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Reading for success (Book 1)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing 2014 under licence from Teacher Created Resources, Inc. Copyright© 2004 Teacher Created Resouces, Inc. This version copyright© Prim-Ed Publishing 2014

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ISBN 978-1-84654-748-5 PR–6216

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Titles available in this series: Reading for success (Book 1) Reading for success (Book 2) Reading for success (Book 3) Reading for success (Book 4)

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Table of contents

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Monthly reading diary.................................... 81 Monthly reading awards........................... 82–87 Reciting nursery rhymes.........................88–102 Pupil-adult reading........................................103 Echo reading.................................................103 Choral reading..............................................104 Songs............................................................104 Group divisions.............................................104 Audio-assisted reading.................................105 Partner reading.............................................105 Readers theatre.................................... 106–115 Vocabulary............................................... 116–148 Vocabulary....................................................116 Developing vocabulary.......................... 117–132 Selecting vocabulary words..................133–135 Teaching vocabulary.............................136–148 Comprehension.......................................149–169 Comprehension............................................ 149 Thinking aloud............................................. 150 Graphic organisers....................................... 150 Story map.................................................... 151 Sequencing map.......................................... 152 Venn diagram............................................... 153 Text web....................................................... 154 Graphic organiser examples........................ 155 Stop and predict....................................156–157 Summarising................................................ 158 Story frame.................................................. 159 The important language pattern.................. 160 Short Aa sentences..................................... 161 Short Ee sentences..................................... 162 Short Ii sentences........................................ 163 Short Oo sentences..................................... 164 Short Uu sentences..................................... 165 Colour the robot........................................... 166 What colour is it?......................................... 167 How many?.................................................. 168 Animal names.............................................. 169 Answers....................................................170–171

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Introduction..........................................................v Curriculum links............................................ v–vii Phonemic awareness................................... 2–34 Phonemic awareness................................... 2–4 Phonemic awareness assessment.............. 5–7 Phoneme isolation......................................8–11 Phoneme identity......................................12–15 Begins the same............................................ 16 Ends the same............................................... 17 Beginning or ending sound............................ 18 Phoneme categorisation................................ 19 Doesn't belong......................................... 20–21 Phoneme blending......................................... 22 Phoneme segmentation........................... 23–24 Puppy puppet pattern............................... 25–26 Phoneme deletion.......................................... 27 Phoneme addition.................................... 28–29 Phoneme substitution.............................. 30–34 Phonics........................................................ 35–73 Phonics.......................................................... 35 Letter-sound assessment......................... 36–39 Letter-sound activities.............................. 40–43 Multi-sensory activities............................. 44–46 Alphabet cards......................................... 47–53 Clothes peg games.................................. 54–59 Egg carton games.................................... 60–62 Activity sheets................................................ 63 Make a word.................................................. 64 Missing letters................................................ 65 Short Aa......................................................... 66 Short Ee......................................................... 67 Short Ii........................................................... 68 Short Uu........................................................ 69 Vowel sort...................................................... 70 Short vowel match......................................... 71 Missing vowel................................................. 72 Same vowel sound......................................... 73 Fluency....................................................... 74–115 Fluency...........................................................74 Reading aloud.......................................... 75–79 Reading at home........................................... 80

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Reading for success


Foreword Reading for success is a series of four books designed to support teacher-directed lessons and independent pupil activities in the five key elements of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension. Titles in this series are:

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Reading for success (Book 1) Reading for success (Book 2) Reading for success (Book 3)

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Reading for success (Book 4)

Introduction

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Reading and the teaching of reading have always been at the forefront of discussions in education. Recent discussions bear no difference. Some, such as the media, criticise schools for not knowing how to effectively teach reading, and yet we know more today about effective reading instruction than ever before. One compilation of research reflecting effective reading instruction methodologies identified five key elements of reading instruction which are: • Phonemic awareness • Vocabulary • Phonics

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• Comprehension • Fluency

This book has been designed to assist the classroom teacher with activities and teaching strategies appropriate for teaching the five identified elements of reading.

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Book format

The book is divided into five sections appropriately named after each of the elements of reading instruction. Within each section, you will find a definition of the element of reading, as well as a variety of ways to implement this element in your classroom. Some of the activities are teacher-directed activities, while others are games which pupils can use for practice. A variety of pupil activity sheets are provided as well. Where appropriate, these activity sheets can be copied and distributed for the pupil to complete. The activities included in this book are not meant to be a complete reading programme. They are to be used in conjunction with your school’s adopted reading programme. These activities are meant to provide ideas for ways to make teaching the elements of reading more fun.

Reading for success iv

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Curriculum links ENGLAND Level

Area of learning and development

Early learning goal/objective

Early years foundation stage

Literacy

Reading read and understand simple sentences

use phonic knowledge to decode

read some common irregular words

demonstrate understanding when talking with others about what they have read

Writing

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use phonetic knowledge to write words in ways which match spoken sounds

write some irregular words

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English - Reading

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National curriculum Year 1

Word reading •

apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words

respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes

read accurately by blending sounds in unfamiliar words containing GPCs that have been taught reread books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading

Comprehension •

develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding by:

- recognising and joining in with predictable phrases

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- discussing word meanings, linking new meanings to those already known

understand by:

- drawing on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacher

- checking that the text makes sense to them as they read and correcting inaccurate reading

- making inferences on the basis of what is being said and done

participate in discussion about what is read to them, taking turns and listening to what others say

explain clearly their understanding of what is read to them

learning to appreciate rhymes and poems, and to recite some by heart

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Curriculum links NORTHERN IRELAND Level

Area of learning

Objective

Foundation stage

Language and literacy

Talking and listening phonological awareness through:

- identifying words in phrases and sentences - identifying and generating rhymes - identifying and manipulating phonemes

Reading

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use word structure to develop reading

develop auditory discrimination and memory

develop visual discrimination and memory

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develop concepts of print

REPUBLIC OF IRELAND – Primary curriculum - Infant classes Subject

Objective

English reading

Receptiveness to language

listen to, enjoy and respond to stories, nursery rhymes, poems and songs

play with language to develop an awareness of sounds

develop a sense of rhythm and rhyme

learn to recognise and name the letters of the alphabet

develop an awareness of some letter-sound relationships

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Competence and confidence in using language build up a sight vocabulary of common words from personal experience, from experience of environmental print, and from books read

learn to isolate the beginning sounds of a word

learn to isolate beginning and final sounds in written words

learn to isolate part of a word or a syllable which allows it to rhyme with another word or syllable

use knowledge of word order, illustration, context and initial letters to identify unknown words

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Developing cognitive abilities through language •

reread, retell and act out familiar stories, poems or parts of stories

recall and talk about significant events and details in stories

analyse and interpret characters, situations, events and sequences presented pictorially

differentiate between text and pictures

Reading for success vi

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Curriculum links SCOTLAND – Curriculum for excellence Level

Curriculum area

Objective

Early

Literacy

Reading

explore sounds, letters and words, and discover how they work together and use to help with reading and writing

ask questions to understand stories and other texts

explore events and characters in stories and other texts, sharing thoughts in different ways

Reading

Literacy

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explore and play with the patterns and sounds of language

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First

learn to select and use strategies and resources before reading, and while reading, to help make the meaning of texts clear

learn to make notes under given headings and use them to understand information, explore ideas and problems and create new texts

show understanding across different areas of learning and identify and consider the purpose and main ideas of a text

Areas of learning

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WALES – Foundation stage

Oracy •

experience a range of stimuli including: simple rhymes, nursery rhymes, songs, stories and poetry

participate in role play and drama activities, imaginative play, improvisation and performances of varying types

extend their vocabulary through activities that encourage their interest in words

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Language, literacy and communication skills

Objective

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Reading •

follow stories read to them and respond as appropriate

understand that written symbols have sound and meaning and develop phonological, graphic and grammatical knowledge, word recognition and contextual understanding

read with increasing fluency, accuracy, understanding and independence, building on what they already know

Writing •

understand the connections and differences between:

- writing and communication - speech and language - print and pictures

recognise the alphabetic nature of writing and discriminate between letters

communicate by using symbols, pictures and words

play with language, as a means of developing their interest in language

use a dictionary

develop their ability to spell common and familiar words in a recognisable way

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Reading for success


Phonemic awareness

Phonemic awareness – 1

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Phonemic awareness is pupils’ awareness of the sounds in language and how those sounds work together to form words. The word phonemic comes from the word phoneme, which relates to individual sounds. The /s/ in sun is a phoneme, as are the /u/ and /n/. Phonemes are not necessarily isolated to individual letters because phonemes have to do with sounds rather than written letters. In the word ship, /sh/ is a phoneme too. In a narrow sense, phonemic awareness means ‘sound awareness’. In a broader sense, it is a pupil’s ability to recognise, differentiate and manipulate sounds. The importance of phonemic awareness cannot be understated. There is ample research and evidence showing that phonemic awareness is a strong predictor of a pupil’s reading success.

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Phonemic awareness is developed in several ways. Prior to coming to school, many pupils gain phonemic awareness through their environments, either at home, in pre-primary, or both. In any of these cases, phonemic awareness was probably not directly taught but rather absorbed through a language-rich environment. Most likely, pupils sang songs, recited nursery rhymes, read books, made up riddles and began playing with language on their own. Because of the pupils’ extensive and varied experiences with language, phonemic awareness was developed. Pupils become phonemically aware in many different ways. It is important to keep in mind that, although this section of the book focuses on many ways to directly and explicitly develop phonemic awareness, creating a language-rich classroom environment is crucial.

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There are many pupils for whom phonemic awareness must be directly and explicitly taught. These pupils either did not have the experiences mentioned above or did not ‘absorb’ them in such a way as to develop phonemic awareness. The good news is there is evidence that phonemic awareness can be taught. Listed below are eight types of phonemic awareness instructions, practices and assessments which are included in this book.

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Phoneme isolation (recognising sounds in words) • Example: The first sound in dog is /d/. Phoneme identity (recognising words that have similar sounds) • Example: The words cat, car and cave all begin with /c/. Phoneme categorisation (recognising words that sound the same and words that sound different) • Example: The words bun, run and fun have similar sounds. The word bat does not sound the same. Phoneme blending (combining spoken phonemes into words) • Example: The sounds /t/ /u/ /g/ make the word tug. Phoneme segmentation (breaking words into their separate phonemes) • Example: There are four sounds in the word truck: /t/ /r/ /u/ /k/. Phoneme deletion (identifying a new word when a phoneme is removed from another word) • Example: If you take away the /s/ in start, you have the word tart. Phoneme addition (identifying a new word when a phoneme is added to another word) • Example: If you add /s/ to the beginning of port, you have the word sport. Phoneme substitution (changing a phoneme in a word to make a new word) • Example: If you change the /n/ in can to /t/, you have the word cat.

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Phonemic awareness

Phonemic awareness – 2 Provided in this section are examples of each type of phonemic awareness activity. The first page of each activity provides a description and example of the activity. The following pages (if applicable) provide a variety of ways in which the task can be applied, practised or adapted.

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Phonemic awareness activities are well suited for whole-class lessons, as language warm-ups in smallgroup lessons, or for that five minutes that remain before the break bell rings. Be sure that when you present a new activity, you provide sufficient time to both model and practise the activity.

Oral vs. written

Assessing phonemic awareness

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The activities within this section provide teacher-directed examples. For pupils who are ready, any of the activities can be extended. By writing down the letters that pupils are manipulating, pupils begin to see the letter–sound relationships in the activities. Depending on pupils’ abilities you may wish to write the letters on the board or have the pupils write the letters using paper and pencil or small wipe-off boards. Developing pupils’ awareness of how the letters and sounds work together will help them in both reading and spelling.

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A phonemic awareness assessment is provided on pages 5–7. This assessment tool can be used to determine areas in which pupils need additional instruction and practice. Photocopy one assessment per child.

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The assessment is given one-to-one. Directions for each task are provided in each section of the assessment. Write down pupil responses on the lines provided and record the scores for each section in the summary box on the front page. There are five points possible for each type of activity. A score of four or five indicates a pupil is competent in performing that particular phonemic awareness activity. A score of less than four indicates that the pupil needs additional instruction and practice.

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Phonemic awareness

Modelling phonemic awareness Many pupils develop phonemic awareness before any formal phonemic awareness activities are introduced in school. Pupils with rich language backgrounds may already be skilled in many phonemic awareness activities. However, there are many pupils for whom direct, explicit phonemic awareness instruction is necessary. For these pupils, modelling is crucial.

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Model phonemic awareness activities by talking through and demonstrating how to complete a task, step by step. Next, have pupils complete the activity by repeating what you have said, then complete the activity together. Finally, have the pupils complete the activity alone. Once pupils have demonstrated their ability with the word being analysed, provide another word on which they can try the same activity. The example below is a phoneme segmentation activity; however, the format can be used to model any of the phonemic awareness activities. I am going to say a word. I want you to listen as I say all the sounds I hear in the word. The word is red: /r/ . . . /e/ . . . /d/. Now, this time, I want you to repeat the sounds after I say them. /r/. . . /e/ . . . /d/

Pupils:

/r/ . . . /e/ . . . /d/

Teacher:

Now, let’s say the sounds in the word ‘red’ together.

Pupils:

/r/ . . . /e/ . . . /d/

Now you say the sounds in the word ‘red’ by yourselves.

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Teacher:

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Teacher:

/r/ . . . /e/ . . . /d/

Teacher:

Excellent, now let’s do the same thing with the word ‘bug’.

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Pupils:

Some pupils will need you to model a few times until they become familiar with the task. Other pupils will require you to do extensive modelling as they learn how sounds work together to make words. You may want to model the task again if you change it slightly, such as by adding words with more sounds, or if pupils need assistance because they are having a difficult time with a word.

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Phonemic awareness

Phonemic awareness assessment – 1 This assessment is adapted with permission from Pre-phonics tests: Phonemic awareness and more by Dr Fry. Pupil’s name

Date

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Phonemic awareness score summary Phoneme isolation

/5

Phoneme segmentation

/5

Phoneme identity

/5

Phoneme deletion

/5

Phoneme categorisation

/5

Phoneme addition

/5

Phoneme blending

/5

Phoneme substitution

/5

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Total score

/40

Phoneme isolation

Tell the pupil, ‘I am going to say a word. Tell me what sound you hear at the beginning of the word. If I said, dog, you would say /d/’. If the pupil has a difficult time, repeat the word, separating the first sound, /d/, from the rest of the word, /og/. Continue to practise with the following examples before administering the assessment: can = /c/; fin = /f/

1. big

2. ham

3. dot

4. mad

Response

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Word

5. get

Pupil response

Correct

Incorrect

/b/

/h/

/d/

/m/

/g/

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Phoneme isolation score

/5

Phoneme identity

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Tell the pupil, ‘I am going to say three words. Tell me what sound is the same in all three words. If I said cup, cap and can, you would say /c/ is the beginning sound in all three words’. Continue to practise with the following examples before administering the assessment: hen, hand, hope = /h/; sun, soup, sad = /s/

Sounds

Response

Pupil response

Correct

Incorrect

1. tan, top, two

/t/

2. pig, pan, pot

/p/

3. fan, far, fill

/f/

4. man, mitt, mug

/m/

5. net, no, new

/n/

Phoneme identity score

/5

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Phonemic awareness

Phonemic awareness assessment – 2 Phoneme categorisation

Word

1. do, sun, dot

sun

2. game, go, duck

duck

3. van, dig, vet

dig

_________

4. map, make, fat

fat

5. cake, dad, car

dad

Phoneme categorisation score

/5

Pupil response

Correct

Incorrect

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Response

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Tell the pupil, ‘I am going to say three words. Tell me which word does not begin with the same sound as the other two. If I said, top, man and tip, you would say man does not begin with /t/ like top and tip’. Continue to practise with the following examples before administering the assessment: bed, boy, pan = pan kit, jar, jug = kit

Phoneme blending

Sounds 1. /t/ /e/ /n/

2. /b/ /a/ /d/

3. /p/ /o/ /t/

Response

Pupil response

Correct

Incorrect

ten

bad

pot

4. /j/ /e/ /t/

jet

5. /f/ /i/ /l/

fill

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Tell the pupil, ‘I am going to say some sounds. Tell me what word the sounds make when they are blended. If I said, /b/ … /i/ … /g/, you would say the word is big’. Continue to practise with the following examples before administering the assessment: /m/ … /e/ … /n/ = men /b/ … /a/ … /t/ = bat

/5

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Phoneme blending score

Phoneme segmentation

Tell the pupil, ‘I am going to say a word. Tell me what sounds you hear in the word by saying the sounds, one at a time. If I said rat, you would say, /r/ … /a/ … /t/’. Continue to practise with the following examples before administering the assessment: bug = /b/ … /u/ … /g/ pit = /p/ … /i/ … /t/

Word

Response

1. win

/w/ /i/ /n/

2. red

/r/ /e/ /d/

3. log

/l/ /o/ /g/

4. ran

/r/ /a/ /n/

5. cat

/c/ /a/ /t/

Phoneme segmentation score

Pupil response

Correct

Incorrect

/5

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Phonemic awareness

Phonemic awareness assessment – 3 Phoneme deletion Tell the pupil, ‘I am going to say a word. Tell me what word is left when you take away the first sound. If I said bat, you would take away the /b/ and say the word at’. Continue to practise with the following examples before administering the assessment: fan = an sink = ink Response

1. heat

eat

2. rice

ice

3. sit

it

4. for

or

5. gate

ate

Phoneme deletion score

Pupil response

Correct

Incorrect

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Word

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/5

Phoneme addition

Word

Sound

Response

1. old

/f/

fold

2. am

/j/

jam

3. as

/h/

has

4. ill

/p/

pill

5. rag

/d/

drag

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Tell the pupil, ‘I am going to say a sound and a word. Tell me what new word is made when you put the sound at the beginning of the word. If I said to add /s/ to the beginning of the word /at/, you would say the word sat’. Continue to practise with the following examples before administering the assessment: all oil with /s/ = soil with /b/ = ball Correct

Incorrect

/5

Phoneme substitution

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Phoneme addition score

Pupil response

Tell the pupil, ‘I am going to say a word and give some directions about what sounds to change. Change the sounds to make a new word. If I said change the /c/ in car to /f/, you would say the word far’. Continue to practise with the following examples before administering the assessment: jet change /j/ for /l/ = let bun change /b/ for /r/ = run

Word

Sounds

1. fog

change /f/ for /h/

hog

2. ten

change /t/ for /m/

men

3. van

change /v/ for /c/

can

4. hip

change /h/ for /s/

sip

5. hot

change /h/ for g/

got

Phoneme substitution score

Response

Pupil response

Correct

Incorrect

/5

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme isolation – 1 Phoneme isolation activities require pupils to isolate sounds in a word. Begin phoneme isolation activities by having pupils isolate initial sounds. For example, ask pupils, ‘What sound do you hear at the beginning of the word fan?’ Pupils should indicate /f/. Continue having pupils practise phoneme isolation using words from the list below. Word

Response

Word

Response

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/c/

had

/h/

wag

/w/

fan

/f/

bat

/b/

den

/d/

jet

/j/

pig

/p/

fill

/f/

kit

/k/

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cab

Select additional words based on your current class work. For example, if you are studying a letter of the alphabet, use words beginning with that letter. If you are doing a thematic study on a topic, use vocabulary related to the topic.

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Although this is a very basic phonemic awareness activity, there are many pupils whose experiences playing with language may be very limited. For these pupils, even a task such as isolating the beginning sound in a word may be difficult. If pupils have a difficult time with this activity, model for them how to determine the beginning sound by isolating the beginning sound from the rest of the sounds in the word. For example, ‘Listen to the first sound you hear in this word, /f/ pause /an/’. Again, depending on pupils’ ability levels, you may need to emphasise the beginning sound by pausing longer after pronouncing it and before saying the remaining sounds in the word or by saying it slightly louder than the remaining sounds. For example, ‘/f/ pause, pause /an/’ or ‘/f/ (in a loud voice) pause /an/ (in a softer voice)’.

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As pupils become more familiar with the activity and capable of isolating beginning sounds, make the task more difficult. Below are some suggestions for extending the activity.

Words with more sounds

—What sound do you hear at the beginning of the word alligator? /a/

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Identify the sound at the end of the word —What sound do you hear at the end of the word hat? /t/

Identify the medial sound in a word —What sound do you hear in the middle of the word pin? /i/ The game on pages 10 and 11 can be used as a fun way to provide pupils with practice in each of these types of phoneme isolation.

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme isolation – 2 Once pupils have become proficient in isolating the beginning phoneme, challenge pupils to identify the position of a given phoneme. The activity ‘First or last’ provides pupils with a hands-on way to consider a phoneme’s position in a word.

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First or last

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Fold 8 cm x 13 cm index cards in half in order to create two 4 cm x 6.5 cm rectangles. Draw a line on the fold to better differentiate the rectangles. Provide each pupil with an index card and a manipulative such as a counter, a button or an eraser. Practise naming the sections of the cards with the pupils. For example, ask each pupil to place his or her manipulative in the first rectangle. Tell pupils this is the beginning rectangle because it is first. Ask pupils to place their manipulative in the second rectangle. Tell pupils that this is the ending rectangle because it is last. Be sure pupils understand the name and purpose of the two rectangles before proceeding to the activity. Determine the sound for which you want pupils to listen. Create a list of words, several of which have the target sound at the beginning of the word, and several of which have the sound at the end of the word. For example, if the sound you want pupils to listen for is /n/, use a list similar to the following: Begins with /n/

Ends with /n/

nut nice

fan ten

note need

pin sun

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Say a word from the list. If pupils hear /n/ at the beginning of the word, they should slide their manipulative onto the first or beginning rectangle on the index card. If pupils hear /n/ at the end of the word, they should slide their manipulatives onto the second or last rectangle on the index card. For example, if the word is net, pupils should slide their manipulatives onto the first or beginning rectangle because /n/ is at the beginning of the word. If the word is run, pupils should slide their manipulatives onto the ending or last rectangle because /n/ is at the end of the word. Demonstrate and practise several examples with pupils until they understand what is expected. Make first or last a movement activity by placing two pieces of paper on the floor in front of each pupil. Play the game the same way. Say a word such as nap. If the pupil hears the /n/ sound at the beginning of the word, the pupil jumps or steps on the piece of paper that is on the left. If the word is man, the pupil would jump or step on the piece of paper on the right because the /n/ sound is last in the word. An alternative is to have pupils walk to the front of the classroom if the target sound is at the beginning of the word and to the back of the classroom if the target sound is at the end of the word.

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme isolation – 3 Name that sound game Materials: markers (one per person), one dice

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Directions: Place markers on the start. Roll the dice to see who will play first. The first player rolls the dice and moves his or her marker the same number of spaces. The player must say the name of the picture on the space on which he or she landed and then isolate the beginning sound. If the response is correct, the player rolls again. If the response is incorrect, the player must try again on his or her next turn. This game board can also be used for identifying the ending or medial sound of a word.

S TA R T

Reading for success 10

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme isolation – 4

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Game board

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Reading for success


Phonemic awareness

Phoneme identity – 1 Phoneme identity activities require pupils to identify similar sounds in different words. For example, pupils should recognise that /s/ is the beginning sound in both sun and safe.

Alphabet books

• Bancroft, Bronwyn. W is for wombat. Little Hare Books, 2009.

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Excellent resources for practising phoneme identity are alphabet books. Books such as Graeme Base’s Animalia, or Jane E Bayer’s A, My name is Alice provide pupils with many opportunities on each page to see pictures and hear words beginning with the same sound. Have pupils name all of the pictures they can on each page that begin with the targeted sounds. A list of excellent alphabet books is suggested below. • Bancroft, Bronwyn. Possum and wattle: My big book of Australian words. Little Hare Books, 2009.

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• Russell, Elaine. A is for aunty. ABC Books, 2000.

• Scillian, Devin. D is for Down Under. Sleeping Bear Press, 2010.

An extension of the activity above for pupils who are ready and capable is to challenge them to identify the ending sound of each word.

Row, row, row your boat

Sing the following song to the tune of Row, row, row your boat. Substitute the lines below so pupils can practise identifying a variety of initial sounds.

What sound is the same, in all of these words?

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Fun and fan and father, too. What’s the sound you heard?

Substitute the lines below for the italicised line above:

Net and not and nursery, too.

Bat and ball and body, too.

On and off and oxen, too.

Cut and car and curly, too.

Pup and pen and pencil, too.

Did and dot and dog, too.

Quit and queen and quiet, too.

Egg and elf and elbow, too.

Run and rat and rose, too.

Far and fat and feather, too.

Sun and sand and sorry, too.

Good and goose and garden, too.

Top and tap and tummy, too.

Hen and harp and happy, too.

Up and under and uncle, too.

In and itch and igloo, too.

Van and vet and vacuum, too.

Jam and jug and jungle, too.

Wet and wag and welcome, too.

Kid and kite and kitty, too.

Box and axe and jacks, too. (Ending sounds are listed here)

Log and lamb and laundry, too.

Yak and yarn and yoyo, too.

Man and mice and money, too.

Zip and zoo and zebra, too.

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Ant and axe and apple, too.

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme identity – 2 I went to the shop

Sound sorts

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Seat pupils on the floor in a circle. Begin by selecting a sound you want to target. For example, you may select the sound /b/. Choose a word beginning with /b/ and say, ‘I went to the shop and I bought a bat’. The next pupil must repeat what you have said, plus add his or her own item beginning with /b/. For example, ‘I went to the shop and I bought a bat and a ball’. Continue around the circle with each child adding to the list. Try to get all the way around the circle. If a pupil cannot think of a word beginning with the targeted beginning sound, stop, play with that sound and help the pupil select a new word. If it is a pupil’s turn and he or she cannot remember what a pupil has said, have the pupil who stated the word help by providing their word again when the time is right. Use pictures in a pocket chart to provide pupils with practice in both isolating and identifying sounds in a word. Photocopy pages 14 and 15. Cut the picture cards apart and laminate for durability if desired. Place the cards in a pocket chart. Use the directions from below based on the skill on which you are currently working. Begin all of the activities below by naming all of the pictures with the pupils. * Beginning sounds

Who can find the picture of a word that begins with the same sound as the word put? Continue until all words beginning with /p/ have been identified. Then sort by words beginning with /t/, /m/, /d/, /c/, /v/, /b/, and /l/.

* Ending sounds

Who can find the picture of a word that ends with the same sound as the word man? Continue until all words ending with /n/ have been identified. Then sort by words ending with /p/, /d/, /g/ and /t/.

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* Medial sounds

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Who can find the picture of a word that has the same middle sound as the word pen? Continue until all words with a medial sound of /e/ have been identified. Then, sort by words with a medial sound of /a/, /i/, /o/ and /u/.

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* Rhyming words

Who can find a word that rhymes with the word fog? Continue by sorting words that rhyme with tan and fat.

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Phoneme identity – 3

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(See page 13 for instructions on how to use these picture cards.)

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Phoneme identity – 4

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(See page 13 for instructions on how to use these picture cards.)

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Phonemic awareness

Begins the same

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Directions: Cut out the picture cards at the bottom of the page. Glue each picture card next to the picture that begins with the same sound. (Alternatively, the cards at the top may be laminated and used as a base, and the bottom cards placed next to their matching card.)

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Phonemic awareness

Ends the same

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Directions: Cut out the picture cards at the bottom of the page. Glue each picture card next to the picture that ends with the same sound. (Alternatively, the cards at the top may be laminated and used as a base, and the bottom cards placed next to their matching card.)

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Phonemic awareness

Beginning or ending sound

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Directions: Cut out the picture cards at the bottom of the page. Say each word. If the word begins with the same sound as nail, glue the picture card under the nail. If the word ends with the same sound as can, glue the picture card under the can.

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme categorisation Phoneme categorisation activities require pupils to identify sounds in words. For example, pupils should be able to identify that the words fun and fast both begin with /f/, but the word man does not. It begins with a different sound, /m/.

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Three words

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A simple phoneme categorisation activity is to list three words for pupils. Two of the words should begin with the same sound and the third word should begin with a different sound. For example, say the words sun, sand and can. Ask pupils which two words begin with the same sound. Begin by placing the two words that begin with the same sound next to each other in order to emphasise the same beginning sound. Then, as pupils become familiar with the activity, separate those words by placing the one that begins differently in the middle of the two that begin with the same sound. Use pages 20 and 21 to reinforce the activity. The task can be made more difficult by using four words instead of three. Alter this task by including three words that begin the same and one that begins differently. For example, say the words tub, teeth, net and tank. Pupils should indicate that the words tub, teeth and tank begin with the same sound. Another alternative is to use four words but include two words that begin with the same sound and two words that begin differently. For example, you may say the words man, boat, can and map. Pupils should indicate that the words man and map begin with the same sound.

Target sound

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Challenge pupils with the difficult task of identifying words that end with the same sound.

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First determine a target sound on which you want pupils to focus. Create a list of words, about half of which begin with the targeted sound and half of which begin with other sounds. Say the words out loud, one at a time. If the word begins with the targeted sound, pupils perform a pre-specified activity or gesture. If the word does not begin with the sound, pupils do another gesture or nothing. For example, if the targeted sound is /b/, pupils can buzz around the room when you say the word baby. If the word is run, pupils do nothing. Some simple gestures pupils can perform include smiling or frowning and showing thumbs up or thumbs down. Also, consider having the gesture or action relate to the sound on which you are focusing. For example, if the sound is /p/, pupils can pat their heads or waddle like a penguin.

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For pupils who are ready, select words in which the target sound is at the end of the word. Have pupils perform an activity if they hear the target sound at the end of the word.

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Phonemic awareness

Doesn’t belong – 1

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Directions: Look at the pictures in each row. Say the name of each picture. Cross out the picture that does not begin with the same sound as the other two pictures.

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Phonemic awareness

Doesn’t belong – 2

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Directions: Look at the pictures. Say the name of each picture. Cross out the picture that does not end with the same sound as the other two pictures.

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme blending Pupils gain a better understanding of the role sounds play in making a word by doing phoneme blending activities. By segmenting the sounds for the pupils and allowing them to blend them together, pupils will begin to see that a series of sounds makes up a word.

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Mystery word

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Say a mystery word by saying one sound at a time. When all the sounds have been made, pupils are to blend the sounds together to tell the mystery word. Begin by providing an example so pupils know what is expected. For example, if the mystery word is bad, say /b/ … /a/ … /d/. Pupils should identify that the mystery word is bad. If pupils have a difficult time, model saying the three sounds of the word again several times, each time with shorter pauses until the word sounds like normal speech. As pupils demonstrate their understanding of the activity and their capability to blend, use mystery words with more sounds. For example, expand from words like bad to words such as bend and bring. This activity is ideally suited for nonsense words, too. Nonsense words are words that we do not use in the English language. An example of a nonsense word is len. By using nonsense words, you can informally assess how well pupils understand the concept of blending. If you mix real words and nonsense words, ask pupils to identify whether the word is real or nonsense.

Pupil names

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An excellent way to practise blending is with pupil names. Dismiss pupils from the carpet or to lunch by segmenting names. The pupils have to blend the sounds to determine who is dismissed. For example, you may dismiss /j/ … /o/ … /n/. Once pupils are familiar with the blending activity, they will all guess that John is the person being dismissed. Pupils always anxiously anticipate their names being segmented.

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme segmentation – 1 Phoneme segmentation activities require pupils to take a word and break it down into its sound parts. Phoneme segmentation and phoneme blending activities are ideally suited to practise together.

Break it down

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Tell pupils you are going to say a word. They are to break the word apart, or segment the word, by saying each sound they hear, one sound at a time. For example, if you say the word red, pupils should say /r/ … /e/ … /d/. Begin by providing several examples for pupils so they know what is expected. The list below provides several examples of phoneme segmentation. Word

Response

hot

/h/ … /o/ … /t/

cap

/c/ … /a/ … /p/

ship

/sh/ … /i/ … /p/

quick

/kw/ … /i/ … /k/

lamp

/l/ … /a/ … /m/ … /p/

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Begin by having pupils segment CV or VC words such as my, at, on and in. Proceed to CVC words. Allow pupils to demonstrate a good understanding of phoneme segmentation before moving on to words with more sounds.

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Combine phoneme segmentation and phoneme blending into one activity in which one pupil thinks of a mystery word and segments the word. Another pupil or group of pupils must blend the sounds together in order to discover the mystery word. By having pupils take turns being the person providing the mystery word, pupils get to practise both segmenting and blending words. If pupils have a difficult time thinking of their own words to segment, provide a stack of picture cards. The pupil providing the mystery word must secretly look at the picture on the card, say the word to himself or herself, and then segment it for his friends. Once the friends have blended the sounds to guess the word, the pupil will show the picture so they can see if they were correct. The picture cards on pages 14 and 15 may be used for this activity.

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An alternative to having pupils segment the words is to have them tell you how many sounds there are in the word. For example, you may ask pupils, ‘How many sounds are there in the word bat?’ Pupils can indicate there are three sounds by holding up three fingers. As pupils become familiar with the activity, provide nonsense words for pupils to segment. This is an excellent way to assess pupils’ abilities to segment words.

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme segmentation – 2 Phoneme segmentation activities should be done orally; however, there are several ways to make the activity hands-on.

Manipulatives

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Provide each pupil with manipulatives to use in demonstrating how the sounds of a word are broken down. Manipulatives can be anything from buttons to maths manipulatives, such as counters or counting cubes. Begin by providing the same number of manipulatives as there are sounds in the word. For example, if pupils are working on segmenting CVC (consonant, vowel, consonant) words with three sounds, provide pupils with three manipulatives.

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Have pupils line up their manipulatives in a straight line on the table or floor in front of them. Say a word for pupils to segment. As the pupils say each sound, they slide a manipulative forward. For example, if the word was jam, pupils would say /j/ as they slide the first manipulative forward, /a/ as they slide the second manipulative forward, and /m/ as they slide the last manipulative forward. Initially, use CVC words. As pupils become familiar with the task and are able to successfully segment CVC words, use other words as well. If pupils have a difficult time segmenting words, demonstrate segmenting the word several times while sliding the manipulatives forward. Then have the pupils segment the word with you. Pupils will soon see the relationship between the manipulatives and the sounds in the word.

Puppets

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Initially, it is a good idea to give pupils the same number of manipulatives as there are sounds in the word. As pupils become more capable of segmenting, you may wish to switch among words with a variety of numbers of sounds. In this case, have pupils line up five or six manipulatives and tell them to use as many as they need and to leave the rest in the line.

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Allow pupils to use puppets to show how a word is segmented. Pupils can open and close the mouth of the puppet for each sound they say. Photocopy pages 25 and 26 for each pupil. Have pupils colour and cut out the paper bag puppet patterns. Glue the head of the puppet on the flap (bottom) of a brown lunch bag. Glue the collar and the dog’s mouth beneath the crease. Glue the body under the head, being careful not to glue the flap shut (so the mouth can move freely). Demonstrate for the pupils how to open and shut the mouth of the puppet to indicate the sounds of a word.

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Phonemic awareness

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Puppy puppet pattern – 1

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Phonemic awareness

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Puppy puppet pattern – 2

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme deletion In phoneme deletion activities, pupils are required to delete a phoneme from a word and yet produce the remaining sounds in the word. For example, say to the pupils, ‘If I take away the first sound from the word hop, what will I have left?’ Pupils should respond /op/. In order to ensure success with phoneme deletion, introduce this activity after pupils become skilled at isolating initial phonemes.

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Phoneme deletion can be used on any word; however, beginning phoneme deletion activities are easiest for pupils to complete when the word that remains after the initial phoneme has been deleted is a real word. For example, if pupils delete the /b/ from ball, the remaining word is all. See the list on page 29 for examples of words that do just that.

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The task of phoneme deletion is a sophisticated phonemic awareness activity. Many pupils, even pupils who are ready for this task, may have difficulty at first. Follow the steps below to help guide pupils in deleting the initial sound and determining the remaining sounds in a word. 1. Ask pupils, ‘What is the beginning sound in the word fat?’ Pupils should indicate /f/.

2. Hold out your right hand and say /f/. Hold out your left hand and say /at/. Have pupils do the same.

3. Repeat the sounds with the hand motions, this time whispering the beginning sound (in this example, /f/). Say the remaining sounds in the word in a normal voice (/at/).

4. Ask pupils what word is left if you take away the beginning sound in the word fat. Do the hand motions again, this time pretending to take away the /f/ with your hand while you whisper it. Once again, say the remaining part of the word, /at/, with a normal voice. Pupils should indicate the remaining word is at.

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Extend phoneme deletion activities by having pupils delete ending phonemes. For example, ask pupils, ‘If I took away the /p/ from the word map, what would be left?’ Pupils should indicate /ma/. A real challenge is for pupils to delete the medial sound in a word. In the example using the word map, pupils would respond that taking out the /a/ leaves /mp/. Usually, the remaining sounds require pupils to produce an uncommon blend which is very difficult to pronounce.

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme addition – 1

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Phoneme addition is the exact opposite of phoneme deletion. Pupils are required to add a phoneme, usually to the beginning of a word, in order to make a new word. For example, ask, ‘What word would you get if you added /r/ to the word ice?’ Pupils should indicate the word rice. As with phoneme deletion, any word may be used in this activity; however, pupils are most successful when beginning this type of activity if the words are real words. A list of such words is provided on page 29. Once pupils understand the activity and are skilled at adding phonemes, do not hesitate to ask pupils to create nonsense words by adding phonemes to the beginning of any word. For example, ‘What word would I get if I added /k/ to the beginning of the word ring?’ Pupils should indicate kring.

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Phoneme addition activities

Phoneme addition activities are excellent to use when studying a particular letter of the alphabet. Use the sound of the letter being studied as the onset. The onset includes the beginning sound or sounds of a word up to the vowel. Provide pupils with the rime. The rime begins with the vowel and includes the remaining sounds in the word. Pupils can practise making words by adding the onset to the rime. For example, if the letter being studied is B, pupils can practise adding /b/ to several rimes. Ask the pupils, ‘What word will you get if you add /b/ to /at/?’ Pupils should indicate bat. Continue adding /b/ to rimes in order to get new words. See the list below for additional examples that can be used with B.

/ar / bar /at / bat /ay / bay /ed / bed /est / best /ig / big

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/ack / back /ad / bad /ag / bag /all / ball /ake / bake /and / band

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/ill / bill /it / bit /old / bold /ug / bug /un / bun /y / by

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Use other rimes that will create nonsense words, too. These nonsense words provide excellent practice for pupils adding phonemes. For example, have pupils add /b/ to the rime /ip/. Pupils should indicate the new word is bip. For pupils who are ready, use words that will require the pupils to practise blends, too.

Bl

/ack / black

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/ue / blue

/end / blend

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme addition – 2 Tag team

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Assign one pupil a sound, such as /b/. This pupil will be responsible for being the ‘onset’ and saying that sound in the game. Assign other pupils various rimes, one rime per pupil (see the list on page 28 for rimes that go with /b/). When you point to a child, he or she should say his or her sound(s). Be sure each pupil knows the sound(s) that he or she will be saying. Practise several times before trying to add them together.

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Place the pupil responsible for saying the onset next to a pupil responsible for saying a rime. Point to the onset child and have him or her say the sound. Then, point to the rime child and have her or him say the sound. The rest of the children must blend the onset and the rime together in order to determine the new word. Then leave the onset child where he or she is standing and replace the rime with a new child. Again, point to each pupil and have the remaining pupils determine the new word. Repeat until all pupils with a rime have had a chance to add the onset to make a new word.

Word suggestions for addition/deletion activities

all

ball, call, fall, hall, wall, tall

an

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am dam, ham, jam, ram

eat

beat, feat, heat, meat, seat

end bend, lend, send, tend ice

dice, lice, mice, rice

it

bit, hit, kit, lit, pit, wit

ill

bill, Jill, till, fill, hill, kill, mill, pill, will

ash bash, cash, dash, gash, lash,

in

bin, fin, pin, tin, win

ink

link, mink, pink, rink, sink

lay

clay, play, slay

can, fan, man, pan, ran, tan, van

and band, hand, land, sand

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ark bark, dark, mark, park

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mash, rash

at

ate

bat, cat, fat, hat, mat, pat, rat, sat date, fate, gate, hate, late, mate, rate

ear dear, fear, hear, near, tear

ore bore, core, sore, more, tore, wore ox

box, fox, pox

up

cup, pup

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme substitution – 1 By substituting one phoneme for another phoneme, pupils are able to practise making new words. For example, ask pupils, ‘What is the new word if you change the /m/ to /p/ in the word man?’ Pupils should indicate pan.

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When pupils substitute initial phonemes, they are creating rhyming words. The sooner pupils realise this, the more successful they will be at doing phoneme substitution activities. Have pupils practise rhyming words before introducing phoneme substitution. For example, ask, ‘What words rhyme with can?’ Pupils should respond with as many words as they can think of that rhyme. For example, pupils could say: fan, man, pan, ran, tan and van.

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In the beginning, pupils are most successful at phoneme substitution activities if the rime is kept the same and only the onset changes. Provide many examples with the same rime before changing it. For example, ask pupils, ‘What is the new word if you change the /b/ to /h/ in the word bat?’ Pupils should indicate hat. Then ask, ‘What is the new word if you change the /h/ to /r/ in the word hat?’ Pupils should indicate rat. Continue by telling pupils what initial sounds to substitute until pupils have made all of the following words: cat, fat, mat, pat and sat.

Making new words

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Photocopy pages 32–34. Cut apart, colour and laminate for durability if desired. There are three words provided for each rime. Give pupils directions, as in the example above, for changing the initial sound of each word in order to form a new word. For example, ask pupils, ‘If you change the first sound in the word bat to /h/, what word would you get?’ Show the picture card of the hat when pupils determine the new word. If pupils have a difficult time substituting the phoneme, show them the picture card as a clue. Then ask pupils, ‘If I change the first sound in the word hat to /r/, what word would I get?’ Show pupils the picture card of the rat. Once pupils have determined all three words, display them in a chart. Practise saying all three words. Ask pupils if they can think of any other words that could be made if they change the first sound of the word.

Page 32

cap dog hen map log men tap hog pen

Page 33

hop hug jet mop rug net top jug wet

Page 34

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Phonemic awareness

Phoneme substitution – 2 Name change

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A fun way to practise phoneme substitution is with pupils’ names. Substitute the initial sound in a pupil’s name with the sound currently being studied. For example, if the class is learning about the letter B, have pupils practise substituting /b/ for the initial sound in their names. John would become Bon. When D is being studied, John would become Don. Pupils really have a great time with this activity and will often want to be called their new names for the entire day or longer. Hint: Carefully review names before the activity to make sure that no unfortunate letter combinations will occur.

Through the alphabet

bet

fet

cet

get

det

het

jet

met

quet

tet

xet

ket

net

ret

vet

yet

let

pet

set

wet

zet

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Create real and nonsense words by substituting the sounds of the alphabet combined with a rime. For example, if the rime is /et/, have pupils substitute all the consonant sounds for the initial sound to create new words. For example:

Have pupils identify which words are real and which words are nonsense.

Ending phonemes

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Beginning phoneme substitution activities should require pupils to change initial phonemes only. As pupils become more skilled at phoneme substitution, have them change medial and ending phonemes, too. For example, ask pupils, ‘If you change the /n/ to /p/ in the word man, what is the new word?’ Pupils should indicate map. Or ask, ‘If you change the /a/ to /e/ in the word man, what is the new word?’ Pupils should indicate men.

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Provide the following word examples and have pupils substitute the ending sound in order to create a new word. The picture cards on pages 32–34 correspond to newly created words in these examples. Use the picture cards for pupils to verify that the correct word has been produced, or as a clue. bad

bat

cat

cap

hot

hop

ham

hat

man

map

mob

mop

ran

rat

tab

tap

toss

top

pit

pig

dot

dog

hut

hug

win

wig

lot

log

run

rug

did

dig

hot

hog

jut

jug

fat

fan

head

hen

gem

jet

map

man

met

men

Ned

net

pad

pan

peg

pen

web

wet

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Phoneme substitution – 3

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See pages 30 and 31 for directions on how to use these picture cards.

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Phoneme substitution – 4

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See pages 30 and 31 for directions on how to use these picture cards.

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Phoneme substitution – 5

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See pages 30 and 31 for directions on how to use these picture cards.

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Phonics

Phonics

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Through phonics instruction, pupils learn the relationship between letters and sounds. Pupils must have a working knowledge of the sound–symbol relationship in order to read. Although our language does have many irregularly spelled words in which a straight letter–sound relationship (one sound for one letter) does not work, it is still a system that can be used to help decode words. Pupils can learn to read irregular words through a variety of other means, such as spelling patterns and memory.

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Your reading or phonics programme probably prescribes a sequence for teaching the letters and their corresponding sounds. Use this section of the book as a supplement to your programme. The purpose of this section is not to provide a systematic approach to teaching phonics, but rather to provide ideas for helping pupils to develop their understanding of the sound–symbol relationship. Use or adapt the ideas in this section to the letters and sounds on which you are currently working.

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Children come to school in many different places in their understanding of the relationship between letters and sounds. Some children come knowing only the alphabet song, while others come knowing all the letters and their corresponding sounds. Of course, many children come with an understanding somewhere between those two. The challenge for the classroom teacher is to help pupils develop their letter–sound understanding in a way that will make all pupils successful readers. Pupils need a variety of activities and lots of time to practise letter–sound relationships in order to develop a deep understanding of how letters and sounds work together to form words. The ideas in this section are geared toward younger pupils; however, most of the activities provide a description of how to extend the activity for those pupils who are ready. Letter–sound activities

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Although the entire Phonics section is devoted to letter–sound activities, this subsection in particular provides a variety of teaching suggestions for helping pupils practise the letter–sound relationship. Although the ideas can be used for medial vowel sounds as well, this section lends itself to practise with initial and ending sounds of both consonants and vowels. Multi-sensory activities

Ideas provided are for multi-sensory activities in which pupils can participate in order to develop sound–symbol correspondence.

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Alphabet cards

Alphabet cards are provided. Suggestions for how to use the cards are provided at the top of page 47, as well as in activities throughout the phonics section. Games

Ideas and patterns for phonics-related clothes peg and egg carton games are provided. Activity sheets Phonics activity sheets are an excellent way for pupils to demonstrate their understanding of sound–symbol relationships because they have to write a symbol (a letter) for the sound they hear. Provided in this subsection (pages 63–73) is a variety of ways pupils can practise vowels.

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Phonics

Letter–sound assessment

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Assessing a pupil’s existing knowledge of letters and sounds will help you determine the areas in which the pupil needs instruction. One way to get a good picture of a pupil’s knowledge of letters and sounds is to give him or her a Letter–sound assessment. This assessment is given one-on-one. In the assessment, pupils are asked to name each upper-case and lower-case letter of the alphabet and produce the corresponding sound. By recording the results on a data sheet, you are able to easily see how a pupil scores, which will help you in determining areas on which to focus.

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Photocopy one copy of pages 38 and 39. Photocopy one per pupil of page 37. Begin with the upper-case letters. Show the pupil the photocopy of page 38, the upper-case letters, one row at a time. Note that some letters are repeated in different fonts. First, ask the pupil to name each letter. Mark an X in the corresponding box on the pupil data sheet to indicate the letters the pupil has correctly identified. Then, ask the pupil to produce the corresponding sound. Again, mark an X in the corresponding box on the pupil data sheet.

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Continue the assessment by showing the pupil the photocopy of page 39, the lower-case letters. Once again, mark an X in the corresponding box on the pupil data sheet to indicate the letters and sounds the pupil has correctly identified. Use the pupil data sheet (page 37) to determine which lessons you will use.

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Phonics

Letter–sound assessment Pupil data sheet Pupil’s name Identifies letter

Produces sound

Lower-case letters t q

V

v

J

u

U

x

M

m

Z

z

B

b

I

i

F

f

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Y O K P

G L H

y o g p d e g l h a

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D E

Produces sound

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Q

Identifies letter

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Upper-case letters T

Date

R

r

W

w

S

s

C

c

J

j

N

n

X

a

Totals

/27

/27

k Totals

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Phonics

Letter–sound assessment: upper-case letters

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Phonics

Letter–sound assessment: lower-case letters

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Phonics

Letter–sound activities – 1 Focus attention

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Purchase pipe-cleaners or fluorescent, see-through book covers which can be used to highlight a letter within text. The pipe cleaners can be bent into the shape of a circle. The book covers can be cut into thin strips and the backing peeled when ready to use. With care, the book-cover strips can be used repeatedly. Use these two devices to focus pupils’ attention by placing the pipe cleaners around the featured letters or placing the book cover pieces on the letters you are referencing. This technique is highly recommended when doing a shared reading with pupils. The teacher can highlight what he/she is referencing, can have pupils hunt for examples of what he/she is referencing and highlight the text in order to illustrate.

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Highlight letters

Reproduce simple poems that have words beginning with the letter on which you are focusing. Make up hand motions or actions that go with each poem. Chant the poem several times until the pupils can say it independently. Have pupils recite the poem as they point to the words. They can use a yellow crayon to colour or highlight words beginning with the letter on which you are currently working.

Letter sort

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Gather a variety of objects such as a pencil, eraser, pen, scissors etc. and place them in a box. Have a child reach into the box and pull out an object. The pupil must name the object, tell what sound he/she hears at the beginning of the word and what letter makes the sound. Once all of the objects have been removed from the box, sort them into piles so that the objects beginning with the same sound are together. (This portion of the activity works best if there is a limited number of initial sounds used. For example, you may only wish to place objects in the box that begin with ‘P’, ‘D’ and ‘T’.) Label each pile with the corresponding letter of the alphabet. Have pupils look around the room to find other objects that can be placed in each pile. Extend this activity for pupils who are ready by having them identify the ending sound or medial sound.

Letter hunt

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Have pupils search through magazines and newspapers for examples of a target letter; for example, ‘Aa’. Pupils can find letters in various fonts, sizes and colours. Encourage them to find several examples of both upper-case and lower-case letters. Then, have each pupil glue the examples on a piece of paper or a poster.

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Phonics

Letter–sound activities – 2 Picture hunt

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Identify a target letter you want pupils to practise; for example, Bb. Have pupils look through magazines to find pictures beginning with the letter Bb. Glue all of the pictures pupils cut out onto a piece of paper in order to create a poster. Point to each object and have pupils name the word. Pupils can even practise isolating the initial sound. For example, if you point to a picture of a ball, pupils can say, ‘/b/ ball’.

Partner find

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Enlarge the picture and letter circle patterns on pages 61 and 62. Cut out each of the circles and laminate for durability. Divide pupils into two groups and provide one group with picture circles and the other group with the corresponding letters. Pupils work with each other to find their partners. Once everyone has found his or her partner, have the pupils show and announce what the picture is and the corresponding letter.

Heads or tails

Determine a letter that you want pupils to practise; for example, Gg. Then, have a pupil flip a coin. If the coin lands on the heads side, the pupil must think of a word that begins with Gg. If the coin lands on the tails side, the pupil must think of a word that ends with Gg.

Pencil poke holes

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Cut out pictures from a magazine. The pictures should clearly show one object; for example, a desk. Glue the pictures on index cards. At the bottom of the card, punch three holes as shown in the pictures below. Above each hole, provide pupils an option for the initial letter of the object in the picture. Be sure to include the correct letter. On the back, draw a blue circle around the hole indicating the correct letter so pupils can self-check. Tell the pupil to say the name of the picture. The child then pokes a pencil tip in the hole that corresponds to the beginning sound of the picture. The child looks at the back of the card to check his/her answer.

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Phonics

Letter–sound activities – 3

Can stack

Beanbag toss

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Cover six soft drink cans with construction paper. Write a letter of the alphabet on each soft drink can. Create a stack or line of the cans on the floor. The cans may be stacked in a variety of different ways. Make a chalk or tape line approximately 150 cm away. The first pupil stands on the line and tosses a beanbag in order to knock over as many cans as possible. As he or she picks up the cans, the pupil must name the letter on the can, the sound it makes and a word that begins with that letter. The next child takes his or her turn once the cans have been re-stacked. Pupils must think of new words. Words that have already been offered may not be repeated.

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The activities on this page provide a variety of ways for pupils to practise identifying letters, sounds and words beginning with those sounds. Any of these activities can be extended by having pupils who are ready do the activity as described; however, instead of thinking of words beginning with a particular letter, pupils can think of a word that ends with that letter.

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Locate a piece of chart paper. Using a black marker, write, in large print, six to eight letters on the chart paper. Place the paper on the floor. Make a chalk or tape line approximately 150 cm away. The first pupil stands on the line and tosses a beanbag onto the chart paper. The pupil must say the letter on which the beanbag landed (or the letter that is closest to the beanbag), the sound it makes and a word that begins with that letter. Then allow the next pupil to toss the beanbag.

Letter scoop

Hide magnetic letters in a tub of sand or rice. Pupils must use a slotted spoon to scoop out a letter. Once the pupil has the letter in her or his hand, she or he must name the letter, the sound it makes and a word that begins with that letter. Pupils can take turns searching for letters until all have been found.

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Sound ball

Label a beach ball with letters. Have pupils stand in a circle. Explain that a pupil will throw the ball to another pupil who will catch the ball. The pupil who catches the ball will say the letter that is closest to his or her right thumb. He or she then must provide a word that begins with that letter. Then, he/she throws the ball to another child.

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Phonics

Letter–sound activities – 4 Spin a letter

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Directions: Follow the instructions below for using the spinner. Label each section of the spinner with a letter. Use the letters pupils have already learnt in order to provide reinforcement. Any number of children can play the game. The first child spins. He/she must think of a word that begins with the letter on which the spinner lands. One point is awarded for each word that begins with the letter. The second child spins next. Continue until a player reaches a predetermined number of points. Extend the game by having pupils think of words that end with the letter on which the spinner lands.

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Make a spinner: Use a pencil and paperclip to act as the spinner. Hold the pencil (at the eraser) with one hand and spin the paperclip using the other hand.

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Phonics

Multi-sensory activities – 1 Provide a variety of materials for pupils to glue on top of a letter outline. See pages 47–53 for alphabet card patterns. Enlarge the cards to suit the materials you will be using and the skill level of the pupils. You may use accessible objects such as beans, macaroni or rice, or you may want to use objects that correspond to the featured alphabet letter. Choose from the following objects:

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A – apple stickers B – beans, bird seed, buttons, bow-tie pasta

D – dots, dough E – erasers, egg shells F – flour, feathers, felt, fabric, flower petals

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C – confectionary, cotton balls, corn kernels, crayons (broken), cereal, candles, confetti, caps, corks, cotton buds

G – glitter, googly eyes, glue (coloured), gauze H – hole punches, heart punches I – ink, icing K – kidney beans

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J – jelly beans, junk, jewellery L – leaves, liquorice, lace, lip gloss M – magazine pages, macaroni

N – newspaper, nuts, noodles, netting

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O – oats, o-shaped cereal

P – packing beads, peanuts, paper curls, pipe cleaners, pasta, popcorn, peas (dried), paperclips Q – quinoa (dry)

R – rice, raisins, ribbon, red rectangles, rope

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S – sand, seeds, sequins, pieces of sponge, salt, sticks, sugar (coloured), spaghetti, pieces of skipping rope T – toothpicks, tube noodles, twigs U – umbrellas (miniature) V – velvet, Velcro® W – white tissue, wood chips X – cardboard box pieces, floor tile separators (hardware shop) Y – yellow wool Z – zigzags (rick-rack fabric trim), zippers

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Phonics

Multi-sensory activities – 2

Pretend to. . .

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A – fly like an aeroplane, walk like an alligator

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Reinforce sounds by having pupils participate in movement activities that correspond to each letter of the alphabet. One approach is to have pupils participate in a variety of movement activities for each letter of the alphabet. Another approach is to select only one movement activity for each letter of the alphabet. Once practised, pupils will associate the movement with the sound and letter of the alphabet. Then, turn the movement activity into a game by displaying a letter of the alphabet. See pages 47–53 for alphabet card patterns. The cards can be enlarged as needed. Pupils must perform the movement activity that corresponds to the displayed letter. Continue displaying other alphabet cards. Pupils must change their movement to match the letter being displayed.

B – fly like a butterfly, blow bubbles, bounce a ball C – crawl like a crocodile, crab walk D – dance, dig, beat a drum E – walk like an elephant, roll like an egg F – go fishing, fly, leap like a frog, freeze G – gallop, grow like a plant

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H – hop like a rabbit, play hopscotch

I – move like an inchworm, scratch an itch J – jump, juggle

K – kick, hop like a kangaroo, fly a kite

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L – leap, climb a ladder

M – march, act like a monkey

N – hammer nails, read the newspaper, nap O – wiggle arms like an octopus

P – punch, pop like popcorn, put together a puzzle

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Q – quack like a duck, quiver, be completely quiet R – roll, read, rub your hands together S – spread, sneak around, slither like a snake, cut with scissors, skip a rope T – trot, brush teeth, hit a tennis ball U – put up an umbrella

V – play volleyball W – wave, wiggle, wheelbarrow walk, act like windshield wipers, wash the car X – cross arms like an X, use fingers to make Xs in the air Y – play with a yo-yo, eat yoghurt Z – zip a zipper, act like an animal from the zoo www.prim-ed.com – Prim-Ed Publishing 45

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Phonics

Multi-sensory activities – 3

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Bag of paint: Fill several resealable lunch bags with two to three tablespoons (about 40 mL) of washable paint. Seal the bag tightly. Pupils lay the bag on a flat surface and use their hands to smooth out the paint in the bag. Children can use their fingers to practise writing letters and words on the bag.

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Set up a ‘Hands-on the alphabet’ centre and then change the activity each week. Pupils can simply practise individual letters or pupils who are ready can practise writing words. Display an alphabet chart or a list of words pupils can practise reading and writing. Have pupils practise words with the sound and letter on which you have been working. Begin with simple CVC words that you can draw or for which you have a picture. For example, if you have been teaching the letter H, include words such as hat, hut and hug. Rotate some of the following activities through the centre:

Magnetic alphabet: Provide magnetic letters and a magnetic surface, such as a baking tray for pupils. Pupils can experiment with the letters by putting them in alphabetical order or even creating words with the letters.

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Shaving cream: Shake a can of shaving cream and then spray enough shaving cream to cover the palm of the child’s hand. Pupils can use their hands to spread the shaving cream around a pizza tray. Have the children use their fingers to practise writing letters and words.

Toothpick letters: Provide a box of flat, rounded-end toothpicks for pupils to use to create the shapes of letters and words.

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Dot letters: Provide unsharpened pencils with erasers on the end, paper and an ink pad at the centre. Pupils dip the eraser end of the pencil into the ink pad and use the eraser as a circle stamp in order to create the shape of letters and words.

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Pipe-cleaner letters: Have pupils practise forming letters with pipe-cleaners. Provide a variety of colours and lengths of pipecleaners at the centre. Pupils can bend the pipe-cleaners and, if needed, twist them together to form letters. Have them combine the letters to make words.

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Phonics

Alphabet cards –1 Photocopy letter patterns for pupils to practise identifying and writing letters. Patterns are provided on pages 47–53. Enlarge the patterns if desired. Choose one of the following activities for pupils to complete using the letter pattern.

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Outline trace: Have each pupil trace the outline of the letter with one or more of the following: finger paint, pencil, marker, coloured pencil, glue, coloured glue, glitter glue or crayon. For additional practice, have him/her trace the letter more than once with a different medium. For example, the first time the pupil traces the letter using a pencil. The second time, have him/her use a crayon. Finally, the pupil traces the letter with paint and a paintbrush.

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Raised letters: Have each pupil squeeze glue on top of a letter, following the line. When the glue dries, it will be a raised surface for the pupil to run his/her fingers on. Add a few drops of food colouring or glitter to the glue for a special treat. Glitter glue is an excellent resource for this activity. Rainbow outline: Have each pupil trace around the shape of the letter. The pupil chooses one colour of crayon and traces around the letter or number. Then he/she chooses another colour and traces around the crayon line that was previously drawn. The child continues to select colours, tracing around the crayon line that was previously drawn. Continue this outlining pattern until reaching the edge of the paper.

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Phonics

Alphabet cards – 2

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Phonics

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Alphabet cards – 3

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Phonics

Alphabet cards – 4

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Phonics

Alphabet cards – 5

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o O p P q Q R r

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Phonics

Alphabet cards – 6

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Phonics

Alphabet cards – 7

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W X Y Z

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Phonics

Clothes peg games Beginning sounds

Medial and ending sounds

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Each pupil takes one card and the labelled clothes pegs that go with it. Have him/her look at each picture and say the word. The pupil must then clip the clothes peg with the corresponding letter on the card near the picture. The pupil self-checks his/her answers by flipping the card over. You may wish to store the game card and the clothes pegs together in a large, resealable plastic bag.

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Reproduce the Clothes peg games onto card (pages 55 and 56). Colour the cards and write the answers on the back for self-checking. Laminate the cards for durability. Referring to the directions at the bottom of each game, write the letter that corresponds to the beginning sound of each picture on the clothes pegs. You will want to write the corresponding letter on both sides of each clothes peg.

Complete the word

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Once pupils have mastered matching initial sounds and letters, create new clothes pegs with the ending or medial sounds of the words. Use the same cards; however, be sure to mark the back of each card with the correct answer for the new directions. This way pupils can still self-check.

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Extend pupils’ understanding of how letters work together to form words. Reproduce pages 57–59 on card, cut out and colour the cards. Write the answers on the back for self-checking and laminate the cards for durability. Label clothes pegs with the vowel and consonant letters, one letter per clothes peg. Pupils must look at the picture on the card and identify the beginning sound. They then clip the corresponding clothes peg onto the card to be the first letter in the word. Have pupils practise reading the word once all of the letters of the word are in place.

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Phonics

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Clothes peg game – 1

Teacher note: Label each clothes peg with the letter corresponding to the beginning sound of each picture.

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Reading for success


Phonics

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Clothes peg game – 2

Teacher note: Label each clothes peg with the letter corresponding to each picture. The clothes peg for the letter ‘q’ will need to state ‘qu’.

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Phonics

Clothes peg game – 3

__ey

__irl

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Word cards

Reading for success


Phonics

Clothes peg game – 4

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s __un __ub am pl e __est __eb __ueen

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Word cards

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Phonics

Clothes peg game – 5

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s am__p __gg pl e

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Word cards

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Phonics

Egg carton games – 1

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Create egg carton games that can be used as whole class, small group or partner phonics activities. Use the letter and picture circles on pages 61 and 62 to design a game using the letters and sounds on which you are currently working, or use a variety of letters and sounds for a review. Use the directions below or alter them in order to best meet the needs of your pupils. Ways to extend each activity are provided, which can be used to challenge pupils who are ready. Consider placing the egg carton games in a learning centre once you have taught pupils how to play them.

Think of a word

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Cut out the letter circles on page 61. Determine which twelve letters you want pupils to practise. Glue those letters to the inside bottom of an egg carton, one letter per compartment. Provide a button to go with the game. Pupils are to place the button inside the egg carton, close the lid and shake the carton. Then they open the lid and look in which compartment the button landed. Pupils must think of a word that begins with the letter that is in the same compartment as the button. Close the lid and repeat. One to three pupils may play this game at a time. The children who are waiting their turn must act as checkers for the pupil currently playing. This game may be extended by having pupils think of words that end with the letter.

Match the letter

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Cut out the picture circles on page 62. Determine the twelve pictures you want to use. Glue those twelve pictures to the inside bottom of an egg carton, one picture per compartment. Provide a button to go with the game. Pupils are to place the button inside the egg carton, close the lid and shake the carton. Then they open the lid and look in which compartment the button landed. Pupils must look at the picture and say the word. They must then identify the letter that begins the word. Close the lid and repeat. One to three pupils may play this game at a time. The children who are waiting their turn must act as checkers for the pupil currently playing. This game may be extended by having pupils identify the ending or medial letter as well. Another extension is to have pupils match letter circles to each picture compartment. Cut out and laminate the letter circles (page 61) that correspond to each picture. Pupils must place the correct letter circle in each compartment to match the initial sound of the picture.

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Phonics

Egg carton games – 2

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ii

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Ss

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Uu Vv Ww Xx

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Phonics

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Egg carton games – 3

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Phonics

Activity sheets Make a word

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Photocopy page 64. Have pupils cut out the letters at the bottom of the page. Practise identifying the letters and the corresponding sounds. Then follow the directions below to have pupils make words with the letters. You may want to practise making the words with the letter cutouts the first time. Then repeat the directions again while pupils both make the words with the letters and write the words on the worksheet.

Change the word at to an. Now, add a letter to change an to ant.

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Directions: Use the letters to make the word at. (If pupils have difficulty making the words, segment the sounds of the words; for example, /a/ ‌ /t/.)

Change one letter to change ant to and.

Change and switch the letters around to change and to Dad. Change one letter to change Dad to pad. Change one letter to change pad to pat.

Change one letter to change pat to pan.

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Switch the letters around to change pan to tan. Change one letter to change tan to tap.

See if you can use the letters to make your own word. (Possible words include: tad and nap.)

Draw a letter

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Write each letter of the alphabet on the tip of a craft stick, one letter per stick. On the letters that are vowels, colour the tip of the craft stick red. You may want to colour on the opposite side of the craft stick from where you wrote the letter. Place the craft stick with the writing side down in a cup. This game can be played with any number of players; however, fewer than four works best. The first pupil reaches into the cup and draws one red-tipped craft stick (vowel) and two non-coloured craft stick (consonants) from the cup. He/she uses the three craft sticks to try to make a word. For example, if the pupil draws the letters a, h and t the pupil could make the words at and hat. One point is awarded for each word the pupil is able to make. The next pupil then takes a turn. Continue until a pupil reaches a predetermined number of points.

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Phonics

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Make a word

Bonus word

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Phonics

Missing letters Directions: Look at the pictures. Say the words. Write the missing letters in order to spell the words. 1. 6.

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Phonics

Short Aa

sack

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van

rat

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Directions: Read each word. Draw a picture to go with the word. Write each word on the line.

hand

crab

mad

jam

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cap

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Phonics

Short Ee Directions: Cut out the picture cards at the bottom of the page. Say each word. Glue the picture cards in the correct column. Write the short Ee words on the lines. Does not have short Ee

Has short Ee

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bed

pig

bun

bell

cap

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dog

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Phonics

Short Ii

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Directions: Help the pig find his way home. Look at the pictures. Say each word. If the word has short Ii, like in pig, colour the box orange. Follow the path by saying each word.

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Phonics

Short Uu Directions: Look at the pictures below. Complete each word by writing u as the middle letter. Read the word.

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Phonics

Vowel sort Directions: Cut out the pictures below. Place each picture in the column with the same vowel sound.

Short Ii

Short Oo

sad

log

rip

sit

jam

man

hop

box

pig

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Short Aa

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Phonics

Short vowel match

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Directions: Cut out the picture cards at the bottom of the page. Glue each card under the picture with the same vowel sound.

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Phonics

Missing vowel Directions: Look at each picture. Say each word. Write the missing vowel on the line.

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6. 12.

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c t c t h g p g t p t p

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Phonics

Same vowel sound Directions: Cut out the picture cards at the bottom of the page. Say each word. Match the picture cards to the words with the same vowel sound. Write the new word.

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pen hen

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hat cat

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sun run

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bug rug

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Reading for success


Fluency

Fluency

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Pupils who are fluent are able to recognise and read words quickly and accurately. Additionally, fluent readers have the ability to group the words of a text into meaningful sections. Fluent reading sounds much like natural speech. However, it is important to note that fluency is not merely the speed and accuracy with which a passage is read. Fluent readers read with expression and place pauses in the appropriate places in the text.

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Fluency instruction cannot be understated. Fluency plays an important role in pupils’ abilities to decode the words of a text and their ability to understand the text. If pupils can read fluently, they can focus on comprehension rather than simply reading (decoding) the words. Even in the early years when many pupils are not yet reading, there are many ways to promote fluency.

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Modelling fluent reading serves as an important component in early reading instruction. When pupils observe the teacher or a parent reading to them, they are observing many aspects of a good reader. As a teacher or a parent reads with expression, groups words into appropriate phrases and reads naturally rather than in choppy bits and pieces, pupils are immersed in what good reading sounds like. Additionally, pupils tend to emulate what is modelled for them. It is not unusual to see a young child holding a book as if she or he was the teacher, reading a patterned or predictable book in a natural manner.

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Another way to develop fluency with young pupils is to have them learn and memorise poetry and nursery rhymes. By reciting poetry, pupils begin to develop an understanding of the natural rhythm and flow of language. By using other fluency instruction techniques such as choral reading, echo reading, audio-assisted reading and partner reading at a level appropriate for younger pupils, they begin making connections to concepts of print, as well as developing fluency for predictable and patterned text they are able to read. Fluency instruction in the early years sets the stage for reading instruction that will come later in their schooling.

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Fluency

Reading aloud – 1

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Most teachers are already familiar with the benefits of reading to their classes; however, the benefits are so far reaching that they bear repeating. When teachers read aloud, they are exposing their pupils to reading materials usually not yet available to the child, since the texts are too difficult for a pupil to read independently. A more difficult text also introduces pupils to vocabulary to which they might otherwise not be exposed. The teacher also models what an effective reader does and sounds like when reading. Reading aloud models fluent reading with appropriate phrasing, intonation, accuracy and speed. Reading aloud also models a variety of important reading concepts. While reading, the teacher is modelling the natural flow and sound of written language. By reading with expression, emphasising certain words and pausing in the correct places, pupils are shown that reading is more that just reading the words. Understanding of the text is built around how the words are read as well. Additionally, children gain an understanding of how a book is held, the directionality of print, the location and function of the title, author and illustrator, and even the purpose of the print itself. Because we encounter such a wide variety of texts in our daily lives, it is important to model a variety of texts to our pupils as well. Consider some of the types of text below and how you can incorporate them into your classroom routine. • Cartoon strips • Letters

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• Fiction books • Lyrics to songs

• Magazine articles

• Newspaper articles

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• Nonfiction books

• Notices and notes • Poetry

• School bulletins

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Although modelling reading a variety of texts is important, the reality is that books and poetry will provide the bulk of what we read to our pupils. Teachers can engage pupils by selecting quality books. See page 79 for a list of classroom favourites for young pupils.

The rule of five

Some teachers use the rule of five when doing read-alouds in their classroom. The rule of five reminds teachers that they should read aloud to pupils five times each day. Although this may sound like a lot of time spent reading, especially if your school is on a half-day schedule, remember the benefits of reading aloud to young children. The five read-alouds do not have to be all books. Incorporating poetry or other types of text into your day can reinforce topics on which your class is working, as well as provide a different genre with which pupils may not be familiar. In addition, they take little time to incorporate.

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Reading aloud – 2 Guest reader

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Having a guest reader is an excellent way to involve the school community or local community in classroom events. Some schools have a special day set aside in which they invite local community members to come into the classroom to read. You may want to organise this for your school, or simply invite a community member to your room on a particular day. Authors’ birthdays are excellent occasions to host a guest reader. Consider having your guest reader come to school on an author’s birthday and read a book written by that author.

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Another idea for guest readers is to invite various staff members to be special guest readers. On a regular basis, invite the principal, secretary, lunch supervisors etc. into the classroom to read. Staff members who do not spend much time in the classroom love to come and be the guest readers, and pupils love to see the staff members in the classroom as well. See page 77 for a sample of a letter that can be sent out as an invitation.

Parent guest readers

Child guest reader

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Recruit parents to be guest readers as well. Many parents long to know what they can do to help at school. Recruit volunteers to come in to read to the class. The volunteers can come in on a regular basis—for example, monthly—or they can sign up to come in as a one-off. This is an excellent way to get male family members involved in volunteering in the classroom. The time they need to take off work is limited and it is important to have male role models reading to children, especially if you are a female teacher. The letter on page 78 can be used to recruit parent readers.

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You have probably had pupils or children of your own who request the same book over and over again. Subsequently, the child knows the book so well that he or she eventually memorises the book. Often these same children can repeat the book from their memories with excellent expression. Invite pupils from your classroom to be guest readers. Of course, you will want pupils to volunteer rather than being assigned this activity. See page 77 for a sample of a letter that can be sent out to encourage parent support in helping his or her child get ready for his or her day as the guest reader. Then, on the big day, allow the child to ‘read’ the book to the class.

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Sample: guest reader letter Dear

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Reading plays an important role in our classroom. We read on a daily basis; however, we do like to have special guests come into our classroom to read. You are invited to be our special guest reader on at . As the guest reader, you will share a book with the children. Prior to reading the book, please be prepared to share with the children how you use reading in your professional or daily life.

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If you have a favourite book that is appropriate for young pupils that you would like to read, please feel free to bring it; otherwise, I will provide a book for you. If you would like the book in advance in order to read through it ahead of time, please let me know and I will get it to you. Thank you in advance for taking the time to be a special guest reader in our classroom. Sincerely

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Teacher and pupils of

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Sample: child guest reader letter Date:

Dear Parents

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As you know, hearing stories plays a critical part in the lives of developing readers. Your child has indicated that he has a story which he/she can read to the class. It is alright if the story has been memorised. Your child has volunteered to read to the class on . Please help your child prepare for this event by practising with him/her and making sure that he/she brings the book to school that day. Thank you in advance for your support of our reading programme.

Sincerely Teacher

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Parent readers volunteer letter Date:

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Dear Parents

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Hearing stories read aloud plays a crucial part in the lives of developing readers. Reading plays a large part in our classroom routine as well. As a class, we read on a daily basis. We do, however, like to invite special guests into our classroom to read to or with us. We are cordially inviting you to participate in our reading routine. Please review the options below and let me know if you can participate as a guest reader. I will provide a book for you to read and, if you desire, will get it to you in advance so you can look through it prior to coming to our classroom.

Sincerely

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Teacher

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Thank you in advance for supporting reading in our classroom.

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Please cut off and return this bottom portion to school. I can come read to the class on a regular basis (once a month).

I can come one time to read to the class. Please contact me to schedule a date and time.

Name

Child’s name

Phone number

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Reading aloud – 3

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There are many books that encourage pupils to participate in the reading of the text because of the predictability, repeated patterns or the rhythmic nature of the text. Provided below is a list of some classroom favourites. Pupils will often pick up on the patterned text and begin chiming in to help read the repeating portions of the book on the first reading. Subsequent rereadings encourage pupils to participate. Even though pupils will have memorised the patterned portion of the text, pupils continue to hear the teacher modelling what a good reader sounds like. In addition, by participating in the rereadings, pupils are practising good phrasing and expression. Many of these books are available in a big book format. Adams, Pam. (Illustrator). There was an old lady who swallowed a fly. Child's play International, 2007. Adams, Pam. This is the house that Jack built. Child's play International, 2000.

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Ahlberg, Allan & Janet Ahlberg. Each peach pear plum. Penguin, 1999.

Berkes, Marianne. Over in Australia: Amazing animals Down Under. Dawn Publications, 2011. Brown, Margaret Wise. Good night moon. HarperFestival, 1991. Campbell, Rod. Dear zoo. Little Simon, 2007.

Carle, Eric. The very busy spider. Philomel Books, 1995.

Carle, Eric. The very hungry caterpillar. Putnam Publishing Group, 1983.

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Fox, Mem. Where is the green sheep? Viking Children's books, 2004. Fox, Mem. Hattie and the fox. Simon Schuster Children’s Books, 1998. Gelman, Rita Goldman. More spaghetti, I say! Cartwheel Books, 1993. Hoberman, Mary Ann. A house is a house for me. Puffin, 1982.

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Kubler, Annie. Ten little monkeys jumping on the bed. Child's play, 2001. Martin, Bill. Brown bear, brown bear, what do you see? Holt, Henry & Co., 1996. Martin, Bill. Kitty cat, Kitty cat, are you waking up? Two lions, 2011. Raffi. Five little ducks. Crown Books for Young Readers, 1999.

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Raffi. The wheels on the bus. Crown Books for Young Readers, 1998. Rosen, Michael. We’re going on a bear hunt. Aladdin, 2003. Sendak, Maurice. Alligators all around. HarperTrophy, 1991. Shaw, Charles. It looked like spilt milk. HarperCollins, 1993. Ward, Cindy and Tomie dePaola. Cookie’s week. Puffin, 1997. Westcott, Nadine Bernard. The lady with the alligator purse. Little Brown & Company, 1998. Williams, Sue. I went walking. Red Wagon Books, 1996. Wood, Audrey and Don Wood. Napping house. Red Wagon Books, 2000. Wood, Audrey. Silly Sally. Red Wagon Books, 1999.­

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Reading at home

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Demonstrate to parents and pupils the importance of reading by including it as part of their homework. At this age, the homework is more for parents; however, the benefits to pupils are critical for developing readers. The benefits of having parents read to their children are similar to those of a classroom readaloud. Children need books read aloud to them in order to develop concepts of print, a sense of story and the rhythm and flow of written language. Samantha

1/3 1/2 1/1

Title of book

I Went Walking

Time spent Comment

‘s reading log

Parent signature

20 min

Hattie and the Fox

1/

Good Night Moon

15 min

2 hour

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You may wish to assign nightly reading and trust that parents will participate; however, many parents have commented that by having to fill out a reading diary, they end up reading to their child more consistently. By providing a reading diary, parents and pupils are held accountable for the daily reading they do. Encourage parents to fill out the reading diary with their child. Most classes have some sort of reading diary pupils must complete. Having parents and children fill out the reading diary together encourages pupil participation and demonstrates the purpose and how-to of a reading diary. A sample of a reading diary is provided on page 81.

Date

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You may want to determine a monthly reading goal for pupils. See pages 82–87 for samples. Reading goals can be set by the number of books read, the number of minutes the pupil reads for or the number of days the pupil reads. You may want to consider a goal option which will encourage reading regularly. For example, you may set the goal for reading at least one book each night.

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Provide a monthly award for pupils who have met their reading goal. If you have a guest reader come to your classroom on a monthly basis, schedule him or her just after pupils have turned in their reading diary. Have the guest reader distribute reading awards to the pupils who have met their reading goals. This touch makes having the guest reader even more special to both the reader and the children.

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Monthly reading diary Research has proven the importance of reading to children. Read with your child. Record the time spent reading on the chart below and a comment about the book. The goal for each child is to read at least one book each night.

Title of book

Time spent Comment

Parent signature

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Date

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‘s reading log

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Monthly reading awards – 5

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Monthly reading awards – 6

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Monthly reading awards – 1

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Monthly reading awards – 2

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Monthly reading awards – 3

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Monthly reading awards – 4

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Reciting nursery rhymes – 1 Although most children beginning school are not yet reading, children this age have extraordinary memories. Make use of their interest and ability to memorise by using nursery rhymes to model language and fluency.

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By teaching pupils nursery rhymes or other simple poems, children are exposed to the rhythms and patterns of language. Nursery rhymes and poems also encourage correct phrasing and timing when recited. Initially, adults can model the nursery rhymes and poems for pupils. Most pupils easily pick up nursery rhymes. An additional benefit of using nursery rhymes and poetry is the ability to locate materials and books easily.

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Nursery rhymes are especially important for young children to learn. First, many children growing up today are not familiar with traditional nursery rhymes. These rhymes are often referred to in other types of literature. Familiarity with the traditional rhymes will encourage comprehension when the rhymes or reference to rhymes are encountered in other contexts. Second, most nursery rhymes are short and easy to remember, even if they are new to pupils. It does not take very many repetitions before pupils begin chiming in to recite the rhymes as well. Third, nursery rhymes rhyme. This sounds obvious; however, the rhymes assist with memorisation, as well as provide additional reinforcement to concepts such as rhyming words and other concepts of print. Finally, due to the sing-song nature of nursery rhymes, pupils are taught phrasing skills. To prove this point, take a nursery rhyme with which the pupils are familiar and try to recite it with inappropriate phrasing. For example:

Little Miss Muffet

Little Miss Muffet sat/

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On a tuffet, eating her/

Curds and whey along/

Came a spider who sat down beside/ Her and frightened Miss Muffet away.

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Pupils who are familiar with the nursery rhyme will instantly know that the poem has not been recited with the proper phrasing. Use this to teach pupils about proper phrasing when reading or reciting text. Other simple poems that pupils can learn easily can be used for the same purpose of fluency instruction. There are a wide variety of poetry books available with some excellent poems. Traditional nursery rhymes can be used for fluency instruction. Some are provided on pages 91–102. Make copies of a poem for each member of your class. See page 90 for additional ideas on how to use these nursery rhymes for literacy and fluency instruction.

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Reciting nursery rhymes – 2 Although pupils may have already memorised the nursery rhymes, use these pages for both literacy and fluency instruction. Some of the activities listed below can be completed by the pupils. Other activities require the assistance of a parent, teacher or tutor in order to complete. Consider sending home the nursery rhymes as homework and assigning one of the activities below to be completed with a parent.

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Encourage one-to-one correspondence by having pupils follow along with each word as they recite the nursery rhyme.

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Have pupils use a crayon or pencil to demonstrate understanding of an area that you are emphasising in your instruction. Pupils can demonstrate understanding by circling, underlining, illustrating or highlighting (use a yellow or orange crayon for highlighting). For example, pupils can circle all the capital letters in the nursery rhyme. A filled-in sample worksheet can be found on page 90. See below for a list of concepts pupils can address. Use the appropriate concepts for the pupils you are teaching. Capital letters – Circle all the capital letters.

Lower-case letters – Circle particular letters (for example, circle all of the ‘k’s). Spaces – Colour the spaces between the words.

Vowels – Locate and circle the vowel(s) in each word. Punctuation – Circle full stops and commas.

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Rhyming words – Circle pairs of rhyming words in similar colours. Substitution – Circle the rhyming words in the poem. Think of new words that rhyme with those found in the poem and write them at the bottom of the page. Additional activities to demonstrate understanding might include the following:

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Number of words – Count the number of words in a line. Write the number of words at the end of each line. Total up the number of words in the whole nursery rhyme. Find the letter – Indicate a letter on which your class is currently working. Locate words beginning with that letter in the nursery rhyme. At the bottom of the page, think of other words that also begin with the same letter.

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Illustrate the poem – Another option is to have pupils draw a picture to correspond with the nursery rhyme on the bottom half of the page. Pupils can demonstrate their understanding of the nursery rhyme using their picture.

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Example use of pages 91–102.

Humpty Dumpty Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,

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Humpty Dumpty had a great fall. All the king’s horses and all the king’s men, Couldn’t put Humpty together again.

hat

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Circle all of the ‘h’ words. Think of two more ‘h’ words and write them on the lines.

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Draw a picture of an ‘h’ word.

house

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Humpty Dumpty Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall.

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Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.

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All the king’s horses and all the king’s men,

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Couldn’t put Humpty together again.

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Little Miss Muffet Sat on a tuffet,

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Little Miss Muffet

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Eating her curds and whey. Along came a spider

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Who sat down beside her

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And frightened Miss Muffet away.

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Mary, Mary, quite contrary

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Mary, Mary, quite contrary, How does your garden grow?

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With silver bells and cockle shells

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And pretty maids all in a row.

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Little Bo Peep

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Little Bo Peep has lost her sheep And doesn’t know where to find them.

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Leave them alone and they’ll come home,

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Wagging their tails behind them.

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Jack and Jill

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Jack and Jill went up a hill To fetch a pail of water.

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Jack fell down and broke his crown

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And Jill came tumbling after.

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Peter, Peter, pumpkin eater

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Peter, Peter, pumpkin eater Had a wife and couldn’t keep her.

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He put her in a pumpkin shell

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And there he kept her very well.

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Little Jack Horner

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Little Jack Horner sat in the corner Eating a Christmas pie.

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He put in his thumb, and pulled out a plum

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And said, ‘What a good boy am I!’

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Little boy blue

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Little boy blue, come blow your horn,

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The sheep’s in the meadow, the cow’s in the corn. But where is the boy who looks after the sheep?

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He’s under the haystack fast asleep!

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Hey diddle, diddle

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Hey diddle, diddle The cat and the fiddle,

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The cow jumped over the moon.

The little dog laughed to see such fun

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And the dish ran away with the spoon.

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Baa, baa, black sheep

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Baa, baa, black sheep, Have you any wool?

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Yes, sir, yes, sir, three bags full.

One for my master, one for my dame

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And one for the little boy

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Who lives down the lane.

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Hickory, dickory, dock

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Hickory, dickory, dock! The mouse ran up the clock.

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The clock struck one.

The mouse ran down.

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Hickory, dickory dock!

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Twinkle, twinkle, little star

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Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are.

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Up above the world so high, Like a diamond in the sky.

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Twinkle, twinkle, little star,

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How I wonder what you are.

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Pupil-adult reading

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Utilise the benefits of an adult modelling what a fluent reader sounds like by doing pupil-adult reading with children. Select a reading passage with which you would like a child to practise fluency. The adult (a teacher, parent, tutor or even a more fluent peer) reads the passage and a child rereads the passage. The adult has modelled both how to fluently read the passage, as well as any words that may have otherwise been difficult for the pupil. Repeated rereadings may be necessary for pupils to fluently read the passage.

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This technique is especially useful for modelling how a reader would read a sentence with punctuation including commas, and ending punctuation such as exclamation points or question marks. The adult first models the intonation of the passage and pupils reread the passage, trying to emulate the same intonation. By hearing how a fluent reader raises and lowers his or her voice or speeds up or slows down when reading, pupils begin to understand the effect punctuation has on reading a text.

Echo reading

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For young pupils who are not yet reading, you may wish to do echo reading. Echo reading is when a teacher (or other adult) reads a line of text and then has pupils repeat or echo the same line. Usually in echo reading, the amount of text the pupils repeat is limited to a sentence or two. Also, because pupils are not yet reading but repeating the text, this opportunity can be used to draw pupils’ attention to the text. If using a big book, teachers can point to the words. Have pupils reading individual copies of the book point to the words themselves.

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As you are reading, you are modelling one-to-one correspondence with the words, as well as the left to right and return-sweep. By having pupils point to the words too, they are practising these important concepts of print, as well as attending to the words on the page. Draw pupils’ attention to punctuation, emphasised words (bolded words or words in different fonts) and how those elements in the text affect your reading of it.

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Choral reading

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Choral reading refers to a whole class or a group of pupils reading together. Choral readings begin with a fluent reader reading the book or passage of text in order to model a fluent reading. Then encourage pupils to participate in subsequent rereadings of the text. Depending on the text, some pupils may chime in on the second reading. Others may still need time to absorb the story line or patterning in the text before they feel comfortable joining in. For this reason, and to encourage fluent readings of the text, reread the text on several occasions, perhaps over several days. Patterned and predictable books are excellent for choral readings. See page 79 for a list of well-known patterned and predictable books. Poetry also works well for choral readings due to the rhythmic nature of poetry, as well as the short length of text. Due to the nature of short poems and patterned and predictable books, pupils will probably memorise the text. Be sure to continue to display the text and continue to draw attention to it during readings. This emphasises that the meaning of what is being ‘read’ is coming from the print in the book.

Songs

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Build on children’s love for singing in order to build fluency. Use songs for choral readings. Piggyback songs (a new song written to a familiar tune), in particular, are excellent practice for choral reading because the words are new to the children while the tune of the song is familiar. Remember, the children need access to the print. Consider photocopying and distributing the words to each child, writing the words on a piece of chart paper or displaying the words on the interactive whiteboard.

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Group divisions

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Once pupils are familiar with the text, divide them into groups to reread a text. This technique works especially well when there is a repeating line or if one group can echo another group. For example, in the song ‘Down by the bay’, one group can sing the words, ‘Down by the bay’, while the other group can repeat, ‘Down by the bay’. Continue this echoing for the remainder of the song and then switch which group sings first. Groups can be made using a variety of divisions, such as boys and girls, children with blue/brown eyes and children with brown/blonde hair.

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Audio-assisted reading

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Pupils can practise fluency by participating in audio-assisted reading. Provide the pupil with a CD and the book that is at the appropriate independent reading level. Have the pupil listen to the CD while following along in the book. The pupil should playback their recording, this time while reading out loud along with the story. It is important to note that audio-assisted reading is not simply listening to an audio story. The purpose of audio-assisted reading is as another means of modelling fluent reading to children, and then allowing them to practise reading fluently while rereading the same material. The book being read should be at the pupil’s independent reading level. The ultimate goal is for each pupil to be able to read his or her book independently, with good fluency.

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CD and book sets are commercially available; however, consider making your own. The benefits of making your own audio CDs include the ability to use books you already own, using a slower than normal reading rate which pupils can follow easily and, of course, saving money, too. Use books from your classroom, especially patterned or predictable books for young children.

Partner reading

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Pair pupils to read to each other. The purpose again is for fluent reading to be modelled prior to a less fluent reader attempting to read the same passage. There are two ways in which this can be done. First, pair a more fluent reader with a less fluent reader. The fluent reader can model fluently reading a passage and then the less fluent reader can reread the same passage. Some schools have implemented a senior class buddy system in which a whole senior class comes to read with a younger class. This type of situation is ideal for having the senior pupils model fluent reading and then having the younger pupils practise. Be sure the books selected for partner reading are appropriate for younger pupils to practise reading independently. Again, patterned and predictable books are ideal for this situation.

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A second way to do partner reading is to pair pupils with similar reading abilities after receiving the same instruction, during a guided or shared reading of a passage. The idea here is that the passage is not new, it has been modelled by a fluent reader, like a teacher or another adult. Pupils then have the opportunity to practise reading the passage fluently.

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Readers theatre – 1

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Readers theatre is the reading of a text in a play-like fashion. Although props and costumes can be involved in an elaborate readers theatre, most involve the children simply reading the text with good fluency. By performing a readers theatre, pupils are given an excellent reason to read and reread a text; they are practising for a performance. Encourage pupil participation while practising a readers theatre script by motivating pupils with the promise of a performance. Invite another class, older book buddies or even parents for the performance.

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The readers theatre scripts provided on pages 107–115 are geared toward pre-readers. The teacher or other adult reads the portion of the script that moves the story and pupils respond with a refrain or simple lines that are repetitive and easy to learn. As pupils become more skilled at reading, there are readers theatre scripts commercially available. Create a readers theatre

It is fun and easy to create your own readers theatre. Readers theatre scripts are easy to write, especially with repetitive and patterned books. See page 79 for a list of repetitive and patterned books that can easily be adapted to a readers theatre format. For younger pupils who are not yet reading, the teacher or a capable reader should read the narrator parts which will carry the bulk of the plot. Pupils can be assigned repetitive or patterned lines. Follow the steps below to create your own readers theatre.

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1. Select a book that you want to adapt to a readers theatre format. 2. Some people find it easiest to type the entire text and then delete the portions of the text not needed. Other people edit as they type.

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3. Delete lines that repeat who said them. For example: ‘Run, run as fast as you can, you can’t catch me, I’m the Gingerbread Man,’ said the Gingerbread Man.’ Delete the part that says, ‘said the Gingerbread Man’. 4. Delete lines that are not necessary to the plot.

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5. Assign repetitive lines to pupils.

6. Assign lines to explain the plot or setting to the narrator. 7. Practise, practise, practise!

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Fables

Fairytales

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Readers theatre – 2 Readers: Teacher

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Pupils The three billy goats gruff

The three goats are hungry for something to eat.

Pupils:

Trip, trap, trip, trap.

Teacher:

But under the bridge, watch out for the troll!

Pupils:

Trip, trap, trip, trap.

Teacher:

Over the bridge, the little goat crosses.

Pupils:

Trip, trap, trip, trap.

Pupils:

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Teacher:

Teacher:

Over the bridge, the biggest goat crosses.

Pupils:

Trip, trap, trip, trap.

Over the bridge, the second goat crosses. Trip, trap, trip, trap.

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Teacher:

Teacher:

Off the bridge goes the troll, and the goats have their lunch.

Pupils:

Trip, trap, trip, trap.

Teacher:

The three goats’ story has come to an end.

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Snip, snap, snout. This tale’s told out.

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Readers theatre – 3 Readers: Teacher

The Gingerbread Man

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Pupils

Run, run, as fast as you can. You can’t catch me, I’m the Gingerbread Man!

Teacher:

Here come the old woman and the old man.

Pupils:

Run, run, as fast as you can.

Teacher:

Here comes a pig, Mr Gingerbread Man.

Pupils:

Run, run, as fast as you can.

Teacher:

Here comes a dog, Mr Gingerbread Man.

Pupils:

Run, run, as fast as you can.

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Pupils:

Here comes a horse, Mr Gingerbread Man.

Pupils:

Run, run, as fast as you can.

Teacher:

Here comes a cow, Mr Gingerbread Man.

Pupils:

Run, run, as fast as you can.

Teacher:

But the fox caught you, Mr Gingerbread Man!

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Teacher:

Reading for success 108

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Fluency

Readers theatre – 4 Readers: Teacher

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Pupils The hare and the tortoise Hare and tortoise had a race.

Pupils:

Go! Go! Slow and steady wins the race.

Teacher:

Hare was fast. Tortoise was slow.

Pupils:

Go! Go! Slow and steady wins the race.

Teacher:

Hare was running. Tortoise was walking.

Pupils:

Go! Go! Slow and steady wins the race.

Pupils:

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Teacher:

Teacher:

Hare was sleeping. Tortoise kept walking.

Pupils:

Go! Go! Slow and steady wins the race.

Hare was winning. Tortoise kept walking. Go! Go! Slow and steady wins the race.

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Teacher:

Teacher:

Hare woke up. Tortoise kept walking.

Pupils:

Go! Go! Slow and steady wins the race.

Teacher:

Tortoise kept walking and won the race.

Pupils:

Hooray! Hooray! Slow and steady won the race!

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Fluency

Readers theatre – 5 Readers: Teacher The three little pigs

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Pupils

One pig built his house of straw.

Pupils:

Oh, no! Oh, no!

Teacher:

One pig built his house of sticks.

Pupils:

Oh, no! Oh, no!

Teacher:

One pig built his house of bricks.

Pupils:

Smart pig! Smart pig!

Teacher:

Then the wolf came to blow them down.

Pupils:

Huff, puff! Huff, puff!

Teacher:

Down went the houses of straw and sticks.

Pupils:

Huff, puff! Huff, puff!

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Teacher:

Teacher:

But he couldn’t blow down that house of bricks.

Pupils:

Huff, puff! Huff, puff!

Teacher:

Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf?

Pupils:

Not us! Not us!

Reading for success 110

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Fluency

Readers theatre – 6 Readers: Teacher (The Hen)

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Pupils

Little Red Hen has found some wheat.

Teacher:

Who will help me plant the wheat, so we may have bread to eat?

Pupils:

‘Quack, not I’, said the duck. ‘Meow, not I’, said the cat. ‘Woof, not I’, said the dog.

Teacher:

Then I shall do it myself.

Pupils:

Teacher:

Then I shall do it myself.

Who will help me sow the wheat, so we may have bread to eat?

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All:

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The Little Red Hen

Who will help me water the wheat, so we may have bread to eat?

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‘Quack, not I’, said the duck. ‘Meow, not I’, said the cat. ‘Woof, not I’, said the dog.

Pupils:

‘Quack, not I’, said the duck. ‘Meow, not I’, said the cat. ‘Woof, not I’, said the dog. continued …

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Fluency

The Little Red Hen (continued) Then I shall do it myself.

Who will help me cut the wheat, so we may have bread to eat?

Pupils:

‘Quack, not I’, said the duck. ‘Meow, not I’, said the cat. ‘Woof, not I’, said the dog.

Teacher:

Then I shall do it myself.

Who will help me grind the wheat, so we may have bread to eat?

Pupils:

‘Quack, not I’, said the duck. ‘Meow, not I’, said the cat. ‘Woof, not I’, said the dog.

Teacher:

Then I shall do it myself.

Who will help me make the bread?

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Teacher:

‘Quack, not I’, said the duck. ‘Meow, not I’, said the cat. ‘Woof, not I’, said the dog.

Teacher:

Then I shall do it myself.

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Pupils:

* When the bread was done, all her friends wanted to eat. But the Little Red Hen ate the whole treat.

Reading for success 112

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Fluency

Readers theatre – 7 Readers: Teacher

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Pupils Goldilocks and the three bears

The three little bears went for a walk, and in came Goldilocks.

Teacher:

Goldilocks tasted Papa Bear’s porridge.

Pupils:

This porridge is too hot.

Teacher:

Goldilocks tasted Mama Bear’s porridge.

Pupils:

This porridge is too cold.

Goldilocks tasted Baby Bear’s porridge. This porridge is just right!

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Pupils:

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Teacher:

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And she ate it all up. Then, Goldilocks sat in Papa Bear’s chair.

Pupils:

This chair is too hard.

Teacher:

Goldilocks sat in Mama Bear’s chair.

Pupils:

This chair is too soft.

Teacher:

Goldilocks sat in Baby Bear’s chair.

Pupils:

This chair is just right.

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Teacher:

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Fluency

Goldilocks and the three bears (continued) But she broke the chair, so she went upstairs to the bedroom. Goldilocks laid in Papa Bear’s bed.

Pupils:

This bed is too hard.

Teacher:

Goldilocks laid in Mama Bear’s bed.

Pupils:

This bed is too soft.

Teacher:

Goldilocks laid in Baby Bear’s bed.

Pupils:

This bed is just right.

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Teacher:

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Teachers: Goldilocks fell asleep in the bed. The Bears came home from their walk. Papa Bear said, ‘Somebody has been eating my porridge’.

Pupils:

Who could it be?

Teacher:

Mama Bear said, ‘Somebody has been eating my porridge'.

Pupils:

Who could it be?

Teacher:

Baby Bear said, ‘Somebody has been eating my porridge and it is all gone’.

Pupils:

Oh, no! Oh, no!

Teacher:

The Bears went into the living room. Papa Bear said, ‘Somebody has been sitting in my chair’.

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Teacher:

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Fluency

Goldilocks and the three bears (continued) Who could it be?

Teacher:

Mama Bear said, ‘Somebody has been sitting in my chair’.

Pupils:

Who could it be?

Teacher:

Baby Bear said, ‘Somebody has been sitting in my chair and it is broken’.

Pupils:

Oh, no! Oh, no!

Teacher:

The Bears went upstairs to the bedroom. Papa Bear said, ‘Somebody has been sleeping in my bed’.

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Who could it be?

Mama Bear said, ‘Somebody has been sleeping in my bed’.

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Teacher:

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Pupils:

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Pupils:

Who could it be?

Teacher:

Baby Bear said, ‘Somebody has been sleeping in my bed and there she is’.

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Pupils:

Pupils:

Oh, no! Oh, no!

Teacher:

Goldilocks heard all the noise and jumped out of bed. She saw the bears and ran away.

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Vocabulary

Vocabulary

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We use words in order to communicate, both in writing and orally. The words we know and use are our vocabulary. A rich vocabulary allows pupils to be effective communicators and readers. Our goal as teachers is to increase pupils’ vocabularies in order to help them communicate more effectively, as well as for them to more fully understand others. Pupils can display their rich vocabularies in both speaking and writing. Pupils also apply their vocabulary when reading. A rich vocabulary background leads to better reading comprehension.

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Children learn new vocabulary words in two ways, directly and indirectly. Most of the vocabulary pupils acquire is learned indirectly. Through a variety of literacy events, such as conversing with others and listening to stories, pupils learn new vocabulary words and how to use them. Direct vocabulary instruction includes explicitly teaching a specific word, defining the word, and showing how it is used. Through direct vocabulary instruction, pupils are able to hear the target word used in a variety of contexts and are provided with opportunities to practise using the word.

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Although pupils do not learn most of their new vocabulary words through direct instruction, direct vocabulary instruction is particularly important for several reasons. First, the teacher is able to introduce specialised vocabulary. If the class will be studying a unit on ‘matter,’ pupils need to know specialised science vocabulary words such as solid, liquid and gas that they may not have been exposed to previously. By providing direct instruction on the words solid, liquid and gas, pupils will have a better understanding of these terms, as well as the related science concepts as they are used throughout the science unit. Second, direct vocabulary instruction includes modelling and practice for how words are used in sentences. Pupils gradually incorporate vocabulary words into their speaking vocabulary, reading vocabulary and writing vocabularies. This happens as pupils’ understanding of the word is deepened. Finally, pupils gain a better understanding of the variety of contexts in which a particular word can be used. It is important to note that pupils are constantly learning the meanings (depth) of a word as it is used in a variety of contexts.

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The vocabulary portion of this book contains three sections—Developing vocabulary, Selecting vocabulary words, and Teaching vocabulary. The Developing vocabulary section provides ideas for creating a rich language environment, one in which vocabulary is developed indirectly. The Selecting vocabulary words and Teaching vocabulary sections provide ideas for ways to teach specific vocabulary words and concepts. The selecting vocabulary words section contains a variety of ideas for ways to select vocabulary words on which you wish to focus. The teaching vocabulary words section provides strategies for introducing, teaching, and reviewing both specific vocabulary words and vocabulary concepts.

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 1 Use a rich vocabulary

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This may be stating the obvious; however, teachers can do a lot to improve pupil vocabulary by being conscious of using a rich vocabulary throughout the day and throughout the year. At the beginning of each month, select several words you would like to incorporate into your everyday language. See Selecting vocabulary words on pages 133–135 for ideas for choosing vocabulary. For example, you may want pupils to be aware of the term print. Substitute the word print for words on every opportunity you have to do so.

Read-alouds

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Most teachers are already aware of the far-reaching benefits of read-alouds as an important way to develop vocabulary. By hearing books read aloud, pupils are provided with examples of rich vocabulary used in a variety of sentences and contexts. An especially useful strategy is to select books related to topics currently being studied or to select vocabulary from the books being read (see Selecting vocabulary words on pages 133–135). Pupils gain a better understanding of words as they hear them repeatedly and in a variety of contexts.

Objects

Bring objects from home into the classroom. By seeing and touching an object, pupils are more likely to remember the vocabulary word, as well as other information about the object.

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Literature-based – Bring an object related to a piece of literature that is being read in class. For example, bring a stone to school when reading the book Stone soup. Either prior to, or after reading the story, discuss the word stone. How is a stone different and the same as a rock? Relating objects to a story helps to develop vocabulary, as well as helping pupils remember the story better.

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Curriculum-based – Consider areas in the curriculum from which you can bring objects. For example, if you are studying plants, bring a variety of types of plants for pupils to observe. Many children have never seen a cactus or a Venus fly trap. Observing and learning about these plants helps pupils understand more about characteristics of plants and provides first-hand knowledge of these terms.

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Usual and unusual objects – There are many objects with which pupils may have had limited experiences. Many of the objects can be found right in your own home. Others are easily obtained from a supermarket. Page 118 provides a list of items for you to consider. Keep adding to the list.

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 2 List of objects. Foods

Nature

hole punch shelf files poster rubbish bin bag hook easel bulletin board drawing pin globe

coconut artichoke asparagus mango papaya kiwi spring onion lime pineapple pumpkin cherries

pine cone twig dandelion seeds (especially unusual) snake skin pussy willow clover weed shells

Clothes

Kitchen items

Toys

wellington boots raincoat cap gloves bathrobe shirt trousers sandals

sugar bowl kettle jug spatula whisk egg timer tongs rolling pin platter saucer

puppet marbles checkers jack-in-the-box top robot pogo stick dice

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School items

horseshoe dustpan binoculars magnifying glass calculator pliers drill

Other objects pin cushion bucket hammock mattress lantern screwdriver anchor

Reading for success 118

funnel spade fly swatter needle compass tape measure chest

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 3 Participation activities

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Early years classrooms have activities going on all the time. Use these activities to promote discussions and immediate and practical experiences with new vocabulary terms. Although some activities may take planning, the benefits far outweigh the time it takes to prepare such activities.

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Once you have determined an activity in which you want your pupils to participate, create a list of vocabulary words you want to introduce and use throughout the activity. Participating in such activities provides excellent context for pupils to practise using the new vocabulary words. Encourage pupils to use the correct vocabulary during the activity. Ideas for activities are listed below. Add to the list with ideas of your own. Cooking activities – Select cooking activities related to an area of study. For example, if you are reading ‘The Gingerbread Man’, consider baking gingerbread. Pupils will benefit from the literary connection, as well as be provided with a context for cooking-related vocabulary. Science experiments – Your science curriculum probably already has a number of science experiments in which your pupils can participate. Prior to participating in the science experiment, select vocabulary words to emphasise.

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Special days – Set aside a day on which pupils can bring an item to school. It is good to relate the item to a topic being studied. For example, if your class is studying animals and it is appropriate, have pupils bring their pets to school. Be sure to talk to pupils about safety considerations. Plan activities related to the pets to encourage pupil understanding of body covering words such as feathers, fur, scales and skin and body part words such as claw, fin and paw etc. Pupils can observe the animals, draw pictures, write about their favourite animal, sort the animals by body coverings etc.

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Other suggested participation activities Invite parents to join in and help with some of the suggested activities listed below. • create a time capsule

• learn a dance

• dye eggs

• make and fly paper aeroplanes

• experiment with items (such as magnets)

• plant seeds

• excursions

• play instruments

• leaf rubbings

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 4

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Enlisting the help of parents in developing their child’s vocabulary is an excellent way to broaden children’s vocabularies. There are some vocabulary words that are best learned through experiences and interactions. Send home the letters below and on pages 120–124. Include all of the letters in your back-to-school pack or send one home periodically throughout the school year. Date: Dear Parents

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One of the best ways to develop your child’s vocabulary is to provide him/her with first-hand experiences. Through these experiences, children learn words, contexts for the words and appropriate ways to use the words in sentences. Having extensive background experiences and a rich vocabulary helps children develop their reading comprehension skills.

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Consider whether your child has had experiences with the following occupations. If your child has not been exposed to the people, jobs they perform and the locations at which they perform the jobs, consider providing them with the opportunity for them to visit these people. It may not be possible for you to provide your child the experiences with each occupation listed below; however, make an effort to expose your child to as many of these people as possible. Has your child met a/an …

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• artist • chef • clown • construction worker • doctor • electrician • farmer

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• • • • • • •

firefighter judge lifeguard magician mechanic nurse photographer

• • • • • • •

pilot plumber police officer reporter secretary singer soldier

Your child’s education will truly benefit from any experiences with these people. Sincerely Teacher

Reading for success 120

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 5 Date: Dear Parents

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One of the best ways to develop your child’s vocabulary is to provide him/her with first-hand experiences. Through these experiences, children learn words, contexts for the words and appropriate ways to use the words in sentences. Having extensive background experiences and a rich vocabulary helps children develop their reading comprehension skills.

Has your child been to … an airport an amusement park an aquarium a bakery a bank a beach a bookshop a bus station a campsite a chemist a circus a college or university a dry cleaners

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

an electronics shop a fabric shop a fair a farm a fire station a forest a hardware shop a hospital a lake a library a hotel the mountains a cinema

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• • • • • • • • • • • • •

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Consider whether your child has been to the locations listed below. If your child has not visited the places listed, consider providing them with the opportunity to visit them. It may not be possible for you to provide your child with experiences with each location listed below; however, make an effort to expose your child to as many as possible.

• • • •

• • • • •

a museum a music shop an office a photography studio a place of worship a post office a river a sports event a theatre a zoo

Your child’s education will truly benefit from any experiences with these locations. Sincerely Teacher

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 6 Date:

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Dear Parents

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One of the best ways to develop your child’s vocabulary is to provide him/her with first-hand experiences. Through these experiences, children learn words, contexts for the words and appropriate ways to use the words in sentences. Having extensive background experiences and a rich vocabulary helps children develop their reading comprehension skills. Consider whether your child has seen the objects listed below. If your child has not been exposed to the following items, consider providing them with an opportunity to do so. It may not be possible for you to provide your child with experiences with each item listed below; however, make an effort to expose your child to as many as possible. Has your child seen ...

• • • • • • • • •

a CD player chopsticks an education certificate an escalator a feather duster a fire hydrant a hot-water bottle an ironing board a lift

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an apron an attic an awning a boat a brick bunk beds a candlestick a chandelier a CD

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• • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • •

a matchbox a rake a rope a saw a screwdriver a toolbox tweezers a workbench

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Your child’s education will truly benefit from any experiences with these items. Sincerely Teacher

Reading for success 122

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 7 Date:

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Dear Parents

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One of the best ways to develop your child’s vocabulary is to provide him/her with first-hand experiences. Through these experiences, children learn words, contexts for the words and appropriate ways to use the words in sentences. Having extensive background experiences and a rich vocabulary helps children develop their reading comprehension skills. Consider whether your child has tasted the foods listed below. If your child has not experienced the following foods, consider providing them with the opportunity to taste them. It may not be possible for you to provide your child the option to taste each food listed below; however, make an effort to expose your child to as many as possible. Has your child tasted ...

• • • • • • • • •

green beans honey lime mango melon olives papaya pear pineapple

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• artichoke • asparagus • aubergine • avocado • coconut • cottage cheese • courgette • cucumber • garlic

• • • • • • • •

raspberries relish spinach sweet potato Swiss cheese tortilla walnuts yoghurt

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Your child’s education will truly benefit from any experiences with these foods. Sincerely

Teacher

Safety note: If you are inviting other children to taste these foods, be sure to take into account pupil allergies before providing any food experiences. www.prim-ed.com – Prim-Ed Publishing 123

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 8 Date:

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Dear Parents

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One of the best ways to develop your child’s vocabulary is to provide him/her with firsthand experiences. Through experiences, children learn words, contexts for the words and appropriate ways to use the words in sentences. Having extensive background experiences and a rich vocabulary helps children develop their reading comprehension skills.

Consider whether your child has seen or had experiences with the animals listed below. If your child has not been exposed to animals, consider providing them with the opportunity to visit an environment where they would see these animals. It may not be possible for you to provide your child experiences with each animal listed below; however, make an effort to expose your child to as many as possible. Has your child seen …

• a • a • a • a • a • a • a • a • a • a • a • a

flamingo fox frog giraffe goat goose hippopotamus kangaroo koala leopard lamb lion

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a badger a bear a camel a caterpillar a centipede a chicken a cow a crocodile a deer a dolphin a donkey an elephant

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• • • • • • • • • • • •

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• • • • • • • • • • • •

a lizard a monkey a mosquito a parrot a pig an owl a panda a peacock a pelican a penguin a pig a pigeon

• • • • • • • • • • • •

a a a a a a a a a a a a

polar bear rhinoceros rooster seal squirrel snake starfish swan tiger turtle whale zebra

Your child’s education will truly benefit from any and all experiences with these animals. Sincerely Teacher

Reading for success 124

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 9 Providing language experience opportunities for pupils is an excellent way to develop pupils’ vocabularies. Although a language experience can be used with the whole class, an ideal setting for a language experience is with a small group. When used with a small group, the opportunities for each child to contribute to the discussion and develop other literacy skills are greater.

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Language experience

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Gather a small group of pupils around you with an object. See page 118 for ideas of objects that may be used. The questions listed below can be used as a guide for leading the discussion; however, they do not necessarily have to be followed in order. Allow pupils to help determine the direction of the discussion. The idea is to have a discussion in which pupils have an opportunity to learn more about a particular word, as well as to contribute their knowledge of the word. 1. Show pupils the object you brought. Allow the children to touch the object. 2. Ask them if they know what it is. If pupils do not know, identify the object for them. Ask them to repeat the name of the object several times with you. 3. Ask pupils to describe the object (colour, shape, texture etc.). 4. Ask if pupils know how the object is used.

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5. Ask where you would expect to find the object. What other things might be found with the object?

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As pupils are discussing the questions above, encourage them to use complete sentences that include the vocabulary word. For example, when describing the object pupils could say, ‘The marionette has strings attached to its hands and feet’, or ‘I saw a man make a marionette move in a puppet show’. By including the vocabulary word as part of the sentence, the rest of the pupils in the group are hearing the word used in a variety of contexts which helps create a fuller understanding of the word.

Object ideas for language experiences

balloon

glitter

pine cone

stamps

bracelet

globe

potato masher

stuffed animal

button

gloves

rocks

tortilla

calendar

handkerchief

rubber gloves

tweezers

candle

instrument

scarf

wand

cushion

iron

sequins

whisk

dustpan

nest

shells

wig

eye dropper

newspaper

small toys

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baskets

flower

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 10 Extending language experiences

After the discussion ... 1. Have each child think of a sentence using the vocabulary word.

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2. Write each pupil’s sentence on a sentence strip.

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Language experiences are designed to be discussion generators; however, by extending the activity, teachers can use the experience to develop literacy skills as well. There are many ways to do this; a description of one is shown below. Consider the literacy skills on which you are currently working and determine ways to incorporate the language experience to practise those skills. By including the vocabulary word as part of the lesson extension, pupils are gaining additional practice with the word.

3. Read the sentence back to the child while pointing to each word.

4. Read the sentence with the child while pointing to each word. If necessary, hold the child’s index finger in your hand while you point to the words. 5. Have the child reread the sentence while pointing to each word.

Have the pupils complete a follow-up activity using their sentence strips. Assign all pupils the same activity or vary the activity based on pupil needs. Some activities include:

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1. Circle a target letter. If your class has been working on the letter ‘b’, have the child circle all the b’s in the sentence. 2. Colour the spaces between the words.

3. Circle the first letter (or last letter) in each word.

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4. Underline the vocabulary word.

5. Circle words from the word wall that are in the sentence. 6. Trace over the teacher’s writing with a highlighter or crayon.

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7. Cut the sentence strip apart at the spaces, mix up the words and rearrange the words to form the sentence. Store the cut up sentence strip in an envelope. Pupils can practise ordering the sentence during free time. 8. Turn the sentence strip over and have the pupil write the sentence by him/herself. 9. Turn the sentence strip over and have the pupil write a new sentence using the vocabulary word. 10. Circle the vowels in each word.

The compass told us which way to go. Reading for success 126

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 11

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Young pupils love to share. This is an excellent opportunity for pupils to develop speaking skills. So, why not capitalise on pupils’ interests in sharing and use this as an opportunity to develop vocabulary? Many early years classrooms already have a system for sharing. Some teachers set aside time each day and a certain number of pupils to share during that time. Other teachers assign each child a specific day of the week on which to share. However you decide to organise your sharing, it is an excellent vocabulary development opportunity. Pupils who have rich vocabulary backgrounds will be modelling words and word usage. All pupils will be hearing words necessary for developing rich vocabularies. Listed below are ways that traditional sharing time activities can be used as a tool for developing vocabulary.

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Mystery share

Have pupils bring an item they want to share in a paper bag. The pupil sharing must provide three clues in order to try to get the other children in the class to guess what is in the bag. This type of sharing activity works well to develop vocabulary because pupils must prepare in advance what they are going to say. The clues provide additional vocabulary related to the object in the bag. See page 128 for a sample letter that can be sent home.

Theme share

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Determine a theme around which pupils must relate their sharing. The theme can be of any topic; however, if you can relate the theme to a topic of recent study, especially one in which vocabulary words were taught, it provides yet another context for pupils to apply their understanding of words. For example, if you are studying animals, tell pupils they must share something about an animal they have at home (such as a pet) or an animal they have seen somewhere (at a neighbour’s house or at a zoo). By relating the sharing topics, pupils are able to apply vocabulary words that have been recently studied and hear how words relate to each other, as well as hear words used in a variety of sentences.

Current events

One of the things pupils like to talk about the most is current events in their lives. Make the most of this by having pupils share about an event that has recently happened. This is an especially useful technique when the pupils have all shared a similar experience, for example a three-day weekend or an assembly.

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Teach and tell

Have your pupils be the ‘teacher’ of the class. We all know the vocabulary and the specialised terms of the things we know best. Capitalise on this by having the pupils teach the class something they know about or how to do very well. See page 129 for a sample letter that can be sent home.

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 12 Date:

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Dear Parents

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Children love to share. Sharing Time is a specific time of the school day set aside for pupils to share. This time provides an opportunity for pupils to develop speaking skills. We will be using Sharing Time to help develop vocabulary as well. Your child . is scheduled for Sharing Time on

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Please help your child select an item he/she wants to share with the class, as well as prepare what he/she will be saying. The item should be placed in a paper bag. Your child must provide three clues regarding the contents of the bag. The clues should help the other pupils in the class correctly guess the contents of the bag. Once the contents of the bag have been guessed, your child will show the object, share any other information desired and answer questions about the object from the class. Below is a sample of how your child might go about sharing.

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‘Good morning everybody. I have an object in my bag. Please try to guess what it is. It is smaller than my hand. It has a ring on it. You can put keys on the ring. Does anyone know what it is? (a key fob) I got this key fob when I went to Seaworld in Florida. My mum and dad let me pick out one souvenir from the gift shop. When I look at this key fob and see the picture of a dolphin it makes me think of my holiday. I keep my key chain on the pin-up board in my bedroom. Thank you. Do you have any questions?’

Please practise with your child what he/she will say. By running through the activity several times at home, your child will feel more comfortable when he/ she gets to school. Thank you for your support in making this portion of our school day a success. Sincerely Teacher

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 13

Dear Parents

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Date:

We have been participating in sharing time since the beginning of the year. The pupils are now ready for what we call Teach and Tell. This differs from simple sharing in that the child is responsible for teaching his/her classmates a simple activity or skill. Ideas include, but are not limited to, the following: • a ‘how to’ • a craft such as origami

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• an anagram (scrambled word)

• explanation of how something works • a logic puzzle • a maths fact

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• a mind game • a science experiment

• the rules of a sport or game • a science fact

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• words in a foreign language

The best place to begin when choosing a topic for Teach and Tell is with your child’s particular interests and hobbies. Once the decision has been made, please help your child to prepare by watching him/her rehearse, offering praise and suggesting improvements.

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Thank you for taking the time to help your child prepare for Teach and Tell. The more rehearsal he/she has, the better the presentation is likely to be. Sincerely Teacher

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 14 We know that pupils learn most of their vocabulary indirectly, so the teacher does not have to be the one from whom all vocabulary is learned. By carefully setting up common classroom activities, you can take advantage of pupils with rich vocabulary backgrounds and use them as models for other pupils.

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Dramatic play centres

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Dramatic play centres are common in many early learning classrooms. By providing a variety of props and a brief period of instruction, pupils will be immersed in a language-rich environment, one in which vocabulary naturally develops. Following instruction, pupils have immediate and meaningful opportunities to practise using new vocabulary. Additionally, pupils with rich language backgrounds and prior knowledge of the props or situations will act as models for other pupils. Involve pupils in setting up the play centre; it can become part of the instruction. Bring a variety of props in a box. Bring one object out of the box at a time. Ask pupils to identify and explain what it is and how it is used. Repeat the vocabulary word several times and use it in sentences in a variety of ways, especially if the item is something with which pupils may not be familiar. Elicit from pupils places they have seen each object and how they have seen the object used. Tapping into a pupil’s prior knowledge will provide for a rich language discussion.

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Ask a pupil to place the prop in the play centre in an appropriate place. The placement of the item often provides context for pupils who may not be familiar with the object, thus adding to pupils’ understanding of the word. For example, pupils may not be familiar with a roll of bandages or adhesive tape (suggested for use in a veterinarian office). By discussing the purpose of these objects and then placing them in the veterinarian’s bag, pupils begin to make the association that they are objects the veterinarian would use to help a sick animal.

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Model how to play in the play centre. Any time you spend in the play centre will directly benefit pupils, as well as model vocabulary in action. Do not feel like you have to spend a half an hour in the play centre, since even a few minutes will help pupils know how they can use the items. If pupils visit the play centre during a learning centre rotation, consider spending the first few minutes of each rotation in the centre, especially when new props are introduced.

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 15 Dramatic play centres (continued)

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Many classrooms’ dramatic play centres consist of a play kitchen and possibly some dress-up clothes. It is important to change the dramatic play area when the children appear to have lost interest in the materials. Children will not play appropriately in the area when they are no longer stimulated. By adding new props to the area, interest is renewed. Consider some of these suggestions to bring pupils countless hours of fun, imagination and vocabulary development.

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Office workers: pads of paper, old typewriter, pencils holders, pens and pencils, stamps, stapler, tape, envelopes, hole punchers, telephones, old keyboards and computers with cords removed, and pictures of office workers Flower shop: flower and garden magazines, small garden tools, garden hats, gloves, aprons, plastic flowers, silk flowers, tissue-paper flowers, vases, telephone, Styrofoam squares, baskets, cash register, play money and pictures of flowers Beach party: beach towels, sunglasses, hats, empty sunscreen bottles, small CD player, plastic fish, fish net, fishing pole, umbrellas, beach balls, picnic basket, picnic blanket, plastic food and pictures of the beach and ocean

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Veterinary office: small stuffed animals, small rolls of cloth bandages, adhesive tape, cotton wool balls, veterinarian bag, stethoscope, disposable masks, magnifying glass, pet comb and brush, thermometer, telephone, pet travel boxes, old cages and pictures of animals

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Beauty shop: smocks, snap-in curlers, hand-held hairdryers (with cords removed), towels, straightening irons (with cords removed), hair pins, hair clips, empty spray bottles, empty shampoo bottles, mirrors, ribbons, bows, a telephone and pictures of hairstyles Safety note: Do not include combs or hair brushes. Camping: plastic bugs, wood for fire, water bottles, pillows, fly swatter, small tent, frying pan, spatula, sunglasses, small cooler, torch, frying pan, paper plates, utensils, sleeping bags, binoculars, fishing poles, coffee pot, plastic food and pictures of outdoor scenes

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Sporting goods shop: backpacks, heavy socks, helmets, cricket caps, gloves, cricket bat, football shoes, various types of balls, headbands, tennis racquets, telephone, goggles, flippers, snorkels, hand-held weights and pictures of athletes

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Vocabulary

Developing vocabulary – 16 Dramatic play centres (continued) Pipes: PVC pipes and elbows to be used in sand and water areas Hoops: plastic hoops to jump in, roll around, crawl through and so on

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Consider putting together outdoor boxes such as these:

Squirting: various squirt bottles

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Painting: painting items like buckets, aprons, several brushes in various sizes, water, paint, chalk, dish soap and paper

Digging: buckets, scoops, shovels, pots and pans Transportation: cars, trains and trucks

Gardening: outdoor gardening supplies including: watering cans, small hoses, plastic pots, small rakes, child-size gardening tools, gloves, kneepads, seeds and hats

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Habitats: large and small blocks, toy cars and trucks, and plastic animals, trees and people

Post Office

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* Other ideas include a bakery, petrol station, repair shop, hardware shop, supermarket, fast-food shop, doctor/nurse office, police station, fire station, post office, dental surgery, restaurant and an ice-cream shop.

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Vocabulary

Selecting vocabulary words – 1

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Because children learn the depth of a word based on various encounters with the word, it is important to select words with which pupils will have a number of exposures in a short period of time. (See suggestions below for a variety of ways to select words.) It is recommended that no more than ten vocabulary words a week be formally introduced, nor more than five at one time. Because the number is limited, be selective when considering words to use. Also, select the number of words based on the amount of time you have to devote to teaching the words.

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Once the words have been selected, locate other materials such as books, posters, songs, charts or diagrams that contain the vocabulary. Seeing the vocabulary again in another context is not only exciting for pupils, but reinforces the word which helps them build their understanding of the word. For all of the suggestions for selecting vocabulary, it is important to keep in mind that the vocabulary must be meaningful to the pupil. Select words the pupil can immediately incorporate into his or her vocabulary. Repeated practice and hearing the word in a variety of contexts will help pupils become more comfortable with their knowledge of the word, and thus they will begin to use it in their everyday conversations.

Topical

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Words can be selected based on a unit of study. Teach vocabulary words from a thematic unit of study or from curricular areas such as science, social studies, maths, health or physical education. For example, if you will be teaching a unit on weather, it is an excellent time to introduce words such as sprinkle, storm and shower. Preview the materials you will be using to teach in order to select appropriate words.

Literature selection

Consider selecting words from a piece of literature that you will be studying or even just reading aloud. Pupils’ comprehension of the text will increase as they will understand more words from the literature.

Grouping words

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Pupils can develop a better understanding of vocabulary words when similar words are grouped together. For example, when reading the story Make way for ducklings by Robert McCloskey, it is helpful for pupils to have an understanding of some of the geographical terms used, such as pond, river and island. Although there are many other vocabulary words that could be selected from this book, by selecting geography-related terms, pupils will be able to learn the terms in relationship to the other words, as well as how they are individually used in the book.

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Vocabulary

Selecting vocabulary words – 2 Opposites

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Pupils who have a good understanding of antonyms can benefit from vocabulary words that are opposites. For example, if you wanted to use the vocabulary word ill, you may also select the word well. By using both words as vocabulary words, they can be compared and contrasted allowing the pupils to get a fuller sense of the meaning of each word. This is an especially useful strategy when pupils are already familiar with one of the words.

Multiple meanings

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Enrich pupils’ vocabularies by selecting words with multiple meanings. To begin with, it is suggested that you select words for which pupils already know one meaning. For example, pupils already know the meaning of the word foot. It is the body part at the end of a leg. But, what about the foot of a ladder, the foot of a bed, the foot on a piece of furniture? These are all ways in which the word foot can be used.

Synonyms

Synonyms are excellent words to use for vocabulary instruction. We often use a variety of words to say the same thing. Think about the words we can use to say sad—unhappy, gloomy etc. Teach pupils a variety of ways to say words that they use in their everyday speaking.

Distinction words

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There is often a variety of ways to say a word, and yet the word choice we make adds distinction. For example, pupils understand the sentence, ‘It is raining outside’. Introduce pupils to the distinctions we can make about how hard it is raining. For example, we can use these words to explain rain: sprinkling, pouring and drizzling. Introduce pupils to words that add distinction in order to make the ways in which the word is used more specific.

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Words encountered in worksheets

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There are many words we take for granted that pupils understand. Take a look at words from your phonics programme and consider some of those words for vocabulary words. There are many CVC (consonant, vowel, consonant) words pupils are expected to read, and yet we never spend more than a second or two explaining them. For example, nip, gap, jug and den are not unusual for younger pupils to encounter. However, many pupils do not have a good understanding of the definitions of these words.

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Vocabulary

Selecting vocabulary words – 3 Location words

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In, on, around—although these words may seem simple and pupils have undoubtedly heard these words used before, location words are difficult words for many early childhood pupils to fully grasp and use appropriately. Consider identifying location words that you have noticed pupils have had a difficult time struggling to use appropriately. Use these words as vocabulary words in order to deepen pupil understanding of how these terms can be used.

School events

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There are many events at school in which pupils participate that generate opportunities to develop vocabulary. For example, have your pupils ever carefully considered the word assembly? Think about the regular and specially scheduled events in which your pupils participate. You may even want to consider events that pupils may have heard about through older siblings but are not yet old enough to participate in. For example, a young pupil may not be on the athletics team; however, he or she may be curious about what an athletics competition is.

Idioms

Familiar words

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Pupils don’t usually encounter a formal study of idioms until later in their schooling years; however, consider including idioms as vocabulary terms as they relate to topics of study. For example, if you are studying a unit on weather, in addition to the words sprinkle, downpour and storm, consider adding the sentence, ‘It’s raining cats and dogs’.

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Not all vocabulary words have to be new. Study familiar words, too. Pupils enjoy being able to recognise words and participate in sharing their meanings. By including words familiar to pupils, you may be able to expand pupils’ understanding of how the word can be used.

Similar sounds

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Do you have pupils in your class who think that in the alphabet song, the letters L, M, N, O and P are all one word, LMNOP? Without direct instruction, there are many words that sound similar to pupils until distinctions are made. As these words come up in your classroom, add them to your vocabulary list. For example, many pupils think the words locks and lots are the same word. By providing instruction in how these words sound different and look different when we spell and read them, pupils gain an understanding of both of the words.

Holiday-related words There are many holiday-related words with which pupils may not be familiar, especially for terms that are used only once a year. Consider the upcoming holidays and select vocabulary words based on themes of the holiday. For example, for St. Patrick’s Day, you may select vocabulary terms such as leprechaun, Blarney Stone or shamrock.

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Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary – 1 Picture-word dictionary

‘Quarter’ a word

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This method of vocabulary instruction is particularly useful when introducing vocabulary that pupils will encounter in a book. Select several (usually no more than five) vocabulary words which you want pupils to learn. The words do not necessarily have to relate to each other; however, it is helpful to pupils if they do. If many of the vocabulary words will be new to pupils, it is nice to include at least one word with which pupils are already familiar. Photocopy and distribute page 137 to each pupil. You may wish to do the activity with pupils on an overhead transparency or interactive whiteboard. Write a vocabulary word at the bottom of each square and then as you explain the word to the pupils, draw a simple illustration to correspond. Pupils should also write the word and draw a picture. The vocabulary dictionary can be cut and assembled into a small book if desired.

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Choose a word to ‘quarter’ together as a class or small group. Fold a piece of paper into four sections or draw a rectangle on the whiteboard and divide it into four sections. In the first section, write the vocabulary word. In the second section, write a definition of the word. The definition can either be looked up in the dictionary or the word can be defined by the pupils. The third section contains a picture of the word. The picture can either be drawn or cut out from an old magazine. The final section includes a sentence that demonstrates how the word is used.

Definition

magnet

A piece of iron or steel that attracts certain metals.

Picture

Sentence

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Vocabulary word

I picked up the paperclips with a magnet.

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Vocabulary

Vocabulary

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Picture-word dictionary

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Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary – 2 Ask questions

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Often by combining pupils’ understanding of a word, the class comes up with a thorough and deeper understanding of the word. Ask questions that help provide context of the vocabulary word. For example, for the word pup you might ask the following questions: What is a pup? What is another word for a pup? Where would you see a pup? Ask as many of the 5Ws + H questions (who, what, where, why, when, how) as are applicable to the word being studied. Chart pupil responses on a web in order to document the conversation.

Pantomime

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This activity is excellent for reviewing vocabulary that pupils have been recently taught. Whisper a vocabulary word in a pupil’s ear. The pupil must use pantomime in order to try to get his or her friends to guess the word. Have the pupil who guessed the word use it in a sentence. Divide the class into teams and turn the activity into a game. Keep score to determine a winning team.

Riddles

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Provide clues in order to introduce a vocabulary word. This activity works best if pupils are already familiar with the word and you are going to use the vocabulary word to deepen pupils’ understanding of the word. Here is an example:

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It has veins. It is green. It turns yellow and red in autumn. It grows on a tree. What is it? (a leaf )

Have pupils create riddles in order to practise and review vocabulary words already introduced. Pupils can work in partner pairs in order to come up with their own riddles.

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Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary – 3 Cloze activities

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Cloze activities are an excellent way to practise applying vocabulary words. In cloze activities, key words of a sentence are left blank, covered up or blocked out. Pupils must use the context of the sentence in order to appropriately fill in the missing word.

Introducing words

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Cloze activities can be used to introduce vocabulary words; however, they work best when pupils are familiar with the words, and more review and application is needed. It is suggested that other strategies be used for introducing the vocabulary words, and then use the cloze activities to review and apply the target words. Following are several cloze activities that can be used for developing vocabulary. Cloze procedures for introducing vocabulary work best if the vocabulary words do not relate to each other, especially if pupils are not at all familiar with the words. Pupils can then practise using the context of the sentence in order to determine the word that best completes the sentence. For example, if the vocabulary words you are introducing are herd, bow and stork from the story Bringing the rain to Kapiti Plain, the following cloze sentences could be used. The

stood on one foot.

The

of elephants protected the baby elephant. and arrow to shoot the target.

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I used my

Review in context

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Review vocabulary words in the context of several related sentences or a small paragraph. This strategy works especially well when several vocabulary words have been selected that relate to each other. For example, if vocabulary words related to a science topic (insects) have been selected, provide a cloze activity in which all of the words are connected, as in a paragraph.

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abdomen arthropods Insects are Insects have three ,

Vocabulary words body legs head thorax . All insects have six . parts. The body parts are called the and the .

Consider using a simple paragraph from a related book or story that includes the vocabulary. Copy the sentences onto sentence strips or chart paper, deleting the key vocabulary words to create cloze sentences. By introducing related vocabulary and then having pupils practise the vocabulary in a cloze procedure such as the one described above, pupils are able to practise both reading the words in context, as well as developing a better sense of how the words relate to each other. www.prim-ed.com – Prim-Ed Publishing 139

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Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary – 4 Multiple answers

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You may wish to design cloze sentences to work with a variety of related vocabulary words on which you are working. For example, if pupils are learning about community helpers, a sentence such as, ‘A is a community worker’, may be used to demonstrate how a number of vocabulary words will work within the same context. Pupils can try inserting the names of a variety of community helpers in the sentence in order to see that all make sense. • A police officer is a community worker.

• A rubbish collector is a community worker.

• A mayor is a community worker.

Reveal a letter

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• A firefighter is a community worker.

Occasionally, pupils will have a difficult time determining the missing word in a cloze sentence, or, as in the activity above, multiple answers may apply to a particular sentence. A way to help pupils determine the missing word is to reveal the first letter. This will often provide pupils with enough support to help them determine the word. Depending on the word, you may need to reveal several letters. For example, if the word begins with a blend, you may wish to reveal the first two or three letters for an added clue.

Strategies for using cloze activities

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Whiteboard/Chart paper – The easiest way to use this technique is to simply write the cloze sentence on a whiteboard or chart with a blank where the missing word belongs. This requires no preparation and can be done spontaneously as appropriate within your class schedule.

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Sentence strips – Write the cloze sentences on sentence strips. Leave a blank where the missing word belongs. Place the sentence strips in a pocket chart. Vocabulary words can be written on index cards and used in the blanks. This strategy is particularly useful for trying a variety of vocabulary words within each sentence. Doing so helps pupils understand how context relates to vocabulary. Additionally, the process of elimination can be demonstrated for determining the correct word.

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Cover-ups – Use sticky notes to cover up key words. Use sentences from any text used in teaching such as songs, poems, big books, posters and sentence strips. When the correct missing word is determined, reveal the completed sentence by removing the sticky note.

There was an old woman who lived in a shoe

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Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary – 5 Sentence variation

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Use target vocabulary words in a variety of sentences. By hearing the words used in a variety of sentences and, if appropriate, a variety of contexts, pupils deepen their understanding of the word and how it is used in our language. Consider the word builds and how pupils’ understanding of it can be deepened through its use in a variety of sentences. A construction worker builds the house. A bird builds a nest with grass.

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The boy builds with the blocks.

The excitement builds as the wedding approaches. He builds a shelf to hold the microwave.

Multiple meaning words

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Use words with multiple meanings in order to develop pupils’ understanding of the variety of meanings a word can have and how its context helps determine the meaning of the word. Be sure to differentiate between the various ways in which a word can be used. This is especially important when words that pupils are very familiar with and use on a regular basis are used in ways new to the pupils. The examples below show a variety of meanings the word foot can have.

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The quilt was at the foot of the bed. Put the shoe on your foot.

I kicked the foot of the chair. We travelled by foot.

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Put the foot of the sewing machine down to start sewing. The year the poem was published was in the footnote. The dancer did fancy footwork.

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Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary – 6 True/False

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True/False is an excellent game to play with pupils in order to review vocabulary. Think of several statements about a vocabulary word you want to review. Some of the statements should be true and some should be false. Read the statements to the children, one at a time. Pupils must determine if the statement is true or false. For example, the following statements could be made for the vocabulary word wellies. (True)

Mum made wellies for dinner.

(False)

Her wellies kept her feet dry.

(True)

Tim keeps his wellies near his raincoat.

(True)

We grew wellies in the garden.

(False)

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I wore my wellies to school when it rained.

Five senses

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Determine a movement pupils can perform if a statement is true and another movement if the statement is false. For example, if the statement is true, pupils can show ‘thumbs up’. If the statement is false, pupils can show ‘thumbs down’. True/False can also be turned into a game by dividing pupils into teams and having them compete against each other. Keep score to determine a winning team.

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Help pupils develop a fuller understanding of a word by using their five senses. Bring an object to school which is related to a vocabulary word. Obviously, this activity will need to be modified if an object cannot be tasted. Create a chart on which to record pupil observations. A column for each sense that will be used should be included. Label each column with one of the five senses. Allow pupils to observe the object. Record their findings on the chart.

Touch hard

brown

hairy

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See round

Coconut Hear liquid

Smell sweet

Taste sweet

fuzzy

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Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary – 7 Classifying and categorising

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Classifying and categorising are important vocabulary building activities. Pupils build on their understanding of how words are used, as well as the relationship of one word to another. Below are several categorising and classifying activities that can be done with pupils.

Fits the category

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In this activity, the teacher names a category and pupils must provide examples of words that fit in the category. For example, the teacher may say, ‘Colours’. Pupils must list colour words such as blue, red, yellow and green. See page 144 for a list of suggested categories. This activity is excellent for those five minutes before the lunch bell rings.

Picture sort

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Photocopy the picture cards on pages 145–148 onto card. Colour and laminate if desired. Provide a group of pictures for pupils to sort. Begin by providing pictures from only two groups. For example, place the pictures of the pen, car, pencil, bus, truck and crayon in a pocket chart. Have pupils sort the pictures into two groups. Pupils should identify the car, bus and truck as one group and the crayon, pen and pencil as the other group. Have pupils name other items that would fit in each category. For example, pupils could name van to go in the same category as car, bus and truck. As pupils become skilled at sorting the pictures with similar characteristics, increase the number of groups.

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Challenge pupils to name the characteristic that is similar to all items. Many times pupils will be able to sort the pictures; however, they will not be able to name the characteristic similar to all items. When introducing the activity, simply name the category for pupils. As pupils become more skilled with sorting and classifying, they will be able to name the category more easily.

Name the category

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Once pupils are skilled at naming items in a category, reverse the teacher/pupil roles. In this activity, the teacher names the items and the pupils must name the category. For example, teacher says, ‘coin, pound, penny, euro, cent’. Pupils should respond that the category is money. Sometimes, there will be more than one title that can be given for the words listed. Discuss the options and decide if one title is more appropriate or specific than the other.

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Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary – 8 Use these categories with the activity Fits the category on page 143.

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Things for a baby Things in a bathroom Things in a child’s room Things in a classroom Things in a kitchen Things people collect Things that are blue (or any other colour) Things that are cold Things that are hot Things that go Things that hold other things Things that need electricity Things that tickle Things to do at lunchtime Things used on a rainy day Things used on a sunny day Things you can read Things you eat for breakfast Things you eat for dinner Things you eat for lunch Things you find at the beach Things you find at the supermarket Things you find in a tree Things you find in the ocean Things you find outside Things you need to go camping Things you turn on

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Animals Animals that lay eggs Animals that live in the water Animals that live on land Careers Cartoons Clothes Colours Dinosaurs Fairytales Farm animals Flowers Foods Fruits Furniture Instruments Jewellery Jungle animals Kinds of meat Parts of an animal’s body Parts of the body Plants Sources of light Sports Tools Toys Vegetables Vehicles

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Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary –9 Vehicles

Fruits

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Writing tools

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Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary – 10 Things you take camping

Farm animals

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Parts of the body

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Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary – 11 Things you can sit on

Types of weather

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Clothes

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Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary – 12 Utensils

Things that grow

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Things you can open

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Comprehension

Comprehension

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We read in order to gain meaning from a text. Thus, comprehension instruction is crucial to teaching reading. Good readers read in order to derive meaning from a text for a purpose. Some reading is done to gain some type of assistance, perhaps from a recipe or for directions. Other reading is undertaken to increase knowledge. Still other reading is done strictly for pleasure. Good readers also actively participate while they are reading. They are engaged in gaining meaning from the text and have strategies for maintaining their understanding when problems arise. Good reading instruction provides pupils with both a purpose to read and strategies for monitoring their comprehension.

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Because comprehension, gaining meaning from a text, is such a critical element of reading, it is important to teach pupils how to monitor themselves when they are reading. Pupils need to know when their understanding of the text has broken down, and ways they can resolve the comprehension problem. Good instruction in comprehension teaches pupils strategies they can use for monitoring comprehension, as well as practice in using those strategies on a variety of texts. At the early level, pupils will most likely not read texts independently until later in the school year. (See the Fluency section on how young pupils can read with patterned and predictable books.) Much of the reading in the classroom will be done by an adult. Although most pupils will not be able to read texts independently, comprehension activities can still be used with pupils. In fact, it is critical that pupils be given comprehension instruction so that they can begin to understand the purpose of reading, as well as begin to practise comprehension strategies.

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Provided in this section are activities that can be used for comprehension instruction. • The first part of the section is devoted to activities that can be done when an adult, such as a teacher, reads the text to the pupils. The activities are mainly whole-class activities to be guided by the teacher. Refer to pages 150–160.

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• The last several pages provide practice with simple sentences that can be used to have pupils practise reading and demonstrate comprehension. Refer to pages 161–169.

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Comprehension

Thinking aloud

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Thinking aloud is an excellent way for teachers to model good reading comprehension strategies for pupils. When reading a text, occasionally stop and say aloud what you are thinking as you read the text. You may wish to model making a prediction about what may come. You may wish to comment on an aspect of the corresponding picture. Whatever comprehension strategies you model, it is important because pupils emulate what they see. Showing pupils how to predict, clarify, ask questions and summarise while actually reading a text is powerful. Pupils can see how these tools for comprehending a text can be used while reading.

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Graphic organisers

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Graphic organisers are excellent for teaching pupils about relationships in a text and help break down the whole text into manageable pieces. The graphic organiser also shows the relationship of those pieces to each other. There are many graphic organisers available for use with a variety of types of texts and at the early level, most would be filled out together as a class. The teacher can either reproduce the graphic organiser on an interactive whiteboard or chart them on butcher paper. In either case, pupils should be able to see the graphic organiser and participate in completing it. By participating in the process pupils are deepening their understanding of the text, as well as receiving guided practice both in how to complete graphic organisers and how to use them to increase comprehension. Pupils gain important insight into what types of information they should be looking for when reading a text. Provided on pages 151–154 are graphic organisers that can be used with a variety of types of texts. The Story map on page 151 can be used to show important elements of a story. The Sequencing map on page 152 can be used to show the sequence and timing of a plot.

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The Venn diagram on page 153 can be used to compare two books or two elements from the same book; for example, two characters or two settings. The Text web on page 154 is especially useful for identifying important related aspects of a nonfiction text.

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See page 155 for an example of how each of these graphic organisers can be used.

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Author

Title

Problem

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Characters

Complete the graphic organiser using information from your book.

Solution

Setting

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Story map

Comprehension

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Comprehension

Sequencing map Illustrate the beginning, middle and end of the story.

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Beginning

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Middle

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Venn diagram

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Comprehension

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Text web

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Comprehension

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Comprehension

Graphic organiser examples Story map Setting

The Paper Bag Princess

Castle

Beginning

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Title

A caterpillar hatches from an egg.

Dragon’s cave

Middle

Characters

Prince Ronald Dragon Solution

The dragon captured Prince Ronald.

The princess tires the dragon out so he has to take a nap. The princess rescues Prince Ronald.

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End

The caterpillar emerges from the cocoon as a beautiful butterfly.

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Problem

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The caterpillar eats and eats and eats. He makes a cocoon.

Princess Elizabeth

Text web

Venn diagram

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3 pigs wolf

each has a unique pattern The true story of The three little pigs

The three little pigs

straw house

huff and puff

stick house

sneezes

brick house

baking a cake for Granny

mean wolf

houses blown down

eat grass

live in herds

Zebras

have soft lips

nice wolf run fast

www.prim-ed.com – Prim-Ed Publishing 155

black and white

Reading for success


Comprehension

Stop and predict – 1

Write an ending

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Good readers are continually making predictions and revising their predictions based on what they have read. Encourage pupils to make and revise predictions by stopping when reading a story and asking them to make predictions about what will happen next. This activity can be done orally or by using page 157. Photocopy one copy of page 157 for each pupil. When reading a story, stop and have pupils draw a picture about what they think will happen next in the story. Allow several pupils to share their predictions with the class or have all pupils share their predictions with a partner. Be sure to encourage pupils to include why they made the prediction they did. Then, continue to read the story. If appropriate, stop again and have pupils revise their predictions. A great way to check for comprehension when you are finished reading the story is to have pupils draw a picture about how the story ended.

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Another interesting way to complete this activity is to have pupils write the end of the book. Warn pupils ahead of time that you will not be reading the end of the book. Then read the book, stopping halfway, or at a critical point in the book, and have pupils write an ending. In essence, this is a prediction for how the book will end. Pupils will need to demonstrate their understanding of the book by including feasible endings that incorporate events, characters and settings from the beginning of the book. Often, the pupils will come up with better endings than are in the book. (Note: If possible, arrange for additional adult help with this activity.)

Reading for success 156

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Comprehension

Stop and predict – 2

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My prediction

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Here’s how it ended

www.prim-ed.com – Prim-Ed Publishing 157

Reading for success


Comprehension

Summarising Story frame

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Summarising a book provides an excellent comprehension check. Summarising a text is a difficult thing for many pupils to do. They often want to include details that are unimportant to the main idea of the text. An excellent way to have pupils practise summarising is to have them complete a story frame. The story frame on page 159 can be used to help direct pupils to the most important ideas to be included in the summary. There is little room for pupils to get off track. The story frame on page 159 is especially designed to be used with fiction materials. The important book language pattern described below can also be adapted for use with a fictional text.

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‘The important book’ language pattern

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The text pattern on page 160 is based on the language pattern from Margaret Wise Brown’s book The important book. This story is an excellent read-aloud that pupils enjoy; however, the benefits of using the book and sentence patterns from the book are far-reaching. Once pupils become familiar with the patterns of the text, it can be used as a summary tool with other texts being read. See the example below for a summary of a science unit on matter. The critical thing that a language pattern does is to confine pupils to include only the most important pieces of information in the summary. Although this language pattern will work for fiction texts, it is especially useful with nonfiction texts.

The important language pattern

matter

is everywhere

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takes up space has mass

can take three forms

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can be a solid can be a liquid can be a gas matter is everywhere

Reading for success 158

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Comprehension

Story frame Title:

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Author:

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A problem begins when

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Then,

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Next,

.

.

.

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The problem is solved when .

The story ends .

www.prim-ed.com – Prim-Ed Publishing 159

Reading for success


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Reading for success 160

But the important thing about

It

It

It

It

It

It

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The important thing about

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The important language pattern

.

is that it is

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

is that it

Comprehension

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Comprehension

Short Aa sentences

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Cut out the sentences at the bottom of the page. Read each sentence. Glue the sentence in the grey box below the picture that matches the sentence.

A man has a hat. A dad has a van. A cat has a map. A rat has a can. www.prim-ed.com – Prim-Ed Publishing 161

Reading for success


Comprehension

Short Ee sentences

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Cut out the sentences at the bottom of the page. Read each sentence. Glue the sentence in the grey box below the picture that shows the sentence.

The hen has a bell. The nest has eggs. Ned is wet. The men have a net. Reading for success 162

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Comprehension

Short Ii sentences

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Read the sentence beneath each box. Draw a picture to illustrate each sentence.

The pig has a ring.

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The tin is in the bin.

The king can sit. www.prim-ed.com – Prim-Ed Publishing 163

The pin will fix the rip. Reading for success


Comprehension

Short Oo sentences

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Read the sentence beneath each box. Draw a picture to illustrate each sentence.

The dog is on a log.

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The dog can jog.

The dog is on top. Reading for success 164

The dog can mop. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Comprehension

Short Uu sentences

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Read the sentence beneath each box. Draw a picture to illustrate each sentence.

The tub is on the rug.

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The bug is in the sun.

The mug is by the bun. www.prim-ed.com – Prim-Ed Publishing 165

The cub can run. Reading for success


Comprehension

s red.

Colour the

s blue.

Colour the

s yellow.

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Colour the

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Colour the robot

Reading for success 166

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Comprehension

What colour is it?

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The grass is green.

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The sun is yellow.

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Read the sentences. Colour the pictures.

The bear is brown.

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The cat is black.

The heart is red.

The pumpkin is orange.

The bird is blue.

The hat is black.

www.prim-ed.com – Prim-Ed Publishing 167

Reading for success


Comprehension

How many?

s.

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Here are two

sa m

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Read the sentences. Draw a picture to match the sentence.

.

s.

Here are six

s.

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Here is one

Here are four

Here are seven

Here are five

s.

s.

Reading for success 168

Here are three

Here are ten

s.

s.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Comprehension

Animal names Read the animal names. Draw a line from the animal name to the picture of the animal.

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dog

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cat

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hen

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pig

bug www.prim-ed.com – Prim-Ed Publishing 169

Reading for success


Answers – 1

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Page 18 Nail: nut, nest, nose Can: fan, sun, pen

Page 65 1. cat 2. tap 3. bed 4. pen 5. wig

6. pin 7. log 8. mop 9. tub 10. run

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6. pad other: tad 7. pat nap 8. pan 9. tan 10. tap

Page 67 Has short Ee: bed, bell, hen, jet Does not have short Ee: pig, bun, cap, dog Page 68 Pupils should colour the following boxes: wig, king, bib, pin, hill, chin, dig, ring, fin

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Page 17 The bug should be matched with the log. The map should be matched with the top. The fan should be matched with the sun. The bed should be matched with the sad (face.) The net should be matched with the hat. The hill should be matched with the ball. The six should be matched with the fox. The fork should be matched with the cake.

Page 64 1. at 2. an 3. ant 4. and 5. dad

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Page 16 The pot should be matched with the pin. The bat should be matched with the bus. The wig should be matched with the web. The ten should be matched with the tap. The ring should be matched with the rat. The can should be matched with the cat. The (person) digging should be matched with the dog. The fish should be matched with the fan.

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Page 20 The following pictures should be crossed off: hen cat log fan cup van Page 21 The following pictures should be crossed off: rat pin duck sun can tub

Reading for success 170

Page 69 Pupils should write u as the medial letter in all of the words. Page 70 Short A: sad, jam, man Short I: sit, rip, pig Short O: log, hop, box Page 71 The cat should be matched with the fan. The net should be matched with the bed. The bib should be matched with the pig. The pot should be matched with the dog. The bug should be matched with the bun.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Answers – 2 Page 163 Accept any picture that illustrates the sentence.

7. fan 8. fin 9. bag 10. bug 11. pin 12. pan

Page 164 Accept any picture that illustrates the sentence.

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Page 72 1. cat 2. cot 3. hug 4. pig 5. tap 6. top

Page 165 Accept any picture that illustrates the sentence. Page 166 All circles should be coloured yellow. All rectangles should be coloured blue. All squares should be coloured red.

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Page 73 1. cap 2. ten 3. bun/jug 4. fin 5. jug/bun

Page 167 Teacher check

Page 168 Pupils should draw: 2 hearts 4 flowers 1 cloud 6 crayons 7 smiley faces 3 stars 5 balls 10 dots

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Page 161

A man has a hat. A dad has a van.

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Page 169

A rat has a can.

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Page 162

A cat has a map.

Ned is wet.

The nest has eggs.

dog hen cat pig bug

The men have a net. The hen has a bell.

Reading for success 171

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

6216 reading for success bk 1watermarked  

Reading for Success is a series of four books which provide teacher directed lessons and independent pupil activities that focus on five key...

6216 reading for success bk 1watermarked  

Reading for Success is a series of four books which provide teacher directed lessons and independent pupil activities that focus on five key...