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PRIMARY WRITING (Book C) Published by Prim-Ed Publishing 2008 Reprinted under licence by Prim-Ed Publishing 2008 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2006 ISBN 978-1-84654-107-0 PR–6262

Additional titles available in this series: PRIMARY WRITING (Book A) PRIMARY WRITING (Book B) PRIMARY WRITING (Book D) PRIMARY WRITING (Book E) PRIMARY WRITING (Book F) PRIMARY WRITING (Book G)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

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Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing pupils to access them.

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Primary writing

BOOK C

Primary writing is a series of seven books designed to provide opportunities for pupils to read, examine and write a variety of text types; narratives, recounts, procedures, reports, explanations and discussions.

Foreword

Titles in this series: • Primary writing Book E • Primary writing Book A • Primary writing Book F • Primary writing Book B • Primary writing Book G • Primary writing Book C • Primary writing Book D This book is also provided in digital format on the accompanying CD.

Contents

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Teachers notes........................................................................................iv – v Writing format information..................................................................... vi – vii Writing format checklists......................................................................viii – xiii Blank writing formats.......................................................................... xiv – xix Proofreading and editing checklist.............................................................. xx Class recording sheet..................................................................................xxi Curriculum links................................................................................ xxii – xxv ................................................................................................................2–13 1 – The grasshopper and the owl............................................................. 2–5 2 – Splodge’s vegetable garden............................................................... 6–9 3 – The Stewart Travelling Players....................................................... 10–13

Recounts

..............................................................................................................14–25 1 – My very special eighth birthday...................................................... 14–17 2 – Australian holiday............................................................................18–21 3 – Mean machines...............................................................................22–25

Procedures

..............................................................................................................26–37 1 – Marvellous milkshake......................................................................26–29 2 – Paper bag kite.................................................................................30–33 3 – The flower experiment.................................................................... 34–37

Reports

..............................................................................................................38–49 1 – The dragonfly.................................................................................. 38–41 2 – Lost: Playful puppy......................................................................... 42–45 3 – Deanne’s Dancing School.............................................................. 46–49

Explanations

..............................................................................................................50–61 1 – Kites................................................................................................ 50–53 2 – The sea........................................................................................... 54–57 3 – Clouds............................................................................................ 58–61

Discussions

..............................................................................................................62–73 1 – Tooth care....................................................................................... 62–65 2 – Making beds................................................................................... 66–69 3 – Friends............................................................................................ 70–73

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Narratives

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Teachers notes Six text types have been chosen: • narratives • recounts • reports • explanations

• procedures • discussions

Three examples of each text type are given for pupils to read and analyse. Following each example, a framework is provided for pupils to use in planning and writing that text type.

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Each text type is presented over four pages: ~ teachers page ~ pupil page – 1 includes an example of the text type ~ pupil page – 2 uses a framework for analysing the text type on pupil page – 1 ~ pupil page – 3 provides a framework for the pupil to write his or her own example of the particular text type

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The text type and number of the example are given.

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The parts of each text type are given with relevant information for the teacher.

Teacher information provides suggestions for using the worksheet in the classroom and ideas for display, publishing, purposes for writing, appropriate audiences and the context in which pupils may be asked to write the particular text type.

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Some examples of language features used in each text type are indicated. Also see pages vi – vii.

Answers are provided for pupil page – 2 where the pupils are analysing the text type.

PRIMARY WRITING


Teachers notes Pupil pages

Pupil page – 1

The text type and number of the example are given. The text type example is supplied. Artwork appropriate to the example is provided.

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Pupil page – 2

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Questions are given to help pupils to identify particular parts of a text type framework. The questions may also be used to assess pupil knowledge of a particular framework.

Pupil page – 3

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The text type and plan number are given.

A suggested text type topic has been chosen for pupils. (Blank frameworks for each text type can be found on pages xiv – xix.)

The framework for writing the text type is provided for pupils to follow. Pupils are encouraged to proofread their work.

• Pupil page – 1 may be used at a later date to identify particular phonic examples, for specific spelling words or rhyming words or as a reading comprehension activity or reading assessment.

PRIMARY WRITING

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Writing format information Below are general descriptions of the text types included in this book.

Narrative

living or non-living thing in detail – includes: • Title • Classification: a general or classifying statement • Description: accurate and detailed • Conclusion: a comment about the content of the report (optional) – uses the following language features: • factual language rather than imaginative • the third person • the timeless present tense • information organised into paragraphs A report may be written in the form of a book review, scientific report, newspaper or magazine article, eyewitness account or a progress report.

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– is a framework which describes aspects of a

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Report

– is a framework which tells a story – includes: • Title • Orientation: the setting, time and characters • Complication: involving the main character(s) and a sequence of events • Resolution: to the complication • Ending: often showing what has changed and what the characters have learnt – uses the following language features: • a range of conjunctions to connect ideas • appropriate paragraphing • descriptive language • usually written in past tense A narrative may be written in the form of a poem, story, play, imaginative story, fairytale, novel, myth, legend, ballad, science fiction story or modern fantasy.

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Procedure – is a framework which outlines how something is

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Recount

– is a framework which retells events as they

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happened in time order – may be factual, personal or imaginative – includes: • Title • Orientation: all relevant background (who, when, where, why) • Events: significant events in detail • Ending: often with an evaluative comment – uses the following language features: • vocabulary to suggest time passing • paragraphs to show separate sections • the past tense A recount may be written in the form of a newspaper report, diary, letter, journal, eyewitness account, biography, autobiography or history.

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made or done – includes: • Title • Goal: the purpose of the procedure shown clearly and precisely • Materials: a list of materials or requirements under appropriate headings or layout • Steps: the method in a detailed, logical sequence • Test: an evaluation (if appropriate) – uses the following language features: • instructions often with an imperative verb • subject-specific vocabulary • simple present tense • concise language A procedure may be written in the form of a recipe, instructions for making something, an experiment, an instruction manual, a maths procedure, how to play a game, how to operate an appliance, how to use an atlas or how to deal with a problem.

PRIMARY WRITING


Writing format information Discussion – is a framework which argues for a

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– is a framework which outlines how something occurs, works or is made – includes: • Title • Statement: precisely what is to be explained • Explanation: a clear account in logical sequence of how and why the phenomenon occurs • Conclusion: an evaluation and comment about what has been explained OR • Title • a definition • a description of the components or parts • the operation—how it works or is made • the application—where and when it works or is applied • special features—interesting comments • evaluation or comment/conclusion – uses the following language features: • subject-specific terms and technical vocabulary where appropriate • simple present tense is often used • linking words to show cause and effect • information is organised into paragraphs An explanation may be written in the form of an essay, or a handbook—for example, how a kite works—a science, health or geography text.

particular position and attempts to persuade the audience to share this view – includes: • Title • Overview: statement of the problem or issue and the writer’s position • Arguments: presented in a logical manner with supporting detail, usually from the strongest to the weakest • Conclusion: a restating of the writer’s position and a summary of the arguments presented – uses the following language features: • a variety of controlling words and conjunctions • paragraphs to state and elaborate on each point A discussion may be written in the form of an essay, a letter, policy statement, a critical review, an advertisement, an editorial or a speech.

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Explanation

Modelled writing The role of the teacher is to observe and support pupils as they develop as writers. Writing is an extremely complex activity, simultaneously involving decisions on content, text coherence and cohesion, spelling, grammar, punctuation and a sense of audience and purpose. Because it takes time and practice to develop understanding of the writing process and the different writing formats, many opportunities for pupils to interact with their teacher and their peers are essential. Modelled writing is an effective way of supporting pupil writers, particularly when the focus is on the cognitive processes involved. Frequent modelling of the planning process and how these plans can be used to write text in different formats, is strongly recommended.

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I said where they were.

I said when the story happened.

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My story made sense.

I used interesting words.

Name:

My story made sense.

Name:

I used interesting words.

Date:

Date:

My story has a suitable ending. Writing skills:

My story has a suitable ending. Writing skills:

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I told how they solved the problem. Ending:

I told how they solved the problem. Ending:

I told about the events that happened.

I told about the problem.

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Resolution:

I told about the events that happened.

I said when the story happened.

I said where they were.

I introduced the characters.

Complication:

Resolution:

I told about the problem.

Complication:

I introduced the characters.

My title is interesting. Orientation:

My title is interesting. Orientation:

Title:

Pupil narrative checklist

Title:

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Pupil narrative checklist

Writing format checklists

PRIMARY WRITING


My title is suitable.

PRIMARY WRITING

I told when it happened.

I told where it happened.

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Date:

My recount made sense.

Name:

I used ‘time’ words.

Name:

My recount made sense.

I used ‘time’ words.

Writing skills:

and how I felt about it.

Writing skills:

and how I felt about it.

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I said how it ended …

I said how it ended …

Date:

The events were in the correct order.

I gave details about the events.

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I told where it happened.

I told when it happened.

I told who was there.

Events:

Ending:

The events were in the correct order.

My title is suitable.

Pupil recount checklist

Orientation:

Title:

Ending:

I gave details about the events.

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Events:

I told who was there.

Orientation:

Title:

Pupil recount checklist

Writing format checklists

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I included interesting facts.

I used accurate information.

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I described it clearly.

I used accurate information.

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Date:

My report was interesting.

Name:

I used factual language.

Date:

My report was interesting.

Name:

I used factual language.

I said what I thought about it.

Ending:

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Writing skills:

I said what I thought about it.

I told what it is.

Description:

Writing skills:

Ending:

I described it clearly.

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Description:

I told what it is.

Classification:

Classification:

Title:

Pupil report checklist

Title:

Pupil report checklist

Writing format checklists

PRIMARY WRITING


PRIMARY WRITING

I made a list of what was needed.

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I said what I wanted to do or make.

Pupil procedure checklist

I made a list of what was needed.

I didn’t miss out any steps.

I didn’t use unnecessary words.

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Date:

My procedure is easy to follow.

Name:

I used topic words.

Writing skills:

Date:

My procedure is easy to follow.

I used topic words.

Name:

Writing skills:

in the end.

in the end.

Test: I said how it should look or work

I didn’t use unnecessary words.

I didn’t miss out any steps.

The steps were in the right order.

I explained the steps clearly.

Test: I said how it should look or work

The steps were in the right order.

I explained the steps clearly.

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Steps:

Materials:

Goal:

Title:

Steps:

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I said what I wanted to do or make.

Materials:

Goal:

Title:

Pupil procedure checklist

Writing format checklists

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I explained things clearly.

I included all important information.

I explained things clearly.

I included all important information.

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Name:

Date:

My explanation is easy to understand.

Name:

Date:

My explanation is easy to understand.

I made an interesting comment or conclusion.

Concluding statement:

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I explained how it happens or works.

Writing skills:

I made an interesting comment or conclusion.

I said what I was going to explain.

Description:

Writing skills:

Concluding statement:

I explained how it happens or works.

Description:

I said what I was going to explain.

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Definition:

Definition:

Title:

Pupil explanation checklist

Title:

Pupil explanation checklist

Writing format checklists

PRIMARY WRITING


PRIMARY WRITING

I explained my ideas about the topic.

I started with my strongest argument.

I used persuasive words.

I started with my strongest argument.

I used persuasive words.

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Name:

Date:

I used words like ‘should’ and ‘must’. Other people will understand my arguments.

Name:

Date:

I used words like ‘should’ and ‘must’. Other people will understand my arguments.

I said what I thought about the topic.

Conclusion:

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I explained my ideas about the topic.

Writing skills:

I said what I thought about the topic.

I said what I thought about it.

Arguments:

I stated the topic.

Overview:

Title:

Pupil discussion checklist

Writing skills:

Conclusion:

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Arguments:

I said what I thought about it.

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I stated the topic.

Overview:

Title:

Pupil discussion checklist

Writing format checklists

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Blank writing format – Narrative Title

Orientation

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Who? When? Where?

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Complication and events

Resolution

Ending

How was it solved?

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PRIMARY WRITING


Blank writing format – Recount Title

Orientation

Who? Where? When? Why?

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Events

Ending

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Blank writing format – Procedure Title

Goal

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Materials

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Steps

Test

How will you know if your procedure works?

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PRIMARY WRITING


Blank writing format – Report Title

Classification

What is it?

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Description

Conclusion

What I think about it (my opinion).

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Blank writing format – Explanation Title

Definition

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Description

Conclusion

What I think.

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PRIMARY WRITING


Blank writing format – Discussion Title

Overview

What is the topic?

What I think should happen.

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Arguments

Conclusion

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question marks

commas

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it makes sense

it is easy to understand

I didn’t leave out any words

I have read through my writing to check that:

I have read through my writing to check that:

I didn’t leave out any words

it is easy to understand

it makes sense

Writing:

I thought about the best words to use.

Writing:

I thought about the best words to use.

I checked the spelling of words.

Vocabulary:

I checked the spelling of words.

question marks

full stops

capital letters for names

Spelling:

Date:

capital letters for beginning sentences

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Vocabulary:

Spelling:

full stops

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capital letters for names

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capital letters for beginning sentences

I have included:

I have included:

Name: Punctuation:

Date:

Pupil proofreading and editing checklist

Punctuation:

Name:

Pupil proofreading and editing checklist

Proofreading and editing checklist

PRIMARY WRITING


Class recording sheet Pupils

Date:

✓ developed • developing ✗ not yet NARRATIVES Title relates to story Characters are introduced Setting tells where and when Complication and events told Complication is resolved Conclusion relates to story RECOUNTS

Orientation tells who, when, where, why

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Events are described Events are in correct order Conclusion relates to events

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PROCEDURES Goal is stated Materials are listed Steps are clear and sequenced Unnecessary words are omitted

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REPORTS Subject is stated Description is clear

A final comment is included EXPLANATIONS

Explanation is clear

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Facts are accurate

Relevant information and vocabulary Order is logical DISCUSSIONS Topic and writer’s position stated

Arguments are logical and supported Language is persuasive Arguments and position summarised WRITING SKILLS Spells many common words correctly Chooses some descriptive words Uses some basic punctuation Some knowledge of verb tense Sequences and connects ideas Some sense of purpose and audience Edits and proofreads writing

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Curriculum links England Literacy – Writing (Texts)

D

E

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3

• make decisions about form and purpose, identify success criteria and use them to evaluate writing • use beginning, middle and end to write narratives in which events are sequenced logically and conflicts resolved • write non-narrative texts using structures of different text types • select and use a range of technical and descriptive vocabulary • signal sequence, place and time to give coherence and group related material into paragraphs

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2

• draw on knowledge and experience of texts in deciding and planning what and how to write • sustain form in narrative and maintain consistency in non-narrative • make adventurous word and language choices appropriate to the style and purpose of the text • select from different presentational features to suit particular writing purposes • use planning to establish clear sections for writing • use appropriate language to make sections hang together

4

5

plan writing and follow it through use key features of narrative in their own writing convey information and ideas in non-narrative forms use new and interesting words and phrases, including story language create short simple texts on paper and on screen write chronological and non-chronological texts using simple structures

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C

1

• • • • • •

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B

Objectives

• • • •

develop and refine ideas in writing using planning and problem-solving strategies use settings and characterisation write convincing and informative non-narrative texts organise text into paragraphs to distinguish between different information, events or processes

• • • •

reflect independently and critically on their own writing and edit and improve it experiment with different narrative forms and styles to write their own stories adapt non-narrative forms and styles to write fiction or factual texts experiment with the order of sections and paragraphs to achieve different effects

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A

Year

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Book

F

6

• use different narrative techniques to engage and entertain the reader • in non-narrative, establish, balance and maintain viewpoints • select words and language drawing on their knowledge of literary features and formal and informal writing • use varied structures to shape and organise text coherently

G

6

• • • •

Extension

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independently write and present a text with the reader and purpose in mind use a range of narrative devices to involve the reader add persuasive emphasis to key points organise ideas into a coherent sequence of paragraphs

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PRIMARY WRITING


Curriculum links Northern Ireland Language and Literacy – Writing

D–G

2

• • • •

observe the teacher modelling specific writing strategies use stories as models for structuring their own writing write in a range of genres with teacher guidance begin to show evidence of sequence in recount and instructions

3&4

• • • • •

participate in modelled and independent writing talk about and plan what they are going to write begin to check their work in relation to specific criteria write for a variety of purposes and audiences express thoughts and opinions in imaginative and factual writing

5–7 Extension

• participate in modelled and independent writing • discuss various features of layout in texts and apply these, as appropriate, within their own writing • write for a variety of purposes and audiences, selecting, planning and using appropriate style and form • use the skills of planning, revising and redrafting to improve their writing • express thoughts and opinions in imaginative and factual writing • begin to formulate their own personal style

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B&C

Objectives

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Year

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Wales English – Writing

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Book

A&B

C–G

Year

Objectives

1&2

• organise and present imaginative and factual writing in different ways, helpful to the purpose, task and reader and incorporating some of the different characteristics of forms that are used • plan and review their writing, assembling and developing their ideas and presenting their writing clearly • write with increasing confidence, fluency and accuracy • write in a range of genres, incorporating some of the different characteristics of these forms

3–6

• use the characteristic features of literary and non-literary texts in their own writing, adapting their style to suit the audience and purpose • draft and improve their work and present writing appropriately • write for a range of purposes, for a range of real or imagined audiences, in a range of forms and in response to a range of stimuli

Extension

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Curriculum links Republic of Ireland English Language – Writing

Book

A

Class

Objectives

Senior Infants

• • • • •

receive help from the teacher, who will sometimes act as a scribe write frequently, write for different audiences and see writing displayed see the teacher model writing as an enjoyable experience write about everyday experience or about something just learned write stories

• • • •

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3rd/4th Class

experience a classroom environment that encourages writing observe the teacher modelling different writing genres use reading as a stimulus to writing write stories that explore a variety of genres receive and give positive responses to writing and see his/her writing valued experience varied and consistent oral language activity as a preparation for writing learn to use questions as a mechanism for expanding and developing a story give sequence to ideas and events in stories develop an appreciation of how the intended audience should influence the nature of a piece of writing • learn to revise and redraft writing • write in a variety of genres with greater sophistication • write down directions on how to perform a particular process and create stories

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• • • • • • • • •

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D&E

1st/2nd Class

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B&C

experience a classroom environment that encourages writing observe the teacher as he/she models writing stories experience how a story structure is organised by reading and listening to fiction write regularly for different audiences, explore different genres and have writing valued • experience an abundance of oral language activity when preparing a writing task • realise that first attempts at writing are not necessarily the finished product and learn to undertake second drafts in order to improve writing • write in a variety of genres, write about something that has been learned, write the significant details about an event or an activity, write an explanation for something and write stories

• • • • • •

F&G

5th/6th Class

• • • • • •

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experience a classroom environment that encourages writing observe the teacher model a wide variety of writing genres experience interesting and relevant writing challenges receive and give constructive responses to writing and see his/her writing valued experience a level of success in writing that will be an incentive to continue writing experience varied and consistent oral language activity as part of the pre-writing process observe the teacher improving writing write independently through a process of drafting, revising, editing and publishing choose a register of language and presentation appropriate to subject and audience write in a variety of genres and write for a particular purpose and audience argue the case in writing for a particular point of view write stories

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PRIMARY WRITING


Curriculum links Scotland Literacy and English – Writing

Book

Objectives • enjoy exploring and discussing text structures • appreciate the richness of language and texts • write independently, use appropriate punctuation and order sentences in a way that makes sense • check writing makes sense throughout the writing process • present writing in a way that will make it legible and attractive for the reader • use notes and other types of writing to help create new text • consider the type of text being created and select ideas and information, organise these in a logical sequence and use interesting words • convey information, describe events or processes, share opinions and persuade the reader in different ways • explore the elements writers use in different genres and use this to compose stories with interesting structures, characters and/or settings

First

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Level

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• enjoy exploring and discussing text structures • appreciate the richness of language and texts • use appropriate punctuation, vary sentence structures and divide work into paragraphs • check writing makes sense and meets its purpose throughout the writing process • consider the impact that layout and presentation have • use notes and other types of writing to create new text • consider the type of text being created and select ideas and information, organise these in an appropriate way for the purpose and use suitable vocabulary for the audience • use language and style to engage and/or influence the reader • convey information, describe events and explain processes in different ways • persuade, argue, explore issues or express an opinion using relevant supporting detail and/or evidence • write for different purposes and readers • explore the elements writers use in different genres and use this to compose stories with an interesting and appropriate structure, interesting characters and/or settings which come to life

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Second

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C–F

F–G

Third

PRIMARY WRITING

• enjoy exploring and discussing increasingly complex texts and structures • appreciate the influence texts can have • punctuate and structure different types of sentences and arrange these into paragraphs • review and edit writing to ensure it meets its purpose and communicates meaning throughout the writing process • consider the impact that layout and presentation will have on the reader • use notes and other types of writing to create original text • consider the type of text being created and select ideas and information, organise these in an appropriate way for the purpose and use suitable vocabulary for the audience • engage and/or influence readers through use of language, style and tone as appropriate to the genre • convey information, describe events and explain processes or concepts • persuade, argue, evaluate, explore issues or express an opinion, using a clear line of thought and relevant supporting detail and/or evidence • explore the elements writers use and compose texts in different genres, using some of the conventions of chosen genre successfully and/or creating convincing narratives, characters and settings

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1 

Narratives

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

The grasshopper and the owl

Orientation – who, when and where

Complication – involving the main character

Events – are described in chronological order

• verbs in the past tense; e.g. lived

Once upon a time, a grasshopper and an owl lived in a green forest near a quiet stream. The brown owl lived in the hollow of an old tree. She liked to feed at night and sleep during the day. The grasshopper lived in the leafy branches of a nearby tree.

• conjunctions to connect ideas; e.g. so

The owl often had trouble sleeping because the grasshopper liked to chirp loudly during the day while she was trying to sleep. Many times the owl begged the grasshopper to stop chirping. But the grasshopper ignored her and continued to chirp loudly. The owl did not know what to do. Finally, the owl could not stand it any longer. She decided to get rid of the grasshopper by playing a trick.

• appropriate paragraphs

‘You have such a lovely voice!’ she called sweetly to the grasshopper. ‘ I cannot sleep because of your singing, so I have decided to taste some nectar from the flowers. Won’t you come and join me?’ The grasshopper felt very flattered by the lovely compliment about his voice. He also felt hungry just thinking about drinking the sweet nectar.

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‘I would love to come and taste the sweet nectar with you!’ he exclaimed, as he hopped towards the owl’s hollow in the tree. As soon as he hopped inside the hollow where the owl was waiting for him, she pounced on him and gobbled him up!

Ending – showing what has changed and what the character has learnt

From that day onwards, owl was able to feed at night and sleep peacefully during the day without anyone disturbing her. She also continued to enjoy a feast of grasshoppers whenever they came to live in the nearby tree!

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Resolution – to the complication

Teacher information

Answers

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• Discuss the title with pupils and ask them to predict what the story could be about. • Read the narrative with the pupils, encouraging them to identify words using contextual information. • Explain the meaning of any unknown words or phrases.

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• The narrative can be reread using selected pupils or small groups to read the spoken parts. • Discuss the title and its suitability, the information which needs to be included in an orientation, the complication or problem and how it was resolved. Finally, decide whether the ending is a good one or whether it could be improved. • Pupils complete the analysis on page 4. • Before pupils attempt to use the narrative plan on page 5 to plan their story about The hare and the tortoise, model the process of planning then writing a well-known fable such as The grasshopper and the ant.

Page 4 1. The grasshopper and the owl 2. When: Once upon a time Who: grasshopper, owl Where: in a green forest near a quiet stream 3. (a) The grasshopper was chirping during the day while the owl was trying to sleep. (b) (i) 5

(ii) 3

(iii) 1

(iv) 4

(v) 2

4. He decided to eat the grasshopper. 5. The owl was able to sleep peacefully because she kept eating the grasshoppers which came to live in the nearby tree.

• Pupils need to understand that the plan is for ideas and they will write their real story later. • Pupils complete a narrative based on a fable with a moral in conjunction with a health and values topic. (Context/ Purpose) • Pupils can publish their narratives using computers and print them with an appropriate border and illustration to share with another class. (Publishing/Audience)

2 

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Narrative 1 

The grasshopper and the owl Once upon a time, a grasshopper and an owl lived in a green forest near a quiet stream. The brown owl lived in the hollow of an old tree. She liked to feed at night and sleep during the day. The grasshopper lived in the leafy branches of a nearby tree.

Sa m

pl e

The owl often had trouble sleeping because the grasshopper liked to chirp loudly during the day while she was trying to sleep. Many times the owl begged the grasshopper to stop chirping. But the grasshopper ignored her and continued to chirp loudly. The owl did not know what to do. Finally, the owl could not stand it any longer. She decided to get rid of the grasshopper by playing a trick. ‘You have such a lovely voice!’ she called sweetly to the grasshopper. ‘ I cannot sleep because of your singing, so I have decided to taste some nectar from the flowers. Won’t you come and join me?’

ew

in g

The grasshopper felt very flattered by the lovely compliment about his voice. He also felt hungry just thinking about drinking the sweet nectar.

Vi

‘I would love to come and taste the sweet nectar with you!’ he exclaimed, as he hopped towards the owl’s hollow in the tree. As soon as he hopped inside the hollow where the owl was waiting for him, she pounced on him and gobbled him up! From that day onwards, owl was able to feed at night and sleep peacefully during the day without anyone disturbing her. She also continued to enjoy a feast of grasshoppers whenever they came to live in the nearby tree! PRIMARY WRITING

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3


Looking at narrative

1 

Use the narrative on page 3 to complete the page. 1. Title

Write the title of the story.

2. Orientation

Complete the boxes. When

Who

Where

pl e

3. Complication and events

(a) What was the problem?

Sa m

in g

(b) Order the events below from 1 to 5.

• The owl decided to play a trick on the grasshopper.

• The owl asked the grasshopper to stop chirping.

• The owl and the grasshopper lived in the forest.

• The grasshopper kept on chirping.

• The grasshopper kept the owl awake during the day with his chirping.

Vi

ew

4. Resolution

5. Ending

How did the owl decide to solve his problem?

4 

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Complete the sentence. The owl was able to sleep peacefully because she

PRIMARY WRITING


Narrative plan

1 

1. Plan the story about The hare and the tortoise. Title

What is your story called? Orientation

Who is the story about? When did it happen? Where did it happen?

pl e

Complication and events

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

What was the problem? What events happened?

Resolution

How was the problem solved?

2. Write your story. PRIMARY WRITING

Ending

What happened at the end?

3. Check your work. Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com

5


2 

Narratives

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Splodge’s vegetable garden

Orientation – who, when and where

Complication – involving the main character

Events – are described in chronological order

Once upon a time in the Land of Nod, there lived a grumpy gnome called Splodge. Splodge lived in a little hut in the woods, near the road leading to market. He had a beautiful vegetable garden at the front and an orchard out the back. He was especially proud of his garden. On market days, the elves, goblins and fairies would pass along the road, chatting, laughing, telling jokes and showing each other their latest tricks or flying feats. Each market day, Splodge would be woken early by the noise and laughter. At the end of market day, the elves, goblins and fairies would return home. His vegetable garden would be trampled by wandering feet or sprinkled with fairy dust. His corn would be crushed into the dirt, his potatoes would emerge misshapen and his mushrooms would change to every colour of the rainbow. They tasted like rotten leather!

• verbs in the past tense; e.g. called

• conjunctions to connect ideas; e.g. and

• appropriate paragraphs

Finally, he decided that he had to do something. He collected his squashed corn, misshapen potatoes and rainbow mushrooms and put them into baskets. He wrote a big sign which said ‘Free vegetables!’

pl e

When the next market day arrived, he got up early and placed the baskets on a big table at the front of his house. He put the sign in front and waited.

Sa m

Elves, goblins and fairies went past. They noticed the sign and gladly took handfuls of vegetables to munch on their way to market.

Resolution – to the complication

At the end of the day, a sad group passed by Splodge’s house on their way home. Some were holding their stomachs in pain. Some had rainbow spots on their faces or misshapen noses. Others had squashed wings. They carefully avoided getting too close to Splodge’s house.

Ending – showing what has changed and what the character has learnt

Splodge was able to sleep late on market days and the vegetables in his garden grew big, strong and tasty.

ew

in g

And he lived grumpily ever after.

Teacher information

Answers

Page 8

• Read the narrative with the pupils encouraging them to identify words using contextual information.

2. Once upon a time, Splodge, in a little hut in the woods (near the road leading to market)

• Discuss the title and its suitability, the information which needs to be included in an orientation, the complication or problem and how it was resolved. Finally, decide whether the ending is a good one or whether it could be improved. Pupils could offer other suggestions for suitable endings.

3. (a) Teacher check. Pupils should have shown Splodge being woken up and the vegetables being damaged.

Vi

• Discuss the title with pupils and ask them to predict what the story could be about.

1. Splodge’s vegetable garden

(b) Teacher check 4. Teacher check

• Pupils complete the analysis on page 8. • Before pupils attempt to use the narrative plan on page 9, discuss some suggestions. • Pupils need to understand that the plan is for ideas and they will write their real story later. • Model the process of planning then writing a narrative beginning with ‘Once upon a time …’ and ending with ‘And they lived happily ever after’ (or a variation). • Pupils’ narratives can be compiled, illustrated and published in a book to be presented to the teacher of a younger class for reading. (Publishing/Audience)

6 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Narrative 2 

Splodge’s vegetable garden Once upon a time in the Land of Nod, there lived a grumpy gnome called Splodge. Splodge lived in a little hut in the woods, near the road leading to market. He had a beautiful vegetable garden at the front and an orchard out the back. He was especially proud of his garden.

Sa m

pl e

On market days, the elves, goblins and fairies would pass along the road, chatting, laughing, telling jokes and showing each other their latest tricks or flying feats. Each market day, Splodge would be woken early by the noise and laughter. At the end of market day, the elves, goblins and fairies would return home. His vegetable garden would be trampled by wandering feet or sprinkled with fairy dust. His corn would be crushed into the dirt, his potatoes would emerge misshapen and his mushrooms would change to every colour of the rainbow. They tasted like rotten leather!

in g

Finally, he decided that he had to do something. He collected his squashed corn, misshapen potatoes and rainbow mushrooms and put them into baskets. He wrote a big sign which said ‘Free vegetables!’

Vi

ew

When the next market day arrived, he got up early and placed the baskets on a big table at the front of his house. He put the sign in front and waited. Elves, goblins and fairies went past. They noticed the sign and gladly took handfuls of vegetables to munch on their way to market. At the end of the day, a sad group passed by Splodge’s house on their way home. Some were holding their stomachs in pain. Some had rainbow spots on their faces or misshapen noses. Others had squashed wings. They carefully avoided getting too close to Splodge’s house. Splodge was able to sleep late on market days and the vegetables in his garden grew big, strong and tasty. And he lived grumpily ever after. PRIMARY WRITING

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7


Looking at narrative

2 

Use the narrative on page 7 to complete the page. 1. Title

The name of the story is 2. Orientation

Complete the sentence. ,

When

lived Who

pl e

Where

Splodge was annoyed because two things kept happening on market day.

in g

(a) Draw a picture in the box which shows the two things happening.

Sa m

3. Complication and events

Vi

ew

(b) Write words or phrases to show the main events. The first one has been done for you.

• Splodge collected damaged vegetables.

4. Ending

(a) Was Splodge’s solution to the problem a good one? (b) Discuss other solutions to his problem with a partner. 8 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Narrative plan

2 

1. Plan a narrative beginning with ‘Once upon a time …’. Title

What is your story called? Orientation

pl e

Who is the story about? When did it happen? Where did it happen?

Complication and events

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

What was the problem? What events happened?

Resolution

How was the problem solved?

2. Write your story. PRIMARY WRITING

Ending

What happened at the end?

3. Check your work. Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com

9


3 

Narratives

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

The Stewart Travelling Players

Orientation – who, when and where

One day, Mr Stewart announced to his class that parents were going to visit the school for a special performance. Each class had to choose something to perform and all the children had to be involved.

involving the main character

‘I think a play would be fun’, announced Jess. ‘We could all dress up in bright costumes and wear stage make-up and wigs. I have some great costumes at home!’

and

‘That’s a good idea, Jess,’ said Mr Stewart, ‘but it would be a lot of work and some children may not have costumes to wear!’

Events –

‘I think singing a song would be better’, said Amy. ‘I could play my guitar and sing a song.’

Complication –

are described in chronological order

• verbs in the past tense; e.g. announced

• conjunctions to connect ideas; e.g. but

• appropriate paragraphs

‘That’s a good idea, too!’ said Mr Stewart. ‘But other children have instruments they may like to play as well!’ ‘We could do a rap about a football player!’ suggested Tim. ‘I could wear my football shirt!’

pl e

‘We all know how much you love football, Tim!’ replied Mr Stewart. ‘But we really need to find something that everyone would like!’

The class discussed it for a long time and other children offered suggestions. There were so many different ideas and no-one could agree.

Resolution – to the complication

The next morning, Mr Stewart announced his decision.

Ending – showing what has changed and what the character has learnt

The children got into groups and practised their items until the day of the performance. Jess wore a bright costume, Amy played her guitar with the children who sang and Tim and his friends wore their football shirts and said a rap about football. Mr Stewart and the class got a loud applause. The parents all loved the Stewart Travelling Players!

in g

Sa m

‘I have decided to use all of your ideas!’ he said. ‘I am going to be the host of the Stewart Travelling Players. We will choose the items we would like to do the most and form groups. Each group will have a few minutes to perform.’

ew

‘How did you ever come up with such a clever idea?’ the parents asked.

Teacher information

Vi

• Read the narrative with the pupils encouraging them to identify words using contextual information. Explain the meaning of any unknown words or phrases. • The narrative can be reread using selected pupils or small groups to read the spoken parts. • Discuss the title and its suitability, the information which needs to be included in an orientation, the complication or problem and how it was resolved. Discuss other possible solutions to the problem.

Answers Page 12 1. Teacher check 2. (a) One day (b) Mr Stewart (c) at school (d) because their parents were coming to see them 3. (a) The children all had different ideas about what to do for the performance.

• Pupils complete the analysis on page 12.

(b) (i) Jess wanted to dress in costume in a play.

• Before pupils attempt to use the narrative plan on page 13 to plan their story about a different school event, model the process of planning then writing a story. Pupils can suggest a suitable topic.

(ii) Amy wanted to play the guitar and sing a song.

(iii) Tim wanted to say a rap and wear a football shirt.

• Pupils need to understand that the plan is for ideas and they will write their real story later. • The best pupil narratives can be displayed on a board as ‘Best writers of the week’ and read at a school assembly. (Display/Audience)

(c) Teacher check 4. Mr Stewart let the children choose what they wanted to do for a few minutes each. 5. Teacher check

• Pupils can write a narrative about a school event when completing a theme about celebrations or communication. (Context)

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PRIMARY WRITING


Narrative 3 

The Stewart Travelling Players One day, Mr Stewart announced to his class that parents were going to visit the school for a special performance. Each class had to choose something to perform and all the children had to be involved. ‘I think a play would be fun’, announced Jess. ‘We could all dress up in bright costumes and wear stage make-up and wigs. I have some great costumes at home!’ ‘That’s a good idea, Jess,’ said Mr Stewart, ‘but it would be a lot of work and some children may not have costumes to wear!’

pl e

‘I think singing a song would be better’, said Amy. ‘I could play my guitar and sing a song.’ ‘That’s a good idea, too!’ said Mr Stewart. ‘But other children have instruments they may like to play as well!’

Sa m

‘We could say a rap about a football player!’ suggested Tim. ‘I could wear my football shirt!’ ‘We all know how much you love football, Tim!’ replied Mr Stewart. ‘But we really need to find something that everyone would like!’

ew

in g

The class discussed it for a long time and other children offered suggestions. There were so many different ideas and no-one could agree. The next morning, Mr Stewart announced his decision.

Vi

‘I have decided to use all of your ideas!’ he said. ‘I am going to be the host of the Stewart Travelling Players. We will choose the items we would like to do the most and form groups. Each group will have a few minutes to perform.’ The children got into groups and practised their items until the day of the performance. Jess wore a bright costume, Amy played her guitar with the children who sang and Tim and his friends wore their football shirts and said a rap about football. Mr Stewart and the class got a loud applause. The parents all loved the Stewart Travelling Players! ‘How did you ever come up with such a clever idea?’ the parents asked. PRIMARY WRITING

Prim-Ed Publishing

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11


Looking at narrative

3 

Use the narrative on page 11 to complete the page. 1. Title

Write a different title for the narrative.

2. Orientation

(a) When did the narrative take place? (b) Who is the main character?

(d) Why were the children performing?

3. Complication and events

(a) What was the problem?

in g

Sa m

pl e

(c) Where did the narrative take place?

(b) Match the sentences to show the different suggestions offered. • play the guitar and sing a song.

(ii) Amy wanted to •

• do a rap and wear a football shirt.

(iii) Tim wanted to •

• dress in costume in a play.

Vi

ew

(i) Jess wanted to •

The class talked about the performance and gave suggestions.

(c) Was this a good thing to do? Yes

No

Why? 4. Resolution

5. Ending

How was the problem solved?

12 

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Write another sentence to end the narrative.

PRIMARY WRITING


Narrative plan

3 

1. Plan a narrative about a different school event. Title

Orientation

Who is the story about? When did it happen? Where did it happen?

pl e

Complication and events

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

What was the problem? What events happened?

Resolution

How was the problem solved?

2. Write your story. PRIMARY WRITING

Ending

What happened at the end?

3. Check your work. Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com

13


1 

Recounts

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

My very special eighth birthday

Orientation – who, when, where, why

Yesterday was my eighth birthday. I had a birthday party at my house with Mum, Dad, Jeff and seven of my friends. Even Thomas, my labrador, was able to come! When Mum said I could have a party, I was really excited until she said I had to help plan and organise it. I thought I would be able to put on my favourite clothes and just be there!

Events – significant events in detail

First, we had to decide what sort of party to have. I wanted a fancy dress party because I had a Spiderman® costume to wear. But Mum said that some children may not have a costume and they were a lot of work to make! So we decided to have a ‘Come-as-you-like’ party to let everyone wear whatever they liked! Then, I had to write a list of friends to invite. I wanted to invite everyone! It was hard to cross out some of the names. I wrote the names on the invitations and helped to post them.

• appropriate paragraphs

• vocabulary to suggest passing of time; e.g. First

• verbs in the past tense; e.g. helped

pl e

Next, we had to write a menu. I wanted to have all my favourite foods, but Mum reminded me that some of the guests might not like the things that I did. So we wrote a list of different types of food. I even helped to make some. Finally, we made a list of games to play and I had to collect all the bits and pieces. (I found the tail for my donkey underneath my bed!) Soon, the big day arrived and everything was ready. The table of food looked very appetising. All the guests looked very smart and the games were ready. When the doorbell rang an hour after everyone had arrived, I didn’t pay any attention until my Nanna and Grandad who live in Spain walked into the room.

Sa m

Conclusion – often with an evaluative comment

in g

‘Happy birthday’, said Nanna. ‘You did such a great job helping to get the party ready that we thought you deserved a special treat this year!’

Teacher information

Answers Page 16

• Discuss the recount, asking pupils questions to help them identify the title, orientation, some events and the conclusion.

(b) Yes

Vi

ew

• Read the recount with the pupils or choose individual pupils to read selected sections.

• Pupils complete the analysis on page 16.

• Ensure pupils know that the plan on page 17 is to record ideas only and the actual writing of the recount will come later. • Model the process of planning and writing a recount about a selected school activity such as an assembly or sporting activity. • Pupils can write words or sentences to complete their plan on page 17 and then write their recount.

1. (a) My very special eighth birthday (c) Teacher check 2. (a) Yesterday, I, at my house, it was my eighth birthday (b) Mum; Dad; Jeff; seven friends; Thomas, the labrador 3. (a) type of party (b) friends to invite (c) menu (d) games to play 4. Teacher check

• Pupils can write a recount for an oral presentation to the class or for a writing activity to record special activities. (Purpose/Audience) • Pupils can collate their published recounts into a class book for pupils in another class to read. (Display/Purpose) • A recount of this nature may be written following a discussion about celebrations. (Context)

14 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Recount 1 

My very special eighth birthday Yesterday was my eighth birthday. I had a birthday party at my house with Mum, Dad, Jeff and seven of my friends. Even Thomas, my labrador, was able to come! When Mum said I could have a party, I was really excited until she said I had to help plan and organise it. I thought I would be able to put on my favourite clothes and just be there!

pl e

First, we had to decide what sort of party to have. I wanted a fancy dress party because I had a Spiderman® costume to wear. But Mum said that some children may not have a costume and they were a lot of work to make! So we decided to have a ‘Come-as-you-like’ party to let everyone wear whatever they liked!

Sa m

Then, I had to write a list of friends to invite. I wanted to invite everyone! It was hard to cross out some of the names. I wrote the names on the invitations and helped to post them.

in g

Next, we had to write a menu. I wanted to have all my favourite foods, but Mum reminded me that some of the guests might not like the things that I did. So we wrote a list of different types of food. I even helped to make some.

ew

Finally, we made a list of games to play and I had to collect all the bits and pieces. (I found the tail for my donkey underneath my bed!)

Vi

Soon, the big day arrived and everything was ready. The table of food looked very appetising. All the guests looked very smart and the games were ready. When the doorbell rang an hour after everyone had arrived, I didn’t pay any attention until my Nanna and Grandad who live in Spain walked into the room. ‘Happy birthday’, said Nanna. ‘You did such a great job helping to get the party ready that we thought you deserved a special treat this year!’

PRIMARY WRITING

Prim-Ed Publishing

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15


Looking at recount

1 

Use the recount on page 15 to complete the page. 1. Title

SA M

(a) Write the title. (b) Does this title clearly tell what the recount is about? Yes No (c) Write another suitable title. 2. Orientation

Complete the sentences to tell, who, when, where and why. ,

When

Who

had a party

because

Why

,

Who

Who

,

Sa m

(b)

Where

pl e

(a)

Who

and even

,

Who

came to the party.

in g

3. Events

Who

(a)

Vi

ew

List the four things which had to be organised and draw a picture to match.

(c)

(b)

(d)

4. Conclusion

What did Nanna say about why the boy having the birthday deserved a special treat?

16 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Recount plan

1 

1. Plan a recount about your own birthday party. Title

Orientation

Who, when, where, why

pl e

Events

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

What things happened?

Conclusion

What happened at the end?

2. Write your recount. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Check your work. Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com

17


2 

Recounts

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Australian holiday

Orientation – who, when, where, why

Events – significant events in detail

• appropriate paragraphs

During the last school holidays, my big sister and I went to visit our Aunty Bec, Uncle Graham and our cousins in Australia.

• vocabulary to suggest passing of time; e.g. After dinner

They live on a cattle station with lots of bush around it. We like to visit them when we can. Dad drove us to the airport, but this time we were allowed to travel by ourselves. Our cousins, Rachael and Kelly, are nearly the same age, so we always have lots of fun doing things together. When we arrived, it was late in the afternoon, so we unpacked and had a snack. Then we looked around. Kelly showed us the new baby animals and the new truck in the shed.

• verbs in the past tense; e.g. helped

After dinner, we were all tired so we went to bed early.

pl e

In the morning, we helped to feed the hens and collect the eggs. After breakfast, we helped Rachael and Kelly with their chores. We thought it was great fun. Rachael and Kelly said it was easier with twice as many hands to help! After lunch, we rode in the back seat of the truck to the paddocks to see the cattle and the new calves. We helped to check the fences and to look for any stray cattle. We also had to see if the water troughs had any water in them.

The rest of our bush holiday was just as exhausting and dirty! I can’t wait to visit our cousins again!

in g

Conclusion – often with an evaluative comment

Sa m

That night, we had a big barbecue and I ate a huge piece of steak with potatoes baked in the coals! We swatted away insects and counted all the stars we could see. The station hands told jokes and we laughed until our sides hurt. Finally, we fell into bed, exhausted and dirty!

ew

Teacher information

Answers Page 20

• Discuss the recount, asking pupils questions to help them identify the title, orientation, some events and the conclusion. Highlight the comment at the end.

2. who – my big sister, I, Aunty Bec, Uncle Graham, cousins

Vi

• Read the recount with the pupils, selecting pupils to read parts or allow pupils to read the recount independently.

• Work through the analysis on page 20 with the pupils. • Ensure pupils know that the plan on page 21 is to record ideas only and the actual writing of the recount will come later. • Model the process of using a plan to write a recount. Pupils could offer suggestions for a possible title.

1. Australian holiday when – during the last school holidays where – in Australia why – Answers will vary but may include to have a holiday or to visit relatives. 3. Teacher check 4. ‘I can’t wait to visit our cousins again!’

• Pupils can write words or sentences to complete their plan on page 21. • Pupils can type and print their recount on the computer and display it with a photograph relating to their holiday, or present it as a postcard. (Publishing/Display) • Pupils use their recount to relate during a news-telling session with the class or to share writing with a younger class. (Purpose/Audience) • Pupils write their recount as part of a theme about families or leisure activities. (Context)

18 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Recount 2 

Australian holiday During the last school holidays, my big sister and I went to visit our Aunty Bec, Uncle Graham and our cousins in Australia. They live on a cattle station with lots of bush around it. We like to visit them when we can. Dad drove us to the airport, but this time we were allowed to travel by ourselves. Our cousins, Rachael and Kelly, are nearly the same age, so we always have lots of fun doing things together.

pl e

When we arrived, it was late in the afternoon, so we unpacked and had a snack. Then we looked around. Kelly showed us the new baby animals and the new tractor in the shed. After dinner, we were all tired so we went to bed early.

Sa m

In the morning, we helped to feed the hens and collect the eggs. After breakfast, we helped Rachael and Kelly with their chores. We thought it was great fun. Rachael and Kelly said it was easier with twice as many hands to help!

ew

in g

After lunch, we rode in the back seat of the truck to the paddocks to see the cattle and the new calves. We helped to check the fences and to look for any stray cattle. We also had to see if the water troughs had any water in them.

Vi

That night, we had a big barbecue and I ate a huge piece of steak with potatoes baked in the coals! We swatted away insects and counted all the stars we could see. The station hands told jokes and we laughed until our sides hurt. Finally, we fell into bed, exhausted and dirty! The rest of our bush holiday was just as exhausting and dirty! I can’t wait to visit our cousins again!

PRIMARY WRITING

Prim-Ed Publishing

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19


Looking at recount

2 

Use the narrative on page 19 to complete the page. 1. Title

The title of the recount is 2. Orientation

Write words in the boxes. When

Where

Why

pl e

Who

3. Events

in g

ew

Vi

Sa m

(a) List six different things which happened on the cattle station.

(b) One event, the barbecue, gives lots of information. Draw a picture of the barbecue showing four different things happening. 4. Conclusion

Write the sentence which tells that the person who had the holiday enjoyed himself/herself.

20 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Recount plan

2 

1. Plan a recount about a holiday. Title

Orientation

Who, when, where, why

pl e

Events

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

What things happened?

Conclusion

What happened at the end?

2. Write your recount. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Check your work. Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com

21


3 

Recounts

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Mean machines

Orientation – who, when and where

Events – significant events in detail

On the weekend, my Uncle Derek, Liam, Stuart and I went to the motor show at Bracy Centre. We all love to look at different cars, motorcycles and monster trucks, so we planned a whole day out together to see all the fancy ‘machines’. We caught the train into the city at eight thirty in the morning, because we wanted to be there as soon as the doors opened. When we arrived, we bought our tickets and went in. Our group was the first. First, we went to see the sports cars. There were a lot of unusual, brightly coloured vehicles with shiny bumpers and sparkling windows. We even saw a sports car which had doors opening towards the ceiling. It was only big enough for two people to sit in at a time, so we had turns. The inside had lots of dials and switches and a device for helping you find your way around the city.

• appropriate paragraphs • verbs in the past tense; e.g. bought • vocabulary to suggest passing of time; e.g. Next

pl e

Next, we went to see the recreational vehicles. Some of them had wide, bumpy tyres for driving in the countryside or on the sand. They were bright and shiny with lots of gadgets and switches and very comfortable seats. When I sat in the driver’s seat, I felt really big and everyone around me looked very small! Then, we had lunch at ‘The racetrack cafe’. I ate chips, an orange drink and a chocolate ice-cream.

As the train clattered over the tracks towards home, I thought how nice it was to rest my sore feet in a comfortable, ‘old-fashioned’ vehicle and watch the scenery flash by!

in g

Conclusion – often with an evaluative comment

Sa m

Finally, we went to look at the motorbikes. Some were very big with shiny chrome exhaust pipes and black leather saddlebags. Others were smaller with brightly coloured paintwork and small windscreens. There was even a collection of small trail bikes with racing numbers on them!

ew

Teacher information

Answers Page 24

• Discuss the recount, asking pupils questions to help them identify the title, orientation, some events and the conclusion. Highlight the comment at the end.

(b) Teacher check

Vi

• Read the recount with the pupils, selecting pupils to read parts or allow pupils to read the recount independently.

• Work through the analysis on page 24 with the pupils. • Ensure pupils know that the plan on page 25 is to record ideas only and the actual writing of the recount will come later.

1. (a) Mean machines 2. (a) Uncle Derek, Liam, Stuart and I (b) On the weekend (c) to the motor show (at Bracy Centre) (d) to see all the fancy ‘machines’ to see the vehicles 3. Acceptable answers may include:

• Model the process of planning and writing a recount. Pupils can offer suggestions for possible titles.

(a) train to the city

• Pupils can write words or sentences to complete their plan on page 25.

(c) see recreational vehicles

• Pupils can write a ‘polished’ copy of their recount onto a lined, A4 fish shape, or surround a class mural of an aquarium, lake, river or ocean with completed recounts. (Publishing/Display)

(b) see sports cars (d) have lunch (e) look at motorbikes 4. He had sore feet and was glad to sit down!

• Pupils can share their recount with another class or report about an excursion to parents at an assembly. (Purpose/ Audience) • Pupils write this recount about a visit to an aquarium, lake, river or ocean when completing a theme about ‘Animals and plants in different environments’, in conjunction with a discussion about living things. (Context)

22 

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Recount 3 

Mean machines On the weekend, my Uncle Derek, Liam, Stuart and I went to the motor show at Bracy Centre. We all love to look at different cars, motorcycles and monster trucks, so we planned a whole day out together to see all the fancy ‘machines’. We caught the train into the city at eight thirty in the morning, because we wanted to be there as soon as the doors opened. When we arrived, we bought our tickets and went in. Our group was the first.

Sa m

pl e

First, we went to see the sports cars. There were a lot of unusual, brightly coloured vehicles with shiny bumpers and sparkling windows. We even saw a sports car which had doors opening towards the ceiling. It was only big enough for two people to sit in at a time, so we had turns. The inside had lots of dials and switches and a device for helping you find your way around the city.

in g

Next, we went to see the recreational vehicles. Some of them had wide, bumpy tyres for driving in the countryside or on the sand. They were bright and shiny with lots of gadgets and switches and very comfortable seats. When I sat in the driver’s seat, I felt really big and everyone around me looked very small!

ew

Then, we had lunch at ‘The racetrack cafe’. I ate chips, an orange drink and a chocolate ice-cream.

Vi

Finally, we went to look at the motorbikes. Some were very big with shiny chrome exhaust pipes and black leather saddlebags. Others were smaller with brightly coloured paintwork and small windscreens. There was even a collection of small trail bikes with racing numbers on them! As the train clattered over the tracks towards home, I thought how nice it was to rest my sore feet in a comfortable, ‘old-fashioned’ vehicle and watch the scenery flash by! PRIMARY WRITING

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23


Looking at recount

3 

Use the recount on page 23 to complete the page. 1. Title

(a) The title is (b) Is this a good title?

Yes No

Why?

2. Orientation

pl e

(a) Who went?

Sa m

(b) When did they go? (c) Where did they go?

in g

(d) Why did they go?

ew

3. Events

Write words and draw pictures showing the five main events in the correct order. (b)

Vi

(a)

(d)

(c)

(e)

4. Conclusion

Why was the writer happy to ride in an ‘old-fashioned’ train to go home?

24 

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Recount plan

3 

1. Plan a recount about a visit to an aquarium, lake, river or the ocean. Title

Orientation

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

Events

Conclusion

2. Write your recount. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Check your work. Prim-Ed Publishing

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25


1 

Procedures

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Marvellous milkshake

A list of

ingredients and equipment needed under an appropriate heading.

Make a chocolate milkshake.

• 2 cups milk • 1 scoop vanilla ice-cream • 1 egg • 1 tablespoon malt

Steps – are written clearly and concisely in a logical sequence

• uses subjectspecific vocabulary; e.g. blender

You will need:

• 3 tablespoons chocolate syrup

• blender

• glass

• straw

• cup

• tablespoon

• ice-cream scoop

Steps: 1. Pour milk into blender. 2. Add ice-cream, egg, malt and chocolate syrup. 4. Pour into glass. 5. Drink with straw.

Sa m

3. Blend mixture on high until milkshake is thick.

• instructions begin with command verbs; e.g. Add

pl e

Goal – the purpose of this procedure is to make a chocolate milkshake

• written in simple present tense; e.g. Pour

6. Keep any leftover milkshake in fridge.

Test: Check if the instructions were followed and the milkshake tasted good.

• a capital letter is needed at the beginning of each instruction and a full stop at the end

in g

Test – the success of this procedure would be evaluated by tasting it

• unnecessary words have been omitted

Teacher information

Answers Page 28

• Work through the analysis on page 28 with the pupils. In the ‘Steps’ section, point out that not all procedures have six steps, some may have more and others less. Further discussion may be needed to revise ‘verbs’ or ‘doing words’. Ensure pupils can identify the unnecessary words that are omitted in a procedure, to make it concise.

(b) blender, glass, straw, tablespoon, cup or ice-cream scoop

Vi

ew

• The procedure on page 27 can either be read and discussed with the pupils or selected pupils could take it in turns to assist the teacher to actually make the milkshake, while other pupils follow the procedure and suggest what comes next.

• Pupils can write words, sentences and draw pictures to complete a plan on page 29 for making a variation of a milkshake or another drink. Variations could include making a strawberry milkshake with real fruit, deleting the egg or malt, adding other ingredients or using a shaker instead of a blender. Other drinks could include fresh fruit juice, a ‘spider’ (soda and ice-cream) or hot chocolate or tea.

1. Marvellous milkshake 2. To make a chocolate milkshake 3. (a) Teacher check

4. (a) 6 (b) Pour, Add, Blend, Pour, Drink, Keep (c) verbs (d) (i) the, the

(ii) the, the, the, the

(iii) a

5. The answer should indicate that (a) the procedure could be followed and (b) the milkshake tasted good.

• Pupils’ published procedures could be collated into a class book for others to read, so ideas for drinks are shared. (Publishing/Audience/Purpose) • Pupils can make an illustration of their drink along with the procedure of how to make it and display on a pin-up board. They could add a short caption about the ideal time to have this drink. (Display/Audience) • The activity could be done in conjunction with a food or healthy eating theme. Various drinks could be made following the pupils’ procedures and sampled. (Context)

26 

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Procedure 1 

Marvellous milkshake Make a chocolate milkshake. You will need: • 2 cups milk • 1 scoop vanilla ice-cream • 1 egg • 3 tablespoons chocolate syrup

• blender

• glass

• straw

• cup

• tablespoon

• ice-cream scoop

Steps:

Sa m

pl e

• 1 tablespoon malt

in g

1. Pour milk into blender. 2. Add ice-cream, egg, malt and chocolate syrup.

ew

3. Blend mixture on high until milkshake is thick.

Vi

4. Pour into glass. 5. Drink with straw. 6. Keep any leftover milkshake in fridge.

Test: Check if the instructions were followed and the milkshake tasted good.

PRIMARY WRITING

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27


Looking at procedure

1 

Use the procedure on page 27 to complete the page. 1. Title

2. Goal

3. Needs

(a) List three ingredients you need.

Sa m

pl e

(b) Draw and label three items of equipment you need.

4. Steps

in g

(a) How many steps are there?

ew

(b) List the first word of each step.

Vi

(c) These words are called

.

(d) Cross out the words that have been added to each step. (i) 1. Pour the milk into the blender.

(ii) 2. Add the ice-cream, the egg, the malt and the chocolate syrup.

(iii) 4. Pour into a glass.

The words you have crossed out are not needed in a procedure. 5. Test

How would you know if the procedure worked? 28 

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Procedure plan

1 

1. Plan a procedure for making a milkshake the way you like it, or for a different kind of drink. Title

Goal

What do you want to do?

Sa m

pl e

Needs

Steps

Vi

ew

in g

How will you make it? Put your steps in order.

Test

How would you know if your procedure worked? 2. Check your work. PRIMARY WRITING

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29


2 

Procedures

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Paper bag kite

Goal – the purpose of this procedure is to make a kite out of a paper bag A list of

materials needed under an appropriate heading.

• written in simple present tense; e.g. Draw

Make a kite out of a paper bag.

• uses subjectspecific vocabulary; e.g. brown paper bag

You will need: • brown paper bag • scissors • 4 x 30-cm lengths string

• instructions begin with command verbs; e.g. Staple

• 1 x 3 m length string • stapler • coloured crepe paper • coloured pencils, felt-tipped pens or paint Steps:

pl e

Steps – are written clearly and concisely in a logical sequence

1. Draw a face or design on paper bag. 2. Colour with bright colours. 4. Staple to open end of bag.

Sa m

3. Cut crepe paper into streamers.

5. Staple 30 cm lengths string to each corner of closed end of bag. 6. Join the four strings. 7. Tie to 3 m string. 8. Hold on to string to fly kite.

in g

Teacher information

Vi

• The procedure on page 31 can either be read and discussed with the pupils or selected pupils could take it in turns to assist the teacher to actually make the kite, while other pupils follow the procedure and suggest what comes next. (The face or design on the kite could be completed earlier.) • Work through the analysis on page 32 with the pupils. In the ‘Steps’ section, point out that not all procedures have eight steps, some may have more and others less. Further discussion may be needed to revise ‘verbs’ or ‘doing words’. Ensure pupils can identify the unnecessary words that are omitted in a procedure, to make it concise. • Pupils can write words, sentences and draw pictures to complete a plan on page 32 for making an animal mask. Discuss with the pupils how they think the masks in the illustrations might have been made, to assist them in writing their instructions. Suggestions could include using a paper plate or strong card, craft sticks to hold the mask, cutting out eye holes and what decorations to use for fur, ears etc. • Pupils’ published procedures and masks could be displayed for others to read, so ideas for masks are shared. (Publishing/Audience/Purpose)

30 

• a capital letter is needed at the beginning of each instruction and a full stop at the end

Test: Check if the instructions were followed to make a good kite.

ew

Test – the success of this procedure would be evaluated by checking that all instructions had been followed and a good kite made

• unnecessary words have been omitted

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• Pupils’ procedures could be followed and completed by a classmate and masks displayed. (Purpose/Display) • The activity could be done in conjunction with a study of animals in science and completed in art and craft lessons. (Context)

Answers Page 32 1. Paper bag kite 2. It is about how to make a kite out of a paper bag. 3. (a) brown paper bag (b) scissors (c) stapler (d) coloured crepe paper 4. (a) 8 (b) Teacher check (c) verbs (d) (i) 2

(ii) 5

(e) (i) the, lots of

(ii) a, the

(iii) the, tightly, the

5. The answer should indicate that the procedure could be tested by checking the instructions were followed and a good kite made.

PRIMARY WRITING


Procedure 2 

Paper bag kite Make a kite out of a paper bag. You will need: • brown paper bag

• scissors

• 4 x 30-cm lengths string

• 1 x 3 m length string

• stapler

• coloured crepe paper

• coloured pencils, felt-tipped pens or paint

Sa m

pl e

Steps:

1. Draw a face or design on paper bag.

2. Colour with bright colours.

3. Cut crepe paper into streamers.

4. Staple to open end of bag.

5. Staple 30 cm lengths string to each corner of closed end of bag.

6. Join the four strings.

7. Tie to 3 m string.

8. Hold on to string to fly kite.

Vi

ew

in g

Test: Check if the instructions were followed to make a good kite.

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Looking at procedure

2 

Use the procedure on page 31 to complete the page. 1. Title

2. Goal

What is the procedure about? 3. Needs

Unjumble the words to show four things needed to make the kite. (a) nwrbo apepr gab (c) repalts

pl e

(b) corsisss

4. Steps

(a) How many steps are there?

Sa m

(d) decloruo perce rapep

(b) List four different words used at the beginning of the steps.

in g

(c) These words are called

.

(ii)

Colour with bright colours.

Vi

(i)

ew

(d) Write the number of each step.

Staple 30 cm lengths string to each corner of closed end of bag.

(e) Cross out the words that have been added to each step. (i) Cut the crepe paper into lots of streamers.

(ii) Draw a face or a design on the paper bag.

(iii) Hold on to the string tightly to fly the kite.

The words you have crossed out are not needed in a procedure. 5. Test

How would you know if the procedure worked? 32 

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Procedure plan

2 

1. Plan a procedure for making an animal mask using the pictures for ideas. Title

Goal

What do you want to do?

Sa m

pl e

Needs

Steps

Vi

ew

in g

How will you make it? Put your steps in order.

Test

How would you know if someone can follow your procedure?

2. Check your work. PRIMARY WRITING

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33


3 

Procedures

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

The flower experiment

Goal – the purpose of this procedure is stated A list of

materials needed under an appropriate heading.

Goal: To observe what happens when cut flowers are put into coloured dye.

You will need:

• uses subjectspecific vocabulary; e.g. scissors

• 3 glasses • 3 white carnations • jug of water • scissors

• instructions begin with command verbs; e.g. Stir

• 2 different coloured food dyes • spoon Steps: 1. Pour water into each glass. 2. Add drops of different coloured dye into two glasses.

pl e

Steps – are written clearly and concisely in a logical sequence

3. Stir until mixed. 4. Cut carnation stems to fit.

7. Observe what happens.

Test: If the procedure was followed correctly, you will observe the flowers in the dye are different colours and the one in plain water is still white.

Teacher information

ew

• The procedure on page 35 can either be read and discussed with the pupils or selected pupils could take it in turns to assist the teacher to complete the procedure, while other pupils follow and suggest what comes next.

• a capital letter is needed at the beginning of each instruction and a full stop at the end

• Procedures could be displayed, along with the materials needed and the results of the experiment. A chart listing all the objects pupils discovered that could float or sink could be displayed. (Display/Context)

Answers Page 36

• Pupils can write words, sentences and draw pictures to complete a plan on page 37 for a science experiment to find some objects that will sink in water and some that will float. Discuss with the pupils what materials they might need and the steps they might follow, to assist them in writing their plan.

(b) 2

• Before pupils attempt to use their plan to write the procedure, model the planning then writing of a procedure. The procedure on page 35 could be used for this purpose.

4. (a) 7

• Pupils’ procedures could be followed and completed by a classmate or small group. Any unclear steps could be discussed and re-written. (Purpose/Audience/Publishing)

(d) The picture showed Step 2.

Vi

• Work through the analysis on page 36 with the pupils. In the ‘Steps’ section, point out that not all procedures have seven steps, some may have more and others less. Further discussion may be needed to revise ‘verbs’ or ‘doing words’. Ensure pupils can identify the unnecessary words that are omitted in a procedure, to make it concise.

• The activity could be done in conjunction with a science lesson examining the properties of water or materials. (Context)

34 

• unnecessary words have been omitted

in g

Test – the success of this procedure would be evaluated by checking the colour of the flowers

Sa m

5. Place one in each glass. 6. Leave for four hours.

• written in simple present tense; e.g. Add

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1. The flower experiment 2. It is about observing what happens when cut flowers are put into coloured dye. 3. (a) 3 (c) 3 (d) 1 (e) 1 (f) 1 (b) Teacher check (c) verbs

before, Step 1: Pour water into each glass

after, Step 3: Stir until mixed

(e) (i) the, three

(ii) of the carnations

5. The answer should indicate that the procedure could be tested by observing if the flowers in the dye are different colours and the one in water is still white.

PRIMARY WRITING


Procedure 3 

The flower experiment Goal: To observe what happens when cut flowers are put into coloured dye.

• 3 glasses

• 3 white carnations

• jug of water

• scissors

• 2 different coloured food dyes

• spoon

Sa m

pl e

You will need:

Steps:

1. Pour water into each glass.

2. Add drops of different coloured dye into two glasses.

3. Stir until mixed.

4. Cut carnation stems to fit.

5. Place one in each glass.

6. Leave for four hours.

7. Observe what happens.

Test:

If the procedure was followed correctly, you will observe the flowers in the dye are different colours and the one in plain water is still white.

Vi

ew

in g

PRIMARY WRITING

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35


Looking at procedure

3 

Use the procedure on page 35 to complete the page. 1. Title

2. Goal

What is the procedure about? 3. Needs

How many of each of these things are needed?

(d) spoons

(b) food dyes

(e) jugs of water

(c) glasses

(f) scissors

pl e

(a) carnations

4. Steps

Sa m

(a) How many steps are there?

(b) List four different words used at the beginning of the steps.

.

in g

(c) These words are called

before

Vi

ew

(d) Write the steps that come before and after the step in the picture. Number them correctly.

after

(e) Cross out the words that have been added to each step. (i) Cut the three carnations to fit.

(ii) Place one of the carnations in each glass.

5. Test

How would you know if the procedure was right? 36 

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Procedure plan

3 

1. Plan a procedure to find out some objects that will sink in water and some that will float. Title

Goal

What do you want to do?

Steps

Vi

ew

in g

Put your steps in order.

Sa m

pl e

Needs

Test

How would you know if someone can follow your procedure?

2. Write your procedure. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Check your work. Prim-Ed Publishing

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37


1 

Reports

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

The dragonfly

• written in timeless present tense, in the third person; e.g. it looks like

Classification – a general or classifying statement about what is being reported

The dragonfly is a flying insect. It gets its name from its wings and body shape—it looks like a tiny flying dragon.

Description – this report gives a detailed and accurate account of what the animal looks like, where it can be found, what it can do and other interesting facts

Like all insects, it has three main body parts—the head, the thorax and the abdomen. On the head are two large eyes which allow the dragonfly to see very well. Two pairs of large wings and three pairs of legs are attached to the thorax. A dragonfly flies very fast and skillfully. It can fly backwards, loop-theloop and hover. The abdomen is long and thin and contains the gut and male or female parts. A dragonfly is often brightly coloured. Its body may be blue, red or green with white, yellow or black markings. It is most likely to be seen near water. A dragonfly lays its eggs in or around damp places such as ponds, lakes, swamps and rivers. Some even lay their eggs in rain puddles.

• information is organised into paragraphs

pl e

An adult dragonfly uses its strong jaws and sharp teeth for crunching and eating other flying insects such as mosquitoes, midges, butterflies and moths. Its enemies are birds, frogs, spiders and larger dragonflies.

• uses factual language rather than imaginative; e.g. head, thorax, abdomen

Although the dragonfly has a scary sounding name, it does not bite or sting people. I like the way its colours glisten in the sunlight as it hovers over the water.

in g

Conclusion – a comment giving the writer’s opinion about the subject of the report

Sa m

The biggest dragonfly can have a wingspan of about 16 cm. The smallest can be less than 2 cm.

Teacher information

Answers

ew

• Direct the pupils to the title of the report on page 39 and the classifying statement. Encourage them to share what they know about dragonflies. Read through the report with the pupils and discuss new things they learnt about dragonflies.

Vi

• Work through the analysis on page 40 with the pupils, pointing out the sections of a report. Point out that the middle section or description part of a report does not always have five paragraphs. Pupils can write keywords, phrases or sentences to complete the analysis.

Page 40 1. The dragonfly 2. The dragonfly is a flying insect. 3. (a).5 (b)–(f) Teacher check 4. (a).No

(b).The writer likes the way the dragonfly’s colours glisten in the sun as it hovers over the water.

• Pupils can write words, phrases, sentences or draw pictures to complete a report plan about an animal of their choice on page 41. • Pupils’ report plans could be read out by them in small groups and discussed. (Purpose/Audience) • The report plans could be displayed for other pupils to read and compare, especially those who chose the same animal. (Publishing/Display/Purpose) • The activity could be done in conjunction with a broad or selective animal theme. (Context/Purpose) • Books containing simple animal facts or reports could be displayed in the classroom and read as a class or individually. (Context)

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Report 1 

The dragonfly The dragonfly is a flying insect. It gets its name from its wings and body shape—it looks like a tiny flying dragon.

pl e

Like all insects, it has three main body parts—the head, the thorax and the abdomen. On the head are two large eyes which allow the dragonfly to see very well. Two pairs of large wings and three pairs of legs are attached to the thorax. A dragonfly flies very fast and skillfully. It can fly backwards, loop-the-loop and hover. The abdomen is long and thin and contains the gut and male or female parts.

Sa m

A dragonfly is often brightly coloured. Its body may be blue, red or green with white, yellow or black markings. It is most likely to be seen near water. A dragonfly lays its eggs in or around damp places such as ponds, lakes, swamps and rivers. Some even lay their eggs in rain puddles.

ew

in g

An adult dragonfly uses its strong jaws and sharp teeth for crunching and eating other flying insects such as mosquitoes, midges, butterflies and moths. Its enemies are birds, frogs, spiders and larger dragonflies.

Vi

The biggest dragonfly can have a wingspan of about 16 cm. The smallest can be less than 2 cm. Although the dragonfly has a scary sounding name, it does not bite or sting people. I like the way its colours glisten in the sunlight as it hovers over the water.

PRIMARY WRITING

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39


Looking at report

1 

Use the report on page 39 to complete the page. 1. Title

2. Classification

What is it? 3. Description

(a) How many paragraphs make up the description?

pl e

(b) What does the dragonfly look like?

(e) What does it do?

Vi

ew

(d) What does it eat?

in g

(c) Where do you find it?

Sa m

(f) What are some other interesting facts?

4. Conclusion

Answer the questions about the ending. (a) Does a dragonfly bite or sting people? (b) What does the writer like about the dragonfly? 40 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Report plan

1 

1. Plan a report about an animal. Title

Classification

Description

in g

Sa m

pl e

What does it look like?

Where do you find it?

What does it do?

Vi

ew

What does it eat?

What are some other interesting facts?

Conclusion

What do think about it?

2. Check your work. PRIMARY WRITING

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41


2 

Reports

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Lost: Playful puppy

Classification – a general or classifying statement about what is being reported

A six-month-old, female Staffordshire terrier puppy has been reported missing by its worried owners, the Cooper family.

Description – this report gives a detailed and accurate account of what the missing pet looks like, what it can do, how and when the pet went missing and other important facts

The puppy answers to the name of Lily. She is coloured black on her back and legs and is white with black spots on her throat and belly. There are white markings on her face, head and paws and her tail has a white tip. She was last seen two days ago asleep in her kennel in the Coopers’ backyard. When the children came home from school and went to play with her, she could not be found. While searching the backyard, they discovered a hole behind some bushes on both sides of the fence. It appears another dog helped to dig the hole on the other side. Lily is wearing a purple collar with little black bones printed on it. Her name and address tag that was attached to her collar was found in the bottom of the hole.

• information is organised into paragraphs

If you find Lily, please call the Coopers on 7744 88582. A reward is being offered.

in g

Conclusion – contact and reward information is provided

• uses factual language rather than imaginative; e.g. white with black spots on her throat and belly

Sa m

pl e

The Coopers believe the two dogs may be together, possibly at the other dog’s home. Without her tag, the other dog’s owners would not know who to contact. Lily is a friendly dog and loves people. However, they warn anyone she may be with to keep their shoes out of reach as she enjoys finding a quiet place to chew on the laces and straps. Lily is also known to run off with socks (the smellier the better) and chew on garden hoses.

• written in timeless present tense, in the third person; e.g. The puppy answers

Teacher information

Answers

ew

• Direct the pupils to the title of the report on page 43 and the classifying statement. Encourage them to share what they know about Staffordshire terriers. Read through the report with the pupils and discuss.

Vi

• Work through the analysis on page 44 with the pupils, pointing out the sections of a report. Point out that the middle section or description part of a report does not always have four paragraphs. Pupils can write keywords, phrases or sentences to complete the analysis. Note that in the conclusion of this analysis a personal comment is not appropriate.

Page 44 1. Lost: Playful puppy 2. The newspaper report is about a missing six-month-old, female Staffordshire terrier puppy owned by the Cooper family. 3. (a) 4 (b)–(f) Teacher check 4. (a) by phoning 7744 88582 (b) a reward

• Before pupils attempt to use their report plan on page 45 to plan and write a report about a missing pet, model the planning then writing of a report about a different missing pet. • Pupils can write words, phrases, sentences or draw pictures to complete their newspaper report plans. • Pupils’ reports could be read out by them in small groups and discussed. (Purpose/Audience) • The published reports could be displayed for other pupils to read and compare, especially those who chose the same missing pet. Photographs of actual pets or pupils’ illustrated drawings could be displayed with the reports. (Publishing/ Display/Purpose) • The activity could be done in conjunction with a broad or selective animal theme. (Context/Purpose)

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Report 2 

LOST: Playful puppy A six-month-old, female Staffordshire terrier puppy has been reported missing by its worried owners, the Cooper family. The puppy answers to the name of Lily. She is coloured black on her back and legs and is white with black spots on her throat and belly. There are white markings on her face, head and paws and her tail has a white tip.

Sa m

pl e

She was last seen two days ago asleep in her kennel in the Coopers’ backyard. When the children came home from school and went to play with her, she could not be found. While searching the backyard, they discovered a hole behind some bushes on both sides of the fence. It appears another dog helped to dig the hole on the other side.

in g

Lily is wearing a purple collar with little black bones printed on it. Her name and address tag that was attached to her collar was found in the bottom of the hole.

Vi

ew

The Coopers believe the two dogs may be together, possibly at the other dog’s home. Without her tag, anyone finding her would not know who to contact. Lily is a friendly dog and loves people. However, they warn anyone she may be with, to keep their shoes out of reach as she enjoys finding a quiet place to chew on the laces and straps. Lily is also known to run off with socks (the smellier the better) and chew on garden hoses. If you find Lily, please call the Coopers on 7744 88582. A reward is being offered.

PRIMARY WRITING

Lily, the lost Staffordshire terrier

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Looking at report

2 

Use the report on page 43 to complete the page. 1. Title

2. Classification

What is the newspaper report about?

3. Description

(a) How many paragraphs make up the description?

pl e

(b) When did it happen?

(e) What does Lily like to do?

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(d) What does Lily look like?

Sa m

(c) How did it happen?

(f) Where do the owners think she is?

4. Conclusion

Answer the questions about the ending. (a) How can the Coopers be contacted? (b) What is being offered? 44 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Report plan

2 

1. Plan a report about a missing pet. Title

Classification

Description

pl e

When did it happen?

What does it like to do?

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in g

What does it look like?

Sa m

How did it happen?

Add any extra information (if necessary)

Conclusion

2. Write your report. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Check your work. Prim-Ed Publishing

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45


3 

Reports

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title – the source of the report Classification –

Deanne’s Dancing School

the subject of the report

Julia Martin’s Term 2 jazz ballet progress report

Description – this report gives a detailed and accurate account of the subject’s progress and other important facts

Julia attends jazz ballet dancing classes at Deanne’s Dancing School on Monday and Thursday afternoons from 4.00 pm to 5.00 pm. Julia has attended every class this term and is always punctual. She comes dressed in her leotard, dancing school T-shirt and jacket, and wears her hair tied up. She also remembers to bring her jazz ballet shoes, sweat towel and a bottle of water. Julia always listens carefully to her teacher and does her best in class. She has made a big improvement from last term, when she found it hard to move in time to music with a fast beat. Her arm movements are very good and her footwork improves every week.

• uses factual language rather than imaginative; e.g. footwork improves every week • information is organised into paragraphs

pl e

When Julia is dancing, she remembers to keep a smile on her face and to make eye contact with her audience. She always looks like she is thoroughly enjoying herself.

• written in timeless present tense, in the third person; e.g. Julia attends

Julia performed very well at the end of term concert. Next term she may feel confident enough to perform a solo act. Congratulations, Julia, on a great term’s dancing. You have been a pleasure to teach.

Sa m

Conclusion – a personal comment has been made about the subject Teacher information

Answers

• Direct the pupils to the title of the report on page 47 and the classifying statement. Discuss their term progress reports for school and other kinds of progress reports they receive for out-of-school activities. Read through the report with the pupils and discuss.

Page 48

• Work through the analysis on page 48 with the pupils, pointing out the sections of a report. Point out that the middle section or description and facts part of a report does not always have five paragraphs. Pupils can write keywords, phrases or sentences, and draw pictures to complete the analysis.

3. (a) 5

• Before pupils attempt to use their report plan on page 49 to plan and write a progress report about a friend, model the planning then writing of a different progress report.

(d) Teacher check

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1. Deanne’s Dancing School

• Pupils can write words, phrases or sentences to complete their progress report plans. They may need to talk to the person involved about the subject of their report before commencing their plan.

2. (a) Julia Martin (b) jazz ballet progress (b) Answers should include four of the following: leotard, dancing school T-shirt and/or jacket, hair tied up, jazz ballet shoes, bottle of water, sweat towel (c) She found it hard to move in time to music with a fast beat. (e) She may feel confident enough to perform a solo act at the end of term concert. 4. Congratulations, great, pleasure

• Pupils’ reports could be read out by them in small groups and discussed. (Purpose/Audience) • The published reports could be displayed for other pupils to read and compare, especially those who chose the same type of progress report. Pupils’ illustrated drawings of the subject performing could be displayed with the reports. (Publishing/Display/Purpose) • The activity could be done in conjunction with a values theme about recognising strengths and weaknesses in themselves and others and how to improve or maintain specific standards. (Context/Purpose)

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Report 3 

Deanne’s Dancing School Julia Martin’s Term 2 jazz ballet progress report Julia attends jazz ballet dancing classes at Deanne’s Dancing School on Monday and Thursday afternoons from 4.00 pm to 5.00 pm.

pl e

Julia has attended every class this term and is always punctual. She comes dressed in her leotard, dancing school T-shirt and jacket, and wears her hair tied up. She also remembers to bring her jazz ballet shoes, sweat towel and a bottle of water.

Sa m

Julia always listens carefully to her teacher and does her best in class. She has made a big improvement from last term, when she found it hard to move in time to music with a fast beat. Her arm movements are very good and her footwork improves every week.

ew

in g

When Julia is dancing, she remembers to keep a smile on her face and to make eye contact with her audience. She always looks like she is thoroughly enjoying herself.

Vi

Julia performed very well at the end of term concert. Next term she may feel confident enough to perform a solo act. Congratulations, Julia, on a great term’s dancing. You have been a pleasure to teach.

PRIMARY WRITING

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47


Looking at report

3 

Use the report on page 47 to complete the page. 1. Title

2. Classification

(a) Who is the progress report for? (b) What is it about? 3. Description

(a) How many paragraphs make up the description? (c) What did Julia find hard to do last term?

Sa m

pl e

(b) Draw and label four things Julia remembers to wear or bring to class.

Vi

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in g

(d) List two things she is good at.

(e) What might Julia do next term if she feels confident?

4. Conclusion

Fill in the missing words from the conclusion.

, Julia, on a You have been a 48 

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term’s dancing. to teach. PRIMARY WRITING


Report plan

3 

1. Plan a progress report about something a friend does. It could be a subject at school, a sport he or she plays or a hobby. Title

Classification

Who the report is for and what it is about.

Description

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Sa m

pl e

What does this person do?

Interesting facts.

Conclusion

An opinion about the person.

2. Write your report. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Check your work. Prim-Ed Publishing

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49


1 

Explanations

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Kites

Definition – what the explanation is about

Do you know how a kite flies?

Description

Kites need air to make them fly.

• written in simple present tense; e.g. flies

The air moving over the top of the curved surface of a kite goes faster than the air moving underneath. The fast moving air causes less pressure but there is more pressure underneath the kite. The slower air underneath forces the kite up. Moving air (the wind) tries to push the kite along like a sail boat, but the person holding the string keeps it in place. The kite cannot go in the direction that the wind wants it to go. Because the kite is tilted up, the air is forced down and the kite goes up!

Conclusion

• linking words to show cause and effect; e.g. Because • information is organised into paragraphs

pl e

Kites with a short string are easier to fly than kites with a long string because there is less ‘drag’ from the wind.

• subjectspecific vocabulary if appropriate; e.g. pressure

But no matter how they work, kites are always great fun to fly!

Answers

Sa m

Teacher information

Page 52 1. Kites

2. (a) how kites fly (b) air

3. (a) (i) quickly

(ii) press

(v) up/to go up

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• This particular explanation has two parts to the description. The first explains the pressure from the surrounding air masses. The second part explains the influence caused by the person holding the kite. A paragraph spacing has been included to show these different ideas. Both of these contribute to the action of flying a kite. The visual diagrams are intended as an aid. Pupils may find that including visual aids help to support their own explanations.

(ii) False

(iii) True

(iv) True

4. Teacher check

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• Read the explanation with the pupils or allow them to read it on their own. Explain that ‘pressure’ is ‘the force exerted by the air on the kite’ or ‘the air pressing on the kite’.

(iv) presses

(b) (i) True

(iii) slowly

• Pupils complete the analysis on page 52.

Vi

• Model planning and writing an explanation with the pupils before allowing them to attempt their own. A suggested topic is ‘How worms breathe’. • Pupils can write words, sentences or draw diagrams to complete their plan on page 53. (Note: Fogging of the inside of car windows is caused by moisture produced during breathing or perspiration. Discussion or research may need to occur before pupils begin their explanation.) • Pupils can place their explanation on the classroom windows or on a car shape. (Display) • Pupils can write an explanation to offer helpful suggestions for dealing with a problem for classmates to utilise. (Purpose/Audience) • Pupils may write the chosen explanations in conjunction with a science unit about water. (Context)

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Explanation 1 

Kites Do you know how a kite flies? Fast moving air.

Kites need air to make them fly. The air moving over the top of the curved surface of a kite goes faster than the air moving underneath.

Slower moving air

Sa m

The slower air underneath forces the kite up.

forces the kite up.

pl e

The fast moving air causes less pressure but there is more pressure underneath the kite.

in g

Moving air (the wind) tries to push the kite along like a sail boat, but the person holding the string keeps it in place. The kite cannot go in the direction that the wind wants it to go. Because the kite is tilted up, the air is forced down and the kite goes up!

Vi

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Kites with a short string are easier to fly than kites with a long string because there is less ‘drag’ from the wind. But no matter how they work, kites are always great fun to fly!

Air tries to push the kite along. Kite is tilted up.

Child holds the kite in place.

PRIMARY WRITING

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51


Looking at explanation

1 

Use the explanation on page 51 to complete the page. 1. Title

2. Definition

(a) What is being explained? (b) What is necessary to make kites fly? 3. Description

(a) Complete the sentences.

(ii) This fast-moving air does not very much.

down on the kite

Sa m

.

pl e

(i) The air moving over the top of the kite moves

(iii) The air moving underneath the kite moves (iv) This slow-moving air

in g

(v) This forces the kite

.

up on the kite a lot.

.

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(b) Answer True or False.

(i) Air pushes a sailboat along.

Vi

(ii) Kites are able to go anywhere they want to. (iii) When the kite is tilted up, the air goes down and the kite goes up! (iv) Kites with a long string are hard to control. 4. Conclusion

Draw the type of kite you would like to have fun flying.

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Explanation plan

1 

1. Plan an explanation about why car windows fog up in cold weather. Title

Definition

What is being explained?

Vi

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Sa m

pl e

Description

Conclusion

2. Write your explanation. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Check your work. Prim-Ed Publishing

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53


2 

Explanations

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

The sea

Definition

• verbs in simple present tense; e.g. touches

Have you ever wondered why the sea looks blue? There are two reasons and they both have to do with light.

Description

The first reason is that the sea acts a bit like a mirror. You can see yourself in a mirror because light is reflected back at you. The sea can reflect light as well. The water sends back (reflects) the light that touches it from the sky, just like the mirror. When the sky is blue, the water reflects the blue of the sky, so the sea looks blue! When the sky is grey, the water reflects the grey of the sky, so the sea looks grey! The second reason is that large bodies of water, like the sea, absorb some colours of light more than others.

• linking words to show cause and effect; e.g. When • information is organised into paragraphs

pl e

When light enters the sea, the blue light isn’t absorbed as much as the red colours of light.

• subjectspecific vocabulary if appropriate; e.g. reflects

Because our eyes see this blue light, the water itself looks blue! (This is also why big icebergs can look blue.) Even if you are under the water, the sea still looks blue!

Teacher information

Sa m

Conclusion

Answers

• Read the explanation with the pupils or allow them to read it on their own. Discuss the diagrams. • Pupils complete the analysis on page 56.

Page 56

1. The sea

2. (a) … why the sea looks blue.

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• This explanation is easier to understand with diagrams. Pupils may find they are a valuable aid when writing their own explanations.

(b) 2 3 – 4. Teacher check

ew

• Model planning and writing another explanation with the pupils before allowing them to attempt their own. A suggested topic is ‘Why rainbows are coloured’.

Vi

• Pupils can write words, sentences or draw diagrams to complete their plan on page 57. Some discussion or research may need to occur before pupils begin their explanation. • Pupils can type and print out their explanation on the computer and display it on a bread shape. (Publishing/ Display) • Pupils can write their explanation and use it to initiate an oral presentation for the class. (Purpose/Audience) • An explanation about how a toaster works can be used in conjunction with a theme about healthy eating or a science unit about energy. (Context)

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Explanation 2 

The sea Have you ever wondered why the sea looks blue? There are two reasons and they both have to do with light. Sun

The first reason is that the sea acts a bit like a mirror.

The colour of the sky is reflected to our eyes.

Blue light is able to travel through the water to our eyes.

Sa m

The water sends back (reflects) the light that touches it from the sky, just like the mirror.

pl e

You can see yourself in a mirror because light is reflected back at you. The sea can reflect light as well.

When the sky is blue, the water reflects the blue of the sky, so the sea looks blue!

in g

When the sky is grey, the water reflects the grey of the sky, so the sea looks grey!

ew

The second reason is that large bodies of water, like the sea, absorb some colours of light more than others.

Vi

When light enters the sea, the blue light isn’t absorbed as much as the red colours of light. Because our eyes see this blue light, the water itself looks blue! (This is also why big icebergs can look blue.) Even if you are under the water, the sea still looks blue!

PRIMARY WRITING

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55


Looking at explanation

2 

Use the explanation on page 55 to complete the page. 1. Title

The title is 2. Definition

(a) The explanation tells about

.

(b) There are

reasons given to explain why the sea is blue.

3. Description

pl e

(a) Write a sentence or two to explain: (ii) the second reason

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(i) the first reason

(b) Did the diagrams help to explain the two reasons?

Yes No

How? 4. Conclusion

Write another sentence which could be used as a conclusion.

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Explanation plan

2 

1. Plan an explanation about how a toaster works. Title

Definition

What is being explained?

Vi

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in g

Sa m

pl e

Description

Conclusion

2. Write your explanation. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Check your work. Prim-Ed Publishing

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57


3 

Explanations

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Clouds

Definition

Have you ever wondered how the clouds we see in the sky are formed?

Description

First, the sun heats the ground.

• verbs in simple present tense; e.g. gets

The warm ground heats the air above it. The warm air near the ground is lighter than the air above it, so it starts to rise. As the air rises, it begins to form a circular shape or ‘parcel’ of air. As the parcel of air rises through the sky, it gets bigger and wider. It also gets cooler. As the air cools, water drops are made inside the parcel of air. The higher the parcel rises, the more it cools and the more water drops are formed inside. Finally, when the parcel of air is as cool as the air around it, it stops moving and can now be seen as a cloud in the sky! Now when you look up into the sky and see clouds of different shapes and sizes floating around, you will understand how they got there!

Teacher information

• linking words to show cause and effect; e.g. Finally • information is organised into paragraphs

Sa m

pl e

Conclusion

• subjectspecific vocabulary if appropriate; e.g. air

Answers

• Explanations usually outline how something occurs, works or is made. This particular explanation shows how something occurs.

1. Clouds

2. how clouds form

3. (a) 6, 4, 1, 8, 2, 5, 3, 7

in g

• Some explanations are easier to understand once diagrams are added. Pupils may find that they are a valuable aid when writing their own explanations.

Page 60

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• Read the explanation with the pupils or allow them to read it on their own. Discuss the diagrams and ensure that the explanation has achieved its primary purpose — to explain clearly how clouds form.

(b) Teacher check 4. Answers should indicate that clouds come in different shapes and sizes. The illustration should also be an indication of this.

• Pupils complete the analysis on page 60.

Vi

• Model completing another explanation with the pupils before allowing them to attempt to write their own. A suggested topic is ‘How our bodies use water’. • Pupils can write words, sentences or draw diagrams to complete their own plan on page 61. Some discussion may need to occur before pupils begin their explanation. • Pupils can type and print their new explanation on the computer and display it on a seesaw shape. (Publishing/ Display) • Pupils can give an oral presentation to the class explaining how a seesaw works, when completing a unit about weighing or measuring. (Purpose/Audience/Context)

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Explanation 3 

Clouds Have you ever wondered how the clouds we see in the sky are formed? First, the sun heats the ground. The warm ground heats the air above it. The warm air near the ground is lighter than the air above it, so it starts to rise. As the air rises, it begins to form a circular

pl e

shape or ‘parcel’ of air. As the parcel of air rises through the sky, it gets bigger and wider.

It also gets cooler. As the air cools, water drops are made inside

Sa m

the parcel of air. The higher the parcel rises, the more it cools and the more water drops are formed inside.

Finally, when the parcel of air is as cool as the air around it, it

in g

stops moving and can now be seen as a cloud in the sky! Now when you look up into the sky and see clouds of different

Vi

got there!

ew

shapes and sizes floating around, you will understand how they

Clouds

Sun

Rising warm air parcels

Sun’s heat Warm air above ground

Warm ground

PRIMARY WRITING

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59


Looking at explanation

3 

Use the explanation on page 59 to complete the page. 1. Title

Write the title. 2. Definition

The explanation tells 3. Description

(a) Read the sentences, then write a number next to each to show the correct order. Water drops form inside the parcel of air.

(ii)

The warm, rising air forms a parcel of air.

(iii)

The sun heats the ground.

(iv)

It now looks like a cloud in the sky.

(v)

The warm ground heats the air above.

(vi)

The rising parcel of air gets bigger, wider and cooler.

ew

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Sa m

pl e

(i)

(vii) The warm air rises.

(viii) When the parcel of air is as cool as the air around it, it stops moving.

Vi

(b) Did you find the diagram was helpful?

Yes No

Why? 4. Conclusion

The conclusion gives another interesting feature about clouds. Write what it was and draw a picture of two different shapes of clouds.

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Explanation plan

3 

1. Plan an explanation about how a seesaw works. Title

Definition

What is being explained?

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Sa m

pl e

Description

Conclusion

2. Write your explanation. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Check your work. Prim-Ed Publishing

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61


1 

Discussions

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Tooth care

Overview – states the topic and what the writer thinks should happen

Arguments – these should support the writer’s point of view

Many people do not take good care of their teeth. I think people need to understand why they should look after their teeth and how to do it.

If we don’t look after our teeth, they will decay and then break and fall out. Then they will look horrible and may hurt a lot. We need our teeth for biting our food. Imagine trying to eat meat, carrots and crisp apples without any teeth. We would be like little babies and have to eat soft or mashed up food. Yuk!

• controlling words; e.g. need, must • paragraphs to state and elaborate each point

Our teeth help us to speak clearly. I know when my grandfather takes his false teeth out, he sounds funny. I would hate to sound like that. My little sister told our grandfather she wished she could take her teeth out like he does. He said he’d love to have his own teeth back because he can’t chew his food properly and they hurt his mouth. They also cost him a lot of money. • Clean them properly after eating. • Try not to eat or drink too many sweet things.

pl e

Looking after our teeth is really not that hard. We need to:

• Visit the dentist to have our teeth and gums checked.

Our teeth are very important. I would hate to live without my teeth or with rotten ones. We must look after our teeth. It is quite easy.

Sa m

Conclusion – a restating of the writer’s opinion

Answers

• Read the discussion with the pupils.

Page 64

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Teacher information

1. Tooth care

• Encourage pupils to discuss the topic and to decide if they agree or disagree with the writer and if their opinions have been influenced by the arguments presented.

3. (a) They could decay, break and fall out.

ew

• Discuss who they think wrote this discussion, what the writer thinks should happen and why he or she wrote the discussion.

Vi

• Ask pupils to think of other arguments for looking after their teeth and any additional ways to do this. • Pupils can find and copy words from the discussion on page 63 to complete the analysis on page 64. Some pupils will benefit from working through the steps of the analysis with an adult. • Provide opportunities for pupils to think about and discuss if and how they should protect their skin before they complete the discussion plan on page 65. • A class ‘Protect your skin’ poster could be developed, displaying individual pupil’s most persuasive arguments. (Display)

2. The writer wants people to understand why they need to look after their teeth and how to do it. (b) biting (c) speak (d) … he can’t eat with them properly and they hurt his mouth. (e) Any two of:

(i) Clean our teeth.

(ii) Do not eat or drink too many sweet things.

(iii) Visit the dentist.

4. (a) important (b) easy

• Compose one class discussion, ordering the arguments from the most to the least persuasive and read or send it to someone whose opinion they would like to change. (Purpose/Audience) • The concept of skin protection is related to the health learning area. (Context)

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Discussion 1 

Tooth care Many people do not take good care of their teeth. I think people need to understand why they should look after their teeth and how to do it. If we don’t look after our teeth, they will decay and then break and fall out. Then they will look horrible and may hurt a lot.

pl e

We need our teeth for biting our food. Imagine trying to eat meat, carrots and crisp apples without any teeth. We would be like little babies and have to eat soft or mashed up food. Yuk!

Sa m

Our teeth help us to speak clearly. I know when my grandfather takes his false teeth out, he sounds funny. I would hate to sound like that.

in g

My little sister told our grandfather she wished she could take her teeth out like he does. He said he’d love to have his own teeth back because he can’t chew his food properly and they hurt his mouth. They also cost him a lot of money.

ew

Looking after our teeth is really not that hard. We need to:

Vi

• Clean them properly after eating. • Try not to eat or drink too many sweet things. • Visit the dentist to have our teeth and gums checked. Our teeth are very important. I would hate to live without my teeth or with rotten ones. We must look after our teeth. It is quite easy. PRIMARY WRITING

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63


Looking at discussion

1 

Use the discussion on page 63 to complete the page. 1. Title

2. Overview

The writer wants people to

3. Arguments

(a) What could happen to our teeth if we don’t look after them?

pl e

Sa m

(b) What do we use our teeth for when we eat?

in g

(c) Our teeth help us to

clearly.

ew

(d) Grandfather doesn’t like his teeth because

Vi

(e) What are two things we should do to look after our teeth?

4. Conclusion

(a) Our teeth are very 64 

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(b) Looking after our teeth is quite .

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. PRIMARY WRITING


Discussion plan

1 

1. Plan a discussion to tell what you think about protecting skin from the sun. Think of some good ideas and make your arguments strong. Title

Overview

What do you think about it?

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Sa m

pl e

Arguments

Conclusion

What do you think people should do?

2. Check your work. PRIMARY WRITING

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2 

Discussions

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Making beds

Overview – the topic and the writer’s point of view

Arguments – persuasive arguments in support of the writer’s opinion

Making beds is so stupid! I can’t believe that people do it every day. I think that bed making should be banned. Making a bed is such a waste of time. There are better things to do. I would much rather watch TV or play outside. I don’t think my bed makes my room look messy. I think it just makes it look lived in, but my mum doesn’t agree. But it’s not her room, it’s mine.

• controlling words; e.g. should not • paragraphs to state and elaborate each point

It’s not fair! If Mum likes beds made, then she can make mine. I just don’t think she should make me do it. I think made beds are very uncomfortable. I like to stick my feet out the side of the bed. I can’t do this if it’s all tucked in. My cat loves to sleep in my bed but she can’t climb in if it’s made. That’s why she likes my bed. I think that we should be kind to animals don’t you?

Teacher information

Answers

• Read the discussion with the pupils, who should be encouraged to use contextual information to help in decoding the text.

• Discuss what the writer thinks should happen and why he wrote the discussion.

Page 68

1. Making beds

2. The author thinks bed making is stupid and wants it to be banned. 3. (a) Teacher check (b) Teacher check

in g

• Discuss what pupils think about making their beds and to decide if they agree or disagree with each of the writer’s arguments.

pl e

I’m sure that other boys and even some girls will agree with me. We just should not have to make our beds.

Sa m

Conclusion – a restating of the writer’s opinion

• Ask pupils to think of other arguments for or against making their beds.

ew

• Pupils should then complete the analysis on page 68.

(d) The cat can get into the bed if it isn’t made. 4. (a) The writer thinks that we should not have to make our beds. (b) He is sure that many boys and some girls will agree.

Vi

• Discuss the jobs that pupils do to help at home and ask them to decide if they think doing jobs is a good or bad idea. When they have determined their position on the issue, they need to identify their arguments and to start with the strongest. Pupils can then complete their discussion plan on page 69.

(c) He likes to stick his feet out of the bed.

• The concept of making beds can be related to the issue of young people needing sufficient sleep as part of a healthy lifestyle in the health learning area. (Context) • Arguments for and against doing jobs can be written on strips of card and displayed on a mural around an illustration of a house and garden. (Purpose/Display)

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Discussion 2 

Making beds Making beds is so stupid! I can’t believe that people do it every day. I think that bed making should be banned. Making a bed is such a waste of time. There are better things to do. I would much rather watch TV or play outside.

pl e

I don’t think my bed makes my room look messy. I think it just makes it look lived in, but my mum

Sa m

doesn’t agree. But it’s not her room, it’s mine.

It’s not fair! If Mum likes beds made, then she can

in g

make mine. I just don’t think she should make me do it. I think made beds are very uncomfortable. I like to stick my

ew

feet out the side of the bed. I can’t do this if it’s all tucked in. My cat loves to sleep in my bed but she can’t climb in if it’s

Vi

made. That’s why she likes my bed, it’s easy to get into. I think that we should be kind to animals don’t you? I’m sure that other boys and even some girls will agree with me. We just should not have to make our beds.

PRIMARY WRITING

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com

67


Looking at discussion

2 

Use the discussion on page 67 to complete the page. 1. Title

2. Overview

What does the writer believe?

3. Arguments

(a) Which argument do you think is the best?

pl e

Sa m

(b) Is it the first one?

(c) Why does the boy think that a made bed is uncomfortable?

in g

ew

(d) Why does the cat like an unmade bed?

Vi

4. Conclusion

(a) The writer thinks that we should not have to

(b) He is sure that many other boys and some girls will

.

our beds. 68 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Discussion plan

2 

1. Think about children doing jobs to help at home. Do you think this is a good or a bad idea? Plan a discussion to try and persuade other people to agree with you. Start with your strongest argument. Title

Overview

I think

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

Arguments

Conclusion

2. Check your work. PRIMARY WRITING

Prim-Ed Publishing

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3 

Discussions

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Friends

Overview – states the topic and what the writer thinks should happen

Arguments – persuasive arguments in support of the writer’s position on the issue

Some people are not kind to their friends. I think we should look after friends because our friends are very important.

Think about what it would be like if you didn’t have any friends. I think it would be horrible and would feel very lonely. You must remember that your friends won’t stay friends with you if you’re mean to them.

• controlling words; e.g. must • paragraphs to state and elaborate each point

Some people don’t share things with their friends. I think this is silly, because if you share your things, then they will share with you and you’ll both have more fun things to do. You should speak nicely to your friends. You don’t like people yelling at you, do you? If you get cross and shout and yell at them, they will feel bad and then they will not want to play with you.

pl e

Friends have feelings. It is very important not to hurt their feelings by saying or doing something to make them feel bad. When you do hurt them, then I think you should tell them you’re sorry, and mean it. After that, you can be friends again. Sometimes our friends do something mean to us and make us feel really bad. But, if they say they didn’t mean it and they’re sorry, I think we should still be friends with them, don’t you?

I think that if we are good friends to our friends then they will be good friends to us. That’s only fair isn’t it?

in g

Conclusion – a restating of the writer’s opinion

Sa m

I like doing kind things for my friends and sometimes I give them little things and this makes them smile. I like it when my friends are happy, it makes me feel happy too.

ew

Teacher information

• Read the discussion with the pupils, asking them to use contextual information and phonic analysis to decode unrecognised words.

Vi

• Discuss how people should treat their friends and the different problems involved with friendship. • Work through the analysis on page 72. Pupils should be encouraged to refer back to the text as needed.

Answers Page 72 1. Friends 2. The writer wants people to look after their friends. 3. Teacher check 4. It’s only fair that if we are good friends to our friends, they will be good friends to us.

• Provide opportunities for pupils to think and talk about why they believe people should look after their pets and some persuasive arguments to support their ideas for the plan on page 73. • Before asking pupils to plan and write their discussions, model the process of planning and writing a discussion about Being kind to older people. • A collection of completed discussions could be made into a book titled, Pets are important. (Display) • A discussion incorporating the most persuasive arguments for looking after pets, could be composed and written by the class for display on a board featuring photographs of pupils’ pets. (Purpose/Audience)

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Discussion 3 

Friends Some people are not kind to their friends. I think we should look after friends because our friends are very important. Think about what it would be like if you didn’t have any friends. I think it would be horrible and would feel very lonely. You must remember that your friends won’t stay friends with you if you’re mean to them.

pl e

Some people don’t share things with their friends. I think this is silly, because if you share your things, then they will share with you and you’ll both have more fun things to do.

Sa m

You should speak nicely to your friends. You don’t like people yelling at you, do you? If you get cross and shout and yell at them, they will feel bad and then they will not want to play with you.

ew

in g

Friends have feelings. It is very important not to hurt their feelings by saying or doing something to make them feel bad. When you do hurt them, then I think you should tell them you’re sorry, and mean it. After that, you can be friends again.

Vi

Sometimes our friends do something mean to us and make us feel really bad. But, if they say they didn’t mean it and they’re sorry, I think we should still be friends with them, don’t you? I like doing kind things for my friends and sometimes I give them little things and this makes them smile. I like it when my friends are happy, it makes me feel happy too. I think that if we are good friends to our friends then they will be good friends to us. That’s only fair isn’t it?

PRIMARY WRITING

Prim-Ed Publishing

www.prim-ed.com

71


Looking at discussion

3 

Use the discussion on page 71 to complete the page. 1. Title

2. Overview

What does the writer want people to do?

3. Arguments

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

What reasons does the writer give? (Start with the argument you think is the best.)

4. Conclusion

What did the writer say in the conclusion?

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Discussion plan

3 

1. Plan a discussion to persuade people to look after their pets. Think of some good arguments and start with the strongest one. Title

Overview

I think

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

Arguments

Conclusion

2. Write your discussion. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Check your work. Prim-Ed Publishing

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6262 Teaching Writing Skills Book C  
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