Issuu on Google+

LOWER PRIMARY

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

www.prim-ed.com

6288C


EARLY THEMES Dinosaurs

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing 2009 CopyrightŠ Prim-Ed Publishing 2009 Reprinted under licence by Prim-Ed Publishing

Copyright Notice

ISBN 978-1-84654-158-2 PR–6288

Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

Additional titles available in this series:

pl es

Me Space The sea

Sa m

For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase. Name of Purchaser:

Date of Purchase:

School Order# (if applicable):

Signature of Purchaser:

Vi

ew

in

g

Supplier:

Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

View all pages online http://www.prim-ed.com


Foreword Dinosaurs is one of a series of books based around popular themes written for pupils in the lower primary years of schooling.

pl es

The wide variety of activities in this book extend across many learning areas, particularly literacy, science, art, design, history and geography. The book covers predominantly factual information about dinosaurs, compiled in such a way as to develop simple understandings and motivate early learners to extend their learning beyond its contents. Titles in this series are: Me

The sea Space

Sa m

Dinosaurs

Teachers notes . ..................................... ii – iii

Curriculum links ..................................... iv – ix

Contents

Compsognathus ................................... 36–37

Prehistoric reptiles .................................... 4–5

Ornithomimus ...................................... 38–39

Dinosaur eggs .......................................... 6–7

Velociraptor .......................................... 40–41

Meat eaters and plant eaters ................... 8–9

Apatosaurus ......................................... 42–43

Lizard-hipped and bird-hipped ............ 10–11

Iguanodon’s hands and feet ................. 44–45

Dinosaurs’ defensive weapons ............. 12–13

Pachycephalosaurus puppet ................ 46–47

Dinosaur detective ............................... 14–15

Gallimimus . .......................................... 48–49

The time of the dinosaurs .................... 16–17

Big Al . .................................................. 50–51

Naming dinosaurs ................................ 18–19

Grandaddy Albertosaurus .................... 52–53

Vi

ew

in

g

Very old creatures . ................................... 2–3

Supersaurus .......................................... 20–21

Megalosaurus ....................................... 54–55

Ultrasauros . .......................................... 22–23

Living with dinosaurs ............................ 56–57

L-o-n-g Diplodocus .............................. 24–25

Dino-birds? ........................................... 58–59

Find-a-Brachiosaurus ............................ 26–27

What killed the dinosaurs? ................... 60–61

Tyrannosaurus mask ............................. 28–29

Fossil finds ............................................ 62–63

Armoured Ankylosaurus ....................... 30–31

A palaeontologist at work .................... 64–65

Triceratops and other ceratopsians ...... 32–33 Stegosaurus . ........................................ 34–35

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Early themes — Dinosaurs

i


Teachers notes Dinosaurs aims to provide a basis for further investigations or creative activities about dinosaurs. The book aims to develop the following concepts about dinosaurs: Dinosaurs lived a very long time ago, before people.

XX

Dinosaurs were prehistoric reptiles—’terrible lizards’.

XX

Most dinosaurs hatched from eggs.

XX

There are two main groups of dinosaurs—meat eaters (carnivores) and plant eaters (herbivores).

XX

Dinosaurs were divided into two groups—lizard-hipped and bird-hipped.

XX

Some dinosaurs had physical features for built-in protection from predators.

XX

Dinosaurs preyed on each other.

XX

Dinosaurs lived in the three different periods of the Mesozoic era.

XX

Dinosaurs have been named after physical features and characteristics, behaviour, discovering palaeontologists and place of discovery.

XX

Supersaurus was a large sauropod of the Jurassic period.

XX

Ultrasauros was a very large plant eater.

XX

Diplodocus was one of the longest plant-eating dinosaurs.

XX

Brachiosaurus was a tall dinosaur with a long neck.

XX

Tyrannosaurus rex was one of the biggest meat-eating dinosaurs.

XX

Ankylosaurus was a plant eater with heavy armour.

XX

Ceratopsians were herbivores with four legs who belonged to the ornithischian (birdhipped) group of dinosaurs of the Cretaceous period.

XX

Stegosaurus was a plant-eating ornithischian (bird-hipped) dinosaur of the Jurassic period.

XX

Compsognathus was a small, carnivorous theropod (two-footed dinosaur) of the Jurassic period.

XX

Ornithomimus was an omnivorous lizard-hipped dinosaur of the Cretaceous period.

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

XX

Velociraptor was a carnivorous bipedal (two-footed) dinosaur of the Cretaceous period.

XX

Apatosaurus (formerly Brontosaurus) was a large sauropod of the Jurassic period.

XX

Iguanodon had a beak and spiked thumbs.

XX

Pachycephalosaurus had a thick, rounded head.

Vi

XX

ii

XX

Gallimimus was a small dinosaur which looked like an ostrich.

XX

Allosaurus was a large meat-eating dinosaur.

XX

Albertosaurus was related to Tyrannosaurus rex.

XX

Megalosaurus was the first dinosaur fossil discovered.

XX

Many prehistoric animals were not dinosaurs.

XX

Birds may be related to dinosaurs.

XX

Dinosaurs are extinct but we don’t know exactly why.

XX

Fossils tell us information about dinosaurs.

XX

Palaeontologists study fossils.

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Teachers notes The format of the book Each pupil activity page is accompanied by a corresponding teachers notes page.

Additional activities to support or extend the concept are supplied. These extend across other learning areas.

The concept being developed is stated.

Answers are supplied where necessary.

Resources to support the concept are supplied; including songs, poems, stories, relevant websites or references to pages in other books.

The title of the pupil page is given.

Vi

ew

in

g

Pupil activity pages

Clear, concise instructions for completing the pupil activity are supplied.

The title of the corresponding pupil page is given.

pl es

Teachers notes pages

Sa m

Relevant background information is given concerning any necessary preparation, how to introduce the activity or how to use the worksheet with pupils. Also included is some background information which teachers may require to answer pupils’ questions.

Note: *

Teachers are encouraged to enlarge worksheets to A3 size, where necessary, to allow enough space for beginning writers to complete their responses.

** Some pupils may need assistance to write, copy or spell words. Others may need an adult to scribe words for them. *** As much as possible, pupils should be encouraged to use the appropriate language (such as ‘carnivore’, ‘predator’ etc.) when completing this theme. **** Teachers are free to introduce the factual information provided on the teachers pages in any way which suits them (pictures, factual texts etc.), with many pupil activities forming a concluding activity.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Early themes — Dinosaurs

iii


Curriculum links England (KS 1) Pages

Subject

Objective

2–3

History

• identify differences between ways of life at different times

4–5

Maths

• count reliably and write numerals to 20 (year 1)

6–7

Literacy, D&T

8–9

Literacy

10–11

Maths

12–13

D&T

14–15

Science

16–17

Literacy, Maths

18–19

Literacy

• use word origins to develop their understanding of word meanings

20–21

Literacy

• read independently for learning and write using a range of forms

22–23

Literacy, D&T

24–25

D&T

26–27

Maths

28–29

D&T

30–31

Maths

32–33

Maths, Science

34–35

Literacy

• read independently for learning

Literacy

• read independently for learning and deduce, infer and interpret information

• read independently for learning

pl es

• complete tasks that develop a range of techniques, skills, processes and knowledge

• read independently for learning and deduce, infer and interpret information • use diagrams to sort objects

• complete tasks that develop a range of techniques, skills, processes and knowledge • know that animals need food to stay alive and group living things according to similarities and differences • read independently for learning and deduce, infer and interpret information

Sa m

• use diagrams to sort objects

• read independently for learning

• recognise numerals 1 to 9 (foundation stage)

g

• group (living) things according to similarities and differences

• complete tasks that develop a range of techniques, skills, processes and knowledge

38–39

D&T

40–41

Literacy

• read independently for learning

42–43

Literacy

• use a range of writing forms, suited to different purposes and readers

44–45

Science

• group (living) things according to similarities and differences

Vi iv

• complete tasks that develop a range of techniques, skills, processes and knowledge • use common 2-D shapes to make pictures and patterns (year 1) and identify shapes from pictures of them in different positions and orientations • use diagrams to sort objects

in

ew

36–37

• complete tasks that develop a range of techniques, skills, processes and knowledge • complete tasks that develop a range of techniques, skills, processes and knowledge

• read independently for learning

46–47

Literacy, D&T

48–49

Literacy

50–51

D&T

52–53

Literacy

• read independently for learning and deduce, infer and interpret information

54–55

Literacy

• write creatively for purpose

56–57

Literacy, Science

58–59

Literacy

Early themes — Dinosaurs

• complete tasks that develop a range of techniques, skills, processes and knowledge • build up a store of words that are recognised and understood on sight • complete tasks that develop a range of techniques, skills, processes and knowledge

• read independently for learning and deduce, infer and interpret information • group (living) things according to similarities and differences • read independently for learning and deduce, infer and interpret information

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Curriculum links 60–61

Literacy

• write creatively for purpose

62–63

History

• find out about the past from a range of sources of information

64–65

Literacy

• read independently for learning and deduce, infer and interpret information

Subject

2–3

TWAU

• explore what kinds of changes have happened in the world

4–5

M&N

• count and extend recognition of numbers beyond 10

6–7

L&L, A&D

8–9

L&L

10–11

M&N

12–13

A&D

14–15

TWAU

16–17

L&L, M&N

18–19

L&L

20–21

L&L

22–23

L&L, A&D

24–25

A&D

26–27

30–31

• develop a range of skills using materials, tools and processes • read a range of texts

Sa m

• sort materials

• develop a range of skills using materials, tools and processes • know how living things survive and identify similarities and differences between them • read a range of texts • sort materials

• use word structure to develop reading

• read a range of texts and write in a range of genres • read a range of texts

• develop a range of skills using materials, tools and processes

• develop a range of skills using materials, tools and processes

M&N

• recognise numerals up to 10

A&D

• develop a range of skills using materials, tools and processes

M&N

M&N, TWAU

ew

32–33

• read a range of texts

in

28–29

Objective

pl es

Pages

g

Northern Ireland (Foundation Stage)

• create pictures and patterns with 2-D shapes • sort materials • identify similarities and differences between (living) things

L&L

• read and follow simple instructions

36–37

L&L

• read a range of texts and follow simple instructions

38–39

A&D

• develop a range of skills using materials, tools and processes

40–41

L&L

• read a range of texts

42–43

L&L

• write in a range of genres, using models to structure their writing

44–45

TWAU

46–47

L&L, A&D

48–49

L&L

• use word structure to develop reading

50–51

A&D

• develop a range of skills using materials, tools and processes

52–53

L&L

• read a range of texts and follow simple instructions

54–55

L&L

• write in a range of genres

56–57

L&L, TWAU

Vi

34–35

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

• identify similarities and differences between (living) things • read a range of texts • develop a range of skills using materials, tools and processes

• read a range of texts • identify similarities and differences between (living) things

Early themes — Dinosaurs

v


Curriculum links 58–59

L&L

• read a range of texts and follow simple instructions

60–61

L&L

• write in a range of genres

62–63

TWAU

64–65

L&L

• explore and examine photographs, objects and other items • sequence stories, read a range of texts and follow simple instructions

pl es

Republic of Ireland (1st/2nd Class) Pages

Subject

Objective

2–3

History

• begin to distinguish between the past and the present

4–5

Maths

• count and write numbers

6–7

English, Science

8–9

English

• engage with a wide variety of text and develop comprehension strategies

10–11

Maths

• sort and classify objects

12–13

Science

14–15

Science

16–17

English, Maths

18–19

English

20–21

English

22–23

English, Science

• engage with a wide variety of text

26–27

Sa m

• sort and classify objects

• learn about roots of words

• engage with a wide variety of text, develop comprehension strategies and write in a variety of genres • engage with a wide variety of text

g

Science Maths

Science

ew

28–29

• make simple objects, develop craft-handling skills and use a variety of simple tools • sort living things according to certain characteristics; e.g. animals and plants that provide food • engage with a wide variety of text and develop comprehension strategies

• make simple objects, develop craft-handling skills and use a variety of simple tools • make simple objects, develop craft-handling skills and use a variety of simple tools

in

24–25

• make simple objects, develop craft-handling skills and use a variety of simple tools

• read numerals 0-10 (senior infant class) • make simple objects, develop craft-handling skills and use a variety of simple tools

Maths

32–33

Maths, Science

34–35

English

• adapt his/her reading style for different purposes

36–37

English

• engage with a wide variety of text and develop comprehension strategies

38–39

Science

• make simple objects, develop craft-handling skills and use a variety of simple tools

40–41

English

• engage with a wide variety of text

42–43

English

• write in a variety of genres and for different audiences

44–45

Science

• sort (living) things according to certain characteristics

46–47

English, Science

48–49

English

Vi

30–31

• identify the use of 2-D shapes in the environment • sort and classify objects • sort (living) things according to certain characteristics

• engage with a wide variety of text

vi

Early themes — Dinosaurs

• make simple objects, develop craft-handling skills and use a variety of simple tools • build a sight vocabulary

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Curriculum links 50–51

Science

• make simple objects, develop craft-handling skills and use a variety of simple tools

52–53

English

• engage with a wide variety of text and develop comprehension strategies

54–55

English

• write in a variety of genres

56–57

English, Science

58–59

English

• engage with a wide variety of text and develop comprehension strategies

60–61

English

• write in a variety of genres

62–63

History

• examine a range of simple historical evidence

64–65

English

• engage with a wide variety of text and develop comprehension strategies

• engage with a wide variety of text and develop comprehension strategies

pl es

• sort (living) things according to certain characteristics

Scotland (1st Level) 2–3

SS

4–5

M&N

6–7

L&E, A&D

8–9

L&E

10–11

M&N

12–13

A&D

14–15

Science

16–17

L&E, M&N

18–19

L&E L&E

L&E, A&D

ew

22–23

• discuss why events from a particular time in the past were important • explore numbers and use them to count (early) • respond to reading tasks

• explore a range of media and handle them with growing confidence and skill • respond to reading tasks to show understanding • sort information in a logical and organised way • explore a range of media and handle them with growing confidence and skill • create food chains

• respond to reading tasks to show understanding • sort information in a logical and organised way • explore and discuss word patterns

in

20–21

Objective

Sa m

Subject

g

Pages

• respond to reading tasks to show understanding and write to convey information and describe • respond to reading tasks • explore a range of media and handle them with growing confidence and skill

A&D

• explore a range of media and handle them with growing confidence and skill

26–27

M&N

• explore numbers (early)

28–29

A&D

• explore a range of media and handle them with growing confidence and skill

30–31

M&N

• explore 2-D shapes

Vi

24–25

• sort information in a logical and organised way

32–33

M&N, Science

34–35

L&E

• respond to reading tasks to show understanding

36–37

L&E

• respond to reading tasks to show understanding

38–39

A&D

• explore a range of media and handle them with growing confidence and skill

40–41

L&E

• respond to reading tasks to show understanding

42–43

L&E

• consider the type of text being created, select ideas and relevant information and use interesting words

44–45

Science

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

• observe features of (living) things so they can be placed into groups

• observe features of (living) things

Early themes — Dinosaurs

vii


Curriculum links • respond to reading tasks

46–47

L&E, A&D

48–49

L&E

• use sight vocabulary

50–51

A&D

• explore a range of media and handle them with growing confidence and skill

52–53

L&E

• respond to reading tasks to show understanding

54–55

L&E

56–57

L&E, Science

58–59

L&E

• respond to reading tasks to show understanding

60–61

L&E

• consider the type of text being created, select ideas and relevant information and use interesting words

62–63

SS

64–65

L&E

• explore a range of media and handle them with growing confidence and skill

• observe features of (living) things

pl es

• consider the type of text being created, select ideas and relevant information and use interesting words • respond to reading tasks to show understanding

• use information to visualise and recreate the story of a place or individual

Sa m

• respond to reading tasks to show understanding

Wales (Foundation Phase) Pages

Subject

2–3

KUW

4–5

MD

6–7

LLCS, CD

8–9

LLCS

10–11

MD

12–13

CD

14–15

KUW

• count and write numbers

• make simple products and explore a variety of techniques and materials

• sort and classify objects

g

LLCS, MD

• make simple products and explore a variety of techniques and materials • observe differences between animals and plants in order to group them • read and respond to a wide range of print including information materials • sort and classify objects

LLCS

• develop word recognition

20–21

LLCS

• experience a wide range of print and write in a range of genres

22–23

LLCS, CD

24–25

CD

• make simple products and explore a variety of techniques and materials

26–27

MD

• read numbers and use number names accurately

28–29

CD

• make simple products and explore a variety of techniques and materials

30–31

MD

• play with shapes and make pictures

32–33

MD, KUW

34–35

LLCS

• experience a wide range of print including information materials

36–37

LLCS

• experience a wide range of print including information materials

38–39

CD

40–41

LLCS

Vi viii

• experience a wide range of print

• read and respond to a wide range of print including information materials

ew

18–19

• recognise the changes caused by time and identify differences in ways of life at different times

in

16–17

Objective

Early themes — Dinosaurs

• experience a wide range of print • make simple products and explore a variety of techniques and materials

• sort and classify objects • observe differences between animals in order to group them

• make simple products and explore a variety of techniques and materials • experience a wide range of print including information materials

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Curriculum links 42–43

LLCS

• write in a range of genres and for different audiences

44–45

KUW

• observe differences between animals

46–47

LLCS, CD

48–49

LLCS

50–51

CD

52–53

LLCS

• read and respond to a wide range of print including information materials

54–55

LLCS

• write in a range of genres

56–57

LLCS, KUW

58–59

LLCS

• read and respond to a wide range of print including information materials

60–61

LLCS

• write in a range of genres

62–63

KUW

• investigate sources and make observations

64–65

LLCS

• experience a wide range of print • make simple products and explore a variety of techniques and materials • develop word recognition

pl es

• make simple products and explore a variety of techniques and materials

• read and respond to a wide range of print including information materials

Sa m

• observe differences between animals

Vi

ew

in

g

• read and respond to a wide range of print including information materials

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Early themes — Dinosaurs

ix


Very old creatures Concept: Dinosaurs lived a very long time ago, before people. Objectives: XX

Reads information about dinosaurs.

XX

Identifies life forms which do not belong in a picture.

pl es

Background information: XX

Dinosaurs lived during the Mesozoic era about 230 million years ago. The Mesozoic era had three periods—Triassic (about 245–208 million years ago), Jurassic ( 208–146 million years ago) and Cretaceous (146–65 million years ago). Dinosaurs existed for about 165 million years, mysteriously disappearing about 65 million years ago.

XX

Not all dinosaurs lived at the same time. Below is a list of some dinosaurs who lived during the three periods of the Mesozoic era:

Sa m

Triassic – Coelophysis, Desmatosuchus, Eoraptor, Plateosaurus, Proganochelys

Jurassic – Allosaurus, Apatosaurus, Archaeopteryx (the first bird), Brachiosaurus, Compsognathus, Diplodocus, Mamenchisaurus, Stegosaurus Cretaceous – Ankylosaurus, Giganotosaurus, Hadrosaurus, Megaraptor, Muttaburrasaurus, Ornithomimus, Triceratops, Troodon, Tyrannosaurus rex During the Triassic period, the continents formed a single supercontinent called Pangea. This supercontinent slowly broke apart over millions of years. The sections spread across the globe due to a theory called plate tectonics. The theory suggests that the Earth’s crust is divided into plates. Forces within the earth cause movements at the edges of the plates where they meet. These include volcanic activity and earthquakes.

XX

The main purpose of this activity is to ensure pupils understand that people did not live at the same time as dinosaurs.

XX

After pupils have identified the people hiding among the foliage, they may colour the picture.

in

g

XX

ew

Additional activities:

Collect, view and discuss models or pictures of different kinds of dinosaurs.

XX

Create dinosaur habitats in a sandpit or on a table, displaying models of different types of dinosaurs.

XX

Pupils move in a variety of ways to represent different types of dinosaurs.

Vi

XX

Resources:

XX

Song – ‘Long ago/Dinosaurs’ by Henrietta Clark from The new useful book (ABC)

XX

Book – Dinosaur roar by Paul and Henrietta Stickland

2

– The magic school bus in the time of the dinosaurs by Joanna Cole and Bruce Degen

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Very old creatures Dinosaurs lived millions of years ago before there were any people. There were many kinds of dinosaurs who lived all over the world.

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

Put a cross on all the people hiding in the picture who shouldn’t be there.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Early themes — Dinosaurs

3


Prehistoric reptiles Concept: Dinosaurs were prehistoric reptiles—’terrible lizards’. Objectives: XX

Reads or listens to information about dinosaurs.

XX

Compares the sizes of different dinosaurs.

Background information: In 1842, Sir Richard Owen gave the name ‘dinosaurs’ to the group of extinct reptiles which lived during the Mesozoic era. The name ‘dinosaur’ comes from two Greek words—‘deino’ and ‘sauros’— meaning ‘terrible lizard’ or ‘fearfully great reptile’.

XX

Dinosaurs lived on the land. No dinosaurs flew or lived in the water. Animals which did this are simply termed prehistoric animals.

XX

Very little information is known about the colours, patterns, sounds, behaviour or mating habits of dinosaurs. However, a lot of information is known about the great variations in method of walking, speed of movement, size, feeding habits, coverings and method of protecting themselves.

XX

This activity intends to show the variation in size of dinosaurs.

XX

Pupils are asked to count ANY square in which the drawings fall, even if it is only a small section of the drawing. Pupils should select one colour to complete all the squares for Ultrasauros and one colour for the square in which Compsognathus is shown.

Sa m

Answers: 1. – 2. Teacher check (b) 1

Additional activities:

g

3. (a) 20

pl es

XX

Study models of dinosaurs and use comparative language to describe them. For example, Brachiosaurus is taller than Tyrannosaurus rex.

XX

Read numbers relating to the size of various dinosaurs. For example:

in

XX

ew

T-rex was about 12 metres long.

Ankylosaurus was about 8 metres long. Triceratops was about 8 metres long. Stegasaurus was about 9 metres long. Construct block or box towers to show relative heights of dinosaurs.

Vi

XX

Resources:

XX

– Five dinosaurs <http://www.thebestkidsbooksite.com/fingerplays-for-kids.cfm>

– Dinosaurs <http://www.thebestkidsbooksite.com/fingerplays-for-kids.cfm>

XX

4

Fingerplay – Dinosaurs were ... <http://www.thebestkidsbooksite.com/fingerplays-for-kids.cfm>

Song

– ‘I’m a mean old dinosaur’ (Tune: I’m a little teapot) <http://www.preschoolrainbow.org/dinosaur.htm>

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Prehistoric reptiles 1. Read the words with your teacher. Dinosaurs lived during a time called the ‘Age of reptiles’. There were lots of other prehistoric reptiles who lived at the same time, but they weren’t all dinosaurs.

pl es

Some dinosaurs were as tall as a building and some were as small as a chicken. Dinosaurs were all shapes and sizes and had tough skin covered by scales. Dinosaur means ‘terrible lizard’.

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

2. Colour and count all the squares each dinosaur is drawn in.

3. Write numbers to complete the sentences.

(a) The big dinosaur uses

(b) The little dinosaur uses

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

squares.

squares. Early themes — Dinosaurs

5


Dinosaur eggs Concept: Most dinosaurs hatched from eggs. Objectives: Reads or follows information about dinosaur eggs.

XX

Creates a baby dinosaur in an egg using colouring, cutting and joining techniques.

pl es

XX

Background information:

The eggs of dinosaurs were similar to those of other reptiles. They had a membrane to keep the embryo moist.

XX

The first fossilised dinosaur egg (a Hypselosaurus egg) was found in France in 1869. It was about the size of a football—30 cm long and 25 cm wide and weighed about 7 kg. This was the biggest yet to be found. The smallest was that of a Mussaurus, which was about 3 cm.

XX

Many dinosaur nests have been found. Some have been simple pits and others have been more complicated versions constructed with mud rims.

XX

Some scientists believed that larger dinosaurs, such as Apatosaurus, may have had a long tube which extended from the body of the female to enable the eggs to be laid without breaking them (after falling from a height).

XX

Very few fossilised dinosaur eggs have been found which contain parts of embryos in them. This makes it is difficult to match eggs to particular dinosaurs.

Additional activities:

Sa m

XX

Create a dinosaur egg using a balloon, papier-mâchè and paint.

XX

Create a playdough model of a baby dinosaur emerging from an egg.

XX

Create a realistic dinosaur egg by soaking a boiled egg in vinegar for a few weeks until it becomes soft and looks like leather.

ew

Resources:

in

g

XX

XX

Fingerplay – Dinosaur hunt <http://www.thebestkidsbooksite.com/fingerplays-for-kids.cfm>

Story

– Dinosaur egg mystery by M Christina Butler

Vi

XX

– Dinosaur, dinosaur <http://www.thebestkidsbooksite.com/fingerplays-for-kids.cfm>

6

– The last dinosaur egg by Andrew Hegeman

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Dinosaur eggs 1. Read the sentences with your teacher.

Sauropod egg

Dinosaurs were reptiles. Most of them hatched from eggs laid by female dinosaurs.

pl es

Dinosaur eggs were round or ovalshaped and had hard, brittle shells. Some dinosaurs looked after their eggs, but others left their eggs once they had laid them.

Chicken eggs

Dinosaur eggs were much larger than chicken eggs.

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

2. Colour, cut out and join the pieces at the crosses.

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

7


Meat eaters and plant eaters Concept: There are two main groups of dinosaurs—herbivores (plant eaters) and carnivores (meat eaters).

Objectives: XX

Reads or follows information about dinosaurs.

XX

Matches pictures of dinosaurs to the correct teeth.

pl es

Background information:

Herbivores had to eat lots of plants to fill themselves up, so they had big digestive systems. Some even swallowed rocks to help grind food inside their stomachs. Others had fermentation chambers where plant fibres could be dissolved. Some herbivorous dinosaurs included Ankylosaurus, Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Iguanodon, Stegosaurus, Supersaurus, Triceratops and Ultrasauros.

XX

Carnivores usually had very strong legs to pursue their prey. Some such as Deinonychus, Coelophysis and Velociraptor may have hunted in packs. As well as sharp teeth, carnivores had deadly claws to kill and tear apart their prey. They also needed good eyesight, a good sense of smell and a large brain to plan hunting strategies. Some carnivorous dinosaurs included Albertosaurus, Allosaurus, Compsognathus, Megalosaurus, Tyrannosaurus rex and Velociraptor. Some carnivores such as Baryonyx and Suchomimus ate fish. Some may have even eaten their own species.

XX

A few dinosaurs, such as Ornithomimus and Oviraptor were omnivores (ate both plants and animals). Their diet included plants, eggs, insects etc. Most herbivores were ‘accidental omnivores’ because while they were eating plants, they also ingested a lot of insects and small animals.

XX

Teeth are harder than bone and therefore fossilise easier. Many fossilised dinosaur teeth have been found and are used to identify dinosaurs. Dinosaur teeth were replaceable. This means that when a tooth was lost or broken, another one grew to take its place.

XX

Discuss the pictures of the dinosaurs and the teeth, particularly in relation to shape and purpose.

XX

Read the sentence clues with the pupils and allow them to draw lines from each tooth to the dinosaur it matches.

XX

Discuss which category humans belong in.

in

g

Sa m

XX

XX

Sort pictures or models of well-known dinosaurs into two groups—herbivores and carnivores. Create a meal for a carnivore and a herbivore using paper plates and pictures cut from magazines. Investigate the teeth of other reptiles and mammals.

Vi

XX

ew

Additional activities: XX

Resources:

8

XX

Book

– How do dinosaurs eat their food? by Jane Yolen

XX

Song

– ‘Five little dinosaurs’ <http://www.everythingpreschool.com/themes/dinosaurs/songs.htm>

XX

Rhyme – ‘The dinosaur song’ <http://www.everythingpreschool.com/themes/dinosaurs/songs.htm>

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Meat eaters and plant eaters 1. Read the sentences with your teacher.

pl es

Some dinosaurs were carnivores (meat eaters). They ate lizards, turtles, eggs and other dinosaurs or mammals. Carnivores had strong, sharp teeth to kill and tear their prey apart.

Sa m

Most dinosaurs ate plants such as leaves, pine trees, ferns, cycads, moss and flowering plants or plants with fruit. These dinosaurs were herbivores (plant eaters). Herbivores had blunt teeth for tearing leaves from trees or flat teeth for grinding plants. 2. Draw a line from the dinosaur to the correct tooth.

Vi

ew

in

g

I am the tooth of a large, fierce, meat-eating dinosaur with two, strong legs and two small arms.

I am the tooth of a dinosaur with a beak and a long tail.

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

9


Lizard-hipped and bird-hipped Concept: Dinosaurs were divided into two groups—lizard-hipped and bird-hipped. Objectives: Reads information about dinosaurs.

XX

Cuts and glues pictures in correct groups.

pl es

XX

Background information: XX

The group Dinosauria is divided into orders based on their hip structure—lizard-hipped (Saurischia) and bird-hipped (Ornithischia). These groupings were named by a British scientist, Harry Seeley, in 1887. Saurischian dinosaurs were the most dominant dinosaurs during the Triassic and Jurassic periods, while Ornithischia were the most dominant during the latter Cretaceous period. Saurischian dinosaurs were both meat eaters and plant eaters. Ornithischian dinosaurs were plant eaters.

XX

An interesting fact is that lizard-hipped dinosaurs (Saurischia) are believed to be the ancestors of birds.

XX

As a group, dinosaurs varied greatly in their movements. Some walked on two legs, some walked on four, while others ran on two legs but walked and grazed on four legs. Dinosaurs walked differently from other prehistoric animals because their legs extended from underneath their bodies instead of coming from the sides of their bodies.

XX

Ask the pupils to find and feel their hips and hip bones. If possible, show diagrams of human skeletons and dinosaurs before completing the worksheet.

Sa m

XX

Teacher check

ew

in

g

Answers:

Additional activities:

Investigate skeletons of a variety of animals, finding the most important bones such as spine, ribs etc.

Vi

XX

XX

Complete movements while hands are placed on hip bones to feel how the bones move.

XX

Sing the song ‘Dry bones’ (See <http://www.kidscookiemix.com/storytime/songs/song3.htm> for a version to listen to.)

Resources: XX

Song – ‘The dino stomp’ by Simpson and Lambert from The new useful book (ABC)

XX

10

– ‘The prehistoric animal brigade’ by M L Reeve

Dance – ‘Dino–Pokey’ <http://www.everythingpreschool.com/themes/dinosaurs/songs.htm>

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Lizard-hipped and bird-hipped Dinosaurs can be sorted into two groups; those with hip bones like lizards – ‘lizard-hipped’ and those with hip bones like birds – ‘bird-hipped’. Cut and glue the pictures in each group to match the names. Lizard-hipped

Bird-hipped Triceratops

Diplodocus

Stegosaurus

Sa m

pl es

Brachiosaurus

Iguanadon

Vi

ew

in

g

Tyrannosaurus

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Early themes — Dinosaurs

11


Dinosaurs’ defensive weapons Concept: Some dinosaurs had physical features for built-in protection from predators. Objective: XX

Follows a procedure to make a dinosaur model.

Background information: Dinosaurs had tough skin covered with scales. Many of them had built-in armour for protection against carnivorous species looking for the next meal. This armour would have served as protection in competition with others for food, a mate or position within a herd.

XX

Some examples are listed below. Pictures of these dinosaurs can be found by typing the name into a search engine such as Google™ and clicking on ‘image’.

pl es

XX

horns and frills

Triceratops, Pentaceratops, Chasmosaurus, Centrosaurus, Torosaurus

plates and spikes

Stegosaurus, Kentrosaurus

armour and spikes

Ankylosaurus, Panoplosaurus, Polacanthus, Sauropelta, Nodosaurus

Dinosaurs with horns and frills were four-legged herbivores, pulling low-lying plants with their toothless beaks. They had teeth in their cheeks, allowing them to chew food well before swallowing. The horns of these creatures would have been used to fend off predators. The frill was probably more important for display than for protection.

XX

Dinosaurs with plates and spikes were four-legged herbivores, pulling low-lying plants with their toothless beaks. It is thought the plates were important in regulating body temperature rather than for defence. The spikes were most probably used to defend themselves from attack.

XX

The bulky bodies of dinosaurs with armour and spikes were covered from the top of the head to the tip of the tail with armoured plates. The number and position of spikes varied between species, but generally there were spikes along the neck, shoulders and sides. Ankylosaurus also had a tail club as an extra weapon.

XX

Follow this procedure for making the Triceratops model:

in

g

Sa m

XX

5. Glue sides of face together.

2. Cut along dotted lines between legs.

6. Cut slots in shield.

3. Fold legs inwards at fold lines.

7. Place shield on neck.

4. Fold sides together along tail and back.

8. Glue small shield flaps to side of neck.

ew

1. Cut out dinosaur and shield.

Additional activities:

Make a display of dinosaurs from each of the three groups (horns, plates, armour). Add a general description of the features and diet of each group.

Vi

XX

XX

Use junk material to make models of the three types of dinosaur.

XX

Use readily available resources to make simple costumes of the three types of dinosaur.

Resources:

12

XX

Hidden facts dinosaur puzzle by Kingfisher publishing

XX

Fandex guide to dinosaurs by Kingfisher publishing

XX

Dinosaur life activity book by Donald Silver

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Dinosaurs’ defensive weapons Many dinosaurs had built in defensive weapons such as Triceratops’s horns and Steosaurus’s spikes.

Sa m

pl es

Fold here

Fold here

ere

ew

Fold here

h Fold

in

g

Fold here

re he Fo ld

re he

Vi

ld Fo

Your teacher will give you the instructions for making this model Triceratops. Fold here

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Early themes — Dinosaurs

13


Dinosaur detective Concept: Dinosaurs preyed on each other. Objective: XX

Completes a food chain choosing dinosaurs from the same period.

Background information: Discuss food chains and how balance and stability between levels is achieved. There is always a greater number of individuals in the lower levels than in the higher levels.

XX

The larger carnivores would have eaten herbivores and smaller carnivores. Smaller carnivores would not have directly preyed on large carnivores but may have scavenged them. Smaller carnivores were generally fast movers, having the chance to outrun their larger predators.

XX

Many herbivores were very large or well protected, having the chance to defend themselves against smaller predators.

XX

Work through the activity sheet with the pupils, using well-known dinosaurs from this book as examples to draw.

Additional activities:

Sa m

pl es

XX

Using labelled pictures of dinosaurs, create a large, simple display of a food chain, showing the possible predator/prey relationships between dinosaurs. Use only large carnivore, small carnivore and herbivore categories.

XX

Group carnivore dinosaurs, according to size—large, medium and small. Determine a food chain within the carnivore category.

XX

Group herbivores according to size—large, medium and small—to determine the most likely prey for carnivorous dinosaurs, grouped in the same categories.

g

XX

Resources:

Dinosaurs before dark by Mary Pope Osborne

XX

Big book of dinosaurs by DK Publishling

XX

Detective dinosaur by James Skofield

Vi

ew

in

XX

14

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Dinosaur detective Draw and name a dinosaur in each part of the food chain. A large carnivore

A smaller carnivore

Sa m

pl es

A herbivore

Vi

ew

in

g

plants Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

15


The time of the dinosaurs Concept: Dinosaurs lived in the three different periods of the Mesozoic era. Objective: XX

Demonstrates understanding of the Mesozoic era.

Background information:

XX

XX

This extinction was followed by an explosion of new life, plants and animals. This was the Triassic period, during which time dinosaurs and mammals evolved. During the Triassic period, the continents were joined together as one land mass called Pangaea and there was no polar ice. Most of the land was like desert and plants and animals had to adapt to the conditions.

XX

herbivores – Ankylosaurus, Centrosaurus, Iguanadon, Muttaburrasaurus XX

By the end of the period, radical change had occurred globally. There was much volcanic and tectonic activity and the formation of continental land masses close to those we know today. Mountain ranges were formed and the sea levels dropped as polar ice caps were forming. The land was covered with lush forests, supporting the diverse species of herbivorous dinosaurs. Variations in seasons increased and extremes between polar and equatorial temperatures were greater.

XX

At the end of the Cretaceous period, the second greatest mass extinction occurred and the dinosaurs were no more.

herbivores – Fabrosaurus, Riojasaurus, Thecodontosaurus

The Triassic period ended with massive volcanic eruptions which caused mass extinction. The period that followed was the Jurassic period.

g

XX

During the Jurassic period, Pangaea began to separate.

XX

The enormous, long-necked dinosaurs evolved during the Jurassic period.

XX

Some dinosaurs from the Jurassic period were:

ew

in

XX

carnivores – Allosaurus, Compsognathus, Dilophosaurus, Megalosaurus, Segisaurus, Syntarsus

Vi

herbivores – Anchisaurus, Apatosaurus (Brontosaurus), Barosaurus, Brachiosaurus, Diplodocus

16

XX

At the end of the Jurassic period, many life forms became extinct, including most of the stegosaurid and sauropod dinosaurs.

XX

The Cretaceous period was the final part of the Mesozoic era. During this time, many new species of dinosaur evolved and mammals continued to develop. Most of the dinosaurs we know about came from this period. The emergence of flowering plants created great change in the landscape.

Early themes — Dinosaurs

In the first half of the Cretaceous period, the temperatures were warm and the climate subtropical, with little variation in the seasons. Sea levels around the planet were high as there were no polar ice caps.

XX

Some dinosaurs from the Triassic period were: carnivores – Coelophysis, Eoraptor, Procompsognathus, Saltopus

Some dinosaurs from the Cretaceous period were: carnivores – Albertosaurus, Giganotosaurus, Spinosaurus

pl es

XX

At the beginning of the Mesozoic era, the global ecosystem had been depleted by the Permian extinction, the greatest extinction the world has ever experienced. Fifty per cent of animal families, ninety-five per cent of marine species and many tree species were lost.

Sa m

XX

Answers: 1. 1. dinosaurs 4. Mesozoic 2. Teacher check

2. years 5. different

3. middle

Additional activities: XX

Create a display-size time line of the Mesozoic era. Label and decorate with dinosaurs from each period.

XX

Make dioramas for each period, from the dry deserts of the Triassic period to the lush green vegetation of the Cretaceous. Include card dinosaur models from each period.

Resources: XX

The best book of dinosaurs by Christopher Maynard

XX

Dinosaurs by Paul Barrett, National Geographic

XX

Revealed: Dinosaur by Dorling Kindersley Publishing

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


The time of the dinosaurs 1. Use these words to complete the sentences. middle

years

dinosaurs

Mesozoic

different (1)

.

The Mesozoic era was the time of the (2)

. The

pl es

It lasted for many millions of

(3) and end names for the beginning, of this era are Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous. During

Sa m

(4) era, the environments of Earth the changed a lot. Dinosaurs from one time of the (5)

g

Mesozoic era lived in a environment from dinosaurs in another time.

Mesozoic era ~ the time of the dinosaurs

ew

in

2. On the chart, draw a dinosaur from each period.

Jurassic period

Cretaceous period

Vi

Triassic period

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

17


Naming dinosaurs Concept: Dinosaurs have been named after physical features and characteristics, behaviour, discovering palaeontologists and places of discovery.

Objectives: XX

Writes the meaning of a dinosaur name.

XX

Matches a picture of a dinosaur to its name.

Background information: There are a number of ways to name a newly discovered dinosaur. It may be based on physical characteristics, the place of discovery or the person credited with discovering it. In all cases, the name must be approved by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.

XX

The names are given using Latin or Greek roots; for example, the name Corythosaurus, the ‘helmet lizard’, comes from the Greek words, ‘koryth’ meaning helmet and ‘saurus’ meaning lizard.

XX

A table of some dinosaur name roots: brachio – arm

dactyl – finger

gnathus – jaw

raptor – thief

bronto – thunder

diplo – double/pairs

micro – tiny

stego – cover

campylo – bent

echino – spiny

odon – tooth

tetra – four

caudia – tail

eury – wide

pachy – thick

veloci – fast

Sa m

XX

A table of some dinosaur names and their meanings Brachyceratops – short-horned faced

Lambeosarus – named after palaeontologist, Lawrence Lambe

Ceratosaurus – horned lizard

Chassternbergia – named after palaeontologist, Charles Sternberg

Astrodon – star tooth

Andesaurus – found in the Andes mountains

g

Panoplasaurus – fully-armed lizard

Lesothosaurus – found in Lesotho, South Africa Maiasaura – good mother lizard

Brachypodosaurus – short-footed lizard

Velociraptor – fast thief

in

Heterodontosaurus – different-tooth lizard

Work through a number of examples of dinosaur names. Break them down into their component parts and discuss the meaning of each part.

XX

Discuss the physical features of some less well known dinosaurs. Find a the website to find the root words which apply to those features. Ask pupils to name the dinosaurs. How accurate are their answers?

ew

XX

Additional activities:

Make a dinosaur calendar, using a different dinosaur for each month. Explain the name of each one.

Vi

XX

XX

Draw a picture of a new dinosaur you have just discovered. Give it a name based on its physical features. Explain what the name means.

Resources:

18

pl es

XX

XX

T is for terrible by Henry Holt

XX

How do dinosaurs say good night? by Jane Yolen and Mark Teague

XX

When dinosaurus go to school by Linda Martin

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Answers: 1. Triceratops

– three-horn face

Deinonychus – terrible clawed

Spinosaurus – backbone lizard

Saurolophus – lizard crested

2. (a) Spinosaurus

(b) Saurolophus

(d) Deinonychus

(c) Triceratops

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Naming dinosaurs These dinosaurs were named by how they looked. The names are made from the words in the box. The meaning of each word is also given. deino – terrible

nychus – clawed

spino – backbone

tri – three

saurus – lizard

tops – face

sauro – lizard

pl es

lophus – crest

cera – horn

1. Write the meaning of each dinosaur name.

Sa m

2. Match each dinosaur to its name. Triceratops

g

Deinonychus

ew

in

Spinosaurus

Vi

Saurolophus

(b)

(a)

(c)

(d)

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Early themes — Dinosaurs

19


Supersaurus Concept: Supersaurus was a large sauropod of the Jurassic period. Objectives: XX

Labels major features of a Supersaurus.

XX

Describes Supersaurus.

Background information: Supersaurus (pronounced sue-per-sore-us) is one of the longest dinosaurs to have been discovered. The first Supersaurus fossil was found in Colorado in the United States, in 1972.

XX

Supersaurus was a sauropod, which means ‘lizard-footed’.

XX

It had a small head, enclosing a small brain. At the front of the jaw it had peg-like teeth, but it had no back teeth. Its nostrils were situated at the top of the head.

XX

Supersaurus had a very long neck which it held parallel to the ground. It may have helped the dinosaur to reach plants in inaccessible areas. It is believed that there was limited mobility in the neck, similar to a giraffe.

XX

The body of Supersaurus was very big. Like all sauropods, it was a herbivore. A vast amount of plant material would have had to be consumed and digested to sustain such a large beast. It possibly had gastroliths (stomach stones) in its stomach to aid the digestion of plant material.

XX

The exact diet of Supersaurus is not known, but it is believed to have been primarily conifers. Among other possible food sources were gingkos, seed ferns and cycads.

XX

The tail of this great beast was long and whip-like. It may have been used for balance and for defending itself.

XX

The four legs of Supersaurus were thick and pillar-like, with five-toed feet similar to those of an elephant. One toe on each foot had a claw, possibly for protection. Using fossilised tracks for evidence, palaeontologists believe that Supersaurus moved slowly on its strong legs.

XX

It is likely that Supersaurus lived in herds, in dense forest areas. They remained in an area until they had stripped the plants of their foliage before moving on.

XX

Eggs of sauropods have been found, but in a linear pattern rather than in nest bundles. This gives rise to the theory that eggs were laid while the creatures were walking and once laid, they were abandoned, with hatchlings left to take care of themselves.

XX

It is believed that some sauropods had a life span of up to 100 years.

Sa m

g

in

ew

XX

pl es

XX

Supersaurus lived in the late Jurassic period, from 155–145 million years ago. At that time, there were many other enormous Sauropods such as Brachiosaurus and Apatosaurus. Also present at that time were Stegosaurus and Diplodocus.

Vi

Additional activities:

XX

Make a diorama with lots of plants in the background. Use modelling clay to make a herd of Supersaurus to place in the scene.

XX

Make a papier mâché Supersaurus using a large clay model as the base.

XX

On a time line of the Mesozoic era, place labelled black outlines of Supersaurus.

Resources:

20

XX

Dinosaurs by Angela Royston (Eye Openers)

XX

Dinosaur! by Peter Sis

XX

Encyclopaedia prehistorica: dinosaurs by Robert Sabuda and Matthew Reinhart

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Supersaurus 1. (a) Use words from the box to label the Supersaurus.

whip-like tail

sturdy legs

tiny head

long neck

large body

(b) Use your imagination to colour the Supersaurus.

(c) Give the Supersaurus a pet name.

Name:

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

2. Imagine you have lost your pet Supersaurus. How would you describe it to a police officer?

Vi

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

21


Ultrasauros Concept: Ultrasauros was a very large plant eater. Objectives: Reads or follows information about dinosaurs.

XX

Constructs a dinosaur from pieces of two different dinosaurs.

pl es

XX

Background information:

Ultrasauros (pronounced ul-tra-sore-us) (‘ultra lizard – beyond lizard’) is thought to be one of the largest dinosaurs that lived, although very little is known about it. It was thought to be related to Brachiosaurus or may have been a large Brachiosaurus. Another theory suggests the fossil could be composed of Brachiosaurus and Supersarus reamins, and that Ultrasauros is just a type of Brachiosaurus.

XX

Ultrasauros was estimated to be between 25–30 metres long, 15 metres high and weighed between 55 000–64 000 kg.

XX

The front legs of Ultrasauros were longer than the back legs.

XX

Ultrasauros lived during the late Jurassic period and possibly travelled in migratory herds. They hatched from eggs possibly laid in a line as the animal walked, but did not care for them after laying.

XX

They are thought to have lived for about one hundred years and were not believed to be very intelligent.

XX

Ultrasauros used its long neck to eat plants from the tops of trees using chisel-shaped teeth. He then swallowed his food whole and digested it in his gut.

XX

Due to his bulky body, Ultrasauros walked very slowly.

XX

Show pictures of Brachiosaurus and Supersaurus and compare similarities and differences.

XX

Enlarge the worksheet to A3 size and ask the pupils to paint or colour the pieces before cutting out. (Note: Pupils will need to glue the body angled with the narrower section pointed down to enable the longer front legs to go in.) Glue onto card if desired for durability and join with split pins to enable the body parts to move. Display on a background of trees, with the necks of the Ultrasauros reaching the tree tops for food, if desired.

ew

in

g

Sa m

XX

Additional activities:

Mime moving slowly like an Ultrasauros, reaching up with a long neck to eat foliage from tree tops etc.

Vi

XX

XX

Photocopy extra copies of the worksheet for pupils to create herds of Ultrasauros.

XX

Compare pictures of Ultrasauros to that of a giraffe to discuss similarities and differences.

Resources: XX

Story – Dinorella by Pamela Edwards

XX

22

– Missing dinosaur bone by Jan and Stan Berenstain

Song – ‘Dinosaurs’ (Sung to ‘Row, row, row your boat’) <http://www.preschooleducation.com/sdinosaur.shtml>

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Ultrasauros 1. Read the information. Ultrasauros is said to be one of the tallest and largest dinosaurs ever found. Some scientists think it may really be a mixture of two dinosaurs— Brachiosaurus and Supersaurus.

pl es

Ultrasauros had four legs, ate plants, had a long neck like a giraffe and a long tail.

2. Join pieces of Brachiosaurus and Supersaurus together to make an Ultrasauros.

Sa m

body of a Supersaurus

ew

in

g

head of a Brachiosaurus

tail of a Brachiosaurus

Vi

front legs of a Supersaurus

back legs of a Supersaurus Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Early themes — Dinosaurs

23


L - o - n - g Diplodocus Concept: Diplodocus was one of the longest plant-eating dinosaurs. Objectives: XX

Reads information about dinosaurs.

XX

Creates a Diplodocus using colouring, cutting, folding and joining techniques.

Background information: Diplodocus (pronounced di-ploh-de-kus) (‘double-beamed’) was a plant eater who walked on four legs. It had a small head, a very long neck and peg-like teeth. Diplodocus had a heavy body, weighing around 22 600 kg, and a small head with nostrils at the top. It was one of the longest dinosaurs, measuring about 27 metres. The long tail helped to balance the long neck. Some scientists believe that Diplodocus used its tail as a whip for protection. The front legs of a Diplodocus were shorter than the back legs and possibly, like those of an elephant, with five toes.

XX

Diplodocus was a herbivore who would have had to eat almost constantly each day to maintain its big body. It did not chew the leaves that were swallowed. Instead, it probably swallowed stones which helped to grind the food. Diplodocus ate cycads, seed ferns, ferns and club mosses. It kept its neck very close to the ground to gather foliage to eat.

XX

Diplodocus may have travelled in migratory herds and hatched from eggs similar to Ultrasaurus. It is thought that Diplodocus laid its eggs in a line while the female dinosaur was walking but did not care for them.

XX

Diplodocus was not thought to be very intelligent. It is also believed that due to his large body, it had to move slowly.

XX

Enlarge the worksheet and photocopy onto light card.

Sa m

pl es

XX

g

Additional activities:

Encourage pupils to stretch their legs, arms and necks so that they are as long as possible.

XX

Investigate how Diplodocus ground its food, by allowing pupils to grind leaves using large stones. Discuss.

XX

Compare the teeth and legs of different dinosaurs or ‘modern-day’ animals.

ew

in

XX

Resources:

XX

Story – Curious George and the dinosaur by Margret Rey

Song – ‘The dinosaur song’ (Sung to ‘The wheels of the bus’) <http://www.preschooleducation.com/sdinosaur.shtml>

Vi

XX

– How do dinosaurs say goodnight? by Jane Yolen

24

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


L - o - n - g Diplodocus 1. Read the information.

Diplodocus was one of the longest, plant-eating dinosaurs. It had a long neck and a long tail.

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

2. Colour, cut and glue the pieces to make a long, stretchy Diplodocus.

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

25


Find - a - Brachiosaurus Concept: Brachiosaurus was a tall dinosaur with a long neck. Objective: XX

Colours squares using a key to find a dinosaur in a picture.

Background information: Brachiosaurus (pronounced brak-ee-oh-sore-us) (‘arm lizard’ or sometimes ‘high-chested arm lizard’) was one of the tallest and largest known plant-eaters. It was 12–16 metres in height and weighed between 45 000–55 000 kg (or about twelve elephants). It was about 30 metres long, with a small head and a short thick tail. Brachiosaurus walked on four legs with the front legs being longer than the back. Both back and front feet had claws—one on each of the front feet and three on the back feet. Brachiosaurus used its size as a means of defence as well as its tail. It had leathery skin.

XX

Brachiosaurus had blunt, skinny teeth and nostrils on its forehead.

XX

Brachiosaurus ate foliage from tree tops, which it swallowed whole then digested in its gut using stones that had been swallowed. They would have needed to eat large amounts of food to satisfy the requirements of their huge bodies.

XX

Brachiosaurus lived during the Jurassic Period and was thought to not be very intelligent. Brachiosaurus may have had a life span of about 100 years.

XX

Few dinosaurs hunted Brachiosaurus as it was so large.

XX

Due to its size, it is believed that Brachiosaurus needed large, strong hearts and very high blood pressure in order to pump the blood from its heart up the neck to the head and the brain.

XX

Brachiosaurus was similar to Diplodocus in that they travelled in migratory herds, laid eggs in lines as they walked along and did not care for them after laying.

XX

Relate some information about Brachiosaurus to the pupils using texts or pictures.

XX

Explain the key to the pupils. Ask pupils to select one colour and complete the squares relevant to that colour before progressing to the next. Encourage the pupils to colour neatly. Pupils can cut around the outside of their picture and mount onto coloured paper or card for display. Pupils can highlight the parts of their picture by tracing the shapes of Brachiosaurus, the trees and grass with a thicker felt-tipped pen.

in

g

Sa m

pl es

XX

XX

XX

Pupils role-play being a Brachiosaurus; stretching up to get food from tall trees, swallowing food etc. Pupils compose Brachiosaurus sentences using lots of words beginning with ‘b’ and copy (or have them scribed) onto paper for illustrating. These may be nonsense sentences. Pupils compile pages for a little book using the following sentence beginnings: ‘My Brachiosaurus looks like ...’, ‘My Brachiosaurus eats ...’, ‘My Brachiosaurus likes to ...’ etc.

Vi

XX

ew

Additional activities:

Resources:

26

XX

Story/Play – Dinosaur’s new clothes by Diane Goode

XX

Story

– Oh my oh my oh dinosaurs! by Sandra Boynton

XX

Book

– My Visit to the Dinosaurs by Aliki

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Find - a - Brachiosaurus Use the key to colour the squares to find the Brachiosaurus. Key: 1 = blue 2 = brown

3 = green 4 = orange

3

1

1

4

4

1

1

1

1

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

1

1

1

3

2

3

2

3

3

2

3

3

4

4

1

1

2

3

3

1

4

4

1

1

2

3

1

1

4

4

1

1

2

1

1

1

4

4

1

2

1

1

1

4

4

2

1

1

1

4

4

2

1

1

1

4

4

2

1

1

4

2

3

2

3

2

3

3

2

3

2

3

1

3

3

2

2

2

1

1

1

3

3

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

4

4

4

1

1

1

1

2

1

4

4

4

4

4

1

1

1

2

ew

in

Sa m

3

g

pl es

3

1

1

1

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

1

1

2

2

1

1

1

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

1

2

2

1

1

1

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

2

2

2

1

1

4

1

4

4

4

4

4

1

4

2

2

2

2

3

4

3

4

3

4

3

4

3

4

4

2

2

2

2

4

3

4

3

4

3

4

3

3

4

Vi

2

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

27


Tyrannosaurus mask Concept: Tyrannosaurus rex was one of the biggest meat-eating dinosaurs. Objective: XX

Constructs a dinosaur mask using colouring and cutting.

Background information: Tyrannosaurus rex (pronounced tie-ran-oh-sore-us rex) (‘tyrant lizard’) was one of the fiercest, and most well-known, carnivores. It was about 5 metres tall, 12 metres long, weighed about 63 00 kg and had a powerful head with very big teeth and powerful jaws. They walked on two strong legs. Their teeth were very sharp and pointy, but also very thick and strong and capable of crushing bones. ‘T-rex’ has often been called the perfect killing machine. They had big feet to pursue and catch prey. It is believed to have travelled up to speeds of about 24 kph. Even its short arms were strong. Each arm of a Tyrannosaurus had two fingers and each foot had three large toes—each with claws plus a smaller claw on the fourth toe. The only danger to a T-rex was another T-rex!

XX

T-rex lived during the late Cretaceous period in humid, tropical environments.

XX

Fossils of Tyrannosaurus rex have shown that they had rough, scaly skin.

XX

Only Giganotosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus were bigger than T-rex.

XX

An almost complete fossil of a Tyrannosaurus rex was discovered in South Dakota and is now displayed in a museum in Chicago. This specimen has been named ‘Sue’. Sue is nearly 13 metres long, with its largest tooth being almost 30 centimetres long!

XX

Photocopy the worksheet onto card for durability and encourage the pupils to colour or paint the mask carefully before cutting out. Poke holes at the places marked by the crosses and attach string, wool or elastic to secure the mask to the pupil’s head.

g

Sa m

pl es

XX

Additional activities:

Provide pictures of other dinosaurs and ask pupils to sketch full front-on faces to create other dinosaur masks of their own.

XX

Use basic shapes to create a Tyrannosaurus rex picture. Glue onto a painted background and add 3-D features such as trees, ferns etc.

ew

in

XX

XX

Play running games with one pupil being Tyrannosaurus rex chasing other pupils being smaller dinosaurs. Pupils caught become new Tyrannosauruses, and help catch more prey.

Resources:

Story – Dinosaurumpus! by Tony Mitton

Vi

XX

XX

Song – ‘Tyrannosaurus rex’ (Sung to ‘Mary had a little lamb’) <http://www.preschooleducation.com/sdinosaur.shtml>

28

– Tyrone the terrible by Hans Wilhelm

– ‘Dino-Pokey’ (Performed to ‘Hokey-pokey’) <http://www.preschooleducation.com/sdinosaur.shtml>

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Tyrannosaurus mask Tyrannosaurus was a fierce meat-eating dinosaur.

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

Colour and cut out your Tyrannosaurus rex mask.

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

29


Armoured Ankylosaurus Concept: Ankylosaurus was a plant eater with heavy armour. Objective: XX

Creates an Ankylosaurus using basic shapes.

Background information: Ankylosaurus (pronounced an-kie-low-saw-rus) (‘stiff-joint lizard/fused, stiff or bent lizard’) was a plant eater who had thick, bony armour on its body. It used this armour as a means of protection. Ankylosaurus also had a large ‘club’ on the end of its tail which it could swing and attack other dinosaurs with.

XX

Ankylosaurus was probably more than 7 metres long, about 1.5 metres wide, 1.5 metres tall and weighed about 2700–3600 kg.

XX

The plates of an Ankylosaurus were thick and oval-shaped and were embedded in its tough skin. It had two rows of spikes along its body, large horns which came from the back of the head and bony plates to protect its eyes. The only vulnerable part of an Ankylosaurus was its soft underbelly.

XX

Ankylosaurus had two short front legs and longer legs at the back. It had a short neck and a small brain inside a wide skull.

XX

Ankylosaurus ate huge amounts of low-growing plant material to fill its huge gut. It is thought that it may have had a fermentation compartment (which produced lots of gas!) to aid the digestion of plant fibres.

XX

Ankylosaurus is thought to have had low intelligence, since its brain to body ratio was low. It is also thought to move reasonably fast—similar to that of a jog!

XX

Ankylosaurus lived during the late Cretaceous period.

XX

Ankylosaurus was probably the last and largest of the armoured dinosaurs. Very little fossil evidence exists about it.

XX

Pupils should cut out and glue the oval body first.

XX

Enlarge the worksheet to A3 size.

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

XX

Additional activities:

View pictures of dinosaurs and identify basic shapes. As a class, create shape dinosaurs.

XX

Investigate or create unusual dinosaurs using basic shapes.

XX

Categorise dinosaurs by head shapes, body shapes, leg shapes, unusual shapes on their bodies etc.

Vi

XX

Resources:

30

XX

Song – ‘Five dinosaurs’ (Sung to the tune ‘Five elephants went out to play’) <http://www.canteach.ca/elementary/songspoems67.html>

XX

Chant – ‘Going on a dinosaur hunt’ <http://www.canteach.ca/elementary/songspoems67.html>

XX

Story – Amanda’s dinosaur by Wendy Orr

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Armoured Ankylosaurus Ankylosaurus was a plant eater who had thick, bony armour on its body.

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

Colour, cut and glue the shapes to make an Anklyosaurus.

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

31


Triceratops and other ceratopsians Concept: Ceratopsians were four-legged herbivores who belonged to the

ornithischian (bird-hipped) group of dinosaurs of the Cretaceous period.

Objective: Studies and records the similarities and differences between six ceratopsians.

pl es

XX

Background information:

Ceratopsians belonged to the ornithischian (bird-hipped) group of dinosaurs.

XX

The most distinguishing features of the ceratopsian dinosaurs were the horns and frills. It is most probable that the horns were used for charging predators and other attackers, just as the rhinoceros does today.

XX

The frills were large bony plates which projected from the back of the skull. The skulls of ceratopsians were very large, up to 35% of the body length. The frills would have added a lot of extra weight to the heads of these dinosaurs.

XX

Frills between the species varied. That of Styracosaurus looked the most striking, with six large horns projecting from it, as well as a number of smaller ones. Chasmosaurus had hollow bones through its large frill, reducing the weight significantly.

XX

The snout horns varied in size between the species, as did the brow horns which were situated above the eyes.

XX

Many ceratopsians had protruding cheekbones. Those of Pentaceratops were very large, having the appearance of horns.

XX

The toothless beak was like that of a parrot. It would have been used to pull at low-lying plants such as cycads. Ceratopsians were unlike many other dinosaurs in that they used teeth located in their cheeks to chew food before swallowing.

XX

It is believed that Ceratopsians moved relatively slowly. Their short, sturdy legs supported a rotund body with short tail which was built more for power than for speed.

XX

Ceratopsians would have been preyed upon by large carnivorous dinosaurs of the same period, such as Tyrannosaurus rex.

ew

in

g

Sa m

XX

XX

Fossils of many ceratopsians have been found in bone beds, indicating that they lived as family groups and herds.

Additional activities:

Create a ‘Build-a-dinosaur’ game for ceratopsians. Choose one species initially then increase the level of difficulty by introducing frills and horns specific to individual species.

Vi

XX

XX

Make and decorate ceratopsian face masks.

XX

Make mobiles with ceratopsian and Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaurs.

Resources:

32

XX

Whatever happened to the dinosaurs? by Bernard Most

XX

Dinosaur bones by Aliki

XX

Dinosaur cousins? by Bernard Most

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Triceratops and other ceratopsians 1. Look at the pictures of the six different ceratopsians. Styracosaurus

pl es

Triceratops

Centrosaurus

in

g

Sa m

Pentaceratops

Chasmosaurus

Vi

ew

Torosaurus

2. On a separate sheet of paper, write:

(a) a list of things that are the same for all six ceratopsians.

(b) a list of things that are different for each ceratopsian.

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

33


Stegosaurus Concept: Stegosaurus was a plant-eating ornithischian (bird-hipped) dinosaur of the Jurassic period.

Objectives: XX

Arranges jigsaw pieces correctly.

XX

Colours jigsaw pieces.

Background information: The name Stegosaurus (pronounced steg-oh-sore-us) meant ‘covered lizard’ or ‘roof lizard’. Stegosaurus was a plant-eating ornithischian dinosaur of the Jurassic period.

XX

The hip structure of ornithischian dinosaurs was similar to that of birds, but they are not the ancestors of birds.

XX

Stegosaurus was almost 10 metres long and just under 3 metres tall. Along its back and neck it had a row of 17 bony plates, which are believed to have contained blood vessels. The plates may have been used as temperature regulators.

XX

At the end of the tail, there were a number of spikes called thagomisers, which were over a metre in length. These would have been used to ward off predators and other attackers.

XX

For such a large animal, the brain of Stegosaurus was tiny, about the size of a walnut. It is believed that an enlargement of the spinal cord in the hip region was a nerve centre which controlled the back legs and tail.

XX

The hind legs of Stegosaurus were twice as long as its front legs. It is thought that they may have balanced on their hind legs to reach vegetation at higher levels. If they did not, they would have been restricted to the low lying plants, such as ferns, mosses and cycads.

XX

Stegosaurus had a toothless beak, which it would have used for pulling at plants. Its small cheek teeth would have been used for chewing.

XX

The main predators of Stegosaurus were probably the large carnivores of the same period, such as Allosaurus and Megalosaurus.

XX

The climate of the planet during the Jurassic period was warm and humid with temperate and subtropical forests. As there was no polar ice, the sea levels were high.

XX

At the end of the Jurassic period there was a minor mass extinction, during which most of the stegosaurid dinosaurs disappeared. The cause of this extinction is still unknown.

Sa m

g

in

ew

XX

pl es

XX

Fossils of Stegosaurus have been found throughout the world. The most complete one found was in 1992, in Colorado, USA. It has been named ‘Spike’.

Additional activities:

Use junk materials to make and add features to models of Stegosaurus.

Vi

XX XX

Make smaller words from the letters of Stegosaurus.

Resources:

34

XX

Can I have a Stegosaurus, Mom? Can I? Please? by Lois G Grambling

XX

Thingnapped by Robin Klein

XX

How big were the dinosaurs? by Bernard Most

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Stegosaurus 1. Cut out the squares and arrange to make a picture of Stegosaurus.

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

2. Glue and colour the squares.

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

35


Compsognathus Concept: Compsognathus was a small, carnivorous theropod (two-footed dinosaur) of the Jurassic period.

Objectives: XX

Reads description of major features of Compsognathus.

XX

Assembles Compsognathus body parts correctly.

Background information: Compsognathus (pronounced komp-soh-nay-thus/comp-sog-nay-thus) was one of the smallest dinosaurs, its body being about the size of a chicken. Its name means ‘pretty jaw’. From its head to the tip of its tail, it measured on average, one metre. Its legs were about 15cm long. As it had hollow bones, it was also very light, weighing about five kilograms.

XX

Compsognathus was a theropod, which means two footed. Its legs were long and very thin with sharp, clawed feet. Its short arms were also clawed which, together with the feet, would have been used to catch prey and tear it apart before eating.

XX

A lot of information can be determined about how dinosaurs moved by studying their fossilised footprints. For example, how many feet they had, the structure of the feet, differences between front and back feet and how fast they could move. Speed can be determined by applying a formula which uses the length of the leg and the distance between prints.

XX

Compsognathus had a small head but a large brain, making it one of the more intelligent dinosaurs. Compsognathus had small but very sharp teeth. It would have been a ferocious predator. Its large eyes indicate that it probably had good eyesight, which it would have required for spying and catching its swift, small prey.

XX

Compsognathus would have been a very quick and agile dinosaur. Its neck was flexible and relatively long, its legs were slender and relatively powerful and its long tail would have been used for balance and for stability during speedy manoeuvres.

XX

Being such a small carnivore, Compsognathus’s diet would have consisted of small mammals and other animals such as lizards and insects. In southern Germany, the fossilised stomach remains of Compsognathus were found to contain the bones of Bavarisaurus, a fast running lizard.

XX

Compsognathus was a saurischian dinosaur, meaning its hip structure was similar to that of a lizard. Saurischian dinosaurs are believed to be the ancestors of birds.

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

XX

Additional activities: XX XX

Write a report about Compsognathus. Consider its physical features, how it moved and how it caught its prey. Select a number of theropod dinosaurs ranging in size from the smallest to the largest. Compare their lengths and heights. Draw outlines of each on black paper. Label and mount on white paper and display.

Vi

XX

Draw and paint a life-size picture of Compsognathus.

Resources:

36

XX

The littlest dinosaur by Bernard Most

XX

Fossils tell of long, long ago by Aliki

XX

What happened to the dinosaurs? by Franklyn M Branley

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Compsognathus Paleontologists have found the broken remains of a Compsognathus. They have identified the parts and now want to put it back together. Can you help? 1. Read the information about each part.

pl es

2. Cut out each part. 3. Glue in place on a sheet of black paper.

Sa m

small head with small, sharp teeth and large eyes

g

long neck with small body

Vi

ew

in

long tail

short arms with two fingers and sharp claws on each hand

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

long, slender legs with three toes and sharp claws on each foot Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

37


Ornithomimus Concept: Ornithomimus was an omnivorous lizard-hipped dinosaur of the Cretaceous period.

Objective: XX

Assembles paper model of Ornithomimus.

Background information: Ornithomimus (pronounced or-ni-thoh-mee-mus) comes from the Ornithomimosaur species of dinosaurs known as ‘bird mimics’ because their bones are very similar those of birds, being hollow and of similar configuration. They have also been referred to as ostrich dinosaurs as their skeletons bear a particular resemblance to those of the ostrich. They are characterised by three-toed feet, long, slender legs; short arms; long neck and ostrich-like head, with a horny beak covering a toothless jaw.

XX

From head to tail, Ornithomimus was between 4–6metres long and stood between 2–21/2 metres tall. It had short arms and long legs. Its long tail would have been a counterbalance for its long neck and a stabiliser for its rapid movements. It has been suggested that the long slender hands and claws were used to hold on to branches during feeding, just like a sloth.

XX

There has been much debate about the diet of Ornithomimus. It is generally accepted that it was an omnivore, eating insects, plants, fruit, seeds and small animals. It had no teeth but did use gastroliths in its stomach to help grind food and aid digestion. This is another similarity with birds, as chickens do this today, using grit.

XX

It has been estimated that Ornithomimus was able to run extremely fast, maybe preferring to outrun its predators rather than stay and fight. Predators of Ornithomimus could have been Tyrannosaurus rex, Albertosaurus and Acrocanthosaurus.

XX

Fossils of Ornithomimus have been found in North America and Mongolia. It was the first discovery of Ornithomimus that originally sparked discussion that birds might be descended from dinosaurs.

Sa m

pl es

XX

g

Constructing the model:

1. Cut around the outline of Ornithomimus, ensuring the two images remain attached.

in

2. Fold the base stand pieces towards each other and glue together. 3. The model may be:

- hung as a mobile by punching a hole at the top.

- left free-standing.

ew

Additional activities: XX

Mould modelling clay into Ornithomimus’s three-toed feet with claws and cast footprints in plaster of Paris.

Vi

XX

Compare pictures of Ornithomimus and ostriches. Discuss similarities and differences.

XX

Make a running Ornithomimus booklet, using sketches of the dinosaur at slightly different stages of running. As you quickly flick through the pages, Ornithomimus appears to be running.

Resources:

38

XX

Dinosaurs are different by Aliki

XX

How big were dinosaurs? by Bernard Most

XX

Encyclopaedia prehistorica: dinosaurs by Robert Sabuda and Matthew Reinhart

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Ornithomimus

Sa m

pl es

Fold here

Vi

ew

in

g

Fold here

Fold here

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

39


Velociraptor Concept: Velociraptor was a carnivorous bipedal (two-footed) dinosaur of the Cretaceous period.

Objective: XX

Labels picture of Velociraptor.

pl es

Background information:

Velociraptor, whose name means ‘speedy thief’, was a small, lightweight dinosaur, standing about one metre tall and two metres long, from its head to the tip of its tail. What it lacked in stature, it made up for in strength and ferocity. Its powerful leg muscles allowed it to move so fast that prey would be unable to escape. It has been estimated that in short bursts, Velociraptor could run up to 60km/hour. It could even jump up to ten times its own height, making it possible to attack dinosaurs of a much greater size. It arms were jointed at the elbow, giving it a greater range of movement and more flexibility. There was a definite bend in its neck, possibly giving the head greater mobility. It had a long, stiff tail, providing stability for rapid movements.

XX

It belonged to the family dromaeosauridae, which were believed to be the smartest dinosaurs. The size of the brain relative to the size of the body, was large. It is believed by some scientists that Velociraptor was capable of applying skills to solve problems. This theory is supported by evidence which suggests they hunted in packs.

XX

Velociraptor’s long flat head had a large jaw filled with many sharp curved teeth. They would have been used to tear the flesh from its prey. The other dangerous feature of Velociraptor was its claws. On the second toe of each foot was a lethal, retractable sickleshaped claw which it would have used to split open the body of its prey before diving in and tearing it apart with its sharp finger claws and teeth.

XX

In 1971, the fossilised remains of a Velociraptor and a Protoceratops were found. After studying the remains, palaeontologists reached the conclusion that they had been in combat with one another and both were killed. Velociraptor had been pierced in the chest by Protoceratops’s snout horn. Protoceratops had been clawed repeatedly by Velociraptor.

XX

Velociraptor fossils have been found in Russia, China and Mongolia in what would have been a hot, dry desert environment.

ew

in

g

Sa m

XX

Additional activities:

Create a diorama showing a combat between Velociraptor and Protoceratops.

XX

Make a life-size picture of Velociraptor, showing the details of its jaws and claws.

XX

(Teacher) Research the heights of a number of dinosaur that lived at the time of Velociraptor. Include its possible predators and prey. Compare the differences in size.

Vi

XX

Resources:

40

XX

Dinosaurs! the biggest, baddest, strangest, fastest by Howard Zimmerman

XX

Dinosaur encyclopaedia by Jayne Parsons

XX

Extreme dinosaurs by Luis Rey

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Velociraptor

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

Label the picture of Velociraptor.

long, flat head

sickle-shaped claw

sharp, curved teeth

three-fingered hand

long, sharp claws

toed foot

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

41


Apatosaurus Concept: Apatosaurus (formerly Brontosaurus) was a large, herbivorous sauropod of the Jurassic period.

Objectives: XX

Describes Apatosaurus.

XX

Draws a picture of Apatosaurus.

Background information: The Apatosaurus (pronounced ah-pat-oh-soreus) is known as the ‘deceptive lizard’, ‘thunder lizard’ or ‘harmless giant’. It was a plant-eating sauropod of the Jurassic period.

XX

Apatosaurus was one of the largest land animals to have ever existed. It was over 20 metres long and just under five metres tall.

XX

The sheer size of Apatosaurus helped to protect it from predators. Smaller carnivores would not have been able to reach its head and would have been seriously hurt by its large feet or whip-like tail.

For such a large dinosaur, Apatosaurus had a very small head, a little over half a metre in length. Its brain was also very small. It is believed that an enlargement of the spinal cord in the hip region was a nerve centre which controlled the back legs and tail. The size of this nerve centre was greater than the size of Apatosaurus’s brain.

XX

At the end of the Jurassic period there was a minor mass extinction during which most of the sauropod dinosaurs disappeared. The cause of this extinction is still unknown.

XX

Fossils of Apatosaurus have been found in many parts of the world.

Additional activities:

XX

Research suggests that Apatosaurus may have had deer-like lips that would have aided plant gathering. It had teeth, but these were probably used for stripping foliage rather than chewing as it is believed that food was swallowed whole.

Vi

XX

The hind legs of Apatosaurus were larger than its front legs, but all four legs were huge and column-like. Fossilised footprints of Apatosaurus have been found, measuring about one metre across.

ew

XX

in

g

XX

Like all sauropods, Apatosaurus had a very long neck which was balanced by a long, whip-like tail (about 15 metres). Research has indicated that the neck mobility of some sauropods, including Apatosaurus, was limited in the vertical plane, suggesting that it would not have been able to reach up to graze on high level vegetation. It most probably held its neck horizontally, grazing on lower level plants.

Apatosaurus hatched from huge eggs, up to 30 cm wide. There is evidence to suggest that eggs were laid while the animal was walking rather than in a nest of some kind. Hatchlings would have been left to fend for themselves.

Sa m

XX

XX

XX

42

pl es

XX

The body of Apatosaurus was very large. It swallowed stones (gastroliths) to help grind up and digest the vast quantity of food it would have had to ingest in order to sustain itself.

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Take pupils outside and measure out the height and length of Apatosaurus. Line pupils up to make the shape of the beast, with some being the head, the legs, the tail and the body. Pupils from one or more other classes may be needed for this exercise!

XX

Present a dinosaur parade with pupils wearing simple costumes made from junk materials, with a running commentary giving a description of each dinosaur.

XX

Cut strips of paper to the size of different dinosaurs. Decorate strips with outlines of the dinosaurs. Label and display.

Resources: XX

If the dinosaurs came back by Bernard Most

XX

The dinosaur who lived in my backyard by B G Hennessy

XX

Digging up dinosaurs by Aliki

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Apatosaurus In a museum, each item on display has a description to help visitors learn more about it.

Name:

Description:

pl es

1. Complete the information chart for Apatosaurus.

Food:

Predators:

Time of living:

Other interesting information:

g

Sa m

Vi

ew

in

2. Draw a picture of Apatosaurus.

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

43


Iguanodon’s hands and feet Concept: Iguanodon had claws and spiked thumbs. Objective: XX

Compares a dinosaur hand and foot with his/her own hand and foot.

Background information: Iguanodon (pronounced ig-wha-noh-don) lived in the Cretaceous period. It was named in 1825 by Dr Gideon Mantell, making it the second dinosaur ever to be named (after Megalosaurus). Its name means ‘iguana tooth’. It was a plant-eating dinosaur that grew to about 10 metres in length and could weigh up to 4500 kg. It could walk on all fours or just on its three-toed hind feet. Iguanodon’s large spiked thumbs grew perpendicular to its three middle fingers and are thought to have been used for defence. Early reconstructions of Iguanodon actually had the thumb spike located on its nose! Iguanodon had a horny, toothless beak similar to that of a turtle, which could crop vegetation. Its sharp teeth were located at the back of its jaws. Iguanodon remains have been found in Europe, northern Africa and North America.

XX

After reading the information at the top of the page to the pupils, make sure they understand that the pictures of Iguanodon’s hand and foot have been drawn to a very small scale as life size pictures would not fit on the sheet of paper! They can then draw a picture of their left hand and foot and complete the sentences. Discuss what the pupils have learnt from the page before they attempt to complete Question 3.

Sa m

pl es

XX

Answers: 1. Teacher check 4,1;

3,5

g

2. 3,1;

in

3. A spiked thumb and claws.

Additional activities:

Make cut-outs of life size dinosaur footprints. Compare them to the pupils’ footprints or see how many pupils can fit on one dinosaur footprint.

ew

XX

XX

View a large picture of an Iguanodon and compare its blunt beak and teeth with the pupils’ mouths and teeth.

Resources:

Poem – Iguanodon by Jack Prelutsky

Books – Iguanodon by Janet Riehecky

Vi

XX XX

44

– Looking at … Iguanodon: a dinosaur from the Cretaceous period by Jenny Vaughan and Tony Gibbons

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Iguanodon’s hands and feet Iguanodon was a plant-eating dinosaur. It had fingers and a spiked thumb on each hand. Its feet had toes and claws like a cow’s hoofs. 1. Draw a picture of your left hand and foot next to the pictures of Iguanodon’s left hand and foot.

pl es

2. Count the fingers, thumbs and toes to finish the sentences. Iguanodon’s left hand

fingers.

I have

fingers.

It has

g

Sa m

It has

I have

thumb.

in

thumb.

My left foot

Iguanodon’s left foot

Vi

ew

My left hand

It has

toes.

I have

toes.

3. Write two things Iguanodon has that you do not. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

and

. Early themes — Dinosaurs

45


Pachycephalosaurus puppet Concept: Pachycephalosaurus had a thick, rounded head. Objective: XX

Uses fine motor skills to make a paper bag puppet.

pl es

Background information:

Pachycephalosaurus (pronounced pak-ee-sef-a-loh-sore-us) (‘thick-headed lizard’) was a bipedal herbivore which lived during the Cretaceous period. It grew to around four metres in length and probably weighed around 900–1800 kilograms. Its skull was topped by a bony dome that was around 25 centimetres thick. The skull also had bony knobs or spikes at the back and around the nose. Scientists once believed that this dinosaur used its thick skull for headbutting other dinosaurs in fights. But more recent studies demonstrate that the skull would not have withstood such immense pressure and, in addition, there is no evidence of scarring on fossilised Pachycephalosaurus skulls. It is more likely that Pachycephalosaurus butted other animals’ flanks, rather than their heads, which would have sustained considerable damage to its victim. Pachycephalosaurus remains have been found in North America.

XX

To make the paper bag puppets, each pupil will need a large paper bag, a cardboard tube (such as those used for plastic wrap or paper towels), pencils, crayons or paint, glue, masking tape and sheets of newspaper. It is suggested that teachers make an example to show the pupils before they begin the activity.

XX

The pupils should first draw or paint a Pachycephalosaurus face on their paper bag, making sure the closed end of the bag is at the top of the puppet’s head. Ensure the pupils draw their faces high up on the bag so that when the open end is attached to the tube it doesn’t hide any part of the face. When the face is finished, the pupils can be helped to stuff their bag with scrunched up newspaper. Encourage them to tightly pack the front of the puppet’s head to try to simulate the dome-shaped head of the Pachycephalosaurus. The bag can then be attached to the cardboard tube with masking tape. Finally, the pupils should colour and cut out the spikes and glue each tab to the paper bag so the spikes stick out. The spikes could be counted together as a class.

in

g

Sa m

XX

ew

Additional activities:

The finished puppets can be held by their tubes and used for simple puppet plays. Paper bag puppets of different dinosaur species could also be made by the class and their features compared.

XX

Use the spikes on the puppets for various counting and adding activities.

Vi

XX

XX

Use this activity as an opportunity for talking about words that begin with ‘p’; e.g. paper, puppet, play, paint, Pachycephalosaurus, pencils, pack.

Resources:

XX

Poem – Pachycephalosaurus by Richard Armour

XX

Books – 10 little dinosaurs by Pattie Schnetzler and Jim Harris (contains information on Pachycephalosaurus)

46

– Pachycephalosaurus by Frances Swann and Pam Mara

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Pachycephalosaurus puppet Pachycephalosaurus had a strange skull. It was very thick and could be used to butt other dinosaurs in fights. The skull also had spikes at the front and back. Make a paper bag Pachycephalosaurus puppet.

pl es

1. Draw dinosaur eyes, nostrils and a mouth on a paper bag.

Sa m

2. Stuff the paper bag with newspaper.

3. Use masking tape to attach the bottom of the bag to a cardboard tube.

in

g

4. Colour the spikes below. Cut them out and glue the five big spikes to the back of your Pachycephalosaurus’s head. Glue the five small spikes around its nostrils. tab

tab

tab

tab

Vi

ew

tab

tab

tab

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

tab

tab

tab Early themes — Dinosaurs

47


Gallimimus Concept: Gallimimus was a small dinosaur which looked like an ostrich. Objectives: XX

Reads information about a specific dinosaur.

XX

Completes a puzzle about a specific dinosaur.

pl es

Background information:

Gallimimus (pronounced gal-ih-my-mus) or ‘rooster or chicken mimic’ was a fast-running, toothless omnivore, about 3.5 metres tall, about 6 metres long and weighing as much as 450 kilograms. Gallimimus is thought to have moved like modern-day flightless birds, such as the ostrich. It is believed to have travelled at speeds of up to 70 kph or more. The bottom part of the beak was shaped like a shovel.

XX

The diet of Gallimimus probably consisted mostly of insects, small animals, eggs and even some plants.

XX

Gallimimus had a small head, large eyes, long tail, long neck, short arms and long fingers and arms, which probably helped them to dig for or hold eggs. He had long legs which, like the ostrich, he used to kick as a means of protection. Gallimimus had three clawed fingers on each hand and three clawed toes on each foot.

XX

Gallimimus had hollow bones like most modern birds and was thought to be relatively intelligent.

XX

Gallimimus lived during the late Cretaceous period.

XX

Read the information with the pupils and identify the boxes where the words fit. Pupils should copy one word before proceeding to the next one. This activity may be completed as a class.

g

Sa m

XX

in

Answers: (1) eggs

(3) toothless

(4) claws

(5) bird

(7) kick

(8) omnivore

(9) runner

(10) insects

ew

(6) mimic

(2) beak

Additional activities:

Find pictures of flightless birds and find similarities and differences to Gallimimus.

XX

Ask the pupils to mimic familiar animals. Identify the best rooster or hen pupil mimic.

XX

The pupils compete in Gallimimus running races to see which pupil from a group is the fastest Gallimimus.

Vi

XX

Resources:

48

XX

Rhyme – ‘Dinosaurs, dinosaurs’ (Sung to ‘Teddy bear, Teddy bear’) see <http://www.preschooleducation.com/sdinosaur.shtml>

XX

Song

– ‘I’d like to be a dinosaur’ see <http://www.preschooleducation.com/sdinosaur.shtml>

XX

Story

– Harold and the purple crayon: Dinosaur days by Crockett Johnson

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Gallimimus 1. Read the information. Gallimimus looked like a bird .

It was toothless(3).

It had a flat beak(2).

It was a fast runner(9) and liked to kick(7).

pl es

(5)

It was an omnivore(8) because it liked to eat eggs(1), insects(10) and plants.

Sa m

It had three claws(4) on its hands and feet. Its name means ‘rooster mimic’(6).

2. Write the missing letters in the correct boxes. 1

2

G

Vi

ew

3

in

g

A

4

L

5

I

6

10

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

L

M 7

I

8

M

9

U S Early themes — Dinosaurs

49


Big Al Concept: Allosaurus was a large meat-eating dinosaur. Objective: XX

Creates a moving model of the head of an Allosaurus.

Background information: Allosaurus (pronounced al-o-saw-rus) or ‘different lizard’ was one of the most common carnivorous dinosaurs. It walked upright on two strong legs, had a powerful S-shaped neck and vertebrae which were different from other dinosaurs (which is where its name is derived!). Allosaurus had a large tail, sharp teeth, a big body and short, strong arms with three fingers ending in long, sharp claws, which it used as its main form of defence. Allosaurus was easily recognised by a pair of blunt horns on top of its head and near the eyes.

XX

This carnivore lived during the late Jurassic period.

XX

Allosaurus was very large, standing about four or five metres tall, 12 metres long and weighing between 1000 to 2000–5000 kilograms, depending on the species.

XX

Allosaurus is thought to have hunted in packs, enabling it to eat larger dinosaurs, Stegasaurus and Apatosaurus. Allosaurus probably laid eggs and cared for its young in nests.

XX

Allosaurus is thought to rank highly in terms of intelligence compared to other dinosaurs.

XX

In 1991, a juvenile specimen of Allosaurus was found in Wyoming, USA, which was eight metres tall and almost 100% intact. The excavation team named this fossil ‘Big Al’. A second specimen was discovered later which was called ‘Big Al Two’. This latter specimen is the best preserved example of Allosaurus discovered so far.

XX

Before pupils complete the worksheet, relate details about Allosaurus using the information above, pictures or factual texts.

XX

Enlarge the worksheet and photocopy onto card, if possible. Pupils can use oil pastels, crayons, paint or a combination to add colour to their worksheet. After drying and cutting, the two sections should be joined using a split pin to allow the mouth to move.

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

XX

Additional activities:

Write a menu for an Allosaurus meal using information from the text.

XX

Write a description of Allosaurus using information from a text (and lots of adjectives!)

XX

Pupils use their own hands as a template to create hands for an Allosaurus, adjusting the number of digits and adding claws made from craftsticks, straws etc.

Vi

XX

Resources:

50

XX

Song

– ‘Allosaurus’ (Sung to ‘Allouette’) see <http://www.preschooleducation.com/sdinosaurs.shtml>

XX

Story

– Thing and Thingnapped by Robin Klein

XX

Rhyme – ‘Five enormous dinosaurs’ <http://www.preschooleducation.com/sdinosaurs.shtml>

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Big Al Allosaurus was a large meat-eating dinosaur.

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

Colour, cut and join the two head pieces to make a jaw which opens and closes.

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

51


Grandaddy Albertosaurus Concept: Albertosaurus was related to Tyrannosaurus rex. Objectives: XX

Reads information about a dinosaur.

XX

Draws a dinosaur from a description.

Background information: Albertosaurus (pronounced al-bert-oh-sore-us) (‘lizard from Alberta’) was a distant relative of Tyrannosaurus rex, although it was smaller. It lived during the Cretaceous period, millions of years before Tyrannosaurus rex.

XX

Albertosaurus is named after a Canadian province, Alberta, where the first remains were found.

XX

Albertosaurus walked on two strong legs; had a large head; strong jaws with very sharp, long, saw-like teeth; short arms with two fingers on each hand; a long tail and three toes on each foot with a claw on each one. It also had hollow bones like birds.

XX

Albertosaurus was about 8 or 9 metres long, about 3 metres high and weighed about 2700 kilograms.

XX

Albertosaurus had between 14 and 16 teeth in the lower jaw and between 17 and 19 teeth in the upper jaw. Each tooth had at least one replacement tooth growing underneath it.

XX

Albertosaurus ate plant-eating dinosaurs and was probably the most prominent predator of its time.

XX

Fossils of many almost-complete Albertosaurus dinosaurs have been found, which gives more information than is known about Tyrannosaurus rex.

XX

It is probable that Albertosaurus travelled in packs and looked after its young.

XX

Read the information at the top of the pupil page with the class and discuss the picture of Tyrannosaurus rex, noting features such as hands, claws, legs, teeth etc.

XX

Read the description of Albertosaurus and ensure that pupils include all sections to complete their drawing. Pupils may wish to tick the features as they include them.

in

g

Sa m

pl es

XX

ew

Additional activities:

View pictures or models of various dinosaurs and sort into groups to show which ones may belong in the same family.

XX

Create a family of Albertosauruses using cardboard rolls of various sizes.

XX

Pupils create dinosaur names for themselves based on where they live, lived or were born. For example; country name + saurus, street name + saurus, hospital name + saurus, town or city + saurus – Edgeworthosaurus.

Vi

XX

Resources:

52

XX

Saturday night at the dinosaur stomp by Carol Diggory Shields

XX

Ten terrible dinosaurs by Paul Stickland

XX

Dinosaur roar by Paul and Henrietta Stickland

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Grandaddy Albertosaurus Albertosaurus was a meat-eating dinosaur. Some people even think he may have been the grandfather of Tyrannosaurus rex!

pl es

1. Read the description below, look at the p icture of Tyrannosaurus rex and draw what you think Albertosaurus looked like.

• two, strong, long legs; • a large head;

in

g

• strong jaws with very sharp, long teeth;

Sa m

Albertosaurus had:

ew

• short arms with two fingers on each hand;

Vi

• a long tail;

• three toes with claws on each foot.

Albertosaurus 2. Draw grey whiskers or glasses on your Albertosaurus to make him look like a grandad. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Early themes — Dinosaurs

53


Megalosaurus Concept: Megalosaurus was the first dinosaur fossil discovered. Objectives: XX

Reads information about a dinosaur.

XX

Writes possible dialogue for a situation.

pl es

Background information:

Megalosaurus (pronounced meg-ah-loh-sore-us) (‘great lizard’) was a large, meat-eating dinosaur who lived during the Jurassic period. He was a fierce predator and scavenger.

XX

Megalosaurus was about 9 metres long, 3 metres tall and weighed about 900–1300 kilograms. He walked on two strong legs; had a large head and sharp, serrated teeth; a large tail which supported the body and head; a large body; sharp claws on its toes and short arms with three fingers—each with sharp claws.

XX

Megalosaurus was the very first dinosaur fossil to be discovered. Part of a femur was discovered in 1676, then a tooth in 1699 and more discoveries were made in 1815. William Buckland, an English geologist, acquired the pieces and named the species in 1822 . Later, in 1842, Richard Owen used the name ‘dinosaur’. The femur found was thought to belong to a large animal or possibly the thigh bone of a giant. The femur has been lost over the years, but illustrations of it are still available to identify it as that of a Megalosaurus.

XX

Megalosaurus was a very common dinosaur during the time it lived and was considered to be a very intelligent dinosaur.

XX

Megalosaurus is believed to have been a fast runner.

XX

Relate some basic information about the discovery of the first dinosaur bone (the femur) (see above).

XX

Ask the pupils to role-play finding the bone of an unknown creature and imagine what they would say or think.

XX

Assist any pupils who may need help to write words in the speech bubbles.

in

g

Sa m

XX

ew

Additional activities:

Provide pupils with paper, glue, pasta pieces and felt-tipped pens to make their own individual outlines of dinosaur skeletons.

XX

‘Bury’ pieces of cut fruit (dinosaur bones) in jelly or chocolate pudding and allow to set. Pupils ‘dig’ for bones.

XX

Provide pupils with an outline of a skeleton of a Megalosaurus and ask them to draw the body to cover it and colour it in.

Vi

XX

Resources:

XX

Book – Dinosaurs are different by Aliki

XX

54

– Dinosaur bones by Aliki

Song – ‘Oh, I want to be a great big dinosaur’ see <http://www.canteach.ca/elementary/songspoems67.html>

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Megalosaurus Megalosaurus was the first dinosaur fossil to be found and named. It was a large meat-eater.

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl es

1. Look at the picture of people discovering parts of the first dinosaur. Write sentences to tell what they may have said or thought.

2. Colour the picture. Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

55


Living with dinosaurs Concept: Many prehistoric animals were not dinosaurs. Objectives: XX

Understands that other animals lived during prehistoric times.

XX

Matches sentence clues to pictures.

pl es

Background information:

The clues could be read to the pupils and then matched to the pictures as a class.

XX

Early mammals lived throughout the age of dinosaurs. These were small creatures about the size of mice. Megazostrodon was one of the earliest mammals. It was a shrew-like, endothermic (warm-blooded) animal which suckled its young and, like monotremes, laid leathery eggs. It probably ate small insects and reptiles, which it may have hunted and scavenged at night to avoid dinosaur predators.

XX

Although it looks like a dinosaur, Dimetrodon (pronounced die-met-roh-don) was actually a mammal-like reptile, an ancestor of mammals. It belonged to the family ‘pelycosaurs’. It was a large carnivore, growing to about 3.5 metres in length, and dominated life on land during the Permian period. The Dimetrodon’s ‘sail’ was supported by bony spines. The sail is thought to have been used to absorb and release heat, providing the animal with efficient thermoregulation. It may have also been used to make the animal appear much larger to predators.

XX

Ichthyosaurs (pronounced ikh-thee-oh-sore-s) were dolphin-like reptiles that could grow up to about nine metres in length. They lived at sea and gave birth to live young. They had a triangular dorsal fin, like a shark or dolphin, two sets of flippers and a streamlined body. The Ichthyosaur’s sharp teeth indicate that it was a carnivore.

XX

Archaeopteryx, (pronounced ark-ee-op-ter-iks) one of the first known birds, appeared during the age of dinosaurs. It may have evolved from a raptor dinosaur like Velociraptor. Its size varied between that of a chicken and a turkey. It had long feathers covering its wings and body—although it probably couldn’t fly well because it lacked the large breastbone of modern birds where the flight muscles are attached. Archaeopteryx had other un-bird like features, such as teeth, a bony tail and clawed fingers on its wings.

ew

in

g

Sa m

XX

Answers:

Pupils may suggest that Ichthyosaur resembles a dolphin, Archaeopteryx an eagle, Megazostrodon a rat and Dimetrodon a dinosaur or a lizard.

Vi

Additional activities:

XX

Compare pictures of some of the animals, noticing differences and similarities.

XX

Ask the pupils to think up creative reasons why the Dimetrodon had a sail. They could then write or dictate simple stories along with a picture.

Resources: XX

Books – Children’s guide to dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals by Philip Whitfield

XX

56

– Prehistoric animals by Gail Gibbons

Song – ‘Prehistoric animal brigade’ by M L Reeve

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Living with dinosaurs Other prehistoric animals lived around the same time as dinosaurs. 1. Read about each extinct prehistoric animal. Draw a line to match the clues to the correct picture.

I am a reptile. I swim in the sea. I have fins. I look a bit like a

I am a bird. I have feathers. I can fly.

g

I look a bit like a

Megazostrodon

Sa m

.

pl es

2. Name another animal each animal reminds you of.

in

.

Dimetrodon

I am a mammal.

ew

I have fur.

I lay eggs.

Vi

I look a bit like a .

Ichthyosaur

I am a reptile. I eat meat. I have a sail on my back. I look a bit like a .

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Archaeopteryx Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

57


Dino-birds? Concept: Birds may be related to dinosaurs. Objectives: XX

Understands that some dinosaurs had physical features similar to that of birds.

XX

Chooses words to complete sentences.

pl es

Background information:

Some relatively recent discoveries of dinosaur fossils, such as those in China in the 1990s, have indicated that theropod dinosaurs may have been the ancestors of birds. Some of the similarities include feathers as body covering (for insulation, not flight), bone structure (e.g. hollow bones, a wishbone, swivelling wrists, three forward-pointing toes) and the laying and brooding of eggs in nests. It is interesting to note that one of the most well-known dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus rex, was a theropod and therefore may well have had feathers. Fossils suggest, at the very least, that Tyrannosaurus rex hatchlings were covered in downy feathers for warmth.

XX

The Sinornithosaurus millenii was one of the feathered dinosaurs discovered in China in the mid 1990s. It had wing-like upper arms, hollow bones and a long tail. The Oviraptor was discovered in Mongolia in 1924. Its name means ‘egg thief’ because its fossil was lying on eggs thought to belong to another dinosaur. However, later examinations showed that the Oviraptor was actually lying on its own eggs.

Additional activities:

Sa m

XX

Draw feathered Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaurs with their fluffy hatchlings.

XX

Look at pictures of large birds, such as emus, cassowaries and ostriches, and compare them with pictures of theropod dinosaurs.

XX

View pictures of some of the feathered Chinese dinosaurs found in the 1990s. Photographs can be found on the internet.

Resources:

in

g

XX

Boy, were we wrong about dinosaurs! by Kathleen Kudlinski

XX

Did dinosaurs have feathers? by Kathleen Weidner Zoefeld

XX

Feathered dinosaurs by Don Lessem

Vi

ew

XX

58

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Dino-birds? Birds may be related to some dinosaurs. Some parts of their bodies look the same. Look at the two dinosaurs below. Copy the correct word to complete each sentence. feathers

legs

beak

teeth

toes

Its arms look like

pl es

wings

It has no

It has a .

.

in

g

Sa m

.

.

Vi

ew

It has

Each foot has three . Sinornithosaurus millenii Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

It stands on two . Oviraptor Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

59


What killed the dinosaurs? Concept: Dinosaurs are extinct, but we don’t know exactly why. Objectives: Understands that dinosaurs are extinct.

XX

Draws and writes creatively about how the dinosaurs became extinct.

pl es

XX

Background information:

About 65 million years ago, a mass extinction occurred on Earth. Many plants and animals, including the dinosaurs, disappeared. No dinosaur fossils are found after the Cretaceous period. There are a number of different theories for the extinction of dinosaurs. These include volcanic eruptions (causing poisonous gases, a decrease in oxygen and dramatic changes in temperature), a massive meteorite crashing into Earth, events in space (such as solar flares), diseases, the appearance of the first flowering plants (causing plant eaters to be poisoned) or early mammals eating dinosaur eggs.

XX

Encourage creative ideas for the pupils’ drawings and stories. Pupils who are able to may like to write longer stories on a separate sheet of paper.

Additional activities:

Sa m

XX

XX

Create posters advertising films about dinosaur extinction.

XX

Make a class mural entitled ‘What killed the dinosaurs?’ with labelled pictures showing possibilities; e.g. ‘a volcano’, ‘a meteorite’ etc.

Resources:

– ‘Dinosaurs lived long ago’ see <http://www.everythingpreschool.com/themes/dinosaurs/songs.htm>

Book – What happened to the dinosaurs? by Franklyn M Branley

Vi

ew

XX

g

Songs – ‘Dinosaurs of long ago’ see <http://www.everythingpreschool.com/themes/dinosaurs/songs.htm>

in

XX

60

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


What killed the dinosaurs?

pl es

All dinosaurs are extinct. What killed them? No-one is really sure. Here are some ideas.

Sa m

A big lump of A terrible dinosaur A volcanic eruption rock from space disease. filled the air with crashed into Earth. smoke and ash.

Vi

ew

in

g

1. Use one of these ideas or think up one of your own. Imagine a story about it. Draw a picture to show your story. Write a sentence about it.

How the dinosaurs might have died

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

61


Fossil finds Concept: Fossils tell us information about dinosaurs. Objectives: Understands what a fossil is.

XX

Understands that fossils can give us information about how dinosaurs lived.

pl es

XX

Background information:

A fossil is any evidence of life from the past. Most of the knowledge we have about dinosaurs comes from fossils. Most fossils are from hard body parts, such as bones, teeth and claws. Trace fossils are the remains of a body part, such as droppings, nests, footprints, eggs etc.

XX

The information at the top of the page can be read to the pupils. The pictures can then be discussed and the pupils can be helped to write their ideas.

Answers:

Sa m

XX

Parts of the picture might indicate:

– a dinosaur that ate leaves from the treetops,

– a crocodile-like dinosaur that lived near the sea and ate fish and shellfish,

– a dinosaur that incubated its eggs on a nest and ate small dinosaurs/animals.

Additional activities:

Make ‘fossils’ by pouring plaster of Paris onto imprints made in modelling clay. Imprints can be made with shells, plastic dinosaur footprints, bones etc.

XX

View real examples of fossilised plant or animal material.

Resources:

in

g

XX

Fossil by Claire Ewart

XX

Fossils tell of long ago by Aliki

XX

The fossil girl by Catherine Brighton

Vi

ew

XX

62

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Fossil finds We know a lot about dinosaurs because of their fossils. Fossils are parts of animals or plants that are left after they die. Over time, they have turned to stone.

pl es

Dinosaur fossils can tell us how a dinosaur lived, what it ate and what other animals or plants lived at the same time. What might these fossils tell us?

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

63


A palaeontologist at work Concept: Palaeontologists study fossils. Objectives: Understands what a palaeontologist is.

XX

Places pictures in sequence to tell a story.

pl es

XX

Background information:

Palaeontologists study the history of life on Earth based on fossil records. There are several subdisciplines of palaeontology, including micropaleontology (microscopic fossils), vertebrate palaeontology, taphonomy (fossil formation) and ichnology (fossil tracks and imprints).

XX

After the pupils have coloured the pictures, the activity could be completed as a class, with the teacher reading the sentences and encouraging the pupils to look carefully at the pictures to decide which one comes next in the sequence.

Additional activities:

Sa m

XX

Prepare a shallow sand box in which clay ‘dinosaur eggs’, small plastic dinosaur toys or other objects are buried. Use a stick to draw lines in the sand to divide it into squares. Create a ‘dinosaur dig’ grid on paper that matches the grid in the sand. The pupils can try digging in each square of the grid and record what they found. The objects can be cleaned of sand with a pastry or paint brush, just as a palaeontologist would do.

XX

Prepare a worksheet with pictures of a range of different dinosaur bones. The pupils can try to create a skeleton with the bones and give their creation a name.

g

XX

Resources:

Digging up dinosaurs by Aliki

XX

Dinosaur bones by Aliki

XX

Dinosaur discoveries by Gail Gibbons

Vi

ew

in

XX

64

Early themes — Dinosaurs

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


A palaeontologist at work Palaeontologists are scientists who work with fossils. 1. Colour the pictures and cut them out. 2. Place them in the order that shows the work of a palaeontologist.

The dinosaur fossil is seen. A palaeontologist is called.

The palaeontologist studies, cleans and repairs the bones.

The palaeontologist uses tools to remove the bones.

A dinosaur dies. Its bones are buried under sand and mud.

Vi

ew

in

g

The palaeontologist puts the bones together to make a skeleton.

Sa m

pl es

3. Glue them onto a separate sheet of paper in that order.

The sand and mud is worn away by wind and water.

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

Early themes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dinosaurs

65


6288 Early Themes - Dinosaurs