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Foreword Don’t sit! Get fit! aims to contribute to the development of healthy active lifestyles. The book includes knowledge about the concept of daily fitness and healthy eating habits. The fitness programme presented in the book aims to develop attitudes such as fair play and respect for the rights of others, interpersonal skills such as communication, decision-making skills needed for tactics and strategies when playing games, and assertiveness skills needed to cope with peer pressure. Movement skills are reinforced and developed using the fitness programme.

Contents Unit 1

Physical fitness

Unit 2

Organising the fitness programme

Unit 5

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Dress ...........................................................................................4 Timetable ...................................................................................4 Grouping ...................................................................................4 Timing .........................................................................................4 Monitors ....................................................................................4

Daily fitness programme

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Unit 3

Resting heart rate..................................................................5 Exercising for fitness ............................................................5 Setting up the programme ................................................6 Stretching exercises ..............................................................6 Cross-country run .................................................................7 Run around the country .....................................................8 Circuit training........................................................................8 Dance .................................................................................. 9–15 Skipping ...........................................................................16–17 Obstacle course ................................................................... 18 Games...............................................................................19–22

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Making food choices ......................................................... 23 A balanced diet .................................................................... 23 Activities to promote diet awareness......................... 24 Activities to promote awareness of good nutrition ..........................................................................24–25 Guidelines to help control obesity .............................. 26 Integrating a nutrition programme into other learning areas ................................................. 27

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Cardiovascular endurance .................................................1 Muscular endurance.............................................................2 Flexibility ...................................................................................2 Strength.....................................................................................3 Conclusion ................................................................................3

Food and fitness

Unit 4

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Teachers notes ..................................................................ii–iii Curriculum links ....................................................................iv

Fitness testing and evaluation

Sit and reach......................................................................... 28 Standing long jump ........................................................... 28 Push-ups ................................................................................ 28 50-metre run ........................................................................ 29 1.6-kilometre run................................................................ 29 Fitness recording chart..................................................... 29 Child self-assessment ....................................................... 30

Photocopiable teacher resources Cardiovascular record ........................................................31 Resting heart rate graph ................................................. 32 Training heart range calculation .................................. 32 Daily fitness programme timetable ............................. 33 Cross-country record and graph ...........................34–35 Circuit training record ...............................................36–37 Create your own dances .................................................. 38 Child skipping choreography ......................................... 39 Sample obstacle course.................................................... 40 Obstacle course template .................................................41 Obstacle course graph ...................................................... 42 The balanced diet test ....................................................... 43 Fitness recording chart..................................................... 44 Child self-evaluation ......................................................... 45

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Teachers notes With increasing technology, children are leading less active lifestyles. Television, computers, DVDs, Nintendo®, mobile phones and incorrect food choices are contributing to the evolvement of a generation of under-challenged and over-entertained adults. Children today are more overweight and less active than they have ever been. Research tells us that 16% of children are obese and childhood obesity has tripled over the last 10 years. Obesity and inactivity as a child are likely to continue to adulthood, so the front line in this battle must be with children, or more particularly with parents and teachers in helping children. It is intended that this book assists in this mission. With careful planning, all children can be involved in 15 minutes of fitness daily. Important points of this programme are: 1. All children are moving during the 15 minutes. 2. Children record times and repetitions that are made. 3. Children can make their evaluations to help in improving their fitness.

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Numerous ideas and activities are outlined to assist in making the programme meaningful, beneficial and fun. With an increase in fitness comes an increase in appetite and the ability to participate in sporting activities at school, home and in the community.

being a role model in physical activity, playing outdoor games with children, walking or riding a bike to school with children, restricting the time children spend in sedentary activities; e.g. TV, computers, Nintendo®, visiting local parks to use playground equipment, fly kites or throw frisbees®,

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For example, as parents we can help greatly to create an active family by:

walking with children to the shops, taking the stairs, even if a lift is available, helping children to develop their fundamental movement skills – running, jumping, skipping, rolling, throwing, catching etc. These are the foundation skills that are used in a wide range of sporting activities.

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It is through this book that attitudes and values for active and healthy children can be established.

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Parents and teachers play a critical role in working together to give children this chance and ultimately enable them to experience the joy of being involved in physical activity and helping to develop traits such as selfdiscipline, teamwork and persistence, as well as friendship. The following phases of development outline the scope of the curriculum, what children might expect to achieve during their schooling.

Phase 1: Early childhood (age 4–8 years) Children learn rules, fundamental movement skills and procedures for basic daily fitness. As a lead-up to daily fitness, the simple games and practices will highlight fundamental skills of running, jumping and dodging individually, with a partner or in very small groups. Basic concepts are reinforced through practical activities. Emphasis is on regular participation in individual or cooperative tasks and activities rather than competitive games. Children participate in a safe, supportive environment, learn to take turns, follow simple rules and share equipment and space. They are placed in

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situations where they observe, develop and explore self-management skills as individuals and small teams. They practise basic steps of decision-making, goalsetting and planning skills and interaction with peers. They are provided with opportunities to explain basic strategies to cope with unsafe or unhappy situations in daily fitness so they can practise the use of verbal and non verbal messages to communicate effectively. They learn about their place in a pair or small group and use communication and cooperation skills to strengthen and maintain relationships within them.

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Teachers notes Phase 2: Middle childhood (age 8–12 years)

Phase 3:

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Phase 4:

Early adolescence (age 12–15 years)

Late adolescence/young adulthood (age 15–18 years)

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Children build on prior knowledge of skills needed for daily fitness and the development of the skills, processes and strategies for maintaining daily fitness. They start to specialise and continue to learn about and develop individual and team strategies and skills to enhance performance. Children develop a higher level of skill by applying the principles of movement to their tasks and activities and have opportunities to react to challenges provided by themselves and others. In individual and group situations, they learn to develop and implement strategies within daily fitness establishing etiquette and rules to optimise performance in practice. They are encouraged to examine and apply self-management skills to the planning of short- and long-term goals. They apply the decision-making process in a variety of situations, allowing opportunities to develop the ability to deal with influences which impact on self-confidence, self-esteem and self-identity. Children use interpersonal skills to communicate decisions, negotiate with others and resolve conflict.

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setting and knowledge of choices and consequences. They realise that decisions they make have a positive or negative influence on self and others. Children communicate feelings and resolve conflict, contributing towards achieving their own or others’ goals. When participating in daily fitness their negotiation and facilitation skills are expanded to enhance and maintain relationships within a partnership or group. To resolve conflicts arising through daily fitness activities, they learn and practise partner, group or team discussion skills and procedures, using communication and decision-making skills to assist a team to collaboratively plan and achieve their goals in school and possibly community situations.

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Children are given practice appraising physical activity levels while improving their mastery of movement skills in daily fitness, enabling them to develop confidence and competence in skills and ability related to daily fitness. They practise, extend and refine the skills (with or without equipment). They apply knowledge of rules by thinking strategically to implement strategies to enhance performance for themselves, their partner or group. Children continue to develop their selfmanagement skills and personal strengths in daily fitness, regularly gaining feedback from others to enhance their self-esteem. When facilitating partners or small groups in daily fitness or activities, children begin to see the consequences of their decision-making, goal

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In this phase, young adults explore complex influences and face particular pressures related to performance and management within daily fitness contexts. They can access the daily fitness needs of themselves and others, and independently plan strategies to enhance their daily fitness involvement alone and in the community. They refine most skills by regular participation and practice and work towards achieving their personal best by participating in setting personal goals or participating with others in group activities. Young adults learn that strategic skills can be further refined. They can effectively evaluate the outcomes of their strategies to optimise individual and group performances. They learn sophisticated self-management skills in complex situations in the context of daily fitness and plan action to manage intrinsic and extrinsic influences on selfesteem. During this phase young adults are refining negotiation, decision-making and leadership planning and goal-setting and evaluating these processes in complex situations within daily fitness contexts. They continue to develop sound interpersonal skills that enable them to contribute to group activities, resolve conflict and cope with changes in peer and group relationships.

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Curriculum links

Scotland

PE

KS 1

• know how important it is to be active

PSHE

KS 1

• make simple choices that improve their health and well-being

PE

KS 2

• know how exercise affects the body and why physical activity is good for their health and well-being

PSHE

KS 2

• know what makes a healthy lifestyle, including the benefits of exercise and healthy eating

PE

KS 1

• recognise the effects of activity on the body and be aware of the relationship between exercise and physical well-being

PD

KS 1

• know about options for a healthy lifestyle, including the benefits of physical activity and healthy eating

PE

KS 2

• develop an understanding of the relationship between physical activity and good health and be aware of the effects of exercise on the body

PD

KS 2

• know about options for a healthy lifestyle, including physical activity and healthy eating

SPHE

1st/2nd Class

• appreciate the need and understand how to care for the body in order to keep it strong and healthy, e.g. regular exercise and a balanced diet • appreciate that balance, regularity and moderation are necessary in the diet

3rd/4th Class

• understand and appreciate what it means to be healthy and to have a balanced lifestyle • differentiate between a healthy and an unhealthy diet and appreciate the role of balance and moderation

5th/6th Class

• recognise and examine behaviour that is conducive to health and that which is harmful to health • appreciate the importance of good nutrition for staying healthy

A

• show an awareness of ways of keeping healthy, e.g. eating and drinking and exercise

B

• show their knowledge and understanding of what individuals need to do to be healthy, e.g. varied diet and regular exercise

Health

C

PE Wales

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PSE

• show their knowledge and understanding of what they do to keep healthy, e.g. effect of regular exercise and choosing nutritious food • show their knowledge and understanding of their physical needs

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Republic of Ireland

Objective

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Northern Ireland

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England

Subject

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Country

B

• know about the importance of exercise and how it is related to personal well-being

C

• understand the broad relationship between food, energy and activity

KS 1

• value being healthy and be positive about the actions necessary to be healthy • know that exercise and the right types and amount of food are important to keep their bodies healthy

KS 2

• enjoy and take more responsibility for keeping the body healthy • understand the benefits of exercise and the need for a variety of food for growth and activity

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We live in a computer age where so many jobs are sedentary; e.g. sitting down and pushing buttons on keyboards. Our normal daily activities don’t involve physical activity—and this is a big factor in contributing to people’s lack of fitness. As teachers and parents we need to make children aware of the importance of daily physical activity and that fitness involves being able to: • work for long periods of time (cardiovascular endurance), • repeat an action (muscular endurance), • stretch muscles (flexibility), • lift weights (strength).

Cardiovascular endurance

(a)

Organise the class into groups of about five. Everyone should take his/her resting heart rate; i.e. the number of beats the heart makes per minute. Make sure that accurate recordings are made. All children then run a fast lap of the school field. Ensure all children keep together. Heart rates are measured at 1-minute intervals.

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The important work parts of this area are: 1. The heart – pumps blood around the body. 2. The lungs – transfer oxygen to the blood (oxygen from breathing in) and remove carbon dioxide (breathing out). 3. The blood – carries oxygen to nourish cells of the body (arteries) and returns wastes (veins) to leave the body.

Activities

to promote cardiovascular awareness

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This is the most important type of fitness and it is the component of fitness that we are developing in a daily fitness programme. Cardiovascular endurance refers to the fitness of our heart, lungs and blood vessels.

Results may be tabled and graphed. A sample table and graph can be found on pages 31 and 32.

(c)

Children list some of the activities that require a high level of cardiovascular endurance.

(d)

Self-evaluation:

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(b)

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It is when we are exercising that muscles need more oxygen – hence we begin to breathe more frequently to get greater amounts (volume).

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Measuring heart rates—number of times a heart beats per minute—is a valuable guide in testing cardiovascular endurance. Usually, a fitter person has a lower heart rate; i.e. one heartbeat pumps more blood. Hence the heart does not need to beat as frequently to maintain the blood circulating around the body. This fact can be shown by the formula: Cardiac output (work done by the heart)

=

Heart rate (beats per minutes)

x

Stoke volume (amount of blood delivered with each heartbeat)

From this we can see that the work done by the heart is proportionate to the number of beats the heart makes and the amount of blood which is ejected with each heart beat; i.e. the higher the heart rate, the more the heart is working. By increasing our cardiovascular fitness we can get the heart to beat less per minute and eject less blood per beat. Prim-Ed Publishing

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The children evaluate their fitness in relation to other children, using their graphical representation. (e)

Answer the question: Why is it important for a person operating a computer all day to have a well-scheduled fitness programme?

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Muscular endurance This refers to the number of times a muscle or a muscular group can repeat a certain action over time. Endurance of a particular muscle can be improved by exercising. This increases the blood flow through the muscle, which means more oxygen supplied and more waste products removed. It is the waste products in the muscles which cause muscle fatigue. Good muscular endurance means activity for longer periods. Interestingly, muscular endurance is specific. As an example, a cyclist may have good muscular endurance of the thigh muscle, but poor muscular endurance of arm muscles.

Activities

to promote muscular endurance awareness (a) Categorise a list of activities requiring a high level of muscular endurance, according to the following muscle groups—calf muscles, stomach muscles, biceps muscles and finger muscles.

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(b) Children test the muscular endurance of the biceps muscle group, working in groups of 5. The child being tested must have ‘elbow to hand’ horizontal with a 2.5 kg weight placed in the hand. The weight must be brought up to the shoulder and down again for a score of 1. How many can the child complete in 3 minutes? The results may be recorded using a format similar to that to the right.

Score = total in 3 minutes

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Participant’s name

(c) Evaluation:

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Why did some children have better muscular endurance of the biceps than others?

Flexibility

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Flexibility means how far we stretch, bend or reach. It refers to the range of movement of a particular joint. This flexibility depends on factors such as muscle temperature, muscle length, bones, skin, tendons and ligaments. To increase flexibility, we have to continually work these body parts, particularly with gradual stretching. Major muscle groups should be warmed and stretched in the first five minutes of any physical activity session. This is the warm up and is essential in preparing muscles, tendons and joints for the ongoing activity. This will also reduce the chance of injury and increase the level of performance.

Activities

to promote flexibility awareness (a) Discuss why people do a lot of stretching before playing sport. (b) Children list activities that they do that require good flexibility and state which muscle joints are involved. (c) Stretch those major muscle groups which are to be used in the game or training session. Activity

Muscle or joint involved

(d) Design a five-minute warm up session. Don’t forget to ‘increase muscle and body temperature’.

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Strength Strength is how hard a muscle can push against resistance. Training can increase the strength of a muscle; for example, by gradually increasing the number of push-ups we do, we would be increasing our upper body strength.

Activities

to promote strength awareness (b) Children list games or sports and indicate which muscle groups may need to be the strongest to carry them out.

(a) Children list things they do every day that require strength. Things that require strength

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(c) Design five-minute training exercises to strengthen various muscle groups.

Conclusion

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To measure someone’s fitness, we need to measure all of these components: cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, flexibility and strength. These are all interrelated and can be improved by: • correct warming up — increasing body temperature and gradually stretching major muscle groups before activity,

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• completing three sessions of 15 minutes activity per week — where the heart rate is elevated and maintained for this period, • cool down — stretching and walking period, • keeping a diary to record times etc.,

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• drinking plenty of water,

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• making exercise fun!

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Dress

Grouping

Children should be dressed appropriately for the activity they are to do that day. Also, outer clothing (jumper, coat) needs to be labelled, as often it is taken off and collected following the activity.

Children may be grouped in year groups or classes, depending on the number in the school. Children need to know which group they are in, and work together cooperatively. Cross-grading gives older children an opportunity to meet and help younger children with the different fitness activities.

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Timetable

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Timetables should be displayed in the classroom or on the school noticeboard so children can easily find out what they are doing the next day. Teachers may change the timetables each term to make the programme more interesting.

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Timing

The fitness programme can be done at any point during the day. Children needs to know where to go when the fitness bell rings. For example:

Monitors ‘Fitness monitors’ are critical to the success of a daily fitness programme. Their job is to have all the equipment ready and set up, so the teachers and groups can report quickly to the station, carry out the fitness task, have a drink and be ready to go back to their classroom—all within 20 minutes.

8.30

Fitness monitors distribute equipment

8.50

Bell goes

8.53

Everybody should be at their station ready for activity

The fitness monitors then have to work as a team to collect all the equipment and store it ready for use the following day.

9.08

Bell goes to finish the activity. Drinks. Monitors collect equipment

Fitness monitors, like sport monitors, have to be organised.

9.12

Back in class.

9.15

Fitness monitors collect equipment

This schedule may take practice initially, but is achievable.

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The daily fitness programme in this book aims to develop cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, flexibility and strength using activities such as a cross-country run, run-around-the-country, circuit training, dance, skipping, obstacle course and games. Children and teachers are given samples and templates for calculating fitness areas, recording and graphing results and developing skills.

Resting heart rate Resting heart rates following an inactive period of 20 minutes can be measured at the carotid artery in the neck or the radial artery in the wrist. Place the 2nd and 3rd fingers on either side of the ‘Adam’s apple’ (carotid artery) and count the numbers of beats in 30 seconds. Multiply by 2 to get the number of beats per minute (bpm).

The average heart rate of a child is approximately 70–80 bpm.

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Alternatively, place the 2nd and 3rd fingers just below the thumb on the wrist and measure the number of beats per minute of the radial artery.

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Resting heart rates can be measured each month and recorded on the graph found on page 32.

Exercising for fitness

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Activities planned for a 15-minute fitness programme need to attain a training effect. Hence, the activities chosen need to involve all children moving for the period. For a training effect to occur, childrens’ heart rates need to be elevated into the training heart range and be maintained in this range for 12–15 minutes. Individual training heart range (THR) can be calculated using the formula below.

where:

] + HR rest

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THR = [(HR max - HR rest) x

0.6 0.8

Individual training heart range calculation

Children may calculate their own training heart range by using the formula and the blank format on page 32 to assess ways to improve their training heart range. For example, for a person with a resting heart rate of 72 bpm: THR = [(HR max - HR rest) x 0.6] + HR rest THR = [(180 - 72) x 0.6] + 72

THR = training heart range

HR max = maximum heart rate (assumed to be approximately 180 bpm)

= [108 x 0.6] + 72 = 64.8 + 72

HR rest = resting heart rate

= 136.8 (lower range) = [108 x 0.8] + 72 = 86.4 + 72 = 158.4 (higher range) This person would need to exercise with his/her heart beating somewhere between 137 and 158 beats per minute Prim-Ed Publishing

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Setting up the programme (a) Organise five groups and rotate each day, using a timetable similar to that given. (A blank template for creating a daily fitness programme can be found on page 33.) (b) Teachers rotate through the groups, as well as children, and this ensures that daily fitness programme is fun for all involved.

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If a school has daily fitness only three days per week, then a threeday/week timetable could easily be established; for example, Monday, Wednesday and Friday.

Stretching exercises

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Before performing any fitness routine, children should stretch. All stretches should be performed slowly and held for 10 seconds.

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They should be organised into upper body, trunk and lower body stretches, so all major muscle groups are extended.

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A simple progression could follow neck, shoulder, side, upper leg, lower leg and whole-body stretches. Each stretching could be displayed on work cards and charts. Slow-beat music and teacher demonstration are beneficial during the stretching session. Children stretching correctly can help to prevent injuries and improve performance. Some important points to remember about stretching are:

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We need to stretch correctly to help prevent injuries and improve sport performance (greater range of movement).

Girls are generally more flexible than boys.

If a joint is not being moved regularly though its full range of motion, it results in a shortening of muscles and ligaments and consequently reduces flexibility about that joint.

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Cross-country (or distance run) A school cross-country run can be set up and used as part of a fitness programme and, ultimately, as part of the school’s sports day. Interesting and challenging cross-country circuits could be incorporated. They can have graduated starting points for different age groups. The different starting points should be officially signposted, so everyone is aware of the different courses and lengths (such as 2 km, 1.5 km and 1 km) for the different age groups. There could be a gradual build up to these distances.

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Organising a cross-country or distance run

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If cross-country runs are incorporated into the daily fitness programme, when the sports day arrives, children and teachers will be better prepared for the cross-country events, which are usually held on a separate day.

Recording running times

A blank cross-country running time record sheet can be found on page 34. This information can be represented on a bar graph, plotting the date of the run along the horizontal axis and the time taken on the vertical axis. With increasing fitness, the graph will show a gradual downward trend. A blank graph is provided on page 35.

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Children should record their cross-country running times each term and note the improvement in time.

Calculating speed The average speed of a cross-country run can be calculated using the formula below. Average speed =

distance travelled time taken

For example, an 11-year-old boy completes his 2 kilometre cross-country run in 10 minutes. To calculate his average speed: Average speed = distance travelled time taken = 2000 metres 600 seconds = 3.3 metres per second Prim-Ed Publishing

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Run around a country Elect a monitor who is responsible for finding how far the school runs during the week and shades the ‘Run around a country’ thermometer. The monitor can draw a line on the map to show how far the school has run during the week. The class could then study the city reached. As the children progress around the country, they plot and research each town, city or area.

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The thermometer and the map can be displayed on the school notice board so everyone can see how far the school has run.

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Schools with large numbers of children could run around Europe, the USA, or even the world!

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Circuit training

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During circuit training, children need to work at their own pace to complete as many repetitions as possible for the given task. A sample circuit training can be found on page 36. When completing circuit training activities, the fitness monitors should have stations set up in a circle, with a person in the middle timing the length of each activity. The timekeeper blows a whistle after a given time; for example, 30 seconds in Term 1, increasing to one minute by Term 3. Everyone then moves to the next station. Children record how many repetitions they made. A sample circuit training record can be found on page 37. These recordings give children an incentive to improve on previous times and let them see the obvious improvements in their physical fitness. These results could be also be transferred to a graph to help children observe trends, and help them make evaluations of their own fitness.

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Dance The dance section of the daily fitness programme should include a warm-up, ‘peak’ work and cool down sequence where possible. The warm-up and cool down could involve gradual stretching to slow tempo music, while the ‘peak’ work part of the session should elevate the heart rate and maintain it in the ‘training heart range’ for 10 minutes or more. The dances used could be reinforced from those learnt in the dance session of physical education lessons. Dances should require all children to move. Teachers can ‘pool’ their resources to help develop a range of dances used in this area of the programme.

Ballroom dancing Cha-cha-cha

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Basic formation: In waltz hold. Partners facing. Girl’s left hand is on the boy’s right shoulder; boy’s right hand is around the girl’s waist; boy’s left hand holds girl’s right hand. The dance steps: 2 steps

(boy forward L, back R; girl back R, forward L)

2.

3 steps

Cha-cha-cha - (boys L R L, girls R L R)

3.

2 steps

(boy back R, forward L; girl forward L, back R)

4.

3 steps

Cha-cha-cha - (boys R L R, girls L R L)

5.

Back to step 1 and dance sequence is repeated.

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1.

Opening out:

2 steps (boy back R forward L, girl forward L, back R) (one-two).

2.

3 steps (Cha-cha-cha) boys R, L, R, girls L, R, L (sideways).

3.

2 steps joining hands (boys L hand girls R hand) (one-two).

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1.

Boys L (forward) R (back) Girls R (forward) L (back) 4.

3 steps (Cha-cha-cha) Boys L, R, L, girls R, L, R (sideways).

5.

2 steps (one-two) Boys R forward back L Girls L forward back R

6.

3 steps (Cha-cha-cha) Boys R, L, R, girls L, R, L (sideways)

'Basic' steps should be learnt, followed by the 'opening out' steps. They may then be combined; e.g., 2 'basics', 1 'opening out'.

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Ballroom dancing Progressive jive

Basic formation: The dance steps:

In waltz hold.

Boy (L foot), girl (R foot) - 'side–together–side–tap' in an anticlockwise direction.

2.

Boy (R foot) girl (L foot) - 'side–together–side–tap' in a clockwise direction, thus returning to the original position. Tap foot up to opposite foot without taking weight on it.

3.

Turn, facing anticlockwise. Hands may be joined or apart. Stepping away from partners (boy to the centre, girl to the wall). 'Side–together–side–tap' and returning ’Side–together–side–tap', thus returning to the original position.

4.

Stepping away from partners again: 'side–together–side–tap'.

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The next six steps consist of walking around the partner, the girl turning under the raised joined hands (boy holding girl's L hand in his R hand). The boy moves clockwise, the girl moves anticlockwise, the hold being released towards the end, allowing the girl to move onwards one place around the circle (anticlockwise).

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5.

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Barn dancing

Barn dances are a lot of fun, and also help to elevate and maintain the heart rate. Here are some examples.

Heel 'n' toe polka Basic formation: Circle, boy on inside, girl on outside. Partners take the ‘waltz hold’. The dance steps: 1. Facing the centre of the circle, hop on inside legs and kick outside leg out to land on heel. Hop again and bring outside leg back to land on toe and then make four side-steps towards the centre of the circle. 2. Turn about and repeat step 1, but returning to original positions. Inside legs and outside legs are changed. 3 Release hold and slap partner's right hand three times, left hand three times and own knees three times. 4. Make a right elbow swing with partner (one turn) and girls move on to a new partner.

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Barn dancing The stockyards

Basic formation: The dance steps:

Circle alternating boy and girl.

All join hands and skip — eight steps sideways to the left.

2.

Skip sideways, eight to the right; returning to original positions.

3.

All skip in for four, and back for four.

4.

Repeat step 3 (on going in, everyone can call 'Oi!').

5.

Release hands and girls skip in for four and back for four while boys clap to the beat of the music.

6.

Boys skip in for four and back for four while the girls clap to the beat of the music.

7.

Right elbow swing (one turn) and girls move (anticlockwise) to new partner.

8.

Begin again.

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1.

Barn dancing

The haymaker's jig

A line of boys and a line of girls facing each other.

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Basic formation: The dance steps:

Everybody face partners, skip in for four and back skip for four.

2.

The next series of steps involves firstly, the top girl and bottom boy and, secondly, the top boy and bottom girl advancing and retiring for eight beats (in four, back four) in the following sequence:

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1.

Right elbow swings

(ii)

Left elbow swings

(iii)

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(i)

(iv)

Bow

‘Dosidos’ Partners step towards each other and pass each other with backs facing and return to own places still facing each other.

3.

Top couple two-hand side-skip to the bottom of the set and back again.

4.

Cast off — boys follow the top boy and girls follow the top girl to the bottom of the set. Top couple then makes an arch for the rest of the set to go under, in order, with their partners. Original top couple remains at the bottom of the set, forming a new top couple and new bottom couple.

5.

Begin again.

Classes may wish to present a dance as an assembly item or during a family barn dance. A family barn dance encourages parents, grandparents, teachers and children to participate in a fun evening which promotes fitness. This activity can also be used as a successful fundraising event.

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Dances from other countries The troika – a Russian folk dance

Music:

The Troika

Basic formation: Sets of three, facing in an anticlockwise direction (girl – boy – girl): representing a team of horses abreast. The dance steps: With hands held high, 16 forward skips are made.

2.

A right-hand star is made and children skip eight steps in a clockwise direction.

3.

A left-hand star is made and children skip eight steps in an anticlockwise direction.

4.

Middle and left-hand person join hands and form an arch and run in place — while the right-hand person moves under the arch and returns to place.

5.

Step 4 is repeated — except middle and right-hand person form an arch while the left-hand person moves under the arch and returns to place.

6.

Ready to start again.

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1.

Music:

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Dances from other countries Greensleeves

Greensleeves

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Basic formation: Boy on the inside and girl on the outside, holding hands and facing anticlockwise. Couples are numbered 1 and 2 and then grouped together. The dance steps:

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1.

Sixteen forward skips are made in an anticlockwise direction.

2.

Couple 1 turns to face couple 2. All form a right-hand star and make eight steps clockwise.

3.

Turn and make a left-hand star, making eight steps in an anticlockwise direction.

4.

Couple 2 forms an arch and walks forward four steps while couple 1 walks backwards under the arch for four steps.

5.

Repeat step 4 with couple 1 forming the arch and couple 2 moving back under it.

6.

Repeat steps 4 and 5.

7.

Ready to start again.

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Create your own dances Children can make up their own dance routines to popular music. They could work together in groups to work them out, practise them and then share them with the rest of the class. Each group is given a name. Groups then present their routines in aerobic clothing at a school assembly. Children may record the steps and movements in the boxes provided on page 38.

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Suggested movements

The following movements may be helpful when children are creating their own dances

Warm-up

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Warm-up activities prepare the body for the forthcoming activities.

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Suggested movements Peak work

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Peak work activities stimulate the cardiovascular system to produce a ‘training effect’.

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Suggested movements Cool down

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‘Cool down’ is a period of light activity which hastens recovery and prevents pooling of blood in the limbs.

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Skipping Skipping is an excellent activity to develop cardiovascular and muscular endurance and flexibility.

Individual skipping activities The basic jump Stand with the rope resting on your heels (feet together).

Palms up, handles pass through thumb and forefinger and all fingers wrap around so fingernails face skywards.

Upper arms close to body, elbows nearly touching sides.

Lower arms face outwards, at right angles to body.

Turn the rope, making small circles with hands in an anticlockwise direction, forcing the rope overhead.

Time jump (i.e. jump just before rope hits the toes).

Continue sequence, rebounding on the balls of the feet.

Maintain body in upright position.

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Backward skipping

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This is the same procedure as the basic jump, only commence with rope at the toes, and hand circles are made in an anticlockwise direction. Each jump is made just before the rope reaches the heels.

Skier

Twister

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Running skipping

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With body moving, lift front foot and kick rear foot up.

With alternate turns, jump to one side (left or right). A forward and back movement may also be made.

Side straddles

The side swing

Crossovers

Alternate feet together and feet apart jumps.

Swing to the left, do a basic jump, and swing to the right, do a basic jump.

Following a basic jump, cross arms and jump the rope.

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Each jump is made facing a different direction—body facing the right, the middle, then the left.

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Group skipping activities Partner activities 1.

Partners face each other and one turns the rope for both to jump.

2.

In groups of four, children next to each other swap handles and skip as one. This means that children may be holding the handles of ropes other than their own.

Skipping choreography Once these skills, individually, in pairs or in groups, have been mastered, routines may be skipped to popular music. Four different skipping movements (eight beats each) are usually encouraged.

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The children can work together to develop their skipping routines. Once perfected, children can present their routine to other classes at school assemblies, in community shopping centres and at other schools. Children can record the choreography for the skipping routines on page 39.

Skipping progressions

As a progression, other equipment such as hoops, gym mats, or balls may be included in the routines.

1. Jump along the rope.

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Skipping obstacle course

7. Jump from hoop to hoop.

2. Jump over the fence.

3. Hop over the ropes

6. Balance along the ropes.

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Obstacle course Setting up an obstacle course can be done quite easily. On some mornings, existing equipment may be used; on other mornings, a variety of equipment such as hoops (for jumping), poles (for hopping), skipping ropes, large balance rope, markers (to weave in and out), tyres (to climb through), suspended ropes (to climb), hurdles, or gym mats (to complete various types of rolls) may be used. A ‘monster obstacle course’ can be created by using existing and specially allocated equipment. It is important that children perform each task in their obstacle course correctly and run between activities, to positively effect physical fitness. A sample obstacle course is given on page 40.

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Once the children are aware of the task involved in each activity, groups of two or three can commence at different points of the circuit. On GO!, children could move in a clockwise direction and see how many circuits they can complete in the given time. When the whistle sounds, children stop where they are and calculate their score. Using the sample obstacle course on page 40, for example, if you commenced at ‘chin-ups’, did six circuits and were ‘jumping the hoops’ when the whistle sounded, your score would be 6.3 (6 circuits + hurdles, step-ups and hoops). Obstacle courses need to be changed regularly, kept interesting and the results recorded. Children could create an obstacle course of their own. A blank template for an obstacle course can be found on page 41. Results can be recorded and graphed. A sample graph can be found on page 42.

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Games

Games used for the fitness programme should involve all children moving actively for the 15 minute period.

Lower primary games Belt tag

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Equipment:

belts and tails (material strips with velcro™ on the end, will attach the ‘tails’ to the belts).

Area:

Circle or large rectangular area.

The game:

Half the children are the chasers and half have a belt with a tail attached. ‘Chasers’ have to collect as many tails as possible. The children swap positions. The child who collects the most tails and the last one to lose a tail are the winners. Don’t sit! Get fit!

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Lower primary games Cannonballs Equipment:

approximately 10 medium-sized, soft, coloured balls, dome markers.

The game:

A large rectangular or circular area is indicated using the dome markers. The children are given a ball (‘cannonball’) and the rest are allowed to move anywhere inside the marked area. On ‘Go’, the children with the cannonballs chase after the ‘free’ children, get close, call out ‘cannonballs’ and throw the ball to make contact below shoulder height. If hit, the roles are reversed. A miss means that the original thrower is still ‘It’.

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Red Rover all over 4 cones, dome markers.

The game:

Children line up between cones at ends of a large marked rectangular area. The teacher calls ‘Red Rover all over!’ The children must run past the teacher and reach the opposite end without being tagged; i.e. touched. Tagged children join the teacher to help tag remaining players. Children move in a variety of ways as directed by the teacher; for example, hopping, skipping, jumping, crab walking, monkey run. All children should eventually be tagged.

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Equipment:

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Rouseabout

dome markers to mark a rectangular area, 2 cones.

The game:

Children are selected to be one of two farmers and the remainder are the sheep. If a farmer tags a sheep, it must run around the outside of the paddock, through the ‘gate’ (between the cones) and is now back in the game.

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Equipment:

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Change ‘farmers’ regularly. Child ‘farmers’ see how many sheep they can tag.

The triathlon

Equipment:

3 cones, skipping ropes and empty potato sacks.

Triathlon:

Skip to first marker. (Sacks in a container are here.) Jump in sack to second marker. Leave sack. Run to home marker. Children may be tested to see how many triathlon sequences they can do in a given time.

Scrambled eggs Equipment:

large rope for making into a circle for the balls, 4 hoops, a variety of balls.

The game:

Children run to collect one ball at a time and return it to their hoop. Once all balls have been taken from the centre, children can steal (one ball at a time) from other hoops and place it in their hoop. When the whistle blows, the child with the most balls in his/her hoop wins.

Variations:

1.

Use a variety of balls and equipment.

2.

Children must bounce the ball once, throw it up and catch it before placing it in the hoop.

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Lower primary games Name tag The game:

The children are grouped closely together. The teacher calls a name and everyone tries to tag that child, until the whistle is sounded. Children quickly run back in, regroup and another name is called. The game should be kept moving.

Variations:

1. 2. 3.

Two names are called. Colours being worn are called. Another characteristic of a child or children is called out, such as long red hair.

Partner tags The games: Shadow tag – ‘Tagger’ tries to tag the partner by stepping on his/her shadow.

2.

The artful dodger – When the teacher calls ‘Go’ the leader runs away from the shadow, who is trying to keep close. When the whistle blows both stop, and the shadow must try to touch the leader.

3.

Knee boxing – Try to tag each other’s knees. Variations:

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1.

Use other body parts; for example, elbows.

Foxes ‘n’ rabbits

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Alphabet tag

Children have a space in a marked area. The teacher calls a ‘letter’ and the children must think of a way of moving that begins with that letter; for example, ‘s’ = sliding, skipping, swimming.

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The game:

Each ‘rabbit’ receives a sash to attach behind to make a tail. ‘Foxes’ then chase ‘rabbits’ inside marked areas to collect as many tails as possible. Children swap roles; i.e. the ‘foxes’ become ‘rabbits’ and the ‘rabbits’ become ‘foxes’.

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The game:

Goblins and fairies

Equipment:

dome markers

The game:

A goblin (boy) and a fairy (girl) are chosen. The remaining children are free to run anywhere inside the marked area. The ‘goblin’ tags the other children. Tagged children must lie on their back with their hands or feet in the air. The ‘fairy’ can tag them to release them to run again. Change ‘goblins’ and ‘fairies’ often.

Crocodiles, crabs and crunch The game:

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Children are divided into two groups – ‘crocodiles’ and ‘crabs’. Teacher calls ‘crocodiles’, ‘crabs’ or ‘crunch’. If ‘crocodiles’ are called, the ‘crocodiles’ run to their line with the ‘crabs’ chasing them. If ‘crabs’ are called, the ‘crabs’ run to their line with the ‘crocodiles’ chasing them. If ‘crunch’ is called, everyone bobs down. Don’t sit! Get fit!

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Middle and upper primary games Many of the games outlined for lower primary could be adapted for middle and upper children. The games chosen are these in which all children are moving for 15 minutes. Developmentally, children are now applying acquired fundamental movement skills to related game activities; for example, modified sports. Hence, in all these games, children should be moving at all times.

Football cone heads dome markers, 2 small cones, 1 football per player.

The game:

Children are free to dribble the ball inside the marked area. Two children have a cone and they run around trying to place it on top of a ball. If successful, the owner of that ball stops and stands tall with feet apart, holding the ball above his/her head. Another player ‘frees’ the ‘statue’ by kicking their ball through the ‘statue’s’ legs.

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Equipment:

Basketball 3 on 3

1 basketball to 3 children.

The game:

Normal basketball rules apply. When the ball is rebounded, it must be dribbled back to the centre-line. If a goal is scored, the opposing team takes the ball from the centre-line.

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Grid rugby

rugby ball.

The game:

Two children face another two children in the grid. The ball must be passed backwards from the centre of the grid. Opposition tries to tag the player in possession. If tagged, the opposition must allow one metre, and the ball is passed back again.

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Equipment:

The offensive team is trying to score a try/touchdown before 4 tags. If it hasn’t, the ball goes into the possession of the opposing team from the centre. 1.

Ball must not be run out of the grid.

2.

No forward passes (if a forward pass is made = opposition ball).

3.

Keep game going quickly.

Handball Equipment:

1 football per game of 10 players, markings on the ground.

The game:

Each team has a catcher, 2 defenders and 2 attackers. The aim is to get the ball to the catcher, using handball. To score a goal, the catcher can be anywhere in the ‘scoring box’. Normal football rules apply.

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Middle and upper primary games Basketball tag Equipment:

1 basketball per child.

The game:

All children have a basketball to dribble anywhere on the court. Two players are nominated as ‘it’. They tag as many players as possible. The taggers have to dribble as well. The winners are the pair who are able to tag the most players in a given time.

Pig in the middle hockey 1 hockey stick each, 1 lightweight hockey ball among 3 children.

The game:

The middle player has to intercept the ball from the other two players. The player who causes the interception goes to the middle and the ‘keep it off’ continues. All three players should be moving constantly.

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Equipment:

Kick it out

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dome markers to mark a large area, 1 football each.

The game:

When the whistle blows, all children dribble the ball inside the marked area. The teacher and two other children try to kick balls out of the circle, forcing players to stop and change direction. If a ball is kicked out, the players retrieve the ball and rejoin the game.

Extension:

Players protect their own ball but kick out the balls of the other players. For every kick out children make, they receive one point. If their ball is kicked out, a point is lost.

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Equipment:

Lacrosse – keep it off

Equipment:

1 lacrosse stick for each child (sets of 2 coloured sticks), dome markers to mark a working area, lacrosse balls.

The game:

A game of ‘keep it off’ lacrosse occurs where one coloured stick must keep the lacrosse ball from the other coloured stick, using basic lacrosse rules; i.e. – no stick contact. One person from each team attempts a scoop at a time. The ball can be carried, but must be passed quickly. If a ball comes from one team’s stick and goes out, then it is a free throw in from the side of the circle by the opposition team. Everyone should be moving – offensive, moving to a space – defensive, guarding an opposition.

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Making food choices Children today live in a world where there are many varieties of food available, and many influences on their food choices, including advertising, peer group pressure and parental influence. Often, these influences are causing children to eat incorrect foods, leading to the early onset of diet-related diseases, such as obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels and Type 2 diabetes. Health education programmes need to help children develop the knowledge and the correct attitudes and values that will assist them to make good food choices.

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The school, the home and the school canteen play critical roles in developing these learning outcomes, and ultimately influence children to make positive choices relating to nutrition, fitness and health.

A balanced diet

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What is the role of food and how does it relate to our fitness?

We have all heard of the importance of having a ‘balanced diet’, but what does it mean? How can parents and teachers provide children with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that will help them to make correct food choices and healthy lifestyle decisions? A balanced diet contains all of the following essential nutrients:

• •

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Carbohydrates – which we need for storing energy; for example, cereals, bread. Protein – for growth and repair; for example, fish, eggs, meat, cheese. Vitamins – for controlling our bodily functions. Vitamins are classified with letters; for example, vitamin C – citrus fruits, vitamin D – milk, vitamin A – carrots, vitamin B – green vegetables, fish. Minerals – also for controlling our bodily functions; for example, iron contained in red meat, zinc in fish and poultry. Fats and oils – for energy and protection; for example, margarine, nuts. Water – particularly important when playing sport or doing fitness activities, to replace body fluids lost during these sessions and for cooling. The final part of a daily fitness programme should be having a drink of water.

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• • •

Eating a healthy diet means having a balanced proportion from each of the food groups. The recommended daily servings from each group are:

Food group

Recommended servings

bread, pasta, cereals, rice vegetables fruit milk, yoghurt, cheese meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, nuts fat, oil, sweets water

6–11 3–5 2–4 2–3 2–3

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use sparingly 6–8 glasses per day

To help the process of food digestion, foods such as fruits, vegetables and cereals are important for roughage. The carbohydrates (bread, biscuits), protein (meat, eggs) and fats (margarine, nuts) intakes need to be controlled. If more are eaten than the body needs, they are converted to fat. Regular exercise increases metabolism, using the energy we get from our food. A balanced diet and regular exercise programme assist each other to promote health and fitness.

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Activities

to promote diet awareness (a) ‘The balanced diet test’ Children test how balanced their diet has been in the last 24 hours by completing the table. Children should complete the table in the morning, recording all food eaten the previous day. A sample is given on page 43. (b) ‘Go for 25’ Children list 25 different healthy foods that they eat consistently.

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Children select a number of healthy foods not included in the list and aim to include the ‘new’ foods where possible.

Activities

to promote awareness of good nutrition (a) The nutrition journey

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Children select a specific food and develop a ‘food cycle’ showing the specific stages from the growing the food to its recycling.

Processing Marketing Preparing

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Growing

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For example,

(b) Children create a menu for a nutritious pizza and state which food group each ingredient belongs to. (c) Children create a mini-vegetable garden and show •

Preparation

Maintenance

Vegetable(s) grown

Activities related to the garden

This activity could be extended to the creation of a ‘school farm’.

Eating Recycling Children write an activity for each part of this cycle.

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Activities

to promote awareness of good nutrition (h) Set up a classroom as a restaurant. Invite parents and ask the children to prepare a healthy three-course menu for the night. All children are assigned different roles; for example, waiters, cooks, musicians etc.

(d) Children suggest strategies to develop awareness of delicious, nutritious snack foods as an alternative to ‘empty’ snacks such as chips, sweets, fizzy drinks and sweet cordials. Suggestions may include making posters, writing jingles and raps, sharing simple recipes and sampling healthy alternative snacks.

(i) Children list as many ‘good food tips’ as possible and state why these are important.

(e) Children plan a ‘breakfast adventure’ aiming to develop positive attitudes about the importance of starting the day with a good breakfast. Children give suggestions for interesting, nutritious breakfasts and give each a name such as ‘Muesli march’, ‘Terrific toast’, ‘Fruit fandango’, ‘Yummy yoghurt’, ‘Protein power’ etc.

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(j) In groups of 8–10, dramatise the digestion of food. Create a song or piece of music to indicate the food entering the mouth and beginning its journey through the different ‘breaking-down’ processes.

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(k) Children create a ‘sensible snack’ product from the healthy food groups and: 1. Indicate what the ingredients are and how it is prepared,

Children could create a varied breakfast menu for a week.

2. Say what the name of the product is,

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(f) Children participate in activities relating to the use of fruit and vegetables in the daily diet. For example, children try to include fruit and vegetables in all main meals and as two snacks for during the day as well.

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(g) Read the text below and answer the questions.

3. Create a wrapper for the product, 4. Plan how it will be marketed, 5. Work out how much it will cost to manufacture, 6. Decide how much it will be sold for,

‘Governments often commit vast amounts of money to programmes to help children who are overweight. Such programmes may include after-school sport and exercise programmes and promoting healthier school canteen menus.’

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7. Calculate how much profit will be made.

1. Is this an appropriate use of government money? 2. Could the money be better used to promote quality fitness programmes in schools?

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Guidelines to help control obesity We can monitor our weight as early as childhood by simply calculating our ‘net calorie/kilojoule intake’, which is the difference between calorie/kilojoule intake (food and drink) and calories/kilojoules expended (physical activity). Net calorie/kilojoule intake = Calorie/Kilojoule intake (food and drink) – Calorie/Kilojoule expenditure (exercise) Different foods contain different calorie/kJ values. This information can be obtained from pocket-sized calorie/kJ counting books; e.g. Calorie and fat counter by Allan Borushek. Calories/kJ expended depend on the intensity of the exercise; for example: – light exercise (walking, tenpin bowling) = 4 calories per minute; 17 kJ per minute, – medium exercise (netball, country line dancing) = 7 calories per minute; 29 kJ per minute, – heavy exercise (jogging, skipping, cycling) = 10 calories per minute; 42 kJ per minute.

Food/Drink intake 1 orange juice 1 bowl of cereal 1 cup of hot chocolate

Calorie/kJ count 80/335 150/628 220/921

8.45–9.00 am 10.30 am

1 muesli bar

12.00 pm

1 ham and salad sandwich 1 orange juice 1 apple

300/1256 80/335 65/272

1 cup of hot chocolate 2 biscuits Total calorie/kJ intake

220/921 180/754 1440/6029

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145/607

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3.30 pm

Exercise

Calorie/kJ count

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Time 7.30 am

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For children, the net calorie/kJ intake (after exercise) should be between 1000 and 1500 calories or 4186 kJ and 6280 kJ. A sample calorie/kJ intake/expenditure chart is given below, with an example of the net calorie/kJ calculation for the day.

Daily fitness programme (15 min. heavy intensity) Morning break (10 min. medium intensity)

150/628

lunch activity—football (30 min. medium intensity)

210/880

Total calories/kJ expended

430/1800

70/292

Net calorie/kJ intake = calorie/kJ intake (food and drink) – calories/kJ expended (exercise) = 1440 calories – 430 calories = 6029 kJ – 1800 kJ = 1010 calories = 4229 kJ

Activities

(a) Calculate average net calorie/kJ intakes for each week of the term and graph them. (b) Discuss: • Does your calorie/kJ intake fall inside the desired range? Why/Why not? • What steps would you need to make if your graph consistently was outside the recommended calorie/kJ intake?

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Net calorie/kJ intake

to promote awareness of calorie/kJ intake

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1500/ 6280 1000/ 4186 1

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4 5 6 7 Week of term

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Integrating a nutrition programme into other learning areas Other learning areas may be used to reinforce awareness of good nutrition. Some examples are given below.

The arts

English

(a) Create a song/piece of music representing food travelling through the body.

(a) Write out your favourite recipes or produce a class/school recipe book.

Dramatise the above.

(b) Hold debates on topics such as ‘The canteen should sell only healthy food’. ‘Advertising does not influence the food choices people make’.

(b) Create an art presentation using different types of food.

DT and ICT (a) Design a poster advertising healthy eating habits.

(c) Locate information on the Internet relating to food digestion and use this information to make a presentation to lower Year levels.

Geography

Science

Show various aspects of a food cycle. (a) Growing Create a mini-vegetable garden and record: – preparation – maintenance – vegetables used – organisation of the garden

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(b) Create a class web page with healthy eating tips and recipes.

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(c) List all words and terms relating to nutrition.

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(a) Brainstorm and list the types of food people in other countries eat.

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(b) Have a multicultural day! In groups, children dress in clothing from a different country, perform national dances and cook different foods. Parents help and share in the day!

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(c) Make the classroom into a restaurant for a night. Children take on various roles such as cook, waiters, ushers. The restaurant could reinforce the country covered in the classroom. For example, the restaurant could serve Italian food, include dances and feature patrons speaking Italian.

Modern foreign languages (a) Learn names of different foods in another language. (b) Role-play ordering a healthy meal in different countries. (c) Make a shopping list of foods from other countries.

(b) Processing Choose a particular vegetable and investigate how it can be changed by processing. (c) Marketing and buying Identify the influences of advertising and marketing strategies on healthy food choices such as vegetables. (d) Preparing Prepare a shopping list which includes vegetables and write procedures to show how to cook them correctly. (e) Sharing and eating food Show how vegetables can be presented attractively for serving. (f) Recycling Write the details of recycling vegetable scraps by composting.

Mathematics (a) Use ‘junk mail’ to work out a weekly grocery list that does not exceed your budget and contains a variety of foods. (b) Plant seeds. Measure growth and rates of growth over time.

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Children are carrying out fitness tests and making their own assessments during all their recording work (see unit 3). Formal tests could take place four times per year.

Fitness tests Some of the tests which could be used are:

Sit and reach A chair is placed against a wall and a metric ruler placed on the chair seat.

Procedure:

Children sit on the floor with their legs under the chair and move their body forwards until their feet are flat against the wall. With hands together, they reach forward as far as possible and hold for three seconds.

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Equipment:

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Make sure the knees do not bend. Using the metric ruler, read the distance their fingertips can reach. Ensure the same chair is used for subsequent levels.

Standing long jump

gym mat, chalk, measuring tape.

Procedure:

Stand with toes behind the line and feet slightly apart. Children take off from two feet, swinging their arms and bending their knees, landing on two feet. Measurement is taken from the rear heel.

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Equipment:

Push-ups

Equipment:

chair, stopwatch.

Procedure:

Place the chair against the wall. Children put their hands shoulder-width apart on the front edge of the chair. Children stretch out until their body is straight and the heels are lifted. To do a push-up correctly, children lower themselves until their chest touches the front edge of the chair and then ‘push-up’ until their arms are straight. A score is the number of push-ups satisfactorily completed in 30 seconds.

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Fitness tests 50-m run Equipment:

trundle wheel, stopwatch, cones.

Procedure:

Mark out a 50-m distance with cones. Warm up with light jogging and gradual stretches. When ‘Go!’ is called, children run as fast as they can ‘through’ the finish line. Times are recorded.

1.6 km run cones, measuring tape, length of string approximately 35 metres long, 2 small sticks.

Procedure:

A person is needed at each end of a length of string 31.8 m long. Tie one stick at each end. One person stays in the centre of the field and the other walks around marking regular marks on the ground. A line marking machine could be used to make a clear circle.

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Equipment:

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The circumference of the circle = 200 m so

8 laps = 8 x 200 = 1600 m (1.6 km)

At the completion of the eight laps, the timer will call out your time. Walk around (cool down) following your run and record it into your diary.

Fitness recording chart A record should be kept of all fitness tests to indicate child development. A sample recording chart is on page 44.

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Child self-assessment (a) At the end of each term, children can review their recording, graphs, fitness test results etc. and evaluate their progress. Children can construct a chart to complete at the end of each term. A sample is given on page 45. (b) Discussions and debates Discussions and debates help children to express opinions and make decisions about their fitness and health. Discussion topics could include: • What is physical fitness?

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• What are the other benefits of fitness? What are the different parts of fitness?

Debates may include

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• ‘Physical fitness is too hard.’

• What effects does our physical fitness have on the games and sport we play at school and in the community?

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• Compare a day of ‘Daily fitness’ to a day when you are unable to take part. When do you feel better? How might your involvement in a ‘daily fitness programme’ help your school studies?

• Could you set up a fitness programme at home? Could you involve other people (brothers, sisters, Mum, Dad)? If so, what are some different activities you could use?

Sa m

• What is the relationship between food and fitness?

• ‘Physical fitness is only for fit people.’

Vi

• ‘We don’t have to be fit to live’

(c) Family participation in physical fitness Children are likely to develop good attitudes and values towards physical fitness if their family participates in these activities. Children could keep a family record of physical fitness activities performed by each family member and find ways to increase their fitness and that of their family. Children should find innovative ways to include more fitness in their daily and weekly activities. Activities may include walking or riding a bike to school where possible, instead of taking the bus or going by car, walking home by a longer route, using stairs instead of the escalator when going to the shops, playing a physical game during break or lunch breaks at school, family tenpin bowling nights, family country walks.

30

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Cardiovascular record Heart rate at rest after first (before lap run)

after 1 minute

after 2 minutes

after 3 minutes

after 4 minutes

after 5 minutes

Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

Participant

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Resting heart rate graph

100

80

pl e

70

Sa m

60

August

July

June

May

April

January

December

Vi

November

October

September

30

ew

40

March

in g

50

February

Beats per minute

90

Months

Training heart range calculation THR = [(HR max - HR rest) x 0.80.6 ] + HR rest Lower

Upper

= [(180 - HR rest) x 0.6] + HR rest

= [(180 - HR rest) x 0.8] + HR rest

= [(180 =[ =

= [(180 -

) x 0.6] +

=[

x 0.6] +

) x 0.8] + x 0.8] +

=

(lower range)

(higher range)

I need to work with my heart rate between and for 15 minutes per day for 3–5 days per week. 32

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Daily fitness programme timetable

Activity

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Flexibility exercise/Crosstraining Circuit training Dance

pl e

Skipping

Sa m

Obstacle course

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Thursday

Friday

Vi

ew

Monday

in g

Term

Term Monday

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Tuesday

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Wednesday

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Cross-country record

Term 1 Date

Time

pl e

Improvement

Sa m

Term 2 Date

ew Vi

Improvement

in g

Time

Term 3 Date

Time

Improvement

34

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Sa m in g Vi

ew

Time taken

pl e

Cross-country graph

Note: Use a different colour for each term. Prim-Ed Publishing

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Circuit training 1. Shuttle run Scoring: 1 point for each completed circuit

2. Push-ups

(Modified to start, with gradual progression to calculated push-ups)

Scoring: 1 point for each time the chest touches the ground

3. Step-ups

pl e

Scoring: 1 point for each step-up

Sa m

4. Sit-ups

(Make sure knees are bent 90 degrees)

in g

Scoring: 1 point for each completed sit-up

5. Hot plates

ew

(Jump in and out of a hoop)

Vi

Scoring: 1 point for each jump into the hoop

6. Skipping

Scoring: 1 point for each time the rope goes under the feet

7. Rope climb Scoring: 1 point for each time you reach the top

8. Squats Scoring: 1 point for each squat 36

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Circuit training record

Term Date Shuttle run Push-ups Step-ups Sit-ups Hot plates Skipping

pl e

Rope climb Squats

Sa m

Total Improvement

Date

Push-ups

Vi

Shuttle run

ew

in g

Circuit training record

Term

Step-ups Sit-ups Hot plates Skipping Rope climb Squats Total Improvement Prim-Ed Publishing

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Create your own dances

Aerobic dance 1

Illustrations

Music: Warm-up activity:

pl e

Peak work:

in g

Sa m

Cool down:

Create your own dances

Aerobic dance 2

ew

Vi

Music:

Illustrations

Warm-up activity: Peak work:

Cool down:

38

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Child skipping choreography Music: Equipment needed:

Illustrations

Sa m

pl e

Skipping movements

Music:

ew

in g

Child skipping choreography

Vi

Equipment needed:

Skipping movements

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Illustrations

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Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

Sample obstacle course

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Vi

ew

in g

Sa m

pl e

Obstacle course template

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Obstacle course graph

Term 9

7 6 5 4 3

1 1

2

3

9

10

11

9

10

11

in g

ew

9 8 7

Vi

Score (number of circuits completed)

5 6 7 8 Obstacle course attempt

Obstacle course graph

Term

6 5 4 3 2 1 1

42

4

2

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4

5 6 7 8 Obstacle course attempt

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Different colours should be used for different circuits. Alternatively, a different circuit could be used each term.

pl e

2

Sa m

Score (number of circuits completed)

8


The balanced diet test Name

Date vegetables

meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, nuts

fruit

milk, yoghurt, cheese

fat, oils, sweets

water

Sa m in g ew

Other food eaten during the day

Vi

Evening meal

Lunch

pl e

Breakfast

bread, pasta, rice, cereals

Self-evaluation: What could be added to or removed from meals to provide a more balanced diet?

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Fitness recording chart Name Month

Sit and reach Standing long jump

pl e

Push-ups

Sa m

50-m run

1.6-km run

in g

Fitness recording chart

Vi

ew

Name

Month

Sit and reach Standing long jump Push-ups

50-m run

1.6-km run 44

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Child self-evaluation grid Name

Areas in which I can further improve my physical fitness

Steps I can take to make these improvements

pl e

Areas in which I have improved my physical fitness

Vi

Term 2

ew

in g

Sa m

Term 1

Term 3

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