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Book 1

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Myself Plants and animals Light Sound Heat Magnetism and electricity Forces Properties and characteristics of materials Materials and change Caring for my locality Prim-Ed Publishing

0551 UK

www.prim-ed.com

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PRIMARY


Primary Science—Book 1 Prim-Ed Publishing Published in 2009 by Prim-Ed Publishing Copyright Prim-Ed Publishing 2004 This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es) only. The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

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ISBN 978-1-84654-162-9 PR–0551

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Additional titles available in this series: Primary Science—Book 2 Primary Science—Book 3 Primary Science—Book 4

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Home Page: http://www.prim-ed.com

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Prim-Ed Publishing Pty Ltd Offices in: United Kingdom: PO Box 2840, Coventry, CV6 5ZY Australia: PO Box 332, Greenwood, Western Australia, 6924 Republic of Ireland: Bosheen, New Ross, Co. Wexford, Ireland

Email: sales@prim-ed.com Email: mail@ricgroup.com.au Email: sales@prim-ed.com

Internet websites In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs. For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase. Name of Purchaser: Supplier: Signature of Purchaser:

Date of Purchase: School Order#(if applicable):


Foreword Primary Science – Book 1 is one of a series of four copymasters written for use in primary schools. Comprehensive teachers notes accompany each activity. Concepts, knowledge and skills share an equal emphasis in each unit, along with developing positive attitudes to science and exploring designing and making skills. Primary Science gives pupils the opportunity to enhance their knowledge of the world around them and to engage in collaborative learning that makes science interesting and exciting.

Titles in this series are: • Primary Science – Book 1 • Primary Science – Book 2 • Primary Science – Book 3 • Primary Science – Book 4

Contents

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Sound Inside and outside.................................... 42 – 43 Sound sort............................................... 44 – 45 Make a kazoo!......................................... 46 – 47

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Heat Hot and cold............................................ 50 – 51 Keeping warm......................................... 52 – 53

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Teacher information........................................... ii – iii Suggestions for teaching science............................. iv Meeting the needs of pupils...................................... v Series overview...................................................... vi Resources.............................................................vii Assessment – Objectives........................................viii Assessment proforma............................................. ix Assessment proforma – Working scientifically............ x Assessment proforma – Designing and making......... xi

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Living things

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Myself Body parts................................................... 4 – 5 Same and different....................................... 6 – 7 Our needs................................................... 8 – 9 Growing up............................................. 10 – 11 Using your senses.................................... 12 – 13 Plants and animals Look outside!........................................... 16 – 17 Plants and animals.................................. 18 – 19 Naming parts........................................... 20 – 21 Growing beans........................................ 22 – 23 Four seasons........................................... 24 – 25 Energy and forces Light Make a rainbow....................................... 28 – 29 Colour cube............................................. 30 – 31 Light and dark......................................... 32 – 33 Colour spinner......................................... 34 – 35 Day or night?........................................... 36 – 37 Shadows................................................. 38 – 39

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Magnetism and electricity Magnets.................................................. 56 – 57 Electricity................................................. 58 – 59 Forces How toys move........................................ 62 – 63 Push or pull?........................................... 64 – 65 Changing shape....................................... 66 – 67 Float or sink?........................................... 68 – 69 Materials

Properties and characteristics of materials What is it made from?............................... 72 – 73 Describing objects.................................... 74 – 75 Grouping objects...................................... 76 – 77 Materials and change Water!..................................................... 80 – 81 Wet and dry............................................. 82 – 83 Don’t get wet!........................................... 84 – 85 Changing by cooking................................ 86 – 87 Environmental awareness and care Caring for my locality My tree.................................................... 90 – 91 My environment....................................... 92 – 93 Caring for my environment........................ 94 – 95

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Teacher information Primary Science Book 1 contains ten chapters of work. Each chapter includes: • • • •

curriculum links; a cover page; teacher pages; pupil pages.

Body parts Same and different Our needs Growing up Using your senses

The first page of each unit contains curriculum links.

adults

babies

children

different

ear

Living thing s

The second page of each unit is a cover page designed for the pupils. Listed are the titles of the activities included in the unit.

alike

animals

Myself

eye

feel

grow

hearing

height

humans

measure

needs

nose

older

see

senses

shorter

sight

smell

taller

The cover page can be glued into the pupils’ workbooks at the beginning of a unit or copied and attached to the completed copymasters at the end of the unit. The pupils can colour the title of the unit and the artwork on the page.

teenager

toddler

touch

weight

young

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Keywords have been given for each unit, in alphabetical order. These words can be introduced and discussed at the beginning of a unit or they can be a focus as they appear throughout the activities. Introducing scientific terminology to meet the needs of individual pupils is discussed on page v.

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The teacher pages include information to assist the teacher with each lesson. The activity objectives can be transferred to the assessment proforma on page ix.

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Myself ~ Activity 3

Our needs

• Questioning • Observing Designing and making

Before the lesson

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Objective people • become aware that have a variety of needs food, for growth (exercise, clothing, shelter) cally scientifi g Workin

as fabric, Materials needed ne, other materials such , retractable knife, cellopha The Three Little Pigs. • Tissue box, scissors esive plastic, story of wood, bubble wrap, self-adh s from the Preparation knife to cut the window ce to use the retractable • Organise adult assistan tissue boxes.

Ideas under the Stimulus heading are suggested short activities or discussions to capture the pupils’ attention and spark an interest in the topic. Teachers will also be able to discover the existing knowledge of the class or individual pupils regarding the topic by listening to their responses and observations.

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The Working scientifically and Designing and making skills explored in the lesson are listed.

In Materials and Preparation, the teacher is made aware of what needs to be done before the lesson. Some materials and tasks are required for the activity to be conducted; others are suggestions that will enrich the lesson.

• Exploring • Planning

• Making • Evaluating tion Background informa ing we use A ‘need’ is someth water, air, to survive (e.g. food, something shelter). A ‘want’ is but is not we would like to have or survival essential to our health (e.g. TV, a new toy). need, some Although food is a not essential food and drinks are and are to our health or survival crisps, ‘wants’; e.g. cool drink, chocolate etc.

Background information for each activity is included for the teacher.

The lesson

Stimulus Three Little Pigs. • Tell the story of The Why What to do to blow their houses down. pigs didn’t want the wolf outside? Discuss. • Ask the class why the Why can’t we just live things that we do we need to live in houses? a want. Make a list of . ce between a need and clothing, shelter, exercise • Discuss the differen drink, food, e, e, air, sunshin need in life; for exampl 1. of ‘needs’ in Question t and healthy. • Pupils colour the pictures to be active to stay fi that everybody needs do to exercise? they do What • Discuss with the class . rs of their family exercise running, Ask the class if membe for example, playing, two ways they are active; • Pupils draw and label Three Little races, active games etc. them of the story of The need shelter. Remind • Ask the class why we is the strongest? (brick) given range. Pigs. What type of shelter riate materials from the ster a house, choosing approp the back of their copyma • Pupils plan making of their house plan on Pupils should draw a picture help pupils to d and talk about their ideas. require is assistance they ls to make a house. Adult shape any materia the doors use and s Pupils • window s. Pupils may make the l. to cut out their window if the doors aren’t practica explain their reasoning to make wish but will need to the materials available , pupils can look through for the created is ‘bricks’ house roof, the the for Once • ‘tiles’ realistic. For example, their houses look more walls etc. in Question 3. house by colouring a face • Pupils evaluate their

After the lesson Answers exercise, healthy food 1. water, clothing, shelter, 2. Teacher check check Teacher 3. are ‘needs’ and Additional activities which foods and drinks magazines and identify • Pupils look through which are ‘wants’. above. Display ideas of ‘needs’ and ‘wants’ the magazine pictures • Create a collage of have made. the houses the pupils • Build a street using Prim-Ed PRIMARY SCIENCE ~

Additional activities can be used to further develop the objectives being assessed. These activities provide ideas to consolidate and clarify the concepts and skills taught in the unit.

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What to do gives suggested step-by-step instructions for the activity. The accompanying copymaster may be the focus of the activity or it may be where the pupils record their observations and ideas after completing the task.

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Display ideas are suggestions for ways to present the resources used in the lesson or tasks completed by the pupils during the lesson.

The Answers for the activities on the copymaster are included. Some answers will need a teacher check, while others may vary depending on the pupils’ personal experiences or observations.

PRIMARY SCIENCE ~ Prim-Ed Publishing ~ www.prim-ed.com


Teacher information The pupil pages contain a variety of activities. The written activities may be the focus of the lesson or they may be where the pupils record their observations, investigation results and discoveries. The focus of each copymaster is given in the objectives on the accompanying teachers page.

In the early years, the pupils may respond to the written questions by drawing their answer, writing their answer or by having an adult scribe the answer for them.

Myself ~ Activity 3

Our needs

Colour the things we need to live and grow.

television

fast food

water

clothing

shelter

toys

exercise

healthy food

We need to be active to stay fit and healthy. Draw and label two ways you are active.

(a) Think of two reasons why we need shelter. Write them below.

(b) Plan and make a house using these materials.

(c) How did your house turn out? 9

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How to use assessment proformas

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Assessment proformas are included on pages ix, x and xi. They incorporate language which make tasks and assessment criteria clear to parents, and provide a meaningful basis for discussion in parent–teacher interviews or three-way conferences. Fill in the appropriate learning area. For example :

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Give a brief description of the activities in the unit and what was expected of the pupils.

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Living things – Myself

Write the relevant objective(s) from the unit.

Use this space to comment on an individual pupil’s performance which cannot be indicated in the formal assessment, such as work habits or particular needs or abilities.

Describe the tasks being assessed in the unit and assess the pupil’s performance.

There is no prescribed length of time for each unit. All units include some activities that can be completed in one lesson, others may go over two lessons, depending on a variety of factors, such as: • the stimulus suggesting learning about science outside the classroom; • the pupils needing to make observations prior to the lesson; • an experiment being conducted that needs to be observed over a number of days; • the pupils being required to find information by researching, using the Internet, conducting surveys or interviews; • a concept needing to be clarified further to ensure understanding. Primary Science has units and activities that can be followed precisely or adapted to meet the needs of specific schools and to suit individual styles of teaching. Suggestions for setting up a science classroom and for teaching science can be found on page iv. Ideas for teaching science to meet the special needs of individual pupils are discussed on page v, along with exciting ideas for presenting scientific information. www.prim-ed.com ~ PRIMARY SCIENCE ~ Prim-Ed Publishing

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Suggestions for teaching science Collaborative learning

Skills Science allows pupils to make new discoveries about the world around them and themselves. To do this, certain skills need to be developed. Skills that are introduced from the early years include: • observing • predicting • experimenting • estimating • analysing (sorting and classifying) • communicating

The skills being addressed in each copymaster activity are listed on the accompanying teachers page. Pupils will develop their skills progressively as they move though the year levels.

Designing and making In the Primary Science series, pupils are given the opportunity to explore designing and making skills. These include: • exploring • planning • making • evaluating

Demonstration and experiments

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The designing and making skills being addressed in each copymaster activity are listed on the accompanying teachers page. Pupils explore, plan and make models, using problemsolving techniques and their own creativity. Open-ended investigations allow groups to apply their scientific knowledge and understanding. Final products are tested and evaluated.

It is important that, during a teacher demonstration, all pupils are seated so they can clearly see what is taking place. Select pupils to describe what is happening or to come to the front of the classroom and participate in the demonstration. Pupils love to help pour, mix and touch the materials. By giving clear, step-by-step instructions, pupils conducting an experiment will feel confident to investigate and explore. Depending on the age level, individual pupils and small groups need the opportunity to do independent discovery. Always allocate time to bring the class together at the end of a lesson. This will allow pupils to discuss their findings and also give the teacher the opportunity to see which methods are successful in the science classroom and which need working on. Try to only demonstrate experiments when the activity may be dangerous for pupils. Give pupils the opportunity to be hands-on with science as often as possible.

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• questioning • investigating • measuring • recording

When pupils are able to work together in groups, they are encouraged to communicate and express their ideas. It is important that teachers stay aware of groups working independently to ensure that all pupils are handling the materials and that the members are working together as a team. By allocating roles for each group member, it is more likely that the dynamics will be equitable. The roles of the pupils can be swapped regularly to give each member the opportunity to participate in all tasks. Allow time at the end of group tasks for the pupils to evaluate their team skills and to make targets to work towards the next time they work as a group. Some activities may work better if the groups are organised by ability levels, others will be enriched from mixed ability groupings. To enable all pupils to work together at some stage during the year, randomly select groups for some activities.

Safety

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In the Primary Science series, safety precautions for certain activities are given on the teachers page. Some activities also have a ‘safety note’ written on the copymaster for the pupils. It is imperative that the teacher is aware prior to an activity if careful supervision of the pupils is needed during a lesson. It may be possible to organise for another adult to be in the classroom for that activity. Ensure that all groups understand the instructions, are organised and focused on the task. Close adult supervision is required whenever a ‘hands-on’ approach is being used. At the very least, all pupils should be clearly visible to the teacher at the same time. The one exception to this is outdoor small-group work. Here, older pupils may work on a clearly defined task within a specified time frame. When taking a class outside of the classroom, prepare by: • organising pupils into their groups in the classroom; • checking that the pupils have the right equipment before they leave the classroom. (Note: For early learners, the teacher should be in charge of the equipment until it is needed. This will prevent pupils becoming preoccupied with the materials and the materials becoming lost before they are needed.) It can also be beneficial to allow pupils a controlled ‘play’ session with new equipment to overcome the novelty factor and allow them to concentrate on the task required; • visiting the site beforehand to ensure that examples of what is being observed are actually there.

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Organising and storing equipment Before each science activity, read the materials and preparation given on the teacher page. Collect the materials and place them in trays that can be carried easily to tables. By sorting the materials so each tray has exactly what each group requires, pupils will not need to queue for materials and they can place them directly back into the tray at the end of the lesson. All science equipment should have a ‘home’ and be returned to that home after each lesson. For early years’ classrooms, silhouettes of the materials cut from black card and attached to the front of cupboards and drawers will help pre-readers to find them. At the beginning of each science lesson, allocate pupil ‘jobs’ for collecting and returning equipment. Allocate pupils to check that the materials have been returned and kept neat and tidy.

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Meeting the needs of pupils Differentiating activities

Display ideas for the science classroom

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By having a variety of means by which they can record and present their findings, more pupils will be given the opportunity to succeed. Displays and records can communicate and share ideas, provide the stimuli for creative work, show interrelationships, and develop the ability to interpret information in different forms or accurately record observations and fine details. Some methods by which pupils can display or record their science work are shown below.

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The activities in the Primary Science series have been designed so that they can be followed precisely or adapted by teachers. This flexibility allows teachers the opportunity to differentiate lessons and copymasters to meet the needs of pupils with varying abilities and special needs. The activities and copymasters in Primary Science can be differentiated by incorporating the following suggestions into teacher planning and programming. To meet the special needs of pupils who have English as a second language, plan a time on a day before the science unit begins to introduce keywords and concepts. Having other adult support would be ideal as the group can work in a quiet area away from the classroom. Keywords can be enlarged and discussed. By explaining each word and showing objects or pictures, the pupils will be able to make connections between the word and the object. For ESL pupils, being immersed in the language before a topic begins gives them an advantage, especially during the teacher discussion part of the lesson, when most teachers tend to speak quite quickly. Before the unit, allow time for the pupils to look at nonfiction or fiction books about the topic. These will give pupils the opportunity to learn by reading books with clear and simple language. Pupils with reading problems will be able to immerse themselves before the unit begins. If other adult help is available, group pupils with low literacy levels together. The assisting teacher or parent will be able to read instructions, labels and the questions on the copymasters to the pupils and guide them through experiments. If other adults are not available, mixed ability groups will allow ESL pupils and pupils with low literacy levels to observe and be guided by other pupils. Teachers can produce activity sheets so pupils can become familiar with the terminology and content of a science unit before it is started with the whole class. Include activities such as missing letters, matching pictures to words and finding definitions. Diagrams from the unit can also be simplified on these worksheets. Any time that can be spent with the pupils preparing them for the topic ahead will enable them to feel more

familiar and confident with the materials, skills and concepts. Pupils who seem to race through the activities and copymasters and who understand the content very quickly, can be challenged by looking at the topic in greater depth (rather than being given more of the same). They can go beyond the facts and begin to analyse, create their own hypothesis and conduct research related to strands of the topics that interest them. By meeting the needs of individual pupils, allowing the pupils to learn collaboratively and by having very clear instructions and expectations, science lessons should run smoothly. If a pupil prevents others from learning or if he or she could potentially cause harm to another pupil, he or she should be removed from the classroom. Organise a buddy system with another colleague, where pupils are taken without explanation. Pupil–teacher conferences can occur after the lesson.

Type of display/record

Examples

Could follow

charts creative writing models/machines sketches diagrams tables collections tally sheets dioramas graphs maps/plans diaries video or audio recordings interviews mobiles posters/banners pupil books

pictures, tables, graphs poems, narratives recycled materials, wood, clay observations or interpretations plants, animals classification, tallies rocks, plants, animals events, counting objects environments, landforms, systems measurement, number, change streets, buildings, environmental sites observations, drawings sounds, spoken reports, descriptions role-playing, guests collected objects, words environmental issues individual research

experiments sensory experiences experiments excursions environmental studies observations over time comparing/classifying activities experiments, counting environmental studies change over time, measuring activities excursions change or progress/deterioration over time excursions, environmental studies guest speaker presentation comparing/classifying activities environmental studies any topic

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Living things Human life Plant and animal life Energy and forces Light Sound Heat Magnetism and electricity Forces Materials Properties and characteristics of materials Materials and change Environmental awareness and care Environmental awareness Science and the environment Caring for the environment

Book 3

Book 1 – Ages 5-7 years Book 2 – Ages 7-9 years Book 3 – Ages 8-10 years Book 4 – Ages 9-11 years

This overview illustrates the topics covered in this Primary Science copymaster series. The four books in the Primary Science series have been written for the following age ranges:

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Living things Myself Plants and animals Energy and forces Light Sound Heat Magnetism and electricity Forces Materials Properties and characteristics of materials Materials and change Environmental awareness and care Caring for my locality

Living things Myself Plants and animals Energy and forces Light Sound Heat Magnetism and electricity Forces Materials Properties and characteristics of materials Materials and change Environmental awareness and care Caring for my locality

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Book 2

Book 1 Living things Human life Plant and animal life Energy and forces Light Sound Heat Magnetism and electricity Forces Materials Properties and characteristics of materials Materials and change Environmental awareness and care Environmental awareness Science and the environment Caring for the environment

Book 4

Series overview

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Resources Materials needed for Primary Science – Book 1

Essential science resources Below is a list of essential items for every science classroom. By collecting and storing these materials, time will be saved when preparing for science experiments and investigations.

Below are the resources needed to conduct the activities described in this book. The items in italics are optional and may be collected to enrich the lesson. Not mentioned are those items included in the ‘essential items’ list alongside.

plastic cups.....................................

• Pupils’ baby photos, cellophane, fabric, wood, bubble wrap, selfadhesive plastic, story of The Three Little Pigs, pictures of animals and their young, popcorn maker, popcorn kernels, icing sugar

lids - plastic, tin............................... sticky tape, glue, scissors.................. aprons/shirts to protect clothes........... paper towels.................................... rulers, metre sticks, trundle wheel....... counters, marbles, stones, buttons..... sugar, flour, salt............................... modelling clay................................. retractable knife................................ food colouring.................................. straws............................................. tissues, corks, plastic blocks............. paper - A4 and A3............................

• hoops, clipboards, magnifying glass, photographs of different environments, flowers with roots attached, poster of bird, beans, months of the year chart Light

• baking dish, mirrors, cellophane, paints, poster of a rainbow, photographs and charts of the sky, photographs of people and plants during the day and night, chalk, pictures of sun clocks Sound

• whistle, telephone, chime bars, alarm clock, recorder, kazoo, cymbals, drum, triangle, rattle, guitar, violin, spoons, maracas, clickers, containers filled with rice, dried peas, cornflakes, pasta, sand, gravel, beans, elastic bands of different widths, cardboard tube, wax paper

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balloons..........................................

Plants and animals

lolly sticks....................................... card - white, coloured....................... cotton wool, string, wool ..................

split pins, paperclips......................... torches............................................ plastic bags..................................... soap, oil.......................................... mirrors............................................ milk and egg cartons........................ vinegar, lemon juice.......................... magnets.......................................... aluminium foil, cling film................... bicarbonate of soda.......................... funnels............................................ candles...........................................

pipe-cleaners...................................

• ‘feely bag’, stone, orange, button, elastic band, eraser, sponge, soap, spoon, leaves, bark, ruler, ribbon Materials and change • spoons, oil, sand, honey, icing sugar, drinking chocolate, milk, detergent, rice, jelly crystals, potato, carrot, plastic wrap, plate, tea-towels, pegs, fabrics, colander, sieve, cardboard, plastic bags, plastic boxes, waxed paper, plastic lunch bags, brown paper bags, waterproof clothing, oven trays, wire rack, mixing bowl, electric beaters, mixing spoons, rolling pins, cup, butter, sugar, egg, corn flakes, self-raising flour, cocoa, jam

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empty buckets and containers............

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coloured crepe paper streamers..........

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jars and bottles with lids....................

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measuring jugs................................

Properties and characteristics of materials

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coloured pencils, crayons..................

Myself

Environmental awareness and care • wax crayons, hardcover book or clipboard, pictures and photographs of trees, local area with trees, that birds and insects inhabit, pictures or photographs of people looking after different environments, such as children looking after school or local park, adults caring for the community, family looking after home environment

Heat

• kettle, access to refrigerator, heatproof glasses, teapot, tea-cosy Magnetism and electricity • safety pins, buttons, soft drink can, small stones, socks, erasers, glass jars, twist ties, screws/bolts, pegs, toothpicks, household appliances Forces • assortment of toys, toy car, toy pram, soft-drink can, spinning hoop, hulahoop, wheelbarrow, pull-along toy, peg, elastic bands, kitchen sponge, foam, modelling clay, toothpicks, elastic, leaves, sticks, stones, seeds, counters, coins, marbles, fruit, corks

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Assessment - Objectives Below are the objectives taken from the teachers pages for each unit in Primary Science – Book 1. They can be transferred across to the assessment proforma on the accompanying page. The format of each page is ideal for inclusion in pupil portfolios, records of achievement or for reporting purposes. Using proformas allows teachers to provide a well explained, logically presented indication of progress to both pupils and parents.

• Identify parts of the male and female body. • Recognise and measure physical similarities and differences between people. • Become aware of some changes that occur as children grow and mature. • Become aware that people have a variety of needs for growth (exercise, food, clothing, shelter). • Develop an awareness of human birth. • Use all the senses to become aware of and explore environments.

Plants and animals

Light

• Identify and name different colours. • Sort objects into sets according to colour. • Observe colours in the local environment. • Explore dark and bright colours and become aware of different shades of colour. • Discuss differences between day and night, light and shade. • Explore how shadows are formed.

Sound

• Recognise and identify a variety of sounds in the environment. • Identify and differentiate between high and low sounds, loud and soft sounds. • Explore ways of making different sounds using a variety of materials.

Heat

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• Explore, through informal activity with toys, forces such as pushing and pulling. • Explore how the shape of objects can be changed by squashing, pulling and other forces. • Investigate how forces act on objects.

Properties and characteristics of materials

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Forces

• Observe and investigate a range of familiar materials in the immediate environment. • Describe and compare materials, noting the differences in colour, shape and texture. • Know about some everyday uses of common materials. • Group materials according to certain criteria. • Investigate materials for different properties.

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• Observe, discuss and identify a variety of plants and animals in different habitats in the immediate environment. • Become aware of animals and plants of other environments. • Sort and group living things into sets. • Recognise and identify the external parts of living things. • Observe growth and change in some living things. • Explore conditions for growth of bulbs and seeds. • Become aware that animals and plants undergo seasonal change in appearance or behaviour.

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• Use magnets of different shapes and sizes in purposeful play to explore their effects on different materials. • Investigate the fact that magnets attract certain materials. • Become aware of the uses of electricity in school and at home. • Identify some household appliances that use electricity. • Become aware of the dangers of electricity.

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Magnetism and electricity

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Materials and change • Explore the effects of water on a variety of materials. • Observe and describe materials when they are wet and when they are dry. • Identify some materials that are waterproof. • Explore the effects of heating and cooling on everyday objects, materials and substances.

Caring for my locality • Observe, discuss and appreciate the attributes of the local environment. • Appreciate that people share the environment with plant and animal life. • Develop a sense of responsibility for taking care of and improving the environment. • Identify, discuss and implement simple strategies for improving and caring for the environment.

• Recognise the difference between hot and cold in terms of weather, food, water and body. • Identify ways of keeping objects and substances warm and cold.

PRIMARY SCIENCE ~ Prim-Ed Publishing ~ www.prim-ed.com


Assessment proforma Name

Class

Term

Learning Area Tasks

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Your child was asked to:

Assessment

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Your child can:

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Objectives

Still developing

Understanding

Teacher comment

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Assessment proforma – Working scientifically

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Assessment proforma – Designing and making Name

Class

Term

Learning Area Your child was asked to show the skill(s):

• exploring

• planning

• making

• evaluating

Tasks

Assessment

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Your child can:

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Your child was asked to:

Still developing

Understanding

Teacher comment

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Living things

Myself Curriculum links

Northern Ireland – The World Around Us – Foundation Stage

• Know that humans and other animals grow and reproduce. • Know about the main stages of the human life cycle. • Know about the importance of an adequate diet and exercise for good health. • Explore the questions ‘Who am I?’ and ‘Am I the same as everyone else?’

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England – Science – Key Stage One

• Identify similarities and differences between living things.

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• Understand that some things change over time. • Know how living things survive. • Demonstrate curiosity about living things (early). • Develop an understanding of the different parts of the body and the changes that occur as people grow (early).

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Scotland – Science – Early and First Level

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• Be able to sequence familiar events.

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• Become more aware of the senses and use them to explore the world (early).

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• Explore the senses through a range of activities (first). • Learn the names of the main external parts of the human body.

Wales – Knowledge and Understanding of the World – Foundation Stage

• Identify the similarities and differences between themselves and other children. • Sequence events. • Recognise the changes caused by time to themselves. • Learn about the senses that humans have.

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Body parts

adults

Same and different Our needs Growing up Using your senses

babies

children

different

ear

eye

feel

grow

hearing

height

humans

measure

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Living things

alike

needs older senses

nose see shorter

sight

smell

taller

teenager

toddler

touch

weight

young

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Myself ~ Activity 1

Body parts Before the lesson

Objective • identify parts of the male and female body Working scientifically • Questioning

Materials needed • No extra materials required. Preparation • Re-read the story of Little Red Riding Hood. (If necessary – for your own benefit!)

• Observing • Recording and communicating Background information People are physically similar to each other in many ways, such as having skin, four limbs etc. People are also different in many ways. Children notice differences between men and women from a very early age.

The lesson Stimulus • Retell the part of Little Red Riding Hood about the wolf’s big ears, eyes, nose and mouth … ‘all the better to see you, hear you etc.’ Discuss the parts of our body we use for our senses. Discuss how the pupils are using their senses now in the classroom.

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What to do • Discuss the words at the bottom of the copymaster. Ask pupils to point to these parts on their body. (Play ‘Simon Says’ with an emphasis on naming body parts.) • Direct pupils to cut out and glue the labels to the correct body parts.

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After the lesson Answers • Teacher check

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Additional activities • Name and label other internal and external body parts (e.g. teeth, tongue, toes, fingers, eyebrows, eyelashes, nails etc.). • Use body parts as an informal measure for objects or distances inside and outside (e.g. handspans, walking paces, arm lengths). Display ideas • Trace around a pupil. Decorate the picture with fabric or recycled materials. Label body parts. • Make playdough models of themselves with an emphasis on body parts.

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Myself ~ Activity 1

Body parts

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Cut and glue the names below to match toMy the body parts. Body

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Myself ~ Activity 2

Same and different Objectives

Before the lesson

• recognise and measure physical similarities and differences between people

Materials needed • Photos of the pupils as babies (optional).

• become aware of some changes that occur as children grow and mature

Preparation • No preparation is required.

Working scientifically • Questioning

The lesson

• Recording and communicating Background information All animals, including people, grow and change as they become older.

What to do • Pupils look at the pictures of Amy and Ben in Question 1. Read the sentences with the class. The pupils colour the correct word. • Ask pupils to try to think of their earliest memory. Share their memories with the class. • Pupils show their baby photos (if applicable). Ask the class what they could do when they were babies (drink, eat, sleep etc.). Ask the class to think of things they can do now that they couldn’t do when they were babies. Make a list on the board. Pupils choose two things and write them in Question 2. • In Question 3, pupils draw three pictures to show how they have changed and will change over time. Discuss with the class the physical changes the pupils will experience in the next 5, 10, 20 years etc.

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The growth stages for humans (birth—child—teenager— adult—middle age—old age) are all important events in our development.

Stimulus • Choose three pupils to stand at the front of the class. Ask questions to prompt the pupils to find similarities and differences between each other; for example, ‘Is (name of pupil) taller than (name of other pupil)?’.

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• Observing

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Display ideas • Display the pupils’ baby photographs.

After the lesson Answers 1. (a) taller (b) curly (c) smaller 2. Teacher check 3. Teacher check

Additional activities • Pupils look through magazines, to find pictures of people of different ages and cut them out. Pupils sort the pictures into categories: children, adults, elderly. Pupils look at the pictures and describe how people change as they get older; for example, hair turns grey, grow taller and so on. • Pupils glue a photo of themselves as a baby and a photo of themselves now into their books. They make a list of how they have changed.

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Myself ~ Activity 2

Same and different

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Look at the pictures. Colour the correct words.

(a)

Ben is

(b)

Both Amy and Ben have

(c)

Amy’s feet are

hair. than Ben’s feet.

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than Amy.

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Name two things you can do now you couldn’t do as a baby.

Draw pictures to show how you have changed and will keep changing as you get older.

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Myself ~ Activity 3

Our needs Objective

Before the lesson

• become aware that people have a variety of needs for growth (exercise, food, clothing, shelter)

Materials needed • Tissue box, scissors, retractable knife, cellophane, other materials such as fabric, wood, bubble wrap, self-adhesive plastic, story of The Three Little Pigs.

Working scientifically • Questioning • Observing Designing and making

Preparation • Organise adult assistance to use the retractable knife to cut the windows from the tissue boxes.

• Exploring • Planning

The lesson

A ‘need’ is something we use to survive (e.g. food, water, air, shelter). A ‘want’ is something we would like to have but is not essential to our health or survival (e.g. TV, a new toy).

What to do • Ask the class why the pigs didn’t want the wolf to blow their houses down. Why do we need to live in houses? Why can’t we just live outside? Discuss. • Discuss the difference between a need and a want. Make a list of things that we need in life; for example, air, sunshine, food, drink, clothing, shelter, exercise. • Pupils colour the pictures of ‘needs’ in Question 1. • Discuss with the class that everybody needs to be active to stay fit and healthy. Ask the class if members of their family exercise. What do they do to exercise? • Pupils draw and label two ways they are active; for example, playing, running, races, active games etc. • Ask the class why we need shelter. Remind them of the story of The Three Little Pigs. What type of shelter is the strongest? (brick) • Pupils plan making a house, choosing appropriate materials from the given range. Pupils should draw a picture of their house plan on the back of their copymaster and talk about their ideas. • Pupils use the materials to make a house. Adult assistance is required to help pupils to cut out their windows. Pupils may make the windows and doors any shape they wish but will need to explain their reasoning if the doors aren’t practical. • Once the house is created, pupils can look through the materials available to make their houses look more realistic. For example, ‘tiles’ for the roof, ‘bricks’ for the walls etc. • Pupils evaluate their house by colouring a face in Question 3.

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Although food is a need, some food and drinks are not essential to our health or survival and are ‘wants’; e.g. cool drink, crisps, chocolate etc.

Stimulus • Tell the story of The Three Little Pigs.

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Background information

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• Evaluating

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• Making

After the lesson Answers 1. water, clothing, shelter, exercise, healthy food 2. Teacher check 3. Teacher check Additional activities • Pupils look through magazines and identify which foods and drinks are ‘needs’ and which are ‘wants’. Display ideas • Create a collage of the magazine pictures of ‘needs’ and ‘wants’ above. • Build a street using the houses the pupils have made.

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Myself ~ Activity 3

Our needs

television

fast food

water

clothing

shelter

toys

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Colour the things we need to live and grow.

healthy food

exercise

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We need to be active to stay fit and healthy. Draw and label two ways you are active.

(a) Think of two reasons why we need shelter. Write them below. (b) Plan and make a house using these materials.

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Myself ~ Activity 4

Growing up Before the lesson

Objective • develops an awareness of human birth Working scientifically • Questioning

Materials needed • Pictures of animals and their young (optional). Preparation • Place photographs of animals and their young around the classroom.

• Observing • Predicting Background information All animals, including people, g ro w a n d c h a n g e a s t h e y become older. The growth stages of humans (birth—child— teenager—adult—middle age— old age) are all important events in our development.

The lesson Stimulus • Display a variety of pictures showing changes in animals and their young. Discuss how animals change; for example, caterpillar to butterfly. How do humans change? (babies, toddlers, children, teenagers, adults, elderly).

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What to do • Pupils look at the pictures in Question 1 and match the animals to their young. • In Question 2, pupils colour the pictures. Discuss with the pupils what is happening in each picture. Ask who in the class has younger brothers and sisters. (Note: It may be necessary to ask for permission before this lesson. Reassure parents that the focus of the lesson is just to make pupils ‘aware’ of human birth—that women give birth to live babies. Any questions that go beyond this focus can be directed to parents by the pupils at a later time).

After the lesson

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Answers • Teacher check

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Additional activities • Show pupils pictures of the life cycle of a frog. Discuss each stage. If a pond is available, take the pupils to observe the different stages of a frog’s life cycle; for example, frogspawn, tadpoles and frogs. • See frogs, tadpoles and spawn. • Go and visit a petting zoo or farm where the pupils can see and touch baby animals. Display ideas • Display photos and pictures of baby animals and human babies.

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Myself ~ Activity 4

Growing up

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Draw a line to match the babies and grown-up animals.

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Colour and cut out the pictures below.

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Glue the pictures in the correct order.

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Myself ~ Activity 5

Using your senses Before the lesson

Working scientifically • Observing • Predicting • Investigating and experimenting • Recording and communicating Background information We have five senses to help us learn about our surroundings and about our bodies themselves. These are hearing, sight, taste, smell and touch. Nerve endings in our nose, eyes, ears, tongue and skin send information to our brain which then interprets what is going on and what it should do.

Preparation • Prepare the area to be used by organising the table arrangement, covering with plastic, laying out equipment etc.

The lesson Stimulus • Present pupils with short activities to highlight the five senses. (ideas – listen to tapes to identify sounds; observe objects, like a lemon, using a magnifying glass; smell lemon or strong fragrances like perfumes; identify objects in a ‘feely’ bag or taste salty and sweet foods.) • Ask pupils questions about the five senses and where the sense organs are located in the body. What part of the body did they use to … find out what was in the ‘feely’ bag, listen to the tapes etc.

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Popping popcorn is an ideal activity for pupils to explore all five senses.

Materials needed • Popcorn maker, cardboard box or surrounds to cover machine from class view, popcorn kernels (enough for class tasting), small viewing plates/lids or jars to display uncooked corn, bowls (to share popcorn in small groups) or cups for individual popcorn snacks, salt or icing sugar to flavour popcorn. (NB: Pupils must have clean hands and surfaces to work on.)

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• use all the senses to become aware of and explore environments

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Objective

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What to do • Sit pupils in a group in front of the hidden popcorn maker. • Ask pupils to use their senses to describe the sounds and smells they are experiencing. Record these on the worksheet. • Use these descriptions for pupils to identify what it might be before uncovering the popcorn maker. • In small groups, examine a plate of uncooked kernels and a bowl of the cooked popcorn. • Pupils record data on the worksheet using their other senses of touch, sight and taste. Discuss experiences of the class. • Share the remainder of the popcorn within the groups. Discuss points on sharing. Share the experience of popcorn making by reading The Popcorn Book by Tomie de Paola, which relates fun facts about popcorn, while two children prepare a popcorn snack.

After the lesson Answers • Teacher check Additional activities • Finger paint using powder paint and shaving cream. Pupils choose two colours and a ‘dob’ of shaving cream. After finger painting ask – What does it … look like? smell like/ feel like? What happens when shaving cream is added? • Make a ‘feely bag’. Place a variety of materials or objects inside (e.g. fur bear, toy car, fruit). Pupils feel inside the bag without looking and describe one of the objects by touching. Can they guess what it is? • Make a like/dislike book or list of things people like/dislike to touch, see, hear, smell or taste.

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Myself ~ Activity 5

Using your senses

What can you … … smell?

… hear?

Can you guess what it is?

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It is

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Before cooking

After cooking

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What does it look like ...

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What does it taste like?

What is it like to touch?

What did you like best?

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Living things

Plants and animals Curriculum links

• Identify locally occurring animals and plants. • Know about the different plants and animals found in different habitats.

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England – Science – Key Stage One

• Know how animals and plants in different habitats are suited to their environment.

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• Know about the effect of light, air, water and temperature on plant growth.

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Northern Ireland – The World Around Us – Foundation Stage

• Make observations and measurements and communicate data in an appropriate manner. • Show curiosity about living things in the environment. • Identify similarities and differences between living things.

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• Develop an awareness of aspects of the environment.

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• Look closely at similarities, differences and change.

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• Understand that some things change over time. • Demonstrate curiosity about living things (early).

Scotland – Science – Early and First Level

• Observe living things around me over a period of time and recorded information on them (early). • Observe and record some features of living things which allow me to place them in groups (first). • Complete experiments to grow plants, including observing and recording findings (first).

Wales – Knowledge and Understanding of the World – Foundation Stage

• Use senses to experience and describe the weather and relate this to the seasons and how these affect me (early). • Identify some animals and plants that live in the outdoor environment. • Observe differences between animals and plants, different animals, and different plants, in order to group them. • Learn the names of the main external parts of plants. • Make observations and measurements and keep records. • Identify the effects the different seasons have on some animals and plants.

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Look outside!

alive

Plants and animals

clean

cold

damp

dark

Naming parts Growing beans

energy

Four seasons

food

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germinate grow

healthy

leaf

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Plants and animals

exercise

groom

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Living things

breathe

leaves

light

living

love

moist

move

non-living

produce

roots

seeds

shelter

shoots

stem waste

warmth water

young

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Plants and animals ~ Activity 1

Look outside! Objective

Before the lesson

• observe, discuss and identify a variety of plants and animals in different habitats in the immediate environment

Materials needed • Hoops, clipboards (optional), pencil, small magnifying glasses (optional). • Poster illustrating the kinds of plants and animals that pupils are likely to encounter in their immediate environment (optional).

Working scientifically • Observing • Investigating and experimenting • Analysing (sorting and classifying) • Recording and communicating

Preparation • Research to find safe areas in the local environment where pupils can observe plants and animals. Ideally, a selection of habitats is needed. In the school grounds, these should include grass, soil, rocks, bushes, hedges, trees and perhaps a pond. • Health and safety – ensure that there are no animal droppings, syringes, etc. in the area where the pupils are working.

Background information

The lesson

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Stimulus • Play plant and animal I-spy, looking out of the classroom window. Alternatively, play I-spy using a poster which illustrates the kinds of plants and animals that pupils are likely to encounter in their immediate environment.

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What to do • Divide the class into small groups. • Escort class to designated areas outside the classroom for their observations. • Each group’s task is to place a hoop over a piece of ground and record (by listing or drawing) the plants and animals they can see inside the hoop. • Encourage pupils to examine the area very closely, looking under stones, leaves and pieces of wood and in cracks in the earth. • Allow a set time for this and then ask groups to find another location for their hoop. Repeat this around the designated area until the worksheet is complete. • Return to the classroom to analyse and discuss results. • Make a list of plants and animals found by groups. Discuss findings. Pupils can give reasons for placing observed items into a particular group. What were the differences between different areas? Was there anything the same?

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Living things are all around us. They can be trees, plants, birds, insects and other animals. They can be big or small. Different living things can be found in different habitats in the immediate (e.g. school grounds, local parks) and wider (e.g. oceans, mountains) environment. Life is in almost every part of our world.

After the lesson Answers • Teacher check Additional activities • Pupils could repeat the activity in their own back garden. Suggest they could try it when on a visit to the seaside or on a picnic. Display ideas • Have pupils cut out magazine or junk-mail catalogues to create a collage of plants and animals that can be found in different habitats.

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Plants and animals ~ Activity 1

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Look outside!

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Plants and animals ~ Activity 2

Plants and animals Before the lesson

Objectives • become aware of animals and plants of other environments • sort and group living things into sets Working scientifically

Materials needed • Red, green, yellow, orange and blue coloured pencils for each group. • Pictures and photographs of different environments: desert, ocean, alpine, pond, treetops (optional). Preparation • Display the photographs around the room.

• Questioning • Observing • Predicting

Background information The world’s environment is shared by all of its inhabitants. Humans are just one small part.

What to do • Pupils look at the animals in Question 1 and match them to the environment they may be found in. Introduce the class to the term ‘habitat’. • Pupils work in pairs or small groups to complete Question 2. Hand out the five pencils to each group. • Pupils look at each picture and decide which category each falls under. Go through each of the categories with the class first. Write them on the board with the colours written next to them. • Assist the groups if they become confused about which group the animal or plant belongs to. • Ask the group to share the answers with the class.

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In our environment we find plants, animals, soil, water, living and non-living things. There are many different environments that, altogether, make up the total environment found on earth.

Stimulus • Point to each of the pictures/photographs around the classroom. Ask the pupils what they would expect to find there.

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• Recording and communicating

The lesson

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• Analysing (sorting and classifying)

After the lesson

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Answers 1. fish – ocean parrot – forest frog – pond snake – desert goat – mountain 2. Teacher check

Additional activities • Pupils look through magazines and cut out pictures of similar animals. Sort them under headings, ‘dogs’, ‘birds’, ‘fish’, etc. • Write these headings on the board: ‘four legs’, ‘wings’, ‘tail’, ‘whiskers’. Pupils try to think of as many different animals and insects to fit under the headings as they can. Which animal can fit under two or three headings (for example, a cat)? Display ideas • Pupils can draw or cut out pictures from magazines of animals that live in the different environments . Use Blu-tack™ to fasten them to pictures of environments on the walls. Pupils choose which environment their animals should be attached to.

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Plants and animals ~ Activity 2

Plants and animals

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Match the animals to their environment.

• birds – yellow

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• trees and flowers – green

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Colour the pictures to match the group they are from. • insects – red

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• animals and people – blue • fruit and vegetables – orange

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Plants and animals ~ Activity 3

Naming parts Before the lesson

Objective • recognise and identify the external parts of living things Working scientifically • Observing • Predicting

Materials needed • Flower with roots attached. One per small group. • Poster of bird (if available). Preparation • Organise the pupils into small groups. Give each group a flower.

Stems: the parts of a plant that support branches, leaves and flowers. Roots: anchor the plant in soil and collect water and minerals for growth. Flowers: the reproductive part of the plant where seeds are produced. The main parts of a bird are the beak, legs, tail, body, head and wings. The feathers (plumage) also play an important role as they help the bird to fly by streamlining the body shape and reducing friction in air or water.

Stimulus • Take pupils to an area of the school where flowering plants can be observed. Have pupils stand near a plant. Call out plant parts and have pupils point to the appropriate location on the plant. Repeat with different plant species. • While outside, look and listen for birds. Ask pupils to identify birds by sight or sound.

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Leaves: the structures on a plant that make food.

The lesson

What to do • Return to the class and discuss the parts of a flower and parts of a bird. Ask the pupils to consider the function of each. • If available, show the class a poster of the bird. Point to the different parts. Ask the class to name the parts. • Pupils complete the copymaster to consolidate knowledge.

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The main parts of flowering plants are the leaves, stems, roots, flowers and seeds. Each plant part performs the following basic functions.

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Background information

After the lesson

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• Recording and communicating

Answers • Teacher check

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• Investigating

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Additional activities • Compare trees, shrubs and weeds. What do they have in common? How are they different? • Make a list of as many different types of birds as the pupils can think of. Display ideas • Pupils can help to make a collage of a flowering plant and label the parts.

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Plants and animals ~ Activity 3

Naming parts

Write the name of the plant parts in the correct places.

leaf

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Colour the plant.

roots

flower

stem

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Colour the bird.

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Write the name of the bird parts in the correct places.

leg

head

tail

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wing

beak 21


Plants and animals ~ Activity 4

Growing beans Objectives

Before the lesson

• observe growth and change in some living things

Materials needed

• explore conditions for growth of bulbs and seeds

• Packets of dry lima or kidney beans, paper towels, clear glass jars or plastic cups (1 per pupil or shared between 2 to 3 pupils), water.

Working scientifically

Preparation

• Observing

• Collect books suggested in the stimulus.

• Predicting

• Growing seeds will take a few weeks.

• Investigating and experimenting

• Have pupils collect glass jars or cups over days prior to the lesson. Label jars using a black waterproof pen to name the person or group who will be using the jar in the experiment (or alternatively write names on a sheet of paper kept under the jar once the experiment is set up).

• Measuring • Recording and communicating Designing and making

The lesson

• Planning

Stimulus

• Making

• Read and discuss stories about plants (e.g. The Tiny Seed by Eric Carle, The Giving Tree by Shel Silverstein or Flowers, Fruit and Seeds by Jerome Wexler). Discuss what plants give us. How do they change and grow? What do they need to grow healthily?

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What to do

• Fill the cup loosely with several sheets of crumpled paper towel. • Put several seeds into the jar so they fit between the glass and the paper towels. Check the seeds don’t fall to the bottom of the jar by adding more paper towels to keep them in place about halfway up the jar. • Carefully drip water onto the paper towels until they are moist but not soaked. • Place jars on a shelf or sill where they can get light. • Record changes as the seeds start to grow. Pupils can draw their observations and write about the differences they notice each week (using keywords). Discuss how the roots and stems grow from different parts of the seed. Which way do they grow? What happens to the seed cases?

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In the experiment the seed grows roots and shoots. The roots reach the bottom of the jar. At the top, two small leaves called seed leaves sprout from the shoot first, then bigger leaves sprout. The seed cases will fall and wither away as they are no longer needed.

• Draw or display a poster of a plant growing in the ground – have pupils match or read labels to the important parts – roots, stem, leaf, flower, fruit etc. Discuss the needs of a plant to help it grow (sunlight, water).

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Plants, trees and flowers are all living things. They need air, water, soil and sunlight to grow. Plants can produce other plants, resembling themselves. They develop from seeds that can be dispersed by wind, water or animals. They can’t move like many other living things but they produce their own food through a process called photosynthesis, by turning sunlight into fuel and energy.

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Background information

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• Evaluating

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• Exploring

• Discuss changes over a period of four weeks. Ask pupils what is helping the plant to grow.

• Hold a competition for the ‘Biggest Bean Plant’. Continue keeping records.

After the lesson Answers • Teacher check Additional activities • How do plants get their food? Place celery or a white carnation in a jar of coloured water. Observe the changes. Discuss why the colour moved through the plants. • Put a sweet potato in a jar of water (half in and half out). Use four toothpicks stuck into its side to balance the potato on the edge of the jar. In 1–2 weeks there will be some interesting changes to observe and record. • Read other books about plants (e.g. Jack and the Beanstalk, The Carrot Seed by Ruth Kraus, The Popcorn Book by Tomie de Paola). Act out the stories for the class. Display ideas • Display bar graphs showing the beans’ growth using paper streamers to measure the growth. • Collect pictures of plants to make a class collage.

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Plants and animals ~ Activity 4

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Growing beans

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Plants and animals ~ Activity 5

Four seasons Objective

Before the lesson

• become aware that animals and plants undergo seasonal change in appearance or behaviour

Materials needed • Chart showing the months of the year, colour-coded or sorted into seasons.

Working scientifically • Questioning • Observing

Preparation • Prepare strips of paper (see stimulus). Write the names of the four seasons on the whiteboard.

• Predicting • Recording and communicating

The lesson

• Evaluating Background information

What to do • Discuss the weather that occurs for the different seasons and list weather words on the whiteboard under each heading. • Discuss the sports or activities that pupils do in different seasons and add these words as well. • Ask pupils about different foods for different seasons. Add pupils’ contributions as either words or drawings. • What clothes do we wear for each season? Why do they change? How do they suit the weather? Add contributions to the list. • Take the class outdoors to observe seasonal changes for themselves. (This objective can be revisited three or four times during the school year). • Using this information, ask the pupils to complete the copymaster with the most suitable words or pictures about each season.

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The seasons depend upon where you live. Most places have four seasons—summer, autumn, winter and spring. Each season brings a change in the weather and temperature and follows a cycle that repeats itself over and over. As the season changes, so too do we. What we wear, our health and what we do changes. Trees also change. Leaves and flowers bloom. Leaves change colour and then fall off the tree, leaving it bare.

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• Making

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• Planning

Stimulus • Show the seasons chart and discuss the months that make up the four seasons. Ask the pupils in which season their birthday, Christmas, Easter, etc. fall. • Give the pupils a strip of paper. (An A4 sheet cut in half lengthways would be sufficient for two pupils). Get them to fold the strip in half and then in half again. Unfold and print a season (in order) in each section. Colour and decorate to suit the season. Bend until the strip is a circle and tape ends together. This shows that the seasons keep repeating. Ask ‘What season is before summer? After autumn?’

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• Exploring

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Designing and making

After the lesson Answers • Teacher check Additional activities • Plan and make a season mobile. Pupils should draw a picture of their mobile plan on the back of their copymaster and talk about their ideas. Pupils should choose appropriate materials and tools and use season words and symbols of weather, clothes or activities appropriate to each season. Completed mobiles should be displayed and evaluated. • Draw a suitcase outline for each season. Have pupils cut out magazine and catalogue pictures and glue them into the appropriate suitcase. • Divide the class into four groups and have pupils come dressed for a season. Discuss the differences in clothing. Why do they suit the season? Display ideas • Draw the types of clothing used and place under season headings on a display board. • Graph what pupils like to do in each season.

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Plants and animals ~ Activity 5

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Four seasons

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Energy and forces

Light

Curriculum links Northern Ireland – The World Around Us – Foundation Stage

• Identify different light sources, including the sun. • Know that darkness is the absence of light. • Make and record observations. • Show curiosity and identify similarities and differences between objects in the environment.

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England – Science – Key Stage One

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• Understand that things change over time.

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• Be aware of the natural environment.

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• Be able to sequence familiar events. Scotland – Science – First Level • Make connections between the shape, position and size of shadows at different times of the day (first). Wales – Knowledge and • Sequence events. Understanding of the World – • Recognise the changes caused by time. Foundation Stage • Understand that light comes from a variety of sources, such as the sun, and that darkness is the absence of light. • Make observations and keep records.

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Make a rainbow Colour cube Light and dark Colour spinner Day or night? Shadows

bright

colour

dark

day

flower

inside

light

moon

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outside

shade

spinner

spin

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Light

rainbow

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Energy and forces

paint

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Light ~ Activity 1

Make a rainbow Objective

Before the Lesson

• identify and name different colours

Materials needed

Working scientifically • Observing

• Shallow glass baking dish, water, a small mirror, sunlight or a powerful flashlight or lamp, thick white card (20 cm x 15 cm). Preparation

• Predicting

• Practise the experiment before trying it with pupils.

• Investigating

• Outline of a rainbow drawn on the whiteboard.

• Recording and communicating Designing and making

The Lesson

• Exploring • Making

Stimulus

• Evaluating

• Read books about rainbows; e.g. I Know the Colours of the Rainbow… by E Jenkins, What is a Rainbow? by C Arvetis and C Palmer.

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• Ask pupils ‘When do we see a rainbow? What would the weather be like when rainbows appear?’ (Rain followed by sunshine.) Explain how the sun shining through water droplets makes a rainbow. What to do

• Discuss what the pupils think they would need if they were to make a rainbow.

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• Follow the steps below, explaining each step to the pupils as they observe the procedure. Encourage them to ask questions and assist in turns. • Fill the baking dish halfway with water.

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• Place the dish in the sunlight or use a powerful flashlight to act as the sun; stand the card against it, so that light shines through the slot into the water. • Position the mirror on a slant against the edge of the glass dish (if it slides use ‘blobs’ of modelling clay to stop it slipping).

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• Slowly move the mirror so that the sunlight hits the mirror just below the surface of the water. • Focus the reflected (mirror) light towards the white card. You should be able to see all the colours of the rainbow. • Explain to the pupils, in simple terms, that when a beam of light is shone into glass or water it bends. Each of the colours in the white light bends at a different angle, causing the colours to split.

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Throughout the centuries the rainbow has been the focus of many magical beliefs. Two of these are that it forms a bridge in the sky so the gods can leave heaven and come to Earth. Another is that when you find the end of the rainbow that touches the Earth there will be a pot of gold. Rainbows are, in fact, caused by sunlight shining through raindrops. Sir Isaac Newton, 300 years ago, proved that ‘white’ light (like sunlight or light bulbs) contains all the colours of the rainbow. We see rainbows in the sky because water droplets split the sunlight before it reaches us. Many rays of sunlight, splitting many raindrops, make a curved, coloured rainbow in the sky. When a beam of light is shone into a glass of water, it bends. Each of the colours in the ‘white’ light bends at a slightly different angle, causing the colours to split and form a spectrum.

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Background information

• Discuss the colours they can see. List and draw these using the rainbow outline on the whiteboard. (Top to bottom – red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.)

• Pupils can complete the copymaster after discussion of each section. Leave the materials used in view and the rainbow outline for reference. Pupils can draw and/or write their answers.

Note: Suggestion for colouring rainbow – light blue = blue; dark blue = indigo; and purple = violet.

After the Lesson Answers • Teacher check Additional activities • Blow bubbles – rainbows can be seen in water bubbles. • Shine a torch at an angle onto a compact disc. It will split the light into a rainbow spectrum. Display ideas • Draw a rainbow shape that stretches across a display board. Have pupils paint the correct colours. At one end decorate a cloud with white cotton wool balls. At the other end have a gold pot with a pocket to hold topic words or stories written by pupils about rainbows.

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Light ~ Activity 1

Make a rainbow

I made a

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Draw and label the things you used.

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How did you make it?

Colour the rainbow.

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Light ~ Activity 2

Colour cube Before the lesson

Objectives • identify and name different colours • observe colours in the local environment Working scientifically • Observing • Predicting • Investigating • Recording and communicating Designing and making

Materials needed • Cellophane (red, blue, yellow, clear), white card or thick paper, scissors, glue. Preparation • Cut the cellophane into 2-inch squares. (Ensure there will be sufficient for all pupils.) • Photocopy the cube template onto card if desired. (The template can also be cut and glued onto card and left to dry before further steps are made.) • Teacher or parent helpers could pre-cut the internal squares with a retractable knife.

• Exploring

Stimulus • Using strips of red, blue or yellow cellophane, have pupils view the classroom or objects through these colours (one colour at a time). What can they see? What do blue objects look like? What happens if you mix two colour sheets? What to do • Cut along the dotted lines of the cube. • Glue the template onto card (if not photocopied directly onto card). • When dry, cut out the centre squares and around the cube. (Teacher/parent help will be needed here. A retractable knife could be used to start the cut for the pupils.) • Glue different-coloured cellophane into each window (yellow, red, blue, clear). • Fold along the solid lines to make a colour cube. • Glue flaps to hold shape. • Get pupils to view through the different windows. • What colours can they see? What colours combine to make new colours? Discuss and record results on the whiteboard. For example, ‘My shirt looked … through the red cellophane’.

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Red cellophane stops all light except red light from reaching your eyes. It makes all shades that don’t reflect red, such as green and blue, look darker. However, all shades that reflect red look lighter. Coloured cellophane only lets the same colour of light pass through.

The lesson

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Background information

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• Making

After the lesson Answers • Teacher check Additional activities • Use a red or green marker to completely colour a square, circle or triangle on white paper. Stare at the coloured shape for a full minute. Now look at a white sheet of paper. What do you see? Try other coloured shapes. • Make a ‘tissue-strip’ window using primary-coloured tissue paper or cellophane. Overlap the colours (red, blue, yellow) to create new colours. Glue designs and hang in a window to view the colours. Display ideas • Display completed colour cubes. Pupils can copy the sentences listed on the whiteboard (from their discussions after the activity) onto strips. Pin these around the colour cubes.

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Light ~ Activity 2

Colour cube

Cut on the dotted lines.

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Fold on the solid lines.

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Light ~ Activity 3

Light and dark Before the lesson

Objectives • observe colours in the local environment • sort objects into sets according to colour • explore dark and bright colours and become aware of different shades of colour Working scientifically

Materials needed • Coloured pencils or paints (palettes, paintbrushes, water, painting shirts). • Poster of a rainbow or the colour spectrum (optional). Preparation • If pupils are painting, set up suitable areas and stations for them to work in small groups to experiment with paints.

• Observing • Investigating

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Tertiary colours are where three colours are mixed in varying amounts to make yet another colour; for example, yellow + red + blue = brown.

What to do • Pupils complete Question 1 of the worksheet—copying the names of the objects from the board to the sheet. • Ask the class which colours they saw the most. • If available, show the class the colour spectrum or rainbow picture. Ask the pupils which colours they think are dark colours and which are bright. Using their pencils or paints, pupils shade or place ‘blobs’ of the colours they think fit into each category. • Ask the class to think of the colour of leaves. What colour are leaves? (green) do all leaves look like they are the same exact colour? Why not? Introduce the word ‘shade’. The pupils choose one colour and find different shades of that colour (if using pencils) or they add water to the paint colour to make different shades. Pupils show examples of their colour (either by colouring or painting) in Question 4. Tell the class to begin with the lightest shade and work right, ending with the darkest colour. (Adult assistance may be required for this task).

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Red, yellow and blue are called primary colours and form the basis of all other colours. Every other colour can be produced by mixing different combinations of these colours. For example; red + yellow = orange; red + blue = purple; yellow + blue = green. These newly created colours of orange, purple and green are called secondary colours, as two colours were used to make them.

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Background information

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• Exploring

Stimulus • Allow the pupils to observe the colour of objects inside and outside the classroom. List the colours and objects on the whiteboard. Discuss.

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Designing and making

The lesson

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• Analysing (sorting and classifying)

After the lesson • Teacher check Additional activities • Place blobs of the three primary colours on a white sheet (about the size of a one pound coin). Put a sheet of plastic wrap over the top. Pupils can then create colours, patterns and pictures like finger painting (without the mess). When the pupils have finished their ‘masterpieces’, carefully remove the wrap and discard. Leave the colourful abstract pictures to dry.

Display ideas • Make a class colour book. Pupils draw or find magazine pictures of objects to match their colour names.

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Light ~ Activity 3

Light and dark

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List five colourful objects you found inside and outside the classroom.

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Which colours did you find the most of?

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Which colours are bright? Which colours are dark? Show them below.

Choose one colour. Find or make light and dark shades of this colour. Show them below.

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Light ~ Activity 4

Colour spinner Objective

Before the lesson

• identify and name different colours

Materials needed • Thick paper, paints – red, orange, yellow, green, blue and purple, paintbrush, sharp pencils, glue, scissors

Working scientifically • Questioning

Preparation • Photocopy the template onto thicker card if desired. (The template can also be cut and glued onto card and left to dry.)

• Observing • Recording and communicating Designing and making • Exploring • Making

The lesson

When the colour disc spins around very quickly, our eyes see different shades and get mixed up, confusing the brain. Our brain sees a mixture of colours which equal white.

What to do • Cut around the disc and glue onto thicker card (if not photocopied directly onto card). • When dry, paint the colours as shown on the template. • Cut out the disc when the paint is dry. • Make a hole in the centre and gently poke a pencil (lead down) through the hole. • Spin the disc like a top as fast as possible on a level table. • Ask the pupils what happens to the colours as it spins. (The colours should merge to appear white.) • Complete the copymaster.

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This colour spinner uses six primary or secondary colours to create this effect. (Note: indigo and violet equal purple.)

Stimulus • Discuss the colours of the rainbow (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet) and how sunlight shining through water droplets is needed to make a rainbow.

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Background information

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• Evaluating

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After the lesson

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Answers • Teacher check

Additional activities • Instead of a pencil, put two small holes either side of the centre and thread string through them to make a loop. (Use file reinforcements to stop paper tearing.) One person holds the string while another turns the disc. When the string is twisted tightly the person holding the string moves his/her hands in and out in a rhythmic movement to spin the disc. What happens to the colours? • Draw circles of different sizes. Divide the circles into equal sections and colour each section with different colours. Push a pencil through the centre of each so the circles overlap. What happens when you spin them? What colours can be seen? • Read books about colour (e.g. Harold and the Purple Crayon – C Johnson, Green Eggs and Ham – Dr Suess, Planting a Rainbow – L Ehlert, Book of Colours – Margery Brown).

Display ideas • Display completed colour spinners. Cut out the pupils’ completed copymasters and pin them around the spinners for the pupils to compare answers.

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Light ~ Activity 4

How many colours did you paint the spinner?

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Colour spinner

How did you make it spin?

What happens to the colours when it spins?

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Light ~ Activity 5

Day or night? Before the lesson

Objective • discuss differences between day and night Working scientifically • Questioning • Observing

Materials needed • If available, collect photographs or charts of the sky, and photographs of people and plants during the day and night. Preparation • Note places where flowers are growing on the school grounds and an area where shadows are prominent.

• Predicting • Recording and communicating Background information

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What to do • If available, look at pictures or photographs of people being active during the day and sleeping at night. Go outside and experiment with the changing lengths of shadows. Look at flowering plants. Observe how a flower turns towards the sun and how the leaves are open and raised towards the sun. Show photographs of plants at night when their flowers are closed and leaves are lowered (if available). • Complete the copymaster after discussion.

After the lesson

Answers 1. (a) The moon and stars appear at night, the sun appears in the daytime sky. (b) During the day we are more active and feel warmer (due to the sun): at night we are cooler and feel tired. (c) At night, plants lower their leaves and some close their flowers; during the day plants raise their leaves and open their flowers to the sunlight.

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Note: Some people have to work at night-time. They are called shift workers. They sleep during the day and are active at night. Our biological timing system becomes obvious when travelling overseas to a different time zone. People feel tired during the day or active at night. This is called ‘jet-lag’.

Stimulus • Ask the pupils questions about the activities we do during the day and night. For example; Why do we go to school during the day? Why do we sleep at night? Why don’t we get up and play at 3 a.m.? Why don’t we eat lunch at midnight? Let them come to the conclusion that it is because we are tired at night and active during the day.

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Plants show similar rhythms. They raise their leaves in the day and lower them at night. Some flowering plants close their flowers at night and open them during the day. They will also turn to face the sunlight during the day.

The lesson

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The behaviour of many living things is based on the day–night cycle. These rhythms occur every 24 hours. For most living things, a 24-hour period is broken up into a time of activity and a time of rest. Most human beings are active during the day and sleep at night. We feel warmer during the day and colder at night. When it is dark, we become tired. A trigger is ‘set-off’ in our brain to tell us that we need sleep.

Additional activities • Look at shadows throughout the day. Draw around the pupils’ shadows at 9.00 a.m., noon and 2.00 p.m. How have they changed? Keep a plant in the classroom. Place it on a sunny windowsill. The pupils can draw the plant. Place the plant in a shady, cooler spot. Does it change in any way? Display ideas • The pupils can draw pictures of daytime and night-time activities. Place them onto a pin-up board with a blue or black background. Add labels such as: active, awake, play, hungry, warmer, short shadows, tired, cooler, long shadows etc.

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Day or night?

Light ~ Activity 5

Look at each pair of pictures. Decide if they show day or night. Write a sentence to explain the difference.

(a)

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(b)

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(c)

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Light ~ Activity 6

Shadows Objective

Before the lesson

• explore how shadows are formed

Materials needed • Three different coloured pieces of chalk, pictures of sun clocks, torches.

• Observing • Investigating • Recording and communicating Background information

The lesson Stimulus • On a sunny day before the investigation, take the class outside at different intervals. Ask them to point at the sun but to not look at it directly. Notice that throughout the day the pupils will be pointing in different directions. Pupils do not need to understand that it is us moving and not the sun at this stage. SAFETY: Remind pupils not to look directly at the sun! What to do • Take the class to the first chosen structure in the morning about 9 o’clock. Notice where the shadow is. Use one colour of chalk and draw around it. • In a clear area, ask the pupils to stand still and notice where their shadows are. Choose a few pupils to draw around the shadows. Repeat again at midday and in the afternoon, drawing around the shadows with different coloured chalk. • Discuss with the class how shadows can help us to tell what time of the day it is. Ask pupils how shadows are made. • Experiment with making shadows using objects in the classroom and torches. • To consolidate their understanding of shadows, pupils complete the copymaster after discussion.

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The sun is the major source of light on Earth. Without this light, we would not be able to see anything around us. At different times of the day, some objects cast shadows because they block sunlight. The shadows are long when the sun first appears, then decrease or disappear when the sun is overhead at midday. In the afternoon, the shadows elongate again but in the opposite direction to the morning.

Preparation • On a sunny day before the science lesson, walk around the grounds of the school and find two places to conduct the experiments. The first place will need to have a tall pole (the netball courts may work well) or some other structure that will make clear shadows. The second place, where the pupils will be drawing their own shadows, will need to be free from buildings and trees.

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• Questioning

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Working scientifically

After the lesson Answers 1–2 Teacher check 3. 12 o’clock Additional activities • Show the pupils a picture book of Peter Pan with an illustration that shows his shadow doing something different from what Peter is doing. Ask the class if this is possible now that they know more about shadows. • Pupils tell stories to their peers about the day they couldn’t find their shadows. Act scenes from their stories to each other. Pupils can illustrate their stories. Display ideas • On a large sheet of paper, pupils can go outside and draw shadows of objects, showing how the shadow moved throughout the day.

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Light – Activity 6

Shadows

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Look carefully at the shadow. Draw the missing sun in the sky.

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Look carefully at the sun. Draw the missing shadows.

Colour the time you think the shadow shows.

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Energy and forces

Sound Curriculum links

Northern Ireland – The World Around Us – Foundation Stage

• Know there are many kinds of sound and sources of sound. • Explore, using the sense of hearing, and make and record observations. • Identify similarities and differences between objects.

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England – Science – Key Stage One

• Understand that there are many kinds and sources of sound.

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• Experiment with different everyday objects and use their senses to sort them into groups according to simple features.

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Wales – Knowledge and Understanding of the World – Foundation Stage

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Scotland – Science – Early Level • Discover a variety of ways to make sounds (early).

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banging

Inside and outside Sound sort Make a kazoo!

ears

hear

high

instrument

kazoo low

Energy and forces

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music

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plucking

soft

loud moves play quiet sound

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Sound

blowing

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Sound ~ Activity 1

Inside and outside Before the lesson

Working scientifically • Observing • Predicting • Analysing (sorting and classifying) • Recording and communicating Background information

The lesson Stimulus • Use a beater to hit a low note on the xylophone. With the same amount of pressure, hit a high note on the xylophone. Ask the pupils what the difference between the two sounds is. Explain that sounds can be loud or soft and that they can also be high or low. Have the class sing a high note and a low note. What to do • Sit quietly inside the classroom and listen for sounds within the school. Pupils make inferences about what they think is making the sounds they hear. Is the sound loud or soft? Is the sound high or low? Next, sit outside the classroom, listening quietly for sounds within the school grounds and beyond. Pupils make inferences about what is making the sound. Is the sound loud or soft? Is the sound high or low? • Make a list of the sounds heard within the school. Make decisions about what made the sounds. Repeat for sounds outside the school. Pupils complete Questions 1 and 2 on the copymaster. • Blow the whistle. Ask the pupils to decide if the sound was loud or soft and high or low. Play sounds on a tape that show examples of high and low sounds. Blow the whistle again. Repeat this procedure using a ringing telephone. • Sing a low, soft note to the pupils. Ask them to describe the sound. Finally, talk about the dog in the picture. Practise barking like the dog in the picture. A big dog will usually have a loud, low bark. • Turn on an alarm clock that has a loud, screeching ring. Ask the pupils if they like this sound. Are there any other sounds they don’t like? Are there sounds that they do like? Make a list on the board. Explain that unpleasant sounds are usually called ‘noises’. Pupils complete Question 4 on the copymaster.

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Sounds are generated by specific objects. Sounds can be loud or soft, high-pitched or lowpitched. Sounds can come from nature (animals, people, water, weather etc.) or be human-made (machines, traffic, electronic etc.). Sounds occur when something vibrates. They are transmitted through solids, liquids or gases to our ears.

Preparation • Suggestion: Prepare a tape with different sounds on it. Include loud and soft, high-pitched and low-pitched, from nature or human-made.

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• identify and differentiate between high and low sounds

Materials needed • Whistle, telephone (normal or mobile), chime bars of different lengths (or a xylophone), alarm clock.

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• recognise and identify a variety of sounds in the environment

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Objectives

After the lesson Answers 1. Teacher check 2. Teacher check 3. Answers will vary depending on types of sounds used 4. Teacher check Additional activities • Pupils, with eyes closed or blindfolded, try to identify the voices of other members of the class. Display ideas • Attach the headings ‘Sounds I like to hear’ and ‘Sounds I don’t like to hear’ to a pin-up board. Pupils can find pictures in magazines or draw pictures of objects, people and animals that make sounds and attach them to the different sides of the board. 42

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Sound ~ Activity 1

Inside and outside

Draw two things that made sounds within the school.

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Draw two things that made sounds outside the school.

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Listen to the sound. Colour words to describe it.

On the back of this sheet, draw two sounds you like to hear and two sounds you don’t like to hear. www.prim-ed.com ~ PRIMARY SCIENCE ~ Prim-Ed Publishing

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Sound ~ Activity 2

Sound sort Before the lesson

Objective • explore ways of making different sounds using a variety of materials Working scientifically • Questioning • Predicting • Investigating • Analysing (sorting and classifying) • Recording and communicating

Materials needed • Any objects that will make sounds, including simple musical instruments; recorder, whistle, kazoo, drum, chime bars, cymbals, triangle, maracas, rattle, guitar, violin, spoons, clickers, bottles or jars, containers with lids filled with: rice, dried peas, cornflakes, pasta, sand, gravel, mung beans; elastic bands of different widths and lengths placed around milk containers and tissue boxes, banjos etc. Preparation • Organise to use a room with a large space for sitting in a circle. Place the different instruments in the middle of the room.

Background information

The lesson

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Stimulus • With the children sitting in a circle ask them to name as many musical instruments they can. Examples can include objects that make sounds that are not instruments such as (blowing through) a straw, (shaking) a jar of dried ingredients, (plucking) an elastic band.

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What to do • When no more instruments can be named, choose some of the more common instruments and ask the pupils about how they make a sound. Ask pupils what we have to do to make the instrument make a sound. Words like ‘hit’, ‘bang’, ‘shake’ will be offered. Ask a pupil to collect an instrument from the centre of the circle and play it. Ask the group how the instrument is being played. • Repeat using a number of different instruments. Begin introducing the words ‘blow’, ‘bang’, ‘shake’, ‘pluck’. • When enough examples of each of the four ways of making a sound have been played, introduce the copymaster. Look at the pictures of each of the instruments. The pupils can begin predicting how each is played. If there are any that the class is unsure of, find the instrument (or one similar) and play it. • Pupils colour the copymaster, cut out the instruments and stick them onto a large sheet of paper under the headings ‘blow’, ‘bang’, ‘shake’, and ‘pluck’.

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There are many different ways of making sounds. In order to produce a sound, something needs to move. (This movement will cause the vibration that makes the sound.) Ways to produce sounds include banging, scraping, tapping, strumming, purring, plucking, blowing, twanging and drumming.

After the lesson Answers Blow – recorder, kazoo, whistle, straw Bang – drum, tambourine, cymbals, chime bars Pluck – guitar, cello, tissue box ‘guitar’, banjo Shake – maracas, bell, jar of peas, rattle Additional activities • Sitting in a circle, pupils close their eyes and guess what object or instrument made a sound. The teacher or a chosen pupil can pick the instrument, stand in the centre of the circle and play it for a few seconds. Display ideas • Attach objects and instruments to a wall underneath the four headings ‘blowing’, ‘banging’, ‘shaking’ and ‘plucking’.

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Sound ~ Activity 2

Sound sort

On a large sheet of paper, write the headings:

blow

bang

shake

pluck

Colour and cut out the pictures.

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Glue the pictures under the heading that describes what you do to make each instrument make a sound.

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Sound ~ Activity 3

Make a kazoo! Objective

Before the lesson

• explore ways of making different sounds using a variety of materials

Materials needed • Cardboard tube (from paper towel cylinder etc.), wax paper, rubber bands, pencils.

Working scientifically • Observing

Preparation • Cut the wax paper to the appropriate size to cover the end of the tube (see illustration).

• Predicting • Investigating • Recording and communicating Designing and making

The lesson

Background information A l l s o u n d s a re c a u s e d b y something vibrating. A kazoo makes a sound in the following manner. We blow air into the tube. The air hits the wax paper making it move up and down very quickly (vibrate). When the hole is blocked, more air will meet the paper. When the hole is uncovered, air can escape through it. The vibrating air from the kazoo reaches our ears and we can hear the sound.

What to do • Cover one end of the tube with wax paper. • Secure the paper by using a rubber band. • Use a pencil to poke a hole in the tube close to the wax paper. • To play the kazoo – place your mouth on the open end of the tube. Blow your favourite tune into the tube making a ‘da-da’ sound. • Complete the copymaster to make a report.

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• Evaluating

Stimulus • Tell the pupils they are going to make an instrument. Show them the materials being used. Explain what each one is. Ask them to guess how they will construct an instrument from the materials.

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• Making

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• Planning

After the lesson

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• Exploring

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Answers • Teacher check

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Additional activities • Make a tissue box ‘guitar’. Use tissue boxes, or other boxes, to construct guitars with rubber bands as the ‘strings’. Experiment with different-sized boxes and bands of different lengths to make high- and low-pitched sounds. Try strumming harder to make louder sounds. • Plan and make a different musical instrument. Decide how the instrument will make a sound, by blowing, banging, shaking or plucking. Draw a plan. Make the musical instrument using a range of tools and materials. Evaluate the musical instrument – can it play a tune? Display ideas • Take photos of the pupils constructing and playing their kazoos. Display the photos and add labels such as – ‘We attached wax paper to the end’, ‘We made sounds by blowing’, ‘We changed the sound by covering and uncovering the hole with our finger’.

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Sound ~ Activity 3

Make a kazoo!

Draw the materials you used.

What did you do?

Place your finger over the hole. How does the sound change?

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Gently place your finger on the wax paper while you are playing. What do you feel?

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(a) Listen to a friend playing Draw your kazoo. the kazoo. Does it sound the same as yours? (b) With your friend, choose a song you both like. Play that song on your kazoos. www.prim-ed.com ~ PRIMARY SCIENCE ~ Prim-Ed Publishing

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Energy and forces

Heat

Curriculum links England – Science – Key Stage One

• Sort objects into groups on the basis of simple properties.

Northern Ireland – The World Around Us – Foundation Stage

• Know how living things survive.

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• Find out about the uses of various materials and how these are chosen for specific uses on the basis of their simple properties.

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• Identify similarities and differences between objects and materials in the environment.

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• Understand that different materials have different properties and can be used for different purposes. Scotland – Science – Early Level • Relate the weather to the seasons and show how they affect people (early). Wales – Knowledge and • Identify the effects the different seasons have on some Understanding of the World – animals. Foundation Stage • Sort everyday objects into groups according to simple features

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and properties.

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Hot and cold Keeping warm

air conditioner boil

cold

cool

danger

dress

fan

fire

hat

heat

hot

jumper

kettle

sandals

scarf

shorts

steam

summer

swimsuit

warm

water

wear

weather

winter

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Heat

coat

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Energy and forces

clothes

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Heat ~ Activity 1

Hot and cold Before the lesson

Objective • recognise the difference between hot and cold in terms of weather, food, water and the body Working scientifically • Observing • Predicting

Materials needed • Kettle, water, jug, access to a refrigerator, two heatproof glasses/beakers. Preparation • Set the kettle up at the front of the classroom and fill it with water. Place a jug of water in the fridge. Organise the pupils so that they can see the demonstration.

• Investigating

The lesson

Background information

Stimulus • (Turn on the kettle and let it boil.) Pour the hot water into a glass. Pour icy cold water into another glass. (Ensure the pupils are sitting away from the demonstration desk.) Note: An alternative is to use hot water from the tap. This will allow pupils the opportunity to come to the front of the class and feel each of the glasses or beakers. What to do • Which glass has the hot water? Which glass holds the cold water? How do you know? Ask the class to describe what they can see. Write the words on the board, for example: Cold water – misty, drops of water on glass etc. Hot water – steam, bubbles etc. • Ask the pupils to think about things that are hot and things that are cold. They list hot and cold things in the pictures in Question 1. • Discuss the dangers of hot water and steam with the class. Tell them to always ask an adult for help if something is hot. • Discuss the chart in Question 2 with the class. Ask for examples of things they do, wear and eat when the weather is hot and cold.

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The weather affects our lives in numerous ways—the clothes we wear, what we do, what we eat and even how we feel.

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Water has no colour, taste or smell. As a liquid it can flow, be poured and take the shape of its container. When water (at sea level) is heated to 100º Celsius, it boils.

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• Recording and communicating

After the lesson Answers • Teacher check Additional activities • Pupils draw pictures of the activities they do in the warm weather (go to the seaside, play outside, visit the park etc.) and activities they do in the cooler weather (watch DVDs, play inside games, play electronic games, read etc.). • Find pictures of different foods in magazines, cut them out and stick them onto white paper under the categories ‘summer foods’ and ‘winter foods’.

Display ideas • Display pupil-created collages of summer and winter foods.

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Heat ~ Activity 1

Hot and cold

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What things are cold? What things are hot? Write some of them in the shapes.

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Draw pictures to show the difference between hot and cold.

I like

the best because ‌

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Heat ~ Activity 2

Keeping warm Objective

Before the lesson

• identify ways of keeping objects and substances warm and cold

Materials needed • Red and blue coloured pencils, teapot, tea-cosy (optional).

Working scientifically

Preparation • No extra preparation required.

• Observing • Predicting • Investigating • Analysing (sorting and classifying) • Recording and communicating

The lesson Stimulus • Ask pupils individually to come to the front of the classroom. Point to each item of clothing the pupil is wearing. Ask the class to name each item. Can we predict what the weather is like outside from the clothes the pupils are wearing?

Background information Most places have four seasons— each season bringing a change in the weather and temperature. People adapt to the surrounding temperature by wearing less or more clothing. In the cooler weather, fabrics are heavier compared to lighter fabrics in warmer weather. Houses are cooled or heated depending on the outside temperature.

After the lesson

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Food and drink can also be kept warm or cool using different objects such as a tea cosy (teapot) or refrigerator (all foods and drinks).

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• Evaluating

What to do • In pairs, pupils look at each item in Question 1. They decide which items of clothing or footwear will keep them warm, or help them to stay cool, and colour them appropriately. • Explain to the pupils that we need to keep our bodies warm (in cold weather) and cool (in hot weather) to stay healthy. We do this by wearing certain clothing or by keeping our surroundings (home, school, office) at a comfortable temperature. • Food also needs to kept at certain temperatures so we don’t become sick from eating it. • Pupils match the pictures in Questions 2 and 3. Show pupils a teapot and a tea cosy and ask if their parents or grandparents use them. What is their purpose? • Check that the pupils have matched the pictures correctly. Discuss each item.

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• Making

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• Planning

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• Exploring

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Designing and making

Answers 1. colour red – scarf, woollen beanie, jumper, raincoat colour blue – dress, swimsuit, sandals, shorts 2. child – jumper, house – fire, teapot – tea cosy, dinner – oven 3. child – fan, house – air conditioning, food – refrigerator, drink – ice cubes Additional activities • Pupils look through magazines and catalogues and cut out pictures of clothes and footwear. Pupils glue pictures onto one of two sheets of paper. One is titled ‘Clothes that keep us warm’ and the other is titled ‘Clothes that help us to stay cool’. • Investigate the best place in the classroom to keep an ice cube from melting. Pupils predict where they think the warmest and coolest places are, and where the ice cube will melt the slowest. Carry out a simple investigation, make observations and communicate findings orally. • Plan and make an outfit for a teddy or doll to keep them cool on a hot day or warm on a cold day. Display ideas • Display the clothes collages created by the pupils. • Display the teddies and dolls, dressed in their cool or warm outfits.

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Heat ~ Activity 2

Keeping warm

(a) Colour the things you wear to keep you warm red.

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(b) Colour the things you wear to stay cool blue.

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Match ways to keep things warm.

Match ways to keep things cool.

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Energy and forces

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Magnetism and electricity m

Curriculum links

• Sort objects into groups on the basis of simple material properties; for example, magnetic or non-magnetic.

Northern Ireland – The World Around Us – Foundation Stage

• Know about everyday appliances that use electricity. • Understand that different materials behave in different ways, have different properties and can be used for different purposes.

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England – Science – Key Stage One

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• Know what sources of energy there are in the world. • Explore the forces exerted by magnets (first).

Scotland – Science – Early and First Level Wales – Knowledge and Understanding of the World – Foundation Stage

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• Know the importance of electricity in daily life (early). • Know how to stay safe when using electricity (early). • Experiment with different everyday objects and sort them into groups according to simple properties.

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Magnets Electricity

appliance danger heat magnets metal

electricity light materials objects

power

properties

socket

water

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Magnetism and electricity

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Energy and forces

attract

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Magnetism and electricity ~ Activity 1

Magnets Before the lesson

Objectives • use magnets of different shapes and sizes in purposeful play to explore their effects on different materials • investigate the fact that magnets attract certain materials

Materials needed • An assortment of the following materials – (some that will be attracted to a magnet and some that will not be): safety pins, buttons, spoons, soft drink can, small stones, socks, erasers, pencils, glass jars, paperclips, twist ties, paper, wax crayons, plastic lids, straws, screws, bolts, pegs, scissors, toothpicks etc. Ensure the objects on the copymaster are included. Preparation • Place an assortment of the objects in trays for each group. Discuss with the pupils that they will need to take turns. One person at a time will be the tester. Make sure there are enough objects so that each pupil in the group can be a tester at least once.

• Predicting • Investigating and experimenting • Analysing (sorting and classifying) Background information • Metals containing iron are attracted to a magnet.

Stimulus • Use a magnet to move a paperclip around the inside of a glass jar. Ask pupils how they think the magnet can do this trick. Show them the magnet. Ask the pupils why it sticks (is attracted) to the leg of the table (if the legs of the tables are metal) but does not stick (is not attracted) to a book. What to do • In groups, the pupils are given a tray with an assortment of objects on it. • The first tester chooses an object. The group make a prediction (guess) as to whether the object will be attracted to the magnet. • The pupil places the magnet next to the object. Is the object attracted to the magnet? • Pupils can sort the objects into those which are and are not attracted to a magnet. • Discuss what each set of objects are made of. • Pupils can complete the copymaster to consolidate understanding.

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• Aluminium and copper do not contain any iron and so are not attracted to magnets. This is why soft drink cans do not stick to magnets.

The lesson

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• Observing

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• Questioning

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Working scientifically

After the lesson Answers • Magnetic – peg (on the metal clip), paperclip, screw, scissors, spoon, safety pin, key, coin, zip (on the metal part) Non-magnetic – cotton wool, button (plastic), pencil, eraser, ruler (wooden), book, leaf

Additional activities • Use fridge magnets to test which objects in the home are attracted to a magnet and write or draw a list. • Look at a number of different-sized magnets. Predict in writing how many paperclips each will pick up. Complete the test and count the paperclips. Display ideas • Place a table against a wall. Have two containers with the labels ‘attracted to a magnet’ and ‘not attracted to a magnet’. Attach a magnet to string and tie it to the table. Place objects on the table. Pupils can test the objects and place them in the correct container.

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Magnetism and electricity ~ Activity 1

Magnets

Colour and cut out the pictures below.

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Sort them under the correct headings on a separate sheet of paper.

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Magnetism and electricity ~ Activity 2

Electricity Objectives

Before the lesson

• become aware of the uses of electricity in school and at home

Materials needed • Some household appliances to display.

• identify some household appliances that use electricity

Preparation • Display the appliances at the front of the classroom.

• become aware of the dangers of electricity

The lesson

• Recording and communicating Background information

What to do • Ask the class to think about what they use at home. Make a list on the board. Ask the pupils to decide which items have to be ‘plugged in’ and which do not. Pupils help to sort the items listed on the board. Circle the items which do have to be ‘plugged in’. • Ask the class why the appliances are plugged into the wall. • Explain that the appliances are plugged into an electric socket. When the socket is turned on, an ‘invisible energy’ comes out of the socket, runs along the cord and into the appliance, making it work. This ‘invisible energy’ is called electricity. • Pupils complete Question 1. Discuss each sentence and picture. When the pupils have worked out the answer, write it on the board so they can copy the correct spelling. • Pupils choose three appliances to draw and label in Question 2. • Ask pupils what they know about electricity. Discuss the danger of electricity with the class. Explain that if the ‘invisible energy’ comes into contact with people, they can get an ‘electric shock’ and get badly hurt or even die. • Look at the pictures in Question 3. Ask the class what is happening. Tell them that for electricity to get to people, it needs a ‘bridge’. A bridge can be a stick or it can even go through water. • Tell pupils to always dry their hands before they touch sockets or plugs.

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Electricity provides us with heat; it powers many appliances; it provides us with light; aids in communication; and is used by all members of modern society. We would not be able to function, as we do now, without the heat energy produced by electricity or the energy it provides in other ways. Electricity is extremely dangerous.

Stimulus • Point to each of the appliances. • Ask the pupils what you are pointing to.

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• Analysing (sorting and classifying)

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• Questioning

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Working scientifically

After the lesson Answers 1. (a) heat (b) light (c) power 2. Teacher check 3. (a) stick/put (b) wet Additional activities • Pupils can create a poster about being safe with electricity. For example, NEVER put a knife in a toaster. • Pupils go home and write or draw a list of all the electrical appliances. Display ideas • Display safety posters in classroom or public areas.

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Electricity

Magnetism and electricity ~ Activity 2

Finish the sentences. (a)

Electricity gives us h

(b)

Electricity gives us l

(c)

Electricity gives us p

. . .

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Draw pictures of three things that work using electricity. Label them.

Finish the sentences. (a)

Never

(b) things

into electric sockets.

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Never touch a socket with

hands.

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Energy and forces

Forces Curriculum links England – Science – Key Stage One

• Find out about and describe the movement of familiar things. • Know that both pushes and pulls are examples of forces.

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• Recognise that when things speed up, slow down or change direction there is a cause; for example, a push or a pull.

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• Find out how the shapes of objects made from some materials can be changed by some processes, including squashing, bending, twisting and stretching.

• Know why things move and how they work. • Show curiosity about objects and materials in the environment.

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Northern Ireland – The World Around Us – Foundation Stage

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• Sort objects into groups on the basis of simple material properties; for example, ability to float.

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• Identify similarities and differences between objects and materials.

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• Understand that different materials behave in different ways, have different properties and can be used for different purposes. Scotland – Science – Early Level • Experience play with toys and describe the effects of simple forces (early). • Experience play with familiar objects and ask questions, test ideas and report findings (early).

Wales – Knowledge and Understanding of the World – Foundation Stage

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• Experience a range of materials and know that different materials are useful for different purposes (early). • Experiment with different everyday materials and sort them into groups according to simple properties. • Understand how some everyday materials change in shape when stretched, squashed, bent and twisted.

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How toys move Push or pull? Changing shape Float or sink?

bend change move

push roll sink

shape

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spin

stretch twist

squash toys water

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object

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Energy and forces

Forces

float

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pull

bounce

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Forces ~ Activity 1

How toys move Objective

Before the lesson

• explore through informal activity with toys, forces such as pushing and pulling

Materials needed • Variety of toys that move in different ways – spin, rock, roll, bounce, fly etc. (Pictures could substitute for larger toys).

Working scientifically • Observing

Preparation • Write the words ‘spin’, ‘rock’, ‘roll’, ‘bounce’ and ‘fly’ along the whiteboard or on large sheets of paper. Leave space for other suggestions.

• Recording and communicating Background information The shape of the part of a toy in contact with the ground determines how it can move. For example, wheels and toys with spherical or cylindrical shapes can roll; toys with curves will rock. Some toys move by use of physical energy such as when a wagon is ‘pushed’ along. Battery-operated toys use electrical energy. Mechanical energy is used in wind-up toys.

The lesson Stimulus • Ask pupils to bring a toy that can move to school. Label it with the pupil’s name. What to do • In turn, pupils can present their toy to the class and show how it moves. • Discuss with the class which list, (spin, rock, roll, bounce), the toy belongs to. • Write the names of the toys under the appropriate category and place the toys in groups. • Discuss the similarities among the toys in each group. For example – what shape are the toys that bounce? Do the toys that rock have curves? What is special about the spinning toys?

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• Analysing (sorting and classifying)

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• Investigating and experimenting

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• Predicting

After the lesson

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Answers 1. roll – car, rollerskates, rugby ball, football, wagon, marbles bounce – football, rugby ball, rocking horse with spring spin – yo-yo, spinning top rock – cradle, rocking horses 2. The wind lifts the kite in the air and it flies. Additional activities • Classify toys in other ways – shape, colour, size, materials etc. • Sort toys by whether they move using physical, mechanical or electrical energy. Display ideas • Each pupil draws a picture of his/her toy and glues it on a chart to make a pictogram of how toys move.

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Forces ~ Activity 1

How toys move

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Match each toy to the way it moves. Some may move more than one way.

How does this toy move?

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Forces ~ Activity 2

Push or pull? Objectives

Before the lesson

• explore forces such as pushing and pulling

Materials needed • Collect a variety of objects that require a push, pull or both to move or work; for example, toy cars, pram, wheelbarrow, torch, tissue box, ring-top can, peg, cradle, pull-along toy, spinning top, hula hoop.

• investigate how forces act on objects Working scientifically • Questioning

Preparation • Organise groups for exploring ‘push or pull’ of objects after initial discussions.

• Observing • Investigating and experimenting • Analysing (sorting and classifying)

The lesson

• Recording and communicating

Stimulus • Show pupils a tissue box, a torch and a rolling pin. Ask them how they can make them move (or work). Allow three volunteers to show the class.

• Making • Evaluating Background information

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Pushing or pulling can make objects start or stop moving, slow down or change direction. This is known as a force. The stronger the push or pull the greater its effect on changing the movement of an object.

What to do • Discuss the movements each pupil used. Was it a push or a pull? • Challenge pupils to suggest things in the classroom that need a push or a pull; for example, a chair, door, computer keyboard. • Ask how a drawer can be made to move. (Pull to open, push to close). • Allow pupils to experiment with the collection of objects provided, as well as others they find inside and outside the classroom. • Discuss how some things need a push to start, but also need a twist (e.g. key in lock) or spin (spinning top). • Complete the copymaster to consolidate knowledge.

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Designing and making

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After the lesson

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Answers 1. (a) pull, (b) both, (c) push, (d) push, (e) pull 2. Teacher check

Additional activities • Provide a pull-along and push-along toy. Mark a start line and finish line about two metres apart. Pupils have to work out how much push or pull is needed to make the toy stop at the finish line. • Pupils draw a plan of a push-along or pull-along toy that would be suitable for a toddler to use. Pupils make their design, using a range of materials and tools. Pupils evaluate their finished toy – how well can the toy be pushed or pulled?

Display ideas • Provide labels (push, pull, push/pull, twist, spin) for pupils to match with objects in the classroom. • Display the toys pupils have planned and made.

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Forces ~ Activity 2

Push or pull?

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Tick whether you need to push or pull these objects to make them move. Some may be both.

Draw and label one different object for each box.

Push

Pull

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Both

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Forces ~ Activity 3

Changing shape Objective

Before the lesson

• explore how the shape of objects can be changed by squashing, pulling and other forces

Materials needed • Elastic bands, stones, sticks, kitchen sponges (cut in quarters), pieces of paper – these are needed for the copymaster. Other suggestions – foam, modelling clay, toothpicks, cotton wool, soft drink containers, milk cartons, Blu-tack™, string, elastic, cardboard etc.

Working scientifically • Observing • Investigating and experimenting • Analysing (sorting and classifying) • Recording and communicating

Preparation • Organise groups and distribute objects to test. Ensure objects on the copymaster are included.

The lesson

The ability of certain objects to change shape has practical purposes. For example, an elastic band will stretch to fit around and secure an object.

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O b j e c t s m a d e f ro m s o m e materials can be physically altered by squashing, bending, twisting and stretching. Some of these materials easily change back; for example, an elastic band. Others cannot change back; for example, bending a stick until it snaps.

Stimulus • Show pupils a balloon. Ask how they could change its shape. Choose a volunteer to demonstrate. Ask pupils how it can be changed back again. Choose another volunteer to demonstrate. Blow up another balloon. Ask if it could be changed back again if popped. Demonstrate and discuss. What to do • Discuss with pupils how some objects can change shape by bending, twisting, pushing, pulling, squashing or stretching. • Write the words ‘bend’, ‘stretch’, ‘twist’ and ‘squash’ on the board. • Allow pupils to experiment with various objects in their groups. • Explain how to record their findings on the copymaster before completing it.

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Background information

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• Exploring

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Designing and making

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After the lesson

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Answers • Teacher check

Additional activities • Explore what happens if an object receives too much bending, twisting, stretching or squashing; for example, an elastic band stretched so it snaps or a piece of paper twisted so it tears. Display ideas • Make a class ‘Changing Shape’ booklet. Pupils can find or draw pictures, or glue and label objects, under the page headings ‘Twist’, ‘Stretch’, ‘Bend’, ‘Squash’ etc. (Some may be on more than one page.)

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Forces ~ Activity 3

Changing shape

Complete the table. These words will help you.

bend

stretch

twist

squash

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Choose two more objects and test them.

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Forces ~ Activity 4

Float or sink? Objective

Before the lesson

• investigate how forces act on objects

Materials needed • Bucket or large container of water; objects such as leaves, paper, sticks, counters, marbles, stones, coins, seeds, paperclips, fruit, tissues, cotton wool, corks, plastic blocks etc.; aprons/shirts to protect clothes.

Working scientifically • Observing • Predicting • Investigating and experimenting • Analysing (sorting and classifying) • Recording and communicating

Preparation • Divide class into groups. Use towels, plastic sheets etc. to cover tables. Distribute objects and a large container of water among groups.

The lesson

Background information

What to do • In groups, pupils take turns to see which objects will sink or float. Ask them to make a guess before trying each one. • Pupils complete the copymaster as the activity continues. • Gather pupils in one group. Discuss the results of the activity. Why did some objects sink quickly and others slowly? Did all big objects sink? Did all small objects float? Why? Why not?

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Objects that are light for their size will float and those heavy for their size will sink. For example – a plastic plate floats but a china plate the same size sinks. It depends on the density of the material it is made of.

Stimulus • Encourage pupils to collect objects from home, school, indoors and outdoors to use for the lesson.

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Designing and making

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After the lesson

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Answers • Teacher check

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Additional activities • Sort objects into those that sink quickly or slowly. Display ideas • Glue or tape objects under the labels ‘floaters’ and ‘sinkers’ onto a chart or use flashcards on a display table.

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Forces – Activity 4

Float or sink?

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Draw six objects you used. Does each float or sink? Have a guess before you try.

Did any sink slowly? Draw or write them.

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Materials

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Properties and characteristics of materials England – Science – Key Stage One

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Curriculum links

• Use senses to explore and recognise the similarities and differences between materials.

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• Sort objects into groups on the basis of simple material properties.

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• Recognise and name common types of materials and recognise that some of them are found naturally.

Northern Ireland – The World Around Us – Foundation Stage

• Find out about the uses of a variety of materials and how these are chosen for specific uses on the basis of their simple properties. • Show curiosity about objects and materials in the environment. • Identify similarities and differences between objects and materials.

Scotland – Science – Early and First Level

• Understand that different materials behave in different ways, have different properties and can be used for different purposes. • Experience a range of different materials and know that different materials are useful for different purposes (early).

Wales – Knowledge and Understanding of the World – Foundation Stage

• Explore the properties of different materials (first). • Experiment with different everyday objects and materials and use their senses to sort them into groups according to simple features and properties. • Develop an awareness of, and be able to distinguish between, made and natural materials .

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bend

What is it made from? Describing objects Grouping objects

cold

container

design fluffy

hard

long

magnet

materials

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flat

metal

natural

objects

plastic

Materials

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Properties and characteristics of materials

prickly

properties

rough

round

shape

sharp

shiny

short

size

smooth

soft

special

stick waterproof

water weight

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Properties and characteristics of materials ~ Activity 1

What is it made from? Before the lesson

Objectives • observe and investigate a range of familiar materials in the immediate environment • know about some everyday uses of common materials Working scientifically • Observing • Investigating • Recording and communicating Designing and making

Materials needed • A sunny day! Also ensure there are a variety of materials available to the pupil in the classroom. Preparation • If available, ask other adults to accompany groups of pupils as they investigate the school grounds. If extra help is available, organise the pupils into small groups depending on the number of adults.

The lesson

Natural materials include oil, rock, metal and clay. Synthetic materials include plastic and nylon. Other materials, such as wood, wool, cotton and leather, come from living things.

Stimulus • On the board write: ‘Everything is made from something.’ Ask the class: What would happen if … – our clothes were made of wood? – windows were made from cardboard? – hats were made of metal? – umbrellas were made of paper? – tables and chairs were made of brick? Try to think of more ‘funny’ examples.

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Properties of materials are those characteristics that determine their suitability for specific purposes. Some materials occur naturally and others do not.

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Background information

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What to do • Explain to the class that they are going to work in groups to look inside and outside at things that are non-living. The pupils need to decide what material the object/ thing is made from. With adult guidance, the pupils also need to think of words to describe the material; for example, pavement – cement (hard and strong), pencil – wood (light).

After the lesson Answers • Answers will vary.

Additional activities • Pupils repeat the activity at home, choosing objects/things that can’t be found in the classroom. • Pupils draw pictures of things made from wood, cloth, paper, glass etc. • Read the story of ‘The Three Little Pigs’ to the class. Hold a discussion about materials that are weak and strong. Display ideas • Display pupil drawings (above). • Display examples of different materials (wood, cloth, paper etc.) and label them.

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Properties and characteristics of materials ~ Activity 1

What is it made from?

What is it made from?

Draw your object and label it.

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Describe the material.

What is it made from?

Draw your object and label it. Describe the material.

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Properties and characteristics of materials ~ Activity 2

Describing objects Before the lesson

Objectives • describe and compare materials, noting the differences in colour, shape and texture • investigate materials for different properties Working scientifically • Observing • Predicting • Investigating and experimenting • Analysing (sorting and classifying) • Recording and communicating

Materials needed • ‘Feely bag’ (ensure material is not see-through), objects with different properties (stone, paperclip, orange, cotton wool, straw, button, pencil, eraser, sponge, soap, spoon, elastic bands, wool, leaves, bark etc.). Preparation • Have a few of these objects ready to place in a ‘feely bag’, one at a time. Ensure pupils cannot see the objects that you will be using. • The other objects can be used in the stimulus. Prepare a display table and flashcards labelled with a variety of descriptive words such as flat, hard, soft, fluffy, rough, prickly, smooth etc. Leave some blank for pupils’ suggestions.

The lesson

Materials are what things are made of. They have properties such as shape, weight, size, texture and colour.

What to do • Now present the ‘feely bag’. Choose one pupil at a time to come up and place his/ her hands inside the ‘feely bag’. • Ask the pupil to describe what he or she can feel. Write the words on the board. Now pull the object out of the bag. The pupil says what it is and adds further description. Write these words on the board also. • Explain to the pupils that the words on the board are the special things about the objects. The term ‘properties’ can be introduced at the teachers discretion. Repeat the activity with the other objects. • Reinforce the ‘property words’ that match each object. Display the objects in sight of the pupils. The pupils then decide which objects match the words listed in the boxes on the copymaster in both activities.

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Materials can be natural, such as rock, clay, wool and wood. Or they can be made by people, such as plastic, fibreglass and nylon.

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Background information

Stimulus • Show pupils the objects on the display table and discuss the words on the flashcards. Pupils can take turns placing an object on top of a suitable label.

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• Exploring

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Designing and making

After the lesson Answers • Teacher check that the drawings are of objects with the specific property.

Additional activities • Look at different fabrics. Feel and describe them. Weave the fabrics together to make patterns. • Distinguish between the different sizes and weights of objects. Introduce phrases like ‘bigger than’, ‘lighter than’. • Listen to stories about a mystery object. Listen for clues about the object. Pupils draw what they think the object in the story looks like. Display ideas • Have a ‘materials’ display board. Attach the names of the property words. These can be written as Colour Words, Size Words, Texture Words, Shape Words and Weight Words. Underneath, glue drawings, magazine pictures, actual objects or photographs as examples.

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Properties and characteristics of materials ~ Activity 2

Describing objects

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Read the words in the boxes. Choose an object that matches the words. Draw an object in each box.

Look at each object. Colour the word that describes it best.

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Properties and characteristics of materials ~ Activity 3

Grouping objects Objective

Before the lesson

• group materials according to certain criteria

Materials needed • Selection of materials that meet the criteria on the copymaster – some hard and round (e.g. smooth stone), some hard and flat (e.g. ruler), some soft and round (e.g. cotton wool ball) and some soft and flat (e.g. ribbon). • Include other objects that do not fit the criteria.

Working scientifically • Questioning • Observing • Predicting • Investigating and experimenting • Analysing (sorting and classifying) • Recording and communicating

Preparation • Photocopy the copymaster onto A3 size (one per group) as well as one A4 per pupil.

The lesson

Background information

What to do • Draw a two-way table on the board. Model with the class sorting objects into a two-way table. Explain that the object must have both properties that are above it and beside it. When the pupils have grasped how a two-way table is used, sort them into groups and hand out the materials and A3 copymaster. Pupils can place the objects onto the correct place on the paper. This will help them when they transfer the information onto their own copymaster. • Ask the pupils to describe the objects using words from the stimulus or their own words. • Check with the group that the objects have both of the ‘special things’ that are listed on the two-way table. • Draw the objects onto their own copymaster in the same boxes.

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Objects have properties that distinguish them from other objects. The two-way table shows that objects can have more than one property. For example, an object can be round as well as hard (pebble) or round as well as soft (cotton wool ball).

Stimulus • Pass around the selected objects and discuss with the pupils what flashcards would match each object. See how many words could match each object. For example, a rock can be cold, rough and also heavy.

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• Exploring

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Designing and making

After the lesson Answers • Teacher check that drawings have properties that fit both criteria.

Additional activities • Discuss each of the senses. How can they help us to describe an object? Imagine what it would be like to live without a particular sense. • Use two-way tables with other criteria. Display ideas • Make a collage from pictures of materials found in magazines. Glue pictures under headings matching the properties.

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Properties and characteristics of materials ~ Activity 3

Read the words in the boxes. Draw an object in each box and label it.

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Grouping objects

(a) Draw an object in the (b) Write two words to describe classroom. the object.

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Materials

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Materials and change Curriculum links

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• Sort objects into groups on the basis of simple material properties.

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England – Science – Key Stage One

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• Find out about the uses of a variety of materials and how these are chosen for specific uses on the basis of their simple properties.

Northern Ireland – The World Around Us – Foundation Stage

• Explore and describe the way some everyday materials change when they are heated or cooled. • Understand that different materials behave in different ways, have different properties and can be used for different purposes.

Scotland – Science – Early and First Level

• Understand that some materials change if kept in different conditions. • Experience a range of different materials and know that different materials are useful for different purposes (early).

Wales – Knowledge and Understanding of the World – Foundation Stage

• Explore the properties of different materials (first). • Experiment with different everyday objects and materials and use their senses to sort them into groups according to simple features and properties. • Understand how some everyday materials change when heated or cooled.

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Water! Wet and dry Don’t get wet! Changing by cooking

change

container

cook

dry

heat

inside

mix

oil

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jelly crystals materials

sift

Materials

stir

sugar

sun

time

water

wet

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Materials and change

sand

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Materials and change ~ Activity 1

Water! Objective

Before the lesson

• explore the effects of water on a variety of materials

Materials needed • Transparent containers of various shapes and sizes (for example, juice containers, vases, plastic cups, glasses, bottles) and aprons/shirts to protect clothes. • Buckets or large containers of water, empty containers for emptying mixtures, lolly sticks or spoons for stirring, plastic cups for each pupil, variety of substances such as sugar, salt, oil, sand, jelly crystals, honey, icing sugar, drinking chocolate powder, milk, detergent, rice etc. (Ensure the four in bold print are included.)

Working scientifically • Observing • Predicting • Investigating and experimenting • Analysing (sorting and classifying) • Recording and communicating Designing and making

Preparation • Divide class into groups. Use towels, plastic sheets etc. to cover tables. Distribute substances and equipment among groups.

• Exploring

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Stimulus • In groups, allow pupils to observe water in a clear container. Explain that they are going to use their eyes, ears, hands, nose and tongue to describe water. What to do • Encourage pupils to establish whether water is clear or cloudy; how it moves when tilted or shaken; what it sounds, looks, tastes and smells like. (Use individual cups to taste.) • Gather pupils into one group. Whiteboard or chart words under headings. Explain the first part of the copymaster. Pupils can complete this on the floor if desks are being used. • Display substances to be used in Question 2 and their labels separately. Pupils can guess by smell and sight which substances match which labels. • In groups, pupils experiment to discover which substances will ‘mix’ with water; that is, dissolve in it. Ask them to guess before trying. • Allow them to stir the mixtures to assist in dissolving. • Pupils complete the copymaster as the activity continues.

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Many substances dissolve in water. Some dissolve readily, while others need stirring or for the water to be warm. Yet others will not dissolve; they are insoluble.

The lesson

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Water has no colour, taste or smell. As a liquid it can flow, be poured and take the shape of the container.

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Background information

After the lesson Answers 1. Answers will vary 2. Sugar and jelly crystals dissolve with stirring. Sand and oil ‘swirl’ but do not mix.

Additional activities • Estimate how many cups of water various containers might hold. Put in order of volume before and after measuring. • Investigate the forms water can take – solid (ice), liquid (water) and gas (steam). • Use warm water to mix substances and observe the results. • Show how oil will mix with water when detergent is added. Discuss and explain how this removes grime/oil/grease from dirty dishes. Display ideas • Display the results of the substances used on a chart or use flashcards on a display table.

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Materials and change ~ Activity 1

Water!

Write or draw pictures. Looks like?

Smells like?

Feels like?

What it can do.

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Does each mix?

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Mix the things below in water.

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Materials and change ~ Activity 2

Wet and dry Objective

Before the lesson

• observe and describe materials when they are wet and when they are dry

Materials needed • Potato, carrot, knife, plastic wrap, plate, three identical tea towels, pegs.

Working scientifically

Preparation • Decide where each item will be hung to dry. If no lines are available, fold-up lines used for drying paintings could be used, or even a wire fence.

• Observing • Predicting • Investigating and experimenting • Recording and communicating

The lesson

Evaporation is a process that changes water into water vapour. In doing so, the water changes from a liquid into a gas. Consequently, it cannot be ‘seen’ any more and ‘disappears’ into the air. Sunshine, heat and wind are factors in the time it takes for a material to dry. Thickness and the type of fabric help in determining how long different fabrics will take to dry.

What to do • With pupil help, thoroughly wet three identical tea towels and hang in three different places to dry—in the sun, in the shade and indoors. • Ask the pupils to predict what might happen. Discuss. • Observe the changes in the materials as they dry over the course of the day. • Record the times taken for each to dry. • Ask pupils where the water has gone. • Record findings on the copymaster.

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Background information

Stimulus • Show pupils a potato and carrot cut in half. Examine the moist surface. Cover one half of each vegetable with plastic wrap. Leave the other half uncovered. Ask pupils to predict what will happen. (The air will dry out the uncovered pieces).

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• Exploring

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Designing and making

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After the lesson

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Answers • Teacher check

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Additional activities • Repeat the activities on a day when the weather is different and compare findings. • Soak strips of cardboard in water and others in paint. Dry some in the shade and others in the sun. Observe changes as they dry. Display ideas • Attach the materials used to a chart or pin-up board. Write labels and explanations for what was done. Fill in clock faces to show the time taken for each item to dry.

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Materials and change ~ Activity 2

Wet and dry

Draw the tea towels you hung out to dry. Inside

In the sun

In the shade

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Inside

In the sun

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Colour the tea towel you think will dry first.

In the shade

Inside

In the sun

In the shade

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(a) Which tea towel dried first?

(b) Write how long each took to dry.

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Materials and change ~ Activity 3

Don’t get wet! Objective

Before the lesson

• identify some materials that are waterproof

Materials needed • Mixture of non-waterproof and waterproof materials: tissues, paper, milk cartons, fabrics, colander, sieve, cardboard, plastic bags, plastic boxes, waxed paper, plastic lunch bags, brown paper bags, aluminium foil, cling film, waterproof clothing such as anoraks, nylon and plastic gloves and hats. Plastic jugs for filling water, empty buckets or containers, glue, sticky tape and other construction materials.

Working scientifically • Observing • Predicting • Investigating and experimenting

Preparation • Have materials ready for modelling their ability to hold water or to let water run through them. Separate the materials so that there will be a sample of each ready to place on the different tables. Sticky tape, glue, water, jugs and buckets will need to be on each table.

• Recording and communicating Designing and making • Exploring • Planning • Making • Evaluating

The lesson

Some materials are able to hold water, while others will repel it.

Stimulus • Hold up individual materials and a jug of water. Ask the class to make a prediction (guess) – ‘Will it hold water?’ Test the materials. (Try to shape flat materials like paper and fabrics so they resemble a container.) Make a class list of materials that hold water and another of those that don’t.

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What to do • Provide each group with a range of materials. Explain that they are going to design a container that can carry water. • Pupils choose their materials. Discuss the name of each. • Pupils plan and construct their design. • Designs are tested to see if they will carry water. Those that appear to be holding water can be carried around the classroom. • Discuss the materials that were successful in making waterproof containers. • Pupils can complete the copymaster, reporting on their containers.

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Plastic and rubber are the most common waterproof materials. Some materials will hold or repel water for a while (for example, cardboard or paper) until they become waterlogged and water seeps through.

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A material is said to be waterproof if it is made of, or coated with, material which prevents water (or other liquids) getting through.

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Background information

After the lesson Answers • Teacher check Additional activities • Repeat the investigation with sand. How will the container need to be different? • Design a container that holds popcorn. View containers that are used at the cinema. What are the criteria of holders? Look at containers and discuss the 3-D shapes they resemble. What function do the different-shaped containers have? Display ideas • Attach containers to pin-up boards. Pupils can label their designs and draw a ‘face picture’ with a smile or a frown that corresponds to how successful their design was.

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Materials and change ~ Activity 3

Don’t get wet!

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Draw your container. Label each part.

My container:

Held water Let some Let all water through water through

List two materials that can hold water.

List two materials that cannot hold water.

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Materials and change ~ Activity 4

Changing by cooking Objective

Before the lesson

• explore the effects of heating and cooling on everyday materials and substances

Materials needed

Utensils

Chocolate Jam Drop Recipe Ingredients 125 g butter 1 /2 cup sugar 1 egg 1 cup finely crushed corn flakes 2 cups self-raising flour 1 tablespoon cocoa 1 tablespoon jam

2 greased oven trays wire rack large mixing bowl electric beaters mixing spoon rolling pin cup tablespoon and teaspoon sieve

Working scientifically • Observing • Predicting • Investigating and experimenting • Recording and communicating

Method

Cooking substances causes a chemical change to occur. The substances break down completely and change into something else. This is a permanent change and cannot be reversed. For example, you cannot get the ingredients out of the cookies after mixing and cooking!

Preparation • Purchase ingredients. Prepare demonstration table. Preheat oven to 180 ºC (350ºF; gas mark 4). Ensure helpers have clean hands. Whiteboard the method so pupils can follow.

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Background information

• Beat butter and sugar. Add egg. Sift flour and cocoa. Add to mixture. Finely crush corn flakes with the rolling pin. Add to mixture. Take teaspoons of the mixture and roll into balls. Place on the oven trays. Squash the balls slightly in the middle. Add a bit of jam. Cook in a moderate oven for 10 minutes.

The lesson Stimulus

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• Exploring

• Knowing they will be participating in a cooking lesson will be sufficient stimulus! Write the name of the biscuits on the board, omitting some letters. Pupils can guess the letters to find out what they will be cooking. What to do

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Designing and making

• Allow pupils to assist with each part of the recipe.

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• Before each ingredient is added, ensure pupils’ view and discuss what each looks like.

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• After mixing or beating each ingredient, ensure all pupils see how it has been changed. Whiteboard words and phrases pupils think of next to each step.

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• When the cookies are cooked and have cooled, allow pupils to taste them. Ask them if they can see any of the original ingredients. • Complete the copymaster using their own words, with the assistance of the whiteboarded words and phrases.

After the lesson Answers

Possible answers 1. (a) The sugar gradually dissolves into the butter and the mixture becomes light and fluffy. (b) The egg becomes mixed into the mixture. (c) The flour turns light brown because of the cocoa. (d) Small bits of corn flakes can be seen in the mixture. (e) The cookies get bigger and turn browner. 2. (a) yes (b) jam, small bits of corn flake (this depends on how finely they were crushed) 3. Teacher check Additional activities • Observe how ingredients change in other recipes such as jelly, milkshakes or quiche. Display ideas • Pupils can draw or find pictures in magazines or old recipe books of cakes, cookies, pizzas, desserts etc. The ingredients can be written around the picture. Pupils can check to see if any of the ingredients can be seen in their original form.

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Materials and change ~ Activity 4

Changing by cooking

Did you enjoy eating a chocolate jam drop? What happened when ‌ (a) the sugar and butter were beaten?

(b) the egg was added?

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(d) the flour mixture and crushed corn flakes were added and stirred?

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(c) the flour and cocoa were sifted?

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(e) the chocolate jam drops were cooking in the oven?

Look at a chocolate jam drop that is ready to eat.

Draw what one looked liked when cooked.

(a) Can you still see any of the ingredients? (b) If yes, which one(s)?

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Environmental awareness and care

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Caring for my locality • Care for the environment. • Develop an awareness of aspects of the environment.

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Northern Ireland – The World Around Us – Foundation Stage

• Find out about the different kinds of plants and animals in the local environment.

• Be aware of the local natural and built environment.

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England – Science – Key Stage One

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Curriculum links

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• Understand the need to respect and care for themselves, other people, plants, animals and the environment. Scotland – Science – First Level • Know about the need to conserve the Earth’s resources at home and in school and what they can do to help (first). Wales – Knowledge and • Identify natural and human features in their own locality. Understanding of the World – • Recognise how people’s actions can improve or damage the Foundation Stage environment.

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My tree My environment Caring for my environment

animal

bees

bird care

flower

grass

insect

leaf

people plant sheep

natural place recycle tidy

tree

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Caring for my locality

community

environment

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Environmental awareness and care

built

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Caring for my locality ~ Activity 1

My tree Before the lesson

Objective • observe, discuss and appreciate the attributes of the local environment Working scientifically • Questioning

Materials needed • Wax crayons and paper to make crayon rubbings, a hardcover book or clipboard to lean on, pictures or photographs of trees. Preparation • Find an area in the school grounds or in a nearby park that has enough trees for small groups of pupils to observe. The pupils will be sitting on the ground, so wait for a sunny day when the grass is dry to complete this activity!

• Observing • Investigating • Recording and communicating Designing and making

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Stimulus • Show pupils the pictures or photographs of trees. Ask them to think about trees. Brainstorm words and phrases about trees. What do they look like? What do they do for us? Who can they be home to? How do they change throughout the year? What to do • As the pupils will be working independently when they have been assigned a tree, it is important that they know what is being asked of them on the copymaster. Go through each question. Give the pupils the opportunity to seek clarification of any part of the activity sheet they may not understand. • Go to the area in the school with the most trees. Divide the number of pupils by the number of trees to work out groups. • Pupils complete the copymaster. For Question 4, sheets of paper (A5 size) need to be distributed, along with a wax crayon. The bark rubbings can be collected once the pupils have written their names on the back. • For Question 5, explain to the pupils that they are to try to sketch their tree. Press lightly on the paper to make wispy strokes. Press a little harder to show a dark part like a shadow. Note: Only allow pupils to pick up leaves from the ground for Question 3 and not to pick them from the tree.

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The world’s environment is shared by all of its inhabitants. Humans are just one small part. In our environment we find plants, animals, soil, water, living and non-living things. There are many different environments that, together, make up the total environment found on earth. All environments can be divided into two types—the natural environment and the built environment.

The lesson

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Background information

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• Exploring

After the lesson Answers • Teacher check Additional activities • Create tree journals. Pupils can continue observing their tree over the term and even the year. How does it change? Complete measurements of the girth of the trunk and length of the leaves. Sketch and paint the tree. Try watering down the paint and using small sponges to make leaf prints.

Display ideas • Mount copymasters, add the pupil’s name and display. Display photos of the pupils while they were observing and sketching their tree. • Find photos of trees at different stages of the year. Display with signs telling which season the photographs were taken in.

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Caring for my locality ~ Activity 1

My tree

Sit down near your tree and watch it for two minutes. Write or draw three things that you see.

Touch the bark on your tree. What does it feel like? Write two words to describe it.

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Look at the leaves of your tree. Pick up a leaf and trace it onto the back of this page. Write three words to describe your leaf.

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Sit very quietly and listen. What do you hear near or in your tree? Write or draw about two noises you can hear.

Draw your tree.

Place another sheet of paper onto the bark. With the side of a crayon, make a rubbing. Cut out a piece of your rubbing and glue it here.

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Caring for my locality ~ Activity 2

My environment Objectives

Before the lesson

• observe, discuss and appreciate the attributes of the local environment

Materials needed • A sunny day! An area in the school grounds, near plants and trees, which birds and insects inhabit.

• appreciate that people share the environment with plant and animal life Working scientifically

Preparation • Schedule a walk around the school.

• Questioning • Observing

The lesson

The natural environment is the one that we are most aware of, and includes food, plants, animals and how they live with each other.

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Pupils need to understand that we share the environment with plants and animals.

What to do • Ask the pupils to tell you what they saw and what they heard. Explain the difference between natural and built things. At each sighting/noise, ask the class to decide if it is natural or built. • Back in the classroom, make a list on the board of what was seen or heard. Use two different coloured chalks/marker pens. Ask the pupils to tell you which ones are plants and which ones are animals. Use the colours to circle each one appropriately. • On the worksheet, the pupils look at the picture and draw a green tick on the natural things and a red cross on the built things. • Explain to the pupils that we share the environment with plants and animals. • In Question 2, the pupils find the plants and animals in the picture and write (or have scribed) them into the correct box.

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All environments can be divided into two types: the natural environment and the built environment. The built environment includes things such as buildings, roads and cars. These are all objects built by people.

Stimulus • Find a nice spot outside. Ask the pupils to sit quietly and to use their senses. Tell them to look around. What do they see? What can they hear?

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Background information

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• Recording and communicating

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After the lesson

Answers 1. Teacher check 2. Plants – trees, flowers, bushes, grass Animals and insects – sheep, bees, bird

Additional activities • Pupils can complete a similar exercise in their own homes and gardens. The information can be brought to school and shared with the class. • Use a hoop and place it on a grassy patch. In pairs, pupils can lie on the grass and stare at the area inside the hoop. Pupils spot any insects found in the hoop.

Display ideas • Take photos of ‘natural’ and ‘built’ features in the school environment. Display them under those headings.

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Caring for my locality ~ Activity 2

My environment

Look at the picture. (a) Draw a green tick on four things that are natural.

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(b) Draw a red cross on four things that have been built.

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We share the environment with plants and animals. What plants and animals can you see in the picture?

Plants

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Animals and insects

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Caring for my locality ~ Activity 3

Caring for my environment Before the lesson

Objectives • develop a sense of responsibility for taking care of and improving the environment • identify, discuss and implement simple strategies for improving and caring for the environment

Materials needed • Pictures or photos of people looking after different environments; for example, children looking after a school or the local park, adults caring for the community and a family looking after their home environment. Preparation • Display pictures and photographs.

Working scientifically • Questioning • Predicting

The lesson

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What to do • Ask the pupils what you were doing wrong. Ask them why it is wrong to drop litter or destroy plants and trees in a park. • Ask the pupils how they would feel coming to school in the morning, if they knew their classroom was going to be dirty, with books and pencil shavings all over the tables and the floor cluttered with dropped objects. • Explain to the class that it is important that we care for the places we live in. Discuss the three main environments that we spend time in. (These are home, school and the local community.) Ask the pupils what they think the ‘local community’ is. Make a list on the board of places in the local environment. These may include the local park, shops, library and bank. • Look at the copymaster. Discuss with the class things they can do to help look after the three environments. When enough suggestions have been given, the pupils can choose one for each area, draw a picture, and describe it. • Ask the pupils what would happen if we didn’t pick up rubbish in the school for a month, a term or a year. Not only would it look terrible and be an inconvenience, it would be unhealthy. What if we didn’t tidy our homes, or mow the lawn, or fix the holes in our local roads? Ask the pupils to close their eyes and imagine what the world would be like. Complete Question 2 on the copymaster.

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The environment is made up of natural and built components and it is important that these two interact and are used responsibly. This will support the continued survival of plant and animal species. Simple things that we can do to care for our environment include planting trees, riding our bikes rather than taking cars, saving electricity and water, recycling and keeping our environment clean and tidy.

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Background information

Stimulus • Act out a scene where you are a person walking through a park dropping rubbish and swinging on the branch of a tree (that nearly breaks). Go up to a sign and read it. It says ‘Keep our park beautiful’. Knock over the sign, grunt and leave.

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• Recording and communicating

After the lesson Answers • Teacher check Additional activities • Write a creative story describing a time in the future when people don’t care about their environment. The main character of the story has to try to change the way people think. • Choose three ways of making the classroom environment a better place. Challenge the pupils to see if they can do the three things for one week. Display ideas • Ask the pupils to make signs that will help the pupils and teachers care for the school environment. • Display photos or pictures of a place that has been cared for and of a place that has not been looked after.

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Caring for my locality ~ Activity 3

Caring for my environment

Look at these children caring for each environment. Draw and write about another way you can care for these places.

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I am tidying my room.

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I am putting things where they belong.

I am recycling newspapers.

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0551UK Primary Science Book 1