she looks eighteen. My sister is extremely intelligent. She completed secondary school when she was just eight years old. She is studying science and she is going to invent something that will change the world. I am very lucky as I inherited good looks and brains. I am the cleverest kid in the school and no one can beat me. The prime minister told me personally that I would run the country one day. Why, even our cat is way ahead of the rest. He sits and reads the newspaper and then chews it up if he reads something upsetting. We’re altogether a brilliant family. 2. Answers will vary; for example, (a) My Mum is such a brilliant cook that you could give her any ingredients and she would make something delicious. (b) My garden is so big that it would take one whole week just to walk around it. (c) My dog is so clever that he helps me with my homework. (d) I am so popular that I have a waiting list of people who want to be my friend. (e) My friend is so good at sport that he won twenty gold medals at the last Olympic Games. (f) My sister is so lazy that she once slept for two whole weeks. 3–4. Teacher check 5. Answers will vary; for example, This morning I ate a three-foot burger made up of twenty buns and two litres of tomato sauce. I guzzled it in five minutes and was still hungry. 6. Teacher check

The teacher can explain that he/she is not condoning exaggeration, but it is important that we are able to recognise it. It can be pointed out that exaggeration can be acceptable if the other person is aware that the speaker is exaggerating; for example, ‘I nearly died when that teacher tapped me on the shoulder’. There should be much discussion in this lesson, which can eventually lead to a formal piece of writing.

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Before the lesson

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The teacher can have other examples of exaggeration and ideas for when it may be used. The class will be divided into pairs.

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The lesson (Pages 90 and 91)

The teacher reads the paragraph to the children, who underline what is possibly an exaggeration. The class discusses the exaggerations in the paragraph. Children can orally ‘tone down’ the exaggerations.

Vi

Children work with a partner to complete sentences by exaggerating. Children work with a partner to read some of their exaggerated sentences to the class. Children work with a partner to write short paragraphs using a lot of exaggeration. Some of these can be read to the class or displayed in the classroom. (Children can go on to writing a longer piece of work with exaggeration, the topic of which can be decided by the teacher.)

Answers 1. The exaggerated parts of the passage are underlined: I have the best family. My dad is a doctor and he’s so clever that he qualified in just two years, instead of the usual seven! He’s also so rich he could probably buy this Prim-Ed Publishing

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Additional activities Children can orally make up ‘tall stories’ to tell to their group. For the purpose of having oral communication before a written piece is delivered, children could carry out a communications survey. This could consist of different questions about telephones/mobiles/use of the Internet/who are the most calls made to/how many times a day is each phone used/number of text messages sent etc. Children will take the survey home and with the help of family members, complete it. Children could then have a discussion about their surveys and could write a report on ‘Communication’ based on their findings. Read literature containing exaggeration: Poetry – I’m much better than you by Colin McNaughton and Henchman wanted by Paul Cookson.

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R ead it! You have to have read something for this lesson. You can read anything, such as a newspaper or magazine article, a book, a comic, a pamphlet, anything that requires reading! Make sure that whatever you choose to read, you read it properly from start to finish! Don’t read something too short — you must be able to answer all the questions! Identify the following items that all require reading. (b)

(d)

(e)

(c)

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(a)

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(f)

Write a list of other items that require reading.

3

Discuss your answers with the class.

4

Answer these questions about the item you chose to read.

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(a) What did you read?

(b) Describe the reading in one word. (c) How many words did the reading consist of (approximately)? (d) What was the reading about?

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Read it! (e) Give the reading your own title. (f) Did you enjoy reading it? (g) Why?/Why not? (h) How long did it take you to read it? (i) Draw a picture that shows what you read.

6

Was your talk a success?

yes

no

How could you improve your talk?

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7

Tell your group about what you read and what you thought of it.

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5

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This is what I read about ...

Remember! Recommend to others good things you’ve read!

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Did you know? The fastest selling book was ‘Harry Potter and the goblet of fire’ by J.K. Rowling. It sold three million copies in 48 hours!

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The whole truth In this lesson we are going to discuss exaggeration. You should not normally exaggerate, but here it is acceptable! 1

To exaggerate means to say something is greater than is true.

Read the following passage with your teacher and underline what you think may be exaggerated.

We’re altogether a brilliant family. 2

Sa m

pl

e

I have the best family. My dad is a doctor and he’s so clever that he qualified in just two years, instead of the usual seven! He’s also so rich he could probably buy this whole country, if not the world. My mother is so pretty, she won the Miss World title three times. She still takes part in beauty competitions and wins most of them. She’s forty-eight but she looks eighteen. My sister is extremely intelligent. She completed secondary school when she was just eight years old. She is studying science and she is going to invent something that will change the world. I am very lucky as I inherited good looks and brains. I am the cleverest kid in the school and no one can beat me. The prime minister told me personally that I would run the country one day. Why, even our cat is way ahead of the rest. He sits and reads the newspaper and chews it up if he reads something upsetting.

Work with a partner to complete these sentences. Exaggerate as much as you like!

in

(b) My garden is so big

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(a) My Mum is such a brilliant cook

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(c) My dog is so clever

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(d) I am so popular

(e) My friend is so good at sport

(f) My sister is so lazy

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Read some of your exaggerations to the class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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The whole truth 4

Work with a partner to write a short exaggerated paragraph about each of these topics. The strangest thing I ever saw

The best party I’ve been to

5

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(b)

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(a)

Make this statement ridiculous by adding exaggerations!

Vi

I ate a burger.

6

Choose your favourite exaggeration and read it out to your class. Man is inclined to exaggerate almost everything, except his own mistakes. Anon

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TALK TIME!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Choose a form and quality of presentation appropriate to the audience.

Activities covered

Additional activities

• • • •

Children could rethink their talk so that it would be suitable for a 6-year old. Children can give this talk in groups and the differences could be discussed.

Researching a topic Writing keywords Giving a talk Assessing a talk

Most oral language is done in an informal way. This lesson allows children to properly prepare what they are going to say. This lesson should be approached more formally.

The teacher must give each child a topic to research and talk about.

The teacher must make sure that children have access to relevant information, from the school library, by access to the Internet or from resources at home.

Children can read poems and decide what age group they are intended for, or change them to suit different age groups.

The lesson (Pages 94 and 95)

The teacher allows children to pick their topics from a ‘hat’.

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Children must be given time to research their topic. The teacher should explain to children that some level of research is required, even if they already know a lot about their subject. Children should try to think of other aspects of the topic that they could research. Children write rough notes on their sheet. Children write down keywords that they can glance at while giving their talk.

Vi

Children give and assess their talk.

Answers

Teacher check Ideas for topics: Halloween, Christmas, telephones, games, exercise, food, water, cats, recycling, restaurants, TV, music, Easter, fairytales, films, shopping, winter, holidays, hospitals, computers, homelessness, sleep, funfairs, poverty, wheels, rivers, heart, cars, bread etc.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

Children could choose a particular topic and decide how it could be best taught to infants; for example, what pictures would be used, what information would be given, demonstrations that would be used etc. Children could discuss different forms of presentation and which would be suitable when; for example, children could change a poem into a short play for infants – Grizelda Grimm’s ghastly gun by David Harmer; or a poem can be changed into a character sketch – The evil Doctor Mucus Spleen by Paul Cookson.

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Topics should be written/typed on small pieces of paper that can be placed in a ‘hat’.

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Children could look at www.askjeevesforkids.com for information.

Sa m

Before the lesson

Children could listen to a speech being delivered and make speech cards. They can then deliver the speech, with their speech cards to help them.

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Background information

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Children could pretend they are someone famous and give a speech (a president addressing the nation, an actor accepting an Oscar® etc.).

Or this poem can be changed into a letter to the cat: Thanks, but no thanks My precious, generous, lovable cat Daily brings to me, A feathery or furry gift, As dead as dead can be. Now please don’t get me wrong, I appreciate the thought. A deceased rodent is a super gift, Especially one he’s caught. I appreciate his efforts, In shopping for the best. I know the skill that is required, In conquering his quest. I only ask that he be prudent, My birthday comes once a year, He shouldn’t be spoiling me so much, ‘Thanks, but no thanks, dear.’

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WHAT’S NEWS?

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Discuss issues of major concern.

Activities covered

Answers

• • • • • •

Most children do not read newspapers or watch the news, nor should they be bombarded with it every day. Children should, though, have an idea of what is going on around them in their own country and in the world. Perhaps the teacher could discuss local, national and international news once a week. A bulletin board could be kept in the classroom with articles on events and happenings. Although this lesson includes watching a videotape of the news, a ‘news’ lesson can be done prior to this, where children each bring in a newspaper and discuss the various articles.

1. Answers will vary; for example: Kids create nutritious snacks. Safety experts say school bus passengers should wear seatbelts Teachers strike, kids sit idle Kind chef helps feed the needy Number halved – local high school dropouts 2. Answers will vary; for example, (a) ‘Good evening, and welcome to News 24.’ (b) Headlines (c) Yes, one reporter is reporting from London. (d) The newsreader makes eye contact during most of the reading. (e) Newsreaders may have no expression, unless telling a funny story. (f) The tone of voice is business-like and clear. (g) They sit up straight and look formal. (h) They manage to keep their heads quite still. (i) Their hands are resting on their notes in front of them. (j) They appear relaxed but concentrating on the task. 3–8. Teacher check

Before the lesson

Additional activities

• Assessing a news bulletin

Sa m

Background information

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The teacher can discuss news events, locally, nationally and internationally. The teacher should have a videotape of a recent news bulletin. The teacher could have information about autocue operators (optional) if the teacher decides that one member of the group should fulfil this role. The class will be divided into pairs and groups. For the pre-lesson, children must bring in a newspaper each. The teacher can have a video camera to tape children’s news bulletins.

The lesson (Pages 96 and 97)

Vi

Children could have a lesson beforehand in which they discuss the articles from the newspapers they have brought in. Children, in pairs, must rethink funny headlines and rewrite them so that they are not ambiguous. Children watch the videotape the teacher has brought in. Children answer questions about the news presenters. These answers are discussed as a class, and parts of the video can be looked at again to reconfirm. Group work – Children must prepare a news bulletin about news in their area/school. This news bulletin must be presented to the class. The teacher can set a time limit for the completed performance. Each member of the group must have a role; for example, newsreader, autocue operator, prompt, director, editor, writer. The teacher can videotape the bulletins if possible. As a class, all the bulletins should be discussed and compared with the one they watched. Included in the discussion should be ideas for improvement. Children assess their bulletin for Question 8.

Prim-Ed Publishing

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Reading newspapers and discussing Changing funny headlines Watching the news on TV Commenting on the reading of the news Group work – writing a news bulletin Presenting a news bulletin

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After this lesson, children could write their own newspaper articles. Children can set up a news bulletin board and children can bring in articles to stick onto it. The library in the school should have a newspaper if possible. Children can look at websites of national news channels. For the teacher: www.talkingwithkids.org/television/twk-news. html (talking about the news with children). Children can follow a suitable lead story, over a few days/weeks. Children could read poetry and literature that concerns issues that affect the world; for example, Web of life by Jane Clarke, Natural numbers by Mike Johnson, Blake’s tyger – revisited by Michaela Morgan, The last wolf speaks from the zoo by Pie Corbett, Names by Brian Patten, or children could discuss this poem and talk about what could be done.

R.I.P. Our town has taken its last breath, and has simply ceased to be. No one pounds the quaint little streets, except my shadow and me.

Now there is no laughter, familiar faces to greet, comfortable friends have all moved on, their mortgages to meet.

Shoppers have fled to shopping malls, where prices are slashed and cut, and century-old little family shops, simply closed their doors and shut.

Does anyone out there feel like me? Is there anyone else who’s cried? The day the magic disappeared, the day our small town died.

The hollow buildings look sombre and bleak, the soulless windows are sad, where I had peeked and longed for things when I was just a lad.

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Talk time! You are going to deliver a talk to the class! Try to make your talk interesting so that your fellow classmates will enjoy listening to it. Think about who your audience is!

What is your topic?

2

You must research your topic. Write your rough notes below.

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1

Practise your talk.

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Talk time! 3

Write down keywords below for you to glance at while you are talking.

S

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RD WO

4

Practise your talk, then deliver it to the class.

5

After you have given your talk, answer these questions. (a) Did you feel nervous giving your talk?

(b) Do you think the class found it interesting? (c) How do you think you could have improved on it?

(d) Give yourself a mark out of 10 for your talk.

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What’s news? 1

Read these newspaper headlines that were actually published. Work with a partner to decide what you think they should have been! Change them accordingly. (a)

KIDS MAKE NUTRITIOUS

CHEF THROWS HIS HEART INTO HELPING FEED NEEDY

(d)

SNACKS

(b)

e

SAFETY EXPERTS SAY (e)

LOCAL HIGH SCHOOL

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SCHOOL BUS PASSENGERS SHOULD BE BELTED

(c)

Did you know? A journalist is someone who writes or edits for a newspaper or magazine.

g

Watch a recording of a recent news bulletin. Take note of the following. (a) How is the news introduced?

(b) What is mentioned first?

(c) Do they have reporters at the scene?

(d) Comment on the newsreader’s eye contact.

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T

EACHER STRIKES IDLE KIDS

Sa m

DROPOUTS CUT IN HALF

yes

no

Vi

Where are they?

(e) What facial expressions do newsreaders have?

(f) What tone of voice are they using? (g) How do they hold themselves?

(h) Do they move their heads? yes

(i) What are they doing with their hands?

3 96

no

(j) Do they appear relaxed? yes

no

Discuss your answers with the class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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What’s news? 4

Work with your group. Decide on what is news in your area/school for the week. It doesn’t have to be ‘headline material’, just anything that is happening in your community. Write your ideas.

Your group needs to put together a news bulletin. Each member in the group must have a role to play – newsreader(s), director, cameraman, prompt, editor, autocue operator etc. Write each person’s role in the table.

Name

Role

Make rough notes on your role, so that you know what you are doing.

7

Practise and present your news bulletin to the class.

(a) What was the best thing about your performance?

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6

Role

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Name

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5

e

Did you know? About 35 million trees could be saved each year if we recycled more cardboard and paper.

(b) How could your performance be improved?

(c) Colour the stars to rate your performance out of ten.

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SELL YOUR SCHOOL!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective (Oral language): Discuss ideas and concepts encountered in other areas of the curriculum.

Activities covered

Answers

• • • •

Teacher check

Discussing school building and grounds Group work – answering questions Presenting school as a property to sell Assessing presentation

Additional activities

Sa m

This lesson demonstrates the use of oral language in other areas of the curriculum. This lesson focuses on geography, but oral language should be used in all other curriculum subjects through discussion, improvisational drama etc. In this lesson, children study and discuss their own school building. School is a place where children spend so much time, but few would take a hard look at the components. Children need to concentrate on the positive aspects of the school only.

The teacher can discuss with the children buildings and/or houses in the locality.

pl

Background information

e

Children can draw a rough plan of their school and as a class present ideas on how to improve the school environment.

Before the lesson

The teacher should read through the questions prior to this lesson to make sure that he/she can assist children where necessary.

in

Children will work as a group.

g

The teacher should gather information about the brief history of the school as well as the origin of its name.

The lesson (Pages 100 and 101)

The teacher may give a brief history of the school and area.

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Group work – Children answer the given questions on their copymaster, with the aid of the teacher if necessary. Children walk around the school and grounds to get some answers. The class discuss the school building and grounds.

Vi

Children put together a presentation as estate agents trying to sell the school. Children use their answers to guide them and focus on positive aspects of the school. Children assess their presentation, using one word only.

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THIS IS ABOUT YOU!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Use discussion of the familiar as the basis of a more objective grasp of a topic.

Activities covered

Children assess their talk.

• • • • • •

The teacher can discuss with the children all the different personalities in the class.

Background information

e

Children choose a real or fictional character. Children write a character sketch about their character. These are presented orally to the class. The class needs to guess which character each talk is about.

Sa m

The idea of this lesson is that children start a character sketch with someone they are very familiar with – themselves! They can then move on to do a sketch on a real or fictional character. This particular objective is used a lot in our lessons anyway, as we often start off a particular topic with which children are already familiar and progress from there. The teacher should remind children that when others are discussing personal things about themselves, we should respect their ideas and feelings and never ridicule them.

Children draw a picture that depicts them. Children must use labels to show their character; for example, a picture showing closed eyes, with the label stating ‘loves sleeping’; a picture showing a foot, with a label showing ‘football fan’; a picture of a spider on their shirt, with the label stating’ AAAAAhhhh!’ etc.

pl

Answering questions about self Giving a talk to a group Assessing the talk Drawing a picture Answering questions about a real or fictional character Listening to talks and guessing the characters

Answers

Teacher check

Additional activities

Children could read poetry and write a character sketch based on the poem; for example, Billy McBone by Allan Ahlberg and Stinkerman by David Harmer.

Before the lesson

in

Children will work in a group.

g

Children must be given time to prepare their talks for the group and class.

Children can read short stories and poems about everyday experiences and compare them with their own lives, then children move on to comparing the experiences of characters in a novel.

The lesson (Pages 102 and 103)

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The teacher discusses with the children what a character sketch is. (Information about a particular character, their strengths and weaknesses, what they do and do not like, how they interact with others, their interests, their hopes, their fears etc.) Children fill in the answers on their copymaster (questions about themselves).

Vi

After children have been given time to prepare their talk, they present it to their group. The teacher can explain, before they rehearse their talk, that they do not need to include all the information on the copymaster, these questions are just to get them thinking about themselves!

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Sell your school! No, we are not really going to sell your school. You would miss it too much! 1

Remember! Your school is a special place! It’s where you learn!

Work as a group. You are going to pretend you are estate agents trying to sell the school building. You will have to focus on the positive aspects of your school to impress your potential buyer!

(b) What is the age of your school?

Sa m

(c) What are the main building materials used?

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(a) What is the name of your school?

e

Answer the questions to get thinking along the right lines. You may need your teacher’s help with some of them. Walk around the school and grounds in your groups to help you with the answers.

(d) What type of roof does it have?

(e) What type of windows does it have?

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(f) Has the school undergone any renovations? If yes, give details.

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(g) Has the school had any extensions? If yes, give details.

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(h) Are there any outbuildings?

(i) What are the outbuildings presently used for?

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(j) Is the school used for anything else? If yes, give details.

(k) Comment on the school grounds.

(l) Comment on the layout of the school.

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Sell your school! (m) What facilities does the school have?

(n) What amenities/facilities are close by?

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e

(o) Does the school have any historical features? If yes, give details.

Sa m

(p) What potential does the school have to be improved?

As a group, decide what the positive aspects of the school are. Put together a presentation for the class (potential buyers) and include how much you’re selling it for. Make sure everyone in the group gets a chance to speak! Write some notes to help organise your ideas.

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(q) Is there any other information that you think is important?

3

Write one word to describe your selling performance.

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This is about you!

My name is Jake and I love the beach.

You are going to tell your group about yourself. To help you, here are some questions to answer. You don’t have to include all this information in your talk! 1

(a) My name is (b) I was born in

(place) on the (date) of

(month)

(c) I have

brothers and

(d) I have

aunts and

e

(year).

sisters.

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uncles.

Sa m

(e) One thing I really enjoy doing is (f) My favourite meal is (g) I do not like

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(h) I am scared of

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(i) Things that make me happy are:

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(j) One day I would like to be a (k) I think my strengths are

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(l) I think my weaknesses are (m) I wish

2

Tell your group about yourself.

3

How was your talk?

4

On the back of this sheet, draw a picture of yourself and label it, using the labels to shows what your character is like. For example, a label showing a kind heart, or a label showing ‘piano fingers’. Remember!

very good

good

fair

not good

Everybody is different – that’s what makes us interesting! 102

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This is about you! 5

Choose a real or fictional character. Write his/her name.

6

Answer these questions about your character.

Your character could be a real person (for example, a sports person, a singer or an actor) or fictional (for example, a character from a book or TV programme).

(a) What do I do?

e

(b) Am I male or female?

pl

(c) How old do you think I am?

Write some more interesting facts about your character.

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7

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(d) What do I look like?

8

Tell your class about your character. Do not tell your character’s name in your talk.

9

Did anyone in your class guess who your character was?

yes

no

10 Rate your talk.

very good Prim-Ed Publishing

good

www.prim-ed.com

fair

not good SPEAKING AND LISTENING

103


WHAT?

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Use the basic key questions and checking questions as a means of extending knowledge.

Answers

• • • • •

1. Answers will vary; for example: CD advert: What shop is having this special offer?/For how long will the offer last?/What is included in this price? Crisps advert: When will the crisps be available?/Why are they different?/What flavours are the crisps available in?/ How much will the crisps cost? 2. Answers will vary; for example: (a) What time will the match be played? (b) Which project has to be complete by Friday? (c) When is Jamie’s birthday? (d) Where in Spain is Nadia going on holiday? (e) Why are rhinos endangered? (f) What positions do the players play? 3. Teacher check 4. Answers will vary; for example, What time does the party start?/Who is the invitation from?/Where is the house?/ What date is the party?/What is the theme?/What do we need to bring to sleep over? 5–7. Teacher check

Background information

Sa m

Children should constantly be encouraged to ask questions when they are unsure about something or if they need more information. The question words: ‘why’, ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘when’ etc. should be displayed in the classroom.

pl

Asking questions in response to given adverts Asking questions in response to given statements Discussing answers with the class Pair work – asking questions about a written invitation Pair work – asking partner questions about himself/ herself

e

Activities covered

Before the lesson

The teacher can have adverts/books/flyers to discuss with the class, and children must ask questions about them.

Additional activities

Children can look at simple job adverts and devise questions that the applicant could ask the interviewer. These can be role-played.

g

The class will be divided into pairs for the second part of the lesson. As one of the activities requires children to learn more about each other, the pairs should consist of children who don’t know each other very well.

in

The lesson (Pages 106 and 107)

Children can look at flyers/menus/adverts and devise questions. Children can read these poems: Asking questions by Gervase Phinn and Questions, questions by Steve Turner.

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The teacher can discuss with the children when in life we need to ask questions and who to ask; for example, the teacher if you are struggling with your work, your neighbour if you have lost your cat, your mum if she is going to town, a police officer for directions if you are lost. Teachers can ask children what happens to our voices when we ask questions. Children look at two adverts on their sheet and devise three questions that they could ask about each product.

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Children write questions in response to the given statements. Children discuss their answers with the class. Pair work – Children look at a written invitation and decide which questions should be asked. Answers should be discussed as class. Pair work – Children use the ‘question words’ (who, why, what etc.) to ask their partner questions so that they learn more about them. Children write down things they learnt about their partner through asking questions.

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ON THE SPOT!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Listen to a presentation, decide the most appropriate questions to ask and then prioritise them.

Activities covered

The lesson (Pages 108 and 109)

• • • • • • •

The teacher gives a talk on the chosen topic.

Listening to the teacher Asking and prioritising questions Preparing a talk Giving a talk Answering questions given by classmates Asking classmates questions Assessing talk and questions

Children write questions that they would like to ask about the talk. The teacher can remind children how questions start, and how, when written, they always end in a question mark.

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Children prioritise their questions and ask them in order of priority.

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Children decide what topic their talk will be on.

Children have time to prepare their talk (in class or for homework).

Background information

Children present their talk to the class.

While each child is speaking, the class must jot down questions that could be asked about the topic.

Sa m

In this lesson, children must listen very carefully to their teacher and classmates giving their talks, and as a class formulate questions for the speaker about the topic. This lesson is a grounding for other lessons where children must question what they hear or read, which should be encouraged often.

The children prioritise their questions. The class asks the speaker questions, and the speaker gives answers, if he/she can. Children assess their own talk and their answering of the questions.

Before the lesson

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The teacher needs to give a talk for 1–2 minutes, on a topic of his/her own choice, which the children will ask questions about.

Teacher check

Additional activities In other subjects, children can formulate questions based on what the teacher has explained; for example, in history or watching a wildlife programme.

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Children must have time to prepare a talk on something that they feel passionate about/something that they know a lot about; for example, football, their own family, a music band, a place they have visited, an interesting person they have met. Children should choose a topic that they know a lot about so they will not need to do any research.

Answers

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What? Asking questions is part of our everyday lives. If you are ever unsure about something, ask! 1

(a) Look at these adverts. (b) Write three questions you could ask to learn about each product. Use some of these question words: Why? Who? When? Where? What? How? Which? Question 1:

CD player special: Our lowest price at ÂŁ125 only!!

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Question 3:

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!

W WO

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Question 2:

Question 1:

UNIQUE CRISPS!

Question 2:

Something different – for interesting people only.

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Respond to these statements by asking a question.

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Question 3:

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(a) The match will be on Saturday afternoon. (b) History projects are to be done by Friday.

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(c) Jamie would really love a wildlife book for her birthday. (d) Nadia is going on holiday to Spain. (e) Rhinos are an endangered species. (f) There are seven players in a netball team.

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Discuss your answers with the class.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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What? 4

Work with a partner to complete the following. John received an invitation, but there is some information missing. What questions will he need to ask?

PLEASE COME TO MY PARTY!

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Dear John You are invited to my birthday party. Date: Saturday Place: My house! Dress: theme, sleep over Party I hope to see you there!

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Time! (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

Discuss your answers with the class.

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Learn more about your partner by asking questions. Use why, when, who, what and where.

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(a) Write the name of your partner.

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(b) Write the things you learnt about your partner in the bubbles.

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On the spot! Remember! Questions often start with: Who? Where? When? What? Why? 1

(a) Listen to your teacher give a talk. (b) When your teacher has finished, write down three questions you would like to ask about the talk.

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• Question:

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• Question:

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• Question:

(c) Label the questions in the order you would like to ask them. Label your most important question ‘1’, the next most important ‘2’ and your least important question ‘3’. 2

You are going to tell the class about something you know a lot about. It can be anything; for example, football, your family, your pet, a topic in geography or even your favourite place. The class will ask you questions so make sure you know your subject! Your talk should last 1–2 minutes.

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(b) Write your points below:

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(a) What are you going to talk about?

(c) How many questions did the class ask you? (d) Were you able to answer most of the questions?

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yes

no

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On the spot! 3

While you listen to other children giving their talks, think of questions you could ask them. Write your questions in the table, so you don’t forget them. Name of person I want to ask

Priority

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When each child has ďŹ nished his/her talk, number each of your questions in the order you would like to ask them. Number 1 is the question you would most like to ask.

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(a) How many questions did you ask? (b) Were most of your questions answered?

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FOUR CORNERS

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Argue points of view from the perspective of agreement and disagreement through informal discussion and in the context of formal debates.

Activities covered

The lesson (Pages 112 and 113)

• • • • •

The teacher gives the class a statement to write on their sheet. No discussion takes place at this time.

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The teacher can then put up the posters in each corner of the classroom, and the children go to the corner which signifies their viewpoint. Each group discusses how they feel about the statement and the reasons for their feelings. Rough notes are made on their copymaster.

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Background information

Entirely on their own, children decide what their viewpoint is and colour it. It is important that children do not talk to each other at all during this time, as the decision must be made by individuals.

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Writing statement Choosing viewpoint Group work – discussing, making rough notes Telling class the viewpoint and reasons for it Changing viewpoint, if applicable, after considering arguments • Discussing • Writing paragraph • Showing layout of classroom

The class will have many opportunities to discuss topics informally during class discussions. This lesson allows children to pinpoint their view, and share reasons for defending it. Formal debates can also be held in the classroom. Teachers should choose a topic for this lesson, in which the class will be completely split into four groups.

The teacher appoints a speaker from each group to give their views. Once all groups have spoken, children get given a minute to think quietly about the topic. If children have changed their minds about their viewpoint, they move to the appropriate corner. Groups discuss their topic once more, seeing if there is anything else they can add.

Before the lesson

Children write a paragraph on the topic, including at least four of the strongest points of their argument.

The teacher should have a statement that can be argued.

Children fill in a rough layout of the classroom.

Ideas for topics:

in

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The teacher should have ready posters for each corner of the classroom: strongly agree/agree/disagree/strongly disagree.

Beauty is only skin deep.

Answers

School should be two hours longer.

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Animals should not be kept in cages. Television is better than books.

The age for legal drinking should be lowered. Fast food should be available to buy at school.

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All children should have daily chores. Chewing gum should be illegal.

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Additional activities The teacher can present a criminal case to the class. (Nothing too gruesome!) The class must hold a ‘trial’ with a jury, judge, lawyers, witnesses, bailiff etc. Children could watch a law TV programme and discuss the tactics used by the lawyers. The class could hold a formal debate. The activity ‘Four corners’ could be repeated, using a different statement to debate.

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THE ART OF PERSUASION

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Try to persuade others to support a particular point of view.

Activities covered Pair work – writing persuasive statements Recognising situations that require persuasion Discussing answers as a class Group work – giving a persuasive talk Assessing talk and ‘donating’ money

Children answer questions about their charity. Children present their talk to the class.

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Each member of the class ‘donates’ money by writing, anonymously, an amount he/she would realistically be prepared to donate, on paper. The teacher adds these amounts and reveals which charity had the most money donated to it.

Background information

Once all groups have their talk, the class must discuss the talks and decide why the best one won. The class can have a general discussion on real charities and the good work they do.

Sa m

Children need to be made aware of how others can be persuasive to get what they want. Advertising can be discussed here, as well as more serious topics such as strangers trying to get a child into the car and other safety issues. We all use some forms of persuasion, but children need to be aware that there is ‘good’ and ‘bad’ persuasion.

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• • • • •

Group work – Children prepare a talk, as a group, pretending they are requesting money for a charity. This can be a real or ‘made-up’ charity. Children try to incorporate persuasive language into their talk.

Before the lesson

The teacher can have examples of adverts and the ways companies try to persuade us to buy their products. Even food labels try to persuade us to pick up that particular item. Examples of these can also be brought in, or children can be told, the day before, to bring in items of their own.

Children can discuss a charity they have read about and draw its logo.

Answers

Teacher check

Additional activities

A more in-depth look can be taken at the persuasive techniques used in advertising.

Children must also do a little bit of research the day before this lesson on a particular charity. Only the basics need to be known—what the charity is for, where it is, and its logo.

Children can look at adverts for charities on TV—what emotions do they draw on? Do they work?

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The teacher can have examples of situations where we must not be taken in by the persuasion of others.

Children will work in pairs and groups.

The class can organise a real fund-raising event for a particular charity. This can be in the form of a cake sale/popcorn sale etc. Children must make persuasive posters before the day and use persuasive techniques on the day!

The lesson (Pages 114 and 115)

Children can role-play different unsafe situations where others are being persuasive, trying to get them to do something they don’t want to do/know is dangerous.

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The teacher must have paper ready for children to write down their anonymous ‘donations’.

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The teacher can discuss with the children advertising and food labels, layouts of supermarkets, billboards etc. that all try to persuade us to buy particular products. The teacher can use the children’s examples and some of his/her own. The teacher can discuss with the children safety issues that arise from others trying to persuade us to do things we don’t want to do; for example, getting into a stranger’s car, answering the door at home when alone, a friend trying to get another to visit a dangerous place, kids trying to persuade another to drink alcohol/take drugs. Children write persuasive sentences. Children write down times when we might have to be persuasive.

Children can display information about charities in the classroom. Children can look at various charity websites: www.icrc.org/eng (Red Cross International) www.ozanet.org/ssvpcgien/marco1_en.htm (St Vincent de Paul) www.oxfam.org.uk (Oxfam) www.wwf-uk.org www.nspcc.org.uk (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children) Children could read poetry; for example, Thank you and Think of all the poor children by Steve Turner.

These two questions can be discussed as a class.

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111


Four corners Your class is going to play ‘Four corners’, which is a fun type of debate. 1

Your teacher is going to give you a statement. Write it below:

2

You have to choose one of the following viewpoints. Take a few minutes to think about it first. Colour the one you have chosen. Remember!

Strongly agree

Teamwork is essential in this lesson.

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Agree

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Disagree

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Strongly disagree 3

Go to the corner of the classroom where that viewpoint is written.

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With the others in your corner, write down a few points about why you feel this way about the given statement. You don’t need to write sentences, just keywords.

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Your rough notes here:

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Your teacher will choose a speaker for each group. The speaker must give the group’s argument for their viewpoint. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

Remember! You need to try to persuade others to agree with you.

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F our corners 6

Once everyone has stated their opinion, think about the statement again. (a) Did anybody persuade you to change your viewpoint?

yes

no

(b) Change to a different corner if you have changed your mind. As a group, discuss your topic again, adding to your rough notes.

8

Write a paragraph and include at least four of the strongest points for your view.

9

(a) Imagine this rectangle is your classroom. Show where each group was before the debate. Write how many children were in each group. Mark with a cross where you were standing.

Before the debate:

(b) Show where each group was after the debate. Write how many children were in each group. Mark with a cross where you were standing.

After the debate:

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113


The art of persuasion To persuade means to convince someone of something.

Sometimes we might need to be persuasive to get what we want! 1

Work with a partner to write what you would say to persuade your: (a) ... parents to buy you a new mobile phone.

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(c) ... sister to let you borrow her football shirt.

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(b) ... teacher to give you no homework.

(d) ... friend to come round to your house, even though he/she is not allowed to.

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(e) ... parents to give you more pocket money.

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(f) ... older brother to give you a lift in his car.

Sometimes, we may ďŹ nd ourselves in a position where we have to be persuasive.

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List examples of these times.

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Discuss your answers with your class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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The art of persuasion 4

Work as a group. Prepare a short talk, trying to persuade your audience (the class) to donate money for a particular cause. It could be a real or ‘made up’ cause or charity. Try to make your talk persuasive. Each member of the group can have a turn to speak. At the end of your talk, each person in the class must write on a piece of paper how much he/she would be willing to donate to you. The teacher will collect them and add them. See which cause earned the most money! Use the following questions to help plan your talk: (a) What is your charity called?

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(b) What is your charity all about?

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(c) Who will benefit? (d) What will donations be used for?

(e) Why is your cause important?

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(f) Why should they (the children) support your cause?

(a) How much did your charity earn?

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(b) How much did the winning charity earn?

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(c) Why do you think the winning charity was the most persuasive?

6

Which charity would be close to your heart? Draw its logo here:

Did you know? Over four billion dollars was pledged to help the victims of the 2004 Asian tsunami.

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ARGUE WITH THE TEACHER!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Respond to arguments presented by the teacher.

Activities covered

Answers

• • • • •

A possible argument the teacher can present to the class: It should be illegal to home-school children. Reasons: Children do not get to play with children their own age. Children do not learn social skills. Work completed might not be up to standard. Children will not learn the necessary discipline. Children will be lazy when taught at home. Home schooling can put added pressure on parents trying to teach their children. Family members spend too much time together. Children might not have access to certain resources that they have at school, such as a library, computers, scientific equipment etc. Children will not get the opportunity to play team sports. Children will lose the ability to function within a group. The lack of set mealtimes during the day could lead children to eat too much. There may be too many distractions at home such as the TV or toys. Children will not learn to accept different types of personalities. Children may not learn the importance of being punctual. Children’s work may not be assessed objectively. Children could be cheekier to their parents than they would be to a teacher. Children would end up spending too much time at home. Children would miss out on the fun aspects of school such as class parties, a visiting drama group etc. Children could miss out on school activities such as sports day, choir practice, dance class, guest speakers etc.

Background information

Sa m

In this lesson, children respond to the teacher’s arguments. The teacher will need to use an argument that will sustain discussion and provide different opinions among the children. Children should be encouraged to disagree (or agree) in a calm and friendly manner, stating their view and their reasons for it. Children need to realise that they can disagree and argue a point without getting angry or disrespectful.

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Responding to teacher’s argument Writing pros and cons of argument Discussing with teacher and class Responding to given statements Stating what they strongly disagree with

Before the lesson

The teacher will need to present to the class an argument. (See Answers section for an example).

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The lesson (Pages 118 and 119)

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The teacher explains to the class that they are going to respond to an argument that he/she presents.

The teacher can explain how to argue a point in a calm and respectful way, always giving reasons for a particular view. The teacher explains the meanings of ‘pros’ and ‘cons’.

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Children write down briefly the teacher’s argument, why they agree or disagree and the pros and cons of the argument. All ideas are discussed as a class. The teacher must try to keep the argument going by disagreeing with children and having reasons for doing so.

(Note: The teacher must present a one-sided argument!)

Additional activities Children role-play having arguments with the teacher or other children. Children debate the statements they have written as answers to Question 7.

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Children read the given statements and say whether they agree or disagree. These statements are discussed as a class. Children write something that they strongly disagree with.

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IN FASHION?

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Discuss the value of popular ideas.

Activities covered

Answers

• • • • • •

1. Fashionable items are: pierced face, games console, sunglasses, mobile phone, watch and boots 2–6. Teacher check

Ticking what they think is in fashion Drawing and labelling fashionable items Changing an old advert into a modern one Discussing with the class Writing popular items Explaining why items are popular

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Additional activities Children can discuss: What is popular this year? Children can have a classroom display.

Children could discuss popular idioms, proverbs and sayings; for example, ‘Whatever’.

Sa m

This lesson looks at popular ideas now, something which most of the children will be very aware of! Children can look at the importance of popular ideas. It must be explained that each person is an individual and has his/her own taste and should never be discriminated against for those tastes. Children should also discuss what makes something popular or not and how much advertising plays a part in dictating fashion. Questions could be discussed; for example, ‘Should fashion be taken seriously?’

Each child has to say one thing he/she thinks should be in fashion; for example, ‘I think floppy hats should be in fashion’.

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Background information

Before the lesson

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Children should bring in a picture/photograph of something modern and something old-fashioned, or even an actual item. This can be given for homework the night before.

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The teacher can collect pictures and objects from another time. These need not be very old, even items from the 1960s or 1970s will seem ancient!

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The lesson (Pages 120 and 121)

Children must write about their hero/heroine, who it is and why they admire that person. Children can draw fashion pictures for art. Children can bring in photos of their grandparents when they were younger, and can compare fashions etc. Children can read poetry; for example, You’re not going out like that! by Paul Cookson and David Harmer, Take a tip from me by Graham Denton, A mother’s despair by Patricia Leighton, Fishy fashion by David Harmer, Where shall I have my tattoo? by Redvers Brandling, Just look at yourself! by Alan Priestley, A hat by Colin West, DIY tongue-stud by Mike Johnson, No earrings allowed by Steven Herrick, Bonding by Jill Townsend, Out of season by Paul Cookson, You’re not going out dressed like that! by Dave Calder, Take off that hat! by Ted Scheu, Purple shoes by Irene Rawnsley and One thing in common by Paul Cookson.

The teacher can discuss with the class the pictures and objects that he/she has brought in, as well as what the children have brought in.

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The teacher can discuss with the children what is fashionable now; for example, clothing, hairstyles, music, gadgets, cars. Discuss with the children what makes something popular. What role does advertising have? Is it important to be in fashion? Should people not be able to have their own style? Children tick what they think is fashionable on their copymaster. Children draw and label three more fashionable items. Children change an old-fashioned advert into a modern one, using the same product. Children write a popular item for each given heading. Children choose five items and explain why each is popular. Children discuss all their answers as a class.

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Argue with the teacher! The teacher is going to present an argument to you. You do not have to agree with the teacher! Remember, disagreeing does not mean you can be disrespectful. You have to respond to the teacher in a calm and friendly way, politely putting your view! You might even agree with the teacher—if you do, say so! Write the teacher’s statement.

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(a) Do you agree with the statement?

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(b) Why/Why not?

Write ‘pros’ and ‘cons’ for the argument.

Cons

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Pros

‘Pros’ are for the argument and ‘cons’ are against.

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Discuss the statement with the class.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Argue with the teacher! 5

(a) Tick whether you agree or disagree with the following statements.

I don’t agree with you but I’m still your friend!

(b) Discuss the statements with your teacher and class. (c) Tick whether the majority of your class agree or disagree with the statements. Statement 1: agree

My class

agree

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You should be 16 years or older to consume sweets and fizzy drinks.

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disagree

Statement 2: I

agree

My class

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All zoos should be banned, as they are cruel to animals.

disagree

agree disagree

Statement 3:

agree

School dinners should be compulsory and serve only healthy food.

agree

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My class

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Statement 4:

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All children should have jobs after school to earn pocket money.

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agree

My class

disagree

agree

My class

disagree

Did your class mostly agree or disagree with you?

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Write something that you strongly disagree with.

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disagree

Statement 5:

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agree

agree disagree

agree

Children should be fined by their parents if they misbehave at home.

disagree

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In fashion? Fashions come and go. It is more important to feel comfortable and conďŹ dent with what you wear than being in the latest fashion. Circle which items you think are in fashion.

2

Draw and label three more items that you think are in fashion.

3

Change this advert into a modern version.

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Remember! It is very important that other people’s styles are accepted. Not everyone likes the same things!

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In fashion? 4

What do you think is popular? Write down one item for each of the following: (a) TV show (b) Book (c) Actor (d) Actress

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(f) Type of clothing (g) Type of footwear

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(h) Pastime/Hobby (i) Phone (j) Music band (k) Gadget

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(l) Car

(n) Drink

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Choose ďŹ ve of the above items. Explain why you think each item is popular.

(a) I think

is/are popular because

(b) I think

is/are popular because

(c) I think

is/are popular because

(d) I think

is/are popular because

(e) I think

is/are popular because

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(o) Place to go

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You might not all agree about what is in fashion. Have a class discussion!

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I DISAGREE!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Explore and express conflicts of opinion through improvisational drama.

Activities covered

Background information

Before the lesson

Sa m

This lesson will hopefully show children the difference between disagreeing and being disagreeable. Children should learn that it is acceptable to disagree with someone, but that there is a right way of doing it. Another important factor is that children must listen to and respect the opinions of others, even if they are not the same as their own.

The teacher can have ready examples to discuss with children showing them the difference between disagreeing and being disagreeable. These examples can be discussed as a class. The class will be divided into pairs.

The lesson (Pages 124 and 125)

1. Answers will vary; for example: (a) I do not think all TV is bad. There are educational programmes too. (b) I can’t say I find reading calms me. I prefer to paint. (c) Uniforms can look neat but I don’t find them comfortable. (d) Drinking alcohol may not only be bad for your health, it can also impair your thinking. (e) Mobile phones could be a lifesaver if you were stuck somewhere and needed help. (f) Physical violence would not solve anything. There are many other ways to deal with misbehaviour. 2. Teacher check 3. Jim, Gerry 4. Teacher check 5. Answers will vary; for example: (a) Agreeable – There is no evidence of any existing dinosaurs. Disagreeable – Are you daft? Have you ever seen a dinosaur running in the countryside? (b) Agreeable – There are satellites in space that seem to prove the earth is round, but the Flat-Earth Society does exist. Disagreeable – That’s the most stupid statement I’ve ever heard! How come ships don’t fall off the earth? (c) Agreeable – Well, I am not sure aliens would want to be on earth. Disagreeable – I think with a crazy statement like that, you’re one of them! 6.–9. Teacher check

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Discussing conflicts of opinion Disagreeing with the given statements Deciding who is being disagreeable Pair work – role-playing disagreements

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• • • •

Stay calm. Listen to what the other person is saying. Don’t interrupt! Have your say. Respect others’ point of view.

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The teacher discusses with the children that we have the right to disagree with others but we must do it in a calm and friendly way. A heated argument will probably lead nowhere and people are all entitled to their own opinions.

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The teacher can go through Question 1 with children and explain how to answer it. It is not enough to say ‘I don’t agree’, children must give a reason for their disagreement. (See Answers for ideas.)

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Children disagree with the given statements (written).

The answers to Question 1 can be discussed as a class. The teacher reminds children about the difference between disagreeing and being disagreeable. Children decide who is being disagreeable in the speech balloons.

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Pair work – Children discuss how to disagree with each opinion. Pair work – Children role-play disagreements, first being disagreeable and then disagreeing in a friendly way! Each child must have a turn at being disagreeable and agreeable! Pair work – Children role-play disagreements, trying to always disagree in a friendly way. Children discuss their answers with the class and perform some of their role-plays.

Answers The teacher can give the following ideas to children about disagreeing:

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Additional activities Role-play common disagreements that may occur between teacher and child, or parent and child. Children can read poetry and discuss; for example, Who started it? and The car trip by Michael Rosen, or: Sibling revelry (You had to be there!)

Mum and Dad went out one day, My brother and I were alone. Now, usually we fight like cat and dog, It can be likened to a war zone.

The afternoon just drifted by, We watched stuff on TV. We even made popcorn and milkshakes, Together, just him and me.

I was expecting him to fight with me, Or scream at me, ‘Get out!’ But he calmly looked at me and said, ‘What’s your book about?’

Mum would be so proud, To see us get on so well. I couldn’t believe this change about, And I couldn’t wait to tell.

I tentatively looked at him, And briefly told the story. He said, ‘Nah, that don’t sound good, It isn’t very gory.’

Then Mum and Dad got home. I looked at my brother with love, He said, ‘What the heck are you looking at – shut up or I’ll give you a shove!’

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WHEN IN ROME ...

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Explore historical concepts through improvisational drama.

Activities covered

Answers

• • • • •

1. Teacher check 2. Answers will vary; for example: Julius Clothing

tunic, toga, sandals

trousers, shirt

School subjects

reading, writing, arithmetic, Latin, Greek

maths, English, history, geography, science, art etc.

Speaking and listening fits into all curriculum subjects; children are more than likely using it daily. Topics in other subjects, especially unfamiliar topics, need to be discussed and ‘brainstormed’ by the children. This lesson gives an example of how oral language is used and in the lesson itself there should be much discussion. The acting at the end of the lesson should be ‘off the cuff’, with no time for rehearsal. The teacher should ensure that all children get a chance to act.

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Background information

abacus

calculator

School punishment

flogging

detention, lines

After-school activities

baths, ball games, kites, dolls, hopscotch

football, TV, homework

Dinner

boar, eggs, fish, bread, mushrooms

roast chicken, rice, vegetables

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Before the lesson

The teacher could have pictures and more information about ancient Rome (optional). The class will be divided into pairs and then groups.

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The children need to bring in an old sheet so that they can make a toga. Not every child will be able to do this. Those who can, share their sheets with others. The teacher can give the measurements as stated on the copymaster. The teacher can also try to collect old sheets to bring to class.

The lesson (Pages 126 and 127)

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As a class, children read and discuss ‘a day in the life’ of Julius. Pair work – Children work with a partner to make a toga. They should walk around in their toga.

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Reading and discussing information Pair work – giving and listening to instructions Group work – making comparisons Group work – improvisational drama Assessing drama

3–4.

Teacher check

Additional activities

Children could complete more research on an aspect of ancient Rome and present a talk to the class. Children could act out interviews, one of them pretending to be Julius. Children could have a conversation in pairs; one of them can be Julius and the other a boy/girl from the present time. Possible websites: www.hadrians.com www.members.aol.com/bkdonnclass/Romelife.html

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Group work – Children make comparisons between Julius’s life and their own. Children discuss the differences as a class. Still in groups, children act out a scene from their own lives and then a similar scene from Julius’s life. Children assess their drama. Children choose which time they would prefer to live in and give reasons why.

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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I disagree! We cannot always agree on everything that others say, and that’s OK. It’s how we disagree that is important!

Disagree with the following statements, giving a reason for your disagreement. (a) Children under the age of 12 should not be able to watch TV.

(b) Reading a book is the best way to relax.

(c) Wearing a uniform to school is good.

(d) Drinking alcohol is not dangerous at all.

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(f) Children should get smacked at school if they misbehave.

Discuss your answers with the class.

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(e) Mobile phones are a complete waste of money.

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Remember! There is a big difference between disagreeing and being disagreeable. Being disagreeable means that you are unpleasant or bad-tempered. To disagree means that you have a difference of opinion. Who is being disagreeable? Circle their names.

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Running is a stupid sport — I don’t know why you bother!

Jim 4

Frank

I can’t bear watching tennis! Don’t you find it boring?

Gerry

Work with a partner. Discuss how you could disagree with Jim, Frank and Gerry: (a) in a disagreeable way.

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Milkshakes are not my thing. I prefer plain milk.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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I disagree! 5

Work with a partner. Take turns to disagree in a friendly way and in a disagreeable way for each of these opinions. (a) I know that dinosaurs still exist — they’ve just become invisible. (b) The world is flat. All the people who have disappeared all over the world have simply fallen off it. (c) There are many aliens walking around — they are just in human form.

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Which was easier to portray?

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Work with a partner. Role-play a disgreement about each opinion. Try to always disagree in a friendly way.

Disagreeable

Children should not be allowed to watch more than one hour of TV a day.

People should be banned from eating garlic and other ‘smelly’ foods.

Everybody should eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day.

Schools should make all children do at least one hour of exercise each day.

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All children should have access to a computer to complete their homework.

All children should be able to swim by the time they are six.

Children should be allowed to wear whatever they want to school.

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People should not have to wear seat belts in cars.

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Schools should not be allowed to sell sweets or crisps.

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Agreeable

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Choose your favourite role-play. Practise it. Perform it for the class.

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Discuss the answers to Questions 3–8 with the class. Remember! Agree to disagree!

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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When in Rome ... Hi! My name is Julius and I am 12 years old. I am a Roman. I go to a private school in the morning. My slave accompanies me to school. Some Roman children are taught at home by their slaves and some are taught by their parents. I usually wear a tunic. I can’t wait to be older and wear a toga like my dad. My slave usually wears a tunic as well. He was captured during a war and brought back to Rome to be a slave. I also wear a bulla round my neck, which is a lucky charm. I’ve worn it all my life!

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At school, I learn reading, writing and arithmetic. My older brother also studies Greek and Latin. Adding and subtracting are done on an abacus when you are younger. If we are naughty at school we get flogged with a whip! I always try to keep out of trouble! I don’t really love school that much, do you?

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After school, a friend and I usually go to the baths and then play ball games or fly our kites. My sister and her friends are mad about hopscotch and their silly dolls.

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Tonight we are having a party at our house. I can’t wait to eat all that delicious food – eggs, mushrooms, bread, fish, roasted boar – yum!

Work with a partner to make a toga using an old sheet. Try wearing your toga for a few hours – it is quite difficult to move around in!

How to make a toga

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You can make your own toga by carefully cutting up an old sheet. It won’t be quite as big as the real thing.

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A Roman boy’s toga

(a) Drape the left-hand end of the toga over your left shoulder. (b) Hold the other end in your right hand and bring it up under your arm. (c) Now throw the right end over the left shoulder. (d) Finally, tuck the middle of your toga into your belt.

Did you know? In ancient Roman times, if you had a nosebleed you put a live toad under your armpit! 126

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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When in Rome ... 2

Work with your group. Make a comparison between your life and that of Julius. Julius

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Clothing

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School subjects

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Adding instrument

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School punishment

After-school activities

Work with your group. Act out a scene from Julius’s life and a scene from your own lives.

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Dinner

(a) Perform your two scenes to the class.

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(b) Discuss the differences between Roman times and today with the class.

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(c) Rate your group’s performance out of 5.

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Did you know? There were no TVs in ancient Rome – could you have handled it?

Which time do you think you would prefer to live in? Ancient Roman times

This century

Why?

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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POETRY FUN

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Listen to, read, learn, recite and respond to a challenging range of poetry.

Activities covered

Additional activities

• • • • •

Classify poems that they have read into different categories: limericks, serious, funny, haiku etc.

Listening to teacher reading poetry Writing down words Reading a poem together as a class Sharing poems with the class Assessing reading

Children can read Dr Seuss books, which have excellent rhyme and rhythm.

Background information

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Children can read poems in groups and record them, then listen to their recordings. They could then try to implement improvements.

The class could have a ‘Poetry Week’ where all subjects centre around poetry; for example, for history, reading and discussing historical poems; for science, poems that centre on nature could be studied.

Before the lesson

Websites:

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This lesson focuses on reading poetry aloud with expression and rhythm. Poems in this lesson should mostly be fun, as it is the reading of them and not so much the content that we deal with here. Children should be given many opportunities to work with poetry – reading it, reciting it, interpreting it and enjoying it.

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The class could put together a polished performance of the reading of a poem and present it to the school. http://www.gigglepoetry.com http://www.poetryzone.ndirect.co.uk http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/listenandwrite (listening to and writing poetry)

Children must have the opportunity to look for their own favourite poem and bring it to the class for this lesson.

The teacher also must bring a poem of his/her choice for this lesson. The teacher can also find different types of poems that would work well with the whole class reading them together.

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The lesson (Pages 130 and 131)

Examples of fun poetry to read: Me by Kit Wright, What class 4 wish the most by David Harmer, Bees by Steve Turner, Two witches discuss good grooming by John Coldwell, The evil genius by Philip Waddell, Mirror man by Roger Stevens, The want-want wins by Jackie Kay, Hide-away Sam by Brian Patten, Nativity play by Gervase Phinn, or:

The teacher reads a poem of his/her own choice.

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Children write down any words that they remember hearing in the poem. The teacher reads the poem again, and children tick the words they wrote down as they hear them.

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The class reads aloud, with expression, the poem on their copymaster. Children read to the class their own favourite poem. Children assess their reading.

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Answers

1–3. Teacher check 4. The following words rhyme: fried/cried, bad/lad, show/ low, obese/geese, grill/ill, boil/oil, in/bin and not/forgot. 5–8. Teacher check

A bee where? My brother has a bee in his bonnet, Don’t know how it came about, He seems to have changed completely, And it’s causing me to doubt. His room seems to be tidy, His bed is neatly made. He offers to do the washing up, Without even getting paid. His clothes are matched and clean, His hair’s spiked up with gel, He drowns himself in aftershave, He looks incredibly well. He helps Mum with the chores, While singing a happy song, He talks to me in a nice, kind voice, Something must be wrong! He appears to have a best friend, He bought her a silver ring, Yes, my brother has a bee in his bonnet, I hope it doesn’t sting.

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TAKE NOTE!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Develop study skills such as skimming, scanning, note-taking and summarising. Children assess their note-taking.

• Writing keywords • Writing keywords from given sentences • Pair work – reading paragraphs out loud • Taking notes using keywords • Giving an oral summary • Writing a summary • Discussing answers as a class

Children write a brief summary based on their keywords.

Before the lesson The teacher can have examples of sentences where children must recognise keywords.

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The class will be divided into pairs.

Paragraph for teacher (Question 1): Polar bears A polar bear is the only bear that eats only meat. Other bears eat plants too. Its main source of food is seals and they can detect the scent of seal pups that are in dens buried deep in the snow. A polar bear will often lie in ambush for a seal and will sometimes cover its black nose with its paw so that it can’t be seen against the snow and ice. Polar bears have suction pads on their feet so that they don’t slip on the ice. A polar bear is an excellent swimmer, using its front paws as paddles. Beneath its thick white fur, a polar bear’s skin is black. Hairs channel heat from the sun to the animal’s skin, which absorbs the heat. Apart from pregnant females, which spend the winter in dens where they give birth, polar bears are active all through the winter months, often travelling great distances in search of food. Paragraphs that can be copied for children for Question 7: Paragraph 1 – Owls: Owls are nocturnal birds and, unlike any other hunting birds, hunt at night. The common barn owl can be found on every continent except Antarctica. Small owls eat mostly insects while bigger owls eat mice and shrews. Eagle owls can even catch young deer! The flight feathers of an owl’s wing muffle the sound of the bird’s wing beat so that it can swoop almost silently down on its prey. Owls have huge eyes that allow them to see in almost pitch darkness. An owl’s eyes face straight forward to focus on an object. Owls cannot move their eyes and have to swivel their whole head to look to the side or behind them. Owls have been the symbol of wisdom since ancient times. Paragraph 2 – Turkeys: Turkeys are a type of poultry, which means they are farm birds bred to provide meat, eggs or feathers. Females are called hens, males are toms and baby turkeys are called poults. Turkeys are a kind of pheasant. There are several species but all descend from the native wild turkey of North America. They don’t

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Children should start to recognise which words are important when they hear or read something. Keywords have probably been treated before but the teacher can recap what a keyword is, using an example. It is important that children hear and understand the vocabulary: ‘summarise’, ’summary’, ‘shorten’, ‘keywords’ etc.

Answers

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Background information

The class discuss their answers.

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The teacher must photocopy the paragraphs the pairs are to receive. (See Answers for examples of paragraphs.)

The lesson (Pages 132 and 133)

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The teacher can give children some examples of sentences and keywords. The class can do a few examples together. The teacher reads a passage about polar bears (see Answers section). Children write keywords.

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The teacher rereads the paragraph and children tick the keywords they have, adding a few that they don’t have. The class discuss the keywords they have written. Children read the given sentences and write down keywords. The class discuss the keywords they have written. Pair work – Each child reads one paragraph and the other takes notes, using keywords. Children must read slowly and clearly and are not allowed to repeat the reading. (Paragraphs on owls and turkeys are in the Answers section).

The note-taker gives an oral summary based on the keywords. Prim-Ed Publishing

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originate from Turkey at all! The wild turkey of North America lives in forests and scrubs and feeds on seeds, nuts and berries. Male turkeys have a loose fold of bare floppy skin called a wattle hanging down from their head and neck. Turkey is traditionally eaten at Christmas time. 1–2. Answers may vary, but keywords should include: meat, seals, find pups, ambush, cover/nose, suction pads, swimmer, paws-paddles, thick white fur, skin–black, hairs–sunheat, pregnant-winter-densbirth, active – winter 3–4. Teacher check 5. Answers may vary, but keywords should include: big white house, red door, oaks, trampoline, high gates, Pete’s Palace, lake, views, invite 6. Teacher check 7. Answers may vary, but keywords should include: Owls: nocturnal, night hunt, barn owl, not Antarc., small-insects, big– shrews, mice, deer, feathers–muffle, huge eyes–forward, swivel head, wisdom–ancient Turkeys: poultry–farm–meat, eggs, feathers, hen, toms, poults, pheasants, wild turkey-North America, forests, seeds, nuts, berries, male–wattle, Christmas 8–13. Teacher check

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Activities covered

Additional activities Children can complete listening exercises where the teacher reads a short story and children take notes. The teacher can then question children on the finer details of the story. Pair work – Each child has the same picture; one gives the other complicated instructions on how to change it; for example, cross out the second flower to the right, colour the top half of the chimney blue. Children can practise skim-reading paragraphs and poems within a teacher-set time limit. Children can write down what they remember.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Poetr y fun Listen carefully to the poem that the teacher reads to you!

Write down some words that you can remember.

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How many words did you write?

Listen to the teacher again, and tick the words you’ve written as you hear them.

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As a class, read the following poem out loud.

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Misunderstood

‘Oh, no!’ said Tom, ‘My goose is fried!’ ‘Oh, don’t say that!’ the teacher cried.

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‘Don’t you know fried food is bad? Haven’t you heard of cholesterol, lad?

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The food pyramid does clearly show We must keep fat intake low!

Otherwise, you’ll get obese, And all because of your fried geese!

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Now, boy you must use the grill So your arteries don’t feel ill! You can bake and steam and boil, And always use pure olive oil!

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I hope you’ve taken all this in Fatty foods go in the bin!’ ‘No, Miss, I really get you not, It’s just my homework I forgot.’

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Use different colours to show the rhyming scheme of the poem. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Poetr y fun 5

Choose a poem that you like. (a) What is the title? (b) Who is the author? (c) Why do you like this poem?

Write the poem here (or your favourite part if it’s too long).

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Practise reading the poem out loud. Think about the rhythm and rhyme. Think whether any words need emphasis. Write notes on your poem to help. Did you know?

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(a) Read your poem to the class.

A poem written in Persian by Firdausi and completed in 1010 was 60 000 verses long!

(b) How well did your reading go? very good

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fair

not good

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Take note! 1

The teacher is going to read a paragraph. You need to write the keywords. Listen carefully!

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Write the keywords here:

2

The teacher will read the paragraph again. Tick the points you got and add some you didn’t.

3

Discuss your answers with the class.

4

Read the following paragraph.

The boy lives in a big, white house with a red front door. There are many oak

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trees in the front garden and a huge trampoline. There are high red gates at the entrance with a sign saying ‘Pete’s Palace’. The house is directly opposite

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the lake and they must have a beautiful view of it from upstairs. I hope he

Write the keywords.

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invites me to his house some time soon.

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Discuss your answers with the class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Take note! 7

Work with a partner. Each person takes a turn reading a paragraph while the other one takes notes.

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Write your keywords here:

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What was the subject on which you took notes?

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Check the reading and add any more important words that you missed out.

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10 Based on your keywords, give a brief oral summary to your partner. 11 Read the paragraph to see if you left any

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important words out. Give yourself a score out of 5.

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12 Write a brief summary based on your keywords.

13 Discuss your answers with the class. Prim-Ed Publishing

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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I NEED A LOAN!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Read and interpret different kinds of functional text.

Activities covered

Answers

• • • • • • •

Teacher check

Choosing products Giving reasons for choices Writing a cheque Discussing answers with class Pair work – interviewing Filling in forms Discussing interviews

Additional activities

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In pairs, children receive two different recipes; both are read together. Then one person reads out only the ingredients for one of them, and the partner must guess/remember the method. They can then swap.

Background information

Children read different texts as suggested in ‘Background information’.

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Children should be exposed to many different types of text and the options are endless! Children can look at and interpret: menus, timetables, recipes, forms, adverts, telephone books, play programmes, TV guides, newspapers, flyers, information leaflets, road signs, instructions etc!

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Children can be given copies of bus or train timetables and, in groups, can take turns to staff the information desk. Others in the group must ask questions about the timetable.

Before the lesson

The teacher can use another type of functional text to discuss with the children at the start of the lesson. The children will work in pairs.

Different types of poetry text can be read; for example, The warthog’s diary by Marian Swinger, So you want to be a super villain? by David Harmer and Paul Cookson and Dr. D. Rision’s shopping list by Sue Cowling.

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The lesson (Pages 136 and 137)

Children can change poetry into different formats; for example, How to make a mummy by Mike Jubb can be changed into a set of instructions, Dear Gran by Trevor Harvey can be changed into a letter, Glunk by Leo Aylen can be changed into a recipe, Sick of being pushed around? by Colin McNaughton can be changed into an advert and Jasper Doom’s school report by Marian Swinger can be changed into a proper school report and shortened.

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The teacher can read through a different type of text with the children. Examples are given above.

Children look at two different cereals, choosing one and giving reasons for their choice.

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Children look at two adverts and choose one, giving reasons for their choice. Children write a cheque for themselves and say what they would like to buy. The class can discuss their choices.

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The teacher reads through the given form with the children and the questions are discussed. Children need to be told that they should be formal in the interview. The interviewer should be writing answers quickly so as not to keep the interviewee waiting. The interviewer should also be calm and friendly. Pair work – Children take turns being the interviewer and interviewee. Once all the children have had their interviews, the class can then discuss their interviews.

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WRITTEN OR SPOKEN?

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Examine the characteristics that differentiate written and oral language.

Background information

Before the lesson

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This lesson focuses on the differences between oral and written language, the spoken word versus the written word. Many different types of examples can be used here, and children could decide which would be more effective in each case. All examples on the copymaster can be completed together as a class.

The teacher can have other examples to use where children must decide which form of language would deliver the message better.

The lesson (Pages 138 and 139)

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The teacher can discuss with the children the difference between oral and written language; for example, if you were inviting someone to a party, how would the written invitation differ from an oral one? Children can list the differences between oral and written language; for example, with written language, tone is applied, with oral language, one can hear the tone and see the body language, the response is also different, with oral language, the response is usually immediate etc. As a class, children look at examples on the sheet and convert written language into oral language. Children decide which is the better option in each case – written language or oral language.

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Children convert oral language into written language – school report and recipe. Children discuss answers as a class.

Answers

1–2. Answers will vary; for example: (a) ‘Thanks so much for coming to my house this weekend, Mary. It was great fun!’ Oral is better, written may be too formal. (b) ‘Clean your room immediately, Daniel, or there will be consequences!’ Oral would be more effective, but a note might serve as a reminder.

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• Discussing the differences between oral and written language • Changing written language into oral language • Deciding which was better and why • Changing oral language into written language

(c) ‘At seven o’clock the good news of the week is on, and then at eight you can watch an hour of comedy. At nine there is a programme on clowns and at ten, funny home videos is on. The last programme is on at eleven and it is TV bloopers.’ Written is better, as there is a lot of information to remember. (d) ‘The hazelnut chocolate is round with small crisscross lines on it. The coconut is square with coloured little diamonds. The fudge is oval with larger crisscross lines on it. The toffee is oval with horizontal lines. The caramel is round and has small diagonal lines on the wrapper. The lemon cream is square with a checkerboard of little squares.’ Written is much better, as there is a lot of information and the diagrams are clearer than the oral explanation. 3. Answers will vary; for example:

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Activities covered

REPORT CARD Class: Year 6

Name: Jason X Comments Maths

D

No effort shown

English

E

Very poor

History

F

Can do much better

Geography

E

Not trying at all

General comments: Jason has shown very little effort in any of his subjects. He will now have to do extra work to catch up all that he has failed to do.

4. Answers will vary; for example: GINGERBREAD RECIPE Ingredients: 1 cup sugar 1 ⁄2 cup butter 2 eggs 1 cup milk

1 cup molasses 2 1⁄2 cups of flour 1 ⁄2 teaspoon soda 1 tablespoon ginger

Method: Preheat your oven to 350 degrees. Grease a shallow pan. Cream the sugar and butter together. Add the eggs, milk and molasses. Mix everything thoroughly. Sieve the flour, soda and ginger. Stir them into the mixture and beat well. Pour the mixture into the pan. Bake for 45 minutes. While the gingerbread is still warm, cut it into squares.

Additional activities Children convert an oral discussion (perhaps for a different subject) into written language.

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I need a loan! I think everyone enjoys spending money, but most of us have to shop carefully for what we want.

Imagine you are buying cereal. Choose one and give two reasons for your choice. (b)

CORN CHOCO CRISPIES!

HEALTH IS WEALTH

£4.

Healthy, nutritious muesli packed with fibre!

£2.59

(a)

(b)

Reasons:

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Delicious corn cereal covered in creamy chocolate!

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Your choice:

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(a)

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Now you are going to spend even more money! Look at the items below

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(a)

STONY SOUND SYSTEM FM/WM digital tuner Play/sleep timer Remote control Cassette player CD player 2 speakers

HAPPY HOLIDAYS! Sunny Spain!

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(b)

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£200

Including airfare!

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3 nights

£200

10 minutes from the beach Breakfast included

Which would you choose? Give two reasons for your choice.

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(a)

(b)

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(a) Write a cheque for yourself. (b) What would you like to buy?

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Discuss your answers with the class. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

Billy’s Bank Pay The sum of Signed 4532 34556 56577 12323 Prim-Ed Publishing

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I need a loan! Sometimes a loan is necessary if you are buying something very expensive, like a new car or a house. You are going to have an interview with the bank for a bank loan. I hope your loan is approved! 6

Work with a partner. The interviewer must ask the customer these questions and ďŹ ll in the answers quite quickly as they go along. The interviewer can then decide if the loan is approved or not! Full name:

2.

Address:

3.

Telephone number and mobile number:

Home:

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Mobile:

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Email address:

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Date of birth:

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Occupation:

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Salary per week:

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Any other means of income:

9.

Dependants:

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10. Are you a homeowner?

11. State other bills you have and the amounts you pay:

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12. What is the amount you wish to borrow?

13. What time period do you want to pay off the loan? 14. What is the purpose of the loan? FOR OFFICE USE ONLY Loan approved

Loan not approved

Signed: Date:

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Was your loan approved?

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yes

no

Remember! Be formal in your interviews! SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Written or spoken? Oral language is spoken language and written language is well, written! Depending on the situation, sometimes one can be more effective than the other. 1

Discuss as a class how you could turn these into the ‘spoken word’; i.e. oral language. (a)

Thank you To my friend, Mary, Thank you very much for spending the weekend at my house. We had such fun! I hope you can come again. From Sally

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(d)

TV Guide

Chocolate box

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The Cheerful Channel

Dear Daniel, Please clean your room! I am too afraid to even step into it in case something attacks me. Thanks, Mum

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(c)

(b)

Good news of the week

8.00 pm

Comedy hour

9.00 pm

Clowns

10.00 pm

Your funny home videos

11.00 pm

TV bloopers

Hazelnut

Toffee

Coconut

Caramel

Fudge

Lemon Cream

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7.00 pm

o n e !

Tick which is the better option and explain why. written

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(a) oral

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C h o o s e

either

Why?

(b) oral

written

either

Why?

(c) oral

written

either

Why?

(d) oral

written

either

Why?

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

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Written or spoken? 3

Turn what the teacher is saying into an appropriate form of written text.

Turn what the chef is saying into an appropriate form of written text.

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Now, Mrs X, your son Jason is not doing so well. For maths, all he managed was a paltry D, because of no effort, and he then got an E for English! I don’t think he listened to a word I said in history, as he achieved an F there. He didn’t even know there had been two World Wars! As for geography, well, he’s bound to get lost in his lifetime as he got another E. Overall, Jason is lazy and really needs to do extra work to catch up!

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To make gingerbread, you will need: 1 cup sugar, half cup butter, 2 eggs, 1 cup milk, 1 cup molasses, 2 and a half cups of flour, half a teaspoon soda and 1 tablespoon ginger. Preheat your oven to 350°. Grease a shallow pan. Cream the sugar and butter together. Add the eggs, milk and molasses. Mix everything thoroughly. Sieve the flour, soda and ginger. Stir them into the mixture and beat well. Pour the mixture into the pan. Bake for 45 minutes. While they are still warm, cut them into squares. Voila! Yummy gingerbread!

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WE SAY A LOT!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Discuss with others his/her reactions to everyday experiences and local, national and world events.

Activities covered

Children write headlines and say how they felt.

• Writing who they spoke to, what was said and how they felt • Discussing answers with the class • Pair work – role-playing safe and unsafe situations when talking to strangers • Discussing local, national and world events as a class • Writing headlines • Marking events on a world map • Writing a personal headline

Children use arrows and keywords on the map to show events around the world.

1. Teacher check 2. (a) no (b) no 3–6. Teacher check

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Answers (c) yes

(d) no

(e) no

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Background information

Children imagine they are making headline news and write a suitable headline.

Additional activities

Children can make safety posters for the school.

Children can discuss times when they may not feel like speaking at all.

Sa m

This lesson concentrates on talking, first as an everyday experience, and then talking with strangers. Whenever someone talks to us, we have a reaction, whether mild or violent and this can be pointed out to the children. Children will then get an opportunity to discuss local, national and world events. The teacher should ask children what their reactions to the various events are.

Before the lesson

The teacher can have ideas ready to be discussed with the children regarding talking to strangers.

Children could discuss news events around the world. Children could have a discussion about events in their area/ town and mark on a calendar any big events happening locally, nationally or internationally. Children could discuss their own everyday experiences, including problems they may encounter and good times they have had.

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Children must bring a newspaper clipping to school about an event or happening – local, national or international. Children should also watch the headlines on the news to see what is going on in the world.

Children can make a poster for the classroom about only talking in class when it is appropriate.

Children can read poetry about everyday experiences; for example, Best friends by Adrian Henri, Golden grannies by Gervase Phinn and Seven o’clock news by Steve Turner.

The class will be divided into pairs.

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The lesson (Pages 142 and 143)

Children write who has spoken to them so far that day, briefly what was said, and how they felt at the time. These questions can then be discussed as a class, focusing on their reactions.

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The teacher can discuss with the class safety issues relating to talking to strangers. Pair work – Children role-play different situations involving strangers. Children answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to the question: What should you say? A safety plan can then be discussed as a class with procedures formulated to to avoid unsafe situations with strangers. As a class, children discuss school, local, national and international events and happenings. Children share their newspaper clippings with the class.

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PROBLEM PAGE

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Discuss the concerns of other children.

Answers

Group work – identifying problems and possible solutions Writing problems anonymously Discussing problems Writing examples of problems and problems other children may have • Circling the correct advice

1. Answers will vary; for example: (a) We think the problem is one friend turning against another because she has found new friends. Solutions – Teacher check. (b) We think the problem is there is one child in a group who does not understand the activity and is too ashamed to admit it. Solutions – Teacher check. (c) We think the problem is that one child is making unkind comments to another child about her clothes. Solutions – Teacher check. 2–5. Teacher check 6. Answers will vary; for example, bullying, not getting along with parents, no friends, difficulty with school work, peer pressure, boredom at weekends, fighting with siblings, moving house, hunger, poverty, unemployment, bereavement, no shelter, sickness, disabilities, dysfunctional family, alcoholism, drug addiction etc. 7. (c) Tell someone can you trust. 8. Teacher check. The Childline number is 0800 1111. Childline is a listening service for children.

Background information

Before the lesson

Sa m

All children (and adults!) have problems and this lesson allows children to discuss these problems, coming up with possible solutions. It is important that the teacher approaches this lesson sensitively and does not make light of any small problems children may mention. The teacher should also point out that it is important to share our problems with someone we trust. The teacher can also discuss children’s problems on a global scale which have not already been mentioned, such as hunger, poverty, unemployment etc. The lesson should contain much discussion and should be picked up again should there not be sufficient time to cover all aspects.

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Activities covered

Additional activities

The class will be divided into groups.

To raise awareness of children in need, children can look at various charities on the Internet.

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The teacher should have small pieces of paper to hand out to children on which they can write down a problem anonymously.

The lesson (Pages 144 and 145)

Group work – Children identify the three given problems, discuss them and provide possible solutions.

Children can hold a fund-raising event to raise money for a specific charity that helps children less fortunate than themselves. Children can discuss ways in which they could help members of their community who may be having problems.

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Groups discuss their answers with the class.

Children write a problem they have had, or are having, anonymously, on a piece of paper.

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The teacher reads through each problem one by one and each problem is discussed. (For example: What is a possible solution? Who can be told? What course of action should be followed?) The teacher can mix up all the papers first. The teacher must be careful not to reveal anything that would link a particular child to a problem. Children write some of the problems mentioned and solutions suggested. There should be further discussion on problems children may have that have not already been mentioned (see Answers section for ideas). Children circle what they should do if they have a problem.

Children write down the number they could ring if they wanted to talk to someone.

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We say a lot! In our everyday lives, we do quite a bit of talking. 1

Want to play?

(a) Write down who has spoken to you so far today, and briefly what each person said and how you felt. What the person said (briefly)

How you felt

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Person who spoke to you

(b) Discuss your answers with the class.

Work with a partner. Role-play the following situations. Tick whether you should say yes or no in each instance. yes (d) A woman drives up to you (a) A man stops you in the street yes and claims that your mum and asks for directions, sent her to collect you. requesting that you get in the no no car and show him where the (e) A stranger in town starts yes place is. asking you personal (b) You’re home alone and a questions, such as where yes no stranger comes to the door. you live and who is at home. He says he needs to come no inside to check the plumbing. Remember to only talk to strangers (c) You’re on a bus with many yes when it is safe to do so! people and the man next to you starts chatting about the no weather.

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I am sure you have all been told to be careful when you talk to strangers.

Remember! Don’t give away too much information about yourself to a stranger.

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We say a lot! Now let’s talk about what’s going on around us ...

3

Discuss as a class something that has happened recently in your school, in your town/area, in your country and in the world. Share your newspaper clippings with the class.

4

Write the following as headlines.

e

How you felt about it:

(a) An event that has happened in your school recently.

How you felt about it:

(c) An event that has happened in your country recently.

How you felt about it:

Use arrows and keywords on the map below to show what is happening around the world.

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(b) An event that has happened in your town/area recently.

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Imagine YOU are making headline news! Write an eye-catching headline!

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Problem page We all experience problems at some time in our lives. It’s normal! 1

Work as a group. Identify the problems the following children are having. (a)

What’s the matter?

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A solution to the problem might be

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I don’t want to be your friend any more! I have other friends now.

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We think the problem is

I don’t understand how to do this!

(b)

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Why aren’t you helping us with the project? It’s supposed to be a team effort!

We think the problem is

(c)

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A solution to the problem might be

We think the problem is

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That top is so uncool. Where did you find it, in a dustbin?

A solution to the problem might be

2

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Discuss your answers with the class.

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Problem page 3

The teacher will give you a piece of paper. Write on the paper a problem that you have had or are having. This is done anonymously, so don’t put your name on it! You can even disguise your handwriting if you like! All papers need to be handed to the teacher.

4

The teacher will read out some of the problems. As a class, discuss the problems and suggest possible solutions. Write some of the problems discussed and their possible solutions.

Solution

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Problem

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Problem

Solution

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Problem

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Solution

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Discuss other problems children may have that have not already been mentioned.

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What should you do if you have a problem? Circle the correct answer.

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(a) Keep the problem a secret.

(b) Try to sort the problem out yourself.

(c) Tell someone you can trust.

(d) Forget about it and go on.

Write down a freephone number you could ring if you have a problem. Remember! A problem shared is a problem halved!

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IMAGINE IT!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Discuss ideas, concepts and images encountered in literature.

Answers

• • • • •

1. Answers will vary; for example: (a) lake, flower, garden, mountain (b) rain, dark, sadness (c) knife, broken glass, sharp, danger (d) water, frost, winter, cold (e) sofa, bed, watching TV, pillow (f) tree frog, rose, tomato, lipstick (g) balloon, clouds, bubbles, ghost (h) morning jog, shower, swim (i) chips, burgers, bacon, sausages, car oil (j) school, run, long day, shopping 2. Answers will vary; for example: darkness, lightning, fright, terror, ghostly, shadows, haunting, jittery, eerie, screaming, owls hooting, masked faces, banging windows, firecrackers, whistling wind. 3. Answers will vary; for example: sun, hot, flowers, garden, park, picnic, playing, beach, sea, swimming, shells, seaweed, sandcastles, pool, holidays, no school, cricket, barbecues, ice-cream. 4–8. Teacher check

Background information

Sa m

Children need to know that particular words are used in literature to create an image, just as an artist might use a particular colour. Children can look at imagery in poetry as well as in their class reader. Once children have had some practice with it, they can move onto creating their own imagery; for example, in a haiku.

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Writing words (word association) Group work – thinking up words for a given scene Writing a poem using brainstormed words Reading a poem Circling words

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Activities covered

Before the lesson

The teacher can have other examples of literature that make use of imagery. The class will be divided into groups.

Additional activities

Children can write a short story/paragraph using the words in the box on their sheet. Stories can be compared.

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The lesson (Pages 148 and 149)

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Children read words on their copymaster and write down words that they think of. Children can discuss these words as a class.

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Group work – Children write a list of words that would depict a scary scene. These are written in the box on their copymaster.

Pair work – Children could choose a topic and write down a list of words and phrases that might describe it; for example, night – the words might be dark, scary, moonshine, owls. One partner must guess what the other is thinking of.

Group work – Children write a list of words that would depict a summer scene. These are written on their copymaster. The words are discussed as a group.

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Children use their list of words to write either a scary poem or a summer poem. Poems can be read to the class/group. As a class, children read the given poem and circle the words that make them think of something. The poem can then be discussed as a class.

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SHARE YOUR THOUGHTS

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Discuss personal reading and writing.

Activities covered

The lesson (Pages 150 and 151)

• • • • • • • •

Children read a newspaper or magazine article. (This can be given the night before for homework.)

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This lesson provides children with an opportunity to share with others something short that they have read. For this lesson, the reading has been restricted to a newspaper or magazine article. Children should often be given the opportunity to discuss things they have read and state what they can recommend to others. In the second half of the lesson, children need to choose a piece of writing they have recently completed. It should be a good example of their work, as it will be discussed in groups.

Before the lesson

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Children draw a picture to go with what they have read and add a caption. Pair work – Children tell their partner about what they have read. (Without reading it!) Children give their description of their reading a score.

Children choose a short piece of writing they have recently written and copy it onto their copymaster. Children read their piece of writing to their group, who offer positive feedback on what they liked and what they feel needs improvement.

Sa m

Background information

Children answer questions about what they have read.

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Reading a newspaper/magazine article Answering questions Drawing a picture Adding a caption Pair work – telling partner about reading Giving the reading a score Reading a piece of personal writing to a group Providing positive feedback on personal writing by other children

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Children will need to have read an entire article from a newspaper or magazine for this lesson. Children should bring the article to school with them.

Children write notes on the feedback they received.

Answers

Teacher check

Additional activities

Children could form a book club, where they discuss books they have read and recommend books to others. Children could discuss poems, stories, reports etc. they have written and suggest ways of improving them.

The class will be divided into pairs.

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Children should have access to something they have written recently.

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The class will be divided into small groups.

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Imagine it! We can ďŹ nd images in the stories and poems we read. Images make us think of something, or remind us of something. Writers use particular words to get the reader to imagine the scene.

(a) Peaceful

(b) Gloomy

(c) Jagged

(d) Icy

(e) Comfortable

(f) Bright red

(g) Floating

(h) Exhilarating

(i) Greasy

(j) Exhausting

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What do these words make you think of? Write one word for each.

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Torture makes me think of school!

Work as a group. Let us conjure up a scary scene! If we were going to write a frightening story, what words and images might we use? Write them below.

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Work as a group. Conjure up a summer scene! If we were going to write a story or poem about summer, what words and images might we use? Write them below.

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BOO!

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Imagine it! 5

(a) Use your words to write a poem about a scary scene or a summer scene.

Read this poem together as a class.

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(b) Share your poem with your group or class.

Sabrina

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I was lying in a hospital bed, immobile and in pain. I’d broken my arm on the trampoline, Which was slippery from the rain.

Her nose was hooked, her eyes were black, she had a funny smell. She seemed to enjoy sweeping, though why I couldn’t tell.

But one nurse was suspicious, Sabrina was her name. She always worked the nightshift, it was at midnight that she came.

She said she lived out in the woods, and owned a big, black cat. She said she had a day job too, that required a pointed hat.

She wore a plaster on her chin, her hair was brittle and dry. She cackled away all evening, the sound near made me cry.

She reminded me of someone, though I couldn’t think of who. It might come to me later, if I get another clue.

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Now most of the nurses were friendly, they laughed and smiled a lot. They were even very gentle when delivering a shot.

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Circle any words in the poem that make you think Remember! of something. Use imagery in your own writing! Discuss your ideas with the class.

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Share your thoughts You will have to read a whole article from a newspaper or magazine for this lesson. 1

Answer these questions about what you read. (a) Where did your article appear? (b) What was the headline? (c) Who was it written by?

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(d) What was it about?

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(e) What did you think of the article? Give reasons for your answer.

(f) Was it easy or difficult to read? Why?

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(g) Did you learn anything you didn’t know before? What?

(h) On what page did you find the article?

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(i) Was there a picture with the article?

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(j) Draw a picture to go with the article and write a caption.

Caption: 2

Tell your partner about what you read. (Don’t read it!) Give a score out of 10 for: How you described your reading.

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Share your thoughts 3

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Choose a short piece of writing that you have recently written. Write it here.

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g could Your writin ... oe be a p m ... desc or a riptio n ...

aph paragr ... or a story ... from a

or?

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...

Read your writing to your group.

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(a) List what your group said they liked about your writing.

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(b) List how your group think your writing could be improved.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

151


WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT?

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Express responses to poems and discuss different interpretations.

Answers

• • • •

1. Teacher check 2. Answers will vary; for example: (a) a mother/housewife (b) sad, she was crying (c) preparing dinner (d) She was thinking about something that made her sad./ She realised her life was not what it should be. (e) She did not usually cry or show her emotions. (f) embrace–hug, sensation–feeling, tangible–something that can be felt, torment–torture, pain, anguish (g) Teacher check (h) Teacher check 3–4. Teacher check 5. (a) The poem could be about someone who does not feel like part of the human race, and is possibly a hermit. The person is afraid of people and the world and wants to keep to himself. (b) Teacher check (c) Answers will vary; for example, alone, protected, don’t pity me, thrive, flourish, darkest fear. 6. Teacher check

Background information

Before the lesson

Sa m

Interpretations of poetry can be very different and children need to be able to express their own ideas and back them up. Children, by this age, will have read a lot of poetry, probably much of it quite simple. They should be ready to tackle something a little more difficult. Children must concentrate on the words and images the poet has used.

The teacher can have a list of poems that require interpretation to discuss with the children. The class will be divided into groups.

The lesson (Pages 154 and 155)

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Reading a poem as a class Answering questions Group work – discussing answers Discussing poem

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Activities covered

As a class, children read through the poem on the copymaster.

The same type of lesson can be done with newspaper articles, extracts from the class reader, paragraphs etc.

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Children answer the questions on their own.

Additional activities

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Children discuss their answers with the group and then with the class. Group work – Children read through the second poem on their copymaster and try to interpret it.

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Children answer the questions as a group.

Children can read poetry that is a little more difficult; for example: A consumer’s report by Peter Porter I felt a funeral in my brain by Emily Dickinson Balloons by Sylvia Plath

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Groups discuss their answers with the class.

Children can look at this website: www.bbc.co.uk/arts/poetry/outloud/index.shtml (Children can listen to and read poetry).

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WATCH TV!

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Discuss TV programmes.

Activities covered

Additional activities

• • • • •

Children can read TV guides and act out scenes from different shows. Other children must guess the show.

Watching part of a taped programme Answering questions Acting out a scene Drawing a scene Holding a class vote

Children could do an oral film review; a panel of judges can be included. The class can vote for the best film of the year.

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Children can debate whether children watch too much TV.

Before the lesson

Children can discuss alternatives to watching TV.

Children can keep a TV diary for a week, entering everything they watched. These can be discussed as a class.

Sa m

Watching TV is part of almost every child’s life. Rather than telling children not to watch TV, it would be better if they were more critical and selective with their viewing. Soap operas feature here because many children do watch them and they are relatively easy to dramatise. Soap operas can be overdramatic and far-fetched but they are meant as mere entertainment, and everyone needs to relax at some point of the day. The class could have a discussion about soap operas and their characteristics.

Children can list TV programmes in different categories; for example, wildlife, reality show, quiz, news, drama, children’s, music, home improvement, sport, chat show etc.

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Background information

Children can watch an old classic film and compare it with a film from today. Children can read associated poetry; for example, Do televisions watch too many people? by Steve Turner, or: Not the whole picture

The teacher must have ready part of a soap opera to show the children. The teacher must check the content first!

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The class will be divided into groups.

The lesson (Pages 156 and 157)

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Children watch part of a soap opera.

Children answer questions on their copymaster.

Children have a class discussion on what they watched and their answers to the questions.

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Group work – Children role-play a scene from the soap opera they watched or one of their own choice.

Flicking the channels, on the TV, Snatches of programmes, is all I see. ‘… and tomorrow the weather will be …’ ‘… this enormous majestic oak tree …’ ‘… was arrested late last night …’ ‘… eating cheddar, red and white …’ ‘… which can make the skin quite spotty …’ ‘… but if you use a smaller potty …’ ‘… and place the contraption on your head …’ ‘… you’ll find yourself way ahead …’ ‘… from watching TV for many an hour …’ ‘… you’ll gain in wisdom and in power …’

These can be performed for the class. It should be mostly ‘ad lib’ with little rehearsal. Children draw scenes from their ‘play’.

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As a class, children vote for their favourite TV programme.

Answers

Teacher check

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What’s it all about? Sometimes, poetry is easy to understand, but at other times you have to look a little harder to find the meaning.

1

Read this poem together as a class.

2

Answer these questions on your own and then discuss them in your groups. (a) Who do you think the poem is about?

It started as a tiny drop, a tear welled in her eye. It caught lightly in her throat, she felt her mouth go dry.

(b) How is she feeling? Say how you know.

One tear turned to many, and rivered down her face. Her voice completely closed right up, she did herself embrace.

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Fruit or veg? She was standing in the kitchen, with her flowered apron on. She was peeling a large onion, she was getting dinner done.

(c) What was she busy doing?

Her tears dropped onto the chopping board, the sensation shook her frame. The pain was conscious and tangible, and with it came the shame.

(d) Why do you think she started to cry?

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She lay down the kitchen knife, and did continue there to stand. And through her pain and torment, saw, an apple in her hand.

Remember! Interpretations of poetry can be different.

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(e) Why would she feel ‘shame’?

(f) What do these words mean?

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Embrace

Sensation Tangible

Torment

(g) Explain the last two lines. (h) Give the poem another title.

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What’s it all about? 4

Read the following poem with your group. Out of it I live completely all alone, and my walls are paper-thin. I hear all the earthly sounds ‘outside’, but always from within.

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It took me years to plan and build. I have everything right here I need. I thrive and flourish in my tomb, but there’s something that I plead.

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I see the faces of things (humans?) but I am well protected. Please don’t pity me in my cocoon, it’s what I have selected.

Please don’t poke the boundaries, and don’t you stand too near, my bubble might just burst, and I’d face my darkest fear.

Answer the following questions as a group.

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I ask that you be careful, I really don’t know my place, if you force me to rejoin, what you call the human race.

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(a) What kind of person is the poem about?

(b) Do you think the picture suitably depicts the poem?

yes

no

Why?

(c) Write a list of words and phrases that show the poet’s feelings.

6

Discuss your answers with the class.

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Watch TV! For this lesson, you will watch part of a soap opera that your teacher has taped. 1

Answer the following questions. (a) What is the title of the programme you watched? (b) Do you regularly watch this programme? (c) Name two characters.

(f) Comment on the props.

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(g) Where is the story set?

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(e) Do you think the acting is good? Say why.

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(d) Name one event that happened.

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(h) Do you think it’s a good programme? Give a reason for your answer.

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(i) Why do you think soap operas are so popular?

(j) If a soap opera was based in your town or area, what could it be called?

2

Discuss your answers with the class. Did you know? Why are they called soap operas? When they began, they were geared towards housewives, who spent much of their time doing laundry. The soap companies attached themselves to these programmes and often sponsored them!

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Watch TV! 3

(a) Work as a group to act out a scene from the soap opera you watched or another soap opera that you are familiar with. (b) Perform your scene for the class. (c) Rate your performance out of 5. Draw the scenes from your soap opera.

(a) What is your favourite TV programme?

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(b) Have a class vote for your favourite TV programmes. Write the ‘Top 5’ programmes. 1st

2nd 3rd 4th

Remember! Be selective with your TV viewing!

5th

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LANGUAGE FUN

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Experience and enjoy playful aspects of language.

Activities covered

Still in pairs, children read aloud and rate the given jokes.

• • • • • • • • • • •

Children answer two questions about a joke. Jokes can be discussed as a class. Children tell their joke to the class.

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Answers

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1. (a) Cats are cute. (b) The teacher is nice. 2.–5. Teacher check 6. (a) Are you coming today? Did you see the film? What is your new number? See you. Love Dan. (b) Teacher check 7. (a) A deep-she fish. (b) A hole. (c) Nicholas (d) It’s full of fans. (e) Santa Jaws 8. Teacher check 9. (a) winter, spring, summer, autumn (b) seasonings 10. Teacher check

Sa m

Working out sentences Writing a message in made-up language Pair work – using made-up language Assessing conversation Making up own language, writing rules Pair work – deciphering text message Writing own text message Pair work – matching beginnings and endings of jokes Rating jokes Answering questions Telling jokes

Background information

In this lesson, children will hopefully have some fun with language. There are endless possibilities that would cover this objective, as long as children are using and enjoying language.

Additional activities

Children can read funny stories and poems.

Before the lesson

Children can read and look at funny signs.

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Children must bring one short joke each to class. (This can be given for homework the night before.) Remind children that the joke must be appropriate!

Children can have a ‘Happy Hour’ where they tell jokes. Children can have a talking race. Children can look at joke websites; for example: www.kidsjokes.co.uk

The lesson (Pages 160 and 161)

In pairs, children can make up a secret and discuss it, whispering only.

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Children will be divided into pairs.

The teacher explains the made-up language and how it works. Children work out the two sentences given. Children write a message of their own and try to say it.

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At this point, children can discuss their answers with the class, just to make sure everyone understands how it works! Pair work – Children use the language and try to converse. Children assess their conversation. Still in pairs, children make up their own language. Children write down two rules for their language. Children read and write a given sentence using their own language.

The class can play a game (Chinese Whispers) whereby one child will whisper something about two sentences in length to the next child. Each child passes it on, whispering only. The last person says the sentences out loud, and children see if the message is the same as when it started. Children can read funny poetry; for example: Hot sizzling lips by Paul Johnson, A mathematician’s love song by Julia Rawlinson, School reports by Brenda Williams, The boy who mislaid his vowels by Peter Mortimer, Monsters of Loch the Ness by Granville Lawson, U knee verse by David Kitchen, Hide and seek words by Pie Corbett, Anagrimes by John Kitching and Shoem by Liz Brownlee.

Pair work – Children decipher a text message. Children write their own text message and their partner reads it out loud. Pair work – Children match up beginnings and endings of jokes. 158

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LOVE IS IN THE AIR

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Identify and discuss different emotions.

Activities covered

Answers

• • • • • • •

Teacher check

Background information

Children can write acrostic poems about other emotions.

e

Children can make Valentine’s Day cards with their own messages. Children can cut out of magazines pictures and words that they think depict love. These can be made in to a collage and displayed in the classroom. Children can read poetry about love and other emotions; for example, How do I love thee by Elizabeth Barret-Browning, Still to be neat by Ben Johnson, Sonnet CXVI by Shakespeare and I should not dare by Emily Dickinson.

Sa m

All children have some affection for someone in their lives, and this lesson allows them to express their feelings. Children must be told that there should be no teasing allowed in the lesson, that it is difficult to express emotions and everyone should respect the feelings of others.

Additional activities

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Discussing love and other feelings Expressing love (written) Expressing other emotions (written) Discussing answers with the class Pair work – reading paragraphs, circling emotions Role-playing Writing acrostic poems about different emotions

An acrostic poem is a poetic form which is organised by the initial letters of a keyword, usually (but not always!) at the beginning of lines.

Before the lesson

in

The class will be divided into pairs.

g

The teacher can have examples of materials that express emotions; for example, love poems, songs, adverts, films.

The teacher should have examples of acrostic poems to discuss with the children.

ew

The lesson (Pages 162 and 163)

The teacher can read excerpts of poems, lyrics etc. that he/ she has brought. The class can discuss what emotions are. Children express their love. (Written on the copymaster.)

Vi

Children express other feelings. (Written on the copymaster.) Children discuss their answers with the class. Pair work – Children read through two passages, and circle the words that show emotions.

Websites – poems the teacher can choose: www.lovepoetry. com or www.lovepoemsandquotes.com/LovePoems.html No room for hate

If hate comes knocking at your door, Tell him there’s no room! For if he steps just one foot in, You’ll lead a life of doom. For hate has many homeless friends, Looking for a place to stay. They’ll move into your life and home, And have things all their way. Bitterness and loneliness, Anxiety and grief, Will make themselves quite comfortable, And offer no relief. Helplessness will join them, So will the shadow of fear, You’ll lose touch with all who loved you, And all you held so dear. These inmates you won’t easily shift, And your life won’t be your own. Your life will be ruled by loathing, And you’ll live, and die, alone.

Children take turns to each read a passage with expression and feeling. The teacher discusses acrostic poems with the children and provides some examples. Pair work – Children write acrostic poems about different emotions. Children share their favourite acrostic poem with the class.

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159


Language fun Language can be fun! Let’s try out this strange, made-up language!

Fap Rap I E Nap Dap Sap?

Rule 1: Add ‘AP’ to all your consonants, and Rule 2: Say vowels as they are. For example, I LOVE CABBAGE = I LAP O VAP E CAP A BAP BAP A GAP E What am I saying?

e

1

Sa m

(b) TAP HAP E TAP E A CAP HAP E RAP I SAP NAP I CAP E

pl

(a) CAP A TAP SAP A RAP E CAP U TAP E

2

Now, write a message to your friend. Try to say it!

3

Work with a partner. Practise this strange language and see if your partner can guess what you are saying!

Rule 2

ew

In your made-up language, write and say the following: ‘We love learning!’

Vi 6

Not well

With your partner, make up your own language! Write two rules for your language. Rule 1

5

Well

in

4

Perfectly

g

How did your conversation go?

Text messages are almost a language of their own. Words are shortened to make the text quicker to send and read.

(a) What does this text message say? R U COMEN 2DAY? DID U C DA FILM? WAT IS UR NEW NO? CYA LUV DAN (b) Make up your own text message and get your partner to read it out loud.

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Language fun Teacher’s strong; teacher’s gentle. Teacher’s kind. And I am mental!

8

Work with a partner. Match the beginning and ending of these jokes. Read them out loud. It’s full of fans.

(b) What gets bigger the more you take away?

Santa Jaws

(c) What do you call a man who forgets to put his underpants on?

A deep-she fish.

(d) Why is a football stadium cool?

Nicholas

(e) Who carries a sack and bites people?

A hole.

e

(a) What is a mermaid?

pl

7

Rate these jokes from 1–5, 1 being the funniest and 5 the least funny. Read the jokes out loud.

Your rating:

g

in ew

9

Girl: My teacher’s a peach! Mother: You mean she’s sweet? Girl: No, she has a heart of stone!

Your rating:

(b) Did you hear about the cross-eyed teacher who had no control over her pupils? Your rating:

(c)

Sa m

(a) Why did the football coach give his team lighters? Because they keep losing all their matches.

Name the four seasons, boy!

(d) Teacher: You should have been here at nine o’clock! Boy: Why? Did something happen? Your rating: (e)

Mother: What did you learn at school today? Son: Not enough! I have to go back tomorrow! Your rating:

Vi

Salt, pepper, mustard and vinegar, Sir!

(a) What answer was the teacher looking for?

(b) What did the boy think the teacher was asking for?

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10 Tell the class the joke you brought!

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

161


Love i s in the air We all experience love in our lives, whether it be for our family, friends, teachers (!) or pets. Love can sometimes be hard to express! 1

Tell the following how much you love them and why. (a) Your mum

e

(b) Your grandparent

pl

(c) Your pet

Sa m

(d) Your friend (e) Yourself! 2

What other emotions are sometimes difficult to express? Try the following.

g

(a) A scary moment in my life was when

ew

in

(b) My most embarrassing moment was when

Vi

(c) I felt really nervous when

(d) A time I was wrong and I had to apologise was when

3

162

Discuss your answers with the class.

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Did you know? Wesley and Stella McGowen (USA) have been married since 6 February, 1920 – that’s over 84 years! Prim-Ed Publishing

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Lov e is in the air 4

Work with a partner. (a) Read these passages and circle the words that express emotions. (b) Choose one passage each. Read the passage out loud to your partner, using as much expression in your voice as you can!

pl

e

I can’t believe you call yourself a friend! I trusted you and told you my secrets and you’ve betrayed me! I feel angry and hurt. Why did you do it? I could go around blurting your secrets to everyone, but I won’t. I am not a traitor!

Sa m

Oh, Mum, I was really looking forward to going to the funfair! I know Dad’s working, but can’t he work another day? I promised Katie she could come and we were so excited. I am so disappointed I just want to cry! We will have to wait a whole year before it’s back again. This is so unfair.

Perform some of the passages for the class.

6

Work with a partner. Write an acrostic poem about love.

L O

ew

V

in

g

5

E

Work with a partner. Write an acrostic poem about one of the following emotions.

Vi

7

8

hate

fear

Choose your favourite acrostic poem. Read it to the class.

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hurt

Remember! Having feelings makes us human! SPEAKING AND LISTENING

163


HOW MUCH DO YOU KNOW?

TEACHERS NOTES

Objective: Discuss and answer general knowledge quiz questions.

Answers

• • • •

1. (a) gosling (b) Indian (c) Paris (d) leg (upper) (e) J.K. Rowling (f) H2O (g) 366 (h) The Beatles (i) Alexander Graham Bell (j) 97 (k) nocturnal (l) Vincent van Gogh (m) Sweden (n) bear (o) Hindu (p) 3 (q) eat (r) Egypt (s) 10 metres squared (t) flute (u) 1845 hours (v) Spain (w) Lyra (x) pencil (y) 180˚ 2. Teacher check 3. Answers will vary; for example: What planet is closest to the sun? How many legs does a tapir have? What is a Rottweiler? In which country is the Sydney Opera House? Camels are known as the ships of the What sea lies north of Africa? Is there more or less oxygen as you go higher up? Which organ of the body maintains water and filters waste products from the blood? What colour is ‘emerald’? Which character from the Harry Potter books has a cat called Crookshanks? Which stringed instrument is played with a bow and held under the chin? In which country would you find the cities of Tokyo and Osaka? Which word is a collective noun – spider, flock or Germany? Who wrote the book ‘Matilda’?

Background information

Before the lesson

Sa m

This lesson will allow children to share and discuss their responses to general knowledge questions. Quiz lessons should be done quite often, as time will allow. They are a good opportunity for children to learn new facts, as well as sharing in their learning of them.

The teacher can have more general knowledge questions that the class could answer at the start of the lesson. Non-fiction books, atlases, encyclopaedias, dictionaries, the Internet etc. will need to be available. The class will be divided into pairs and then groups.

The lesson (Pages 165 and 166)

pl

Discussing quiz programmes Answering general knowledge questions Group work – making up questions Voting for the best questions

e

Activities covered

g

The teacher can ask the class general knowledge questions that he/she has brought. The class can discuss various quiz shows on TV.

in

Children answer 25 questions on their copymaster. Children discuss these answers with the class.

ew

Group work – The group look at the 14 answers that have been given, and they must come up with the questions. The teacher should explain to the class that there will be voting afterwards for the best questions, so groups should try to make their questions as interesting and/or original as possible. The teacher can allow children to look in facts books, atlases etc.

Vi

Once all the groups have finished their questions (a time limit can be set), the class then discuss the questions and vote for the best one in each case.

164

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

Additional activities The class can play The weakest link. Children could look at these websites: www.funtrivia.com/quizzes/for_children/index.html www.triv.net (online game) Children can find quiz books in the library and bring them to class to play in groups.

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How much do you know? Much of our general knowledge comes from reading and watching educational TV. General knowledge games are fun to play and your class should be playing these often!

Work with a partner. Try these out for size! (b) Which ocean lies to the east of Africa?

(c) What is the capital of France?

(d) Where in your body is your femur?

(e) Who wrote the ‘Harry Potter’ series of books? (f) What is the chemical formula for water?

(g) How many days in a leap year?

Sa m

(h) Which band was Paul McCartney a member of? (i) Who invented the telephone?

e

(a) What is a baby goose called?

pl

1

(j) XCVII are Roman numerals. What is the number?

(k) What do we call animals that only come out at night? (l) Which artist painted ‘Sunflowers’?

(m) Stockholm is the capital city of

g

(n) Which word is an animal – bare, bear or beer? (p) How many faces does a cylinder have?

in

(o) Which religion celebrates Diwali?

(q) Which is not a noun – crocodile, river, eat?

ew

(r) In which country will you find Tutankhamen’s tomb? (s) What is the area of a rectangle five metres long and two metres wide?

Vi

(t) Which musical instrument is a woodwind instrument – drums, flute, trumpet? (u) Write 6.45 p.m. in 24-hour time. (v) In which country are the cities Madrid and Barcelona?

(w) What is the name of the girl in ‘Northern Lights’ by Philip Pullman? (x) Which word is not a compound word – football, pencil or toenail?

Remember! Reading is knowledge.

(y) How many degrees are there in a triangle? 2

(a) Discuss your answers with the class. (b) Write how many questions you answered correctly.

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165


How much do you know? 3

Work as a group. Look at the answers provided and devise suitable questions. Try to make your questions interesting! (a) Mercury (b) Four

e

(c) A dog

pl

(d) Australia

(f) The Mediterranean Sea (g) Less

(i) Green

ew

(k) Violin

in

(j) Hermione Grainger

g

(h) Kidneys

Sa m

(e) Desert

(l) Japan

Vi

(m) Flock

(n) Roald Dahl

4

Have a class vote for the best questions. If one of your questions was voted the best, put a next to it!

Did you know? A fear of knowledge is called epistemophobia! I hope you don’t have that!

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6252UK Speaking and Listening - Upper  
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