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UPPER PRIMArY/LOWER SECONDARY

6291C


LITERACY AND HISTORY The Greeks Published by Prim-Ed Publishing 2008 Reprinted under licence by Prim-Ed Publishing 2008 Copyright© Marian Redmond 2007 ISBN 978-1-84654-072-1 PR–6291

Additional titles available in this series: Literacy and history – The Romans Literacy and history – The Egyptians Literacy and history – The Celts

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

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Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

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Foreword Literacy and history – The Greeks is one title in a series of four books designed to develop pupils’ literacy skills in the areas of comprehension, vocabulary and spelling and to enhance their academic skills and historical knowledge. The books are designed to strengthen the links between the subjects of language and history. Each book deals with an ancient society and contains 12 units which deal with different aspects of each society and the people who lived in them. Each unit covers a wide variety of topics and includes a range of fictional texts based on historical fact. Each unit has a comprehension section, a cloze procedure section, a word study section and a cross-curricular section, which provides activities from other areas of the curriculum such as history, geography, science and mathematics. Titles in the series:

Literacy and history – The Romans Literacy and history – The Greeks

Literacy and history – The Egyptians Literacy and history – The Celts

This book is also provided in digital format on the accompanying CD.

Teachers notes........................................................................... iv – vii Glossary.................................................................................... viii – xi Time line........................................................................................... xii Curriculum links.................................................................... xiii – xvii

Unit 1: Young women compete in a bull leaping contest on the

Unit 7: A critic reviews a new play in a Greek colony – 470 BC......................................................................................... 50–57 Teachers notes.............................................................................. 50–51 Reading — Ephorus reviews the first night of a new comedy at the theatre........................................................................................... 52 Comprehension questions.................................................................... 53 Cloze exercise..................................................................................... 54 Word study exercises........................................................................... 55 Cross-curricular activities .............................................................. 56–57

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island of Crete – 1900 BC............................................................... 2–9 Teachers notes.................................................................................. 2–3 Reading — A live sports commentary on the contest in Knossos.............. 4 Comprehension questions...................................................................... 5 Cloze exercise....................................................................................... 6 Word study exercises............................................................................. 7 Cross-curricular activities .................................................................. 8–9

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Contents

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Unit 2: A Mycenaean servant tells a bedtime story – 1160 BC....................................................................................... 10–17 Teachers notes.............................................................................. 10–11 Reading — Dialogue about the story of the legend of Troy...................... 12 Comprehension questions.................................................................... 13 Cloze exercise..................................................................................... 14 Word study exercises........................................................................... 15 Cross-curricular activities .............................................................. 16–17

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Unit 3: An athlete describes a visit to the oracle – 796 BC....... 18–25 Teachers notes.............................................................................. 18–19 Reading — Demosthenes describes his visit to his fellow athletes.......... 20 Comprehension questions.................................................................... 21 Cloze exercise..................................................................................... 22 Word study exercises........................................................................... 23 Cross-curricular activities .............................................................. 24–25

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Unit 4: A priestess prays to the goddess Artemis – 600 BC..... 26–33 Teachers notes.............................................................................. 26–27 Reading — A prayer to the goddess in her temple at Ephesus................ 28 Comprehension questions.................................................................... 29 Cloze exercise..................................................................................... 30 Word study exercises........................................................................... 31 Cross-curricular activities .............................................................. 32–33 Unit 5: A Greek doctor writes a post mortem report – 490 BC......................................................................................... 34–41 Teachers notes.............................................................................. 34–35 Reading — Post Mortem report on the runner, Pheidippides................... 36 Comprehension questions.................................................................... 37 Cloze exercise..................................................................................... 38 Word study exercises........................................................................... 39 Cross-curricular activities .............................................................. 40–41 Unit 6: Queen Artemesia writes in her journal – 480 BC........... 42–49 Teachers notes.............................................................................. 42–43 Reading — A journal describing events at the Battle of Salamis............. 44 Comprehension questions.................................................................... 45 Cloze exercise..................................................................................... 46 Word study exercises........................................................................... 47 Cross-curricular activities .............................................................. 48–49

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Unit 8: A sculptor writes about his new commission – 435 BC......................................................................................... 58–65 Teachers notes.............................................................................. 58–59 Reading — Pheidias writes a letter to the Chief Priest at Olympia........... 60 Comprehension questions.................................................................... 61 Cloze exercise..................................................................................... 62 Word study exercises........................................................................... 63 Cross-curricular activities .............................................................. 64–65 Unit 9: A young Spartan girl writes in her diary – 431 BC........ 66–73 Teachers notes.............................................................................. 66–67 Reading — Cynisca describes her fears before a test of her fitness........ 68 Comprehension questions.................................................................... 69 Cloze exercise..................................................................................... 70 Word study exercises........................................................................... 71 Cross-curricular activities............................................................... 72–73 Unit 10: A visitor to Athens discusses her plans for her visit – 425 BC......................................................................................... 74–81 Teachers notes.............................................................................. 74–75 Reading — Dialogue between two Athenian sisters, Maia and Aspasia.... 76 Comprehension questions.................................................................... 77 Cloze exercise..................................................................................... 78 Word study exercises........................................................................... 79 Cross-curricular activities .............................................................. 80–81 Unit 11: An eleven year old boy asks his tutor some questions – 416 BC......................................................................................... 82–89 Teachers notes.............................................................................. 82–83 Reading — A dialogue between Plato and his tutor, Alcibiades............... 84 Comprehension questions.................................................................... 85 Cloze exercise..................................................................................... 86 Word study exercises........................................................................... 87 Cross-curricular activities .............................................................. 88–89 Unit 12: Two servants discuss their master – 29 May 323 BC......................................................................................... 90–97 Teachers notes.............................................................................. 90–91 Reading — A dialogue between Nikias and Hippias............................... 92 Comprehension questions.................................................................... 93 Cloze exercise..................................................................................... 94 Word study exercises........................................................................... 95 Cross-curricular activities .............................................................. 96–97

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Teachers Notes

Literacy and history – The Greeks contains 12 units, each with eight pages: Teachers notes (two pages) Reading Comprehension questions Cloze exercise

Each unit has a teachers notes section, which provides additional information for the teacher. The teachers notes page contains five sections, designed to assist teachers in presenting the worksheets to their pupils. Each teachers notes section contains: Objectives Background information

Word study exercises Cross-curricular activities (two pages)

Worksheet information Answers Cross-curricular information

Objectives: The first objective states the aims, targets and learning outcomes for the reading/comprehension/cloze pages.

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Background information:

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The second objective states the aims, targets and learning outcomes for the word study exercises page. The third objective states the aims, targets and learning outcomes for the cross-curricular activities pages.

Worksheet information:

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Presented in bullet points, this section identifies the type of text used and provides a definition of the type. A wide variety of styles have been included in the book including letters, dialogues, reports and interviews. More bullet points provide detailed historical background information to help teachers and pupils understand the content.

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Answers:

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Presented in bullet points, this section includes background information that may be required by the teacher before pupils complete the questions and activities in the worksheets. There may be some suggestions for websites relevant to the theme of the unit.

This section provides the answers for all questions where applicable. Answers are always given for literal and deductive questions where appropriate. Evaluative and open-ended questions and activities will require the teacher to check the answers during or following class discussion. This is indicated by ‘Teacher check’.

Cross-curricular activities: Presented in bullet points, this section provides suggestions for extra activities linked to the theme of the particular unit. There are also suggestions for relevant websites for further research.

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Teachers Notes

Each unit has six pupil pages, which are structured in the following way: Exercise A: Reading Exercise B: Comprehension questions Exercise C: Cloze exercise Exercise D: Word study exercises Exercise E: Cross-curricular activities (two pages) Example:

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Page 4: Exercise A: Reading

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Unit 1: Two young women compete in a bull leaping contest on the island of Crete – 1900 BC

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This text is a live sports commentary by Lysander as he watches the bull leaping contest at Knossos during the Minoan Period in Greek history. Other units include texts such as dialogues, reports, journal and diary entries, letters and reviews.

Page 5: Exercise B: Comprehension questions This page contains a series of questions for pupils to answer. This exercise requires pupils to read the text in Exercise A carefully and answer questions related to the text. These questions require pupils to move between literal answers, deductive answers and evaluative answers. There is an assortment of question types, each designed to help pupils to think and to prepare for tests and examinations. The order in which questions appear do not necessarily follow the order of the information as it appears in the text, providing an additional challenge for pupils. Pupils may find the answers to some of the comprehension questions in the footnotes underneath the text.

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Teachers Notes

Page 6: Exercise C: Cloze exercise

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A cloze exercise requires pupils to correctly choose words that fit within a given block of text. It allows pupils to develop their vocabulary and spelling skills. There is variety in the presentation to encourage creativity and the development of language skills such as spelling and decoding. There is a word bank provided with the cloze exercise, containing the list of words to be chosen from as answers. These words are not arranged in order.

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Page 7: Exercise D: Word study exercises This page contains a range of word study exercises, each designed to help pupils develop their reading, writing and spelling skills. The exercises include: selecting and/ or circling correct words, matching the beginning and endings of sentences, arranging the correct order of sentences in a paragraph or passage of text, correcting misspellings, completing word searches, completing sentences, identifying true and false items of information and using matching and decoding skills to find correct answers. Pupils are encouraged to engage in dictionary work to assist in the completion of these exercises.

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Teachers Notes

Pages 8/9: Exercise E: Crosscurricular activities

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These pages contain activities and suggestions for further cross-curricular activities linked to the subject matter and theme of the unit. Activities include decoding, unscrambling and matching exercises, selecting correct answers and studying the meanings and uses of keywords and phrases found in the units. There are also suggestions for further research activities and discussion points appropriate to the unit’s theme and text. Pupils are encouraged to develop their research skills by using the library and the Internet, if they wish. There are activities related to the subjects of History, Geography, Mathematics, Science and Art.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

There are discussion points included in some of the crosscurricular sections, designed to encourage pupils to reflect on some of the topics raised in the unit, to expand their knowledge and to develop informed opinions on the topic. Some units contain suggestions for further research in areas referred to within the unit. Pupils can research these topics by using resources such as their school library, public libraries and the Internet.

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Glossary A

D

absolute power—political power that does not allow any criticism or opposition and allows sole rule

Artemisia—Queen of Helicarnassus of Caria, who commanded five ships at the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC

deipnon—name given to the main meal eaten in ancient Greece, usually in the evenings

academy—name of a school set up by Plato in 387 BC in Athens, which taught pupils politics, law and mathematics

Asclepios—a son of Apollo, became the Greek god of healing after his death and had many shrines devoted to him all over the Greek world

Delphi—site of the most famous shrine dedicated to Apollo where ancient Greeks consulted the oracle to discover their future

Asia Minor—the broad peninsula that lies between the Black and the Mediterranean seas, and is the Asian part of modern Turkey

demokratia—the Greek word for democracy, which meant ‘rule by the people’

Aeschylus—tragic playwright, born in 525 BC in Eleusis and fought in the Battle of Marathon and the Battle of Salamis

Attica—name given to the territory of the city-state of Athens and the surrounding countryside

B

Alexander the Great—Macedonian crown prince who became king and conquered the Persian Empire, and whose death remains a mystery

Battle of Marathon — battle in 490 BC between the Spartans and the Persians in which 300 Spartans died

andron—name given to the area in a Greek house where the men entertained and held symposia

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Agora—marketplace and main political, legal and commercial centre in a Greek town or city where the business of the polis was conducted

bull leaping contests—a ritual or sport practiced by boys and girls which involved leaping over bulls

C

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Aphrodite—Greek goddess of love and beauty, born from the sea at Cyprus

centaur—mythical creature which was half-man and half-horse, usually employed as teachers of heroes

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Apollo—Greek god of the sun, who also ruled over prophesy, poetry and music and was portrayed by the Greeks as a youth apprehensive—state of mind in which a person is worried and concerned about things going wrong in the future

Aristotle—Greek philosopher from Macedonia who founded the Lyceum in Athens and was the tutor of Alexander the Great

chaos—a state of complete disorder and utter confusion chitons—tunics chorus—a group of singers and dancers in Greek drama who commented on the characters and the action of the play commission—word used to describe an order given to an artist to create a work of art; e.g. Pheidias’s statue of Zeus at Olympia

Artemis — twin sister of Apollo, Artemis was the goddess of the moon and also ruled over childbirth and hunting

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diadem—a type of crown

Athena—(also know as Athene Parthenos) the daughter of Zeus and the goddess of wisdom and war. Provided the name of the city of Athens.

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Aegean Sea—the sea that lies between the peninsula of Greece and Turkey

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Achilles—a Greek hero of the Trojan War, who could not be injured except in his heel, providing the term ‘Achilles heel’

Crete—a large island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, traditionally the birthplace of the god Zeus Croesus of Lydia—legendary king associated with the building of the first temple of Artemis at Ephesus

Literacy and history – The Greeks

Diana—Roman goddess of the moon and hunting; the counterpart of Artemis, goddess of the moon and hunting in Greek mythology

Dionysia—religious festivals which featured drama competitions and was held for five days in Athens in honour of the god Dionysos Dionysos—Greek god of wine and theatre, usually portrayed carrying the thyrsos, a stick entwined with vine leaves discus—a plate-shaped disc of metal and wood, held in the hand and thrown after a revolution and a half of the throwing circle

E Elgin Marbles—name given to the collection of sculptures brought from the Parthenon in Athens to the British Museum in London by Lord Elgin in 1812 Ephesus — a great ancient city, located at the mouth of the Cayster River on the west coast of Asia Minor, now modern Turkey Epidaurus—Greek city in the Peleponnese where a magnificent theatre was built in the 4th century BC, which still stands today Euripides—playwright of tragedies, born around 480 BC in Athens and took part many times in the dramatic competitions in the Dionysia

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Glossary L exposure—condition of being exposed to something detrimental such as extreme cold

Hestia—Greek goddess of the home and the hearth, who offered protection to the home and the family

labrys—a sacred symbol of a doubleheaded axe, used to decorate objects by the Minoans

F

Hippocrates—a doctor, teacher and writer, born on the island of Cos, and holds the title the ‘Father of Medicine’

labyrinth—an intricate network of passages designed to be confusing, also known as a maze

festival—in ancient Greece, a periodic religious celebration marked by special observances and entertainment such as music and drama

Homer—an 8th century Greek poet traditionally described as the author of the epic poems Iliad and Odyssey Hoplites—heavily armed soldiers, usually wealthy citizens who used their own armour and used slaves to carry their weaponry

G

hubris—an excess of ambition or pride that leads to a person’s downfall

grammatistes—Greek teachers who taught reading, writing and mathematics at the primary or first stage of education

I

insular—the state of being isolated and detached from outside influences iridescent jewels—a selection of jewels displaying a rainbow effect of many colours

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inner sanctuary—in the temple at Delphi, the sacred place where the priestess, the Pythia, consulted Apollo

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gymnasium—a training ground with baths where young boys and youths trained and practised wrestling, running and swimming

Iliad—epic poem telling the story of the Trojan wars and the legendary warrior, Achilles, who killed the Trojan hero, Prince Hector

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gynaeceum—part of a Greek house for women where the woman of the house supervised her slaves and tasks were done

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four humours—Greek doctors believed that illnesses in the body were caused by an imbalance in the four humours of blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile

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Hanging Gardens of Babylon—one of the Seven Wonders of the World, a hanging garden of five tiers, built for Queen Amytis Halicarnassus—the ancient capital of Caria, a land which lay on the coast of what is now south-west Turkey

Helen of Troy—the wife of Menelaus, the king of Sparta, her brother-in-law was Agamemnon, king of Mycenae Hellenistic—term used to describe Greek culture, from the Greek word ‘helleneizen’ meaning ‘to act like a Greek’ Helots—people from different lands, such as Laconia, who had been enslaved by the Spartans in order to carry out menial tasks Heracles—a Greek hero who was given twelve labours or impossible tasks to perform and performed them successfully Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

ivory—the hard creamy-white dentine that composes the tusks of a tusked mammal such as an elephant, much valued in ancient times

J javelin—a spear-shaped implement of metal or wood; released by the thrower at the end of a short run, it must land point first

K kitharistes—teacher of music who taught boys to sing and play instruments such as the lyre, the flute and the pipes Knossos—a great palace covering 98 sq km, also the administrative centre of the Minoan civilisation

Leonidas—king who led the 300 Spartan warriors who died at the Battle of Marathon, defending against the Persians Leto—a lover of the god Zeus and the mother of the divine twins Apollo and Artemis Linear B—the written language of the Mycenaeans, developed from the earlier Linear A of the Minoan civilisation Lyceum—name of the school founded in Athens by the philosopher Aristotle lyre—a stringed musical instrument, much like a harp, played by the Greeks

M Macedonia—ancient Greek kingdom between Illyria, Thrace and the Aegean Sea, regarded as barbaric by the Athenians Magna Graecia—Greek colonies in Italy; a term meaning ‘Great Greece’, the name given to Greek colonies overseas malaria—infectious disease transmitted by a mosquito bite, characterised by periodic attacks of chills and fever manoeuvrable—easily guided through difficult or narrow positions mayhem—needless or wilful destruction or violence carried out on an object or a person

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Glossary medical history—a record of a patient’s health, physical condition and any previous illnesses

Mycenae—a civilisation that developed in the north-eastern area of the Peleponnese around 1600 BC

N

Parthenon—name given to the temple built to honour the goddess Athena in Athens, it means ‘the temple of the virgin’

oath—a solemn promise, usually made to a god or a revered person to bear witness to the truth of one’s word

Peleponnesian League—a group of states in the Peloponnese who joined together to oppose the growth of Athenian power

metopes—the 92 carved panels that ran around the outside of the Parthenon in Athens, portraying mythical battles

Olympia—sacred site in the Peleponnese of Greece, where the Olympic Games were held every four years in honour of Zeus

Pelopion—a building where Pelops, a Greek hero whose funeral games began the Olympic games, may be buried

militaristic society—a society that believes in the glorification of military values, virtues and ideals over all others

opson—the course of a meal where vegetables, meats and fish were served

military campaign—an overall military plan of action, planned carefully before the event by army commanders

metics—usually skilled craftsmen who were non-citizens of a city-state such as Athens but who lived and worked there

oracle—could mean the place, the person or the message itself given by a god at a sacred shrine such as Delphi oratory skills—the art of effective public speaking, an essential skill for boys and youths hoping to enter a public career

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military strategy—a plan or direction of a campaign devised by military commanders before the battle commenced

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megaron—a royal throne room used as a reception room by the king or queen

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Peleponnese—a peninsula which forms the southern part of Greece and is joined to the mainland by the narrow isthmus of Corinth; is surrounded by sea on three sides

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Mediterranean Sea—sea of 2 512 00 sq. kilometres that lies between Europe (north and west), Africa (south) and Asia (east)

Nike—the Greek goddess of victory, usually depicted striding, running or flying

Panhellenic—term meaning ‘all of the Greeks’, used to describe events such as the Olympic Games which all Greeks attended

Minos—a powerful ruler of Crete who imprisoned the Minotaur in a large maze close to his palace at Knossos

ostracism—a method of temporary banishment, usually for ten years, by popular vote of the citizens of Athens

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Minoans—the name given to the civilisation of Crete, at its height from 2200 to 1450 BC

Orion—a giant god, killed as a result of Apollo tricking Artemis into mistakenly shooting an arrow at his head in the sea

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Persepolis—city in ancient Persia, destroyed by Alexander in revenge for the damage done during the Persian wars in Greece Persia—ancient name of a country in south-west Asia, now called Iran phalanx—a military formation in which a tightly-packed square of soldiers attacked at a running trot Pharos of Alexandria—one of the Seven Wonders of the World, a lighthouse built in the harbour entrance to Alexandria in Egypt

paidagogos—an especially trusted slave who took boys to school and ensured their attendance and their attentiveness there

Pheidias—famous Greek sculptor who created the statue of Zeus at Olympia and of Athena in the Parthenon; oversaw the team of sculptors responsible for the famous metopes (panels), statues and friezes (ornamented bands) that decorated the Parthenon

palaestra—a special training ground in a gymnasium where boys and youths practised wrestling and other athletic exercises

Philip II of Macedonia—father of Alexander the Great, displayed military genius in his campaign to unite Greece under his rule

Panathenea—name given to the festival celebrated every July in Athens and became the Great Panathenea every fourth year

philosophy—from a Greek word ‘philosophos’ meaning ‘love of wisdom’, it is the study of the principles of existence and the world

P

Minotaur—a legendary creature who was half-man and half-bull and was trapped in the labyrinth near Knossos

pentathlon—in the ancient Olympic Games, a competition with five events: running, wrestling, jumping, discus and javelin throwing

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Glossary Plato—Greek philosopher who was a pupil of Socrates and recorded his last speech to the Athenian authorities

sitos—bread on which food was served

polis—Greek word meaning ‘city-state’ which meant a community of people who were self-governing

Socrates—Greek philosopher who was condemned to death by poison because his work challenged the Athenian authorities

Poseidonia—the name given to the Greek city founded by Greek colonists in southern Italy, near the modern city of Salerno

sophist—special tutor who taught older youths the subject of oratory in their homes

post-mortem—from the Latin meaning ‘after death’, an examination of a body to determine the cause or causes of death

Sophocles—tragic playwright, born around 490 BC in Athens, who won at least 20 times at the Dionysian drama competitions

propylaeum—the great pillared halls in the palace at Knossos

Sparta—militaristic city-state which opposed Athens and succeeded in toppling it and becoming the premier city-state in Greece in 404 BC

superstitious—to believe that fate, omens, magic or chance can influence everyday life and the decisions one makes

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sanctuary—an inner shrine and the most sacred place in a temple where religious worship took place sceptre—a ceremonial staff held as a symbol of authority

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Schliemann, Heinrich—German archaeologist who discovered the site of the ancient city of Troy in modern Turkey in 1870

sculptor—an artist who creates works of art by carving in stone such as marble or wood or by casting metals such as bronze Seven Wonders of the Ancient World—seven great sights of art and architecture that fascinated ancient writers shaft graves—Mycenaean graves over 12 metres deep in which several members of the same family were buried Sicily—the largest island in Italy, it was colonised by the Greeks who built the city of Siracusa, largest city in the Greek world

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Troy—legendary city in Asia Minor, figured in the famous epic poems by Homer called Iliad and Odyssey

tsunami —large and destructive waves, caused by earthquakes, from the Japanese words for ‘tsu’ (harbour) and ‘nami’ (wave)

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straits—a narrow passageway of sea connecting two larger bodies of water; e.g. the Straits of Salamis connected the Saronic Gulf with the Bay of Eleusis

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Q–R–S

triremes—Greek warships; had three tiers of 170 rowers, metal-tipped ramming spikes and were light and manoeuverable

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Pythia—the priestess who was consulted at Delphi and transmitted the god Apollo’s prophecies to the questioners

‘to raze to the ground’—to destroy utterly by tearing down and demolishing a building, town or city

symptoms—a change in a person that can indicate the presence of a disease or a condition

T temple—a special building designed specifically for worshipping gods and goddesses Thebes—city-state of ancient Greece, defeated Sparta at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC, and, for a short time, was the most powerful polis Thesmophoria—a religious festival held for three days each autumn in Athens and could only be celebrated by priestesses

typhoid fever—an infectious bacterial disease characterised by fever, headache, drowsiness and intestinal inflammation

U UNESCO – The United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organisation which has a World Heritage Committee, that compiles a list of sites with outstanding cultural and/or natural value. Some of the sites listed by the World Heritage Committee are in danger.

V–W–X Xerxes—the king of the Persians from 486–465 BC and son of King Darius

Y–Z Zeus—the king of the Greek gods, usually portrayed carrying a thunderbolt, and lived on Mount Olympus in northern Greece

tholos tombs—beehive-shaped tombs ‘to ram a ship’—to pierce the prow of an enemy ship with the pointed beak of ones’ oars in order to sink it

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Time line Units as they relate to the time line of Greek history Name of age/period

Bronze Age 2900–1000 BC

Specific events

Relation to units in this book

Creation of Minoan civilisation on Crete, 2000 BC The Mycenaean civilisation develops on mainland Greece, 1800 BC Volcanic Eruption on Thera, 1620 BC app.

Unit 1: Minoans, 1900 BC Unit 2: Mycenaeans, 1160 BC

Beginning of the decline of the Minoans from 1600 BC Trojan Wars, 1250 BC Decline of the Mycaeneans Phoenician civilisation spreads throughout the Mediterranean Period between the decline of Mycenaean society and the colonising movements of the 8th century BC. Iron introduced, 1000 BC

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Dark Ages 1000–800 BC

Archaic Period 800–500 BC

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The first Olympic Games are held, 776 BC Greek colonies founded and established in the Aegean and Mediterranean seas Greek alphabet invented

Unit 3: Olympic Games, 796 BC Unit 4: The temple of Artemis at Ephesus, 600 BC

Coins introduced in Greece Homer composes his poems Odyssey and Iliad (around 750 BC) based on the legends of Troy The Spartans control the Peleponnese peninsula

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Democracy, a new system of government, begins in Athens (508 BC)

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The Persian invasion of Greece begins but fails due to the success of the Greeks at the battles of Marathon (490 BC) and Salamis (480 BC) The age of Pericles begins, known as the greatest cultural period in Greek history The city-state of Athens is at its height

Classical Period 500–323 BC

The building of the Parthenon on the Acropolis in Athens is finished (432 BC) The great Greek philosophers, Socrates, Aristotle and Plato establish their schools of philosophy After the Peloponnesian Wars, the Athenian civilisation falls when Athens is defeated by Sparta (404 BC) The Macedonian civilisation begins to dominate Greece King Philip of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great, takes control of Greece (338 BC) Alexander the Great, the king of Macedonia, leads his military campaigns into Asia (336–323 BC) Alexander the Great dies at the age of 33 in Babylon and his empire is divided

Hellenistic Period 323–30 BC

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Unit 5: Battle of Marathon, 490 BC Unit 6: Battle of Salamis, 480 BC Unit 7: The Greek city of Poseidonia (Paestum) in southern Italy, 412 BC Unit 8: The statue of Zeus at Olympia, 435 BC Unit 9: Spartans, 431 BC Unit 10: The city-state of Athens, 425 BC Unit 11: Plato and philosophy, 416 BC Unit 12: Alexander the Great, 323 BC

Macedonia becomes a province of the Roman Empire (146 BC) The Roman Empire controls Greece

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Curriculum links England English Level

Objective understand texts; e.g. use inference and deduction and look for meaning beyond the literal read for information; e.g. scan texts to find information, skim for gist and overall impression and obtain specific information through detailed reading develop understanding and appreciation of literary texts; e.g. read stories and plays aloud

KS 2

develop understanding and appreciation of non-fiction texts; e.g. identify the use of specialist vocabulary and engage with challenging and demanding subject matter read a range of fiction and non-fiction texts; e.g. texts drawn from a variety of cultures and traditions, myths, legends and traditional stories, playscripts, diaries, letters and newspaper reports check spelling using dictionaries understand texts; e.g. extract meaning beyond the literal read a range of fiction and non-fiction texts

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KS 3

check spelling for errors and use a dictionary when necessary

History Objective

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Level

study the way of life, beliefs and achievements of the people living in Ancient Greece and the influence of their civilisation on the world today develop chronological understanding; e.g. use dates and vocabulary relating to the passing of time know about the characteristic features of the periods and societies studied, including the ideas, beliefs, attitudes and experiences of men, women and children in the past

identify and describe reasons for, and results of, historical events, situations, and changes in the periods studied find out about events, people and changes studied from an appropriate range of sources of information, including ICTbased sources

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KS 2

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know about the social, cultural, religious and ethnic diversity of the societies studied, in Britain and the wider world

answer questions and select and record information relevant to the focus of the enquiry

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recall, select and organise historical information use dates and historical vocabulary to describe the periods studied communicate their knowledge and understanding of history in a variety of ways study a significant period or event in the pre-history or history of Europe develop chronological understanding; e.g. recognise dates and vocabulary describe and analyse the relationships between the characteristic features of the periods and societies studied including the experiences and range of ideas, beliefs and attitudes of men, women and children in the past

KS 3

know about the social, cultural, religious and ethnic diversity of the societies studied, in Britain and the wider world analyse and explain the reasons for, and results of, the historical events, situations and changes in the periods studied consider the significance of the main events, people and changes studied identify, select and use a range of appropriate sources of information as a basis for independent historical enquiries select and record information relevant to the enquiry

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Curriculum links Northern Ireland Language and Literacy Level

Objective retrieve and collate information from a range of sources, supporting such a response with reference to text read about people from other cultures, religion, race or social backgrounds search for and find information using a computer engage with a range of texts, including non-fiction materials

KS 2

read for a variety of purposes; e.g. reading to explore aspects of cross-curricular themes, for information, to acquire and develop the skills necessary to locate information efficiently within texts and to learn about others discuss and interpret texts read justify responses logically, by inference, deduction and reference to evidence within the text learn that different reading purposes require a variety of reading skills; e.g. reviewing, recalling, skimming and scanning

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place themselves in someone else’s position and extend their capacity for sympathy and empathy apply strategies which enable them to spell unfamiliar words correctly

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engage with a range of stimuli, including prose and non-fiction

develop knowledge of how language works and their accuracy in using the conventions of spelling

KS 3

research and manage information effectively, including using ICT where appropriate

The World Around Us Level

Objective

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explore how different cultures and beliefs are reflected in a range of communication methods; e.g. compare and contrast how the culture and lifestyle of different countries are represented

develop chronological awareness by using words or phrases related to the divisions of time

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develop a sense of the past and a range and depth of knowledge and understanding understand some of the characteristic features and main events of past societies explore some of the feelings people may have had at a time in the past

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KS 2

develop an awareness of evidence, historical enquiry and interpretations by using sources of information appropriate to their age and ability to gain information about an aspect of the past extract factual information from a range of appropriate sources to make obvious statements about the past talk about some of the different ways in which the past is represented investigate and evaluate the spiritual beliefs and legacy of civilisations investigate the past and its impact on our world today

KS 3

develop chronological awareness and the ability to make connections between historical periods, events and turning points research and manage information effectively to investigate historical issues, including using ICT where appropriate

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Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Curriculum links Republic of Ireland English Language

1st/2nd Year

engage with an increasing range of narrative, expository and representational text

read widely as an independent reader from a more challenging range of reading material, including stories, myths, legends and nonfiction texts appropriate to his/her age and reading ability

discuss ideas and concepts encountered in other areas of the curriculum

use comprehension skills such as analysing, confirming, evaluating, synthesising and correlating to aid deduction, problem-solving and prediction

develop study skills such as skimming, scanning, note-taking and summarising

retrieve and interpret information presented in a variety of ways

support arguments and opinions with evidence from the text

read and interpret different kinds of functional text

explore appropriate non-fiction texts for various purposes

use information retrieval strategies in cross-curricular settings

discuss ideas, concepts and images encountered in literature

develop a critical consciousness with respect to all language use

become aware of the concept of style and the effects of different styles

offer experiences to develop awareness and understanding of personal, social and cultural issues

develop awareness of the selectivity of all language use in establishing specific meaning

develop the ability to use the conventions of spelling

develop reading and comprehension skills of different kinds: literal, factual, narrative, selective, structural, inferential, evaluative and appreciative

History

5th/6th Class

1st/2nd Year

Objective

become familiar with some aspects of the lives of the Greeks, including: origins, homelands and migrations, homes, settlements and urban developments, food and farming, clothes, work and technologies, tools and weapons, cultural or artistic achievements, language, myths and stories, leisure and pastimes, faith, beliefs and religious practices, burial practices, links these people had with Europe, relationship of these people with other civilisations and the long-term contribution of these people

examine critically, and become familiar with, evidence we have which tells us about these people

become familiar with the origins and traditions associated with a range of festivals in other countries (feasts and festivals in ancient times)

explore, discuss and record some of the ceremonies, stories, legends, poetry, music, dances and games associated with these feasts and festivals

examine and begin to make deductions from some simple relevant evidence

discuss the actions and feelings of characters and the attitudes and motivations of characters in their historical context

relate myths and legends to the beliefs, values and traditions of the peoples from which they came

acquire knowledge of and understanding about human activity in the past

understand how the contemporary world has been shaped by the interaction of people and events in the past

develop conceptual understanding and the ability to think independently

develop a range of skills essential for the study of history

develop an acceptance that people and events must be judged in the context of their values and time

develop an interest and enthusiasm for history and a value of their heritage from the past

acquire information and develop understanding of the way in which individuals and institutions influence and are influenced by the sequence of events in time

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Curriculum links Scotland Literacy and English Level

Objective find, select and sort information from a variety of sources

Second Level

respond to literal, inferential and evaluative questions and other types of close reading tasks spell words, using specialist vocabulary and a range of resources find, select and sort information from a variety of sources

Third Level

comment, with evidence, on short texts and respond to literal, inferential and evaluative questions and other types of close reading tasks use a range of strategies and resources to spell words, including specialist vocabulary

Social Studies – People, Past Events and Societies Objective

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describe the contribution individuals from the past have made during their lives and explain the influence of their actions then and since interpret historical sources to examine an instance of the expansion of power and influence in the past, and consider the advantages and disadvantages for those involved

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Level Second Level Third Level

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Curriculum links Wales English Level

Objective read in different ways for different purposes, including skimming, scanning and detailed reading and using inference and deduction retrieve and collate information and ideas from a range of sources

KS 2

experience and respond to a wide range of texts, including information and other non-literary texts and prose read texts with challenging subject matter and with a variety of structural and organisational features use appropriate vocabulary and use a variety of strategies to spell correctly read in different ways for different purposes, including skimming, scanning and detailed reading and using inference and deduction to gain meaning and enhance understanding of texts consider what they read, respond to the ideas and select evidence from the text to support their views retrieve, collate and synthesise information and ideas from a range of sources experience and respond to a wide range of texts, including information and other non-literary texts and prose

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KS 3

read texts that extend intellectual understanding and with a variety of structures, forms, purposes, audiences and presentational devices

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use a wide range of vocabulary with increasing precision and extend range of spelling strategies to enable them to spell correctly

History Level

Objective

identify differences between ways of life at different times

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identify significant people and describe events within periods

understand why people did things, what caused specific events and the consequences of those events ask and answer relevant questions about the past

know how to find relevant information and use a range of sources

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KS 2

select, record and organise historical information

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communicate ideas, opinions and conclusions in a variety of ways within the period studied, know what life was like for rich and poor people and for men, woman and children, whether there were significant changes in people’s lives and how the daily lives of people at this time has been represented recognise the characteristic features of the periods, situations and societies studied

KS 3

ask and answer significant questions select and summarise information accurately from sources select, recall and organise historical information with increasing independence and accuracy

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Teachers Notes

Unit 1: Young women compete in a bull leaping contest on the island of Crete – 1900 BC Objectives: Pupil reads text on bull leaping contests in Crete and completes comprehension and cloze exercises. Pupil completes word study exercises by completing a word search, identifying and circling correct words and ordering sentences on the Minoan civilisation. Pupil learns about the Minoan civilisation and its culture, the palace at Knossos and the effects of tsunamis and other extreme weather systems.

Background information: This text is a live commentary. A commentary is a series of comments or notes on a particular subject such as a political, social or sporting event. Some commentaries are written and some are spoken. This particular commentary is a live commentary on a sporting event and is therefore spoken. In his live commentary, the commentator is describing the competitors in a bull leaping contest on the island of Crete as they actually compete. Crete is a large island in the eastern Mediterranean which was believed by the Greeks to be the birthplace of Zeus, the king of the gods. Lysander, who is providing the live commentary, explains and gives further information on the events as they unfold in the contest. He draws people’s attention to particular aspects of the contest and the contestants. This type of sports commentary is informational, following the events of the sport as they occur and giving information on the events.

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Crete was the home of one of the earliest civilisations of the Greek world, the Minoans, which flourished on the island from 2000 to 1425 BC (see page xii: time line of Greek history). Historians believe that the Minoans first lived on Crete around 2000 BC. They have identified the period from 2000–1600 BC as the ‘Old Palace Period’ and the period from 1600–1425 BC as the ‘New Palace Period’, when the Minoans rebuilt their palaces on a much larger scale.

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A famous archaeologist, called Sir Arthur Evans, began to excavate a palace at Knossos in 1900 and discovered evidence of a forgotten civilisation. The civilisation had a highly organised economy and sophisticated trade system, based around a series of large palaces, the biggest of which was Knossos. He called this civilisation ‘Minoan’ after a famous king of Crete called King Minos. The early Minoans developed hieroglyphic or pictorial writing on clay tablets. Linear A is the name given to the earliest form of Minoan writing, used by the Minoans from around 1900 BC. Linear B is the name given to a later form of writing which recorded information to do with food, crops and animals and was used by the Mycenaeans, who later conquered Crete, from around 1450 BC.

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Historians believe that the worship of goddesses was very important to the Minoans as there are many more statues and paintings of goddesses than gods. There was a goddess of animals known as the Mistress of the Animals, another goddess who looked after the crops and who was often depicted as a sacred tree and a household goddess who was shown with snakes (sacred symbols in Minoan Crete). The Minoans used two sacred symbols in particular in the decoration of their palaces, tombs and pots. The bull was a sacred symbol and images of its horns were discovered throughout Crete. Another sacred symbol, which appeared everywhere, was a double-headed axe, known as a labrys. The bull was also the most frequent victim of animal sacrifice to the gods. The palace at Knossos had massive limestone sculptures in the form of bulls horns along the tops of its walls, reminding all who approached of the importance of the bull in Minoan culture. One of the most famous legends associated with Crete is the legend of the Minotaur, a monster which was half-bull and half-man. According to legend, the Minotaur lived in a maze of corridors and blind alleys near the palace, which was called a labyrinth. The word ‘labyrinth’ may have come from the word ‘labrys’ because many rooms in the palace at Knossos are decorated with the sacred symbol. Geographically, Greece has a deeply indented coastline and the sea penetrates far inland. The Gulf of Corinth almost cuts mainland Greece into two; central Greece and the Peloponnese. The Aegean Basin is a geographical unit closed in by the outer line of islands, such as Crete and Rhodes. Crete is the biggest island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea with an area of 8300 square kilometres. It has a chain of mountains forming its backbone. In the centre of this mountain chain is Mount Idhi where, according to legend, Zeus was born and reared in a cave. Thera was a Greek island 62 kilometres north of Crete. Historians believe that there was a cataclysmic volcanic eruption on the island of Thera, sometime around 1620 BC. The modern islands of Santorini and Therasia are the remains of the island destroyed by this eruption, The town of Akrotiri on Thera, which had close links with the Minoans, was buried and preserved under the volcanic ash of the volcano. Akrotiri, now on Santorini, has been excavated and has revealed two-storey buildings and beautiful frescoes showing ships, towns and landscapes. Archaeologists believe that Crete was probably badly damaged by tsunamis (huge tidal waves), earth tremors and flooding caused by the volcanic eruption and many of the palaces on Crete were destroyed. A legend also tells how King Minos, the king of Crete, left the island around this time and sailed to Sicily where he was killed and his entire fleet destroyed. Whatever the reasons, there is some evidence that the Minoan civilisation began to decline around this time and was eventually overtaken by the Mycenaeans, who were from mainland Greece.

Worksheet information: In Question 3 in Exercise E, the use of bold font is intended to help pupils identify keywords in the sentences so they can establish the correct order. Ancient Greek civilisation is comprised of several periods and the Minoan civilisation occurred in one of the earliest periods. Pupils can refer to the time line of Greek history on page xii. A glossary of keywords and terms relating to this particular unit is provided for teacher reference on pages viii – xi. Detailed footnotes for the text in Exercise A have also been provided to assist comprehension of Greek terms. 2

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Teachers Notes

Answers:

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Exercise D..................... page 7 1. Teacher check word search 2. (a) earliest (b) English (c) ancient

Cross-curricular activities:

(d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o)

bought prosperous legendary royal pillared corridors frescoes bull-leaping olive oil human being Linear A no-one

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I L O N U G P G L H B V N V Exercise E �������������� pages 8–9 1. Teacher check S I R A R T H U R E V A N S 2. Answers (b), (c) and (e) should L S S O E C E E R G P C L M be ticked. 3. (1) Firstly, the term ‘tsunami’ A H U T S E T N O C G X L A comes from two Japanese words, ‘tsu’ meaning N N S E S S E D D O G E U Z harbour and ‘nami’ D P R O P Y L A I O N U B E meaning wave. (2) Secondly, a tsunami is caused by seismic activity on the ocean floor. (3) Thirdly the word ‘seismic’ means an artificial tremor or shock caused by an earthquake. (4) The seismic activity affects the sea floor, causing huge waves up to 15 metres high. (5) These tall waves cause a lot of destruction when they crash against the coast. (6) Indeed, the destructive force of these killer waves can sweep away people, animals and buildings. (7) Today, modern historians believe that such tsunamis may have contributed to the decline of the Minoan civilisation. (8) One of the worst modern tsunamis occurred on December 26 2004. (9) It occurred near the Indonesian island of Sumatra and killed over 200 000 people. (10) Now, special ocean monitoring stations and tsunami warning centres have now been set up to forewarn people. 4. (a) Crete (b) Thera (c) tsunami (d) seismic (e) powerful (f) Santorini (g) earthquake (h) cyclone (i) tornado (j) flooding

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Exercise C.......................... page 6 excavate, evidence, storerooms, important, back, passages, horns, plaster, being, easier, decorated, Minoans, reconstruct, colours, buildings

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Exercise B.......................... page 5 1. They are waiting to watch a bull leaping contest. 2. There are three contestants. Their names are Phaedra, Europa and Pasiphai. 3. Lysander says that it is not as magnificent as the palace in Knossos. 4. The bull’s trainer believes that the bull is the finest in Crete. 5. Lysander says that he never realised just how dangerous the sport of bull leaping is. 6. Europa has to withdraw as she is slightly injured and has a limp. She is from the eastern city of Mallia. 7. Teacher check 8. The winner is Pasiphai from Knossos. Teacher check 9. Answers (a), (b), (d), (g) and (h) should be ticked.

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Pupils can look at some of the wall paintings excavated at Knossos and see the bull leaping contests and other paintings as depicted by Minoan artists. A good website with information and images on Knossos is <www.grisel.net/knossos.htm>.

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Pupils can find out more about Sir Arthur Evans, his work at Knossos and the controversy surrounding his methods of excavation and reconstruction at <www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/greeks/minoan_01.shtml>. Pupils can learn more about the Minotaur at <www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/religion/myths/minotaur.htm>. Information on the excavations at Akrotiri on the island of Santorini can be found at <www.therafoundation.org>. Pupils can research the effects of tsunamis and earthquakes at <www.ess.washington.edu/tsunami/index.html>. An online archaeology magazine, designed for young people, is at <www.digonsite.com> and may introduce young people to current issues in modern archaeology.

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Exercise A:

Reading

Read the following live commentary by Lysander on a bull leaping contest in Crete.

Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. My name is Lysander and you are joining me here at the arena, live in Knossos1, just as the bull is being led out into the ring. We are here to witness one of the famous Cretan bull leaping contests2. There’s a tremendous crowd here to witness this contest, one of the most popular of all during the week of contests here. The crowd is loud with anticipation and its roar must surely be heard from one end of this island to the other!

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We have three contestants taking part in this particular contest. They are currently lining up just outside and will shortly enter the arena. What a job they’re going to have! Earlier this morning, the bull trainer took me to see the bull and he looked extremely lively to my eyes. He is the finest bull in Crete, according to their trainer. Here come the competitors. At my right, we have Phaedra, an 18 year old from the nearby city of Arkhanes. Her city also has a palace, although not as magnificent as the palace here in Knossos. This is her third bull leaping contest and she told me earlier that she is confident she will win today as she has won the last two. Secondly, we have Europa from the eastern city of Mallia, another city with a palace. She is 20 years old and is taking part in her fifth contest. She told me earlier that if she doesn’t win today, this will be her last contest. Finally, we have Pasiphai who, at 16 years of age, is the newest and youngest competitor and is taking part in her very first contest. She is a native of Knossos and is keen to win for the honour of this great city. She told me earlier that her mother was a champion bull leaper here in Crete and she is determined to follow in her footsteps. It’s getting very tense here as we all wait for the starting horn to blow. And it’s started! The angry bull has just run out into the ring. He’s bellowing loudly and he looks dangerous. I’m glad I’m not in there! And here are the contestants, striding out in the sunshine, looking very determined. There goes Phaedra, already leaping dramatically over the bull’s back. She is joined very quickly by Europa and Pasiphai, who are somersaulting so fast that I fear I will grow dizzy. Oh, no! Suddenly Europa is thrown up into the air. Has she been injured? Only very slightly, I’m sad to say she must withdraw from the contest. She waves at the crowd as she leaves the ring limping. Now the acrobatics continue. Pasiphai is attempting what looks like a very dangerous leap. She grabs the bull’s horns and jumps. Can she do it? Yes, she can. The crowd roar their approval. The tension is mounting. The leaping is amazing, as the girls compete to show who is the most athletic. The jumps are getting more elaborate and more dangerous as the seconds fly by. Who will be the winner? The crowd is quiet as the acrobats twist, turn and leap over the horns of the enraged animal. I never realised until today just how dangerous this sport is. It’s between Phaedra and Pasiphai— Arkhanes versus Knossos. Suddenly, it’s all over! Phaedra has tripped and fallen. Quickly, she is lifted clear of the rampaging bull who is battling with its trainer to break free as it is dragged out of the ring. There, in the centre of the arena, is Pasiphai, the youngest contestant. At 16 years of age, she has triumphed in her very first contest for her home city of Knossos! The crowd roar ‘Bravo for Knossos and for Pasiphai!’ 4

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Exercise B:

Comprehension questions

Note that answers may be found in the footnotes as well as the text.

1. What event are the spectators in the arena at Knossos waiting to watch? 2. How many contestants are taking part in the contest and what are their names? 3. What does Lysander say about the palace in the city of Arkhanes? 4. Who, according to Lysander, believes that the bull is the finest in Crete? 5. What does Lysander say that he never realised as he comments on the contest?

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6. Which contestant has to withdraw early from the contest and why? Where is she from?

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7. Describe, in your own words, what skills the young women must display in order to win the contest.

8. Who is the winner of the contest and where is she from? Would you say that she had an advantage compared to the other contestants in her preparations for the contest? What, in your opinion, is this advantage?

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9. Read the following statements and tick those that are correct: (a) The Cretans enjoyed sporting contests such as bull leaping..................................................

(e) Only girls were allowed to take part in bull leaping contests.........................................

(b) The palace at Knossos was the political and administrative centre of the Cretan civilisation....

(f) Bull leaping was not a dangerous sport..............

(g) There is evidence showing the sport of bull leaping in the wall paintings at Knossos.......

(h) A legend exists about a famous creature called the Minotaur who lived at Knossos....................

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(c) The athletes somersaulted over the heads of horses and deer............................................... (d) The athletes were judged on their acrobatic and somersaulting skills....................................

1. Knossos was the Minoan city excavated by the archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. His excavation work began on 23 March 1900 and his team found a huge palace, several storeys high, on an enormous site with a vast number of rooms, courtyards and storerooms. It may have contained as many as 1400 rooms with numerous courtyards and corridors. It contained a propylaeum, a pillared hall, and the royal megarons or throne rooms. As the archaeological dig continued, it became obvious that Knossos was the centre of the Minoan civilisation. Knossos was a city within a city, covering an area over 98 sq km. As well as being the home of the king, it was also a centre for religious observance and the administration centre for the Minoan state. This great palace was a centre of political power in the Aegean Basin for over 600 years. It was also associated with a legendary creature, the Minotaur, who was half-man and half-bull. The Minotaur was condemned to live in a huge labyrinth or maze close to the palace at Knossos. 2. The bull was worshipped by the Minoans and symbols of bulls’ horns are evident in Cretan art. Bull leaping contests were practised as a kind of religious ritual. They involved male and female acrobats leaping over an angry, running bull. This contest needed great skill and bravery on the part of the contestants as they were risking their lives by participating in it. The acrobat faced the moving bull, grabbed its horns, leaped into the air and somersaulted over the top of the horns and onto the bull’s back. From this standing position, the acrobat somersaulted again over the animal’s tail and landed with his or her feet together behind the bull. There are wall paintings from the palace at Knossos, the biggest palace in Minoan Crete, showing three youths somersaulting over a bull in a contest. There are also paintings showing girls involved in bull leaping contests. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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Exercise C:

Cloze exercise

Use the words from the word bank to complete the sentences.

Word Bank

Minoans back horns

evidence being reconstruct

important easier colours

passages decorated buildings

storerooms plaster excavate

The Minoans on the island of Crete were one of the earliest Greek civilisations, appearing around 2000 BC. An English a site there, on 23 March 1900, and discovered dramatic

archaeologist, Sir Arthur Evans, began to

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of a civilisation that had existed centuries before. Sir Arthur had bought land from the Cretan government in 1899 and his team of 32 workmen and a foreman uncovered a palace with a maze of rooms, courtyards and on the enormous site. Sir Arthur became convinced that the palace had been the centre of an

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ancient civilisation. Work at Knossos continued for 35 years and evidence of a complex civilisation with its own form of writing and a prosperous economic system, emerged. Sir Arthur Evans named this civilisation ‘Minoan’ after the legendary king of Crete, King Minos. According to the legend, the god Zeus fell in love with a princess called Europa and, changing himself into the form of a white bull, swam to Crete with her on his

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Minos.

Underneath the royal palace there was a series of

. There they had three sons, including

and corridors, which led to a large

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number of workshops containing treasures. Beautiful murals on the walls show sports such as bull leaping, which involved dangerous somersaults and daring acrobatics over the

and backs of bulls. Wall paintings . Other

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such as these are known as frescoes. They were made by applying paint to wet

frescoes, including those found in the queen’s apartment, showed dolphins and a procession of jar bearers. At least 400 jars were found in the palace’s storerooms. Some storage vessels were enormous, standing taller than the height of a human , and they had many handles to make them called pithoi and were

to carry. They were sometimes

with the sacred symbol of the double-headed axe, the labrys.

Evidence was found of an early system of pictorial writing or hieroglyphics, which may have been used around 2000 BC. A later form of writing, called Linear A script, was developed by the

and used from around 1900 BC. No-one

has yet deciphered this early form of Minoan writing. Controversially, Sir Arthur decided to buildings at Knossos and paint some of them in their original

the . Modern archaeologists now prefer to

conserve rather than to reconstruct an ancient site. Today, visitors can see the excavations of the palace carried out by Sir Arthur Evans.

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Exercise D:

Word study exercises

Word Bank

1. Complete the word search on Minoan civilisation. N

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acropolis Aegean archaeology bull contest Crete excavation goddesses gods Greece hieroglyphics island King Minos Knossos labyrinth leaping Linear A maze megaron Minoans minotaur Peleponnese polis propylaeum sailors Sir Arthur Evans underground Zeus

2. Read the following sentences about the Minoans and circle the correct word. (a) The Minoans were one of the earliest/latest Greek civilisations.

(b) An Italian/English archaeologist called Sir Arthur Evans began to excavate in Crete in March, 1900.

(c) He uncovered evidence of an ancient/medieval civilisation that had existed there centuries before.

(d) Sir Arthur had rented/bought the land from the Greek government in 1899.

(e) Evidence of a civilisation with a poor/prosperous economic system began to emerge.

(f) Sir Arthur called this civilisation Minoan after the legendary/recent king of Crete, King Minos.

(g) The palace at Knossos was the residence of the religious/royal family.

(h) Knossos had a series of great pillared/vaulted halls called propylaeums.

(i) Under the palace, they discovered a series of caves/corridors which led to storerooms.

(j) These contained beautiful mural paintings on the walls known as frescoes/mosaics.

(k) The Minoans enjoyed sports such as bull fighting/bull leaping.

(l) 400 jars were found in the underground storerooms containing sunflower oil/olive oil.

(m) Some of these storage jars, called pithoi, were enormous, standing taller than a human being/temple.

(n) Evidence of an early form of writing called Linear D/Linear A was found.

(o) No-one/Someone has succeeded in deciphering this language so far.

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Literacy and history â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The Greeks

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

1. Read these keywords/terms and their explanations and use them in sentences.

(a) Aegean Sea: The sea that lies between the peninsula of Greece and Turkey.

(b) Crete: A large island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, traditionally the birthplace of the god Zeus.

(c) bull leaping contests: A ritual or sport practised by boys and girls which involved leaping over bulls.

(d) King Minos: A powerful ruler of Crete who imprisoned the Minotaur in a large maze close to his palace at Knossos.

(e) Knossos: A great palace covering 98 sq. kilometres and also the administrative centre of the Minoan civilisation.

(f) labyrinth: An intricate network of passages designed to be confusing, also known as a maze.

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(g) labrys: A sacred symbol of a double-headed axe, which used to decorate objects made by the Minoans.

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(h) megaron: A royal throne room used as a reception room by the king or queen.

(j) Minotaur: A legendary creature who was half-man and half-bull who was trapped in the labyrinth near Knossos.

(k) Peloponnese: The southern part of Greece, a peninsula surrounded by sea on three sides.

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(i) Minoan civilisation: The name given to the civilisation of Crete, at its height from 2200 to 1450 BC.

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(l) propylaeum: The great pillared halls in the palace at Knossos.

2. Read the following statements about the Minoans and tick those that are correct.

(a) The ancient Minoans lived on the island of Cyprus................................................

(b) The bull was a sacred symbol of the Minoan civilisation........................................

(c) The main palace in Minoan Crete was called Knossos...........................................

(d) The Minotaur was a legendary creature who was half-man and half-wolf...............

(e) Sir Arthur Evans excavated Knossos at the beginning of the twentieth century........

(f) Wall paintings at Knossos show no evidence of bull leaping contests.....................

(g) The palace complex at Knossos may have contained as many as 3000 rooms.......

(h) The king’s megaron was a sports arena within the palace.....................................

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

3. Archaeologists believe that a devastating earthquake in the Aegean Sea, near the island of Thera, may have resulted in Crete being hit by a tsunami. They believe that this may have contributed to the decline of the Minoan civilisation. The order of sentences in the following paragraph, which contains information on tsunamis, has been mixed up. Can you arrange the sentences in their correct order, numbering them from 1–8? Note that words in bold are keywords or phrases that may help you to identify the correct order. Indeed, the destructive force of these killer waves can sweep away people, animals and buildings.

Firstly, the term ‘tsunami’ comes from two Japanese words, ‘tsu’ meaning harbour and ‘nami’ meaning wave.

Secondly, a tsunami is caused by seismic activity on the ocean floor.

These tall waves cause a lot of destruction when they crash against the coast.

One of the worst modern tsunamis occurred on December 26 2004.

Today, modern historians believe that such tsunamis may have contributed to the decline of the Minoan civilisation.

The seismic activity affects the sea floor, causing huge waves up to 15 metres high.

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It occurred near the Indonesian island of Sumatra and killed over 200 000 people.

Now, special ocean monitoring stations and tsunami warning centres have now been set up to forewarn people.

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Thirdly, the word ‘seismic’ means an artificial tremor or shock caused by an earthquake.

4. Choose the correct word from the box to complete the following sentences. tornado

Santorini

Thera

tsunami

(a) The ancient Minoans, who lived on the island of

(b) The ancient island of now named Santorini, was destroyed by a cataclysmic volcanic eruption.

(c) Enormous destruction can be unleashed by the power of a

,

activity, which means an earthquake-related tremor or shock.

(e) Tsunamis can be as high as 15 metres and

are very extensive damage.

, causing

seismic

powerful

cyclone

flooding

(f) The town of Akrotiri on modern

, buried under volcanic ash, has been excavated.

(g) An can be responsible for tsunamis by creating great waves that travel at high speeds.

(h) The strong winds of a can also create huge waves that are intensified by high sea tides.

(i) A cyclone is a rotating circle of strong winds while

.

(d) A tsunami is caused by

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affected by a tsunami.

earthquake

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Crete

a with a funnel-shaped cloud.

is a whirling wind

(j) The country of Bangladesh has suffered very

destructive result of cyclones.

as a

Discussion points — Archaeological research Research the work of Sir Arthur Evans, using the library and the Internet, and discuss the issues arising from the reconstruction of some of the palace buildings at Knossos.

Suggest which model of archaeological practice should be followed in order to preserve valuable sites for the future, such as the provision of visitor centres and limiting visitor numbers.

Consider if newly discovered sites should be as fully excavated as they were in the past.

Discuss if modern technology can recreate ancient sites successfully as a method of allowing us to explore the past without destroying valuable evidence; e.g. in computer generated 3-D graphics and images and in the development of virtual tours of archaeological sites.

Discuss whether modern archaeologists should concentrate on preservation rather than excavation. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Teachers Notes

Unit 2: Clio, a Mycenaean servant tells a bedtime story to the royal princesses – 1160 BC Objectives: Pupil reads text about the Mycenaean civilisation and completes comprehension and cloze exercises. Pupil completes word study exercises in ordering sentences, correcting spelling and circling correct words or phrases. Pupil learns about the Mycenaean civilisation, their trading links and the legend of Troy.

Background information:

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This text is a dialogue. A dialogue is a conversation between two parties and may be spoken or written. This dialogue is a conversation between a Mycenaean servant girl and two royal princesses whom she is putting to bed at night in their palace bedroom. She refers to a famous legend in this dialogue. Legends are traditional stories about heroic characters which have been passed from one generation to the next. They are told as though the events were actual historical events. Legends may be based on truth but, over time, can become embellished with extra details. Clio tells the two princesses, Persephone and Pandora, about the legend of the wooden horse of Troy to help them fall asleep. Historians believe that the Mycenaeans were probably the first important Greek civilisation on mainland Greece and they lived in the north-eastern area of the Peloponnese, from around 1800 to 1200 BC, expanding their civilisation into Crete as the Minoan civilisation declined. Some evidence suggests that the Trojan Wars may have taken place around 1250 BC, around the time that the Mycenaean civilisation began to decline, and that these events may have inspired the poet Homer to write the famous poem Iliad. The actual wars were probably a struggle over the control of valuable trade routes in the Dardanelles area of Greece.

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Clio is a household slave whose duties revolve around looking after the children of the royal palace. Female slaves were usually involved in the care of children and in household duties such as cleaning, cooking and going to the market for food. Male slaves usually worked as labourers and miners. Many slaves came from the fringes of the Greek world and were prisoners of war. Slaves were the property of their masters and had no rights. A small number of slaves saved up and bought their freedom.

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The Mycenaean civilisation followed the Minoan civilisation in the time line of Greek history (see time line) and was the first important Greek civilisation on mainland Greece. It developed in the north-eastern area of the Peloponnese around 1600 BC. The Mycenaeans dominated mainland Greece from around 1800–1100 BC. The name of their civilisation comes from the city of Mycenae where some of the remains of their culture were discovered. The Mycenaeans spoke an early form of Greek and were united by their common culture. Some of the most important archaeological evidence about them has been found in the royal tombs at Mycenae, which date from 1600 BC. The Mycenaeans built two types of tombs, shaft graves which could be over 12 metres deep and usually contained several bodies from the same family, and tholos tombs, which were beehive-shaped tombs that replaced shaft tombs around 1500 BC. The Mycenaeans buried members of their royal families in the tombs and provided them with precious objects for the afterlife. These treasures have survived because their tombs were difficult to break into.

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The Mycenaeans were great builders who learned how to quarry and build. However, unlike some ancient civilisations, they did not build huge temples but set aside rooms in their houses and palaces for worship to the gods. They were similar to the Minoans because their goddesses, such as Hestia, were worshipped as very powerful figures. They also worshipped gods such as Zeus, Poseidon and Dionysos, who would become important gods in the religious practice of the later Greeks. They were good sailors who developed trade routes to Egypt, the Near East and the Baltic Sea. Around 1250 BC, the Mycenaeans began to build defensive walls around their cities. Historians believe that they may have been under threat of attack. By 1200 BC, the Mycenaean civilisation suffered an economic decline and began to abandon their cities. Historians believe this may also have been due to earthquakes, fires and wars in the region. Around 1000 BC, the period in Greek history known as the Dark Ages began. Linear B is the name given to the written language of the Mycenaeans. Historians believe they learned the art of writing from the Minoans by combining some signs from the Minoan’s written language, called Linear A. They added their own new signs and produced the new script. Clay tablets covered with this script have been discovered. Linear B has been deciphered and has provided valuable information on the Mycenaean way of life. Linear A has still not been deciphered. Archaeologists are still divided about the evidence surrounding the city of Troy. A German archaeologist, Heinrich Schliemann, discovered the site of the ancient city of Troy near the Mediterranean coast in modern Turkey. Excavations revealed that there were at least nine cities there, one built on top of the other between 3000 BC and 500 BC. Schliemann had to search carefully to find the remains of Troy, which most archaeologists believed existed from 1800–1240 BC. He used the clues and descriptions given by Homer in Iliad and believed that he had found Troy when, in 1871, he discovered the remains of buildings and treasure at the site. Schliemann believed the treasure had belonged to King Priam, the king of Troy. However, archaeologists today have no conclusive proof that the events as described by Homer ever took place, but it is agreed that Schliemann’s excavations did reveal the location of the city of Troy. In fact, nine Troys were uncovered at the site, with one city built over another. In 1874, Schliemann carried out more excavations at a new site and believed that he had found the city of Mycenae and the burial place of King Agamemnon, the king of Mycenae at the time of the Trojan Wars. He found a golden hoard of jewellery dating back to 1600 BC, which he believed belonged to King Agamemnon. Subsequent research showed that the treasures, such as gold masks, drinking cups and swords, were from an earlier period.

Worksheet information: Ancient Greek civilisation is comprised of several periods and the Mycenaean civilisation was one of the earliest. Pupils can refer to the time line of ancient Greek history on page xii. 10

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Teachers Notes Teachers have the option to ask pupils to read the text in Exercise A aloud. Question 2 in Exercise D may require pupils to use dictionaries. Pupils may find it useful to use the information given in the exercises B and C, when completing the exercises in the word study section, Exercise D. A glossary of keywords and terms relating to this particular unit is provided for teacher reference on pages viii – xi. Many of them appear in Question 1 in Exercise E. Detailed footnotes for the text in Exercise A have also been provided to assist comprehension of Greek terms.

Answers: (b) legendary (c) armour (d) civilisation (e) beehive (f) indicating (g) trade (h) decline (i) region (j) deciphered (a) (i) (b) (iii) (c) (ii) (e) (iii) (f) (i)

(d) (i)

Exercise E..................................pages 16–17 1. Teacher check 2. (a) T (b) F (c) T (d) T (e) F (f) F (g) T (h) F (i) T (j) F (k) T (l) F (m) F (n) F (o) T 3. (a) (iv) (b) (vii) (c) (x) (d) (viii) (e) (ix) (f) (v) (g) (iii) (h) (i) (i) (vi) (j) (ii) 4. (1) (b) (i) (2) (a) (iii) (3) (c) (ii)

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Cross-curricular activities:

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Exercise D......................................... page 15 1. (1) Historians believe the city of Troy was situated on the west coast of modern Turkey at Hasarlik. (2) The legends associated with the city of Troy were written down as epic poems by the Greek poet Homer.

(3) Homer told the story of the wooden horse of Troy in his epic poem Iliad. (4) Homer told of how Paris, the son of the king of Troy, was given a golden apple to give to one of three goddesses. (5) Paris chose to give it to Aphrodite, goddess of beauty, as she had made him a promise if he gave her the apple. (6) Aphrodite had promised him that he would marry the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Troy. (7) In 1870, a German archaeologist called Heinrich Schliemann began to excavate the site of the city of Troy. (8) Schliemann was determined to find the site of the city but he actually found nine cities built one of top of each other. (9) Later archaeologists discovered that as each city fell into decay, a new city was built on top of its ruins. (10) Schliemann went on to excavate the site of the city of Mycenae, in the Peleponnese, in 1874. 2. (a) conquered

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Exercise C......................................... page 14 Greece, cities, rooms, Egypt, political, twelve, treasure, break, discovered, described, masks, funeral, foreign, cities, region, legend

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Exercise B......................................... page 13 1. They are being formally presented at court for the first time tomorrow. 2. She thinks she may have told the story to the princesses a hundred times. 3. Teacher check 4. Aphrodite, goddess of love and beauty, and Hestia, goddess of home and family. 5. Teacher check 6. Clio says that there was a war in the area some years ago and that some older people can remember there was a wooden horse. 7. She did not become involved in quarrels and arguments. 8. Teacher check 9. (a), (c), and (h) should be ticked.

Pupils may wish to look at some of the Mycenaean treasures discovered in the royal tombs at Mycenae. A collection of 15 000 Greek and Roman vases can be seen in the State Hermitage Museum of St Petersburg in Russia and some of these can be viewed online at <www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_En/03/hm3_1_1.html>.

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Pupils can research the Trojan Wars and the legends associated with them at <www.britishmuseum.org/explore/online_tours/greece/the_ myth_of_the_trojan_war/the_myth_of_the_trojan_war.aspx>. Information on Greek mythology and on the Greek hero, Odysseus, the king of Ithaca, who fought in the Trojan wars, can be found at <www.mythweb.com/odyssey/index.html>. Pupils can look at photographs of some of the Mycenaean treasures in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, including the mask found by Heinrich Schliemann, known as the Mask of Agamemnon, at <www.greeklandscapes.com/greece/athens_museum_mycenae. html>. The sites at Mycenae in Greece and Troy in Turkey are on the UNESCO World Heritage list. Pupils can find out more about the work of the World Heritage Committee at <http://whc.unesco.org>.

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Literacy and history – The Greeks

11


Exercise A:

Reading

Read the following dialogue between a Mycenaean servant and two princesses. Clio:

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Now, Persephone and Pandora, it’s time for you to sleep. You have a very busy day tomorrow and you will be formally presented at the royal court for the first time. Persephone: But I’m not feeling tired. I don’t want to sleep. I’m too excited to sleep. Clio: You both need to rest or you will not feel well tomorrow. Persephone: Tell us that bedtime story again. The one about the wooden horse1. Please, Clio, please. We love it so much. Clio: You want to hear that story again! But I think I might have told it to you a hundred times already! Pandora: I want to hear it again, too. I love it. I love to hear about the wooden horse. Please tell it to us again. Clio: Do you both promise to lie down and listen to the story and then go to sleep as soon as I have finished it? Persephone: Yes, yes. I promise, I promise. Pandora promises too. Pandora: I do. Look, I’m lying down on my bed. Persephone: Look at me. I’m lying down, too. I’ll even close my eyes as I listen to you. Clio: Well, then I will begin. Some years ago, there were a group of fierce warriors who had gathered from all over Greece to rescue a woman who was believed to be the most beautiful princess in the world. Her name was Helen and she lived in Troy2. Pandora: Why was she called the most beautiful princess in the world? Clio: She had been chosen by the goddess of love and beauty, Aphrodite, as the most beautiful princess on earth. The warriors arrived outside Troy and waited there for months and months. Persephone: Why did they have wait for months and months? Clio: They had to wait there because Troy was a powerful city. The Trojan people were strong and the Greek attackers had to lay siege3 to it. Pandora: How long did they wait for? Clio: Eventually, the siege lasted for ten years. Persephone: Ten years! I would never have waited that long. I would have gone in and ... Clio: Persephone, you’re going to have to listen to the story and stop interrupting me or I’ll stop right now. Persephone: Alright. I promise I won’t interrupt you any more, unless there’s something I really don’t ... Clio: Persephone! Persephone: Alright. I’ll listen. Clio: In the end, they decided to trick the Trojans by giving them a gift of a huge wooden horse. The Trojans foolishly accepted the gift, not realising that Greek soldiers were hidden inside it. The Greek soldiers sneaked out of the horse during the night, opened the city gates and let the rest of the Greeks in. The Trojans were caught off guard and the city of Troy was set on fire and destroyed. Pandora: How big was the wooden horse? Clio: It was huge, taller than the city walls. Wheels had to be fixed underneath it and ropes placed around its neck so that it could be dragged into Troy. Persephone: What happened to the wooden horse in the end? Clio: It must have burned, just as the city of Troy burned. Pandora: Is this story true, Clio? Did it really happen? Clio: Everyone says it’s true. There was a war in that area some years ago. Those who are very old and can remember say that there was a wooden horse, just like the one in the story. I believe that it happened. Persephone: So do I. If I sleep now, will you tell it to us again tomorrow night? Clio: Yes. May the gentle goddess, Hestia4, protect both of you and give you a good night’s sleep. It’s late and I must work now to sew and press your costumes. You are royal princesses and you must look your best tomorrow. 1. The legends associated with the ancient city of Troy tell the story that inspired the poet Homer’s great epic poem, called Iliad, which historians believe he may have written in the 8th century BC. It tells the story of the city of Troy, situated on the west coast of modern Turkey and how it was destroyed by the Greeks after a siege lasting ten years. The Greeks, who were trying to bring back a princess named Helen, came up with a plan to hide inside a huge wooden horse. They tricked the Trojans into accepting their gift and the horse was dragged into their walled city. Later, the Greeks emerged from it and destroyed Troy. Homer wrote two epic poems, Iliad and Odyssey, in the 8th century BC. 12

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Exercise B:

Comprehension questions

Note that answers may be found in the footnotes as well as the text. 1. Why are the royal princesses, Persephone and Pandora, so excited? 2. How many times does Clio think she might have told them the bedtime story? 3. In your opinion, which of the two princesses, Persephone or Pandora, is the more demanding of Clio? Give reasons for your answer. 4. Clio makes references to Greek goddesses in her conversation with the princesses. Which goddesses does she refer to and what areas of life did they rule over?

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5. In your opinion, why does the story of the wooden horse of Troy fascinate the princesses so much?

6. How does Clio support her view that the story of Troy is true?

was

Hestia

different

to

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and

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8. Can you find any evidence in this dialogue that supports the conclusion that Clio has to work hard in her job?

9. Read the following statements and tick those that are correct: (a) The two princesses are being presented at court tomorrow................................................ (b) The princesses are tired of hearing the story of the wooden horse of Troy.............................. (c) Clio is a slave and a royal servant in the palace..

(d) Pandora interrupts Clio all the time as she tells the story.......................................................... (e) The Trojans were aware that the Greeks were hiding inside the wooden horse......................... (f) The city of Troy was in ancient Persia................. (g) The goddess Hestia was the Greek goddess of the harvest...................................................

2. Helen of Troy was reputed to be the most beautiful mortal woman. A legend tells that Paris, the son of the king of Troy, was given a golden apple and was told to give it to one of three goddesses: Athena, the goddess of war and the patron goddess of the city-state, Athens; Hera, the goddess of marriage; or Aphrodite, the goddess of love. They vied with each other to win the golden apple but Aphrodite won by promising Paris that he would marry the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Troy. However, Helen was already married to King Menelaus and, when she escaped to Troy with Paris, the Greeks went to war to get her back. 3. To lay siege to a city meant to create a military blockade of a fortified location, in this case the city of Troy, and to continually attempt to gain possession of it by military force. 4. Hestia was the Greek goddess of the home and the family. Every Greek home had a shrine dedicated to her. She was gentle and, unlike some of the other Greek gods and goddesses, she did not become involved in quarrels and arguments. Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

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Exercise C:

Cloze exercise

Use the words from the word bank to complete the sentences.

Word Bank

funeral

cities

rooms

political

treasure

break

region

discovered

Egypt

Greece

described

masks

foreign

twelve

cities

legend

.

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The Mycenaean civilisation followed that of the Minoans and was the first great civilisation of mainland

Historians believe that the Mycenaean civilisation developed in the north-eastern area of the Peloponnese around 1800 BC. Some of have been excavated at Mycenae. The Mycenaeans were great builders and sailors

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the remains of their and did not build huge temples but set aside

in their palaces for religious shrines. They developed new

trade routes and sailed to

, the Near East and the Baltic Sea. They invaded Crete around 1450 BC, centre of the Cretan civilisation, and became the rulers of Crete.

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taking the palace at Knossos, the

Evidence of two types of tombs has been uncovered at Mycenae. Shaft graves could be as deep as

metres

graves around 1500 BC. Precious The tombs were difficult to

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and usually contained the bodies of several members of the same family. Tholos tombs were beehive shaped tombs and replaced shaft was buried in the tombs along with the bodies of the royal family. into so many of these valuable items have survived. Heinrich Schliemann,

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a German archaeologist, excavated the Mycenaean royal burial ground in 1874. He had already excavated what he believed was the original site of Troy, in 1870, at Hisarlik (now in modern Turkey). At Mycenae, Schliemann

gold jewellery,

dating from around 1600 BC. Schliemann believed that this was what Homer had referred to when he Mycenae as being rich in gold. Five golden funeral one of these was the

were found and Schliemann wrongly believed that mask of King Agamemnon, the king of Mycenae at the time of the Trojan Wars.

Around 1250 BC, the Mycenaeans built defensive walls around their towns as they were under threat from invaders. Their trading empire declined and their towns may have been destroyed or fallen into ruin. Historians believe that there may have been earthquakes and fires in the

which contributed to the decline. The Dark Ages began in

Greece and only the stories associated with the Mycenaean civilisation survived. In the 8th century BC, the poet Homer wrote his epic poems, Iliad and Odyssey, which retold famous Mycenaean legends such as the

14

Literacy and history â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The Greeks

of Troy.

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com


Exercise D:

Word study exercises

1. Arrange these sentences about the city of Troy in order. Note that words in bold font are keywords or phrases that may help you to identify the correct order.

The legends associated with the city of Troy were written down as epic poems by the Greek poet Homer. Schliemann was determined to find the site of the city but he actually found nine cities built one of top of each other. Homer told of how Paris, the son of the king of Troy, was given a golden apple to give to one of three goddesses. Schliemann went on to excavate the site of the city of Mycenae, in the Peleponnese, in 1874.

Historians believe the city of Troy was situated on the west coast of modern Turkey at Hasarlik. In 1870, a German archaeologist called Heinrich Schliemann began to excavate the site of the city of Troy. Homer told the story of the wooden horse of Troy in his epic poem Iliad. Later archaeologists discovered that as each city fell into decay, a new city was built on top of its ruins. Paris chose to give it to Aphrodite, goddess of beauty, as she had made him a promise if he gave her the apple.

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Aphrodite had promised him that he would marry the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Troy.

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2. Find ten misspellings in the following paragraph on the Mycenaeans. Write them with correct spelling in the spaces below. You may use a dictionary. The Mycenaeans reached the height of their powers in 1600 BC, when they conkered Crete. Their main city was Mycenae, in the Peleponnese, which was the city of King Agamemnon, the legandary king of the Trojan Wars. They were warriors and bronze weapons and armmour have been found in their graves. The royal tombs at Mycenae have revealed important information about their civillisation. They built two types of tombs, shaft graves and tholos tombs. Tholos tombs had a distinctive beahive shape. Valuable items were usually buried with members of the royal family in their tombs, indacating that the Mycenaeans believed in life after death. The Mycenaeans were good sailors who developed new traid routes to Egypt, the Near East and the Baltic Sea. They began to declyne around 1200 BC, possibly as a result of earthquakes, fires and wars in the rejion. Their written language, a type of hieroglyphics or picture writing, was given the name Linear B and has been decifhered, unlike the Minoan script, which has not.

1.

4.

7.

10.

2.

3.

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5.

6.

8.

9.

3. Circle the correct answers.

(a) The Mycenaean civilisation in Greece developed (i) after the Minoan civilisation. (ii) before the Minoan civilisation. (iii) during the Dark Ages.

(b) Evidence of the Mycenaeans has been found in (i) the Acropolis in Athens. (ii) ruins on the island of Santorini. (iii) the north-eastern area of the Peleponnese.

Prim-Ed Publishing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; www.prim-ed.com

(c) The Mycenaeans were great sailors who traded with (i) the Minoans. (ii) Egypt, the Near East and the Baltic Sea. (iii) the Romans.

(d) The Mycenaeans invaded the island of Crete around (i) 1450 BC. (ii) 1350 BC. (iii) 1200 BC.

Literacy and history â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The Greeks

(e) Heinrich Schliemann was an archaeologist from (i) France. (ii) Austria. (iii) Germany. (f) He was convinced that he could uncover the site of (i) the city of Troy. (ii) the tomb of Prince Paris. (iii) the wooden horse of Troy.

15


Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

1. Read these keywords/terms and their explanations and use them in sentences.

(a) Helen of Troy: The wife of Menelaus, the king of Sparta, whose brother was Agamemnon, King of Mycenae.

(b) Hestia: Greek goddess of the home and the hearth, she offered protection to the home and the family. (c) Homer: 8th century Greek poet traditionally described as the author of the epic poems Iliad and Odyssey. (d) Iliad: Poem telling the story of the Trojan Wars and the legendary hero, Achilles, who killed the Trojan hero, Prince Hector. (e) Linear B: The written language of the Mycenaeans, developed from the earlier Linear A of the Minoan civilisation. (f) Mycenae: A civilisation that developed in the north-eastern area of the Peleponnese around 1600 BC.

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(g) Schliemann: German archaeologist who discovered the site of the ancient city of Troy in modern Turkey in 1870.

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(h) shaft graves: Mycenaean graves over 12 metres deep in which several members of the same family were buried. (i) tholos tombs: Beehive-shaped Mycenaean tombs which replaced the earlier style of tombs around 1500 BC.

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(j) Aphrodite: Greek goddess of love and beauty.

(k) Troy: City in Asia Minor which figured in the famous epic poems by Homer called Iliad and Odyssey.

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(l) Zeus: King of the Greek gods, portrayed carrying a thunderbolt, who lived on Mount Olympus in northern Greece.

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2. Mark the statements in the following list that are true with a T and those that are false with an F. (a) The Mycenaean civilisation followed the Minoan civilisation in the time line of ancient Greece.

(h) The site of the city of Mycenae was located in the 19th century by Sir Arthur Evans.

(b) The Mycenaeans tried to invade Crete but they did not succeed.

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Linear B is a type of hieroglyphic or picture writing.

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The poet Homer wrote short love poems.

(c) Around 1200 BC, the Mycenaean civilisation began to suffer a decline. (d) Linear B is the name given to the written language of the Mycenaeans.

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Linear B has not yet been deciphered.

(e) According to legend, Helen of Troy was chosen as the most beautiful woman on Earth by the goddess Hera.

(m) The man who excavated Troy also searched for Mycenae but never found it.

(f) The siege of the city of Troy lasted for twenty years.

(o) A hoard of golden treasure was found at Mycenae by Heinrich Schliemann.

(g) The Mycenaeans believed in goddesses such as Aphrodite and Hestia. 16

(k) The legends of Troy were handed down in oral form until the 8th century BC.

Literacy and history â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The Greeks

(n) The Mycenaeans were farmers rather than sailors.

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

3. Match the following names/terms referred to in this unit with their descriptions. Name

Description

(a) The goddess Aphrodite

(i)

(b) Prince Paris

(ii) King of the Greek gods who carried a thunderbolt

(c) The city of Troy

(iii) Wife of King Menelaus, who ran away with Paris to Troy

(d) Homer

(iv) Greek goddess of love and beauty

(e) Mount Olympus

(v) King of Sparta, brother of King Agamemnon

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King Menelaus

Greek goddess of the home and the hearth

(vi) Huge wooden device in which soldiers hid to enter Troy

(g) Helen of Troy

(vii) Son of Agamemnon, the king of Troy

(h) The goddess Hestia

(viii) 8th century Greek poet who wrote epic poems

The wooden horse of Troy

(ix) Home of the Greek gods in northern Greece

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(x) City in Asia Minor which appears in Iliad

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(i)

Goods traded

Locations (a) From Egypt

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(b) From the Near East

3. Silver

(c) From the Baltic Sea

(ii) Ritual jugs called ‘rhytons’, in the shape of stags’

heads or bulls’ heads were made of silver

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2. Gold, amethyst, carnelian, hippopotamus ivory

Uses

(i) Amber necklaces were popular with Mycenaean

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1. Amber

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4. The Mycenaeans were good sailors and traded with many areas of the Mediterranean Sea, including Egypt, the Near East and the Baltic Sea. The following descriptions of these three trading partners and the products they traded with the Mycenaeans have been mixed up. Match the goods traded with their descriptions and what the Mycenaeans used them for.

(iii) gold = jewellery/masks, amethyst = jewellery,

carnelian = jewellery, hippopotamus ivory = inlaid daggers

Discussion points — The Minoans and the Mycenaeans. These civilisations influenced other civilisations in the Mediterranean area; e.g. Mycenaean frescoes and pottery have been found in Egyptian tombs. Mycenaean pottery has also been found on the Aeolian island of Lipari, off the coast of Sicily. Discuss the value of cross-cultural links in modern societies today and consider the following issues. Use the Internet to research these issues. In the past, societies such as the Mycenaeans and the Egyptians traded with each other and their cross-cultural links developed very slowly. Each culture had a strong and identifiable identity. Today, we have a ‘melting pot’ of cultures worldwide. Discuss whether we are losing our individual cultural identities in the modern world. What are the positive effects of cross-cultural influences, links and associations? Does advertising affect our culture? In the future, should we protect our individual cultural identities? In the future, how can we best promote appreciation and understanding of different cultural identities?

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Teachers Notes

Unit 3: An athlete, in Olympia to compete in the Olympic Games, describes his visit to the oracle at Delphi – 796 BC Objectives: Pupil reads text and completes comprehension and cloze exercises based on text. Pupil completes word study exercises in word search skills and sentence completion. Pupil learns about the oracle at Delphi, athletics in ancient Greece and the ancient Olympic Games at Olympia.

Background information: This text describes a visit to Delphi, one of the most sacred sites in ancient Greece. This type of description is a form of travel writing in which an athlete, Demosthenes, describes Delphi, its temples and its town. He also describes his consultation with the famous oracle, so famous that even Alexander the Great visited Delphi to consult it. Demosthenes is an athlete who is competing in the Olympic Games. On his way to Olympia, from his home city of Thebes, he has stopped to consult the oracle at Delphi in order to find out if he will be successful in his event at the games.

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The Greeks strongly believed in the power and influence of their gods and goddesses. They believed that 12 of their most important gods and goddesses lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. There were many oracles in the Greek world but the most famous of all was the oracle at Delphi in central Greece. People came from all over Greece and beyond to consult the oracle at Delphi and it played an important role in the ancient world. The oracle at Delphi continued until Christian times. Apollo was worshipped as the god of the sun, prophecy, poetry and music.

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The enquirer at the temple had to pay a tax called a pelanos, which was a consultation fee, and a small sacrifice was made to Apollo. The enquirer then waited outside a special room where the Pythia, a priestess who served at the temple for life and acted as the god’s spokeswoman, went through a ritual when the god Apollo gave his answer to the question to her. The oracle’s prophecies were often obscure and could be interpreted in different ways.

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The Olympic Games were first held in 776 BC. In ancient Greece, athletic festivals or games were held in order to worship the gods. Only the biggest and richest cities could afford their own stadium and other facilities needed for the games. There were four main festivals held to honour the Greek gods, including the Olympic Games at Olympia, which were held every four years in honour of the god Zeus. The Pythian Games were held every four years at Delphi to honour the god Apollo. The Isthmian Games were held at Corinth every two years in honour of the god Poseidon and the Nemean Games, also in honour of the god Zeus, were held every two years at Nemea. People from all over the Greek world could participate in the games and they were collectively known as the Panhellenic Games. Messengers were sent out before the Olympic Games to announce the date and to invite people to attend. Fighting, feuds and wars stopped until the games were over so that travellers could reach Olympia in safety. Historians believe that the games at Olympia first developed from funeral games held in memory of a Greek hero called Pelops. Among the many buildings at Olympia there was one called the Pelopion, which was reputed to contain the burial mound of Pelops.

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The main events at the Olympic Games were running, wrestling, boxing, chariot racing, horse racing and the pentathlon. The pentathlon was an extremely demanding competition and required physical strength and mental determination. The athletes had to take part in five events, running, wrestling, jumping, discus and javelin throwing. Musical and poetic events were also held. Winners were presented with palm branches, a wreath of olive leaves and wool ribbons on the fifth day of the games. The first Olympic champion was Coroebus of Elis, a cook who won the sprint race at the first Olympic Games in 776 BC. Many athletes sought only to experience the competition and to enjoy the glory of winning but some athletes became professionals and made their living by representing their city-states at various games. Young, unmarried girls could attend the games at Olympia as spectators but they could not compete. Married women were not allowed to compete and were not allowed to join the spectators in the arena, even if they were the owners of horses running in the chariot races. However, a separate festival called the Heraia, in honour of the goddess Hera, who was the wife of Zeus, was held every four years for women and girls. There were running events for girls of different ages. The city-state of Sparta was the only Greek city-state where girls were expected to exercise and keep fit and were encouraged to take part in athletics, with the aim of becoming healthy bearers of children. By the 5th century BC, the Spartans had become the strongest military power in Greece. They became very powerful during the Classical Age (500–323 BC) and controlled the Peloponnese, the area south of the Greek mainland. The Spartans were the great rivals of the Athenians and, at times, their enemy. Two destructive earthquakes destroyed Olympia in 395 AD and the games stopped. However, in 1896, a French athlete, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, organised the first Modern Olympic Games. Baron de Coubertin was inspired by the ancient Greek games and many aspects of the original games have been preserved in the modern Olympic Games. The lighting of the Olympic flame is based on an ancient relay race in which torches were passed from one runner to the next until the final runner lit a fire on the altar to honour the god Zeus.

Worksheet information: Ancient Greek civilisation can be divided into several periods. Historians believe that the Olympic Games were first held in 776 BC, during the period of Greek history known as the Archaic Period. The Archaic Period occurred between 800 and 500 BC. Pupils can refer to the time line of ancient Greek history on page xii. A glossary of keywords and terms relating to this particular unit is provided for teacher reference on pages viii – xi. Many of them appear in Question 1 in Exercise E. Pupils will find it beneficial to check the glossary detailed footnotes for the text in Exercise A to assist in comprehension of Greek terms.

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Teachers Notes

Answers:

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Exercise C........................ page 22 illness, silver, religious, gods, most, arrows, questions, bathed, branches, gifts, ceremonies, height, fire, hotel

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Exercise E................ pages 24–25 1. Teacher check 2. (a), that, (ii) (b), so that, (vi) (c), but, (v) (d), as, (iii) (e), as well as, (iv) (f), because, (i)

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Exercise D........................ page 23 1. Teacher check word search 2. (a) Olympia, (b) hotel, (c) pentathlon, (d) Temple of Zeus, (e) discus, (f) palm branches, (g) gymnasium, (h) Prytaneion, (i) champions, (j) Athletes

(a) jockey (b) the Pankration (d) jumping weights (e) the Pentathlon (g) chariot racing (h) discus (j) relay race (a) (viii) (b) (vii) (c) (v) (e) (iv) (f) (i) (g) (vi)

(c) boxers (f) the winners (i) javelin

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Exercise B........................ page 21 1. Demosthenes says that he travelled west towards Delphi. 2. He arrived late and had a dream that he won the pentathlon and returned home with honour. 3. The word oracle could mean the priestess who spoke for the god, the place where the priestess spoke and the message she delivered to the questioner. 4. He brought a precious silver cup, given to him by his mother, wine, honey and a sacred cake. 5. Teacher check 6. The Pythia bathed in a holy fountain, drank from a sacred spring and inhaled smoke from burning laurel leaves. 7. Demosthenes couldn’t see her because she was closed off from sight by a white curtain.

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Cross-curricular activities:

(d) (iii) (h) (ii)

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The website of the British Museum has information on the ancient Olympic Games in its section on Ancient Greece at <www.britishmuseum. org/explore/families_and_children/online_tours/sport_in_ancient_greece.aspx>, which contains photographs of Greek artefacts in the museum’s collection. Pupils may find it beneficial to view the official website of the Olympic Games at <www.olympic.org/uk/organisation/missions/truce/truce_ uk.asp>, which contains a section on the ancient Olympics at <www.olympic.org/uk/games/ancient/index_uk.asp>.

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Information for pupils on the ancient Olympic Truce or ‘Ekecheiria’ can be found at <www.olympic.org> the official website of the Olympic Games. A website with a section on the ancient Olympic games is <www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ancientgreece/olympia/olympia1.shtml>.

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Information on Delphi and other sacred oracle sites is at <www.crystalinks.com/delphi.html>. The archaeological sites at Delphi and Olympia are on the UNESCO World Heritage list of sites considered as having outstanding universal value. Pupils can find out more about the work of te World Heritage Committee at <http://whc.unesco.org>. The Paralympic Games are sports events for athletes with physical disabilities. Pupils can find out more about the Paralympic Games by using the library and the Internet. The official website of the Paralympic Games at <www.paralympic.org> and at the Olympic Games at <www.olympic.org/uk/games/paralympic/index_uk.asp> contain information on the games. Pupils can research the origins and history of the Special Olympic Games, for people with intellectual disabilities, at <www.specialolympics. org>. The official website of the Commonwealth Games is at <www.commonwealthgames.com>. The first Commonwealth Games were held in 1930, in Ontario, Canada. Pupils can carry out further research on the history and development of the Commonwealth Games by using the Internet, if they wish.

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Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Exercise A:

Reading

Read the following description of a visit by Demosthenes, an Olympian athlete, to the oracle at Delphi.

My fellow athletes, you asked me to describe my journey here. Well, I left my home in the city of Thebes several weeks ago and travelled west towards Delphi1. I wanted to visit Delphi before I arrived at Olympia. It was late spring and I was full of hope and ambition for my success in the games. I arrived in Delphi late at night, full of anticipation. That night I had the strangest dream that I had won the pentathlon and that I was home again in Thebes, receiving adulation from the crowds and free food for the rest of my days. The next morning I rose early and went to the temple of Apollo2 just as the god himself was beginning to ride his chariot across the sky. He must have blessed me because I found that there was an oracle3 being held that morning. I asked one of the temple priests to put my question to the Pythia. I paid my pelanos and waited as I was told. I had brought some offerings for Apollo, including a precious silver cup, given to me by my mother, and some wine, honey and sacred cake.

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I said, ‘Holy priest of Apollo, I am from Thebes. I am travelling to Olympia and I have come to Delphi to find out about my chances in the games. Please accept these gifts for Apollo’. ‘What is your question for our god of the sun?’ he asked me as he took the gifts.

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‘I wish to ask our great god if I will be successful in the Games. This is my first time to take part in these games and I am planning to take part in the pentathlon. I want to know if I will be successful in this event and return home to Thebes as a man of honour.’

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The priest walked toward to the inner sanctuary of the priestess, the Pythia, who was closed off from my sight by a white curtain. He seemed to be whispering some words to the Pythia inside. I was told that, after she is asked a question, she bathes in a holy fountain, drinks some water from a sacred spring and then sits on a three-legged tripod while she inhales the scent of burning laurel leaves. Laurel is sacred to Apollo. I couldn’t see her but I was told that the Pythia is always dressed in white and holds a branch of laurel in her hand. I waited patiently for the priest to return.

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He soon did and said, ‘These are Apollo’s words: Four will be the number you will always dread but five will be the number you will honour until you are dead’. I am puzzled4 by this oracle. Does it mean that I will fail in the fourth event, the wrestling contest, but still succeed in all five? How can I succeed if I fail in the fourth event? I have to succeed in all five. Can anyone here in the gymnasium5 help me? What do you think the words of Apollo mean? Can anyone help me to understand what Apollo may have in store for me? 1. Delphi lies on the steep mountain slopes of Mount Parnassus in mainland Greece. Today, a road lined with buildings to house the gifts offered to Apollo at his temple still leads to the ruins of the temple. A stadium was built above the temple to host games and chariot races in honour of the god. Winning the chariot race was the greatest honour an athlete could receive and the owner of the winning team of horses paid for a statue to celebrate his great success. 2. Delphi was associated with the god Apollo and it was the site of his most famous temple. Apollo was the god of the sun, music and prophecy. He was associated with the bow and arrow, the python snake, the laurel tree, the sunflower and the musical instruments of the lyre and the flute. He and his twin sister, Artemis, were born on the Greek island of Delos. 20

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Exercise B:

Comprehension questions

Note that answers may be found in the footnotes as well as the text. 1. When Demosthenes left his home city of Thebes, what direction did he travel in order to reach Delphi? 2. What happened to him on his first night in Delphi? 3. The word ‘oracle’ could mean several things. What were they? 4. List the four offerings brought by Demosthenes to the god Apollo.

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5. What is your interpretation of the oracle’s words?

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6. Describe the ritual undertaken by the Pythia as she considered the question posed by Demosthenes.

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7. Why was Demosthenes not able to see the Pythia?

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8. Read the following statements and tick those that are correct: (a) The shrine of Delphi could only be reached by

(e) Only personal questions were asked of the

oracle.............................................................. (f) The temple of Zeus at Olympia contained one

of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World........ (g) The statue of the god Zeus at Olympia was

23 metres high................................................. (h) A hotel was built at Olympia to accommodate

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boat as it was on an island................................

(b) The god Apollo was the Greek god of the sun..... (c) The Pythia was a priestess who communicated

with the god and received his answers............... (d) The oracle’s answers to the questions posed were always clear and direct.............................

officials visiting the festival................................ 3. The Greeks often sought guidance from the gods about specific problems in their lives and the most popular way of getting this help was by consulting the oracle. The word ‘oracle’ could mean several things: the actual priestess who spoke for the god, the sacred place where she was consulted or the message she gave. The priestess was the mouthpiece of the gods and they spoke through her. At Delphi, the priestess was called the Pythia and this site became so popular with the ancient Greeks that consultations were held weekly. Officials of the city-states came to consult the oracle about political matters as well as private citizens about their own private concerns. 4. The words of the oracle were often puzzling and enigmatic. They could be interpreted in different ways and caused many people to wonder about their meaning. The oracle’s words were never simple and always subject to individual interpretation. 5. The gymnasium was used for training by the athletes taking part in the running and throwing events. A large number of buildings were constructed at Olympia. Temples were built for religious ceremonies such as the Temple of Zeus, which contained an ivory and gold statue of the god, which was over 13 metres high and was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. A stadium was built for the running events which could hold 40 000 spectators. There was even a hotel built for visiting officials called the Leonidaion. The Prytaneion was a building which contained a sacred fire that was used to light the fires on all the altars at Olympia. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Exercise C:

Cloze exercise

Use the words from the word bank to complete the sentences.

Word Bank height ceremonies bathed illness

gifts most hotel

silver questions religious

gods branches

arrows fire

The ancient Greeks often visited oracles to enquire about both private and public matters. They believed that their gods and goddesses , looked after their crops and granted them favours such as success in the festival

protected them from games. They offered their gods gold,

and animal sacrifices to please them. They held festivals to honour festivals. Important gods had their own sanctuaries

where they were worshipped. Zeus, the father of the

, had his shrine at Olympia and the Olympic Games

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them and games were an essential element of these

were held there in his honour every four years. The god Apollo’s shrine was at Delphi, where the

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oracle of the Greek world existed.

famous

Apollo was associated with the sun, light, healing, poetry and music and was always shown as a young athlete carrying a bow and arrows. His plant was the laurel and if he became angry his that at Delphi he answered

could shoot poison. The Greeks believed

about the future through his priestess, the Pythia. The Pythia was his

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mouthpiece but her replies could be very obscure. The word ‘oracle’ had three meanings. It could mean the priestess who spoke for the god, the message she gave or the sacred place itself. On hearing the question, the Pythia

in a holy

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fountain, drank water from a sacred spring and inhaled the smoke from burning leaves of the sacred laurel plant.

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The Olympic Games were the most important games in ancient Greece, so important that sometimes even wars were delayed in order to allow athletes to travel to them. On the fifth day of the games, successful athletes were awarded palm a wreath of olive leaves and woollen ribbons. They could also benefit from

, of money and food and they

were considered heroes for the rest of their lives. The site of the Olympic Games was excavated by German archaeologists and evidence of the buildings specially built for this purpose were uncovered. There were sports grounds and facilities for the events and temples for the religious

.

The temple of Zeus contained a gold and ivory covered statue of the god which was over 13 metres in

.

It was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. There was a gymnasium where the athletes taking part in the running and throwing events could train. The Prytaneion contained a sacred the altars at Olympia. The site even had its own

, that was used to light the fires on all , called the Leonidaion, which accommodated visiting

officials. The games ended in 395 AD, when Olympia was destroyed by earthquakes. However, they were revived in 1896 by Baron Pierre de Coubertain, who was inspired by the ancient Greek ideals of athleticism and competition in sport. 22

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Exercise D:

Word study exercises the olympic games

Word Bank

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arena Athens athletes boxing champion chariot racing Delphi five events gymnasium Hera Heraia honour horse racing music olive leaves Olympia oracle palm branches Pelopion pentathlon poetry ribbons running Sparta temple winners wrestling Zeus

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2. Complete these sentences about the early Olympic Games by using the words/phrases supplied underneath. The number of dashes correspond to the number of letters in the missing words.

(a) The Olympic Games were held in the sacred shrine of the god Zeus at

(b) There was a

(c) The

(d) The statue of Zeus in the World.

(e) One of the athletic events involved throwing the

(f) The athletes who became champions at the games were awarded

(g) Athletes taking part in the running and throwing events could train in a building called the

(h) A sacred fire burned in the

(i) Olympian admirers.

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, called the Leonidaion, which provided accommodation for visiting officials to the games. was an athletic event in which there were five separate events. at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient , a plate-shaped disc of metal and wood. . .

that was used to light the fires on all the Olympian altars. were considered heroes for the rest of their lives, receiving free meals and gifts from

travelled from all over the Greek world to take part in the Olympic Games at Olympia.

gymnasium Athletes pentathlon

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every four years.

champions Temple of Zeus

Olympia palm branches Literacy and history â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The Greeks

hotel discus

Prytaneion

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

1. Read these keywords/terms and their explanations and use them in sentences.

(a) Apollo: The Greek god of the sun, he also ruled over prophecy, poetry and music and was portrayed by the Greeks as a youth.

(b) Artemis: The twin sister of Apollo, Artemis was the goddess of the moon and also ruled over childbirth and hunting. (c) Delphi: Site of the most famous shrine dedicated to Apollo, where ancient Greeks consulted the oracle to discover their future. (d) discus: A plate-shaped disc of metal and wood; held in the hand and thrown after a revolution and a half of the throwing circle. (e) javelin: A spear-shaped implement of metal or wood, released by the thrower after a short run, when it must land point first. (f)

Olympia: Sacred site in the Peleponnese of Greece, where the Olympic Games were held every four years in honour of Zeus.

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(g) oracle: The place, the person or the message itself given by the god at a sacred shrine such as Delphi. (h) Pelopian: A building where the burial mound of Pelops, a Greek hero whose funeral games began the Olympic games, may lie. pentathlon: An athletic competition with five events: running, wrestling, jumping, discus and javelin throwing.

(j)

Pythia: The priestess who was consulted at Delphi and transmitted the god Apollo’s prophecies to the questioners.

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(i)

Thebes: City-state of ancient Greece which defeated Sparta at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC and, for a short time, was the most powerful polis.

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(l)

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(k) sanctuary: In the temple at Delphi, the sacred place where the priestess, the Pythia, consulted the god, Apollo.

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2. Choose the correct linking words/phrases and rewrite the following sentences correctly. (a) The Olympic Games were part of the Panhellenic Games

but

(b) These were games that brought the Greek world together

because

as

(c) The four Panhellenic Games were never held during the same year (d) The games at Olympia were considered the most important games of all

24

that

(i) a climate of peace was considered important during the games, which were also sacred religious festivals. (ii) also included the games at Delphi (the Pythian Games), Corinth (the Isthmian Games) and at Nemea (the Nemean Games). (iii) they were held in honour of Zeus, the king of all the Greek gods and goddesses. (iv) athletic contests for athletes to participate in, in which it was considered an honour to take part.

(e) These games were religious festivals held in honour of the gods

as well as

(v) were always held in successive years.

(f) A sacred truce, the Ekecheiria, was proclaimed for the duration of the four Panhellenic Games

so that

(vi) the Greeks participating or attending these games could feel that they belonged to a shared culture.

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

3. Read the following descriptions, which describe some of the athletic contests, the prizes, and the equipment in the ancient Olympic Games, and see if you can match the title with the description. Choose your answers from the list.

(b) This event was one of the most dangerous, with very few rules. Competitors were allowed to trip their opponents and only biting or gouging out of eyes was forbidden.

(e) This was a very demanding fiveevent contest in which athletes ran, wrestled, jumped and threw the discus and the javelin in order to find the best all-round athlete.

This object was a spear-shaped implement of metal or wood which the athlete released at the end of a short run and had to land point first in the ground to be a valid throw.

(f)

The competitors were presented on the fifth day of the contest with (j) palm branches, a wreath of olive leaves and woollen ribbons.

A race in which a torch was passed from one runner to another, with the last runner lighting a fire on an altar in the Prytaneion.

(g) This event was very dangerous and involved competitors racing two or four horse teams for twelve laps around two posts.

(h) This object was a plate-shaped disc made of metal and wood, and was thrown by the athlete.

relay race

javelin

the Pankration (all-in wrestling) the Pentathlon

jockey

jumping weights (lead or stone) the winners

boxers

chariot racing

discus

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(i)

(c) These competitors wore leather strips wrapped around their fists as they fought each other.

(d) This object was used by athletes who were taking part in the long jump. Gripping it tightly, the athletes threw their arms backwards to give themselves more propulsion.

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(a) This competitor rode bare back, without stirrups and was usually a paid servant of the owner of the animal.

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4. Today, we recognise the importance of exercise in the maintenance of good health. Sport and games were very important to

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the ancient Greeks. They believed that the health of the body reflected the health of the mind and showed a healthy balance between body and mind. The following table shows some of the different events undertaken at the Olympic Games today. Match the event with the health benefit it may produce for the athlete undertaking it. There are clues if you read carefully.

(a) running

Health benefit

(i) Athletes taking part in this event can improve their throwing skills, dexterity and balance as they spin to throw the object.

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Sport

(b) swimming

(ii) Athletes taking part in this event can improve their dexterity, flexibility and balance as they run and throw this thin object.

(c) cycling

(iii) Athletes taking part in this event can improve their upper arm strength and improve muscle tone in their shoulders, back and neck by participating in this outdoor water sport.

(d) canoeing

(iv) Athletes taking part in this event can improve their cardiovascular health and ensure an efficient flow of blood and oxygen throughout their body as they run for almost 40 km.

(e) marathon running

(v) Athletes taking part in this event can improve their cardiovascular fitness and improve the muscle tone in their lower body, thighs and legs.

(f) discus throwing

(vi) Athletes taking part in this event can improve their balance, flexibility and muscle tone as they run and jump.

(g) high jump

(vii) Athletes taking part in this indoor water event can improve their muscle tone, flexibility and cardiovascular health.

(h) javelin

(viii) Athletes taking part in this event can improve their cardiovascular fitness as they participate in sprint and relay races.

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Literacy and history – The Greeks

Discussion points The Olympic Games Research the Olympic Truce, called the ‘Ekecheiria’, which was held during the ancient Olympic Games. Discuss if such a concept could work today. You may wish to research the topic in the library or use the Internet. The Special Olympics were started in Chicago, in the USA in 1968 for people with intellectual disabilities. Research the history and development of the Special Olympics, using the library and the Internet if necessary. Discuss the part that sport can play in the recognition and development of human rights. 25


Teachers Notes

Unit 4: A priestess prays to the goddess Artemis in her temple at Ephesus – 600 BC Objectives: Pupils read text about the temples of Artemis and complete comprehension and cloze exercises based on text. Pupils complete word study exercises in correcting spellings, completing sentences and choosing correct words. Pupils learn about one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Greek architectural styles and Greek trading links in the Mediterranean and the goods traded.

Background information: This text is of a prayer offered to the goddess Artemis, who was the Greek goddess of the moon and hunting. She was the twin sister of the god of the sun, Apollo. She was often shown wearing buckskins, carrying a bow and a quiver of arrows and accompanied by wild animals such as stags or she-bears. In Ephesus, Artemis was worshipped as a goddess of fertility. The priestess, Aethra, is offering prayers to the goddess to ask her to protect Kreousa, who is about to give birth to twins.

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The goddess Artemis was worshipped at her great temple in the city of Ephesus. Ephesus was a thriving city on the coast of Asia Minor, in what is now modern Turkey. Ephesus, known as the ‘Star of Asia’, was one of the great Greek trading port cities, with a large population that included Greeks and many other nationalities. The symbol of Ephesus was the honeybee. This diversity of population enriched the city’s architectural, religious and cultural life. Around 150 AD, the city began to decline, possibly as a result of the silting of its port. The city’s great prosperity during the Greek period was based on its pivotal position in the trade networks of the Mediterranean Sea and on the thousands of visitors who came to worship the goddess Artemis. She was a goddess of fertility and there were several temples built in her honour at Ephesus. The original temple, called ‘D’ by archaeologists, was built by King Croesus of Lydia and was designed by the father and son architectural team of Chersiphron and Metagenes from the island of Crete. This first temple was destroyed during a battle in 550 BC. A second temple, probably built around 650–625 BC and designed by the architect Theodorus, was destroyed in a fire caused by an arsonist called Herostratus. His motivation for the crime was to ensure that he would always be remembered. He set fire to the temple on 21 July 356 BC, reputedly on the night that Alexander the Great was born. A new temple was begun around 350 BC, designed by the architect Scopas of Paros. This temple survived until it was finally destroyed during the 3rd century AD by raiding Goths, who were a race of people from northern Europe instrumental in the downfall of the Roman Empire. The temple fell into disrepair and was eventually used as a quarry. A British archaeologist, called John Turtle Wood, searched for seven years to find the site of the temple and found it in 1869, but the site was waterlogged and difficult to dig. What was left was disappointing, with only the base of the temple and one column still there.

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This third temple became known as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Some of the greatest artists and sculptors of ancient Greece, such as Pheidias, who had made the statue of Zeus at Olympia, were involved in the building and decoration of the temple. The temple had marble steps surrounding it with 117 gleaming marble columns, each over 18 metres high and supposedly donated by a different king, with a statue of Artemis in the inner sanctuary, the holiest room of the temple. The Temple of Artemis was huge, about four times the size of the Parthenon in Athens and surrounded by a double row of Ionic columns. The term ‘Ionic’ refers to a column design with a base and with two scrolls decorating the top. A Roman historian, Pliny, suggested that it took 120 years for the temple to be constructed. The Romans have also left visual images of the temple on some of their coinage. The temple is mentioned in the Christian Holy Bible, in the ‘Book of Acts’ which describes a visit by St Paul to Ephesus. Life for women and girls in ancient Greece was very restrictive and curtailed. They were not allowed to take part in public life or even to be seen in public except for some very specific exceptions. One of these exceptions was to be a priestess. Male priests usually carried out sacrifices while female priestesses carried out duties inside the temple such as praying and singing songs of thanksgiving. Some religious festivals, such as the Thesmophoria, held for three days in Athens each autumn, could only be celebrated by female priestesses. In ancient Athens, more than forty priestesses were employed at major shrines in the city. The other circumstances in which a woman could be seen in public were if she was a servant shopping for her mistress or a poor woman going to the market for food for her family. For most Greek women, however, life centred around the home and the business of the home. The health of women in ancient Greece was not always very good. Most women gave birth at least ten or twelve times because many babies died during or shortly after birth. A large number of children did not live beyond their first birthday due to infectious diseases. Many women did not live beyond the age of 35. Women were responsible for the care of babies and children. Wealthier women directed slaves to do this work for them. Many female slaves were employed as nurses, looking after babies and attending to all of their needs. Poorer women looked after their own children and used their skills as nurses outside the home if they could. There were many female slaves in ancient Greece. Some were captured in war, but most were bought by slave traders from pirates and kidnappers. Some were also abandoned at birth or sold into slavery by their parents, usually because of extreme poverty. The ancient Greeks had strong religious beliefs and they believed that Artemis was one of six female goddesses who lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. The six female goddesses had special significance for Greek women. Artemis protected young girls and women in childbirth. Hera, the wife of Zeus, was the protector of wives. Athene was the patron of the city of Athens and was the goddess of war and wisdom. Aphrodite was the goddess of love and beauty. Demeter was the goddess of fertility and protected crops. Hestia watched over the home and protected the family.

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Teachers Notes Worksheet information: Pupils may need to use their dictionaries in order to complete Question 1 in Exercise D. Ancient Greek civilisation consisted of several periods. Historians believe that the first temple at Ephesus was probably built during the period of Greek history known as the Archaic Period. The temple was rebuilt at least three times. There were several buildings at Ephesus including public baths, gymnasia, a theatre, a number of temples and shrines, fountains and monumental gates. The Celsus Library, built in 110 AD by the Roman writer Aulus Cornelius Celsus, held 12 000 books and became the intellectual centre of Ephesus. Pupils can check where the Archaic Period fits into ancient Greek history by referring to the time line of ancient Greek history included on page xii. A glossary of keywords and terms relating to this particular unit which is provided on pages viii – xi for teacher reference. Many of them appear on Question 1 in Exercise E. Pupils will find it beneficial to check the detailed footnotes for the text in Exercise A to assist in comprehension of Greek terms.

Answers:

Cross-curricular activities:

Exercise C......................................... page 30 Athens, city, nationalities, trading, goddess, honey, countries, main, Egypt, lived, borders, hunting, bow, larger, base, world, destroyed, Black, English

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Exercise D......................................... page 31 1. (a) western (b) legendary (c) coffers (d) destroyed (e) oracle (f) Persians (g) believed (h) victorious (i) defeated (j) among 2. Teacher check 3. (a) (ii) (b) (i) (c) (ii) (d) (iii) (e) (i) (f) (ii)

Exercise E..................................pages 32–33 1. Teacher check 2. (a) (ii) (b) (iii) (c) (i) 3. (a) (iv) papyrus (b) (viii) nuts (c) (i) linen (d) (vii) timber (e) (xii) grain (f) (x) rugs (g) (xiii) gold (h) (v) silphium (i) (xiv) copper (j) (vi) dates (k) (iii) iron (l) (ix) ivory (m) (ii) dyes (n) (xi) beef

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Exercise B......................................... page 29 1. Kreousa is expecting twin babies in a month’s time. 2. Kreousa has travelled from the city of Pergamum. 3. It is the statue of the goddess Artemis in the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 4. gold, silver, honey and red wine 5. Teacher check 6. Medical knowledge about possible complications in childbirth was very limited in ancient Greece and many women died. 7. Teacher check 8. Artemis was born before her twin brother Apollo and she helped her mother, Leto, deliver him. 9. Answers (b), (c), (g) and (h) should be ticked.

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Pupils can see an artist’s impression of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, six of which no longer exist today, and test their knowledge of them at <www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sunken/wonders/>. A website with information on the ancient Greeks and the lives of women in ancient Greece is <www.museum.upenn.edu/Greek_World/Index. html>.

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More information on the goddess Artemis and how she was worshipped in ancient Greece is at <www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/artemis>. A website with information on the archaeological site at Ephesus is <www.kusadasi.biz/ephesus/>.

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Literacy and history – The Greeks

27


Exercise A:

Reading

Read the following prayer to the goddess Artemis, spoken by the priestess, Aethra.

Blessed are you, Artemis, great goddess of life, and blessed are those who live under your protection. My prayers are for all of us here today but most of all for Kreousa of Pergamum, who is expecting twin babies in one month’s time. May her children be born in safety and in health. She seeks your protection for her babies and for her own life so that she can live to care for her new babies and to continue to care for her four other children1. She has travelled over one hundred kilometres to visit you here in your great temple and brings you offerings of gold and silver, sweet honey and dark red wine.

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Blessed goddess, you helped your mother, Leto, to deliver your twin brother, Apollo2. We ask you now to help deliver these twin babies safely by granting them your special protection. Blessed Artemis, we are here to ask for your protection and your blessing on this woman. I offer you, our sacred goddess, the gold of the sun and the silver of the moon, the sweetness of golden honey and the bitterness of blood-red wine to give you the taste of the brightness of yellow-orange blossoms and the darkness of black grapes. It is right to praise you and to offer this gift of gold to you, as you are the one who brought us the golden light of the sun god, Apollo, when you helped to deliver him at his birth. It is right to praise you and to offer this gift of silver to you, as you are the one who hunts in the forests under the silver light of the moon and brings protection to young girls. It is right to praise you and to offer this gift of sweet honey to you, as your great city, Ephesus, the Star of Asia, is symbolised by the honeybee. It is right to praise you and to offer this gift of dark red wine to you, as you are the hunter who spills the blood of the hunted in the darkness of the forests.

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Your temple is the most magnificent of all the great temples. We stood in the outer courtyard before entering and admired the wonderful sculptures that adorn the entrance to your sacred temple. We climbed the marble steps and wondered at the gleaming forest of the marble columns of your temple. We know that each column was the gift of a different king, paying tribute to your power. We marvelled at your statue in the centre of the temple, attended by your priests and showing you in all of your great glory. We wonder at your powers and we ask you to hear our prayers, especially the prayers of Kreousa. Every generation sings3 your praises. I sing your praises here today in your temple, in front of your great statue4. Let my voice ring out with your praises. Let our voices ring out in your temple. Look upon me and bless me. Look upon Kreousa and protect her. Look upon all who are here in your presence and speak well of them in Mount Olympus5. Kreousa prays that you will hear her prayers, blessed goddess. We trust in you, blessed goddess. 1. Childbirth was very dangerous in the ancient world. In ancient societies, knowledge about the causes of complications which can occur in childbirth was limited and many women died in childbirth. Giving birth to twins was known to be especially dangerous for a woman as complications could arise more easily in such a birth. The ancient Greeks often asked their gods and goddesses to protect them in times of danger. In this case, the goddess Artemis is the appropriate goddess as she is the protector of young girls and of women in childbirth. Aethra is praying for her protection for Kreousa, who had travelled from the city of Pergamum in northern Turkey to seek the blessing of the goddess before the birth of her twins. She already has young children and is anxious that the goddess will protect her when she gives birth to her twins so that she can continue to care for her family. 2. There are several legends associated with Artemis. She and her twin brother, Apollo, were the children of Zeus and Leto. According to legend, Artemis was born first and she helped her mother deliver Apollo, hence her association with childbirth. Another legend tells of how Artemis was spending a lot of time with the giant Orion, much to the annoyance of her brother. Apollo challenged her to an archery contest. He asked her to prove her skill by shooting at an object far out at sea. Her shot was perfect but her target, chosen for her by her brother, turned out to be the head of Orion. 28

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Exercise B:

Comprehension questions

Note that answers may be found in the footnotes as well as the text. 1. Why is the priestess, Aethra, asking the goddess to protect Kreousa? 2. Where has Kreousa travelled from to visit the Temple of Artemis? 3. What is the great statue that Aethra refers to? 4. What are the four offerings Kreousa has brought with her to offer to the goddess? 5. The Temple of Artemis was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Give two reasons why ancient people regarded it with such wonder.

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6. Why was childbirth so dangerous for women in ancient Greece?

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7. In your opinion, does Aethra reveal in her prayer that she is aware of the dangers Kreousa may be facing?

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8. What legend is Aethra referring to when she says that Artemis helped to deliver her brother, Apollo?

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9. Read the following statements and tick those that are correct: (a) The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus was burned

down in 356 BC and never rebuilt..................... (b) The goddess Artemis was the twin sister of the

god of the sun, Apollo....................................... (c) The Temple of Artemis was one of the Seven

Wonders of the Ancient World........................... (d) The ancient Greeks believed that the gods lived

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on top of Mount Parnassus...............................

(e) Most ancient Greek women and children lived

long and healthy lives....................................... (f) The Temple of Artemis was six times the size of

the Parthenon in Athens.................................... (g) Childbirth carried great risks for women in

ancient Greece................................................. (h) Roman writers suggested that the Temple of Artemis took 120 years to build.........................

3. Singing was a very important part of Greek religious practice. Greek music was very important and songs were sung at births, weddings and funerals. Songs of thanksgiving were sung to the gods in their temples by priests and priestesses. 4. The statue of Artemis, in her temple at Ephesus, was believed to be sacred as it contained the god’s spirit and great care was taken when the artist created it. The statue was said to represent fertility. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus was about four times the size of the Parthenon in Athens and was surrounded by a double row of columns. A historian, Pliny the Elder, suggested that it took 120 years to build. It was a powerful symbol of Greek power and influence in the eastern Mediterranean and was mentioned in the Bible. It was rebuilt three times, the second time after an arsonist, Herostratus, burned it down. 5. The ancient Greeks believed that 12 of the major Greek gods and goddesses, including Artemis, lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. They believed that the gods had a direct influence on their lives and controlled everything on Earth, even the seasons of the year. They believed that thunderstorms occurred because Zeus was angry and threw bolts of lightning to show his displeasure. During the Classical Period, from 500–336 BC (see time line of ancient Greek History), scientific explanations for such events began to be put forward by Greek scientists and philosophers. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Literacy and history – The Greeks

29


Exercise C:

Cloze exercise

Use the words from the word bank to complete the sentences.

Word Bank

English

main

bow

lived

Athens

city

Black

nationalities

base

trading

world

larger

countries

Egypt

borders

hunting

destroyed

honey

goddess

The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Four times the size of the Parthenon in

, it may have taken 120 years to build. Ephesus was a thriving

modern Turkey and had a large population made up of Greeks and many other

cities and held a pivotal position in the Mediterranean. It

was a centre of religious worship and its temple was built to honour the

Artemis. The city’s symbol

bee. There was a large volume of trade between the Greek city-states and the many Greek

colonies, as well as with other Mediterranean

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was the

. Known as the ‘Star

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of Asia’, it was one of the great Greek

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. Olive oil, wine, pottery and metal work were the

exports and goods such as copper from Cyprus, papyrus from

and

spices, dyes, ivory, raisins and apples were also traded, along with slaves.

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The other reason for the prosperity and fame of Ephesus was its great temple. Artemis was one of the 12 Greek gods on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece (in northern Greece, on the

who

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of Thessaly and Macedonia). She was the goddess of the moon and of and she was the protector of young girls and women in childbirth. She was often shown carrying a

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and arrows. She was the twin sister of Apollo, the god of the sun. Apollo was also the god of medicine but he could also attack people with his arrows if they displeased him. The temple at Ephesus was a sanctuary, a place designed for worship. It was four times

than the Parthenon in Athens. One hundred and twenty seven columns rose from the of the temple, which had multiple rows of columns designed in the Ionic architectural style. Visitors

came from all over the ancient

and bought silver idol statues of the goddess to take home with them.

The goddess was often depicted as laden with eggs, symbols of fertility. during a battle in 550 BC. A second temple

The temple was rebuilt three times. The first temple was

was destroyed in an arson attack by a man called Herostratus, who claimed to have committed the crime so that he would always be remembered. The temple was rebuilt a third time and survived until the 3rd century AD, when it was destroyed by raiding Goths from northern Europe who had travelled as far as the that John Turtle Wood, an

Sea. It was not until the late nineteenth century archaeologist, succeeded in finding its location. Disappointingly, very little

remained. 30

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Exercise D:

Word study exercises

1. Read the following paragraph describing the wealthy king of Lydia, King Croesus, and identify ten misspellings. Use a dictionary if you need to and write the correct spelling underneath. King Croesus was the ruler of Lydia in westren Asia Minor from 560–546 BC. His wealth was legendery and inspired the saying ‘as rich as Croesus’. His wealth came from the gold of the Lydian mines and the sands of the Pactolus River. His palace coffirs were said to be overflowing with gold. He contributed to the building of the first Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, which was distroyed during a battle. He consulted the orecle, at Delphi before going to war with the Perzians and received this reply ‘If Croesus goes to war, he will destroy a great empire. Croesus beleived this meant that he would be victorioius. He went to war but it was his own empire that was destroyed as he was defeeted by the Persians. During his reign, the Lydians were amung the first people to produce money.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

2. Complete these sentences using your own words.

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(a) One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World was the

.

(b) Ephesus was a thriving city on the

(c) The goddess Artemis was the Greek goddess of

.

(d) The temple was four times the

.

(e) There was a statue of the

(f) Artemis had a twin brother called

.

(g) He was the Greek god of the

.

(h) Pilgrims travelled to Ephesus, bringing offerings of

.

(i) The symbol of the city of Ephesus was the

.

(j) The temple was rebuilt

.

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.

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.

3. Circle the correct answers.

(a) The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus was (i) three times the size of the Parthenon. (ii) four times the size of the Parthenon. (iii) five times the size of the Parthenon.

(b) The city of Ephesus was known as (i) the Star of Asia. (ii) the Sun of Asia. (iii) the capital of Asia.

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(c)

The symbol of Ephesus was (i) the wild rose. (ii) the honey bee. (iii) the eagle.

(d)

The Temple of Artemis had (i) 127 stone columns. (ii) 186 gold columns. (iii) 127 marble columns.

(e)

The columns were in the (i) Ionic architectural style. (ii) Doric architectural style. (iii) Corinthian architectural style.

(f) The goddess Artemis was (i) the goddess of love and beauty. (ii) the goddess of the moon and hunting. (iii) the goddess of marriage.

Literacy and history – The Greeks

31


Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

1. Read these frequently-used keywords/terms and their explanations and use them in sentences.

(a) Asia Minor: The broad peninsula that lies between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, it is the Asian part of modern Turkey.

(b) Diana: The Roman goddess of the moon and of hunting, she was the counterpart of Artemis in Roman mythology. (c) Elgin Marbles: The collection of marble sculptures brought from the Parthenon in Athens to the British Museum in London. (d) Ephesus: A great ancient city, located at the mouth of the Cayster River on the west coast of Asia Minor, now modern Turkey. (e) King Croesus of Lydia: A legendary king associated with the building of the first Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. (f)

Leto: A goddess who was a lover of the god Zeus and the mother of the divine twins Apollo and Artemis.

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(g) Mediterranean Sea: Sea of 2 512 00 sq. kilometres between Europe (north and west), Africa (south) and Asia (to the east).

(j)

Pheidias: Famous Greek sculptor who created the statue of Zeus at Olympia and of Athena in the Parthenon, and oversaw the team of sculptors responsible for the famous metopes (panels), statues and friezes (ornamented bands) that decorated the Parthenon. sanctuary: An inner shrine and the most sacred place in a temple where religious worship took place.

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(i)

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(h) Orion: God who was a giant, killed as a result of Apollo tricking Artemis into mistakenly shooting an arrow at his head.

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(k) temple: A special building designed specifically for worshipping gods and goddesses. Thesmophoria: A religious festival held for three days each autumn in Athens which could only be celebrated by priestesses.

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2. Greek architecture had several distinctive styles. Match the descriptions to the names of the different styles of columns in the following table. There are clues if you read carefully. Column

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Style

(a) Corinthian columns

(i) In the 6th century BC, this style developed on the Ionian coast of Asia Minor and spread through the Greek islands of the Aegean. These columns were delicate and had scrolls on the top.

(b) Doric columns

(ii) This style developed at the beginning of the Classical Age and was very elaborate, with much decoration such as acanthus leaves. This style was adopted by the Romans.

(c) Ionic columns

(iii) Very plain, this style began in the 7th century BC and spread throughout the Greek mainland and into Sicily and southern Italy. A plain capital (top) capped a sturdy column and gave Doric temples simplicity.

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

3. Greek merchants traded in goods from all over the Mediterranean Sea. Match the name of the goods with these descriptions of their use in ancient times and where they came from. The descriptions have been mixed up and so have how they were used. A list of the goods is provided underneath to choose from. There are some clues if you read carefully. You may have to research some of the answers. grain timber dyes

silphium

linen

beef

nuts

Description

dates

iron

papyrus

copper

gold

Use

This material came from Egypt and was made from the pulp of a plant that grew along the muddy banks of a river.

(i)

This material was woven into a light cloth suitable for wearing in a hot climate.

(b)

These savoury foodstuffs were grown in Sinope, a coastal town on the Black Sea (in modern Turkey).

(ii)

These natural products were used to produce cloth of different colours.

(c)

The flax plant from which this material was woven was grown in Italy.

(iii)

This metal was strong and hard, and used to make surgical instruments and weapons.

(d)

This natural material was grown in Cyprus, usually in large quantities.

(iv)

This was used to make scrolls and was the most widely used writing material in the Greek world.

(e)

This was grown in Sicily to provide a staple, everyday food for the ancient Greeks.

(v)

This was a herb, considered to be a valuable medicine by the Greeks and useful as a cure for many illnesses.

(f)

These household products were woven in Carthage.

(vi)

These fruits were eaten as part of a sweet dessert dish by the ancient Greeks.

(g)

This precious element came from Macedonia where it was mined.

(vii)

This was used to make furniture such as tables, chairs, stools and chests to store bed linen and clothes.

(h)

This health-giving plant was grown in Kyrene (in modern Libya), a Greek colony on the coast of North Africa.

(i)

This soft and pliable metal came from Cyprus.

(j)

These sweet fruits were grown in Syria.

(k)

ivory

Goods

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(a)

rugs

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(viii) These crunchy foodstuffs were served in food dishes and were usually salted. This valuable material was carved into figurines, combs and knives and used as an inlay in furniture.

(x)

These household products were used to cover couches, floors and beds.

This strong metal came from Thrace.

(xi)

This meat was used in Greek food dishes and was only served to the wealthiest Greeks as it was very expensive.

(l)

This material from the tusks of elephants came from North Africa.

(xii)

This was used to make breads, pastries and pancakes, which were sold as ‘fast food’.

(m)

These products were produced in Syria from shellfish, insects and plants.

(xiii) This element was one of the most valuable commodities in the ancient world, used to make jewellery, masks, crowns, cups and even thrones for kings.

(n)

The animal who provided this meat was raised in Italy.

(xiv) This metal was soft and pliable and, when mixed with tin, was used to make sculptures and surgical instruments.

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(ix)

Discussion points — Greek architecture The ancient Greeks influenced architectural design for centuries. The Romans adapted many of their designs, as did many other cultures. Research the architecture of the Greeks and compare it to modern Design your own Greek temple, using architecture, using the library and the Internet if necessary. features of the Greeks and features of your own, and discuss the features, Research and discuss the optical tricks and devices used by the Greeks purpose and value of your designs. in the building of their temples. How did the ancient Greeks succeed in creating such complex designs without modern technology? Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Teachers Notes

Unit 5: A doctor writes a post-mortem report on the death of a soldier, Pheidippedes – 490 BC Objectives: Pupil practises skills in reading, comprehension and cloze exercises. Pupil completes word study exercises in matching sentences and choosing correct words. Pupil learns about the Battle of Marathon, the first marathon race and the development of ancient Greek medicine.

Background information:

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This text is a post-mortem report. A report is a written document describing the findings of an individual or group. Reports include newspaper reports, sports or police reports, or reports about an animal, person or object. This text is a medical report, presenting the findings of the doctor in relation to the examination he and his team have just carried out on the dead body of Pheidippides, in order to determine the cause of death. The word ‘post-mortem’ comes from Latin and means ‘after death’. A post-mortem can also be called an autopsy. A modern post-mortem is the dissection (cutting apart and examination) of a dead body in order to determine the cause of death or the effects of disease on a human body. However, the ancient Greeks cremated their dead and did not usually examine them. They did not dissect human bodies due to a taboo (a prohibition against doing something due to fear of harm from a supernatural source) and the first dissections performed to observe the effects of disease were not carried out until around 300 BC, by two doctors called Herophilus and Erisistratos, in the Greek city of Alexandria in Egypt. Dr Demokedes and his assistants are examining Pheidippides’s body very carefully in an attempt to determine the cause of his death. They are not carrying out any dissection of his body as Greek doctors did not carry out dissections on dead bodies at this time. They did, however, operate on live patients. The news of the Greek victory in the Battle of Marathon was brought to Athens by Pheidippides, an Athenian messenger and long-distance runner. He was sent by General Miltiades to seek help from the Spartans. He ran for two days, there and back, a distance of 480 kilometres. The Spartans arrived too late to help. According to legend, when the Greeks won, Pheidippides ran for 42 kilometres from the plain of Marathon, where the battle took place, to Athens in order to bring the good news to the people of Athens. According to legend, he arrived in Athens hot, dusty and covered in blood and said, ‘Rejoice. We conquer’, before he collapsed and died. Asclepios was the Greek god of medicine. He was the son of Apollo and, according to legend, had been brought up by a centaur, a legendary creature which was half-man and half-horse, who had taught him the art of medicine. He is usually portrayed holding a long stick which has a snake curled around it. The snake was a symbol of renewal because it grew a new skin and shed its old skin. This symbol is still used today as a symbol of medicine. Every temple of Asclepios contained a real snake. Sanctuaries to Asclepios existed all over the Greek world. His most famous temple was at Epidaurus in the Peloponnese. Sick people came to visit the god’s temple at Epidaurus, hoping that he would cure them. They spent the night in his sanctuary and many believed that Asclepios appeared to them in their dreams, prescribing herbal treatments, diets, exercises and baths for their illnesses. The next day, the priests carried out the treatments and many people went home believing that the god had cured them. The ancient Greeks sometimes brought terracotta or bronze models of the parts of their bodies that were causing them distress or pain. They left these models as offerings at the sanctuary of Asclepios. Hippocrates (around 469–399 BC) was a Greek doctor who is known as the father of medicine. He was born on the Greek island of Cos and ran a school of medicine there. He wrote 53 scientific books on medical subjects, now known as the Corpus. Hippocrates disliked the superstitious approach to illness that believed it was caused by gods or evil spirits or as punishment for doing wrong. He believed that the human body should be treated as a single organism and each part should be understood in the context of the entire body. Hippocrates believed that diseases had natural causes and taught that a doctor should base his treatments on careful observation of their patients symptoms in detail. He wrote a doctor’s oath, a solemn promise that has become known as the Hippocratic Oath, which was used for centuries in the Western world. A doctor taking this oath made a solemn promise to help the sick and never to cause harm. They swore never to give poison to their patients, even if they asked them to, and to always maintain confidentiality in dealings with patients. Today, medical pupils still swear a modern version of the Hippocratic Oath when graduating as doctors from medical school. The Battle of Marathon, in 490 BC, was one of the decisive battles of ancient history. The Greek general, Miltiades, led 10 000 hoplites (soldiers) down to the plain of Marathon on the north-eastern coast of Greece. They faced the Persian army led by King Darius, which was probably twice as big. The Persians, although vastly outnumbering the Greeks, were not as well armed or as disciplined as the Greeks. They relied on their cavalry and their archers rather than on their infantry. The armies faced each other for five days and, on 11 August, Miltiades devised an unusual strategy to strengthen the flanks of his phalanx (a tightly packed square of soldiers that attacked at a running trot) as it faced the Persians. The Persians, thinking that the Greeks would follow their usual battle strategy of strengthening the centre of the phalanx, left the flanks of their own army vulnerable with only archers left to defend as they strengthened their own centre. Miltiades led his army forward, experiencing difficulty in the centre as he met the strength of the Persians, but breaking through the Persians flanks easily as the Persian archers proved no match for the Greek hoplites. Hoplites were extremely well-armed soldiers with bronze helmets to protect their heads, bronze breastplates to protect their bodies, a round shield held by their left arm and bronze leg guards. The Persians were overwhelmed and defeated by the Greeks and lost 6400 men that day. The Greeks only lost 192 men.

Worksheet information: Ancient Greek civilisation consisted of several periods. The Battle of Marathon took place in 490 BC, during the Classical Period which occurred between 500 and 323 BC. Historians believe that this period of Greek history was one of the most important as it was during this period that the Greeks first began to establish the system of government known as democracy and also began to spread their civilisation and their ideas through colonisation in the Aegean Sea. It was the period when Pericles became the leader of Athens and launched a massive rebuilding programme. Pupils can check where the Classical Period fits into ancient Greek history by referring to the time line on page xii. 34

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Teachers Notes A glossary of keywords and terms relating to this particular unit is provided on pages viii – xi for teacher reference. Many of them appear on Question 1 in Exercise E. Pupils will find it beneficial to check the detailed footnotes for the text in Exercise A assist in comprehension of Greek terms.

Answers Exercise C......................................... page 38 punishment, medicine, world, them, god, baths, books, single, detailed, promise, poison, keen, military, army, victory Exercise D......................................... page 39 1. (a) (xii), (b) (x), (c) (ix), (d) (xi), (e) (ii), (f) (viii), (g) (vii), (h) (iii), (i) (iv), (j) (vi), (k) (i), (l) (v) 2. plain, Persians, kilometres, died, first, raced, world, routes, generous, challenge

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Exercise E..................................pages 40–41 1. Teacher check 2. (a) King Darius (b) hoplites (c) phalanx (d) General Militiades (e) Pheidippedes (f) a hoplite’s weapons (g) a hoplon (a hoplite’s shield) (h) panoplia (i) a psiloi (j) horsehair

3. doctor, facts, correct, always, physical, conduct, may, images, information, considered 4. (a) biology (b) chemistry (c) glassmaking (d) earthen (e) combining (f) astronomer (g) natural (h) referring (i) height (j) believed (k) speculated (l) elements (m) common (n) primitive (o) mysterious (p) transform (q) sought (r) Elixir (s) diseases (t) indefinitely

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Exercise B:........................................ page 37 1. Pheidippedes, the athlete, was young and healthy but he died suddenly after running from Marathon to Athens. 2. Having expanded into Asia Minor and taken control of Greek cities, the Persians wanted more territory and more trade so they tried to invade Greece itself. 3. He was the Greek god of healing and medicine. 4. The slaves had washed and dried the body and laid it out on a marble slab for examination. 5. Blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. They believed that an imbalance of them could result in sickness, disease and even death. 6. Teacher check 7. The marathon race celebrates his run. 8. Teacher check 9. Answers (a), (c), (e), (g) and (h) should be ticked.

Cross-curricular activities:

Pupils can find out about Hippocrates of Cos, known as the ‘Father of Medicine’, and read a version of the Hippocratic Oath at <www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/library/historical/artifacts/antiqua/hippocrates.cfm>. Information on his life and work is at <www.crystalinks.com/hippocrates.html>.

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Information on Greek medicine and the development of new medical techniques at Alexandria in Egypt during the Hellenistic age can be found at <www.healthsystem.virginia.edu.internet/library/historical/artifacts/antiqua/alexandrian.cfm>. Pupils can find out more about the Battle of Marathon at <www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/history/classical.htm>.

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Information about Pericles and the rebuilding of Athens can be found at <www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b2pericles.htm>. The International Federation of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent works to improve the lives of vulnerable people by mobilising the power of humanity. More information on this work is available at <www.ifrc.org>. The website of the World Health Organisation, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations, is <www.who.int/en/>.

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The site of the sanctuary to the god Asclepios at Epidaurus in the Peloponnese is on the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites. Pupils can find out more about this list and the work of the World Heritage Committee at <http://whc.unesco.org>.

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Exercise A:

Reading

Read the following post-mortem report by a Greek doctor, Demokedes.

Post-Mortem Report of Dr Demokedes on the body of the athlete1 of Athens. The post-mortem was attended by my two assistants and my six slaves. Information: We said a short prayer to the god Asclepios2 and asked for his guidance in this procedure. Before beginning, we observed that the body in question was that of an apparently healthy male aged around 25 years of age. Our initial observations were that there were no outward signs of ill-health in his body. We had questioned his relatives about his previous medical history and were assured that he had indeed been a healthy man. His wife, Helen, maintained that he had never complained of any illness during their five years of marriage.

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Preparation: I had already instructed my slaves to prepare the body and, when it had been washed, dried and laid out on a marble slab, we gathered around it.

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Examination: I led the examination of the body. I looked for signs of illness and examined the eyes, the tongue and the teeth for signs of disease. I looked for evidence of redness in the face and for other signs of high blood pressure but there were none. Nor was his skin colour yellow which could have indicated a sickness of the liver and an imbalance of the four humours3. I examined the chest, stomach and abdomen for signs of any abnormal swellings that might have indicated hidden disease in the body. There were none. As we continued to examine him, it became obvious that this man had indeed been a healthy man and our initial observations had been correct. As we worked, one of my assistants wrote notes on a papyrus scroll4 in order to keep a detailed record of our findings.

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Conclusion: After my slaves had removed the body, we conferred together and my colleagues agreed with my findings. He had died suddenly from a heart attack brought on by the enormous strain caused by running non-stop from the plain of Marathon to the city of Athens. His heart had literally burst as he delivered the good news. Perhaps his heart had burst with happiness. Mercifully, he did not suffer any pain5. His name should be remembered with pride and we should rejoice in our great victory over the Persians6. Cause of death: Sudden collapse and heart attack brought on by intense physical strain. Signed: Dr Demokedes.

1. Pheidippides was an Athenian athlete who, according to the legend, ran all the way to Athens to announce the victory of the Athenians at Marathon, which was about 40 kilometres north-east of Athens. The Battle of Marathon, in 490 BC, was fought against the Persians, who suffered heavy casualties and lost at least 6400 Persian soldiers in comparison to the Athenians, who only lost 192 soldiers. To honour the legend of the athlete, the modern Olympic Games, which began in 1896, instigated the marathon as an event for runners and many cities in the world also hold marathon races every year. 2. Asclepios was the Greek god of healing and medicine. He was the son of Apollo and was brought up by a centaur, a mythical creature which was half-man, half-horse. 3. The ancient Greeks believed that many illnesses were caused by an imbalance of the four humours of blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile within the body. Ancient doctors also related these humours to the four elements of earth, water, fire and air, and to the two pairs of opposites: hot and cold, wet and dry. Any imbalance could result in sickness, disease and even death. The ancient Greeks also believed that illnesses and diseases could be sent as punishment by the gods.

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Literacy and history â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The Greeks

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Exercise B:

Comprehension questions

Note that answers may be found in the footnotes as well as the text. 1. Why has Dr Demokedes been asked to carry out this post mortem? 2. Why were the Persians at war with the Greeks? 3. Why does the doctor pray to the god Asclepios before he begins his work? 4. What preparations were made by Dr Demokedes’s slaves for his examination of the body?

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6. Why do you think Pheidippides ran so far and so quickly?

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5. What were the four humours referred to by the doctor and what effect did the Greeks believe an imbalance of them could have?

7. How is the legend of Pheidippides remembered today?

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8. In your opinion, why does Dr Demokedes say that Pheidippedes ‘mercifully’ did not suffer any pain?

(a) The ancient Greeks believed that illnesses and diseases were sent by the gods as punishments.......

(e) The marathon is a race that is still run today in the Olympic Games and around the world.................

(b) Asclepios was the son of Zeus and was brought up by a satyr, a creature that was half-man and half-goat.................................................................

(f) Ancient Greek doctors performed full surgical dissections on the dead to determine the cause of death..................................................................

(c) Greek doctors used surgical instruments made of bronze................................................................

(g) Greek doctors did not have very effective anaesthetics against pain.........................................

(d) Pheidippedes ran for over eighty kilometres from Marathon to Athens.................................................

(h) In the battle of Marathon the Persians lost 6400 men but the Greeks only lost 192 men............

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9. Read the following statements and tick those that are correct:

4. Around 800 BC, the ancient Greeks rediscovered writing after losing it during the Dark Ages. They traded with the Phoenicians, who used an alphabet using only consonants. The Greeks adapted this and introduced signs for vowels. This alphabet forms the basis of the alphabet used today in the Western world. Originally, the Greeks wrote from right to left but after adapting the Phoenician alphabet they wrote from left to right. Papyrus was paper made from the pulp of the papyrus plant, sometimes also called the paper plant, grown on the banks of the Nile in Egypt. 5. Illness and death in ancient Greece was often difficult and painful. Doctor’s surgical instruments were made of bronze and included knives and probes. They operated on their patients using opium and the root of a powerful herb called mandrake to anaesthetise against pain, but these were not very effective. Consequently, surgical operations were both dangerous and extremely painful and often resulted in the death of the patient from post-operative infections, which could not be prevented or cured at that time. For this reason, ancient Greek doctors were reluctant to operate and only carried out operations as a last resort. 6. The Persian Empire began to grow to the east of the Greeks from the 7th century BC and Greek cities along the coast of Asia Minor had come under Persian rule by 550 BC. The Persians wanted more territory and trade so they invaded Greece in 491 BC and advanced towards Athens. However, the Athenians defeated them soundly at the Battle of Marathon. They would attack Greece again at the Battle of Thermopylae (480 BC) and at the naval battle of Salamis (480 BC).

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Exercise C:

Cloze exercise

Use the words from the word bank to complete the sentences.

Word Bank baths

victory

punishment

world

them

military

books

detailed

single

medicine

promise

poison

keen

god

army

The ancient Greeks were very superstitious about diseases and believed that they could be sent as a by the gods for doing wrong. Asclepios, the son of Apollo, was the Greek god of medicine. He was brought up by a centaur, a legendary creature, half-man and half-horse, who taught him about to honour Asclepios all over the Greek

. Many sanctuaries were built but his most famous temple was built at Epidaurus in the

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Peloponnese. Sick people travelled for long distances to spend the night in his temple, hoping that Asclepios would appear to in their dreams. In the morning, his priests would carry out the treatments suggested by the

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. These included herbal treatments, diets, exercises and

. People brought

terracotta or bronze models of the painful parts of their body and left them as offerings to Asclepios. One of the most famous Greek doctors, Hippocrates, was born on the island of Cos, where he established a medical school. He wrote 53 medical

, collectively known as Corpus, and he disliked superstitions about the causes of

disease. He believed that the human body should be studied as one

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organism and that each part

base their treatments on

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should be understood in the context of the entire body. He believed that diseases had natural causes and that doctors should observation of their patient’s symptoms. He wrote an oath, a solemn

, that doctors still abide by today. Doctors taking the Hippocratic Oath promised to help their patients to their patients, even when asked, and to

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and to never cause harm. They promised never to give

ensure that dealings with their patients were confidential. The Battle of Marathon, between the Persians and the Athenians, was one of the decisive battles of ancient history. The Persians, led by their king, Darius, were

to gain new territory and new trade routes in the Aegean Basin. They

had conquered the Ionian Greeks who lived along the coast of Turkey. These Greeks rebelled against Persian rule, assisted by the Athenians. The Persians, led by Darius, crushed the rebellion and began a

campaign to conquer Greece

and punish the Athenians. The Athenians, led by their general, Miltiades, faced the Persians at Marathon. Miltiades had 10 000 hoplites, Greek soldiers, at his command. However, the Persian

, led by Darius, was twice as big. They

faced each other for five days. Miltiades decided to change his battle strategy by strengthening the flanks (sides) rather than the middle of his army. He sought help from the Spartans but it came too late. There is a legend that after the Greeks won at Marathon, Pheidippedes ran to Athens to announce the

but died as soon as he got there. On that day, 11 August

490 BC, 6400 Persians died but only 192 Greeks died. Miltiades’s unusual strategy had succeeded.

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Exercise D:

Word study exercises

1. Read the following sentences about Greek doctors and medicine and match the first half of the sentences with the second half correctly. (i) powerful herb called mandrake as anaesthetics or pain relief.

(b) He was born on the island of Cos and he

(ii) there were many shrines dedicated to him in ancient Greece.

(c) This code was called the Hippocratic Code and

(iii) dream that Asclepios visited then and cured them or prescribed treatment for their illnesses.

(d) Hippocrates believed that diseases had natural causes and

(iv) small gift, called a votive, showing the part of the body that had been healed by Asclepios.

(e) The Greek god of healing was called Asclepios and

(v) school of medicine on his native island, Cos.

(f) He was the son of Apollo and was so good at healing that

(vi) including bronze knives and bronze probes.

(g) The most famous shrine to Asclepios was at Epidaurus in the

(vii) Peleponnese and contained a temple, a hospital and houses for priests who were also doctors.

(h) At Epidaurus, patients slept in a hall where they hoped to

(viii) it was said that he could bring the dead back to life.

(i) Patients who believed that the god had cured them often left a

(ix) doctors still recite a version of this oath today when they graduate.

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(a) Hippocrates, a doctor, teacher and writer has been

(x) created a code for the way doctors should behave.

(k) They operated on their patients using opium and the root of a

(xi) he disagreed with the belief that they were caused by angry gods or evil spirits.

(l) In the 5th century BC, Hippocrates set up a

(xii) called the ‘Father of Medicine’.

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(j) Greek doctors used medical instruments made of bronze

2. Read the following paragraph about the origins of the marathon race and circle the most appropriate bold word to complete the sentences.

The modern marathon commemorates the feat of the Greek athlete Pheidippedes, who ran to Athens from the plane/plain/ plan of Marathon to announce the news of the Greek’s victory against the Egyptians/Phoenicians/Persians. The legend says that, after Pheidippedes ran for about 42 metres/miles/kilometres, he said the words ‘Rejoice, we conquer’, and suddenly died/dyed/dead.

His achievement is celebrated by the Marathon race in the Modern Olympic Games and was included in the second/fourth/ first modern games in 1896 in Athens. Marathon races, open to all, are now also run/ran/raced through the streets of the world’s great cities, including London, Sydney and New York.

The Boston Marathon has been run since 1897 and many athletes from all over the Earth/world/Mars now participate in marathons. Host cities have special roads/races/routes marked off in their streets for the race. The winners in some marathons receive small/generous/tiny prizes from corporate sponsors. However, most runners participate because they enjoy the activity/challenge/demands of running long distances.

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

1. Read these keywords/terms and their explanations and use them in sentences. (a) Asclepios: A son of Apollo, he became the Greek god of healing after death and had many shrines devoted to him. (b) centaur: A mythical creature which was half-man and half-horse, usually employed as teachers of heroes. (c) four humours: Greek doctors believed that illnesses in the body were caused by an imbalance in the four humours of blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. (d) Hippocrates: A doctor, teacher and writer born on the island of Cos, and holds the title the ‘Father of Medicine’. (e) hoplites: Heavily armed soldiers, usually wealthy citizens who used their own armour. (f)

medical history: A record of a patient’s health, physical condition and any previous illnesses.

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(g) military strategy: A plan of campaign devised by military commanders before the battle commenced. (h) oath: A solemn promise, usually made to a god or a revered person to bear witness to the truth of one’s word. phalanx: A military formation in which a tightly packed square of soldiers attacked at a running trot.

(j)

post-mortem: From the Latin meaning ‘after death’, an examination of a body to determine the cause or causes of death.

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(i)

symptoms: A change in a person that can indicate the presence of a disease or a condition.

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(k) superstitious: To believe that fate, omens, magic or chance can influence everyday life and the decisions one makes.

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2. The following descriptions describe activities, people, objects and events involved in the Battle of Marathon. Match their titles with the descriptions.

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(a) He was the king of Persia when the Persians launched their military campaign in 490 BC.

(i)

(b) These soldiers wore helmets, breastplates and shin guards of bronze and carried shields.

(ii) Pheidippedes

(c) A tightly packed square of soldiers that attacked at a running trot. Each soldier used his shield to protect the right side of the soldier to his left.

(iii) a hoplon (a hoplite’s shield)

(d) He was the leader of the Greeks at the Battle of Marathon and led a much smaller army than the Persians.

(iv) panoplia (collection of weapons)

(e) He ran from Marathon to the city of Athens to announce the victory of the Greeks against the Persians, and collapsed and died when he gave the news.

(v) King Darius

(f)

(vi) phalanx

A long sword and a short double-bladed iron sword.

horsehair

(g) This object could weigh as much as eight kilograms and was a wooden bowl covered with bronze plates on the outside and leather on the inside.

(vii) psiloi

(h) This was the name given to a hoplite’s armour.

(viii) hoplites

(i)

This soldier supported the hoplites and was armed with stones and clubs.

(ix) a hoplite’s weapons

(j)

This was used to decorate the soldier’s helmets.

(x) General Miltiades

Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

3. Read the following paragraph about the diagnosis of disease and circle the correct bold words to complete each sentence. The process of identifying a disease and its causes is called a diagnosis. The doctor/nurse/patient collects the facts about a patient’s condition and reviews them in a logical manner. Further ideas/theories/facts may be needed to distinguish between possible diagnoses but sometimes the incorrect/correct/false diagnosis can be made very quickly. Diagnosis always/sometimes/never begins with the patient’s health history and a physical examination. During the mental/ spiritual/physical examination, the doctor gathers data about the patient’s weight, blood pressure and body temperature. The doctor will also listen to the patient’s heart and lungs and may calculate/conduct/cancel some tests, such as an examination and analysis of the patient’s blood and urine. The use of X-rays may/must/might be required for further information and the doctor may wish to use computed tomography or scanning, which can produce detailed crosssectional drawings/cartoons/images of the patient’s body. The doctor may also decide to use the electrocardiogram, called the ECG, or the electroencephalogram, called the EEG, to provide further supposition/suggestion/information. An MRI scan may also be construed/considered/constrained by the doctor, which uses magnetic resonance imaging to produce images of the patient’s body structure using magnetism, radio waves and a computer.

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4. Read the following paragraph, about the earliest scientists, and find 20 misspellings. Write the corrected words underneath. You may need to use a dictionary. Science was traditionally divided into three main areas: physics, chemistry and biolagy. The earliest chemists lived in ancient Sumeria, Babylon, Egypt and Greece. Early pupils of chemistrey recognised elements such as iron, glass and copper and made progress in glassmakeing, metalworking and alloying. They knew that iron was made from a dirty brown earthan rock and that bronze was made by combineing copper and tin. Thales of Miletus, a Greek philosopher, astronomar, statesman and mathematician, is sometimes regarded as the first Greek philosopher as he sought to give a purely naturel explanation for things without refering to any mythological factors. He is credited with the discovery of five theorems in geometry. He is reputed to have applied his theorems to calculate the heighte of the Egyptian pyramids and to calculate the distance from shore of a ship at sea. He beleived that water was the fundamental building block of all matter on Earth. Another Greek philosopher, Aristotle, specalated on the nature of matter. He believed that earth, fire, air and water were the basic elemants that comprised all matter. Ancient writers in this area speculated on removing hardness, heat and cold from comman materials to make them rare or more valuable. During the Middle Ages, a primative science called alchemy developed in which alchemists tried to discover what they called the Philosopher’s Stone, a misterious material which they believed would transforme common metals, such as lead, into silver or gold. The alchemists also soughte to find the Elixer of Life, a potion they believed would cure all dizeases and prolong life indefinately.

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4.

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3.

5.

6.

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8.

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Discussion points — Greek medicine and modern medicine Today, modern medicine can achieve results that the ancient Greeks could only dream of. However, the influence of the ancient Greeks on the science of medicine still endures centuries after their civilisation ended. Discuss the progress made by modern medicine in the alleviation of pain and suffering. Discuss what the attitude of the ancient Greeks may have been to the use of plastic surgery for cosmetic purposes. Map the areas of the world today that are still suffering from food shortages, poor medical facilities and disease epidemics and research the work of organisations such as the International Federation of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent and the World Health Organisation. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers Notes

Unit 6: Queen Artemisia writes in her journal about the Battle of Salamis – 480 BC Objectives: Pupil reads text and completes comprehension and cloze exercise based on text. Pupil completes word study exercises in correcting spelling and identifying and circling correct answers. Pupil learns about the military forces of the Greeks, straits and what they are and circles key geographical terms to do with the sea.

Background information: This text is a journal. A journal is a continued series of texts written by a person about his or her life experiences and events. Journals may include descriptions of daily events as well as thoughts and emotions. In this text, Queen Artemisia writes in her journal before, during and after the Battle of Salamis, describing her feelings and emotions as she faces the battle and as she deals with its aftermath. Queen Artemisia fought in full armour, wearing a breastplate and helmet and carrying a dagger and sickle. She commanded five ships and was the only woman fighting in the Persian navy.

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The power of Athens depended on its navy. Athens had 200 boats, called triremes. These ships carried 170 rowers in three tiers, had ramming heads and were quick and manoeuverable. A flautist played music to help the oarsmen keep time. By the mid-6th century BC, the Greeks had developed a new ramming head, a metal-tipped wooden ramming spike, which jutted forward from the ship just under the water line. Oarsmen could fight if they had to but the triremes also carried around 60 professional soldiers called hoplites. The triremes could split an enemy ship in two if they were rowed into it. Eventually, the Greeks gave up boarding ships and simply rammed them in half. During the Battle of Salamis, in 480 BC, Greek triremes, led by the Athenians, completely destroyed 200 Persian ships.

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The Greeks were great sailors and used their ships to sail around the coast or to move from island to island for their trade, travel or warfare. In a land of mountains and rough tracks, it was easier to sail along the coast than to attempt to cross the mountains. This mountainous landscape meant that sea travel was far safer and simpler. Many of the islands of the eastern Mediterranean Sea were so close to each other that it was possible to sail from one port to the other without even losing sight of land.

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Greek ships were built from oak, fir or poplar, with a softer mast of fir. Greek ships were crescent-shaped and had a tall stem. Their warships, such as the triremes, were narrow for speed and had rowers as well as a mast. Their merchant ships, used for trading, were wider with sails and a steering oar. The Greeks used large stones as anchors. Ships usually only sailed when the weather was good, between late spring and early autumn. If storms blew up, the Greeks could only use the sun and stars as landmarks. At that stage, they lacked the compass or the sextant for navigation. By day, Greek sailors relied on coastal landmarks for navigation and at night, they navigated by the stars in the sky. Greek ships, which were small and slow, stayed close to land and carried goods locally from one harbour to the next. Most journeys west from Athens avoided sailing around the southern tip of the Peleponnese and merchants simply pulled their boats overland along a stone track across the thin land-bridge which joined the Peloponnese to the rest of the country.

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Around 550 BC, many of the Greek cities along the coast of Asia had come under Persian rule. The Persians, under their king, Darius, invaded Greece in 491 BC with a large army and many ships. Darius conquered the areas of Thrace and Macedonia and then turned his attention to Athens. The Battle of Marathon was the first great battle of this war, with the Greeks defeating the Persians. At Marathon, the Persians lost 6400 men whereas the Athenians lost only 192. The next great battle of this war was the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC. Three hundred Spartans fought to the death to stop the Persians, under the leadership of their king, Xerxes (the son of Darius), getting through a narrow mountain pass. At the Battle of Salamis, shortly afterwards, the Persians were lured towards a narrow strait where the Greek ships rammed them, splintering their sides and sheering off ranks of Persian oars. They then ploughed into the next wave of Persian oars. In the battle, the Persians lost 200 ships and the Greeks only lost 40 ships. Eventually, the Persians gave up their dream of invading and colonising Greece. Ancient Greece was never a single country. It was a collection of small political units, with different units having dominance from time to time. These units were called ‘poleis’ (plural) in Greek. The word ‘polis’ (singular) can be translated as ‘city-state’. These units were not really cities or states but communities of people who were self-governing and usually consisted of a number of elements such as an acropolis, a city centre which was the centre of public life, a town or city built around the acropolis, villages and countryside surrounding the town or city, the people who lived in these areas and the political, cultural and economic way of life. Many Greek colonies, with their own poleis or city-states, were founded between 750 and 400 BC in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. They included cities as far as Marseilles in France, Cyrene in North Africa and Emporium in Spain. It was easier to travel by boat than to travel overland to reach many Greek city-states. In ancient times, this meant that the chief form of travel for most Greeks was by sea and, as a result, they were excellent sailors, brilliant navigators and successful traders. The inner islands acted as stepping-stones for sailors between Greece and Asia Minor. Ancient Greek sailors were never out of sight of land or without a safe harbour for the night as they sailed in the Aegean Basin, which became the focus for the development of trade and culture between Europe, Asia and Egypt. It was no accident that city-states like Athens reached their political, cultural and economic height at the time of their naval supremacy. The colonies established by the Greeks were a result of their great seafaring skills. There was unity among Greeks in three main areas and this unity gave them their identity in the ancient world. These three areas were a common language, a common literature and a common religion.

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Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Teachers Notes Worksheet information: Pupils may wish to use their atlases, their geography resources and the Internet in order to complete Questions 3 and 4 in Exercise E. Ancient Greek civilisation consisted of several periods. The Battle of Salamis occurred at the start of the Classical Period. Pupils can check where the Classical Period fits into ancient Greek history by referring to the time line included on page xii. A glossary of keywords and terms relating to this particular unit is provided on pages viii – xi for teacher reference. Many of them appear on Question 1 in Exercise E. Pupils will find it beneficial to check the detailed footnotes for the text in Exercise A to assist in comprehension of Greek terms.

Answers: 2. 3.

Exercise C......................................... page 46 divided, living, Greece, crime, sea, attack, oarsmen, their, painted, warships, Salamis, dared, completely, watched, golden, life, defeated.

Exercise E..................................pages 48–49 1. Teacher check 2. (a) (v), (b) (iii), (c) (vi), (d) (i), (e) (ii), (f) (iv) 3. (a) (v), (b) (vi), (c) (vii), (d) (iv), (e) (viii), (f) (ii), (g) (iii), (h) (i) 4. (a) (ii), (b) (iii), (c) (i), (d) (i), (e) (ii), (f) (i), (g) (iii), (h) (iii)

Exercise D......................................... page 47 1. (a) ruined (b) associated (c) strait (d) continued (e) naval (f) pieces (g) vitality (h) easily (i) defeated (j) dead

Cross-curricular activities:

(a) Iran (b) middle (c) expand (d) kingdom (e) along (f) largest (g) divided (h) communication (i) efficient (j) warriors (a) (i), (b) (ii), (c) (iii), (d) (i), (e) (iii), (f) (ii)

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8. The Greeks thought that she had defected to their side and the Persians thought that she had rammed a Greek ship. 9. Answers (a), (c), (e) and (g) should be ticked.

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Exercise B......................................... page 45 1. The enemy have almost as many ships as the Persians. 2. I60 Athenian ships have arrived, making it a total of 480 Greek ships. 3. The Persian king believed they could trap the Greek ships in the narrow waters between Salamis and the mainland because they outnumbered them. 4. She had a dream, which seemed to forecast disaster and tried to warn King Xerxes about it. 5. They were better designed and more manoeuverable. 6. She did it to escape capture and torture by the Greeks who were offering a reward of 1000 drachmas for her capture. 7. Teacher check

Pupils can design their own hoplite armour. A good website with information on hoplites and their armour is <www.ncl.ac.uk/shefton-museum/ arms/greekarmour.html>.

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Pupils can design their own trireme, using features of the ancient Greeks and features of their own design. A good website with information on triremes is <http://home-3.tiscali.nl/~meester7/engtrireme.html>.

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Pupils can carry out research on other women leaders in history such as Queen Boadicea who fought against Roman rule in Britain or Queen Elizabeth I of England who successfully ruled for 45 years during England’s Golden Age. Pupils can find information on Queen Boadicea and her fight against the Romans at <www.royalty.nu/Europe/England/Boadicea.html> and the Golden Age of Elizabeth I at <www.elizabethi.org/ us/biography.html>.

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There were two Queen Artemisias. The first queen fought in the Battle of Salamis. The second queen is credited with building the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus for her husband in the 4th century BC, which became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Halicarnassus was one of the Ionian Greek states on the west coast of what is now Turkey. Pupils can research both queens and compare them. A good website with information on both of them is <www.bodrum-info.org/English/history/>.

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Exercise A:

Reading

Read the following journal entries written by Queen Artemisia1 – Queen of Halicarnassus.

The Straits of Salamis, September 480 BC

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The night before the battle I am feeling very apprehensive and worried. We have 500 ships, but there are now 480 enemy ships here, too, of which 160 are Athenian. The rest are from the other Greek poleis2. They have all responded to the call from Themistocles to come here. Even though the Spartans, led by their king, Leonidas, prevented our forces from passing through Thermopylae3, Athens was still razed to the ground4 by King Xerxes and his forces. I have had a bad feeling about this battle since I had a dream two nights ago that the sea had turned red and there were many voices crying out in pain for me to rescue them. I have tried to warn Xerxes that the Greeks are dangerous and will bring only defeat but he has ignored me. He is stubborn and will not take my advice. He is a fool and I fear that he will regret this bitterly in the future.

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The morning of the battle I woke this morning while it was still dark and said my prayers to the gods. The sea was lashing my ships and the Greek triremes5 and the clouds raced ominously across the sky. I fear that I will lose my life here today. Our ships are ready and I will be commanding my five ships in the battle. I must go now but I pray that the gods will protect me this day. I pray that Xerxes is right and that, because we outnumber them, we can trap the Greeks in the narrow waters between Salamis and the mainland. If we can do that, they will have no room for action and their oars will crack. They will hit each other with the bronze beaks of their oars and we will smash their ships to pieces. They should expect death this morning.

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The aftermath of the battle There is blood and darkness everywhere. It is hard to believe that the Greeks are the victors in the middle of this chaos of death and destruction. I hear the cries of drowning Persians all around me. The cost of the battle must be very great. There are hundreds of our ships wrecked and sinking even as I write. Broken oars float in the water. I was trapped among the mayhem and had to ram an ally’s ship6 in order to escape from the straits with my life. It was that or suffer horribly at the hands of the Greeks who, I have heard, are willing to pay 1000 drachmas for my capture. I heard that Xerxes watched the battle from a golden throne on a hill on the mainland. His servants served him drinks in golden cups as he watched us fight. He clearly expected to win. How could he have underestimated the determination of the Greeks to protect their way of life? Why did he not listen to me? I was right about Salamis. But if the Greeks think we are finished, they should think again7. Our navy may be damaged but our army is still strong. 1. Artemisia was a fighting queen who was a naval commander and an ally of Xerxes. She ruled the city of Halicarnassus and the nearby islands of Cos, Calymnos and Nisyros. She commanded five ships in the Persian navy. She advised Xerxes not to fight at Salamis, suspecting that it was a Greek trap and fearing that it would result in the defeat of the Persian navy. She was right. The Greeks sent a man called Sicinnus to lie to Xerxes, telling him that Themistocles (a Greek general) was going to defect to the Persian side. 2. Poleis is the plural of the word ‘polis’, a Greek word meaning ‘city-state’, a community of people who are self-governing. 3. In the Battle of Thermopylae, a small number of Spartans, believed to be about 300 in number, and led by King Leonidas held back the Persians from getting through a narrow mountain pass. A Greek traitor showed the Persians another way to get through the pass but Leonidas, and his men fought on and they were all killed. The Persians had marched on to Athens, killing Athenians and plundering the city. 4. To destroy utterly by tearing down and demolishing a building, town or city. 5. Triremes were special warships that had crews of 200 men. A team of 170 oarsmen rowed them and they could travel at great speed. They had a huge battering ram at the front, which crashed into enemy ships and caused a great deal of damage. They sometimes had eyes and faces painted on their fronts to make them appear even more frightening. Although greatly outnumbered by the Persians, the Greek triremes were better designed and much more manoeuvrable in the narrow straits of Salamis. This gave them an advantage over the Persians that they exploited successfully in this famous naval victory. 44

Literacy and history – The Greeks

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Exercise B:

Comprehension questions

Note that answers may be found in the footnotes as well as the text. 1. Why is Queen Artemisia feeling so apprehensive and worried? 2. How many Athenian ships have arrived? How many Greek ships are there to take part in the battle? 3. What strategy did the Persians hope to adopt in the battle? 4. What has Queen Artemisia tried to warn King Xerxes about? 5. What advantage did the Greek triremes have against the Persians?

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6. How does the queen justify the fact that she rammed a ship belonging to her own side?

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7. What do you think the queen’s dream may have meant?

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8. How did Queen Artemisia manage to escape from the straits of Salamis without being recognised by the Greeks or condemned by the Persians for ramming the ship of a Persian ally?

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9. Read the following statements and tick those that are correct: (a) Queen Artemisia was a fighter queen who commanded five ships in the battle of Salamis....................................

(b) Queen Artemisia was the ally of the Greeks...................... (c) Greek triremes were well designed and manoeuverable in narrow waters.....................................

(d) Queen Artemisia was queen of the city of Calynda............ (e) The Greeks tricked the Persians into thinking that Themistocles was going to defect....................................

(f) King Xerxes fought in the Battle of Salamis....................... (g) The Spartans were the heroes of the Battle of

Thermopylae.................................................................. (h) The Persians were finally defeated by the Greeks in 471 BC..........................................................................

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6. Artemisia feared for her life as it became clear that the Greeks were winning the battle. In order to escape, she rammed a trireme belonging to the king of Calynda, a city close to Halicarnassus, and sank it. She was lucky to escape as the Greeks thought that her ship had defected to their side because she sat beneath an awning and they did not see her. If they had realised who she was, they would have captured her, as there was a reward of 1000 drachmas offered by them for her capture. The Persians thought that she had rammed a Greek ship and praised her to Xerxes, glad to have something good to report to him amidst all the bad news. 7. The Persians continued to threaten the Greeks but, in 479 BC, a huge Greek army led by a Spartan general called Pausonias defeated the Persians at Plataea. The Greek navy also attacked and burned the Persian fleet at Mykale in Asia Minor.

Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Exercise C:

Cloze exercise

Use the words from the word bank to complete the sentences.

Word Bank

golden painted Salamis

defeated watched sea

divided attack Greece living dared completely oarsmen

life

their crime warships

In 480 BC, the Persians attacked the Greeks, led by Xerxes, the son of King Darius. The Persians had created an empire stretching from Egypt to India which was

into 20 provinces. Each province had to pay taxes to the king and rebellions

were crushed ruthlessly. Each area kept its culture, language and religion, but the Ionian Greeks

along

the Turkish coast hated Persian rule and rebelled. This angered the Persians, who became determined to expand their territories by conquering

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.

After the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC, Greece was unsettled and open to attack. The Athenians had abandoned their city to the Greeks

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and the sacred temples on the Acropolis had been burned. This was an unforgivable

who respected and feared their gods. The Athenian general and naval commander, Themistocles, persuaded them to fight a battle against the Persian king, Xerxes. In September 480 BC, the Athenians and their allies waited for the Persians to

them in the narrow straits of Salamis.

and their allies in the straits. Triremes had 170

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Themistocles believed that the more manoeuverable Greek triremes would be faster and the Greeks would be able to sink the Persians , rowing on three levels on either side of the ship. Hoplites

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fought with spears and bows on the deck above the rowers. Triremes had pointed wooden rams strengthened with metal. They rammed their enemies with force, smashing

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symbols in Greek art, were believed that eyes painted on engage the Greeks at

oars and splintering their ships in two. Eyes, important on the sides of the ships to make them appear frightening. The Greeks also magically guided them. King Xerxes was absolutely determined to

, even though some of his allies had misgivings about engaging them in a naval

battle with the Greeks. Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus is said to have been the only one who

to voice

her doubts to Xerxes, believing that they risked defeat at sea and on land. In the event, Artemisia was right. The Greeks trapped the Persians in the narrow straits and destroyed 200 Persian ships by ramming them and smashing their oars, sinking them and killing many Persians. King Xerxes had

the battle from a golden throne on the mainland, being served drinks by his servants in cups, and was devastated by the defeat. Queen Artemisia had to fight for her

,

being trapped between the Greeks and the sinking and damaged Persian ships. She had to ram one of her ally’s ships to get to safety and hide out of sight of the Greeks. The Greeks had a 1000 drachma reward for her capture. Xerxes abandoned the invasion of Greece and returned to Persia. The Persians later attacked the Greeks at Plataea, in 479 BC, but they were

and

at Mykale in Asia Minor, the Greeks destroyed their navy. 46

Literacy and history – The Greeks

Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Exercise D:

Word study exercises

1. Read the following account by King Xerxes of the Battle of Salamis. Identify ten misspellings in his account. Write them correctly below.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

10.

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The journal of King Xerxes, September 480 BC. I am writing this in the evening of the day that has runed my life. From now on, my name will always be asociated with failure, not glory. I have let my father, King Darius, down badly. As I sat in my golden throne on the hill overlooking the straight of Salamis earlier today, I felt so confident of victory. Last night, Queen Artemisia continueid to voice her doubts about my strategy of fighting a navale battle against the Greeks. Why didn’t I listen to her? She was right. As I saw my ships trapped and rammed to peaces by the Greeks, my heart sank and I could feel my vitalaty fade away. I was so sure, after what happened at Thermopylae in August, that we would be able to beat them easilly. But I was wrong. So wrong. We have suffered not only the loss of over 200 of our ships but the loss of our pride as Persians. Now I must leave quickly as a defeeted king, and flee like a criminal, not like the king of a great empire. I vow that we will return to fight the Greeks again, on the body of my deade father, King Darius, and next time the victory will be ours.

9.

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2. Read the following description of the Persian Empire and circle the correct bold word in each sentence.

The Persians were a people who came from the area we now call Iran/Egypt/Syria. From the end/middle/beginning of the 6th century BC, the Persian Empire began to include/expand/invade its territories. It conquered the kingdom/

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Republic/state of Media and began to take control of Greek territories and Greek city-states above/under/along the Aegean Sea’s eastern coastline. Under King Darius, the empire reached its smallest/largest/biggest extent. Their empire was cut/ arranged/divided into 20 provinces. A system of roads made communication/conversation/calls between the Persian

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king and the provinces easy. The Persians had an extremely small/efficient/easygoing army. There was an elite force of 10 000 Persian painters/warriors/bakers who were known as the Immortals.

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3. Circle the correct answers.

(a) The Persians came from the area we now call (i) Iran. (ii) Ireland. (iii) Italy.

(b) In the 6th century BC, the Persians began to threaten (i) the Egyptians. (ii) the Greeks. (iii) the Celts.

(c) The Battle of Salamis occurred in (i) 470 BC. (ii) 390 BC. (iii) 480 BC. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

(d) Queen Artemisia was the queen of (i) the city of Halicarnassus. (ii) the city of Pergamum. (iii) the city of Babylon. (e) Queen Artemisia was a naval commander who (i) commanded 7 ships in the battle of Salamis. (ii) commanded 11 ships in the battle of Salamis. (iii) commanded 5 ships in the battle of Salamis.

(f) In the Battle of Salamis, she was forced to (i) scuttle her own ship in order to escape. (ii) ram the ship of one of her own ally’s. (iii) surrender to the Greeks.

Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

1. Read these keywords/terms and their explanations and use them in sentences.

(a) apprehensive: State of mind in which a person is worried and concerned about things going wrong in the future.

(b) Artemisia: Queen of Halicarnassus, she commanded five ships at the Battle of Salamis.

(c) chaos: A state of complete disorder and utter confusion.

(d) Halicarnassus: The ancient capital of Caria, a land which lay in what is now south-west Turkey.

(e) manoeuverable: Easily guided through difficult or narrow positions.

(f)

mayhem: Needless or wilful destruction or violence carried out on an object or a person.

(g) Persia: Ancient name of a country in south-west Asia, now called Iran.

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(h) to ram a ship: To pierce the prow of an enemy ship with the pointed beak of ones’ oars in order to sink it.

(i)

to raze to the ground: To destroy utterly by tearing down and demolishing a building, town or city.

(k) triremes: Greek warships; had three tiers of 170 rowers, metal-tipped ramming spikes and were light and manoeuverable.

(l)

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straits: A narrow passageway of sea connecting two larger bodies of water; e.g. the Straits of Salamis connected the Saronic Gulf with the Bay of Eleusis.

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(j)

Xerxes: The king of the Persians from 486–465 BC and son of King Darius.

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2. Read the following descriptions of some of the Greek forces and identify their titles. Look for the clues in the descriptions. Description

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Greek force

(a) I come from Athens. I trained as a soldier when I was 18 and I was called up for military service during the latest crisis with the Persian enemy. I purchased my own armour and weapons.

(i) An archer on a trireme

(b) I come from the land of Scythia on the shores of the Black Sea. I was paid a handsome fee to come and join in the fighting, using my bow and arrow.

(ii) Athenian cavalry officer

(c) I come from Piraeus, the port of Athens. I wanted to row on the triremes since I was a young boy. My family were poor but I was accepted into the navy as a professional sailor.

(iii) A Scythian archer

(d) I belong to the Athenian navy and I am trained to use a bow and arrow against the enemy, as I sail on the trireme rowed by my fellow sailors, the oarsmen.

(iv) A Spartan warrior

(e) I come from a noble Athenian family. I ride in a fast horse-drawn chariot so I can give orders to my soldiers in battle and get a better view of the fighting.

(v) An Athenian hoplite

(f) I was born in Sparta. My life has been dedicated to fighting since I was seven years of age, when I left my family to train as a warrior. I would prefer to die than to be defeated by my enemy.

(vi) An oarsman on a trireme

Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

3. Straits are narrow channels or passageways of sea linking two larger areas of sea. The straits at Salamis connected the Saronic Bay in the south with the bay of Eleusis in the north and separated the island of Salamis from the Greek mainland. Can you link these other straits with their descriptions? There are clues in the descriptions. You may wish to use your atlas, the Internet and other resources. Description

Strait

Strait between Spain and north Africa connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Gibraltar on the north and Ceuta on the southern side of the strait were known as the Pillars of Heracles in ancient times, as the Greeks believed that they marked the spot beyond which they should not sail.

(i)

The Dardanelles and the Bosporus Straits

(b)

Strait between south-east England and northern France in the English Channel, which separates England from France by 35 kilometres. It played a vital role in the two world wars in the 20th century, World War I and World War 2.

(ii)

The Strait of Malacca

(c)

Strait at the southern end of South America between the mainland and Tierra del Fuego Archipelago in the southern Atlantic Ocean. It is named after Ferdinand Magellan, the Portuguese explorer who first sailed through it into the Pacific Ocean in 1520.

(iii) The Strait of Otranto

(d)

Strait between Canada and the United States between Vancouver Island and the mainland, north-west of Puget Sound in the Pacific Ocean. It separates Vancouver Island from the Canadian mainland.

(iv) The Straits of Georgia and Queen Charlotte

(e)

Strait between north-east Sicily and the south-west tip of the peninsula of Italy in the Mediterranean Sea. The strait separates Sicily from the Italian mainland.

(v)

(f)

Strait between South Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean, which the Portuguese seized in 1510 as they searched for spices to bring back to Europe during the Age of Exploration.

(vi) The Strait of Dover

(g)

Strait between south-east Italy and Albania in the Adriatic Sea. It is 800 kilometres long and stretches from the Gulf of Venice. It separates Italy from eastern Europe.

(vii) The Strait of Magellan

(h)

Strait between the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara that leads into the Bosporus Strait and into the Black Sea. In ancient times it was called the Hellespont and it was crossed by King Xerxes in 480 BC and by Alexander the Great in 334 BC.

(viii) The Strait of Messina

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(a)

4. Circle the correct explanations for the following terms. You may wish to consult your atlas, the Internet or other resources. (e) A sound is (i) an inland lake. (ii) a long passage of water that is wider than a strait. (iii) a river basin prone to strong winds. (f) A gulf is (i) a part of ocean or sea extending into the land. (ii) a wide expanse of beach. (iii) another name for a river delta. (g) An archipelago is (i) an arctic stream. (ii) a lake in the mountains. (iii) an expanse of water with many scattered islands. (h) An ocean is (i) a number of inland canals. (ii) another name for an estuary. (iii) a major subdivision of the body of water covering the Earth’s surface.

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(a) A peninsula is (i) a bridge across a river. (ii) a body of land surrounded on three sides by water. (iii) an artificial island in a lake. (b) A strait is (i) a straight river. (ii) a narrow stretch of river. (iii) a narrow passageway of sea between two larger bodies of sea. (c) A channel is (i) a narrow sea between two close landmasses. (ii) the route of a ferry. (iii) a freshwater lake. (d) An island is (i) any land area surrounded entirely by water. (ii) a piece of land connected to the mainland by a bridge. (iii) a large piece of land encircled by a river. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Literacy and history – The Greeks

The Strait of Gibraltar

Discussion points Research Greek warfare, using the library and the Internet, and discuss the contribution of the ancient Greeks to the techniques and tactics of warfare. Organise a debate in which a Greek side and a Persian side argue about the Battle of Salamis, the tactics used and the fairness of the outcome. Research the topic using the library and the Internet.

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Teachers Notes

Unit 7: A critic reviews the first night of a new play in the Greek colony of Poseidonia – 470 BC Objectives:

Pupils read text and complete comprehension and cloze exercises on text. Pupils complete word study exercises in word search skills, correcting misspellings and finding correct answers. Pupils learn about Greek colonisation and the spread and influence of Greek culture throughout the Mediterranean Sea.

Background information:

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This text is a review, in this case, a review of a play. Reviews are journalistic writing. Journalistic writing aims to present information accurately, clearly and efficiently rather than to present and develop an individual writer’s style. Journalistic writing is usually written in the third person but a drama review such as this presents an individual’s views on a play and is therefore written in the first person. A play is a specific piece of drama, usually enacted on a stage by a number of actors dressed in make-up and appropriate costumes. In the case of Greek drama, all of the actors were male and wore masks made of fabric and stiffened with plaster. Women were not allowed to take part but could attend plays. Greek drama first developed when plays were performed during religious festivals. In Athens, plays were first performed to honour the god of theatre and wine, Dionysos, and by the middle of the 6th century BC drama competitions were regularly held during the festival of Dionysos. The festivals usually lasted for five days and were primarily religious in nature but, on the fifth day, comedies were performed to entertain the crowds. The play in the text is being performed in the wealthy Greek city of Poseidonia (renamed Paestum by the Romans) in southern Italy. The site of the ancient city of Poseidonia is close to the modern Italian city of Salerno, where the three temples referred to by the critic can still be seen. Poseidonia had a number of Greek temples and other Greek buildings, some of which have been very well preserved. They are the best preserved archaic temples in the Greek world. They are the Temple of Ceres (now known to have been dedicated by the Greeks to the goddess Athena), the Basilica (dedicated to the goddess Hera) and the Temple of Neptune (now known to have been dedicated to the god Apollo). The Temple of Neptune is the best preserved and the largest of the three temples. They are among the best preserved Greek temples outside Greece because the city was abandoned due to an outbreak of malaria and allowed to become swamped by the natural growth of plants. Paestum was called Poseidonia by the Greeks, which means ‘the city of Poseidon’, who was the Greek god of the sea. It was part of what was known as Magna Graecia, or ‘Great Greece’. This was the name given to the many Greek colonies, including those founded in Sicily and southern Italy. Apollo was the god of new cities and one of the first things many Greek settlers did was to build an altar to Apollo and seek his blessing on their new home. Apollo was one of the most important Greek gods. He was also the god of the sun and of medicine. Founding a new polis involved great effort and expense. The settlers had to have people, ships, food and weapons provided. This included skilled builders, land surveyors, priests and craft workers. Greek settlers looked for specific features when they were searching for a suitable site for their new city, such as sites which had easy access to water. One of the first buildings they usually built was a temple honouring the gods, with a sacred flame burning all the time brought there from Greece. Ancient Greek playwrights had a profound influence on drama to the present day and their plays are still studied and performed all over the world today. The greatest tragedies were written by playwrights such as Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. They deal with themes of moral and ethical dilemmas such as the use and abuse of power, the rights of the individual and the rights of the state. Aristophanes wrote famous comedies. Greek dramas originally began as ceremonies to honour the gods at sacred sites such as Delphi. By the 5th century BC, tragedies and comedies were being performed regularly. The Greeks held religious festivals several times a year in Athens to honour the god Dionysos. These were called the Dionysia and lasted for five days. Competitions were held and three tragedy and five comedy playwrights were shortlisted. Greek dramas usually had a chorus, which was a group of singers and dancers who wore masks. When Greek drama started, there could be as many as 45 to 50 members in the chorus, reciting in unison. Gradually, the solo actors became more important and their dialogue took precedence but the chorus continued making comments on the action and linking events for the audience. As arenas grew bigger, the masks and costumes were designed to help the audience identify the characters in the drama. Happy characters wore bright clothes and tragic ones wore dark clothes. Tragedies dealt with serious themes such as war and conflict and actors wore masks in dark colours. Comedies dealt with lighter themes and the actors wore masks in bright colours. Their costumes were heavily padded and the actors wore boots and wigs to accentuate their appearance. Their masks were made of stiffened fabric or cork and the large mouths amplified the actors’ voices. The actors could only be men and all female parts were played by them. Music often accompanied the plays, which were performed on a flat circular area called the orchestra. The design of a Greek theatre was a combination of function and beauty. Theatres were large and semi-circular in shape with rows of tiered seating. The seats at the front were reserved for the most important visitors. The centre was circular and included an altar to the god, Dionysos. The stage was raised within the circle. This shape ensured that all present could see and hear clearly as its design amplified sound. The Greek theatre built in the ancient city of Epidaurus, in the north-eastern area of the Peloponnese at the end of the 4th century BC, is well preserved. It gives us a very good idea of what it must have been like to attend a play in ancient Greece. It was designed by an architect called Polyclitus the Younger. This theatre could seat up to 14 000 people and had a curved auditorium designed as a huge semi-circular bowl cut into the hillside. Its shape was designed for excellent viewing and the acoustics are superb as actors speaking in the orchestra today can be heard clearly in the back row. The theatre at Syracuse was one of the largest in the Greek world, with seating for an audience of 15 000 people.

Worksheet information:

Pupils completing Question 2 in Exercise D may need to use a dictionary. Pupils completing Question 2 in Exercise E may wish to consult an atlas. Ancient Greek civilisation contained several periods. Pupils can see where the Hellenistic Period (323–30 BC) fits into ancient Greek history by referring to the time line included in on page xii.

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Teachers Notes A glossary of keywords and terms relating to this particular unit is provided on pages viii – xi for teacher reference. Pupils will find it beneficial to check the detailed footnotes for the text in Exercise A to assist in comprehension of Greek terms.

Exercise C........................ page 54 along, present, still, largest, wool, craft workers, water, temple, watching, evidence, dedicated, city, Roman, wool, comedies, always, performing, excellent

Exercise E................ pages 56–57 1. Teacher check 2. (a) Ephesus (b) Syracuse (c) Athens (d) Epidaurus

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Exercise B........................ page 53 1. He says that the colonial drama scene does not usually appeal to him. 2. The temples built to honour Poseidon, Hera and Athena. 3. Teacher check 4. The play is called Heracles and the three-headed dog. It is a comedy, written by Epicharmus of Siracusa. 5. ‘Magna Graecia’ is a term that means ‘Great Greece’ and refers to Greek colonies overseas. 6. The festival of Dionysos. 7.–8. Teacher check 9. Answers (b), (e), and (f) should be ticked.

Exercise D........................ page 55 1. Teacher check 2. (a) dramatist (b) entirety (c) amusement (d) tool (e) aspects (f) imaginative (g) performed (h) prizes (i) competitions (j) Dionysos 3. (a) dramatic (b) Dionysos (c) male (d) masks (e) orchestra (f) chorus (g) acoustics (h) tragedies (i) theatres (j) 15 000

3. (a) (v) (b) (ix) (c) (iv) (d) (xii) (e) (xi) (f) (vi) (g) (iii) (h) (ii) (i) (vii) (j) (i) (k) (viii) (l) (x) 4. sea, kilometres, Black, Red, widest, African, islands, clay, rocky

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Answers:

Cross-curricular activities:

The theatre at Epidaurus and images of other Greek theatres can be viewed at <http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/2/eh251.jsp?obj_id=734> and contains a photographic archive showing Greek theatres.

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Pupils should write a short one act play based on a Greek legend of their choice and perform it. A website with information on Greek legends is <www.mythweb.com>. Pupils can find out about Greek dramatists, their plays and their themes at <www.ancientgreece.com/s/Mythology/>.

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Information on the Greek colony of Poseidonia, renamed Paestum by the Romans, which is a World Heritage Listed site, is available at <www.sitiunesco.it/index.phtml?id=676>. UNESCO is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation and lists 830 sites, including Paestum, which are considered to have outstanding universal value.

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Pupils should make and design their own Greek masks. Information on the influence of the Greeks on Roman art and culture in southern Italy can be found at <www.library.csi.cuny.edu/siias/roman. html>.

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Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Exercise A:

Reading

Read the following review of a new play performed at Poseidonia.

The Athenian Guardian 23 August 470 BC

Our new critic, Ephorus, sends us this review from the theatre in the city of Poseidonia in Magna Graecia (Great Greece, the name given to Greek colonies overseas). His review is of the new comedy by the acclaimed playwright Epicharmus1 of the city of Siracusa2 in Sicily3.

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straight back down to Hades and leave it there forever. The characterisation is witty and comical. The chorus5 always entertains us with appropriate comment on the action on stage. The high point comes as Heracles proudly presents the dog to the king and it all goes horribly wrong for the hero. The main characters act their hearts out and I found them all most entertaining. One particular actor, Theophrastus, was brilliant as King Eurystheus. The audience were as stunned as I was by the quality of his performance. I can confidently predict that he has a bright future ahead of him in our theatres in Athens. I have attended plays where the actors were showered with objects hurled by the crowd6. This was not the case on this occasion as the audience, like myself, was enthralled and highly amused by the comedy. I have one small criticism to make, however, and that is about the timing of the chorus who were not always as well rehearsed as they might have been and sometimes missed their cue. As it was the festival of Dionysos, there was much feasting and wine tasting at the reception after the performance7 and, I must say, the citizens of Poseidonia proved themselves to be generous hosts! I will definitely be saying ‘Yes’ the next time my editor asks me to review a play in the colonies if my experience in Poseidonia is anything to go by!

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I had some misgivings when I was asked by the editor to travel here to Poseidonia in Magna Graecia. The colonial drama scene does not usually appeal to me, but I have to admit I was wrong in several ways. First of all, I have to say that Poseidonia is a magnificent city. I arrived here some days ago and was brought to see the wonderful series of temples built here to honour our gods, Poseidon, Hera and Athena. They are extremely well built and impressive. This was my first visit to the theatre in Poseidonia and, I must say, I was most impressed by the location. I made my visit on the fifth day of the festival, when the comedies are performed. The open-air theatre is located close to the centre of the city and I was very impressed by both the quality of the acting and the imagination of the playwright. In my view, Heracles and the three-headed dog4, by the Siracusan playwright, Epicharmus, is going to be popular here, just as it will surely become popular when it is performed in the theatres of Athens. This comedy is set in the underworld and on Earth. It tells the witty and hilarious story of how Heracles, the great warrior of the Greeks, was set the task of bringing the three-headed dog, Cerberus, out of the underworld and into the court of King Eurystheus. The plot revolves around the terror of the king when he sees the monster and orders Heracles to take it

1. The playwright Epicharmus was born around 530 BC and was a Sicilian writer of comedies who probably came from the Greek city of Syracuse. We do not know a lot about his work today as only fragments of his plays survive, of which there are 37 titles. These fragments show that his plays were comedies based on mythological themes in which Odysseus and Heracles figured. There is some evidence that his plays had a chorus and were written in the Sicilian Doric dialect spoken in Syracuse. 2. The city of Syracuse in south-eastern Sicily was founded in 734 BC by Greek settlers from Corinth. Over the next five hundred years, the city became the largest city in Europe and a supreme Mediterranean power. It developed a successful economy, with trading contacts all over the eastern and western Mediterranean, exporting grain, timber, wine and wool. Under the leadership of Dionysius, it controlled Sicily and much of southern Italy. Its power and prosperity lasted until the Romans invaded in 211 BC and it fell under Roman control. 52

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Exercise B:

Comprehension questions

Note that answers may be found in the footnotes as well as the text. 1. Why does Ephorus write that he had misgivings when he was asked by his editor to travel to Poseidonia to review this play? 2. Which buildings in Poseidonia particularly impressed Ephorus? 3. Would you say that his review is positive? Does he have any criticisms to make about the performance? 4. What is the name of the play being reviewed, what type of play is it, who wrote it and where does he come from?

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5. What is Ephorus referring to when he uses the term ‘Magna Graecia’?

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6. What festival was being celebrated when Ephorus made his visit to Poseidonia?

7. The playwright Epicharmus came from Siracusa (modern Syracuse), which was the largest city in Europe for five hundred years. Can you suggest reasons why this city achieved such prominent status in the Greek world?

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8. List four differences you can identify between a drama performance today and one in ancient Greece.

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9. Read the following statements and tick those that are correct:

(a) Ancient Greek drama was always performed indoors..............................................................

(e) At one point, Syracuse was the largest city in the ancient world.....................................................

(b) In ancient Greek drama, women could not act on stage but were allowed to attend in the audience............................................................

(f) Sometimes Greek audiences threw stones and food at the actors...............................................

(g) It was unusual for a Greek play to have a chorus..

(h) Greek drama was always serious and about tragedies...........................................................

(c) ‘Magna Graecia’ meant ‘the Magnificent Greeks’..

(d) Poseidon was the Greek god of thunder...............

3. The island of Sicily is the biggest island in the western Mediterranean Sea and was known as the ‘granary of the ancient world’. Today, its great Greek temples at Agrigento, Segesta and Selinunte are living evidence of its importance in the Greek world of ‘Magna Graecia’, or ‘Great Greece’, which was the name given by the Greeks to their cities, colonies and areas of influence outside the great city-states and geographical area of Greece itself. 4. The Greek hero, Heracles, was famous for his strength and the twelve labours or tasks that he had to perform, one of which was to bring the three-headed dog, Cerberus, up from the underworld to King Eurystheus, who promptly told him to take Cerberus back as he was absolutely terrified of him. 5. The chorus were a group of performers in Greek drama who commented on the characters and their actions in a play. 6. At some drama performances, food and even stones were thrown when the audiences were not impressed by the performances. 7. Greek dramas were often well attended. Women were not allowed to take part in Greek dramas, but were allowed to attend. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Exercise C:

Cloze exercise

Use the words from the word bank to complete the sentences.

Word Bank

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Ancient Greek culture spread all over the Mediterranean as the Greeks traded goods extensively with others and established the coast of Asia Minor. One area where Greek influence

Greek colonies. The first emigrants settled was

was the area of southern Italy and Sicily. From 750 BC on, Greek cities and towns were

founded here and some of their buildings and temples can

be seen today. The island of Sicily, the

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island in the Mediterranean Sea, was known at one stage as the ‘granary of the ancient world’. As well as grain, it also exported cheese, hides and

to the other cities and towns of Magna Graecia, or

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‘Great Greece’, as Greek colonies were called. Every new colony brought ships, food and weapons with it and always included a contingent of skilled

, land surveyors and priests. Greek settlers always looked for suitable sites with

easy access to

such as sites close to river mouths. One of the first buildings settlers would build was a to the god Apollo, who was the god of new cities. An altar to the god was built and his blessing on the

air as part of their religious festivals.

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new polis was sought. They also built theatres in the cities and enjoyed

Sicily had several important ‘poleis’ or city-states such as Siracusa, Agrigento, Segesta and Selinunte, where today

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of the Greek settlers can be seen in the remains of their magnificent temples. However, the best preserved temples are at Paestum, or as the Greeks called it, Poseidonia, near the city of Salerno in Southern Italy. Here, three

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magnificent Greek temples

to the gods Poseidon (the god of the sea), Hera (the wife of Zeus and the

protector of marriage) and Athena (the goddess of wisdom and war) can still be seen. The colony of Poseidonia was very wealthy and was a large and thriving

in Magna Graecia. It had rich agricultural land and could produce cheese and

pork. Poseidonia’s prosperity continued into the

period, but it suffered from decline after the fall of the

Roman Empire and its inhabitants fell victim to malaria and the city was abandoned and forgotten. The city of Siracusa (modern Syracuse) became the most important city in the Mediterranean Sea as it traded with both the eastern and western Mediterranean and exported grain, timber, wine and

in great quantities. Siracusa had

one of the largest Greek theatres, and could seat up to 15 000. People flocked to see tragedies and performed to honour their gods. From the 6th century BC, plays were performed as part of dramatic competitions in honour of the god Dionysos. Men and women could attend the performances but the actors were

male. Actors wore

masks and costumes appropriate to the drama and a chorus commented on the action on stage. The actors performed on a flat area called the orchestra. The acoustics in the ancient theatres were

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even today, performers can be heard clearly by people sitting at the back. 54

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Word study exercises The Greek Colony of Poseidonia

1. Complete the word search.

Word Bank Euripedes festival Magna Graecia masks Mediterranean olives orchestra paestum playwrights

Poseidon settlers Sicily Sophocles temples theatre tragedy

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acoustics actors Aeschylus Apollo Black Sea chorus colony democracy Dionysos

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Exercise D:

2. Find ten misspellings in the following paragraph about the Greek dramatist Aristophanes. You may need to use a dictionary to check before writing them correctly below. Aristophanes was born around 460 BC. Aristophanes was a comic dramitist. He wrote many comedies but only 11 of them have been preserved in their entirity today. Aristophanes wrote plays that caused amusment and laughter. He used the dramatic toole of absurdity in order to criticise some aspecs of Greek society. He used colourful language and imaginitive characters. One of his most famous plays was called The wasps and it is still purformed today. He won many prises at the Greek drama competetions held during the festival of Dionisos. He died in 386 BC.

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3. Read the following sentences about Greek drama and circle the correct bold words.

(a) Greek drama first began as dramatic/sports/musical competitions to honour the Greek gods.

(b) From the 6th century BC, plays were performed to honour the Greek god Apollo/Zeus/ Dionysos. (c) Men and women could attend the performances but the actors on stage were always female/male/mixed.

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(d) To create the appropriate mood and atmosphere, actors wore masks/make up/hats. (e) The actors performed on a flat circular area called the palaestra/orchestra/opera. (f) A actor/director/chorus commented on the action on stage.

(h) Greek audiences flocked to see tragedies/soap operas/ political speeches performed in the theatres.

(i) The city of Siracusa, in Sicily, had one of the largest cinemas/theatres/baths in the Greek world.

(j) Up to 25 000/10 000/15 000 people could be seated at the theatre in Siracusa.

(g) Members of the audience could hear perfectly from the back as the vibrations/ visuals/acoustics were excellent. Literacy and history â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The Greeks

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

1. Read these keywords/terms and their explanations and use them in sentences.

(a) Aeschylus: Tragic playwright, born in 524 BC in Eleusis, Athens, and fought in the Battle of Marathon and the Battle of Salamis.

(b) Athene: The daughter of Zeus and the goddess of wisdom and war who gave her name to the city of Athens. (c) chorus: A group of singers and dancers in Greek drama who commented on the characters and the action of the play. (d) Dionysia: Religious festivals held for five days in Athens in honour of the god Dionysos, which featured drama competitions. (e) Dionysos: The Greek god of wine and the theatre, usually portrayed carrying the thyrsos, a stick entwined with vine leaves. (f)

Epidauros: A Greek city in the Peleponnese where a magnificent theatre was built in the 4th century BC, which still stands today.

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(g) Euripides: Tragic playwright, born around 480 BC in Athens who took part many times in the dramatic competitions in the Dionysia.

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(h) Magna Graecia: A term meaning ‘Great Greece’, the name given to Greek colonies overseas. (i)

polis: A Greek word meaning ‘city-state’ which meant a community of people who were self-governing.

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Poseidonia: The name given to the Greek city founded by Greek colonists in southern Italy, near the modern city of Salerno.

Sophocles: Tragic playwright, born around 490 BC in Athens, and who won at least 20 times at the Dionysian drama competitions.

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(k) Sicily: The largest island in Italy, colonised by the Greeks who built the city of Siracusa, the largest city in the Greek world.

2. Read the descriptions of four Greek theatres. Identify their locations from the list of names and countries below. Consult an

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atlas if you wish and look for clues in the descriptions.

(a) This theatre was built by a Greek colony which thrived on its position as a port city in Asia Minor with numerous trade links. This city is most famous for its great temple, the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The theatre had excellent acoustics and could hold up to 10 000 people. It can still be visited today.

(c) This theatre is situated in the acropolis (the upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city) of one of the greatest Greek cities. It is dedicated to the god Dionysos, the Greek god of fertility, the vine and wine, in whose honour theatrical works were performed during the many festivals of Dionysos celebrated in the city each year.

(b) In the third century BC, this colony became the leading city (d) of the Greek world and was an important intellectual and artistic centre. It had trading links with both the eastern and western Mediterranean because of its pivotal position as a port city. It had one of the largest theatres in the Greek world and could seat 15 000 people. The theatre is one of the most important examples of ancient theatre architecture anywhere in the world, and still hosts a summer programme of classical theatre. 56

Syracuse, Italy (Sicily)

Athens, Greece

Literacy and history – The Greeks

This theatre, built at a sacred sanctuary to the Greek god Asclepios, the god of medicine, was one of the larger theatres, seating 15 000 people. It had two types of seats, those for ordinary people and those for city officials. People travelled hundreds of kilometres from all over Greece to the sacred shrine of Asclepios, sleeping overnight there in the hope that the god would appear in a healing vision to them. The theatre can still be visited today.

Epidaurus, Greece

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

3. Match the first half of these sentences about the port of Piraeus, near Athens, with their endings. (i) were found by accident by workmen digging in the harbour in 1959.

(b) The port at Piraeus provided facilities for ships and boats bringing goods

(ii) was their ability to build good ports.

(c) The port at Piraeus, nine kilometres south-west of Athens, was

(iii) the largest harbour in the complex.

(d) The leader of Athens, Pericles, built the Makra Teiche (the Long Walls) in 460 BC order to

(iv) a port with three natural harbours, and contained the headquarters of the Athenian navy.

(e) The first leader to realise the full potential of Piraeus was

(v) the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

(f) The three natural harbours at Piraeus were called Karanthos,

(vi) Munychia and Zea.

(g) The harbour called Karanthos was

(vii) an estimated 6000 foreign residents from as far away as Phoenicia, Egypt, Persia and Babylon.

(h) One of the reasons for the success of the Greeks as colonists and traders

(viii) over 196 slipsheds to house the ships. (ix) to Greece and exporting goods from Greece to other parts of the Mediterranean Sea.

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(i) The population at Piraeus was very cosmopolitan with

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(a) The port at Piraeus, near Athens, was once the greatest port in

(x) rigging, sails and ropes of triremes wintering in Zea harbour, has been excavated at Piraeus.

(k) The harbour at Zea was the main harbour for the Athenian fleet and it was lined with

(xi) Themistocles, who built a wall around Piraeus and turned it into the naval headquarters.

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(j) The Piraeus Bronzes are a group of bronze sculptures of Athena and Apollo and

(l) The foundations of the Arsenal of Philon, a naval warehouse for storing the

(xii) allow the city access to the port even in winter time.

The Mediterranean Sea has been called the ‘cradle of civilisation’. The Romans called it ‘Mare Nostrum’ or ‘our winter/sea/ river’. The area of the Mediterranean Sea is 2 512 000 square kilometres/miles/metres. It connects with the Atlantic Ocean to the west by the Strait of Gibraltar; to the Red/Black/Green Sea to the north-east via the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara and the Strait of Bosporus; and with the Purple/Orange/Red Sea to the south-east via the Suez Canal. It’s length is 3900 kilometres and it is 1600 kilometres across at its narrowest/deepest/widest point. An underwater ridge between Sicily and the African/Australian/Arctic continent divides it into two unequal parts. The Mediterranean Sea contains a number of legendary and much visited mountains/islands/cliffs such as the Balearic islands and Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Malta, Crete and Cyprus, as well as the groups of roads/cities/islands known as the Dodecanese, Ionian and Aegean islands. The floor of the Mediterranean Sea is made up of sediment made up of lime, clay/gold/ice and sand that have formed on top of a blue mud base. Its coasts are rocky/slippery/sunny, steep and indented.

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4. Read the following paragraph about the Mediterranean Sea and circle the correct word to complete each sentence. Your possible choices are indicated by the words in bold.

Discussion points — Greek drama Research other Greek dramatists besides Sophocles, Euripides and Aeschylus and discuss the subject matter of one of their works, stating why it would be worthwhile to perform it today. Greek drama is still regularly performed today all over the world. Research the major themes in ancient Greek drama and discuss why they hold such relevance today, thousands of years later. View Greek theatres, using the Internet and research Greek theatre design. Hold a planning session to design your own Greek theatre, using elements of classical Greek design and elements of your own design. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers Notes

Unit 8: The sculptor, Pheidias, commissioned to create the statue of Zeus at Olympia, writes to his patron – 435 BC Objectives: Pupils complete exercises in reading, comprehension and cloze activities. Pupils complete word study exercises in correcting spellings and linking titles to descriptions correctly. Pupils learn about Greek art and sculpture, the Greek sculptor Pheidias and the statue of Zeus at Olympia, the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and the Acropolis in Athens.

Background information: This text is a letter. Letters are written conversations sent from one person to another. Letters usually begin with a greeting, contain information to be related and conclude with a farewell signed by the sender. Letters can be either formal or personal. Formal letters are usually brief and to the point while personal letters can be longer and more expansive. This text is a formal letter as it is dealing with a business matter. The sculptor, Pheidias, is writing to his patron, Solon, regarding the progress of his commission to create the statue of Zeus at the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. He is anxious to secure his patron’s continuing support and to let his patron know that the work, which he has just begun, is going well. Pheidias is careful to use a respectful tone to Solon, as he had been banished from Athens, having been accused of stealing gold. He was subsequently cleared of this false accusation.

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The Temple of Zeus was designed by Libon of Elis and was completed in 456 BC. It was built in Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games held every four years in honour of Zeus. The temple was similar to the Parthenon in Athens and to the temple of Artemis in Ephesus. It was built in the Doric style on a raised rectangular platform, with 13 large columns supporting the roof along the sides and six supporting it at each end. A peaked roof completed the design. The pediments (triangles created by the sloped roof at the ends of the building) were filled with sculpture and under the pediments there were more sculptures depicting the 12 labours of Heracles. The temple was considered to be too plain to be worthy of the king of the gods, Zeus, and so a statue of the god was commissioned for the inside of the temple by the Olympian authorities. They gave the commission to Pheidias who was given the resources to create a magnificent work of art.

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The statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and it attracted visitors and worshippers from all over the Greek world and beyond. It was 13 metres high, and the top of its head almost touched the ceiling of the temple. Pheidias used very expensive materials in its creation and he worked on it from around 438 to 430 BC. The outer surface of the statue was made of gold and ivory and the inner structure was made of wood. Zeus was seated on a throne and had a crown sculpted to look as if it was made from an olive branch. In his right hand he held a statue of Nike, also made of ivory and gold. Zeus held a sceptre (a baton carried as a symbol of authority) in his left hand. Zeus’s sandals and robe were also made of gold. Precious jewels were set into the statue. Pheidias had to use large quantities of these precious materials in the creation of his statue as it was on such a large scale. A legend tells of how, when the statue was completed, its sculptor, Pheidias, asked the god for a sign that he approved of it and immediately a bolt of lightning struck the black marble floor. Zeus, the king of the Greek gods, was often portrayed carrying a thunderbolt. Pheidias had already created the statue of the goddess Athena for the Parthenon and had also created most of the sculpture for the exterior of the temple.

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Pheidias travelled to Olympia on receiving this commission and set up a workshop to the west of the temple. His team of skilled craftsmen would have included workers who were Greek citizens and workers who were metics. Metics were non-citizens who came from outside Athens and were usually skilled craftsmen who contributed to the economy but were not granted any rights. German archaeologists were responsible for excavating the workshop during the 1950s, when it was discovered beneath an early Christian church. They discovered sculptors tools, a pit for casting bronze, modelling plaster and a portion of elephant’s tusks, used for the ivory in the making and decoration of the statue. They discovered that the clay moulds, used to shape the gold plates for the statue, have serial numbers, which may have been used to show the location of the plates in the statue’s design. They also discovered that glass sheeting, a very precious material at that time, may have been used in the creation of the figure of Nike, held in the right hand of Zeus. They also unearthed a cup bearing the words ‘I belong to Pheidias’. The statue of Zeus at Olympia stood for more than eight centuries. There is no visual evidence of the statue today except on coins. The temple at Olympia was abandoned and fell into ruin, suffering from neglect and damage by fire, flood, landslides and earthquakes. Although the ruins of Olympia are still there today, there is no evidence left of the great statue. In 393 AD, Christian clergy persuaded the Roman emperor, Theodosius, to close the temple and ban the pagan games. The statue was moved and brought to a palace in Constantinople where it was completely destroyed in a fire in 462 AD. The remains of many statues have been excavated from the Acropolis in Athens, where they were buried after the Persians sacked the city after the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC. Statues, lost in shipwrecks, have been recovered from the sea. Other discoveries have come from different sources. Two bronze statues, found in the sea off Riace Marina in southern Italy in 1972, are thought to have come from a group of military figures on their way to an Italian villa. Marine archaeologists who studied the seabed could find no evidence of a shipwreck and concluded that the sculptures were jettisoned off the ship to lighten it as they encountered difficulties at sea. Some experts believe that Pheidias may have been the sculptor of these bronze statues.

Worksheet information: Pupils completing Question 3 in Exercise E can refer to Exercise A for help in identifying the stages. Ancient Greek civilisation contained several periods. Pheidias worked during the Classical Period in ancient Greece. Pupils can check to see where the Classical Period fits into ancient Greek history by referring to the time line on page xii. 58

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Teachers Notes A glossary of keywords and terms relating to this particular unit is provided on pages viii – xi for teacher reference. Many of them appear in Question 1 in Exercise E. Pupils will find it beneficial to check the detailed footnotes for the text in Exercise A to assist in comprehension of Greek terms.

Answers:

Exercise E..................................pages 64–65 1. Teacher check 2. 1st site– Temple of Nike 2nd site–Temple of Poseidon and Athene 3rd site– Temple of Athena Parthenon 4th site– Shrine of Zeus 5th site– Temple of Artemis 3. Stage 1– Draw up my plans for the commission. Stage 2– Present my plans to my patron for his approval. Stage 3– Travel to the site. Stage 4– Organise the building of a workshop.

Stage 5– Design the workshop to have the same dimensions and orientation as the temple. Stage 6– Assemble a team of skilled artists and craftsmen. Stage 7– Ensure that there is a generous supply of tools and materials needed for the commission. Stage 8– Order the painters to begin painting the screens that will go behind the statue. Stage 9– Order the workmen to construct a timber scaffold for the statue to be set on. Stage 10– Check that all supplies of gold, ivory, silver, enamel, copper and glass are present. 4. existence, first, beauty, practical, subsequent, Renaissance, strong, major, disappeared, excavated, Greek, walls

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Exercise C......................................... page 62 commissioned, Olympic, style, temple, largest, sheets, different, goddess, holding, snake, sandals, Athens, large, thought, archaeologists, ship

Exercise D......................................... page 63 1. (a) sculptor (b) memorable (c) goddess (d) second (e) wooden (f) enamel (g) programme (h) massive (i) decorated (j) southern 2. (a) (iii), (b) (i), (c) (iv), (d) (v), (e) (ii)

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Exercise B......................................... page 61 1. Pheidias is writing to the man who commissioned him to create the statue of Zeus to tell of his progress. He has been at Olympia for about a month. 2. The Colossus of Rhodes and the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 3. Coins showing the statue still exist, giving some idea of how it looked. 4. He says that he had to use 100 kg of gold for the statue of Athena in Athens. 5. He has employed his brother, Panaenus. 6. Zeus was the king of all the gods and goddesses. 7.–8. Teacher check. 9. Answers (a), (e), (f) and (h) should be ticked.

Cross-curricular activities:

Five of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World were named in Question 2 in Exercise D of this unit. Pupils should carry out research to find out the names of the other two wonders and write a short paragraph about each one of them. Pupils may find it beneficial to use the Internet for this activity. A good website is <www.cleveleys.co.uk/wonders/sevenwondersoftheworld.htm>. The Greeks strongly influenced the Roman world. A good website with information on the Romans is <www.bbc.co.uk/schools/romans>.

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Pupils can research the influence of the ancient Greeks on the Renaissance. A good website, with information on how the philosophy and culture of ancient Greece contributed to the rebirth of art, is at <www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/classical_connections>. Information on the life and work of Pheidias, who is considered by many to be the greatest artist of ancient Greece, can be found at <www.crystalinks.com/greekart.html>.

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The World Heritage list of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee lists the archaeological site at Olympia on its list of sites of outstanding universal value. Pupils can find out more about this list at <http://whc.unesco.org>.

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Exercise A:

Reading

Read this letter written by Pheidias, a Greek sculptor, to his patron.

My lord, Solon, Chief Priest of the temple of Olympia, 13 October 435 BC I am writing to you to let you know of the progress I have made on my commission1 in the last few weeks, since your last visit here. When you asked me to take on this commission, you asked me to create a sacred statue that would be worthy to honour our great god, Zeus. One that would symbolise the unity of our great Greek world. I am endeavouring to do this and I have already taken the following steps.

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Since I arrived in the middle of last month, the workshop2 has been completed close to the temple and I have assembled a team of workers that contains the most skilled sculptors, artists and craftsmen in all of Magna Graecia. I have ensured that they will have a generous supply of all of the tools needed for their work on this statue. We have ivory-working chisels, ceramic moulds to mould the glass, small hammers and small iron drills. I have insisted that the workshop be built with the same dimensions and aspect as that of the temple, with the morning sun coming in at the same angle, so that when we are constructing the statue, we can see at all times how the finished work will look in its place in the temple. I have completed my detailed preliminary drawings and I have designed the statue so that the god is seated on his throne, holding a statue of Nike3 (made of ivory and gold) in his right hand and a sceptre, with an eagle perched on it and inlaid with many metals, in his left hand. His head will bear a sculpted wreath of olive leaves. The sandals on his feet will be made of gold. His throne will be decorated with Graces4, Seasons5 and sphinxes. There will be paintings on the screens behind the statue. I have instructed my brother, Panaenus, who is an excellent painter, to paint scenes of our great victory at the Battle of Salamis, and of the great Greek heroes, Heracles and Achilles. At the base of the statue, I want Panaenus to create a painting of the birth of Aphrodite6. The statue of Zeus will be large, with the head of the god almost touching the beams of the temple’s ceiling. The floor in front of the statue will be black and I have requested that only olive oil is used to clean the statue in order to protect the ivory from being damaged and discoloured.

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I have purchased hundreds of wooden planks for the body of the statue and have ordered my workmen to begin this week to construct a timber scaffold, which we will set the statue on. I have taken deliveries of ivory and gold to make the overlay (chryselephantine) of the statue; the ivory for the flesh and the gold for the drapery. I had to use 100 kilograms of gold for the statue of Athena on the Acropolis and I imagine that I will need as much, if not more, for the statue of Zeus. If you wish, we can make the sheets of gold for the god’s drapery detachable, as we did with the gold sheets for the statue of Athena, so that if there is ever a threat, they can be removed. The entire statue will be adorned with precious stones and decorated with silver, copper, enamel and glass and I have also taken delivery of some of the stones and glass. The god’s robes will be decorated with carvings of animals and iridescent glass lilies that will flash in the changing light of the sun. I calculate that I will need to order more of these materials as work continues, but we have enough of these supplies for the moment. You will know from my work on the statue of Athena7 in the Parthenon that I take great pride in my work. I can assure you that I will be taking even more pride in this sacred statue of Zeus, as will every member of my team. Your servant, Pheidias 1. The Olympian authorities commissioned Pheidias to create a statue of Zeus because they considered that the temple was too simple when it was finished in 456 BC. They wanted Pheidias to create a sacred statue that would honour Zeus appropriately as the king of all the Greek gods. Pheidias had already created the statue of Athena in the Parthenon in Athens, which had impressed the Athenians greatly. The statue of Zeus was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, which also included the Colossus of Rhodes and the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Asia Minor. Coins showing the statue of Zeus still exist, giving us some idea of how it looked. 2. The workshop of Pheidias was excavated in the 1950s and very valuable evidence was uncovered, including tools, fragments of materials and even a cup bearing the words ‘I belong to Pheidias’, which may have belonged to the sculptor. The finding of the workshop was especially valuable as the statue of Zeus no longer exists and only the ruins of the temple exist today at Olympia. 3. Nike was the goddess of victory, portrayed with wings and holding a crown of victory above the heads of conquerors. 60

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Exercise B:

Comprehension questions

Note that answers may be found in the footnotes as well as the text. 1. Why is Pheidias writing to Solon, the chief priest of the temple of Olympia? How long has he been in Olympia? 2. The statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Name two others. 3. How do we know so much about how the statue looked if it no longer exists?

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4. How many kilograms of gold did Pheidias say he had to use for the statue of Athena in Athens? 5. Who has he employed to paint the scenes behind and at the base of the statue of Zeus?

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6. Who was Zeus?

7. Describe, in your own words, the impact this statue may have had on those who visited the temple.

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8. How many kinds of skilled craftsmen do you think Pheidias may have had on his team of workers? How do we have such detailed knowledge about their tools and materials today?

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9. Read the following statements and tick those that are correct:

(a) The statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.................. (b) Pheidias was an unknown sculptor when he was

commissioned to create the statue of Zeus........ (c) The workshop of Pheidias has never been found

(e) The statue was decorated with silver, copper, gold,

enamel and glass............................................. (f) Pheidias’s brother, Panaenus, painted scenes from

Greek history and mythology behind the statue.. (g) There are paintings of the statue of Zeus, which

clearly show how it looked................................ (h) The statue was constructed of wood and covered

by archaeologists.............................................

(d) Zeus was the god of war...................................

with gold and ivory........................................... 4. The Graces were three goddesses who represented charm, grace and beauty. 5. The Seasons were the goddesses of the four seasons, spring, summer, autumn and winter. 6. Aphrodite was the Greek goddess of love who was born in the sea at Paphos in Cyprus and emerged fully-grown from the waves. 7. The statue of Athena in the Parthenon in Athens, and the marble carvings there, were also created by Pheidias. He was the favourite artist of Pericles, an Athenian general who led the Athenians in the reconstruction of their city after the destruction caused by the Persians when they sacked and destroyed the city after the Battle of Thermopylae. In 449 BC, Pericles signed a peace treaty between the Greeks and the Persians. He persuaded the Athenians to build a magnificent temple to Athena, the patron goddess of their city. Called the Parthenon, it became the most important temple in Athens. The statue of Athene was begun in 447 BC and installed in the Parthenon in 448 BC. This statue no longer exists and we have to depend on marble copies of the statue and some contemporary accounts in order to have an idea of how it must have looked. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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Exercise C:

Cloze exercise

Use the words from the word bank to complete the sentences.

Word Bank

goddess

archaeologists

snake

commissioned

large

style

temple

largest

Olympic

sheets

different

holding

ship

sandals

Athens

thought

Pheidias, one of the best known sculptors in ancient Greece, worked on two famous statues, the statue of Athena in the Parthenon and the statue of Zeus at Olympia. He arrived at Olympia around 438 BC, having been

to create a large

statue of the god. The Temple of Zeus was completed in 456 BC at Olympia, the site of the held every four years to honour Zeus. The temple was similar in

Games, to the Parthenon and to the Temple of

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Artemis at Ephesus in Asia Minor. The Olympian authorities were disappointed with the

and wanted to

make it more spectacular. They were willing to give Pheidias all the resources he needed.

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Pheidias’s statue became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, which also included the Colossus of Rhodes and the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Six of the ancient wonders have now disappeared forever and only one still exists, the Great Pyramid of the pharaoh Khufu, which is the

pyramid ever built. Pheidias developed a technique of building large gold

and ivory statues. His technique involved building a wooden frame and placing

of gold and ivory on the

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statue as outer covering. In his workshop, Pheidias worked with his skilled craftsmen to create all the sections of the statue before they assembled it.

metres high, showing the

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Pheidias came from Athens, where he had created the statue of the goddess Athena. This was an enormous statue, over 12 wearing a helmet and holding a shield. Pheidias had sculpted Athena as

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Nike, the winged goddess of victory, in her right hand and with a

,a

Greek symbol of wisdom, coiled beside her shield. He used 100 kilograms of gold for her statue and created ivory plates for her skin. Pheidias carved mythological scenes on her golden shield and her golden had been pleased with the statue but had banished Pheidias from

. The authorities in Athens in disgrace, having accused him of

stealing some of the gold needed for the statue. The ancient Greeks were the first civilisation to believe in art for its own sake and that things of beauty could exist without the need to have a practical function. The Greeks loved sculpture and made

numbers of statues, which were used

to decorate temples, homes and graves. Many of the statues created by Greek sculptors no longer exist. The remains of many statues have been excavated in Athens where they were buried after the Persians sacked the city in 480 BC. Statues, lost in shipwrecks, have been recovered from the sea. Other discoveries have come from different sources. Two bronze statues, found in the sea off southern Italy, are

to have come from a group of military people travelling to an Italian villa. Marine who studied the seabed could find no evidence of a shipwreck and concluded that the sculptures had

been jettisoned off the

to lighten its load. Some archaeologists believe that these statues may be the

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Exercise D:

Word study exercises

1. The following paragraph describes the life of Pheidias, one of the greatest sculptors in ancient Greece. Find ten misspellings and rewrite them correctly below. The man who has been called the greatest Greek sculpter was Pheidias of Athens. He worked between 465–425 BC, creating some of the most memerable sculptures of the ancient world. He designed two great statues. The first was the statue of the godess Athena, for the Parthenon in Athens. The secund was the statue of the god Zeus at Olympia, the site of the ancient Olympic Games. Both statues were made of gold and ivory over a woodden core and were decorated with jewels, copper, enamal, glass and paint. He was appointed by Pericles, the leader of Athens, to oversee his building programe. Pericles was the leader of Athens after the Persian wars and he launched a masive rebuilding programme to rebuild the city’s Acropolis after the devastation caused by the wars. Pheidias is also believed to be responsible for the famous marble metopes (panels), statues and friezes (ornamented bands) that decarated the Parthenon. Pheidias may also have been the sculptor of the Riace Bronzes, which were recovered off the coast of southren Italy in 1972.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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Description

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2. The world of the ancient Greeks had many wonders. Read the following descriptions and match them to their titles. Look for the clues in the descriptions.

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(a) This wonder survived for only 56 years. It stood at the entrance to the harbour of a Greek island. It represented Helios, the sun god who was the patron god of Rhodes. It was made from bronze melted down from enemy siege engines.

Title (i) Mausoleum of King Mausolus at Halicarnassus

(ii) Pharos at Alexandria

(c) This temple was dedicated to a Greek goddess who was the goddess of fertility. It was four times the size of the Parthenon in Athens and was the central building of the Greek-speaking eastern Mediterranean.

(iii) Colossus of Rhodes

(d) This statue was the icon of Greek athletic competitions, located at the most important of the four Panhellenic Games sites in Greece. It was designed by one of the greatest Greek sculptors, Pheidias.

(iv) Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

(e) This lighthouse stood at the entrance to a Mediterranean city founded by Alexander the Great. It was designed by a Greek architect called Sostratus and served as a working lighthouse for hundreds of years.

(v) Statue of Zeus at Olympia

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(b) This tomb was built for a king by his grieving wife, Artemisia, who asked the architect, Scopas, to ensure that it would be the grandest tomb in the world. It stood for almost 17 centuries.

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

1. Read these keywords/terms and their explanations and use them in sentences.

(a) Achilles: Hero of the Trojan wars who could not be injured except in his heel, providing the term ‘Achilles heel’.

(b) Aphrodite: The Greek goddess of love and beauty, born from the sea at Cyprus. (c) commission: An order given to an artist to create a work of art; e.g. Pheidias’s statue of Zeus at Olympia. (d) Elgin Marbles: Name given to the Parthenon sculptures in the British Museum in London, brought to England by Lord Elgin in 1812. (e) Heracles: A Greek hero who was given 12 labours or impossible tasks to perform and performed them successfully. (f)

iridescent jewels: A selection of jewels displaying a rainbow effect of many colours.

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(g) ivory: Hard creamy-white dentine that composes the tusks of a tusked mammal such as an elephant, much valued in ancient times. (h) metopes: The 92 carved panels that ran around the outside of the Parthenon in Athens, portraying mythical battles. metics: Usually skilled craftsmen who were non-citizens of a city-state, such as Athens, but who lived and worked there.

(j)

Nike: The Greek goddess of victory, was usually depicted striding, running or flying.

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(i)

sculptor: An artist who creates works of art by carving in stone such as marble or wood or by casting metals such as bronze.

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(k) sceptre: A ceremonial staff held as a symbol of authority.

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2. The Acropolis in Athens, where the Parthenon still stands, was the sacred hill that overlooked the city. Read this account of a visit to the Acropolis by Aspasia, an ancient Greek traveller, and identify which of the temples and shrines she visited. Look for clues in her account. I travelled to Athens during the Festival of Athena. I had heard that Pericles had ordered the rebuilding of the Acropolis so I went there on my very first day. The first temple I visited was beautiful, with stone sculptures outside and priestesses reciting sacred songs inside to our great goddess of victory, Nike. The next temple that I visited was magnificent. It is decorated with brightly painted friezes showing mythological scenes. Inside priests and priestesses prayed to the god of the sea and the goddess of hunting. Next, I visited the third temple, which houses the huge statue, created by the greatest sculptor in Athens. It guides sailors out at sea into the harbour at Piraeus and is the statue of the patron goddess of this great city. I also walked around the temple admiring Pheidias’s work on the marble sculptures outside. I next went to pray at the shrine of the god of thunder, the father of all our gods and goddesses. I prayed for my family back in the countryside in Attica. I was tired now, so the last temple I wanted to visit was the temple dedicated to the goddess of fertility as I am getting married later this year. I said a prayer to the goddess.

The 1st site Aspasia visited was

The 2nd site Aspasia visited was

The 3rd site Aspasia visited was

The 4th site Aspasia visited was

The 5th site Aspasia visited was

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List of temples/shrines Temple of Athena (Parthenon), patron goddess of Athens The Shrine of Zeus, the father of the gods and goddesses Temple of Nike, goddess of victory Temple of Artemis, goddess of fertility Temple of Poseidon, god of the sea, and of Athene, goddess of hunting,

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

3. Pheidias had to plan things carefully when he was designing and sculpting his enormous statues. The following preliminary stages in his work are in the wrong order. Number them correctly. Description

Stage number

Order the workmen to construct a timber scaffold for the statue to be set on. Assemble a team of skilled artists and craftsmen. Ensure that there is a generous supply of tools and materials needed for the commission. Organise the building of a workshop. Present my plans to my patron for his approval. Check that all supplies of gold, ivory, silver, enamel, copper and glass are present. Order the painters to begin painting the screens that will go behind the statue.

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Draw up my plans for the commission.

Design the workshop to have the same dimensions and orientation as the temple.

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Travel to the site.

4. Read the following sentences about Greek art and sculpture and circle the correct bold word to complete each sentence. The ancient Greeks were the first civilisation to believe that art for its own sake was worthwhile. The ancient Greeks believed that the beauty of an object justified its existence/subsistence/consistence alone. They were the last/first/only civilisation in history to believe that a work of art existed in its own right as a thing of duty/utility/beauty and did not need to have a practical/impractical/unnecessary function. This belief has influenced all consequent/subsequent/previous civilisations. The influence of the ancient Greeks on the Reformation/Renaissance/Romans over 1500 years later cannot be underestimated and on Renaissance artists such as Donatello and Michaelangelo. They continued to have a strong/weak/ mild influence on later European culture.The ancient Greeks still have a minor/major/mediocre influence on world culture today in areas such as medicine, architecture, philosophy and drama. Almost all ancient Greek paintings have reappeared/ appeared/disappeared but Roman copies in the Greek style, such as those excavated/innovated/insulated at Pompeii in southern Italy, give us an idea of what ancient Greek/French/Spanish mural painting may have looked like. Some paintings have survived on the floors/walls/exteriors of tombs.

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Discussion points — Greek art Research the influence of Greek art and sculpture on the Romans and discuss how deeply they were influenced by the Greeks. Research Roman art and sculpture by using the library and the Internet. Research the work of Renaissance artists and sculptors and, choosing one piece that you feel best illustrates the influence of the Greeks on the Renaissance, discuss it, giving reasons for your choice. Many original stone sculptures made by ancient Greek artists have been lost but the discovery of the bronze sculptures at Riace Marina in 1972 proved that the ancient Greek sculptors were extremely skilled at presenting the human body in artistic form. Other bronze statues have recently been discovered in the seas off Croatia. Discuss the possibility of more finds such as this and how archaeologists might best go about formulating a marine archaeological project in the Aegean Sea and off Southern Italy to recover more statues. Research marine archaeology using the library and the Internet.

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Teachers Notes

Unit 9: As Sparta prepares to declare war on Athens, Cynisca, a young Spartan girl, writes in her diary – 431 BC Objectives: Pupils complete exercises in reading, comprehension and cloze activities. Pupils complete word study exercises in correcting spellings, sentence completion and choosing correct words. Pupils learn about the Greek city-state of Sparta, the life of young people in Sparta and the benefits of exercise.

Background information: This text is a diary, written by a young Spartan girl. It is a personal diary, designed to be read in private and expressing some of Cynisca’s hopes and fears about her situation. Diaries are written texts containing descriptions of daily events in a person’s life and they usually express their personal observations and thoughts on these events.

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Sparta was different from all the other city-states of Greece. It was situated to the south-west of Athens, in the Peleponnese in southern Greece. It was the only Greek state to retain its monarchy, having two kings from two royal families who ruled alongside a 28-man council. The Kings did not have absolute power and could be removed. Sparta was the greatest rival of Athens. Spartan society was organised by strict military code and had a fearsome reputation among all Greeks. Spartan men even looked different, as male citizens dressed alike in red cloaks and wore their hair very long.

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All male citizens had to become soldiers after leaving school and were expected to devote their lives to serving Sparta. Farming was carried out by conquered people who were called helots. Helots were people from Laconia and Messenia who had been enslaved by the Spartans. Helots did not belong to any particular master and were the collective property of the state. Helots outnumbered Spartan citizens and the Spartans were always afraid the helots would rise up and rebel against them as they had in 464 BC, when they had rebelled for 17 years. The Spartans responded by developing a very militaristic and insular state. Spartan men spent their days training for war and were expected to exercise, practise with weapons and march constantly. Music was part of their military education and music was often played as the Spartans marched into battle. Spartan women benefited from the presence of helots who carried out all of the housekeeping and childminding duties in the household. The women were also expected to exercise and be in good physical condition so they would give birth to healthy children who would grow up to serve and benefit the state.

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Spartan children became the property of the state as soon as they were born. At birth, Spartan children were inspected for signs of weakness and those who were judged to be at risk were condemned to die by exposure. Children judged to be physically fit were put through a programme of rigorous physical training. Spartan attitudes to women and girls differed completely from those of the Athenians. Spartan girls differed from other Greek girls because they actively and publicly participated in most sports including running, wrestling, throwing the javelin and discus and playing ball games. They also participated in the choral and dancing competitions. They danced to the flute or the lyre (a stringed instrument similar to a small harp) and these dances represented battles, military drill or wild animal hunts. Religious dancing was also common. Unlike Athenian girls, who were educated at home and taught to spin and weave at an early age, spinning and weaving in Sparta was carried out by helots so Spartan girls could devote themselves to their education and physical training. The Spartan education system was designed to produce people who were obedient to authority, had the ability to withstand pain and hardship and could show great courage and strength in battle. The disadvantage of the system followed by the Spartans was that it did not equip them to cope well with change. They became increasingly insular and militaristic during the Classical Age (500–323 BC) with art and culture being ignored in order for more time to be devoted to training and war. Philosophers and artists were not tolerated in Sparta. Under conditions of change, the Spartans lacked resilience and during the 4th century BC their lack of flexibility led to them being eclipsed by the Thebans. Rivalry had always existed between the great city-states of Athens and Sparta, resulting in tensions between them. After the Persians were defeated, over 200 of the city-states joined together to form the Delian League, which not only wanted to resist any future Persian threats but wanted to raid Persian lands. The headquarters of the Delian League was on the island of Delos. Gradually, the league turned into a political empire with Athens at its head. The Athenians protected the other city-states and made them pay a tax called a tribune in return. In 454 BC, the league’s treasury was moved from Delos to Athens. As the city-state of Athens became the most important city-state of the Greeks, some of the other city-states began to resent its power. In the southern region of Greece, known as the Peleponnese, Sparta joined with other citystates and formed the Peleponnesian League, which declared war on Athens in 431 BC. The Peleponnesian War lasted from 431 to 404 BC. Athens was a great sea power and Sparta had the most disciplined army in Greece. Athens could not be defeated at sea and Sparta could not be defeated on land, so at first there was a stalemate. The war was uneven at times with both sides suffering heavy losses. They behaved with great brutality towards each other, enslaving their prisoners and carrying out mass slaughter. In 415 BC and 405 BC, the Athenians suffered two disastrous naval defeats. The Spartans captured Athens in 404 BC and took their position as the most important city-state. But this position did not last long. The city-state of Thebes now jostled for power and defeated the Spartans at Leuctra in 371 BC, bringing the once undefeated Spartan army to its knees. Eventually the city of Thebes became the most powerful city in ancient Greece. Again, this did not last for long because, while the city-states had been quarrelling among themselves, a new power had developed in the north as the Macedonians, under King Philip II and then his son, Alexander the Great, sought to build a new empire.

Worksheet information: Ancient Greek civilisation consisted of several periods. Pupils can check where the Classical Period fits into ancient Greek history by referring to the time line on page xii. 66

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Teachers Notes A glossary of keywords and terms relating to this particular unit is provided on pages viii – xi for teacher reference. Many of them appear in Question 1 in Exercise E. Pupils will find it beneficial to check the detailed footnotes for the text in Exercise A to assist in comprehension of Greek terms.

Answers: 9. Answers (a), (b), (e) and (f) should be ticked. Exercise C......................................... page 70 council, rivals, soldiers, master, enslaved, rebellion, property, die, fit, raced, lyre, participated, Athens, resent, war, disciplined, sea, Thebes, power Exercise D......................................... page 71 1. (a) allegiance (b) cried (c) memory (d) deliberately (e) disobeyed (f) accompany (g) pipes (h) instead (i) warrior 2. (Refer to teachers Notes)

3. (a) (i), (b) (iii), (c) (ii), (d) (iii), (e) (ii), (f) (i) Exercise E..................................pages 72–73 1. Teacher check 2. (a) keen (b) equestrian (c) actually (d) chariots (e) enough (f) differently (g) circumstances (h) entered (i) probably (j) victory 3. Laconia, warrior, assistant, raisins, house, cook, helot, talks, difficult, home 4. (a) (ii) (b) (iii) (c) (iii) (d) (i) (e) (ii) (f) (iii) (g) (i) (h) (ii)

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Exercise B......................................... page 69 1. She is anxious because she must demonstrate her fitness in public. 2. She is anxious not to let her parents down and she is afraid that she will make a fool of herself in front of the crowd. 3. Cynisca says the boys will be performing with her and the other girls. She says that the boys are very competitive and will laugh at her if she makes a mistake. 4. Cynisca says that throwing the javelin and the discus are her best skills. 5. Teacher check 6. The prospect of war between Sparta and Athens. 7. Her trainer is insisting that she play the flute instead of the lyre, which she is better at. 8. Teacher check

Cross-curricular activities:

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A website on the Spartans and their rivalry with the Athenians is <www.athensinfoguide.com/history/t2-4peloponnesian.htm>. More information on the Spartans can be found at <www.crystalinks.com/sparta.html>.

Pupils can study the lives of Greek slaves at <www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/people/slaves.htm> and assess the kind of lives they may have led in ancient Greece. Pupils could write a report on Greek attitudes to slavery.

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The Spartans insisted on physical activity, exercise and sport for all their citizens, including women and girls. Pupils can find out about the benefits of these activities at <www.kidshealth.org/teen/your_body/take_care/exercise_wise.html>. Pupils could compare the life of a helot with that of a Spartan citizen in terms of rights, work and health.

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The issue of slavery also raises issues to do with human rights. Pupils can write a report on the work of the United Nations and other organisations dedicated to the elimination of the major problems in the world today. Information on the work of the United Nations is available at <www.un.org>.

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Exercise A:

Reading

Read this diary written by Cynisca, a young Spartan girl. On the 23rd day of January, 431BC, this is the private diary of Cynisca in the city-state of Sparta

I am so terrified! Tomorrow, I must demonstrate my fitness in public1. It’s what I have been training for all my life but I am afraid I am still not fully trained and will make a fool of myself. Because of this war everything is being rushed and now they are rushing me. My father is visiting us to say goodbye before he leaves for the war and tomorrow I have to perform in front of my father and my mother and I am afraid that I will fail and let them down. Most of all, I am afraid that I will make a fool of myself in front of the crowd. Everyone in Sparta knows how much we value physical fitness but the crowd expects so much of us and are so unforgiving if we fall short of their standards. I often wonder if any of them even remember what it was like to be 13 years old and uncertain about your skills. Did they never make a mistake or take a fall during a display?

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I know that I am good at running and wrestling, but throwing the javelin and the discus are my best skills. Especially the discus. I can throw it further than any of the other girls, or boys for that matter. Tomorrow, I also have to race in a two-horse chariot race. I have not practised this enough and I am afraid I will lose control of the horses. During practise today, that is exactly what happened. The trainer told me to be confident but its different when everyone is staring at you and noticing every little mistake that you make. I know that all my life I have trained in public, but tomorrow I am being judged. It’s a little different from an ordinary day on the training ground. The boys2 will be performing with us, too, and they are so competitive. If I make a mistake, they will laugh at me and be glad that it’s not them lying on the ground in shame.

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And it’s not only the physical sports. We have to play our lyres and sing in front of everyone, too. I am better at the lyre than the flute but my trainer is insisting that I play the flute tomorrow. This is the worst thing of all. Why is everything going wrong for me?

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I am proud to be a Spartan and have always believed in being fit, but I fear the war3 is making everyone jittery and anxious. Even my mother, who has always supported me in everything I do, is very cross these days. I fear that she is thinking about my father and whether he will return from this latest battle. Spartan wives are told to send their husbands to war with the words: ‘Return to me carrying your shield or lying dead upon it’. Nothing less than victory is expected and if that is not achieved, death is preferable to defeat. I remember my mother telling me the story of King Leonidas when I was a little girl, sitting on her knee. He knew he would die at Thermopylae but he still fought to the death with his 300 warriors. But last night, as I went to bed, I caught my mother sitting in her quarters looking tense and frightened. I know she is afraid for my father. He has hardly been home since the preparations for this war began, having to spend all his time training at the barracks. My older brothers have gone, too. I am sure my mother is thinking about them, especially Lycurgus, who only left for the barracks to be trained last year4. Since I was a little girl, I have trained and practised and I know that I am fit, so, tomorrow, I will hold my head up high and do my best to excel. I am going to make my mother and father proud of me. I will pray tonight to Artemis to give me the strength and the confidence that I seek so I can succeed at this. I am Spartan. We do not know what failure means. 1. Unlike other Greek city-states, Spartan girls had to go through hard physical training so they would be fit and healthy. They had much more freedom than other Greek girls and were encouraged to actively participate and compete in athletic events. 2. Boys and girls sometimes trained together in Sparta. This was considered scandalous by Athenian commentators, who believed they should be segregated. Many Spartan girls could read and write and had a similar education to that of the boys, something unheard of in Athens. Spartan women could own property, including land, unlike the women of the other Greek city-states. 68

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Exercise B:

Comprehension questions

Note that answers may be found in the footnotes as well as the text. 1. Why is Cynisca so anxious about what she must face tomorrow? 2. What does Cynisca wonder about the crowd watching? 3. Who will be performing with Cynisca tomorrow and what does she say about them? 4. What, according to Cynisca, are her best skills? 5. Why do you think Spartan women were told to send their husbands to war with the words, ‘Return to me carrying your shield or lying dead upon it’?

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7. What is the last straw for Cynisca?

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6. What is making everyone jittery and anxious in Cynisca’s opinion?

8. Why do you think the Spartans told stories, such as the one Cynisca remembers, to their children?

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9. Read the following statements and tick those that are correct:

(a) The city-state of Sparta was different from the other Greek states..............................................

(e) Spartans preferred to die rather than to be defeated............................................................

(b) The Spartans led the Peleponnisian League, a league formed for mutual defence.......................

(f) The Spartans were the greatest rivals of the city-state of Athens.............................................

(c) Spartan boys were sent away to train as soldiers when they were eleven years of age....................

(g) 600 Spartans died with King Leonidas at the Battle of Thermopylae.........................................

(d) In Sparta, girls were not encouraged to be physically active..................................................

(h) The Spartans believed in living a life of luxury and pleasure......................................................

3. The Spartans led the Peleponnesian League, created as an alliance of southern Greek states for mutual defence in the late 6th century BC. In 431 BC, a major war had broken out between Sparta and Athens, due to Sparta’s fears about the growth of Athenian power and influence. The Athenians were primarily a naval power and the military power of the Spartans lay in their army so it was a difficult war, with dramatic changes of fortune for both sides. In the end, in 404 BC, the Spartans had forced the defeat of the Athenians through a combination of luck and managing to deprive them of valuable silver revenue and supplies of grain. 4. At seven years of age, Spartan boys were sent away from home to train as soldiers. Here, they were deliberately underfed and thinly clothed so they would get used to cold and hunger. Spartan soldiers were the most disciplined and well trained of all Greek soldiers. They sang songs and combed their hair before battle as a preparation ritual. They wore distinctive red cloaks and plumed helmets and carried brightly polished shields. They marched into battle in step together with pipes playing. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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Exercise C:

Cloze exercise

Use the words from the word bank to complete the sentences.

Word Bank participated die war resent

rivals fit master Thebes

soldiers raced disciplined power

enslaved lyre property Athens

rebellion council sea

The city-state of Sparta was different from the other city-states because the Spartans were a militaristic and insular state, ruled by two kings from two royal families who ruled alongside a 28-man

. Spartan kings were not absolute

rulers and could be removed. The Spartans were the Athenians greatest

. The Spartans had fearsome

reputations among all Greeks. They even looked different because Spartan men dressed alike, growing their hair very long and wearing red cloaks. All male citizens became

after leaving school and spent their lives serving the

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state. Farming was carried out by enslaved people from the lands of Laconia and Messenia who were known as Helots. Helots were the collective property of the state and did not belong to any particular

as they had been captured and

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by the Spartans to do their work for them. The helots outnumbered the Spartans and the Spartans feared that the Helots would rise up in

against them, as they had done in 464 BC—a rebellion that had

lasted for 17 years. The Spartans responded to this threat by becoming even more militaristic. Spartan women were expected to exercise so they could produce healthy babies. When Spartan babies were born, they became of the state and not of their parents. The state examined them to see if they were fit and healthy.

Those judged unhealthy were condemned to

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the

from exposure. Spartan girls were trained to be physically

and to take part in trials of strength. They ran, wrestled, threw the discus and the javelin and learned

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how to manage horses and drive carriages in religious processions. They chariots. They learned to sing and to play the

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the other city-states, and sometimes

in two-horse and four-horse and the flute. They were not segregated from boys, as in

in public athletic displays with them.

When the Persians were defeated, in 479 BC, the northern city-states joined together to form the Delian League in order to resist any future Persian threats. Its headquarters was on the island of Delos and, with

at its head, it protected the

other city-states and made them pay a tax called a tribune. In 454 BC, the league’s treasury was moved from Delos to Athens and Athens became the most important city-state. Some of the other city-states began to

its power.

In southern Greece, known as the Peleponnese, Sparta joined with other city-states and formed the Peleponnesian League, which declared

on Athens. Athens was a great sea power and Sparta had the most

army in Greece. Athens could not be defeated at

and Sparta could not be defeated on land, so there

was a stalemate. The war was uneven, with both sides suffering heavy losses and behaving with great brutality. In 415 BC and 405 BC, the Athenians suffered two disastrous naval defeats and the Spartans became the most important city-state. However, this did not last long. The city-state of Thebans did not enjoy

now jostled for power and defeated the Spartans in 371 BC. But the for long. While the Greeks were fighting amongst themselves, a new power had

emerged in Macedonia, home of Alexander the Great. 70

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Exercise D:

Word study exercises

1. Read this young Spartan boy’s account of his education and training. Find nine misspellings and write them correctly below. I, Hippias of Sparta, pledge my allegience to the state and to our king. At the age of seven, I was sent to a training camp. I cryed the night before I left but I dared not let my parents see my tears. My strongest memorie of the training camp was that I felt hungry all the time. It seemed as if they deliberetely gave us small portions that never filled our stomachs. I can also remember clearly how cold I felt, especially in winter. We were not allowed to put our red cloaks on even on the bitterest winter days, and any boy who dissobeyed this rule was beaten. We slept on reed beds and didn’t wear shoes. We had to learn to use all of our weapons expertly and if we made a mistake, we could expect another beating. The only part of it I really liked was when we were taught to play the pipes to accompanie the warriors into battle. I was good at music and I was lucky because the music teacher sometimes allowed me to practise the pips instede of going to training. Despite all of the discomfort, I survived and I am now a warrier of Sparta, ready to do my duty for my land.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

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2. Complete the following sentences, using your own words and information from your teacher. (a) In Sparta, children became the property of the state as soon as

.

(b) Newborn babies who were not considered to be healthy were

.

(c) Sparta differed from the other Greek city-states because

.

(d) The Spartan education system concentrated on

.

(e) The Spartans looked different from other Greeks because

.

(f) Spartan girls were encouraged to be physically fit so they could

.

(g) Spartan boys began their education at seven, when they

.

(h) Sparta and Athens were rivals and this rivalry

.

(i) In battle, Spartan warriors wore

.

(j) The Spartans eventually defeated the Athenians, only to be

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.

3. Circle the correct answer.

(a) In ancient Sparta, girls were (i) encouraged to be physically fit. (ii) encouraged to marry early. (iii) forbidden to take part in sports. (b) The Spartans were (i) the only Greek city-state to have a prime minister. (ii) the only Greek city-state to have a president. (iii) the only Greek city-state to have kings. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

(c) Spartan warriors had (i) their heads shaved and wore black cloaks (ii) their hair long and wore red cloaks. (iii) their hair bleached and wore purple cloaks.

(e) At home, the Spartans (i) carried out all their own menial tasks. (ii) forced the helots to do all their menial tasks. (iii) paid their servants to do the menial tasks.

(d) Spartan boys and girls were (i) never allowed to train together. (ii) always trained together. (iii) sometimes allowed to train together.

(f) In Sparta, it was considered shameful (i) to be defeated in battle. (ii) to win in battle. (iii) to engage in battle.

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

1. Read these keywords/terms and their explanations and use them in sentences.

(a) absolute power: Political power that rules alone and does not allow any criticism or opposition.

(b) Battle of Marathon: Battle in 490 BC between the Spartans and the Persians in which 300 Spartans died. (c) exposure: Condition of being exposed to something damaging or detrimental such as extreme cold. (d) helots: People from different lands, such as Laconia, who had been enslaved by the Spartans in order to carry out menial tasks. (e) insular: The state of being isolated and detached from outside influences. (f)

King Leonidas: King who led the 300 Spartan warriors who died at the Battle of Marathon defending the pass against the Persians.

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(g) lyre: A stringed musical instrument, much like a harp, played by the Greeks.

(i)

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(h) militaristic society: A society that believes in the glorification of military values, virtues and ideals over all others. Peleponnese: Peninsula which forms the southern part of Greece and is joined to the mainland by the narrow isthmus of Corinth.

(j)

Peleponnesian League: A group of states in the Peloponnese who joined together to oppose the growth of Athenian power.

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Thebes: City-state which toppled the Spartans from their premier position amongst Greek city-states in the 4th century BC.

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(k) Sparta: Militaristic city-state which opposed Athens, succeeded toppling it and becoming the premier city-state in Greece in 404 BC.

2. Generally, many of the ancient Greeks, except the Spartans, did not encourage girls and women to take part in sporting activities. A woman called Cynisca, a Spartan princess, took part in the Olympic Games in Olympia at the end of the 4th century BC. Read the following paragraph about her and correct the ten misspellings, writing your corrections below.

Cynisca was born in Sparta around 440 BC. She was a royal princess, the daughter of Archidamus II and Eupolia. She was a kean horsewoman and was determined to win the chariot races at the Olympic Games. Women could not take part in the Olympics except for the equestrien events, which were held in a separate hippodrome (a course for horses). Even then, they could not actualy drive or ride the horses but could only compete as the owners of the chariotts and the teams. In the society of ancient Greece, and even in Spartan society, it was very unusual for a woman to enter the games. Cynisca was a royal princess and would therefore have had enouf status and wealth to be able to act differantly from other women in less fortunate circamstances. Cynisca enterred her four-horse chariot team in the games of 396 BC and won. In 392 BC, she entered her team again and won. She was probabley the only woman to ever win a double viktory at the ancient Olympic Games.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

3. The Spartans did not take part in much menial work themselves, leaving it to the people they called the helots. Helots were people from different lands, such as Laconia and Messenia, who the Spartans had captured and enslaved. Read the following account of the life of a slave in Sparta and circle the correct bold word to complete the sentences. I am Penthesilia. I was taken from my home in the land of Laconia/Ionia/Attica and brought to Sparta when I was only 11 years of age. I was sent to the house of a Spartan lawyer/warrior/philosopher who always seemed to be away training or fighting. His wife, the woman of the house, was put in charge of me. I was trained to do the cooking by the cook, who was old and cranky. I was her assistant/manager/secretary for nine years. She taught me how to bake 12 different kinds of breads and I learned how to dry fruits such as beetroot/raisins/tomatoes and apricots. I had to accompany her to the agora (market place) and carry the food home for her. I liked the days we went to the agora as it was the only time I ever got out of the house/temple/shrine. I think I was lucky because I sometimes met other slaves in the market who told me their mistress beat them regularly. My mistress didn’t beat me and she always made sure that I had some of the leftover food in the kitchen to eat. When I was 20, the cook died and I was told that I was now the priestess/cook/athlete for the household. I have been the cook now for the last four years and I am content. Now I even have my own assistant, a warrior/ politician/helot from Messenia. My mistress is not cruel and sometimes now she even shouts/talks/whispers to me when I am in the gynaeceum (women’s room). I heard today that the master is coming back soon to live here permanently and I am worried as he is supposed to be very difficult/easygoing/vain. I pray to the gods that he will not be difficult with me or my cooking. I have no other hope/home/help now except here in Sparta.

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4. The Spartans believed that it was vitally important to exercise and be healthy. Today, there is increasing evidence that regular exercise brings physical, mental and emotional benefits. Research this topic, using the library and Internet, and circle the correct words below. (a) Exercise makes us breathe more deeply so (i) it decreases heart rate and blood circulation. (ii) it increases heart rate and blood circulation. (iii) it improves our verbal and vocal abilities.

(e) Anaerobic exercise works on our (i) blood pressure and circulation. (ii) muscle strength and flexibility. (iii) memory skills and mental arithmetic.

(b)

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Exercise can burn off (i) vitamins in our system. (ii) older, damaged skin. (iii) stress hormones such as adrenaline in our system.

(c) Exercise releases endorphins into our bodies that (i) depress our mood and make us feel worse. (ii) improve our memory. (iii) improve our mood and make us feel better.

(d) Aerobic exercise increases the efficiency of (i) our heart and lungs. (ii) our legs and arms. (iii) our feet and toes.

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(f) Regular exercise can help to burn calories so that we (i) are more likely to put on weight. (ii) are likely to maintain the same weight. (iii) are less likely to put on weight. (g)

Discussion points Exercise and slavery Discuss the value of physical exercise in relation to good health. Research and formulate a basic exercise plan for yourself, using the library and the Internet. Slavery still exists today. Use the Internet to research the work of the United Nations to eradicate slavery in the world today.

Exercise improves our (i) muscle tone and posture. (ii) rate of reading. (iii) rate of talking.

(h) Ongoing research indicates that exercise can be (i) ineffective in the treatment of depression. (ii) effective in the treatment of depression. (iii) only effective in summer. Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Teachers Notes

Unit 10: A farmer’s wife, Aspasia, visits her sister, Maia, a craft worker’s wife, in Athens – 425 BC Objectives: Pupil completes exercises in reading, comprehension and cloze activities. Pupil completes word study exercises in correcting misspellings, identifying correct words and matching ancient and modern Greek words. Pupil learns about life for women in Athens, the Panathenea, and ancient Greek clothing, food and housing.

Background information: This text is a dialogue. A dialogue is a conversation between two parties which may be spoken or written. In this case, Aspasia and Maia are sisters and are catching up on all the news while they have breakfast on the first morning of Aspasia’s visit to Athens. Maia is wealthier than her sister, being the wife of a prosperous Athenian craftsman, Polyclitus. Her sister is the wife of Aegistus, a small farmer in Attica.

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Aspasia is from a farm in Attica, the countryside outside Athens. Life for Greek farmers was hard. The mountainous areas had severe winters and extremely hot summers. The soil was stony, the weather was severe and only certain crops grew on the land, such as olives, grapes and some grains. Wealthy farmers used servants and slaves to help run their farms. Poorer farmers relied on everyone in the family to get involved in farming and looking after the mountain goats and sheep raised to give wool, hides, milk and meat. Farmers lived in the countryside, in houses with stone walls and clay-tiled roofs. These houses usually had three rooms, a bedroom, a living room and a storeroom where food and farm tools were kept. For most of the year, the ancient Greeks spent their lives outdoors. In the countryside, they worked on the land.

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Maia is living in Athens. The city-state of Athens was one of the most important city-states in ancient Greece. Athenian society was structured on democratic principles and historians believe that democracy created the conditions for a flowering of artistic, cultural and philosophical achievement. In Athens, power was allocated through three main institutions. The assembly was a body that met several times a month to discuss current issues and all male citizens of Athens were entitled to attend and take part in these discussions. The council was the second institution and dealt with all matters of the city and oversaw the third branch of Athenian administration, the magistrates. The growth of the city-states occurred after they had to unify against a common threat from the Persians under the Persian king, Darius. The Persians controlled most of the area known as Ionia and demanded that the Greek city-states gave them allegiance, but Athens and Sparta refused. Three decisive battles at Marathon, Thermopylae and Salamis took place. The defeat of the Persians changed the course of history forever as the Greeks triumphed and the Greek way of life survived. The civilisation of the ancient Greeks was able to develop without threat.

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Pericles, the leader of Athens in the 5th century, decided to rebuild the acropolis which had been destroyed during the Persian war. An acropolis existed in every Greek town and city and was the upper fortified part of the city. Athena was the goddess of Athens and the protector of wild animals. She was usually shown wearing a helmet and a shield. The winged goddess, Nike, was in her right palm and coiled around her shield was a snake, a symbol of wisdom. In the city, Greek men from different backgrounds mixed together, congregating in open spaces such as the agora, the Greek word for marketplace. There they met friends and discussed politics. Ancient Greek men conducted life in a very public way. Political assemblies were held in the open air. Their theatres were open to the skies.

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In the city, houses led from the street into an open courtyard and the main rooms opened onto this courtyard. There was a room set aside for storing and selling craft goods. Maia’s husband is a skilled craftsman so his studio is at the front of the house while Maia’s living area is at the back, off the courtyard. Ancient Greek cities had thriving workshops and factories producing many goods such as ships, bricks, pots, coins, jewellery and ornaments. Athens was full of skilled craftsmen from all over the Greek world. There were entire streets filled with craft shops and even a specific area dedicated to pottery called the ‘Kerameikos’ or ‘Potters’ Quarter’. There were factories in Athens producing goods such as shields and couches. Small workshops with four or five skilled craftsmen were more common than large factories. Successful craftsmen in the city would have a studio at the front of their house where customers could walk in to admire the work in progress. Life for most Greek women was very different from men. Their life centred around the home. They could not be independent and were protected by male guardians, usually their fathers or their husbands. A Greek wife’s separate living area was called the gynaeceum. Her husband’s area was called the andron, and he would entertain his male guests, giving symposia where the men discussed issues, drank wine, recited poetry and sang. A wealthy craftman’s wife, like Maia, could stay at home, supervising her household and her slaves. They did not have to work on the land like poorer farmer’s wives. Maia is also fortunate because her husband, Polyclitus, is a very successful craftsman and she can spend her time supervising her household. Greek women did not usually appear in public. Aspasia and Maia are eating dinner in a separate dining area in the house, which was for women. The Greeks ate only one main meal a day, the deipnon, which was eaten in the late afternoon. They had a first course consisting of chicken or fish, cheese and some vegetables such as celery and radishes. A second course followed which included figs, olives and grapes, sweetened with honey. Cattle were not common in ancient Greece and meat was usually only eaten during festivals after sacrifices had been made to the gods. Aspasia and Maia are also drinking wine mixed with water. Fish was plentiful in ancient Greece, harvested from the rich seas surrounding it. The Greeks ate sea bass, red mullet, eels and tuna.

Worksheet information: Teachers have the option to ask pupils to read aloud the text in Exercise A, which is a dialogue. Pupils may need to use their dictionaries to complete Question 1 in Exercise D.

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Teachers Notes Ancient Greek civilisation consisted of several periods. Aspasia is visiting Athens during the Classical Period. Pupils can check where the Classical Period fits into ancient Greek history by referring to the time line on page xii. A glossary of keywords and terms relating to this particular unit is provided on pages viii – xi for teacher reference. Many of them appear in Question 1 in Exercise E. Pupils will find it beneficial to check the detailed footnotes for the text in Exercise A to assist in comprehension of Greek terms.

Answers:

Exercise C......................................... page 78 discussed, ten, patron, Athens, streets, potters, citizens, foreign, family, back, seen, recited, hard, stony, olives, goats, labour, help, ripe, barns

Cross-curricular activities:

Exercise D......................................... page 79 1. (a) patron (b) decreed (c) offered (d) useful (e) keenly (f) bare (g) symbolism (h) plenty (i) named (j) portrayed 2. Pericles, wealthiest, assembly, commissioned, recommended, covered, white, usually, roof, marble 3. (a) (iii), (b) (i), (c) (ii), (d) (i), (e) (iii), (f) (ii) Exercise E..................................pages 80–81 1. Teacher check 2. celebrate, slaves, bread, sauce, couches, purple, wedding 3. (a) (x), (b) (ix), (c) (vii), (d) (viii), (e) (ii), (f) (xi), (g) (iii), (h) (v), (i) (xii), (j) (i), (k) (vi), (l) (iv)

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celebrated a festival every year to honour her called the Great Panathenea and every four years, an even bigger festival called the Panathenea. 7. The andron was the men’s area in an ancient Greek house where they entertained their male friends and held symposia, occasions when men gathered to discuss political issues and drink wine. 8. (a) Mithaecus was a 5th century Greek from Syracuse who may have written the world’s first cookbook. (b) Teacher check 9. Answers (a), (g) and (h) should be ticked.

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Exercise B......................................... page 77 1. They are having breakfast in the women’s room in an ancient Greek house which was called the gynaeceum. It was where the spinning, weaving and childminding was carried out either by slaves, in the house of a wealthy woman, or by the woman herself. 2. Polyclitus is a potter. His workshop is in the front of the house and opens onto the street for customers to visit. 3. The festival of the Great Panathenea, in honour of the goddess Athena, the patron goddess of Athens. 4. To consult the oracle to ask if they are going to have children. 5. It was the political and legal centre of a town or city and the main marketplace where fish, meat, fruit and vegetables and cheese was sold. Athens was the leading city of ancient Greece. 6. The goddess Athena was the patron goddess of Athens. The Athenians

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A detailed overview of all the archaeological sites in Greece, including the Acropolis in Athens, can be accessed at <http://odysseus.culture. gr/h/3/eh30.jsp>. The Acropolis in Athens is on the list of World Heritage sites compiled by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. Pupils can find out more about the Acropolis at <http://whc.unesco.org>. The Elgin Marbles in the British Museum in London are from the Parthenon. Pupils may wish to view the marbles and read about their history at <www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/article_index/w/what_are_the_elgin_marbles.aspx>.

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A website with information on the debate surrounding the Elgin Marbles is at <www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/greeks/parthenon_ debate_01.shtml>. Information on the political system of democracy in the city-state of Athens is at <www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/greeks/greekcritics_01. shtml>.

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Information on the city-state of Athens is at <www.crystalinks.com/athens.html>.

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Exercise A:

Reading

Read the following dialogue between two Greek sisters, Aspasia and Maia. Aspasia: I really like your house. It’s so bright and colourful and there are beautiful things everywhere. Maia:

Thank you. I like to think that my house is a place where we can get away from the heat, noise and dust of Athens.

Aspasia: Yes, that is true. I know we’re in the middle of this great city and yet it feels very peaceful and quiet here. That’s probably because although we are in the Kerameikos, the centre of pottery making in Athens, Polyclitus’s pottery workshop is at the front and the gynaeceum1 is here at the back of the house. It means that it is much quieter here.

Aspasia: This food is delicious, Maia. I didn’t realise that I was so hungry. The honey is so sweet and the cheese is so creamy. It’s even better than the cheese I make at home on the farm. Where did you get it?

My slaves bought it at the agora2. There’s a stall there that produces recipes by Mithaecus and the whole city flocks to buy food there. The markets here have the most fabulous range of foods and goods from all over Greece and beyond.

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Maia:

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Maia:

Aspasia: I feel so excited! I could hardly sleep last night thinking about this visit. What have you planned for us today? Maia:

Well, you’ve come just at the right time to the city. It’s the festival of the Great Panathenea3 and there will be celebrations all week. I hope you have brought your best chiton4 with you. If not, you can borrow one of my good ones.

Maia:

I didn’t bring many clothes with me. Why will I need to wear my best chiton?

I can hardly wait! I am tired of life on the farm. All I do every day is work, work and work. I have to constantly fetch and carry. I envy you your life here in Athens. You married well when you married Polyclitus. His business is doing so well.

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Maia:

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Aspasia: Because everyone here dresses up in honour of the goddess Athena and there will be dancing and singing late into the night. There are athletic competitions also and we can join in the procession to the acropolis. You must come to see the new golden dress that will be put on the statue of Athena in the Parthenon. It will sparkle and dazzle you with its golden light. The whole city will be cramming the streets and climbing up to the acropolis to worship our patron goddess.

Aspasia: Yes, I know my life is good here and I am lucky that Polyclitus is a good and kind husband who is doing well with his business. But, sister, I envy you too. You have been blessed with children and we haven’t yet. It’s the one thing that saddens me about our life here. I could give my children a great home. They would have material security and a good education. Maia:

I will pray to our blessed goddess of women and childbirth, Artemis, that you will have a child soon.

Aspasia: I often pray to Hestia, our goddess of the home. Polyclitus is talking about going to Delphi to consult the oracle. Maia:

Will you go with him?

Aspasia: Yes. It will be a holiday for us, too, as his work is very demanding and he spends most days in his workshop. I miss him when I am here alone in the gynaeceum. He is expanding his business and he has to personally supervise the metics5. Maia:

In Attica, I spend most of my days working on the land with Aegistus. Recently we have been harvesting the grapes from our vines. I get hot and sticky working in the sun and the children are running around, under my feet. They’re supposed to be helping me but they just play with each other. They are very young. But I love them and am grateful to Artemis for them.

Aspasia: Maia, my sister, let us forget about the things that worry us. Let’s get dressed up in our best chitons, have the slaves do our hair and get ready to enjoy the first of the ceremonies today! Come and try on some of my silk chitons! 76

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Exercise B:

Comprehension questions

Note that answers may be found in the footnotes as well as the text. 1. Which room in the house are Aspasia and Maia having breakfast in? What activities were carried on in this room in a Greek house? 2. What kind of a craftsman is Maia’s husband, Polyclitus? Where is his workshop? 3. What feast is being celebrated in Athens this week, according to Maia? 4. Why is Maia going to visit the oracle at Delphi with her husband?

5. What is the agora and what is sold there? Why did Athens have such a busy agora?

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6. Who is the patron goddess of Athens? Did the Athenians hold any special festivals to honour her?

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7. What was the andron in a Greek house? What kind of activities occurred in there?

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8. (a) Who was Mithaecus?

(b) Why do you think Aspasia said that all of Athens is flocking to a stall in the agora?

9. Read the following statements and tick those that are correct:

(a) Men and women had separate areas in an ancient Greek house...............................

(b) The Panathenea was an election held every four years in Athens..............................

(c) The goddess Hestia was the patron goddess of the city-state of Athens....................

(d) The andron was the area designated for the slaves in a Greek house........................

(e) The Kerameikos was the city quarter where silversmiths worked..............................

(f) A symposium was a gathering of doctors to discuss medical matters........................ (g) The gynaeceum was the area where the women and female slaves carried out their activities.................................................................................................. (h) Greek women wore long linen tunics called chitons, which originally came from Turkey...........................................................................................................

2. The agora was the political and legal centre and the main market place in a Greek town or city. In Athens, with a population of 250 000, the markets were extremely busy, selling meat, fish, vegetables, fruit and cheese. The agora was also full of craftsmen from all over the Greek world selling pots, coins and jewellery. Athens had streets of craft shops and a city quarter devoted entirely to Greek pottery called the Kerameikos. Mithaecus was a 5th century Greek from the Greek colony of Syracuse in Sicily who was supposed to have written the Western world’s first cookbook, called The art of cooking. Unfortunately, the manuscript has been lost.

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1. Women had a separate area in Greek houses called the gynaeceum and it accommodated the women, their children and their female slaves. The wealthier women supervised their slaves as they did the weaving, spinning and childminding. The andron was the men’s area and it was smaller than the gynaeceum. It was where they entertained their male friends, gave banquets and discussed politics. During the Classical Period (from around 500 to 300 BC) symposia were held, which were parties in which the male guests discussed the current issues of the day, lay on couches and were served wine. Guests were invited to give their views, to give poetry recitals and sing.

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3. The Panathenea was one of the most important festivals in Athens because it honoured the goddess Athena, the patron goddess of the city-state. It was held for six days during the month of July and every four years became the Great Panathenea. 4. Greek women from 500 BC on wore chitons, which were a new style of long linen tunic, originally from Turkey. Before 500 BC, a fuller woollen tunic, called a peplos, was popular. In cool weather they wore a himation, a cloak. They usually went barefoot around their houses but if they were going out, they wore light leather sandals that simply consisted of soles and thongs. They grew their hair long and coiled it in a knot. Wealthier women had their slaves put gold and silver pins, decorated with jewels, in their hair. They also showed off their wealth by wearing golden earrings, necklaces and bracelets to show off their pale skin, as only slaves tanned in ancient Greece because they had to go outside in the sun to perform tasks. 5. There were a large number of metics, or non-citizens, in ancient Athens. They were usually skilled craftsmen. 77


Exercise C:

Cloze exercise

Use the words from the word bank to complete the sentences.

Word Bank

ten

patron

Athens

potters

citizens

family

back

seen

hard

olives

streets

discussed

goats

labour

help

ripe

barns

foreign

recited

stony

‘Demokratia’ is Greek for ‘rule by the people’. In Athens, democracy could be practised by any adult male entitled to attend at meetings where policies and plans were

and decided. They could make speeches and vote at assemblies, which

were held every nine days. Athenian citizens chose political leaders and army generals by public vote and voted in criminal trials. If a politician was unpopular, he could be banished from the city for Athena was the

years. This was called ostracism.

goddess of the city and her temple, the Parthenon, stood on the acropolis. Inside it was

Athena and every four years, Athenians celebrated the Great Panathenea.

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a huge statue of the goddess, created by one of Greece’s greatest sculptors, Pheidias. The festival of Panathenea was held to honour

was over 250 000 and the agora was busy.

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The agora was the market of a Greek city. The population of Stalls sold meat, vegetables, fruit and cheese and there were many A city quarter, called the Kerameikos, was where all the be

with craft shops located on them.

lived and worked. Women were not allowed to

of Athens and could not vote in any democratic elections. Slaves and metics could not be citizens workers, usually highly skilled craftsmen, who had come to Athens to find work in

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either. Metics were their particular area.

. Hestia

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Athenian women lived according to strict rules. Women’s lives centred around the home and

was the goddess of the home and Greek homes often had a shrine to her. Women did not go out in public and spent time in their own private area, called the gynaeceum, usually at the

of the house. Here they carried out spinning,

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weaving and childminding. Wealthier women had female slaves to do this for them. Only priestesses and poorer women were in public. Men also had their own area, which was called the andron. This was in the front or public part

of the house and was used for entertaining male guests in a symposium, which was a party where male guests discussed politics, drank wine, sang songs and

poetry.

Farmers outside Athens usually had a

life as the weather was harsh, the land

and government taxes were high. They grew crops such as

, grapes and grain on their land to sell in

the markets. Only tough mountain sheep and

could survive on such poor land and provide wool, hides

or milk. Wealthy farmers had many slaves to do the heavy

on the farm, but poorer farmers depended

on their wives and families. Farmers lived in houses with thick walls and clay-tiled roofs. These houses usually had three rooms—a bedroom, a living room and a storeroom where food and farm tools were kept. The farming year was very busy with much work to do. In the summer, the whole family had to

with the harvest. In May,

had to be cut down. In June, sheaves of wheat had to be stored safely in the

barley for the winter and, in July,

the vines and olives were harvested. 78

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Exercise D:

Word study exercises

1. The goddess Athena became the patron goddess of Athens after a contest with the god Poseidon. Find ten spelling errors in this account of their contest and write the correct spelling below. You may use a dictionary. There is a legend about how the goddess Athena became the patrone goddess of the city-state of Athens. The father of the gods, Zeus, decread from Mount Olympus that the city of Athens would be given to the god who ofered the most usefull gift to its people. Both Athena and Poseidon wanted Athens, so they watched each other keanly to see what kind of gift the other would give. Poseidon gave the city the gift of a horse. Athena struck the bear soil of Athens with her spear and an olive tree sprang up. The Athenians loved the olive tree for its cymbolism of peace and plentey. They were so delighted with Athena’s gift that Zeus gave the city to her and nammed it after her. In Greek art and sculpture, Athena was often portraied holding an olive branch.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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2. The Parthenon was built as a great temple to honour Athena, the patron goddess of Athens. Read the following information about the Parthenon and choose the correct bold word to complete each sentence. The Athenians, led by Plato/Pericles/Pluto, wanted to show the world that they were the wealthiest/poorest/meanest city-state in ancient Greece and the building of the Parthenon was their way of doing this. The Athenian king/assembly/ president approved the plans for the structure in 448 BC and chose the sculptor Pheidias to be in charge of the overall project. He was also ordered/commissioned/forced to create a statue of the goddess Athena. Pericles recommended/

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insisted/suggested that the statue should be the most magnificent ever created in the city and be plastered/inlaid/covered in gold and ivory. The Parthenon was built of white/grey/black marble from Mount Pentelicon, a mountain close to the city

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of Athens. In ancient Greece, marble was a highly prized building material and was usually/always/seldom only used for sculptures. Even the floor/roof/basement tiles of the Parthenon were made of wood/slate/marble. The total amount of

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marble used in the building of the Parthenon was enormous. 3. Circle the correct answers.

(a) The acropolis of Athens was built on the (i) lowest point in Athens. (ii) highest mountain near the city. (iii) upper, fortified part of Athens.

(b) The Greeks used slaves to (i) carry out all of their household tasks. (ii) act as security guards in the cities. (iii) to offer sacrifices to the gods.

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(c) In ancient Athens, women were (i) given equal rights with men. (ii) not given any rights. (iii) given equal rights if they were married. (d) The gynaeceum was the (i) female area of a Greek house. (ii) male area of a Greek house. (iii) slave quarter of a Greek house.

(e) Greek men entertained their friends in (i) local bars near their homes. (ii) the garden of their house. (iii) the andron, the male area of a Greek house.

(f) The Panathenea was a festival dedicated to (i) Pan, the Greek god of forests. (ii) the patron of Athens, the goddess Athena. (iii) the Greek leader, Pericles.

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

1. Read these keywords/terms and their explanations and use them in sentences. (a) agora: The main political, legal and commercial centre in a Greek town or city where the business of the polis was conducted. (b) Athena: The patron goddess of the city of Athens, who won her position by planting an olive tree. (c) Attica: Name given to the territory of the city-state of Athens and the surrounding countryside. (d) andron: Name given to the male area in a Greek house where the men entertained and held symposia. (e) deipnon: Name given to the main meal eaten in ancient Greece, usually eaten in the evenings. (f)

demokratia: The Greek word for democracy, it meant ‘rule by the people’.

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(g) festival: In ancient Greece, a periodic religious celebration marked by special observances and entertainment such as music and drama. (h) gynaeceum: The part of a Greek house where the woman of the house supervised her slaves and household tasks were done. hubris: An excess of ambition or pride that leads to the person’s downfall.

(j)

ostracism: A method of temporary banishment of a person, usually for ten years, by popular vote of the citizens of a city-state.

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(i)

(l)

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(k) Panathenea: Name given to the festival celebrated in every July in Athens.

Parthenon: Name given to the temple built to honour the goddess Athena in Athens, it means ‘the temple of the virgin’.

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2. The following is an account of preparations for a dinner in the gynaeceum by Helen, a wealthy Athenian woman. The account is missing some words. Fill the gaps correctly, using words from the list below.

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‘I want to tell you about my preparations for deipnon in the gynaeceum tonight. I hope it goes well as I have spent the last week making all my plans and preparations for it. I have invited three of my friends to come to

the festival of Dionysos and I really want it to go

well. I decided on the menu some days ago and discussed it with my kitchen

. I wanted a menu that offered the best of

our Athenian food to my guests. I ordered my slaves to go to the agora this morning to buy all that we had decided on. I want my guests to enjoy the best Greek wine, made from grapes grown outside Poseidonia in Magna Graecia, which we will mix with water and enjoy after the food. For the sitos, I have ordered my cook to bake the finest

from fresh Sicilian grain bought fresh at the agora this morning. For the first

course, the opson, the choices have to be varied and delicious so that my guests can be offered a really tasty selection of fresh olives, onions, garlic, cheese and fish to put on their bread. I also ordered my slaves to prepare a hare for roasting which will accompany the opson. I asked my favourite slave to prepare a special

for my guests to dip their meat and fish in. The second course will be a selection of figs and

grapes, sweetened with honey. The gynaeceum has been thoroughly cleaned and fresh woollen cloth, spun and woven by my slaves, has been draped over the

. My slaves are dressed in freshly spun linen chitons. I am wearing a chiton of silk dyed a violet colour.

My slaves have dressed my hair by piling it up at the back of my head and holding it in place with golden diadem, given to me by my husband on our

ribbons and a

anniversary. Finally, I have just prayed to Hestia, the goddess of the

home, and asked for her blessing on my party.

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slaves

bread

purple

Literacy and history – The Greeks

celebrate

sauce

couches

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

3. Many words and terms are derived from the ancient Greeks. In some cases, they have retained their original meaning and in others the meaning has changed. Match the ancient word with the modern meaning. ostracism The name given to the process by which a citizen of Athens could be banished from the city for ten years.

(i)

A formal meeting at which several speakers deliver short addresses on a topic or related topics.

(b)

hubris An excess of ambition or pride that could lead to the person’s eventual fall from power.

(ii)

A person who, by birth or naturalisation, owes allegiance to a government and is entitled to protection from it.

(c)

democracy From the Greek words ‘demos’ and ‘cratia’ meaning ‘rule by the people’, Greek male citizens had the right to vote, serve on a jury and hold public office.

(iii)

A group of instrumentalists, including string players, organised to perform ensemble music.

(d)

philosophy The philosophical teachings of a person such as Sophokles, Plato or Aristotle.

(iv)

A long, wandering journey usually marked by many changes of fortune.

(e)

citizen A male person born in one of the Greek city-states such as Athens. Women, metics and slaves could not be citizens.

(v)

A building used to guide sea navigators by means of a powerful light.

(f)

Olympic Games A Panhellenic festival held in honour of the god Zeus every 4th year which included contests in sports, music and literature with the winners crowned with wild olive.

(vi)

A cinema.

(g)

orchestra A flat circular area in the centre of a Greek theatre on which the actors performed.

(h)

pharos One of the seven wonders of the ancient world, the pharos was the three-tier lighthouse at Alexandria.

(viii) The study of the nature of knowledge and existence and the principles of what is good and bad in the world.

(i)

gymnasium An exercise ground for men.

(ix)

Unreasonable self-confidence, displayed with pride and arrogance.

(j)

symposium A drinking party in the andron (male area) of a Greek house where the men discussed politics and drank wine.

(x)

The exclusion of a person by general consent from social acceptance and common privileges.

(k)

odeon A building used for musical performances.

(xi)

A revival of the ancient games at Olympia, held every 4th year and made up of many sporting events.

(l)

Odyssey An epic poem written by Homer about the hero Odysseus and his long journey home from the Trojan War.

(xii) A room or building where people of both sexes can participate in indoor sports activities.

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(a)

(vii) Government by the people or their elected representatives.

Discussion points — The provenance of ancient artefacts The word ‘provenance’ means ‘the origin of a work of art or archaeological specimen’. The Elgin Marbles, brought to England by Lord Elgin between 1802 and 1812, and now held by the British Museum in London, have generated a lot of debate about their provenance and ownership. The Greek government has been requesting the return of the Elgin Marbles for some years. Many countries are now demanding that similar artefacts taken out of their countries by archaeologists in the 19th and 20th centuries be returned to them. The archaeologists may have been determined to preserve the artefacts but in many cases, artefacts were moved far from their original locations and the actions of the archaeologists have been criticised. Research this topic, using the library and the Internet, and hold a class debate on the issues raised, with the two teams presenting each side of the argument. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers Notes

Unit 11: Plato, an eleven-year-old boy, asks his tutor, Alcibiades, some questions – 416 BC Objectives: Pupils complete reading, comprehension and cloze exercises. Pupils complete word study exercises in correcting spellings, choosing correct words and choosing correct answers. Pupils learn about Plato and philosophy, the influence of Greek philosophy, the city of Alexandria and some of the mathematicians and doctors who worked there.

Background information: This text is a dialogue. A dialogue is a conversation between two people and may be spoken or written. This dialogue is between the young boy, Plato, who would grow up to become one of Greece’s greatest philosophers, and his tutor, Alcibiades. Plato is already displaying a questioning mind at the age of 11 as he questions his tutor incessantly and argues with him during a lesson.

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Plato (427–347 BC) was a Greek philosopher. The Greek word ‘philosophos’ means ‘the love of wisdom’. Philosophy is the study of knowledge. The Greeks identified different branches of philosophy. Three of these were politics, in which they discussed how best to govern, ethics, in which they studied how to behave correctly, and cosmology, in which they argued about the origins of the universe. Plato was interested in the behaviour of human beings, as was his teacher, the Greek philosopher Socrates. Pluto was also interested in how people acted within society.

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Socrates believed that argument was the method to understand truth. His style of teaching was by question and answer. When he was 70 years of age, he was condemned to die by the Athenian authorities because he was accused of being insubordinate and disobeying religious laws. His speech to the Athenian authorities before his death was recorded by his pupil, Plato. Plato founded a famous school called the Academy in 387 BC and lectured pupils about politics, law and mathematics. One of Plato’s pupils was called Aristotle, another famous Greek philosopher who invented the study of logic. Aristotle was born in Macedonia and, when he was 17, he travelled to Athens and joined Plato’s Academy. Aristotle also set up his own school in Athens, which he called the Lyceum. At 41 years of age, he returned to Macedonia to take up a position as tutor to the young son of King Philip of Macedonia, the future Alexander the Great. Aristotle wrote extensively about philosophy, nature and politics. His scientific writings were unprecedented in their accuracy and detail. He died in 322 BC.

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Formal education in ancient Greece was for boys only. Wealthier girls were taught at home about the running of a household, spinning and weaving and the supervision of slaves and household servants. The Greeks did not consider that girls needed any further education. Wealthier boys had a tutor at home to teach them reading, writing, mathematics and literature. The children of the poor were not educated at all and were involved in working hard from a very early age. Most foreign residents, slaves and women in ancient Greece were illiterate. The study of literature involved memorising passages of Greek poetry by the poet Homer. Other boys attended school with a trusted slave called a paidogogos, who reported to their parents each day. Classes were small with only 12 pupils in a class. Another branch of education was provided by a sports coach, called a paidotribes, who taught subjects such as athletics, gymnastics and wrestling to young boys. Education in sports occurred whether or not the child attended a school or was taught at home by a private tutor. Thirdly, most pupils attended a music master called a kitharistes who taught them to play musical instruments such as the lyre and to sing.

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In the third century BC, the city of Alexandria, in Egypt, became the most important city of learning, science and culture in the Greek world. After Alexander the Great’s death in 323 BC, his successors fought one another for a share of his empire. One of them, Ptolemy of Macedonia, founded the last dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs, who ruled Egypt from 305 BC to 30 BC. In 30 BC, the Romans conquered Egypt and made it a province of Rome. Ptolemy founded the library at Alexandria and encouraged scholars to visit the city. Alexandria became the host to doctors, scientists and mathematicians. The mathematician and scientist Euclid is believed to have lived in Alexandria around 300 BC and was the writer of Elements, a book that has been in use for over 2000 years. He also wrote about optics, the science of light and vision. The Alexandrian doctors, Herophilus and Erasistratus, were the only ancient doctors to perform systematic scientific dissections of human corpses. They meticulously identified and documented previously unknown parts of the human body. The Pharos at Alexandria, built in 279 BC, was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and guided ships into its two harbours. Greek became an international language, spoken across the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia. In the first century AD, Jewish scholars, writing about the life of Jesus Christ, wrote in Greek so more people could read their work.

Worksheet information: Teachers have the option to ask pupils to read aloud the text in Exercise A, which is a dialogue. Ancient Greek civilisation consisted of several periods. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle lived and worked in Athens during the Classical Period. Pupils can check where the Classical Period fits into ancient Greek history by referring to the time line on page xii. A glossary of keywords and terms relating to this particular unit is provided on pages viii – xi for teacher reference. Many of them appear in Question 1 in Exercise E. Pupils will find it beneficial to check the detailed footnotes for the text in Exercise A to assist in comprehension of Greek terms.

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Teachers Notes

Answers: 9. Answers (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) and (g) should be ticked. Exercise C......................................... page 86 writing, slave, ceremonies, issues, rowers, rhetoric, training, traders, system, skills, weaving, beings, Athens, drinking, school, books, luxury, Greek, tutor, Lyceum Exercise D......................................... page 87 1. progress, months, cooperative, history, port, geography, gentle, aloud, confused, intensely 2. school, boys, mathematics, flute, athletics, speak, hate, oratory, public, disapproves, lawyer 3. (a) (ii), (b) (iii), (c) (i), (d) (ii), (e) (ii), (f) (i)

Exercise E..................................pages 88–89 1. Teacher check 2. (a) in the (ii) (b) during the (iii) (c) because of (v) (d) and it (i) (e) in order to (iv) (f) including (vi) (g) due (viii) (h) and they (vii) 3. (a) many gods (b) ethics (c) was born (d) teacher (e) the tutor of

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Exercise B......................................... page 85 1. He was enjoying their discussion and does not want to move onto a new subject. 2. Plato argues that Alcibiades, his tutor, cannot know exactly how his father feels or may react. 3. A paidagogos brought the children to school and ensured they studied. 4. Reading, writing and mathematics. 5. Teacher check 6. Plato means that the gods sometimes came down from Mount Olympus and visited humans in disguise. 7. music, poetry, dancing, athletics 8. Plato advocated a modest and simple way of life and believed that seeking too much luxury could destroy a society.

Cross-curricular activities:

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Information about the lives of Greek philosophers is available at <www.crystalinks.com/greekphilosophy.html>.

Pupils could organise a class debate with representatives speaking for Plato, Aristotle and Socrates and present their respective views on life, ethics, politics and human society. Pupils who wish to learn more about Plato and other Greek philosophers can find information at <www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/ philosophy/plato.htm>. A website on philosophical issues for pupils and teachers interested in debate is <www.philosophyslam.org>.

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Pupils can design their own codes, based on the design of the Checkerboard of Polybius, and demonstrate them in class to see if they have been successful in their designs.

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Information on the life of the mathematician Euclid is available at <www.cystalinks.com/euclid.html> and information on Greek scientists, mathematicians and the Library at Alexandria is available at <www.crystalinks.com/greece.html>.

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Exercise A:

Reading

Read this dialogue between the young boy, Plato, and his tutor, Alcibiades. Alcibiades: Now, Plato, I want to move onto some mathematical problems. Plato:

Why? Why do we have to move onto another subject? I was enjoying our discussion on the nature of good and evil.

Alcibiades: Yes, I know but we must move on to your mathematical studies now. Plato:

Why? I am good at mathematics and have worked hard at it all week. The true nature of good and evil interests me much more.

Alcibiades: Plato, I know that your father will be annoyed with you if I have to tell him that you refused to do mathematics. How can you know what my father will feel about this? He might seem annoyed but he could be secretly pleased that I was pursuing our discussion on good and evil. How things appear are not always how they really are. My father often appears annoyed with me and then hugs me five minutes later with a smile on his face1.

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Plato:

Plato:

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Alcibiades: Plato, please stop arguing with me. Your father is paying me to educate you properly. Mathematics is one of the three main subjects that form a proper Greek education2. We must move on!

Who decided on these particular subjects? How do they know that they are the right ones for a proper education? How can anyone know what are the right subjects for me? They don’t really know me. They don’t know what I am like, what kind of a person I am, what my interests are. How can they decide that I must do mathematics?

Plato:

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Alcibiades: All Greek boys your age study mathematics. It is one of the subjects that we Greeks have developed for the good of the whole of humanity. It is an essential subject and, one day, I know you will be glad you studied it here with me3. How do you know that? How can you know what I will be glad about one day?

Plato:

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Alcibiades: Plato, I am losing my patience with you. Sometimes things are the way they are. But why, Alcibiades? Why are things the way they are? Why does it have to be like that?

Plato:

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Alcibiades: It is how it has always been, Plato. I know that the gods have planned it so. But why have they? Have you ever seen a god? How do you know they’ve planned it like this?

Alcibiades: Plato, you will have to understand the ways of the gods and accept them. Plato:

But I don’t understand their ways. How can I accept something that I don’t understand? Surely that is irrational and illogical? How can you possibly know the ways of the gods? I refuse to accept this. Why is it like this?

Alcibiades: It is how it is and always has been. The gods know what is right for us. Plato:

How can they possibly know what is right for us? Do they know us? How can they know us? They live on Mount Olympus and only pay fleeting visits to our world4. I doubt I will ever see a god in all my life.

Alcibiades: Plato! You will do as I ask right now or I will have to send your paidagogos5 to fetch your father here immediately! Plato:

Oh, all right, Alcibiades. I know that you are getting cross with me. I’m not sure how I know, but I know. I must discuss this ability to know your mind with you some other time. Let us begin our mathematics class.

1. Philosophy means ‘the study of wisdom’. Plato was very interested in the differences between appearance and reality. He was also very interested in questions about knowledge, belief and explanation. He liked to discuss what it meant to ‘know’ something. He also wrote about politics in his book Republic. He wrote about an ideal state where justice prevailed and the community was ruled by responsible leaders who lived modestly. Plato visited Sicily three times to lecture and was highly critical of the luxurious life lived there. He advocated a modest and simple way of life, believing that seeking too much luxury could destroy a society. 84

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Exercise B:

Comprehension questions

Note that answers may be found in the footnotes as well as the text. 1. Why does Plato argue with his tutor, Alcibiades, about changing to mathematics in his class? 2. How does Plato respond to Alcibiades when he tells him that his father will be annoyed with him? 3. What was a paidagogos and why does Alcibiades threaten to send him to fetch Plato’s father?

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4. What, according to the tutor, are the three basic subjects in Greek education?

2. Poorer Greek boys probably only attended school for three or four years to learn basic skills in literacy and arithmetic. An apprenticeship system ensured that poorer boys were trained in trades such as that of a builder, merchant, potter, carpenter or shipwright. Wealthier Greek boys began their education as early as seven years of age, attending classes being taught by a grammatistes who concentrated on three basic subjects: reading, writing and mathematics. They also attended a school of music and poetry where they were taught by a kitharistes and learned to play the lyre, the flute and the pipes. They also developed their skills of dancing and athletics at the gymnasium (training ground with baths) with a teacher called a paidotribes. Older boys of 12 or 13 continued their education with a sophist, a teacher who came to their home and instructed them in oratory, the art of public speaking. They also studied astronomy, history and geography. At 18 years of age, their education was complete and they were eligible for military service or for political duties. In Athens, some boys continued their education at Plato’s Academy and Aristotle’s Lyceum. Girls were not educated at school but were taught skills such as spinning and weaving informally at home.

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5. How would you describe Plato’s behaviour? In your opinion, is he a reasonable boy or is he too argumentative?

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6. Why does Plato mean when he says that the gods pay fleeting visits to his world?

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7. Can you name any of the other subjects that were studied by Greek boys in school?

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8. What way of life did Plato advocate for society? Why did he dislike too much luxury? 9. Read the following statements and tick those that are correct:

(a) Plato was born into a noble family in the city-state of Athens....................................

(b) Poorer boys attended school for only three or four years...........................................

(c) Boys studied music and learned how to play the lyre, the flute and the pipes.............

(d) There was a system of apprenticeships for poorer boys to train in various crafts........

(e) When boys were older, a sophist came to teach them oratory at home......................

(f)

(g) Grammatistes taught boys at the first stage of Greek education................................ (h) Boys were taught athletics and dancing at the gymnasium by a teacher called a kitharistes.............................................................................................................

There were four basic subjects in Greek education...................................................

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3. Plato (427–347 BC) was an Athenian who was born into a noble family. He was a pupil of the Greek philosopher Socrates (469–399 BC). He founded his Academy in Athens in 387 BC, where he taught politics, law and the subject of mathematics. He was the most important Greek philosopher and his ideas shaped the political thought and culture of Athens in the Classical Period (500–323 BC). Aristotle (384–322 BC) was born in northern Greece. He is usually recognised as the founder of science. He was the tutor of Alexander the Great for three years. He came to Athens at 17 years of age to attend Plato’s Academy. He founded his Lyceum in Athens in 335 BC and he was interested in philosophy, politics and scientific subjects such as biology, physics and psychology. 4. The Greeks believed that their gods and goddesses sometimes came down from their home on Mount Olympus and visited them in disguise. 5. Wealthy families employed a special slave known as a paidagogos to take their sons to school and to ensure that they studied hard.

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Exercise C:

Cloze exercise

Use the words from the word bank to complete the sentences.

Word Bank slave rowers drinking school ceremonies traders

rhetoric luxury Athens

training writing books

skills Greek system

weaving Lyceum tutor

beings issues

There were three stages of education offered to sons of the wealthy in Ancient Greece. The first stage was at seven years of age, when boys were taken to classes held by a grammatistes, a teacher who taught them three basic subjects: reading, and mathematics. These small classes, with less than 12 pupils, were held in the teachers’ houses. The boys were accompanied by a special

called a paidagogos, who made sure that they attended and

paid attention. They also studied music, learning how to play three instruments in particular, the lyre, the flute and the pipes. The lyre was similar to a small harp. A special music teacher called a kitharistes taught them music, which was important as it played a large role in religious

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and in symposia, when men gathered to discuss political

and drink wine. Music even played a large part in war; for example: in sea battles, trireme

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time to the playing of pipes.

Older boys were taught at home by sophists who introduced them to

rowed in

, or public speaking, something

they needed if they planned to work in politics. They attended the gymnasium, which contained baths and a palaestra, a ground where they practised sports with a teacher called a paidotribes. Poorer boys were given a in the

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more basic education, only lasting three or four years. If they were to work as merchants or

agora, they still needed the three basic skills of reading, writing and mathematics. Many poorer boys enrolled in the apprenticeship such as building,

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in Athens, which allowed them to train in essential

carpentry or shipbuilding. In ancient Greece, girls did not attend school and were educated at home in homemaking skills such as spinning and

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.

Philosophy is the study of subjects such as psychology, cosmology and ethics. Psychology is the study of the human mind and human behaviour. Cosmology is the study of the origins of the universe. Ethics is the study of how human should behave in order to be good. Socrates was a Greek philosopher who taught in

. He had as his

pupil, Plato, who became one of the most revered philosophers in history. Socrates liked to teach his pupils through question and argument but he was accused of being insubordinate by the Athenian authorities and was sentenced to death. He took his own life by

poison. Plato, who was present at his death, was also an Athenian and came from a noble family. He

founded a

of philosophy in Athens called the Academy and was interested in how things appeared and

how people acted. He was interested in what it meant to ‘know’ something. He wrote many

, including

The republic; in which he created a vision of a perfect state in which justice prevailed and all people, including the rulers, lived modest and simple lives. He visited Sicily and criticised the life of

lived by the Greek colonists there. He believed

that a life filled with too much luxury could destroy society. Another great from northern Greece and was the

of Alexander the Great. He came to Athens to study philosophy and

was a fellow pupil of Plato’s. He also founded his own school in Athens called the 86

philosopher, Aristotle, came

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Exercise D:

Word study exercises

1. Read this school report written by Solon, a Greek sophist, and identify ten misspellings. Write the corrections below. To my lord, Timon. I, Solon of Athens, wish to inform you of your son’s progres in oratory, astronomy, history and geography. You will be aware that I have taught him for the last seven monthes in your home, starting at eight in the morning and finishing at three in the afternoon. Your son, Semonides, is a most cooperatif pupil and has worked very hard in my class. His best subject is history and he is an expert on the historie of our great city, knowing everything about our great acropolis and our great porte of Piraeus. His second best subject is geografy and he has worked very hard at this with me, trying to improve his knowledge of the Greek islands, colonies and cities on the western coast of Asia Minor. His third best subject is oratory. He is a gentel boy and his voice does not carry well when he is speaking alowd but he is practising hard and I am satisfied that he is making good progress in this area. However, the same cannot be said of his progress in the subject of astronomy. No matter how hard I try, I cannot seem to make him understand about the stars and the planets. He becomes very confuzed and seems to dislike the subject intensly. I will keep trying and will let you know of his progress in astronomy next term.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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2. In the following paragraph, a young Greek boy, Kallinos, describes his education. Circle the correct bold word in the sentences. I am Kallinos of Corinth and I am in my fifth year of service/school/work. I attend classes with a grammatistes and there are

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five other girls/boys/soldiers in my class. We study three main subjects, reading, writing and philosophy/mathematics/ science. I also attend the school of music in the city, where the kitharistes teaches me how to play the lyre, flute/guitar/

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violin and the pipes. I attend the gymnasium regularly with the paidotribes, who makes us practise our dancing and athletics/ mountaineering/orienteering skills. Next year, I will have to continue my education at home with a sophist who will teach me how to recite/sing/speak in public. I will also have to learn astronomy, history and geography. I hate/love/like the thought of

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studying philosophy/oratory/geometry. I would much prefer to play my lyre in public/private/person than make a public speech. I want to be a musician when I grow up but my father approves/disapproves/dislikes of this and is insisting that I follow him in his legal career. I don’t want to, but I wonder if I will be forced to become a lawyer/philosopher/priest. My father says that he knows what is best for me but I am not so sure. 3. Circle the correct answers. (a)

Philosophy is the study of (i) geography. (ii) wisdom. (iii) languages.

(b) Socrates, Plato and Aristotle lived in the city of (i) Corinth. (ii) Sparta. (iii) Athens. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com

(c)

Aristotle was the tutor of (i) Alexander the Great. (ii) Pheidias. (iii) Pericles of Athens.

(d)

Plato wrote a book called (i) Government. (ii) Republic. (iii) Senate.

(e) Greek boys began their education at (i) twelve years of age. (ii) seven years of age. (iii) three years of age. (f)

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Oratory is the study of (i) public speaking. (ii) playing music in public. (iii) reciting poetry in public. 87


Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

1. Read these keywords/terms and their explanations and use them in sentences.

(a) Aristotle: Greek philosopher from Macedonia who founded the Lyceum in Athens and was the tutor of Alexander the Great.

(b) Academy: The name of the school set up by Plato in 387 BC in Athens, which taught pupils politics, law and mathematics. (c) grammatistes: Greek teachers who taught reading, writing and mathematics at the primary or first stage of Greek education. (d) gymnasium: A training ground with baths where young boys and youths trained and practised wrestling, running and swimming. (e) kitharistes: A teacher of music who taught boys to sing and play instruments such as the lyre, the flute and the pipes. (f)

Lyceum: The name of the school founded in Athens by the philosopher Aristotle.

(g) oratory: The art of effective public speaking, an essential skill for boys and youths hoping to enter a public career.

(j)

paidagogos: An especially trusted slave who took boys to school and ensured their attendance and their attentiveness there.

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(h) palaestra: A special training ground in a gymnasium where boys and youths practised their wrestling and other athletic exercises.

philosophy: From a Greek word ‘philosophos’, meaning ‘love of wisdom’, it was the study of the principles of existence and the world.

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(k) Plato: Greek philosopher who was a pupil of Socrates and recorded his last speech to the Athenian authorities before his death. sophist: A special tutor who taught older youths the subject of oratory in their homes.

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(m) Socrates: Greek philosopher who was condemned to death by suicide because he challenged the Athenian authorities.

2. Choose the correct linking words/phrases and rewrite the following sentences correctly.

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(a)

Alexandria was a city that was named after Alexander the Great, who founded the city

in order to

(b)

Alexandra became an outstanding centre of Greek learning, science and culture

and they

(c)

Alexandria was also famous throughout the ancient world

and it

(d)

The Greek pharaoh, Ptolemy I, founded the library at Alexandria

due

(e)

The library became renowned all over the Mediterranean, attracting scholars from all over the Greek world who studied there

during the

(f)

Greek mathematicians flourished in Alexandria and many great books were written there,

(g)

Greek doctors also came to carry out important medical research in Alexandria

(h)

Two Greek doctors in Alexandria were Herophilus and Erasistratus

because of in the including

Literacy and history – The Greeks

(i)

became the greatest library in the ancient world, containing more than half a million scrolls, mostly in Greek.

(ii)

year 331 BC.

(iii) 3rd century BC. (iv) further their knowledge of philosophy, mathematics and medicine. (v)

the Pharos lighthouse, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, which was located there.

(vi) the book Elements, written by the mathematician Euclid, whose books are still used today. (vii) carried out the first dissections of the human body in Alexandria in 300 BC. (viii) to its outstanding reputation as a centre of medical education and practice. Prim-Ed Publishing – www.prim-ed.com


Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

3. The Checkerboard of Polybius.

Polybius, born 200 BC, was a Greek historian. He wrote a series of history books, which reputedly numbered 40 volumes, of which only five still survive today. He also invented a code which is now called the Checkerboard of Polybius. Each letter has a pair of numbers, which is the horizontal number followed by the vertical number.

1

2

3

4

5

So A is 1–1, B is 1–2 and F is 2–1, G is 2–2.

1

A

F

L

Q

V

So 4–3, 4–4, 4–5, 1–4, 5–4,  2–3, 1–1, 4–2, 1–4,  1–1, 3–3, 1–4,  5–4, 3–4, 4–5,  5–2, 2–4, 3–1, 3–1,  3–1, 1–5, 1–1, 4–2, 3–3 means ‘Study hard and you will learn’.

2

B

G

M

R

W

3

C

H

N

S

X

4

D

I/J

O

T

Y

Decipher the meanings of the coded words in the following sentences, using the Checkerboard of Polybius.

5

E

K

P

U

Z

(a) The ancient Greeks believed in  3–2, 1–1, 3–3, 5–4  2–2, 3–4, 1–4, 4–3.

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(b) Philosophers liked to discuss issues in politics,  1–5, 4–4, 2–3, 2–4, 1–3, 4–3  and law.

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(c) Plato  5–2, 1–1, 4–3  1–2, 3–4, 4–2, 3–3  in the city of Athens.

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(d) His  4–4, 1–5, 1–1, 1–3, 2–3, 1–5, 4–2  was the philosopher Socrates.

(e) Aristotle was  4–4, 2–3, 1–5  4–4, 4–5, 4–4, 3–4, 4–2  3–4, 2–1  Alexander the Great.

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Discussion points Philosophers in the ancient and modern worlds Research the subject of philosophy in the library and by using the Internet. Discuss how relevant the subject is in our modern world today. Is philosophy still an important and worthwhile subject? Plato wrote about Atlantis, a lost continent beneath the sea. There have been many legends about Atlantis. Some historians believe that the origins of this legend lie in the volcanic eruption on Santorini, which resulted in the loss of most of the landmass of the ancient island of Thera. Pupils should research the topic of Atlantis and hold a discussion on the most likely explanations for the ancient Greek’s belief in Atlantis.

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Teachers Notes

Unit 12: Two servants of Alexander the Great speculate on his health – 29 May 323 BC Objectives:

Pupils read text and complete comprehension and cloze exercises. Pupils complete word study exercises in word search skills and in matching and naming skills. Pupils learn about ancient Greek attitudes to death, infectious diseases such as malaria and typhoid fever, and the fight to immunise against disease in the Third World.

Background information:

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This text is a dialogue. A dialogue is a written conversation between two people and may be spoken or written. Alexander the Great was the son of Philip II of Macedonia, who had already begun to unite Greece under his rule. The Macedonians were Greeks but were regarded as barbarians by the sophisticated Athenians. Unlike most of the Greek city-states, the Macedonians were ruled by kings. King Philip II (382–336 BC) had inherited a weak kingdom surrounded by enemies. He created a powerful Macedonian army and conquered the Greek areas of Thessaly and Thrace. He persuaded all of the leading Greek poleis, the city-states, to join his military alliance. He planned to invade the Persian Empire but was murdered in 336 BC. In 356 BC, King Philip’s wife, Olympias, gave birth to a son called Alexander. When Alexander was 13, Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, became his tutor. Aristotle was renowned for his interest in the natural world as well as ethics and psychology. Alexander developed an interest in science as well as learning about his ancestry. He was told that his father, Philip, claimed to be descended from Heracles, the son of Zeus, and his mother, Olympias, believed she was descended from the legendary warrior Achilles. As a young boy, Alexander was taught the legends associated with his famous ancestors. He also continually celebrated his father’s military victories. Alexander swore that when he grew up he would be a greater conqueror than his father. Alexander grew up to be a great military commander. In this text, two of his servants are discussing his empire, his future plans and his sudden illness which has just occurred that evening at dinner. Alexander built up a huge army of almost 40 000 men and crossed into Asia to invade the empire of the Persians, the traditional enemies of the Greeks. Alexander wanted to punish the Persians for invading Greece in the past. He also wanted to free eastern Greek cities from their rule. He gathered a huge army to fight them. After his final victory over them, he declared himself to be the ruler of the Persian Empire and burned down the palace of the Persian king, Darius, at Persepolis. After invading Egypt, he was crowned pharaoh and, in 326 BC, he invaded India. Between 336 and 323 BC, he founded 17 cities, all of which were named Alexandria, after himself. One of the most famous of these cities was the city of Alexandria in Egypt. Alexander was crowned pharaoh (ruler) of Egypt on 14 November 332 BC. He spent six months in Egypt, making plans to build a great new port on the Mediterranean Sea. He chose the site himself and named his city Alexandria. It was to be the first of 17 cities that Alexander named after himself. The city was built on a grid pattern with straight streets at right angles to each other, like modern cities today. The city became a flourishing port and is still the chief port of Egypt today. After Alexander’s death, his friend, Ptolemy, founded the greatest library in the ancient world in Alexandria, which attracted scholars from all over the Mediterranean area and was said to contain a copy of every book ever written. In 279 BC, the Pharos, or lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was built in the harbour. It was 122 metres in height and stood for over 1 000 years. It was linked to the city by a causeway. There were two harbours at Alexandria, the eastern harbour, which was called the Great Harbour and the western harbour, which was called the Harbour of the Happy Return. Alexander returned to Babylon after the invasion of India but, on the evening of 29 May 323 BC, he fell ill with fever. He died on 10 June. There have been many theories about the death of Alexander the Great. Some believe he was poisoned. According to this theory, on the night he fell ill, 29 May 323 BC, Alexander had dinner with a group of men, including a man called Medius. This group had hatched a plot against him and deliberately poisoned his wine. Other theories include death by alcohol poisoning. This theory depends on reports that Alexander drank very heavily that night. The Greeks drank their wine diluted with water. In Macedonian tradition, wine was not diluted. This was another reason why the Greeks regarded the Macedonians as barbarians. Alexander was known to be a heavy drinker at times. Modern theories revolve around the possibility that Alexander, already weakened by wounds from battle, succumbed to an infectious disease. Malaria and typhoid fever are thought to be the two most likely infectious diseases that may have caused Alexander’s death. Malaria is a disease caused by the bite of infectious mosquitoes. Symptoms of malaria include headache, high fever and sweating. The Greek doctor, Hippocrates, had identified three types of malaria in the 5th century BC. Typhoid fever is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. The bacteria may be present in contaminated food and water. The symptoms are weakness, fever and a tender abdomen. In a world without antibiotics, many ancient people died of malaria and typhoid fever. Unfortunately, infectious diseases still ravage parts of the world we live in.

Worksheet information:

Teachers have the option of asking two pupils to read the dialogue in Section A aloud as a spoken text. Pupils may need to use a dictionary to complete Question 3 in Exercise E. Ancient Greek civilisation contained several periods. The period during which Alexander the Great lived and conducted his military campaigns was during the last phase of the Classical Period, 500–323 BC. Alexander’s early death brought this period to an end and the next period of Greek history began with the Hellenistic Age. Pupils can check where the Classical Period fits into ancient Greek history by referring to the time line on page xii. A glossary of keywords and terms relating to this particular unit is provided on pages viii – xi for teacher reference. Many of them appear in Question 1 in Exercise E. Pupils will find it beneficial to check the detailed footnotes for the text in Exercise A to assist in comprehension of Greek terms.

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Teachers Notes

A

Exercise C..........page 94 goddess, tasks, immerse, poisoned, Great, state, campaigns, temples, Egypt, Alexandria, modern, Seven, island, height, ruin, wife, drank, infectious, influence Exercise D..........page 95 1. Word search 2. Task 1: (g) Task 2: (l) Task 3: (k) Task 4: (i) Task 5: (h) Task 6: (d) Task 7: (f) Task 8: (b) Task 9: (a) Task 10(c) Task 11(e) Task 12(j)

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Exercise E..pages 96–97 1. Teacher check 2. (a) (ii), (b) (iv),

Cross-curricular activities:

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favourite horse and assembled his first army against King Darius. 7. Hippias has served Alexander for 32 years and Nikias joined his service when he was crowned the pharaoh of Egypt. 8. Answers (c), (d) and (g) should be ticked.

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(c) (i), (d) (iii) 3. streets, followers, sorrowful, frail, friends, begged, investigate, establish, possibility, fever, monkey, credible, theory, properly, poison, organs, complained, suggested, infectious, submitting 4. (a) (i), (b) (iii), (c) (iii), (d) (i), (e) (ii), (f) (ii)

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Exercise B..........page 93 1. Persia, Asia Minor, Afghanistan, India and Egypt. 2. Babylon was a centre of learning and culture. It was built in a square shape with massive temples and palaces. It contained one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 3. A bolt of lightning struck the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus because Zeus was so pleased by Alexander’s birth. 4. Alexander burned down the city of Persepolis in revenge for the Persian’s destruction of Athens during the Persian wars. 5. Teacher check 6. He has been with Alexander since he was born and was with him when Alexander trained his

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Information about the life of Alexander the Great can be found at <www.interesting.com/stories/alexander/>. The archaeological site of Persepolis, the city where Alexander the Great burned down the palace of the Persian king, is on the list of the UNESCO World Heritage sites, which pupils can access at <http://whc.unesco.org>. Pupils can find out more about the career of Alexander the Great at <http://faq.macedonia.org/history/alexander.the.great.html> and at <www.alexanderofmacedon.org>. Malaria and typhoid fever can still cause illness and death today. Pupils can research the fight to combat and eradicate these diseases at <www.msf.org> which is the website of Medecins Sans Frontieres, an independent humanitarian medical aid agency committed to providing medical aid wherever needed and to raising awareness of the suffering of those they assist. The official website of the United Nations has information on vaccination programs around the world at <www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus> with a section on United Nations programmes to halt the spread of diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis, an infectious disease which damages the lungs. A website with information on Greek heroes including Heracles, is at <www.mythweb.com/hercules/index.html>.

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Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Exercise A:

Reading

Read the following dialogue between Alexander’s two servants, Nikias and Hippias in Babylon, 29 May 323 BC. Nikias: I was told this morning that soon we’ll have to start packing everything up again. Hippias: What! It feels as if we have just arrived in Babylon1. Is there anywhere left in the world for Alexander to conquer? Nikias: I don’t think so. So far he has conquered Persia, Asia Minor, Afghanistan and India. Hippias: Don’t forget he has also been crowned pharaoh of Egypt2. Nikias: How could I forget that? That’s when I first joined his service. How long have you served him? Hippias: For 32 years. I remember the night he was born. It was said that Zeus himself was so pleased at his birth that he sent a bolt of lightning to strike the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus and set it on fire. Artemis herself was attending Alexander’s birth and thus wasn’t there to save her temple from destruction. I was with Alexander when he first tamed his favourite horse, Bucephalus. I was there when he assembled his army against King Darius, king of the Persians. Nikias: You are obviously very fond of him.

Nikias: So, when do we move on to the next city? Hippias: Not just yet. Hippias: Did you not hear what happened earlier tonight? Nikias: What happened?

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Nikias: Why not? Alexander is usually impatient to reach his next conquest.

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Hippias: He’s been like a son to me. He could say things to me that he never could to King Philip. His relationship with his father was always very tense. They were always more like rivals than father and son.

Hippias: Alexander fell ill this evening at dinner. He seemed to have a fever. I heard that he had to lie down.

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Nikias: He’s just drunk too much red wine again. Do you remember what he did in Persepolis after that wild party3?

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Hippias: Yes, I do. I know he had a lot of red wine to drink that night, too, but that wasn’t the reason he burned down Persepolis. He had threatened to do it in revenge for the Persian’s destruction of Athens and that night, he carried out his threat. Don’t you remember what the Persians did to our temples and our gods? Nikias: Yes, I remember. Every Greek remembers the destruction of Athens and how the gods were insulted. Hippias: I said that we would attend to him during the night. I want to make sure that he recovers. Nikias: Why? We will be up all night long now. Hippias: I insisted. We must look after him—there are rumours that he was poisoned. Nikias: Poisoned! Surely not? Who would want to kill him? He was among his friends at dinner tonight. Hippias: Friends who will also be his successors, if they have their way. I sense something evil has happened here tonight. Nikias: Don’t be so worried, Hippias. Nothing evil has happened to Alexander. I am sure it’s the wine again. Hippias: I will try to share your youthful confidence. Nikias: If anything did happen to Alexander, what would happen to you and me4? Hippias: We won’t even think about that possibility. Now, let us attend to Alexander. Nikias: Yes, our master’s only 32 years of age and he wants to be the conqueror of the whole world. He’s invincible. Hippias: Yes, and he will wake up tomorrow, strong and more than ready to begin the next stage of his conquest. Nikias: I will pray to Asclepios, the god of medicine, to protect us and our master from harm. 92

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Exercise B:

Comprehension questions

Note that answers may be found in the footnotes as well as the text. 1. List the areas already conquered by Alexander, according to his two servants. 2. The servants are talking in the city of Babylon. Write three facts about this ancient city. 3. What does Hippias remember about the night of Alexander’s birth?

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4. According to Hippias, why did Alexander burn down the city of Persepolis in January 330 BC?

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5. In your opinion, what do you think probably caused the death of Alexander the Great?

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6. Why does Hippias say that Alexander feels like a son to him?

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7. How long has Hippias served Alexander? When did Nikias join his service? 8. Read the following statements and tick those that are correct:

(a) Alexander the Great was 42 years of age when he died in Babylon................................

(b) Alexander’s empire extended north into modern Norway and Sweden.............................

(c) Alexander the Great became king of Macedonia when he was 20 years of age...............

(d) Alexander invaded Persia in revenge for the destruction caused during the Persian wars.

(e) Alexander had named his successor when he died........................................................

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(g) Alexander’s favourite horse was named Bucephalus......................................................

(h) Alexander’s army had 27 000 soldiers.........................................................................

On the night of Alexander’s birth, the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus burned down...........

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Literacy and history – The Greeks

1. Babylon was the world’s first great city. Today only ruins remain but the ancient city was a great centre of learning and culture. It came to prominence in the 6th century BC when King Nebuchadnezzar II (the Second), extended the city across the Euphrates River and built a huge stone wall with towers around the city. The city was built in a square shape with massive temples and palaces. It contained one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The gardens were built by the king for his wife, Amytis. She was from ancient Media (modern Iran) and she missed the fertile green landscape of her home. The gardens, described by ancient writers as being built in five 15-metre irrigated tiers, were filled with shrubs, trees and plants. 2. Alexander became king of Macedonia at 20 years of age when his father, King Philip II, died. He built up an army of over 37 000 men and crossed into Asia to defeat the Persians. After a series of great military victories, he was called Alexander the Great. 3. In January 330 BC, Alexander arrived in the Persian city of Persepolis and entered the palace of the Persian kings. He sat on the throne of the Persian kings and declared himself ruler of the Persians. After four months, he burned down the palace, reputedly after a drunken party. He claimed it was revenge for the destruction caused by the Persians and their king in 480 BC. 4. After Alexander’s sudden death, the Greek political world was thrown into upheaval. His generals fought with each other for power. Even though his political empire fell apart, Greek culture continued to influence all of the civilisations it had come into contact with for hundreds of years after Alexander’s death. This period of history is known as the Hellenistic Age. The word ‘helleneizen’ means ‘to act like a Greek’. The Romans were very strongly influenced by Greek culture, religion and civilisation. ‘Panhellenic’ meant ‘all Greece’ and was used to describe games such as the Olympic Games, which attracted contestants from all over the Greek world. 93


Exercise C:

Cloze exercise

Use the words from the word bank to complete the sentences.

Word Bank

modern drank state

poisoned influence Egypt

temples infectious Seven

Alexandria island height

ruin goddess wife

immerse tasks

Great campaigns

Alexander the Great was born in 356 BC, in the Greek kingdom of Macedonia. He was the son of King Philip and Queen Olympias. King Philip claimed to be descended from Heracles, who, according to legend, strangled snakes sent by the Hera to kill him when he was only a baby. He was the only human being to become a Greek god. Heracles was most famous for given to him by King Eurystheus. The king asked him to complete 12 tasks, which he

the labours or

hoped Heracles would find impossible. However, Heracles completed them and became immortal. Alexander’s mother, Olympias, believed that she was descended from the legendary Greek warrior Achilles. Achilles had only one vulnerable point in his body,

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his heel. This was because his mother, Thetis, had bathed him in the Styx River in order to make him immortal but had failed to his heel in the water. He died when Prince Paris of Troy shot a

always carried a copy of the Iliad, the great poem written about

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heel during the Trojan War. Alexander the

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Macedonia was located in the north of Greece and King Philip, Alexander’s father, had turned Macedonia into a powerful and had united Greece. In 337 BC, he was assassinated and his 20-year-old son, Alexander, became

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king. Alexander led an army of over 37 000 Greek soldiers through several successful military He conquered the Persians, the enemy who had destroyed Athens and the Persian wars. He conquered lands in Asia Minor, Afghanistan and

. of the Greek gods in the

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in Egypt and he spread Greek culture, known as Hellenistic culture, throughout his empire. Alexandria was a port city on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. It was the first of 17 cities named after him. It had two harbours and was built on a

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grid system with intersecting streets, as

Alexandria and it was also the site of one of the huge lighthouse, built on an

cities are. The greatest library of the ancient world was built in Wonders of the Ancient World, the Pharos of Alexandria, a

, in the harbour at Alexandria. It was 122 metres in

and stood for over 1000 years. Alexander the Great died suddenly in the ancient city of Babylon, in modern Iraq, at the age of 32. The city, which lies today, was once a great centre of culture and learning and was the site of another of the Seven

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Wonders of the Ancient World, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The gardens were built by King Nebuchadnezzar for his , Amytis, who was homesick for her native land. There have been many theories suggested about the sudden death of Alexander the Great. Some say that he may have been poisoned by his enemies. Other theories include the too much red wine and died of alcohol poisoning. Modern theories suggest

suggestion that he may have that he may have had an

disease such as malaria or typhoid fever. His death threw his empire into

complete disarray and it fell apart. However, the

of Greek culture, known as Hellenistic culture, remained

and the Hellenistic Age continued until 30 BC, when the Roman Empire reached its height. The word ‘Hellenistic’ comes from the Greek word ‘helleneizen’, which means ‘to act like a Greek’. 94

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Exercise D:

Word study exercises

1. Complete the word search on Ancient Greek civilisations. Ancient Greek Civilisations

Mycenaen Olympia Olympic Games oracle ostracism philosophy Plato Salamis Socrates Sophocles Sparta state temple Thermoplylae tragedy Troy Zeus

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2. A famous Greek legend tells the story of Heracles, a Greek hero who completed 12 tasks. Match the 12 labours with the descriptions of how he succeeded. Look for clues. The tasks

Heracles’ actions (a) Queen Hippolyta gave Heracles her belt but Hera interfered and Heracles killed Hippolyta and took it with him.

Task 2: To destroy the Hydra, a monstrous creature with nine heads.

(b) Heracles fed King Diomedes to his own vicious horses and led them away to Mount Olympus.

Task 3: To capture the Ceryneian Hind, a deer with golden horns and bronze hooves, and bring it back alive.

(c) Heracles killed the three-bodied monster and led the oxen away to King Eurystheus who sacrificed them to Hera.

Task 4: To trap the Erymanthian boar, a huge creature.

(d) Heracles clashed loud cymbals, frightened them from their lair, shot many of them with arrows and the rest flew away.

Task 5: To clean the filthy Augean stables, which had not been cleaned for 30 years.

(e) Heracles took the burden of the heavens while he sent Atlas to fetch the golden apples for him.

Task 6: To get rid of the Stamphalian birds of prey.

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Task 7: To capture the white Cretan bull.

(g) He used his clubs and his arrows in vain against this strong creature and eventually had to strangle him.

Task 8: To capture the flesh-eating wild mares of King Diomedes of Thrace.

(h) Heracles moved the rivers of Alpheus and Peneus through the filthy buildings and washed them.

Task 9: To get the belt of Queen Hippolyta, the queen of the Amazons.

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Heracles threw a net over the huge boar, tied it in chains and carried it away on his shoulders.

Task 10: To capture the oxen of the three-bodied monster Geryon who lived on the island of Eryrheia.

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Heracles seized the three-headed dog and brought him to King Eurystheus who was terrified of him.

Task 11: To steal the golden apples of the Hesperides, who lived at Mount Atlas in Africa.

(k) Heracles tracked the hind for a whole year, eventually injuring it slightly and carrying it back on his shoulders.

Task 12: To capture Cerberus, the three-headed dog who guarded the entrance to the underworld.

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Task 1: To kill the Nemean lion, an extremely strong animal.

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Heracles held the bull by its horns and tamed it.

He burned off the nine heads and buried the ninth one under a huge rock.

Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

1. Read these keywords/terms and their explanations and use them in sentences.

(a) Alexander the Great: Macedonian crown prince who became king and conquered the Persian Empire. His death remains a mystery.

(b) Hellenistic: Term used to describe Greek culture, from the Greek word ‘helleneizen’, meaning ‘to act like a Greek’. (c) Hanging Gardens of Babylon: One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, a hanging garden of five tiers, built for Queen Amytis. (d) Macedonia: Ancient Greek kingdom between Illyria, Thrace and the Aegean Sea, regarded as barbaric by the Athenians. (e) malaria: Infectious disease transmitted by mosquito bites, characterised by periodic attacks of chills and fever. military campaign: A military plan of action, planned carefully before the event by army commanders.

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(g) Panhellenic: Term meaning ‘all of the Greeks’, used to describe events such as the Olympic Games which all Greeks attended. (h) Persepolis: City in ancient Persia, destroyed by Alexander in revenge for the damage done during the Persian wars in Greece.

Philip II of Macedonia: Father of Alexander the Great who displayed military genius in his campaign to unite Greece under his rule.

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Pharos of Alexandria: One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, a lighthouse built in the harbour entrance to Alexandria in Egypt.

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(k) Seven Wonders of the Ancient World: Seven great sights of art and architecture that fascinated ancient writers. typhoid fever: An infectious bacterial disease characterised by fever, headache, drowsiness and intestinal inflammation.

2. Alexander the Great founded a great empire. Since his sudden death and the decline of his empire, there have been other great empires in history. Match the following descriptions to their titles.

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(a) The British Empire

(i) This great empire controlled all of Italy by 270 BC. The empire stretched, at its height, from Britain to Asia. Its greatest weapon was its army, an efficient, well-disciplined fighting machine. The heart of this empire was the Mediterranean, known as ‘our sea’ by these people.

(b) The Mongol Empire

(ii) This great empire was at its economic height in the 19th century, when it dominated the world with its trade and industry. Its colonies included Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.

(c) The Roman Empire

(iii) This great empire, inspired by a new religion, had conquered territories from Spain to the edge of India by the mid ninth century. Its capital was Baghdad, then the world’s largest city and a great centre of trade.

(d) The Islamic Empire

(iv) Originating from a land near modern China, this great empire ruled the largest land empire in history. Its ruler took the title ‘prince of all that lies between the oceans’. This empire once stretched from eastern Europe to the Pacific Ocean. Literacy and history – The Greeks

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Exercise E:

Cross-curricular activities

3. Read this report by a Babylonian police officer who was requested to investigate Alexander’s mysterious death on 10 June 323 BC. Find the 20 misspellings in his report and write the corrections below. You may need to use a dictionary.

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To the Head of Police, Babylon Division, 10 June 323 BC I was called to attend to the palace because there was complete mayhem on the streats outside due to the news that Alexander the Great had finally died. He had lain ill in his bed for ten days, and three days before his death his closest folowers had filed past his bed, shocked and sorrowfull at what they saw. The conqueror of the world was weakened, frale and grey. Some said they saw Death hovering over him as he lay there. Once I got there, I was spotted by one of Alexander’s freinds who beged me to come inside. The reason he called me in was to ask me to investagate how his friend had died as he was very suspicious. I dared not repeat to him some of the rumours that were spreading all over the city of Babylon about the cause of Alexander’s death. I could only say that I would establishe the possible causes and report back to him. The first theory is that he died of malaria. This is a posibility, but I am not sure about it. The second theory suggests that he died of typhoid fevar. This is very likely, as there have been many cases of it here in Babylon. The next theory is that his pet monkee bit him and the bite became infected, thus causing his death. I don’t find this credable, as there is no monkey to be found in the palace. Did the creature flee when his master fell ill? I don’t know. The next theorey is dangerous to even refer to, but I must do my job proparly so I will tell you that it suggests that Alexander was poisoned by one of his most trusted generals, Ptolemy. Another theory regarding poisson revolves around his wife, Roxane. I doubt that he was poisoned by either of them but we will have to consider it, I suppose. The next theory suggests that he died of a disease of the internal orgens. This is possible as he is said to have complaned about his stomach on the night he fell ill. Lastly, someone has sugested that he caught an infexious fever from an insect bite. Again, this is possible but I just don’t know. I am submiting this report to you for your prior approval before I go back to Alexander’s friend, Sergeant Philon

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4. Circle the correct answers. Pupils may find it helpful to research infectious diseases in their library or by using the Internet in order to answer correctly. (a) Typhoid fever is an infectious disease that (i) is transmitted by microbes found in the excreta of lice. (ii) is transmitted by the bite of water insects. (iii) is caused by overcrowded conditions. (b) Smallpox is a disease that (i) has continued to cause millions of deaths worldwide. (ii) has been spreading in some areas of the world. (iii) has been eradicated since 1980. (c) Malaria is a disease transmitted by (i) dirty water. (ii) overcrowded conditions. (iii) the bite of mosquitoes.

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(d) The Red Cross is an international organisation that … (i) helps the suffering in war or disaster areas in the world. (ii) provides back-up for military operations. (iii) only provides information on transmittable diseases. (e) Hay fever is (i) a dangerous and highly infectious disease. (ii) an acute allergic reaction. (iii) a fever caused by the bite of the hay fly. (f) Fever may be indicated by a (i) lowering of body temperature from the normal. (ii) rise of body temperature from the normal. (iii) loss of blood.

Discussion points The eradication of suffering and disease

Literacy and history – The Greeks

Discuss the work of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent in different parts of the world. Both are organisations that assist people affected by war and internal violence. Find out more about the vaccination programmes set up by the World Health Organisation by researching this organisation in the library or by using the Internet to help you.

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6291 Literacy and History - The Greeks  
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