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UPPER

Written by Rosalba Bottega and Yolande Colwell Published by Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com


Foreword Writing Frameworks – Upper is one in a series of three photocopiable resources designed to familiarise pupils with writing frameworks through a thematic approach. Each framework (recount, narrative, exposition, description, report, procedure and explanation) is based on a different theme and written in a clear step-by-step format. A collection of support activities follows each framework. These activities range from: • writing individual texts in the given framework outline • comprehension questions • a variety of word study activities • cloze Assessment examples and answers are also provided for teacher use, and a writing checklist is provided for pupil self-assessment.

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The final section in this book is a learning centre to be used by independent pupils or as directed by the teacher. It consists of writing and creative activities. Teachers may choose to make these activities into individual work cards or simply enlarge the worksheet and allow pupils to choose an activity. A pupil response sheet has been provided for each activity. Other books in this series are: Writing Frameworks – Lower Writing Frameworks – Middle

DESCRIPTION FRAMEWORK The Loch Ness Monster (Description Framework) .................................... 20 The Loch Ness Monster (Comprehension) ............. 21 The Loch Ness Monster (Cloze) ........................... 22 The Loch Ness Monster (Punctuation Skills) ......... 23 The Loch Ness Monster (Punctuation Skills) ......... 24 Writing a Description ......................................... 25

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Curriculum Links ......................................... ii–iii Assessment Sheet ............................................. iv Writing Checklist .............................................. v

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Contents

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RECOUNT FRAMEWORK Iesha, the Cheetah, Gives Birth (Recount Framework) ...................................... 1 Iesha, the Cheetah, Gives Birth (Comprehension) 2 Iesha, the Cheetah, Gives Birth (Cloze) ............... 3 Iesha, the Cheetah, Gives Birth (Letter) .............. 4 Visit the Zoo! ................................................... 5 Writing a Recount ............................................ 6

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NARRATIVE FRAMEWORK The Wind and the Sun (Narrative Framework) .... 7 The Wind and the Sun (Comprehension) ............ 8 The Wind and the Sun (Cloze) ........................... 9 The Wind and the Sun (Word Study) ................ 10 The Wind and the Sun (Letter) ........................ 11 Writing a Narrative ......................................... 12 EXPOSITION FRAMEWORK Recycling (Exposition Framework) ................... 13 Recycling (Comprehension) ............................. 14 Recycling (Cloze) ............................................ 15 Recycling (Word Study) .................................. 16 Recycling (Sentence Reconstruction) ................ 17 Planning an Exposition .................................... 18 Writing an Exposition ..................................... 19

REPORT FRAMEWORK Apes (Report Framework) .................................. 26 Apes (Comprehension)........................................ 27 Apes (Cloze) ...................................................... 28 Apes (Poetry) .................................................... 29 Apes (Sentence Structure) .................................. 30 Writing a Report ................................................ 31 PROCEDURE FRAMEWORK Pottery (Procedure Framework) ......................... 32 Pottery (Comprehension) ................................... 33 Pottery (Cloze) .................................................. 34 Pottery (Word Study) ......................................... 35 Pottery (Word Study) ......................................... 36 Writing a Procedure ........................................... 37 EXPLANATION FRAMEWORK How Rocks are Formed (Explanation Framework) ................................... 38 How Rocks are Formed (Comprehension) ............ 39 How Rocks are Formed (Cloze) ........................... 40 How Rocks are Formed (Word Study) ................. 41 Similes and Metaphors (Word Study) ................... 42 Writing an Explanation ....................................... 43 LEARNING CENTRE ......................................... 44 Learning Centre (Response Sheet) ....................... 45 Answers ...................................................... 46–47

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Writing Frameworks

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Curriculum Links The English Language Revised Primary School Curriculum for Ireland encourages children to write using a wide range of genres. It also encourages the integration of oral language, reading and writing in a coherent language process. Both of these characteristics have been taken into consideration in Writing Frameworks, which is a series of three books featuring a variety of themed frameworks for writing. The series also contains a variety of comprehension and word study activities. Writing Frameworks covers many of the content objectives from the strands of the English Language curriculum. They include that the child should be enabled to:

Lower

Strand

Strand Unit

Class

Writing

1st & 2nd

Receptiveness to language

Content Objectives • • •

Competence and confidence in using language

1st & 2nd

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1st & 2nd

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Writing

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Developing cognitive abilities through language

• • •

Write in a variety of genres Write the significant details about an event or an activity Write an explanation for something

Emotional and imaginative development through language

Writing

1st & 2nd

• •

Write about experiences Draw and write stories and poems

Receptiveness to language

Writing

3rd & 4th

Experience a classroom environment that encourages writing Observe the teacher modelling different writing genres Write stories that explore a variety of genres See his/her writing valued

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Middle

Realise that first attempts at writing are not necessarily the finished product and learn to undertake second drafts in order to improve writing Have regular opportunities to write for himself/herself or for others

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Writing

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Experience a classroom environment that encourages writing Observe the teacher as he/she models writing Seek help from the teacher in order to achieve accuracy and an appropriate standard of presentation Experience how story structure is organised by reading and listening to fiction Explore different genres Have writing valued

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• • • Competence and confidence in using language

Writing

3rd & 4th

• • • •

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Writing Frameworks

Write regularly, and gradually extend the period over which a writing effort is sustained Learn to use questions as a mechanism for expanding and developing a story Give sequence to ideas and events in stories Develop an appreciation of how the intended audience should influence the nature of a piece of writing Learn to revise and re-draft writing ii


Curriculum Links Strand

Middle

Developing cognitive abilities through language

Strand Unit

Class

Writing

3rd & 4th

Content Objectives • • • •

Upper

Receptiveness to language

Writing

3rd & 4th

• •

Writing

5th & 6th

Express his/her reactions to particular experiences in writing Create stories Experience a classroom environment that encourages writing Observe the teacher model a wide variety of writing genres Experience interesting and relevant writing challenges Receive and give constructive responses to writing See his/her writing valued Experience a level of success in writing that will be an incentive to continue writing

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Emotional and imaginative development through language

Write in a variety of genres with greater sophistication Write about ideas encountered in other areas of the curriculum Write down directions on how to perform a particular process Expand and clarify his/her thoughts on a particular idea or topic through drafting and redrafting

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• •

Writing

5th & 6th

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Competence and confidence in using language

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• •

Vi Developing cognitive abilities through language

Writing

• • •

5th & 6th

• • • •

Emotional and imaginative development through language

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Writing

5th & 6th

Writing Frameworks

Write regularly Write for a sustained length of time Write independently through a process of drafting, revising, editing and publishing Choose a register of language appropriate to subject and audience Choose a form and quality of presentation appropriate to the audience Write in a wide variety of genres Write for a particular purpose and with a particular audience in mind Refine ideas and their expression through drafting and re-drafting Argue the case in writing for a particular point of view Write stories and poems

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Assessment Sheet

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Mast. = Mastered

Writing Frameworks

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Writing Checklist

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Writing Checklist

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Writing Frameworks

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Iesha, the Cheetah, Gives Birth A recount is a framework that retells events as they happened in time order. Different types of recounts include: • personal – an experience in which the writer has been personally involved; • factual – retelling an event such as a newspaper report; and • imaginative – retelling an imaginary event. Recounts may be written in several ways. These include diaries, news items, letters, journals, eyewitness accounts, biographies and autobiographies. Opening Statement (Who, what, when, where and why)

Iesha, the zoo’s much-loved cheetah, went into labour in the early hours of yesterday morning. Veterinarian Sharon Hill described Iesha’s initial stages of labour as ‘normal.’ Everything progressed well up until the final stages.

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The complications which arose left a grave concern for the wellbeing of both Iesha and her unborn cub. Due to the fears held by the zoo’s veterinarian it was decided the most appropriate course of action would be a Caesarean delivery.

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Event One

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Event Two

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Iesha was sedated while the veterinarian and her assistant performed the emergency procedure. Several of the zoo’s staff were also on hand if further assistance was required. Within minutes, the operation was completed. Triumphantly, the vet declared the operation a success. Not one but two healthy cubs were delivered. Anxious keepers and visitors were extremely happy to hear of the safe arrival of the cubs and the wellbeing of the mother. Within minutes of their birth the cubs produced purring sounds in their new surroundings.

Event Three

Zoo spokesperson George Smith said the cubs quickly forged a bond with their mother despite the complicated birth. ‘The cubs confidently made their way to Iesha within moments of their birth,’ he declared.

Conclusion (Ending Statement)

According to George, a competition was going to be held to give the public the opportunity to name the cubs. The winners would be announced in the newspaper and would also be notified by mail. The prize was yet to be decided upon.

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Writing Frameworks

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Iesha, the Cheetah, Gives Birth Use the recount to answer the questions.

1.

How did Iesha’s labour begin?

2. Why did the veterinarian decide to perform a Caesarean?

Why do you think the cubs were purring?

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4. Who directly helped with Iesha’s labour?

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3. Name a way you think staff members could have helped the vet.

6. Write synonyms from the recount for these words. (a) rapidly

(b) champions

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(c) suitable

(f) concerned

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(e) serious

(d) difficult

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7. What does the term ‘triumphant’ refer to?

8. What phrase describes how the keepers and visitors felt about the cubs’ safe arrival?

9. What names would you give the cubs? Why?

10. What do you think the winners of the competition should be given? Why?

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Writing Frameworks

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Iesha, the Cheetah, Gives Birth (1)

Iesha, the zoo’s much-loved cheetah, went into labour in the

hours

of yesterday morning. Veterinarian Sharon Hill described Iesha’s initial stages of (2)

(3)

as ‘normal.’ Everything

well up

until the final stages.

The complications which arose left a grave concern for the wellbeing of both Iesha and her (4)

unborn cub. Due to the (5)

the

held by the zoo’s veterinarian it was decided (6)

appropriate course of action

be

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a Caesarean delivery.

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Iesha was sedated while the veterinarian and her assistant performed the emergency (7)

procedure. Several of the zoo’s

(9)

was required. Within

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(8)

were also on hand if further the operation was (10)

completed. Triumphantly, the vet declared the operation a

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but two healthy cubs

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extremely happy to

(12)

delivered. Anxious keepers and visitors were

of the safe arrival of the (14)

and the wellbeing of

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(13)

(11)

. Not one

(15)

Within minutes of their birth the cubs produced

mother. sounds in their

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new surroundings.

Zoo spokesperson George Smith said the cubs quickly forged a bond with their mother despite (16)

the complicated birth. ‘The cubs (17)

made their way to Iesha within

of their birth,’ he declared.

According to George, a competition was going to be held to give the public the opportunity to (18)

name the cubs. The (19)

would also be decided

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would be announced in the newspaper and

by mail. The prize was yet to be

(20)

.

Writing Frameworks

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Iesha, the Cheetah, Gives Birth Write a letter to a real or imaginary person telling him or her about the birth of the cubs. Follow the framework below to plan your letter.

Address

Name Number and street name Town and County

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Date

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Dear

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Introduction (What starts the letter?—opening statement)

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Purpose (Why are you writing the letter?)

Conclusion (Ending statement)

From

Edit and publish your letter on another piece of paper. Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

Writing Frameworks

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Visit the Zoo!

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Design an eye-catching advertisement that encourages families to go the zoo. Think about such things as the size of the print, appropriate illustrations, catchy phrases and the intended audience.

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Writing Frameworks

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Writing a Recount Write a recount for a newspaper. Select your own topic or use one of the following: witnessing a burglary, a Pharaoh’s tomb being uncovered or police locating missing artworks. Title Opening Statement (When, who, where, what)

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Event 1

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Event 2

Conclusion (Ending Statement)

Edit your work and rewrite a published copy on another piece of paper. Illustrate your work. Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

Writing Frameworks

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The Wind and the Sun A narrative is a framework that tells a story. Narratives generally include the following parts: • an orientation or opening statement – the setting, time and main/minor characters are introduced; • a sequence of events involving the main character; • a complication involving the main character; and • a resolution where the problem is satisfactorily solved. Examples of narrative texts are fairytales, novels, myths, legends, fables, ballads, short stories and science fiction. Setting (Who, what, where)

There was once an argument between the wind and the sun. Each thought he was stronger than the other and felt it necessary to prove it.

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Initiating Event (What starts the story?)

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They decided to settle the issue when they sighted a traveller walking in the distance. ‘This is it,’ said the sun. ‘Our chance to prove who is stronger. Whoever can make the traveller take off his coat will be the winner.’

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Problem (What makes the story exciting?)

With great kindness, the sun allowed the wind to lead the way for he was certain that the wind would fail at his attempt. The sun stepped back and hid behind a cloud, allowing the wind to make his move. The wind howled and blew a great blast, hoping to blow the traveller’s coat off. However, the harder he howled the tighter the traveller wrapped his coat around his chest. Disappointed and disgusted with himself, the wind retired and called upon the sun.

Resolution (How is the problem solved?)

The sun came out and began to shine as bright as could be. The sun’s genial warmth crept upon the traveller who commenced loosening his coat. The sun’s heat became more intense and finally the traveller removed his coat. Nearby he saw a shady tree where he sat to rest and cool down. Conclusion (How does the story end?)

The sun had won his quest and was right after all!

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Writing Frameworks

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The Wind and the Sun Use the narrative to answer the questions.

1. Why did the competition take place?

2. Who challenged the other?

3. Why do you think the sun won?

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4. How would the wind have felt when he saw the traveller loosen his coat?

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5. Write a synonym for each of the following words from the text. (b) try

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(a) lose (c) correct

(d) fight

(e) jacket

(f)

challenge

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6. Write a definition for each of the following words from the text.

(c) genial

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(d) intense

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(b) retired

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(a) disappointed

7.

Do you think there is a way the wind could have won the quest? Explain your answer.

8. The moral of the story is ‘It is better to persuade than force’. Explain this in your own words.

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Writing Frameworks

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The Wind and the Sun There was once an argument between the wind and the sun. (1)

Each thought he was stronger than the

and felt it necessary to

prove it.

(2)

They decided to settle the issue when they

a traveller walking in

the distance. (3)

‘This is it,’ said the sun. ‘our chance to (4)

Whoever

make the traveller take off his coat

be the winner.’

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(5)

who is stronger.

(6)

With great

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, the sun allowed the wind to lead the (7)

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way for he was certain that the wind would fail at

(8)

attempt. The sun stepped back and hid behind

cloud, allowing the wind to make his move. The wind howled and blew a great (9)

coat off. However, the

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blast, hoping to blow the

harder he howled the tighter the traveller wrapped his around his chest. Disappointed and disgusted with

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(10)

(11)

upon the sun.

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himself, the wind retired and

(12)

The sun came out

began to shine as bright (13)

as could be. The sun’s (14)

the traveller

commenced loosening his (15)

coat. The sun’s (16)

warmth crept upon

became more

and finally the traveller removed his coat.

Nearby he saw a shady tree where he

(17)

to

rest and cool down.

The sun had won his quest and was right after all!

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Writing Frameworks

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The Wind and the Sun Commas are punctuation marks that are used to make a sentence easier to understand. A comma shows when you should take a shorter pause than a full stop. Some examples of when to use commas are:

• • • •

to list items in a sentence; to separate a series of actions in a sentence; to separate direct speech from the rest of the sentence; and to mark a pause in a sentence.

1. Insert commas into the following sentences. (Hint: if you read each sentence aloud, it is easier to hear where the pauses occur.) (a) ‘This is it’ said the sun. (b) However the harder he blew the tighter the traveller wrapped his coat around his chest.

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(c) As the sun began to appear the wind stopped howling.

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(d) As the sun’s heat became more intense we had to take a rest and cool off.

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(e) Disappointed the wind called the sun to take the challenge.

(f) When the traveller felt the intense heat of the sun he removed his coat.

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(g) As the traveller tightened his grip around his coat the wind began to fade out. (h) The wind howled blowing a great gust over the traveller. The sun can vary the amount of heat it creates change the intensity of sunlight produced and its brightness can vary.

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2. Add a question mark, exclamation mark or full stop to each sentence. Insert commas where necessary. (a) Who do you think will win the quest the wind or the sun

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(b) ‘Thank goodness I found a shady tree’ exclaimed the exhausted traveller (c) ‘If I blow harder’ thought the wind ‘he might take off his coat’ (d) Depending on the wind’s strength and direction it can make us feel cold refreshed warm or sometimes uncomfortably hot. 3. Write your own paragraph. Include commas, question marks, capital letters, full stops and exclamation marks where necessary.

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Writing Frameworks

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The Wind and the Sun 1. The wind wanted to challenge the sun again. Brainstorm suitable challenges on behalf of the wind to the sun.

2. Select one of your ideas. Pretend you are the wind and write a letter to the sun challenging him to another competition. Follow the framework below.

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Address

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Dear

Yours sincerely

3. Edit and publish your letter on another sheet of paper. Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

Writing Frameworks

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Writing a Narrative Write your own narrative or retell a fable of your own choice. Follow the framework below. Title

Setting (Who, when, where)

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Initiating Event (What starts the story?)

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Problem (What makes the story exciting?)

Resolution (How is the problem solved?)

Conclusion (Ending Statement)

Edit your work and publish your story on another piece of paper. Illustrate your work. Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

Writing Frameworks

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Recycling An exposition is a framework that evaluates an issue. Arguments both for and against the topic are given to persuade the audience. Expositions include the following parts: • an opening statement about the topic or question; • arguments for and against the topic are written in a logical order with supporting evidence; • a conclusion or summary which sums up the position and often suggests any action to be taken. Examples of this type of writing include debates, speeches, critical reviews, policies and advertisements. Introduction (Define the topic)

The term recycling refers to the reuse of items that have already been manufactured. For example, an empty tin can be used again to help make another product.

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Recycling should play an important role in our everyday life. The reasons for this are numerous and relate to the protection and saving of our environment. By reducing the amount of waste produced we are helping to create a cleaner and safer environment for ourselves and for future generations.

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Arguments for (Ideas that support the topic)

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Recycling encourages communities to work together. This benefits the environment and everyone in it. The building of a positive community spirit is beneficial for all.

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The less waste that is produced also means the growth of landfill sites will slow down. The space then saved could be used for things such as parklands. More space cannot be created; therefore it is necessary to conserve the land available. In the long term, money will also be saved through recycling. This is due to the fact that over time the cost of recycling should decrease. Arguments against (Ideas that oppose the topic)

Some groups are opposed to recycling. Reasons for this are the extra time required to recycle and that extra resources are used in the process. Also, at present the cost of recycling is high. Conclusion (Summarising comment)

While taking these points into consideration, it is clearly obvious that the benefits far outweigh the disadvantages. Waste minimisation needs to be implemented by everyone.

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Writing Frameworks

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Recycling Use the exposition to answer the questions.

1. What does the term ‘recycling’ mean?

2. Name three benefits of recycling.

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4. Write a reason why some people don’t agree with recycling.

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3. Who is responsible for recycling?

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5. Write a definition for each of these words from the text. (a) protection (b) reduce

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(c) beneficial

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(d) manufacture

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6. What can communities achieve by participating in recycling programmes?

7. Write two items that can be recycled.

8. Find a synonym from the text for these words. (a) against (b) plentiful (c) save 9. Name two ways that you can reuse a plastic bag.

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Writing Frameworks

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Recycling The term recycling refers to the reuse of items that have already been manufactured. For (1)

example, an empty tin can be

again to help make another (2)

product. Recycling should play an important (3)

The reasons for this are (4)

in our everyday life.

and relate to the protection and (5)

of our

.

Recycling encourages communities to work together. This benefits the environment and (6)

in it. The building of a positive community spirit is beneficial for

(7)

will slow down. The space that is then saved (10)

such as

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The less waste that is produced also means that the

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.

(8) (9)

of landfill sites

be used for things (11)

(12)

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therefore it is necessary to

(13)

the land that is available.

will also be saved through

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In the long term,

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. More space cannot be

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recycling. This is due to the fact that over time the cost of recycling (14)

should

. Some groups are opposed to

(15)

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. Reasons for this are the

(16)

time that is required to

(17)

and that extra resources are used in the process.

While taking these

(18)

into consideration, it is clearly obvious that the

benefits far outweigh the disadvantages. Waste implemented by

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(19)

needs to be

(20)

.

Writing Frameworks

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Recycling

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1. Unjumble these words from the text and write your own meaning. Check your definition using a dictionary and include the page number.

2. Write these words in alphabetical order.

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(a) necessary, growth, site, saving, protection

(b) implemented, everyone, waste, needs, minimal

(c) environment, argument, positive, spirit, better

(d) term, recycle, refer, together, aluminium

3. Write the word that comes after each of these words in your dictionary. (a) recycle

(b) encourage

(c) minimise

(d) numerous

(e) extra

(f) reduce

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Writing Frameworks

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Recycling 1. Rewrite the words below in the correct order to form a sentence. The first five sentences are capitalised for you. Remember to punctuate all of the sentences. (a) opposed people Some are recycling to

(b) the term long recycling In money saves

(c) Recycling work encourages to together community the

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(d) of The decrease cost over time recycling should

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(e) play an every Recycling day life important in role should

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(f) the parklands could space saved is then used for be as such things

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(g) aluminium another can product to make for example an could be used help empty again

(h) available more cannot space created land to conserve necessary is therefore be it the

2. Make up your own jumbled sentence from the recycling exposition, and ask someone in your class to solve it.

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Writing Frameworks

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Planning an Exposition 1. Below are a list of controversial topics. Select one of these topics and write a list of reasons for and against the topic to prepare your exposition writing. Use the planning sheet below. (a) School canteens should sell sweets. (b) Tuna finshing has a harmful effect on dolphins. (c) No animals should be part of a circus. (d) School uniforms are necessary. Arguments Against

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Arguments For

2. Now list a few points for your conclusion. What were your findings?

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Writing Frameworks

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Writing an Exposition After choosing an exposition topic and planning your writing, use the framework below to write your own exposition. Remember that your task is to convince the reader of your point of view on the topic that you choose. Title

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Arguments for (Ideas that support the topic)

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Introduction (Define the topic)

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Arguments against (Ideas that oppose the topic)

Conclusion (Summarising comment/your findings)

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Writing Frameworks

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The Loch Ness Monster A description is a framework that describes a specific living or non-living thing. Physical characteristics of living things are described, whereas the components and their functions would be described for non-living things. Special features are also discussed along with an ending statement. This type of writing can be used when describing a specific breed of animal, object or picture. Introduction (What is it?)

The Loch Ness Monster is believed by many to be a creature that resides in a lake known as ‘Loch Ness’, which is located in Scotland. The Loch Ness Monster is said to be different than any creature so far known to humans. This monster is also commonly referred to by names such as ‘Nessie’ and ‘Kelpie’.

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Sightings both in and out of the water have been reported for centuries. Witnesses have stated both similarities and differences when describing what the monster looks like. Some have compared the creature to dinosaurs while others have compared it to animals such as whales and sea serpents.

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Description (State its appearance, for example, colour, shape and size)

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It has been commonly reported that the creature is greyish in colour and it has an extremely long neck. The Loch Ness Monster is also thought to be enormous.

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Photographs of the creature have been produced. Pictures have been identified as both fake and real. The legitimate photos have tended to be unclear. Interesting Details (Special features)

A great deal of interest regarding the existence of the Loch Ness Monster has been shown by both scientists and tourists. Scientists have designed a number of experiments to either prove or disprove the creature’s existence. Tourists have spent time and money hoping to see the creature. In fact, so great is people’s interest in the creature that it has been generated into a very valuable industry.

Conclusion (Ending statement)

Speculation as to whether or not the Loch Ness Monster is fact or fiction still exists today.

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The Loch Ness Monster Use the description to answer the following questions.

1. What is another name for the Loch Ness Monster?

2. In what country is the Loch Ness Monster said to exist?

3. For how long have sightings of the creature been reported?

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4. Write antonyms from the description for the words below.

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5. Do you think the creature exists? Why/Why not?

What do you think the creature could be like? Why?

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6.

7. Use the following words in sentences. (a) exist (b) estimate (c) produce 8. Tourists often buy souvenirs. Name three items that could be bought by visitors to Loch Ness.

9. On a separate piece of paper, draw what you think the Loch Ness Monster looks like. Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

Writing Frameworks

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The Loch Ness Monster The Loch Ness Monster is believed by many to be a creature that resides in a lake known as ‘Loch Ness’, which is located in Scotland. The Loch Ness Monster is said to be different from (1)

any (2)

so far known to humans. The Loch Ness

is also commonly referred to by names such as

’(3) and ‘

’(4).

Sightings both in and out of the water have been reported for centuries. Witnesses have stated (5) (6)

similarities and differences when describing what the

(8)

it to animals such as whales and

e

to dinosaurs while others have

pl

serpents.

m

(9)

(7)

looks like. Some have compared the

(10)

and

Sa

It has been commonly reported that the creature is greyish in (11)

that it has an

long neck.

in

g

Photographs of the creature have been produced. Pictures have been identified as both and real.

ew

(12)

A great deal of interest regarding the existence of the Loch Ness Monster has been shown by (13)

Vi

both scientists and tourists. Scientists have designed a number of (14)

to either prove or

(15)

time and (16)

the creature’s existence. Tourists have spent

hoping to see the creature. In fact, so great is people’s

in the creature that it has been generated into a very

valuable industry. Speculation as to whether or not the Loch Ness Monster is (18)

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(17)

or

still exists today.

Writing Frameworks

22


The Loch Ness Monster An exclamation mark is used to express strong emotions. For example, ‘Wow! Look at that!’.

1. Rewrite these sentences, inserting exclamation marks where necessary. (a) My goodness—it’s the Loch Ness Monster.

(b) Quick take the photo it’s Nessie.

(c) Help I think the monster is surfacing.

m

(e) Please, please pick me up I can’t see it

pl

e

(d) Look that’s amazing.

g

Sa

(f) I spent all this money to see the Loch Ness Monster. What a waste

in

Question marks are used to ask a direct question. For example, ‘How many days are in a year?’

Vi

ew

2. Write a list of questions that you would like to ask the Loch Ness Monster if you had the opportunity.

3. Punctuate the following paragraph. Include exclamation marks, full stops, capital letters, question marks and commas where required. Wow I think I’ve spotted the loch ness monster I can see an enormous tail just above the surface of the water can you see it too look it’s a greyish black colour how exciting quick take a photo

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Writing Frameworks

23


The Loch Ness Monster Quotation marks, inverted commas or speech marks are used to show direct speech. For example, ‘I didn’t see it,’ said Sarah.

1. Punctuate the following sentences using quotation marks. (a) Please take me to see Nessie, asked Emma.

(b) Wow! Look at that, could it be the Loch Ness Monster? exclaimed Neisha.

(c) My photo is going to win the competition, said Tom.

m

(e) Scotland is a beautiful country, declared Sophie.

pl

e

(d) Looking out the car window, Andrew shouted, Stop! I can see a big swell in the water.

Sa

(f) Is the Loch Ness Monster real? asked Rose.

in

g

Abbreviations are used to make names, dates, places and titles shorter. A full stop is used after the shortened word or initial. When the last letter of the full word is the same as the last letter of the abbreviation, a full stop is not required. For example, Mister = Mr; January = Jan.

ew

2. Rewrite the following sentences using the abbreviated form of the words in bold.

Vi

(a) Mister Colwell sighted the Loch Ness Monster on the first of November, 1970 at two o’clock in the afternoon.

(b) On Christmas Day, we flew to the United Kingdom before we made our way to Scotland.

(c) The company that drove us to Loch Ness was owned by Doctor Smith from the United States of America.

(d) We travelled Mount Henry Avenue to go to the Nessie exhibition at the General Post Office.

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Writing Frameworks

24


Writing a Description Write a description of another legendary creature such as the Abominable Snowman. Follow the framework below. Title

pl

e

Introduction (What is it?)

in

g

Sa

m

Description (State its appearance, e.g. colour, shape and size)

Vi

ew

Interesting Details (Describe any special features)

Conclusion (An interesting ending statement)

Edit and publish your description on another piece of paper. Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

Writing Frameworks

25


Apes A report is a framework that describes aspects of a living or non-living thing. Reports are more detailed than descriptions. A report includes: • a classification – what is it? • a description of its attributes • location – where does it live? or where is it found? • dynamics – what does it do? • conclusion – summarising comment. This type of writing is used for science and other curriculum area reports, newspaper and magazine articles. Classification (What is it? To what family/group does it belong?)

e

The ape is our closest living relative. Not only do we both belong to the mammal family but we also share many similar traits. Both apes and humans walk on two limbs, are tailless and have a highly developed brain.

m

pl

There are four types of apes—the gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-outang and the gibbon. They are all similar in body structure; however, each has its own individual characteristics. The chimp’s intelligence is nearest to humans when compared to all animals.

Sa

Description (State its appearance, e.g. – colour, size)

ew

in

g

Apes are usually shades of brown or black in colour. They use their limbs for walking, running, climbing and swinging. Their long arms and grasping hands are used to take hold of branches as they swing from bough to bough. They use their shorter legs to walk in a clumsy manner.

Vi

Location (Where is it found?)

The gorilla and chimpanzee are found in rainforests in Africa, whereas the orang-outang and gibbon live in South-East Asia. Scientists know that these animals have been living for thousands of years. Dynamics (What does it do?)

Apes like to live in groups. They spend their time either on the ground or in trees among forests. They feed mainly on leaves and fruit although at times small animals, insects and birds form a part of their diet. The apes’ intelligence allows them to cleverly catch their prey and to use environmental resources as tools to aid their survival. For example, the chimp uses leaves to soak up water for drinking. Conclusion (Ending statement)

Apes are amazing creatures. Like humans, their facial expression can indicate their mood. An experienced trainer can depict fear, happiness, pain or anger. Apes have had scientists intrigued for many years and continue to do so.

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Writing Frameworks

26


Apes Use the report to answer the questions.

1. Why do you think some people say that apes are our closest relatives?

2. List three ways in which apes use their limbs.

pl

e

3. Do you agree that apes have a highly developed brain? Why/Why not?

Sa

m

4. Name a way that apes use their environmental resources to survive.

in

g

5. How do you think that scientists can tell how long apes have lived for?

ew

6. Name three differences between humans and apes.

Vi

7.

8.

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List the four types of apes. (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Colour the true facts about apes.

Writing Frameworks

27


Apes The ape is our closest living relative. Not only do we both belong to the (1)

(2)

family but we also share many

traits.

There are four types of apes—the gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-outang and the gibbon. They are (3)

all (4)

in body structure; however, each has its (5)

individual characteristics. The chimp’s (6)

nearest to humans when compared to all

.

(7)

Apes are usually shades of brown or black in colour. They use their (8)

. Their long arms and grasping

e

for walking, running, climbing and

are used to take hold of branches as they (10)

to bough.

Sa

m

swing from

pl

(9)

is

The gorilla and chimpanzee are found in rainforests in Africa, whereas the orang-outang and gibbon live in South-East Asia.

g

know that these animals have been

in

(11)

for thousands of years.

ew

(12)

Vi

Apes like to live in groups. They spend their time either on the ground or in trees (13)

forests. They feed mainly on leaves and fruit although at times (14)

small animals, insects and

(15)

intelligence

form a part of their diet. The apes’

them to cleverly catch their (17)

and to use environmental resources as

(16)

to aid their survival.

Apes are amazing creatures. Like humans, their facial (18)

can indicate their

(19)

. An experienced

(20)

can depict fear, happiness, pain or anger. Apes have had scientists intrigued for many years and continue to do so.

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Writing Frameworks

28


Apes A haiku poem is a Japanese form of poetry. It is made up of a total of seventeen syllables and it consists of three lines. First line Second line Third line For example:

5 syllables 7 syllables 5 syllables

explains where it is. tells what’s happening. tells what’s being done, felt or thought.

Deep in the forest Many apes are swinging high Moving through the trees.

1. Create two haiku poems of your own. Ensure one of the poems is about a gorilla, chimpanzee or orang-outang. Illustrate each poem.

Sa

m

pl

e

Title

ew

in

g

Title

A cinquain is a five-line poem which presents a compact image of an object, person or idea.

Vi

Gorillas Brown, furry Large, fat, frightening Happy, sad, quiet, noisy Clever

(1 word to state the subject) (2 words to describe the subject) (3 words to describe the subject) (4 words about the subject) (1 word to comment on the subject)

2. Compose your own cinquain, using apes as your topic. Title

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Writing Frameworks

29


Apes 1. Unjumble these words from the text and write them correctly above each one. Now write them in the correct order to form a sentence, punctuating where necessary.

(c) gnaer

uoclro

nca

yhte

lluusya

cedtpi

veah

eevralits

rfae

urfo

rae

ro

na

rfo

uahmns’

wrbon

ro

klabc

eepxrdincee

nawligk

paes

retarin

niggswni

nnngiur

npia

hssapniep

bmiiclgn

smbli

ftriu

dna

tdei

lmynia

fo

lvaees

sssincto

in

g

(e) eithr

Sa

m

(d) dna

rea

psae

e

(b) ni

clesost

pl

(a) gliivn

(a)

ew

2. Write a beginning or ending for these sentence parts. indicates their mood.

Vi

(b) A chimp’s intelligence

.

(c) Apes use their long arms

. (d) are found in South-East Asia. (e) A chimpanzee uses leaves

3. Write a jumbled sentence of your own about a type of ape and give it to a friend to solve.

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Writing Frameworks

30


Writing a Report Write a report on a mammal such as a whale, tiger, lion or dog. Follow the framework below.

Title Classification (What is it? What family/group does it belong to?)

Sa

m

pl

e

Description (State its appearance, e.g. – colour, size)

Vi

ew

in

g

Location (Where does it live? Where can it be found?)

Dynamics (What does it do?)

Conclusion (An interesting ending statement)

Edit and publish your report on a separate piece of paper. Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

Writing Frameworks

31


Pottery A procedure is a framework that outlines how something is done. Procedures include the following parts: • opening statement of an aim or goal; • materials or requirements listed in order of use; • the method presented as a series of steps in chronological order; and • an evaluation to comment on the success (or not) of the procedure. Examples of procedures include recipes, experiments and instruction manuals.

Topic: Pottery Goal:

To design and make a coil pot.

wooden board newspaper empty can glaze and kiln

Method:

pl

Utensils:

m

clay water

Sa

Ingredients:

e

Requirements:

g

1. Wedge the clay by kneading like bread dough.

in

2. Wrap newspaper around your empty can.

ew

3. Roll clay coils approximately the thickness of a thumb. 4. Place the first coil around the bottom of the can.

Vi

5. Continue to place consecutive coils around the can until the required height has been reached. 6. Gently move the can from side to side to remove it from the clay. 7. Smooth the pot on the inside using damp fingers. 8. Flatten a ball of clay and cut out a circle slightly larger than the bottom of your can. 9. Attach the circle as the base of your pot by smoothing it onto your pot using your fingers and some water. 10. Glaze and kiln if required. Evaluation: Can the coil pot hold items such as pens? Does the pot look attractive?

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Writing Frameworks

32


Pottery Use the procedure to answer the questions.

1. Write a beginning or ending for each sentence below about the clay pot recipe. (a) Glaze and

.

(b)

the thickness of a thumb.

(c) Wedge the clay by

.

(d)

the base of your pot.

(e) Place consecutive coils

. and cut out a circle slightly bigger than the

(f) bottom of your can.

g

Sa

m

pl

e

2. Rewrite the sentences above in the correct chronological order.

Vi

ew

in

3. Locate words in the text that mean the same as the words below.

4. Answer the questions below.

(a) Why is it necessary to wrap newspaper around your can when making a coil pot?

(b) Why do you use damp fingers when smoothing out clay?

(c) What do the terms ‘glaze’ and ‘kiln’ refer to?

(d) Name five things a coil pot can be used for.

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Writing Frameworks

33


Pottery Topic: Pottery Goal:

(1)

To

and make a coil pot.

Requirements: Ingredients

clay water :(2) wooden board newspaper

e

empty can

m

pl

glaze and kiln Method:

the clay by kneading like bread dough.

Sa

(3)

1.

(4)

2. Wrap newspaper

your empty can. (5)

g

3. Roll clay coils approximately the thickness

in

4. Place the first

(6)

around the bottom of the can. (7)

ew

5. Continue to place consecutive coils around the height

(8)

Vi

(10)

(9)

(11) (12)

and cut out a circle slightly larger than the

your can.

9. Attach the circle as the base of pot using your fingers and some water. (14)

10.

the clay.

the pot on the inside using damp fingers.

8. Flatten a ball of bottom

until the required

been reached.

6. Gently move the can from side to side to remove it 7.

a thumb.

(13)

pot by smoothing it onto your

and kiln if required.

:(15) Can the coil pot hold items such as pens? Does the

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(16)

look attractive?

Writing Frameworks

34


Pottery Homonyms are words which sound alike, may or may not be spelt the same, but which have different meanings. For example, we hear sounds; come over here.

1. Underline the correct homonym in each sentence. (a) Wedge the clay (buy, by) kneading like bread dough. (b) (Their, there, they’re) coil pot looked attractive. (c) Why do you (knead, need) to wrap newspaper around an empty can? (d) ‘I think I need more than one (pear, pair) of hands to wedge the clay!’ exclaimed the pupil. (e) The (sent, scent, cent) of clay can be overpowering. (f) (Their, There) was an extremely long (cue, queue) waiting to use the kiln.

e

(g) (Won, One) empty can is required (to, too) assist in the creation of a coil pot.

pl

(h) Attach the circle as the base of your pot (by, buy) using your fingers and (sum, some) water.

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa

m

2. Write a nonsense paragraph about pottery. Include as many homonyms as you can. Illustrate your paragraph.

3. Write three sentences below. Use a given pair of homonyms in each sentence. (time, thyme); (eight, ate); (wear, where) (a)

(b)

(c)

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Writing Frameworks

35


Pottery A prefix is either a single letter or syllable at the beginning of a word to create a new word. For example – some, fearsome.

1. Add prefixes to the following words then write the new word to complete each sentence. Ensure the sentences make sense. (a)

move

the can from the coil pot.

(b)

sect

the clay into two equal parts.

(c)

sure

there are no bubbles left in the clay.

(d)

member • Did you

(e)

tract

(f)

claimed

• ‘Look at my pot!’

(g)

turn

(h)

pare

• Do you know how to

to knead the clay? the clay from between your fingers. Neil.

pl

e

the board to the art department. glaze?

Sa

m

A suffix is either a single letter or syllable added to the end of a word to create a new word. For example – worth, worthless.

2. Add a suffix to each word below. (You will find an example in the procedure.) Write each new word in a sentence. (a) slight

g

(b) wood

in

(c) attract

(b) (c)

approximate

Vi

(a)

(f)

ew

(e) thick

(d) smooth

(d) (e) (f) 3. Add the suffixes ‘s’, ‘ed’ and ‘ing’ to these words.

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Writing Frameworks

36


Writing a Procedure Write a procedure following the framework below. Select your own topic or choose one of the following: how to make a puppet, how to make spaghetti bolognaise, or how to make a kite. Topic: Goal: Requirements:

e

Ingredients/Materials:

Sa

m

pl

Utensils/Tools:

Vi

ew

in

g

Method:

Evaluation:

Draw the finished product in the box.

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Writing Frameworks

37


How Rocks are Formed An explanation is a framework that outlines how something works or is made. Explanations include: • a definition – what is it? • a description of the components or parts • the operation – how it operates or is made • the application – where and when it works or is applied • special features – interesting comments. Examples of when explanations are used include the areas of health, science, geography, writing, essays and handbooks. Definition (What is it?)

Rock is a naturally occurring substance that forms the earth’s crust.

Operations (How it works/is made?)

pl m

Sa

Rocks consist of one or more types of minerals and chemicals. They may also contain decayed organic substances and natural glass. The basic types of rock are igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary.

e

Components/Parts (Description of parts)

ew

in

g

Igneous rock is molten (melted) rock that exists beneath the earth’s surface. This rock material is called magma. Hot magma sometimes moves up to the earth’s surface, cooling as it rises. Igneous rock is formed when the magma cools and becomes solid. Some examples are pumice, basalt and granite. These rocks make up 80 percent of the earth’s crust.

Vi

Sedimentary rock is formed by erosion. Natural causes such as the wind, rain, sun and snow wear away hard rock into small stones. The small rock particles are forced together into the earth’s layers and other stones pile upon them. These layers harden and develop into sedimentary rock. Sandstone and shale are examples of this type. Sedimentary rock can also be formed through chemical breakdowns, of which turquoise and flint are examples. Metamorphic rock is formed from the effects of heat and pressure upon both igneous and sedimentary rocks. Slate and marble are examples of this form of rock. Applications (Where and when it works or is applied)

Rocks from all over the world have been used for many different purposes since prehistoric times. They have been used as tools, weapons, cooking utensils, jewellery and even for food sources such as salt. People have also made their homes from rocks in past and present times. Interesting comments (Special features)

Rocks are natural pieces of the earth that both humans and animals have found beneficial and will continue to do so for many years.

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Writing Frameworks

38


How Rocks are Formed 1. What is rock?

pl

e

2. Write keywords and phrases to describe how each rock is formed.

Sa

m

3. What does the term ‘molten’ refer to?

4. Which rock makes up most of the earth’s crust?

in

g

5. What is it that causes rocks to erode?

Vi

ew

6. List examples of what rocks can be used for today.

7.

Why do you think that some rocks are more precious than others?

8. Name the type of rock for these examples. (a) granite (b) marble (c) sandstone (d) flint

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Writing Frameworks

39


How Rocks are Formed Rock is a naturally occurring substance that forms the earth’s crust. (1)

Rocks consist of one or (2)

They may also

types of minerals and chemicals.

decayed organic substances and natural glass. (3)

The basic types of rock are igneous,

and sedimentary. (4)

Igneous rock is molten (melted) rock that

beneath the earth’s

surface. This rock material is called magma. Hot magma sometimes moves up to the earth’s (5)

surface,

as it rises. (6)

.

Igneous rock is formed when the magma cools and becomes

pl

e

These rocks make up 80 percent of the earth’s crust. (7)

Sedimentary rock is formed by erosion. Natural causes

(8)

hard rock into small stones.

m

wind, rain, sun and snow wear

(9)

forced together into the earth’s layers

Sa

The small rock particles

other stones pile upon them. These layers

(11)

and develop into sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rock can also be

g

(10)

(12)

, of which turquoise and flint are

in

formed through chemical

ew

examples.

(13)

Metamorphic rock is formed from the effects of (14)

Vi

igneous and sedimentary. Slate and rock.

as the

(15)

Rocks from (16)

and pressure upon

are examples of this form of

over the world

been used for many different purposes since (17)

. They have been used as tools,

prehistoric

weapons, cooking utensils, jewellery and even for (18)

sources such as salt. People have (19)

also made their homes from rocks in

and

present times. Rocks are

(20)

pieces of the earth that both humans and animals

have found beneficial and will continue to do so for many years. Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

Writing Frameworks

40


How Rocks are Formed

g

Sa

m

pl

e

1. Unjumble the following words from the text and then write each word into a sentence alongside.

in

2. True or false?

(a) Igneous rock is formed by erosion.

false

(b) Molten magna forms igneous rock.

true

false

(c) Rocks form the earth’s crust.

true

false

(d) Metamorphic rock makes up 80 per cent of the earth’s crust.

true

false

(e) Rocks contain minerals and various chemicals.

true

false

Vi

ew

true

3. Correct the spelling and punctuation of the sentences below. (a) Rock is a naturaly ocerring substence

(b) rok consests off won or morre minerels and chmicels

(c) People make there homes off sum forms off roc

(d) Igneous rok maykes up eity percant of thee eaths crust

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Writing Frameworks

41


Similes and Metaphors A simile compares one thing to another. The words ‘like’ or ‘as’ are used. For example – She is as nice as pie. A metaphor is also a comparison between things, but the words ‘like’ or ‘as’ are not used. Instead, one thing is said to be another. For example – That woman is a witch.

1. Study the sentences below. Next to each, write whether a simile or metaphor has been used. (a) He stood tall like a mountain. (b) The stars are diamonds in the night sky. (c) She is as solid as a rock. (d) He erupted like a volcano. (e) His head is as hard as a rock. (f) She is a precious stone.

in

g

Sa

m

pl

e

2. Choose two of the above and illustrate them in the boxes below.

(a) Similes

(ii)

Vi

(i)

ew

3. Write two similes and metaphors of your own below. Have a go at relating them to the topic ‘Rock’.

(b) Metaphors (i) (ii)

4. Select one of your similes or metaphors and illustrate it below.

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Writing Frameworks

42


Writing an Explanation Choose a topic and follow the explanation framework below.

Title

Components/parts (Describe the parts)

in

g

Sa

m

pl

e

Operations (How it works)

Vi

ew

Applications (When and where it works/is applied)

Interesting Comments (Special features)

Edit and publish your explanation on another piece of paper. Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

Writing Frameworks

43


Learning Centre These activities can be photocopied, enlarged to A3 and made into individual activity cards. Standard equipment required is scissors, card, glue, paper, pencils and felt pens.

2

1

Retell your favourite myth or legend in narrative form. Write a procedure explaining how to play your favourite sport. 4

e

3

Write a report about a prehistoric animal. Include a labelled illustration.

Sa

m

pl

Write an exposition on the topic of dolphin fishing or whaling – (Should it be allowed?)

6

in

g

5

7

Vi

ew

Write an explanation outlining how a part of the body works. For example, heart, respiratory system.

Make an animated story book for younger children. 9

Write a letter or postcard to your local paper about a topical issue. Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

Design your dream island. Label special features. 8

Create a puzzle book. Include word searches, crosswords and mazes. 10

Design an advertisement to encourage children to read.

Writing Frameworks

44


Learning Centre Evaluation Activity no.

Name What task did I complete?

What I enjoyed the most:

What I learnt from the activity:

Sa

m

pl

e

What was the most challenging part of the task?

Score

/10

ew

Name

in

g

Learning Centre Evaluation Activity no.

Vi

What task did I complete?

What I enjoyed the most:

What I learnt from the activity:

What was the most challenging part of the task?

Score

/10 Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

Writing Frameworks

45


Answers

The Wind and the Sun

Vi

ew

in

g

e

Sa

Page 8 1. To prove who was the strongest. 2. The sun challenged the wind. 3–4.Teacher check 5. (a) lose, fail (b) try, attempt (c) correct, right (d) fight, argument (e) jacket, coat (f) challenge, quest 6–8.Teacher check Page 9 1. other 2. sighted 3. prove 4. can 5. will 6. kindness 7. his 8. a 9. traveller’s 10. coat 11. called 12. and 13. genial 14. who 15. heat 16. intense 17. sat Page 10 1–3.Teacher check

pl

Page 2 1. Normally 2. There were complications and she feared for the mother and unborn’s safety. 3. Teacher check 4. The veterinarian and her assistant. 5. Teacher check 6. (a) quickly (b) winners (c) appropriate (d) complicated (e) grave (f) anxious 7. Successful operation 8. extremely happy 9. Teacher check 10. Teacher check Page 3 1. early 2. labour 3. progressed 4. fears 5. most 6. would 7. staff 8. assistance 9. minutes 10. success 11. were 12. hear 13. cubs 14. the 15. purring 16. confidently 17. moments 18. winners 19. notified 20. upon

Page 16 1. (a) consideration (b) oppose (c) created (d) minimisation (e) implemented (f) community (g) resources 2. (a) growth, necessary, protection, saving, site, (b) everyone, implemented, minimal, needs, waste (c) argument, better, environment, positive, spirit (d) aluminium, recycle, refer, term, together 3. Teacher check Page 17 1. (a) Some people are opposed to recycling. (b) In the long term, recycling saves money. (c) Recycling encourages the community to work together. (d) The cost of recycling over time should decrease. (e) Recycling should play an important role in every day life. (f) The space saved could then be used for such things as parklands. (g) For example, an empty can could be used again to help make another aluminium product. (h) More space cannot be created, therefore it is necessary to conserve the land available. 2. Teacher check

m

Iesha, the Cheetah, Gives Birth

Recycling

Page 14 1. Reusing items that have already been manufactured. 2. Teacher check 3. Everyone 4–5.Teacher check 6. Positive community spirit, working together as a community. 7. Teacher check 8. (a) opposed (b) numerous (c) conserve 9. Teacher check Page 15 1. used 2. role 3. numerous 4. saving 5. environment 6. everyone 7. all 8. growth 9. could 10. parklands 11. created 12. conserve 13. money 14. decrease 15. recycling 16. extra 17. recycle 18. points 19. minimisation 20. everyone

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The Loch Ness Monster

Page 21 ‘Kelpie’ or ‘Nessie’ Scotland Centuries (a) differences (b) real (c) enormous (d) legitimate (e) valuable (f) unclear (g) disprove (h) today 5–9.Teacher check Page 22 1. creature 2. Monster 3. Nessie 4. Kelpie 5. both 6. monster 7. creature 8. compared 9. sea 10. colour 11. extremely 12. fake 13. experiments 14. disprove 15. money 16. interest 17. fact 18. fiction Page 23 1. (a) My goodness—it’s the Loch Ness Monster! (b) Quick! Take the photo—it’s Nessie! (c) Help! I think the monster is surfacing. (d) Look! That’s amazing! (e) Please, please pick me up, I can’t see it! (f) I spent all this money to see the Loch Ness Monster. What a waste! 2. Teacher check 3. Wow! I think I’ve spotted the Loch Ness Monster. I can see an enormous tail just above the surface of the water. Can you see it too? Look, it’s a greyish, black colour. How exciting! Quick, take a photo! Page 24 1. Teacher check 2. (a) Mr Colwell sighted the Loch Ness Monster on the 1st of Nov. 1970 at 2 p.m. (b) On Christmas Day, we flew to the UK before we made our way to Scotland. 1. 2. 3. 4.

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(c) The co. that drove us to Loch Ness was owned by Dr Smith from the USA. (d) We travelled Mt Henry Ave to go to the Nessie exhibition at the GPO.

Apes Page 27 1. We share similar traits such as a highly developed brain, no tail and walking on two limbs. 2. Walking, running, climbing or swinging. 3. Teacher check 4. They use leaves to soak up water for drinking. 5–6.Teacher check 7. Gorilla, orang-outang, chimpanzee, gibbon walk on four limbs

Add 's'

Add 'ed'

knead

kneads

kneaded

Add 'ing' kneading

wrap

wraps

wrapped

wrapping

require

requires

required

requiring

move

moves

moved

moving

walk gracefully

How Rocks are Formed walk on two limbs use tools live in groups

show intelligence

use short legs for swinging live in dry regions

walk clumsily

use long arms for swinging

mammal

Page 28 similar 3. similar 4. own animals 7. limbs 8. swinging bough 11. Scientists among 14. birds 15. allows tools 18. expression trainer Page 30 1. (a) Apes are humans’ closest living relatives. (b) Apes are usually brown or black in colour. (c) An experienced trainer can depict fear, happiness, pain or anger. (d) They have four limbs for walking, running, climbing and swinging. (e) Their diet mainly consists of leaves and fruit. 2–3.Teacher check

Sa

2. 6. 10. 13. 17. 20.

ew

in

g

mammal intelligence hands living prey mood

Page 39 1. A naturally occurring substance that forms the earth’s crust. 2. Teacher check 3. Melted rock 4. Igneous 5. Natural causes such as wind, rain, sun and snow. 6–7.Teacher check 8. (a) igneous (b) metamorphic (c) sedimentary (d) sedimentary Page 40 1. more 2. contain 3. metamorphic 4. exists 5. cooling 6. solid 7. such 8. away 9. are 10. and 11. harden 12. breakdowns13. heat 14. marble 15. all 16. have 17. times 18. food 19. past 20. natural Page 41 1. (a) stone (b) sedimentary (c) formed (d) beneficial (e) igneous (f) heat 2. (a) false (b) true (c) true (d) false (e) true 3. (a) Rock is a naturally occurring substance. (b) Rock consists of one or more minerals and chemicals. (c) People make their homes of some forms of rock. (d) Igneous rock makes up eighty percent of the earth’s crust. Page 42 1. (a) simile (b) metaphor (c) simile (d) simile (e) simile (f) metaphor 2–4.Teacher check

e

live on own

pl

faces show feelings

1. 5. 9. 12. 16. 19.

3.

m

8.

tailless

Page 35 1. (a) by (b) Their (c) need (d) pair (e) scent (f) There, queue (g) One, to (h) by, some 2–3.Teacher check Page 36 1. (a) Remove (b) Dissect (c) Ensure (d) remember (e) Extract (f) exclaimed (g) Return (h) prepare 2. (a) slightly (b) wooden (c) attractive (d) smoothest (e) thickness (f) approximately

Pottery

Vi

Page 33 1. (a) Glaze and kiln if required. (b) Roll coils about the thickness of your thumb. (c) Wedge the clay by kneading like bread dough. (d) Attach the circle as the base of your pot. (e) Place consecutive coils around the can. (f) Flatten a ball of clay and cut out a circle slightly bigger than the bottom of your can. 2. (c), (b), (e), (f), (d), (a) 3. (a) required (b) kiln (c) place (d) gently (e) glaze (f) approximately 4. (a) It makes it easier to remove the pot from the can. (b) To make it easier to smooth the clay. (c) Glaze – varnish; kiln – fire (d) Teacher check Page 34 1. design 2. Utensils 3. wedge 4. around 5. of 6. coil 7. can 8. has 9. from 10. Smooth 11. clay 12. of 13. your 14. Glaze 15. Evaluation 16. pot Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com

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0268 Writing Frameworks - Upper