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y ; y ; y ; y;yy yy y ;; ;; ; y ; y;yy yy y ;; ;; ; y;yy ;; yy ;;y ; Written by Elizabeth P. Tucker Published by Prim-Ed Publishing


pl e Sa m g in ew Vi

Spelling Essentials Written by Elizabeth P. Tucker Published by Prim-Ed Publishing PO Box 051, Nuneaton, Warwickshire CV11 6ZU http://www.prim-ed.com

Spelling Essentials

2

Prim-Ed Publishing


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The knowledge of a few basic spelling rules can be beneficial to everyone, regardless of their spelling ability. Understanding the reasons for such spelling rules as: doubling consonants like ‘t’, ‘s’, ‘p’, ‘l’, ‘m’ and ‘n’ or dropping the final ‘e’ before adding a suffix can help everyone improve their spelling. Spelling is one of the most important elements of writing and everyone should strive to be as accurate as possible. This can be as easy as running your eyes over your work before passing it on and keeping a dictionary handy to check any words of which you are unsure. The more conscious you are about the accuracy of your work, the better you will become!

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Introduction

Contents

Overview of Spelling Rules .............................................. 4 – 5 Spelling Rules ........................................................................ 6 The Alphabet ........................................................................ 7 Syllables ............................................................................... 7

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Vowels and Consonants ................................................ 8 – 14 Plurals ........................................................................ 15 – 18

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Past Tense .......................................................................... 19 Prefixes ....................................................................... 20 – 22 Suffixes ....................................................................... 23 – 36 Apostrophes ................................................................ 37 – 40

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Mnemonics ................................................................. 41 – 42 Homophones .............................................................. 43 – 49 Homographs ....................................................................... 50 Root Words ................................................................. 51 – 52

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Capital Letters .................................................................... 53 Abbreviations .............................................................. 54 – 55 Acronyms ............................................................................ 56 Eponyms ............................................................................. 57 Anagrams ................................................................... 58 – 59 Difficult Words to Spell ................................................ 60 – 62 Notes .......................................................................... 63 – 64

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Spelling Essentials


Overview of Spelling Rules In Brief

Page

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Rule

1

'magic e' changes the vowel sound

8

2

doubling final consonants 'f', 'l' and 's'

3

'q' is generally followed by 'u'

4

both 'c' and 'g' have a hard and a soft sound

5

'c' and 'k' sometimes have the same sound

10

6

'c' and 'k' go together to end one syllable words

11

7

'k' is always used on its own after a consonant

11

8

'k' is used where a double vowel precedes the 'k'

11

9

'd' is used before 'ge'

12

10

't' is used before 'ch'

11

words ending in 'l'

12

final 's' or 'z' followed by a 'magic e'

13

13

'i' before 'e'

14

8 9

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9

12 13

Plural – add 's'

15

15

Plural – add 'es'

15

16

Plural – change 'f' to 'v' add 'es'

16

17

Plural – changing vowels

16

18

Plural – no singular form

17

19

Plural – words that remain the same

17

20

Plural – compound nouns

18

21

Plural – foreign words

18

22

Past Tense – add 'ed' or 'd'

19

23

Past Tense – using 't'

19

24

Past Tense – changing the spelling

19

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Spelling Essentials

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Overview of Spelling Rules In Brief

Page

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Rule

20–22

25

Prefixes – simply add the prefix

26

Suffixes – simply add the suffix

27

Suffixes – words ending in 'ac' or 'ic'

28

Suffixes – words ending in 'icly' or 'ally'

29

26

30

Suffixes – adding suffixes beginning with a vowel sound to words ending with a vowel Suffixes – words ending with 'l'

31

Suffixes – adding 'all', 'full', 'till', 'well' or 'fill'

27

32

Suffixes – long vowels, double and single vowels

27

33

28

34

Suffixes – adding suffixes beginning with a vowel sound to words ending with a consonant Suffixes – retaining 'magic e'

35

Suffixes – dropping 'magic e'

29

36

Suffixes – adding suffixes beginning with 'a', 'i' and 'o'

30

37

Suffixes – adding 'ous', adding suffixes beginning with 'i'

30

23–24

25

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25

26

28

Suffixes – adding 'y'

31

39

Suffixes – adding 'ly'

31

40

Suffixes – adding 'ly' and 'ty'

32

41

Suffixes – words ending with 'y'

33

42

Suffixes – adding 'ous' or 'ity'

34

43

Suffixes – 'ceed' and 'cede'

34

44

Suffixes – 'ice' and 'ise'

35

45

Suffixes – 'ent', 'ant', 'ence' and 'ance'

36

46

Suffixes – adding 'th'

36

47

Apostrophes – contractions

37

48

Apostrophes – ownership

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38–40

5

Spelling Essentials


1. To learn how to spell, master the rules and be sure to thoroughly learn all the exceptions to the rules.

For example, el/e/phant in/for/ma/tion in/de/pen/dence ra/di/a/tion

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2. Divide the words into syllables and then say the word three times in syllables. When writing it, say the word in syllables again.

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Spelling Rules

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3. Make sure you have the correct pronunciation.

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4. Look-and-say words. These have to be learnt by repetitive drilling, such as spelling the words letter by letter. For example,

t–h–e–i–r

t–h–o–r–o–u–g–h–l–y

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5. Remember, we have to use our: (a) eyes to see and read the words; (b) ears to listen to the sounds of the letters; (c) tongues to say the words clearly in syllables; and (d) brains to think whether we have spelt the word as it sounds or whether there is a catch to it.

Spelling Essentials

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The Alphabet

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1. The English alphabet consists of twenty-six letters. These twenty-six letters are divided into two groups: (a) five vowels – a, e, i, o, u; and (b) twenty-one consonants – the remaining letters of the alphabet. 2. Sometimes ‘y’ acts as a vowel. This occurs when ‘y’ has the sound of ‘i’ in any word.

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For example, by try

my trying

sky flying

fly crying

3. In the English language each vowel represents two kinds of sounds. They are a long vowel sound or a short vowel sound. The sign for a long vowel sound is a¯ , e¯ , ¯i, o ¯, u ¯. For example, h e¯ re

p¯ine

n o¯ te

t u¯ be

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c a¯ ke

The sign for a short vowel sound is a˘ , e˘ , ˘i, o ˘, u ˘.

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For example,

g˘e t

h˘it

c˘o t

c˘u t

Syllables

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p˘a n

1. Words are made up of syllables. 2. Every syllable contains a vowel.

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3. Words may have one or more syllables. 4. Always say the words in syllables when writing them. For example, kan/ga/roo el/e/phant

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hip/po/pot/a/mus ex/am/in/a/tion 7

Spelling Essentials


Vowels and Consonants Rule 1

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The ‘magic e’ or ‘fairy e’ changes short vowel sounds into long vowel sounds. For example,

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Rule 2

wag – wage rob – robe not – note pin – pine hug – huge tub – tube

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can – cane dam – dame hop – hope din – dine kit – kite cub – cube

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The consonants ‘f’, ‘l’ and ‘s’ are doubled at the end of most words of one syllable. For example, ball doll off sniff dress miss

bill wall stuff tiff less boss

Exceptions are: of

Spelling Essentials

bell dull cliff cuff kiss loss

gas 8

bus

was

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Vowels and Consonants

‘q’ is generally followed by ‘u’. For example,

Rule 4

quack quilt quarter quiz quiet quaint

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quick queen quote quarrel quite quota

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Rule 3

Both ‘c’ and ‘g’ have a hard and a soft sound.

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For example,

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a. When ‘c’ or ‘g’ is followed by ‘a’, ‘o’ or ‘u’, it has a hard sound.

cut come got gone

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cat copper gap good

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cap colour gum gold

b. When ‘c’ or ‘g’ is followed by ‘e’ or ‘i’, it usually has a soft sound. For example, cent circle gem ginger 9

civil cinema gin germ

cycle centre giant gent Spelling Essentials


Vowels and Consonants

‘c’ and ‘k’ sometimes have the same sound. a. When ‘c’ says the hard ‘k’ sound it is generally followed by ‘a’, ‘o’ or ‘u’.

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For example,

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Rule 5

cat cut cup comb carry company

can cannot cupboard cucumber camp cushion

For example,

kid kitten

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key kettle

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b. ‘k’ is generally followed by ‘e’ or ‘i’.

Spelling Essentials

keep kept

kiss kitchen

In a number of foreign words used in the English language and in some scientific words, ‘k’ is followed by ‘a’ or ‘o’. For example, kaleidoscope (scientific) kangaroo and koala (Australia) kauri (New Zealand) kowtow (China) kale (Scottish) kapok (Malay) 10

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Vowels and Consonants Rule 6

For example, neck black kick clock

pick deck truck track

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back sock knock duck

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‘c’ and ‘k’ go together to end a short, one-syllable word containing a short vowel.

Exceptions are words borrowed from foreign languages. yak (Tibetan) kayak (Eskimo)

amok (Malay) trek (Dutch)

Rule 7

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‘k’ is always used on its own after a short vowel sound that is followed by a consonant.

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For example, pink talk milk donkey

bank think silk sank

walk thank monkey junk

Rule 8

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Words are always spelt with a ‘k’ where a double vowel precedes the ‘k’. For example, speak week cloak

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creek book weak

oak spook beak 11

leak steak look Spelling Essentials


Vowels and Consonants Rule 9

For example,

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judge bridge pledge nudge budge

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Rule 10

badge hedge smudge dodge trudge

g

edge ridge ledge lodge wedge

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After a short vowel sound we put ‘d’ before ‘ge’ to keep the short vowel short.

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After a short vowel sound we put ‘t’ before ‘ch’ to keep the short vowel short. For example,

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patch match itch watch catch

wretch fetch scratch snatch latch

sketch kitchen witch hatch ditch

which duchess

such bachelor

Exceptions are: rich much

Spelling Essentials

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Vowels and Consonants

For words ending in ‘l’ the single consonant after the short vowel has been doubled before adding ‘l’. This is done to keep the short vowel short.

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Rule 12

muddle apple bottle kettle struggle giggle cattle saddle

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battle puzzle nibble peddle middle dazzle wriggle puddle

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For example,

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Rule 11

‘s’ or ‘z’ at the end of a word is always followed by a ‘magic e’.

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For example,

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horse because sneeze mouse geese breeze specialize dramatize tease advertise

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cause house prize please praise surprise idealize realize cheese size Spelling Essentials


Vowels and Consonants Rule 13

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When the sound of ‘ie’ says ‘ee’ then ‘i’ comes before ‘e’ except after ‘c’ when we write ‘ei’. a. ‘ie’

believe thief shield brief relieve

relief field piece retrieve siege

Exceptions are: seize weird

chief yield belief fierce

seizure forfeit

g

weir counterfeit

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For example,

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b. ‘ei’ says ‘ee’ after ‘c’ For example,

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receive deceive

perceive conceit

deceit ceiling

preconceive conceive

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c. When ‘ei’ does not say ‘ee’, it is always written as ‘ei’.

Spelling Essentials

For example, foreign either height leisure feint

neigh weigh reign reindeer sleigh 14

neighbour weight reins neither freight Prim-Ed Publishing


Plurals Rule 14

For example, theatres committees adults

cows cats cakes

dogs bridges solutions

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biscuits horses bicycles

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a. To form the plural of most nouns we just add an ‘s’.

b. Words ending in ‘ful’ form the plural in the usual way, by adding an ‘s’. For example,

Rule 15

tinfuls spadefuls bucketfuls

sackfuls bagfuls handfuls

pocketfuls spoonfuls boxfuls

g

basketfuls armfuls cupfuls

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Add ‘es’ to nouns that end in ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘o’, ‘s’, ‘x’ and ‘z’ to form the plural. For example,

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class – classes arch – arches atlas – atlases

quiz – quizzes fox – foxes potato – potatoes

lash – lashes leash – leashes watch – watches

buzz – buzzes box – boxes echo – echoes

Exceptions are:

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bamboo – bamboos cockatoo – cockatoos banjo – banjos solo – solos piano – pianos monarch – monarchs

kangaroo – kangaroos zoo – zoos soprano – sopranos photo – photos zero – zeros stomach – stomachs

shampoo – shampoos radio – radios merino – merinos silo – silos ratio – ratios

We only add an ‘s’ to monarch and stomach as the ‘ch’ sound has a ‘k’ . Prim-Ed Publishing

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Spelling Essentials


Plurals Rule 16

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When a noun ends in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ we change the ‘f’ to ‘v’ and add ‘es’ to form the plural. For example, life – lives knife – knives yourself – yourselves

Note:

half – halves thief – thieves shelf – shelves

wife – wives wolf – wolves elf – elves

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calf – calves sheaf – sheaves self – selves

Either wharfs or wharves and hoofs or hooves are acceptable. Exceptions are: roofs staffs gulfs

waifs stuffs cliffs

puffs skiffs chiefs

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reefs sheriffs handkerchiefs

Rule 17

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Many nouns form their plural by changing their vowel or vowels. For example,

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man – men oasis – oases woman – women crisis – crises tooth – teeth axis – axes goose – geese basis – bases foot – feet emphasis – emphases parenthesis – parentheses Exceptions are: human – humans

Spelling Essentials

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Prim-Ed Publishing


Plurals

Some nouns have no singular form. For example,

pliers measles bathers spectacles bellows tongs

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trousers tweezers scissors billiards secateurs clippers

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Rule 18

Rule 19

For example,

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A few nouns have the same singular form as the plural form.

Plural

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Singular

many cod

one dozen

many dozen

one innings

many innings

one gallows

many gallows

one deer

many deer

one salmon

many salmon

one sheep

many sheep

one trout

many trout

one score

many score

one swine

many swine

one reindeer

many reindeer

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one cod

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Spelling Essentials


Plurals Rule 20

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Most compound nouns form the plural by making the principal word of the compound noun plural. For example,

son-in-law sister-in-law maid-of-honour

sons-in-law sisters-in-law maids-of-honour

Rule 21

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passer-by passers-by daughter-in-law daughters-in-law brother-in-law brothers-in-law

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a. In English we often use the plural form of Latin words. For example,

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radius – radii fungus – fungi terminus – termini cactus – cacti

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b. Some English words have a foreign origin so watch their plural. For example, datum – data phenomenon – phenomena erratum – errata larva – larvae

Spelling Essentials

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Past Tense

a. To form the past tense of some verbs we add ‘ed’ or ‘d’ where the word ends with ‘e’. For example, trace – traced talk – talked

escape – escaped wash – washed

walk – walked wish – wished

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lace – laced laugh – laughed

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Rule 22

b. Some verbs that have a single vowel sound followed by a single consonant double the last letter before adding ‘ed’. For example, wrap – wrapped fit – fitted

flap – flapped bug – bugged

trap – trapped pin – pinned

g

Rule 23

strap – strapped plod – plodded

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‘t’ is used instead of ‘ed’ when writing the past tense of some words. For example,

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sweep – swept dream – dreamt kneel – knelt

feel – felt creep – crept build – built

keep – kept weep – wept smell – smelt

sleep – slept spend – spent lend – lent

Rule 24

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In some words, instead of adding ‘ed’ for the past tense, a change is made in the spelling of the word. For example, lead – led weave – wove rise – rose buy – bought

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shine – shone run – ran think – thought steal – stole 19

lose – lost freeze – froze take – took fight – fought

tear – tore shake – shook write – wrote teach – taught Spelling Essentials


Prefixes Rule 25

For example, un/numbered up/set re/view

Prefix

dis/satisfied dis/solve mis/take

Meaning

Examples

after–

following, behind

afternoon, afterwards

ante–

before in time

antenatal, ante meridiem

ant–, anti–

against

anticlockwise, antivenom

auto–

self

be–

to make or do all over, by, near to well

bi–, bin–, bis–

befriend, beside

beneficial, benefactor

two, twice

biannual, bicycle

one hundredth

centimetre

in

centi–

autobiography, autograph

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bene–

up/roar un/sure re/appear

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un/certain dis/approve un/just

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The general rule concerning a prefix is simply to add it.

about, around

circumference

contra–, counter–

against, opposite

contradict, counteract

de–

descend, deject, defend

deca–, deka–

away from, reversal, separation, negation ten times greater

deci–

one tenth

decilitre

di–, dis–

two, twice

dissect, dialogue

en–, em–

to make, in, into, on

embark, encase

equi–

equal

equality

ex–

former, out of

ex-wife, exchange, excellence

extra–

beyond, outside

extraordinary

for–

denial, from, away

forbid, forgiven

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circum–

Spelling Essentials

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decade, decagon

Prim-Ed Publishing


Prefixes Prefix

Meaning

Examples

before, front

forearm, forewarn

hecto–

100 times greater

hectare

hemi–

half

hemisphere

hexa–

six

hexagonal

hetero–

different, other

heterogeneous

homo–

same

hydro–

water

hyper–

above, over

hyperactive, hypersensitive

hypo–

less than, under

hypoactive, hypocrite

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fore–

homophone

ig–, il–, im–, in–, ir– not, opposite of

illegal, import, insane, irregular

im–, in–

in, into, to make

import, indoors, inland

inter–

among, between

interview, interrupt

intro–

g

hydraulic, hydrofoil

introvert

1 000 times greater

kilogram, kilojoule

in

kilo–

inwardly, within

long, large

macropedia

magni–

large, great

magnification

micro–

microscope, microlitre

mid–

one millionth, very small in the middle of

milli–

one thousandth

millimetre

mis–

bad, wrong, fault

mishap, misbehave

mono–

one, above, single

monoplane, monocle

multi–

many

multicultural, multipurpose

non–

against, not, nonsense, non-attendance exclusion, negation in the way of, against obstruct, occur, oppress

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macro–

o–, ob–, oc–, of–, op– omni–

Prim-Ed Publishing

midair, midday

all

omnivore

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Spelling Essentials


Prefix

pl e

Prefixes

Meaning

Examples

beyond

outback, outboard, outfield

over–

above, beyond

overcast, overact, overcoat

par–, para– penta–

beside, near, beyond, parallel, paraplegic aside, amiss five pentagon

peri–

around

post–

after, behind

postdate, postnatal, postpone

pre–

before, prior to

prearrange, preface, predict

pro–

before

programme

re–

back or again

recall, report, redo

retro–

backwards

retrograde, retrospect

reflexive action

self-control, self-absorbed

half

semicircle, semitone

in

semi–

perimeter

g

self–

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out–

under, below

submarine, submerge

super–

above, over

superhuman, superior

to–

this

tomorrow, today, tonight

trans–

across, beyond

transfer, transmit

tri–

three

triangle, tripod

twi–

double

twice, twin

ultra–

excessively

ultraconservative, ultrasensitive

un–

not, opposite, reverse unable, unclean, undone

under–

beneath, below

underworld, undercurrent

up–

upwards

uphill, uplift, upright

with–

from, against, back

withhold, withstand

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sub–

Spelling Essentials

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Prim-Ed Publishing


Suffixes Rule 26

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The general rule concerning a suffix is simply to add it. For example,

Suffix

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play – play/s – play/ed – play/er – play/ing – play/ful work – work/s – work/ed – work/er – work/ing – work/able help – help/s – help/ed – help/er – help/ing – help/ful

Meaning

Examples

–able, –ible, –uble

capable of

audible, edible, soluble

–age

collectivity

coinage

–al, –an, –ar

having the nature of

Australian, floral, solar

–an

of, having to do with historian, politician, electrician

–ance, –ence

state of being, action appearance, confidence

–ant, –ent

having quality of

g

ignorant, vibrant

one who, that which

assistant, confidant, actor, teacher

–arium, –orium, –ery, –ary, –ory –ate, –en, –n, –ise

aquarium, dictionary, territory

–ee, –ent

place for, place where act happens to make, become, cause, do state, condition, domain past tense, furnished with, having one who

–eer

one concerned with

in

–ant, –ar, –er, –or

–dom

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–ed

advertise, darken kingdom, wisdom talked, gifted employee, student mountaineer, buccaneer duckling, piglet, floweret

–er

comparative degree

colder, faster, hotter, smaller

–ern

denotes direction

Northern, Western

–ese

having to do with

Japanese, Burmese

–ess, –ress

feminine form

lioness, princess

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–en, –et, –kin, –ling small, little –ock –eous, –ous full of, marked by

Prim-Ed Publishing

courteous, famous

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Spelling Essentials


Suffixes Meaning

Examples

pl e

Suffix

superlative degree

greatest, largest, slowest

–ette

diminutive, feminine

diskette, usherette

–ey, –y

like, nature of

dirty, sandy, smelly

–ful

full of, filled

cupful, beautiful, graceful

–fy

to make

–hood, –ness, –ment, –t, –th –ic

state of, condition

manhood, wilderness, argument

belonging to

athletic, poetic, public

–ing

continuous action

running, walking, talking

–ish

quality, belonging to

British, childish, foolish

–ism

state of being, action heroism, Catholicism

–ist

concerned with

biologist, geologist

condition, quality

naivety, stupidity

relating to, able to

native, supportive

in

–ive

justify, magnify

g

–ity, –ety

Sa m

–est

without

lifeless, colourless

–let

small, little

droplet, pamphlet

–like

similar to

childlike, wormlike

–ly

like, manner

clumsily, loudly, sadly

–ship

rank, state of being

lordship, friendship

–some

tendency, quality

handsome, lonesome

–teen, –ty

ten

fourteen, forty

–ward, –wards

direction

eastward, forward, downward

–way, –ways

manner

anyway, always, nowadays

–wise

direction of, manner

lengthwise, likewise

–y, –ty

state of being

poverty, wealthy, healthy

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–less

Spelling Essentials

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Prim-Ed Publishing


Suffixes

When words end in ‘ac’ or ‘ic’ always add ‘k’ before adding the suffixes ‘y’, ‘ed’, ‘er’ and ‘ing’. For example,

in

g

Sa m

frolic – frolicked – frolicking mimic – mimicked – mimicking traffic – trafficked – trafficking picnic – picnicked – picnicking – picnicker panic – panicked – panicking – panicky colic – colicky

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Rule 27

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Rule 28

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In the whole of the English language, only one word ends in ‘icly’. That word is ‘publicly’. To all other words ending in ‘ic’, ‘ally’ is added.

Prim-Ed Publishing

For example, sarcastically emphatically problematically magically economically 25

tragically romantically mathematically heroically socially Spelling Essentials


Suffixes Rule 29

Sa m

pl e

This is a very important rule for adding a suffix. It is called the one, one, one rule. When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel (‘y’, ‘ed’, ‘er’, ‘est’ or ‘ing’) to words of one syllable which have one short vowel followed by one consonant, always double the consonant before adding the suffix. This is done to keep the short vowel. For example,

plan – planned – planner – planning stop – stopped – stopper – stopping thin – thinner – thinnest – thinning Exceptions are:

hop – hopped – hopper – hopping skip – skipped – skipper – skipping fat – fatter – fattest – fatty

Rule 30

g

bus, gas and words that end in ’w’

in

For words ending in a single ‘l’ preceded by a single vowel, double the final ‘l’ when adding a suffix beginning with a vowel. For example,

cancel – cancelled – cancelling rival – rivalled – rivalling repel – repelled – repelling

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pedal – pedalled – pedalling travel – travelled – travelling marvel – marvelled – marvelling Exceptions are:

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When a suffix beginning with an ‘i’ is added to a word that ends in an ‘l’ which is preceded by a vowel, do not double the ‘l’. For example, moral – moralize equal – equality central – centralize

Spelling Essentials

angel – angelic capital – capitalize special – specialize 26

general – generality idol – idolize unparallel – unparalleled Prim-Ed Publishing


Suffixes Rule 31

For example,

full

also almost already always altogether although

joyful hopeful spoonful useful awful wilful wonderful dreadful thoughtful careful

Rule 32

fill fulfil

till/well

until

welcome welfare

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all

pl e

When adding ‘all’, ‘full’, ‘till’, ‘well’ or ‘fill’ to words, drop one ‘l’.

No consonant is doubled after a long vowel or a double vowel.

g

a. Long vowel examples,

in

wave – waved – waving love – loves – loved – loving use – user – used – using

bake – baked – baker – baking smile – smiles – smiled – smiling blaze – blazer – blazed – blazing

b. Double vowel examples,

ew

clean – cleaned – cleaner – cleanest cheer – cheered – cheering – cheerful play – played – player – playing

trail – trailed – trailer – trailing train – trained – trainer – training float – floated – floater – floating

Vi

c. When two consonants follow a short vowel, no letter is doubled. print – printed – printer – printing walk – walked – walker – walking bank – banked – banker – banking talk – talked – talker – talking farm – farmed – farmer – farming crush – crushed – crusher – crushing

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Spelling Essentials


Suffixes Rule 33

For example,

Rule 34

g

Sa m

re/fit – re/fit/ted – re/fit/ting re/fer – re/fer/red – re/fer/ring un/pin – un/pin/ned – un/pin/ning out/run – out/run/ning – out/run/ner ad/mit – ad/mit/ted – ad/mit/ting pre/fer – pre/fer/red – pre/fer/ring wor/ship – wor/ship/ped – wor/ship/ping kid/nap – kid/nap/ped – kid/nap/ping

pl e

With words of more than one syllable we can still use the one, one, one rule providing the consonant follows a single vowel.

Vi

ew

in

When adding a suffix beginning with a consonant to a word ending in the silent (magic) ‘e’, always retain the silent ‘e’ to keep the long vowel long.

Spelling Essentials

For example, hope – hopeless price – priceless fierce – fierceness care – careful late – lateness amaze – amazement

disgrace – disgraceful spite – spiteful state – statement brave – bravely place – placement late – lately

Exceptions are: argue – argument because argue ends with a double vowel 28

Prim-Ed Publishing


Suffixes Rule 35

pl e

When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel to a word ending in the silent ‘e’, always drop the ‘e’ as the vowel does the work of the silent ‘e’. For example,

Exceptions are:

Sa m

lace – laced arrive – arriving come – coming move – moved write – writing style – stylish wave – waving

g

hope – hoping advise – advised argue – arguable manage – managed glue – gluing argue – arguing place – placing please – pleasing

in

a. Words ending in double ‘e’ (ee) always keep the ‘ee’ when adding the suffix ‘ing’. For example,

ew

referee – refereeing see – seeing guarantee – guaranteeing flee – fleeing disagree – disagreeing

Vi

b. Always retain the silent ‘e’ when adding ‘ing’ to these words. canoe – canoeing dye – dyeing tiptoe – tiptoeing

Prim-Ed Publishing

shoe – shoeing toe – toeing eye – eyeing

29

hoe – hoeing singe – singeing

Spelling Essentials


Suffixes Rule 36

For example, replaceable enforceable chargeable

peaceable manageable changeable

Sa m

traceable noticeable serviceable

pl e

a. When adding a suffix beginning with an ‘a’, as in ‘able’, after a soft ‘c’ or ‘g’, always retain the silent ‘e’ to keep the ‘c’ or ‘g’ soft.

b. When a suffix begins with an ‘o’ we retain the silent ‘e’ to keep the ‘g’ soft. For example, outrage – outrageous

advantage – advantageous

g

Rule 37

courage – courageous

in

a. When adding ‘ous’ to words ending in ‘ce’ we change the ‘e’ to ‘i’ before adding ‘ous’. For example,

ew

grace – gracious

space – spacious

avarice – avaricious

b. When the suffix begins with an ‘i’ after the soft ‘ce’ or ‘ge’ always drop the silent ‘e’ as the ‘i’ will keep the ‘c’ or ‘g’ soft. For example,

Vi

manage – managing race – racing enforce – enforcing exchange – exchanging service – servicing

notice – noticing encourage – encouraging trace – tracing interchange – interchanging charge – charging

Exceptions are: singe – singeing Spelling Essentials

whinge – whingeing 30

Prim-Ed Publishing


Suffixes Rule 38

pl e

When adding a ‘y’ to a word ending in ‘e’, drop the ‘e’ before adding the ‘y’. For example, craze – crazy breeze – breezy noise – noisy edge – edgy

smoke – smoky juice – juicy lace – lacy wire – wiry

rose – rosy laze – lazy nose – nosy

Sa m

ease – easy haze – hazy ice – icy stone – stony

Rule 39

in

For example,

g

a. To add ‘ly’ to words ending in ‘e’, after a consonant just change the ‘e’ to ‘y’.

ew

horrible – horribly noble – nobly forcible – forcibly simple – simply

visible – visibly noticeable – noticeably feeble – feebly comfortable – comfortably

probable – probably subtle – subtly terrible – terribly idle – idly

b. When adding ‘ly’ to a word ending in ‘le’ after a vowel, just write ‘ly’ after the ‘le’.

Vi

For example, vile – vilely pale – palely

futile – futilely versatile – versatilely

sole – solely juvenile – juvenilely

Exceptions are: whole – wholly

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Spelling Essentials


Suffixes Rule 40

For example, rudely princely nicely

Exceptions are:

bravely lonely safety

surely strangely ninety

Sa m

lovely largely homely

pl e

The magic ‘e’ is retained before ‘ly’ and ‘ty’ to keep the long vowel long.

Vi

ew

in

g

true – truly due – duly because they end in a double vowel.

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Prim-Ed Publishing


Suffixes

a. When the final ‘y’ in any word is preceded by a vowel we retain the ‘y’ when adding a suffix. For example,

pl e

Rule 41

Sa m

day – days boy – boys donkey – donkeys ray – rays say – says – saying survey – surveys – surveyor – surveyed – surveying pay – pays – paying buoy – buoys – buoyed – buoying – buoyant – buoyancy relay – relays – relayed play – plays – played – player – playing pray – prays – prayer – praying – prayed Exceptions are:

day – daily

pay – paid

g

say – said

in

b. Always keep the ‘y’ when adding the suffix ‘ing’ or any other suffix beginning with an ‘i’, because in the English language we seldom write ‘ii’. For example,

ew

marrying occupying defying

relying hobbyist babyish

copying tidying

carrying boyish

Exceptions are:

taxiing

Vi

skiing

c. When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel or a consonant to a word ending in ‘y’, change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ before adding the suffix. For example, silky – silkiest busy – busier

Prim-Ed Publishing

pity – pitiful hurry – hurried

marry – marries heavy – heavier 33

army – armies pretty – prettiest Spelling Essentials


Suffixes

With words ending in ‘our’ and ‘ous’, omit the ‘u’ before adding ‘ous’ or ‘ity’. For example,

Sa m

in

Rule 43

vapour – vaporous rigour – rigorous glamour – glamorous generous – generosity

g

vigour – vigorous odour – odorous clamour – clamorous curious – curiosity monstrous – monstrosity

pl e

Rule 42

ew

In the English language there are only three words made by adding the suffix ‘ceed’. They are: exceed

proceed

succeed

Vi

Only one English word is spelt with ‘sede’. That is: supersede

All other words end in ‘cede’. For example, intercede precede accede

Spelling Essentials

recede secede concede 34

Prim-Ed Publishing


Suffixes Rule 44

For example,

prophecy – noun licence – noun

practise – verb advise – verb devise – verb

Sa m

practice – noun advice – noun device – noun

pl e

In the English language there are words which end in both ‘ice’ and ‘ise’. The ‘ice’ is used for noun endings while the ‘ise’ is used for the verb form. If you remember that ice (block of ice) is a noun this will help you when spelling.

prophesy – verb license – verb

Sentence examples,

Vi

ew

in

g

I have finished my piano practice. (noun) Practise what you preach. (verb) That is sound advice. (noun) Please advise me what to do. (verb) He has invented a useful device. (noun) He must devise a foolproof scheme. (verb) You must renew your dog’s licence. (noun) Have you licensed your car? (verb) The Bible prophecy has come to pass. (noun) The gypsy will prophesy your future. (verb)

Prim-Ed Publishing

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Spelling Essentials


Suffixes Rule 45

pl e

a. Words ending in ‘ant’ we change to ‘ance’ in the noun form. For example,

ignorant – ignorance assistant – assistance extravagant – extravagance

entrant – entrance defiant – defiance distant – distance

Sa m

abundant – abundance tolerant – tolerance elegant – elegance

b. Words ending in ‘ent’ we change to ‘ence’ in the noun form. For example,

obedient – obedience innocent – innocence diligent – diligence intelligent – intelligence defend – defence offend – offence pretend – pretence

in

g

dependent – dependence silent – silence resident – residence present – presence violent – violence evident – evidence absent – absence

Rule 46

Vi

ew

When changing some adjectives to the noun form, we add ‘th’. For example, wide – width six – sixth seven – seventh

grow – growth warm – warmth nine – ninth

strong – strength four – fourth eight – eighth

Note: Most numbers form the noun by adding ‘th’.

Exceptions are: first, second and third in all family groups; for example, twenty-first, thirty-second, forty-third.

Spelling Essentials

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Prim-Ed Publishing


Apostrophes Rule 47

For example, has not – hasn’t I am – I’m were not – weren’t will not – won’t had not – hadn’t I would – I’d she is – she’s it is – it’s who is – who’s

Sa m

could not – couldn’t did not – didn’t you will – you’ll can not – can’t I will – I’ll we are – we’re you are – you’re he had – he’d they are – they’re

pl e

There are two main uses for apostrophes. One is to show when a letter or letters have been omitted.

Vi

ew

in

g

Note: The words ours, yours, hers and theirs never have an apostrophe.

Prim-Ed Publishing

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Spelling Essentials


Apostrophes

The other use of an apostrophe is to show ownership.

pl e

Rule 48

The sentence: The tail of the cat was fluffy. can be written The cat’s tail was fluffy.

Sa m

a. To single nouns we add an apostrophe before the ‘s’ to show ownership or the possessive form of the noun. For example,

g

The shoes of the dancer. The brooch belonging to Mother. The tail of the dog. The life of the man. The book of a prince. The house of the mayor. The petals of a flower.

The dancer’s shoes. Mother’s brooch. The dog’s tail. The man’s life. The prince’s book. The mayor’s house. The flower’s petals.

in

b. When some singular nouns end in ‘s’, the rule still applies. Another ‘s’ is added after the apostrophe. For example,

ew

The class’s interest was aroused. The moss’s texture was soft. The lass’s blue eyes sparkled. The princess’s jewels shone brightly.

Vi

c. To some proper nouns ending in ‘s’ we still apply the rule when writing the possessive form. For example, Mrs Jones’s house. Frank Sim’s book. Mrs Pinkus’s cat.

Spelling Essentials

Mr Moss’s speech. James’s hat. Judy Nicholas’s success. 38

Prim-Ed Publishing


Apostrophes

pl e

Rule 48 cont. d. When a proper noun ending in ‘s’ is preceded by a ‘z’ sound, it is usual not to add an ‘s’ after the apostrophe but just add an apostrophe. For example,

Sa m

The teachings of Jesus – Jesus’ teaching. The laws of Moses – Moses’ laws.

Some long classical names would sound awkward if another ‘s’ was added, so we just add an apostrophe. For example, Aristophanes’ comedies. Euripides’ tragedies.

Alcibiades’ treachery. Archimedes’ principle.

in

For example,

g

e. Measurement of size, weight, time and space may be used possessively and take an apostrophe ‘s’ in the usual way.

ew

a pound’s worth a week’s holiday an hour’s delay a pin’s point a hair’s breadth a year’s leave

Vi

f. When such measurements are plural, we just add an apostrophe after the ‘s’. For example, three pounds’ worth four hours’ delay

Prim-Ed Publishing

two weeks’ holiday three years’ leave

39

Spelling Essentials


Apostrophes

pl e

Rule 48 cont. g. Most plural nouns already end in ‘s’, so to write the possessive form of the noun, we just add an apostrophe after the ‘s’.

in

g

The girls’ new dresses. The farmers’ crops. The boys’ laughter. The two dogs’ tails. The babies’ bottles.

Sa m

For example,

Note:

Some plural nouns do not end in ‘s’

ew

For example, people

men

women

children

oxen

These words are treated the same way as the singular form of the noun when writing the possessive form.

Vi

For example,

Spelling Essentials

people’s opinion children’s toys women’s hats oxen’s load men’s shoes 40

Prim-Ed Publishing


Mnemonics These are gimmicks that help us to spell certain words.

For example,

Sa m

You and I will eat some fruit. You and I will wear a suit. You and I will wear suitable shoes. You and I will build a house. You and I know Mr Jones, the builder. You and I belong to the worker’s guild. You and I are Girl Guides.

pl e

1. The ‘ui’ words. These are good-mannered words, as ‘u’ comes before ‘i’.

g

2. Waist and waste. Remember: I have a waist but it is waste paper.

ew

in

3. Pursue means to run after. Both pursue and run are spelt with a ‘u’.

4. Persuade and person. We sometimes have to persuade a person.

Vi

5. Here, there and where. These all mean a place and all are spelt with ‘here’ in them.

Prim-Ed Publishing

For example, Here is a place to stay. There is the place I told you about. Where is the place you just mentioned? 41

Spelling Essentials


Mnemonics

pl e

6. Hear and heard. Any word meaning to hear something has ‘ear’ in it. For example,

Sa m

I hear a sound. I heard a sound.

in

g

7. Loose and lose. To tell the difference between lose and loose, remember: Loose has two o’s as in loose tooth.

Vi

ew

8. Forest. The word tree has only one ‘r’, so has the word forest only one ‘r’.

Spelling Essentials

9. Principal and principle. The principal is my pal. 10. Stationery and stationary. Stationery is writing paper and pens. A stationary car is still. 11. Currant and current. Currants are found in cakes. The river has many currents. 42

Prim-Ed Publishing


Homophones

pl e

Homophones are words that sound the same but are spelt differently. They often cause spelling errors. The bride walked down the aisle of the church. The Isle of Man.

altar alter

The priest knelt at the altar. Do not alter your answer.

aloud allowed

Say it aloud. We are allowed to go to the park.

ate eight

I ate a large breakfast. It is eight o’clock in the evening.

border boarder

We drove over the border into France. I am a boarder at St Hilda’s school.

barren baron

This land is barren. The baron was in his castle.

in

g

Sa m

aisle isle

The blackberry jam was tasty. Bury the roots of the plant carefully.

birth berth

We celebrate Jesus’ birth on Christmas Day. The ship will berth at that wharf.

bare bear

The cupboard was bare. The large, white bear was very angry.

brake break

The brakes of the car failed. Be careful not to break the glass.

chews choose

The cow chews her cud. Please choose the one you like the most.

course coarse

That is the local golf course. This is very coarse material.

Vi

ew

berry bury

Prim-Ed Publishing

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Spelling Essentials


Homophones Please check your answers. We gave the Red Cross a cheque for ÂŁ5.00.

currant current

Grapes turn into currants. The river current is dangerous.

corps core

The Army Corps was camped nearby. The core of the apple was lost.

council counsel

The Shire Council raised the land rates. The social worker will counsel her.

cereal serial

Cereal is good for breakfast. I read that story as a serial.

complement compliment

The ship has a full complement of men. I must compliment you on your excellent work.

ceiling sealing

The lounge room ceiling needs painting. Use the sealing wax to seal the wood.

Sa m

g

They were dyeing the wool black. The flowers were dying in the vase.

in

dyeing dying

pl e

check cheque

The desert is a dry and sandy track of land. To desert your friend would be unfair. The dessert is generally the final course of a meal.

fought fort

He fought like a tiger. The old fort is closed to the public.

father farther

My father is the team captain. The farther you go the further you will have to walk home.

foul

That was a foul trick you played on your brother. That fowl is for Christmas dinner.

Vi

ew

desert desert dessert

fowl Spelling Essentials

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Prim-Ed Publishing


Homophones I feel quite faint. The general made a feint to confuse his enemy.

gate gait

Please close the gate. The gorilla had a peculiar gait.

guest guessed

Mary is our special guest. You have guessed the answer correctly.

hole whole

The hole in my shoe is getting larger. He ate the whole loaf.

horse hoarse

He is a champion horse. My voice is hoarse today.

hale hail

He is hale and hearty. The hail damaged the fruit on the trees.

Sa m

g

That boy is always idle. Elvis Presley was my idol.

in

idle idol

pl e

faint feint

Do you know the answer? No, I won’t lend you my pen.

knew new

I knew the answer all the time. That is a lovely new dress.

key quay

I have lost my key. The ship will berth at the quay.

knead need

The baker will knead the dough. I need a new pair of jeans.

led lead

The champion led all the way. Water pipes were made of lead.

Vi

ew

know no

Prim-Ed Publishing

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Spelling Essentials


Homophones That load is too heavy to carry. A lode is a vein of metallic ore.

mare mayor

The black mare won the annual racing cup. He is the Lord Mayor of London.

main mane

That is the main road. They cut the horse’s mane.

medal meddle

He won a medal for running. Do not meddle in other people’s affairs.

mettle metal

The horse showed his true mettle. Metal will rust if left outside unprotected.

maid made

The housemaid left us in the lurch. He carefully designed and made a bird cage.

praise preys prays

The teacher will always praise good work. The eagle preys on rabbits for its food. A Christian prays to God.

in

g

Sa m

pl e

load lode

Do your piano practice. (noun) Practise what you preach. (verb)

plain plane

The cattle roam on the plain. The plane made a crash landing.

piece peace

Please pass me that piece of paper. Peace is better than war.

paws pores pause

Puss likes to lick her paws. The pores of the skin are important. The pause button on the recorder can be used when you need to take a break.

profits prophets

All profits were given to charity. All the prophets of the Bible were holy men.

Vi

ew

practice practise

Spelling Essentials

46

Prim-Ed Publishing


Homophones Rap on the door loudly. Wrap the present carefully.

right write

Please check if your answer is right. Please write neatly in your pad.

rose rows

The rose plant is in full bloom. There were rows and rows of seats.

rote wrote

You must learn your tables by rote. He wrote me a long letter.

steel steal

A roof beam is made of steel. To steal is a criminal offence.

site sight

They have chosen the site for the new school. That poor man has lost his sight.

strait straight

We sailed down Bass Strait. Draw a straight line from A to B.

in

g

Sa m

pl e

rap wrap

ew

sow sew

You must sow the seed evenly. Please sew the seam of the skirt neatly. These stairs are not safe. He stares at people who are passing by.

source sauce

The source of the gossip is a mystery. I enjoy tomato sauce on my sausages.

stationary stationery

The car was stationary on the side of the road. Writing pad and envelopes are classed as stationery.

sent scent

I have sent the birthday card to my friend. The scent of the bear was obvious.

Vi

stairs stares

Prim-Ed Publishing

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Spelling Essentials


Homophones He was seen leaving the house. Act 1, Scene 2.

to too two

We are going to school. You are too heavy to carry. Two is company, three is a crowd.

throne thrown

Queen Elizabeth occupies the throne. He has thrown away his apple.

threw through

I threw my rubbish in the bin. Go through the front door.

in

g

Sa m

pl e

seen scene

vein vain

The weather vane moves with the direction of the wind. Veins carry blood back to the heart. Their hard work was all in vain.

wave waive

That was a large wave. I will waive my claim to the money.

weather wether whether

The weather has been mild this year. That sheep is a wether. I don’t know whether we will be able to play outside.

wear ware where

I will wear my new frock. What type of wares are you selling? Where is your older brother?

Spelling Essentials

48

Vi

ew

vane

Prim-Ed Publishing


Homophones Do not waste that good paper. My waist is becoming too large.

weighed wade

The jockey weighed his saddle. Do not wade in the large puddle.

wait weight

Please wait here. What weight are you?

yolk yoke

The yolk of the egg was deep yellow. A yoke is a wooden neck piece used by oxen when pulling a heavy load.

Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl e

waste waist

Prim-Ed Publishing

49

Spelling Essentials


Homographs

ew Vi

Spelling Essentials

lock log mail march mass master match may mean might mine mint mould mount nail nature note order organ page palm pass patient peal pen pick pine pipe pitch plane plant play plot plug pole port post pound power

private prune pupil race range rank record reflect rent rest rifle right ring rock roll rose round row ruler rung sack safe sand save scale/s seal season shed sheet sign sink soil sound sow speaker spell spoke

Sa m

game grain grate grave ground gum hail hamper hand hide hit hold host iron jam jar jet joint jumper just kid kind kite lap last lawn lay lead lean leaves left let letter lie lift light line list litter

g

column corn count court craft crane cricket crop cross crow dam dart dear deck dock down draught draw drill drive drone duck express fair fast felt file fill fine fire firm fit flag fleet float fold foot forge form

in

angle arms back ball bank bar bark base bat bay beam bear beat bill bit blade blind block blow bluff board boot bow brand calf cape capital carpet case cashier cast change charge chop club coach coast coat cold

pl e

Homographs are words that are spelt the same but have more than one meaning.

50

spring squash staff stage stall stand star state steer stern stick stock stole strike stud stump suit swallow swift table tear temper tile till top train trip tumbler turn wake watch wave well wind work yard

Prim-Ed Publishing


Root Words

Meaning

Root

acro– aeq. aero alter alto amor amphi– –androus anima aniso– anthropo– apia aqua audio– auto– avi– baro– bene– bi biblio bio brevi– cardio– capere caput centum –chrome chrono– –cide circum– civis –claudere cor cosmeo counter– cranium– credo

top equal air other high love on all sides male breath, life unlike human bee water hear self bird weight good, well twice book life short heart to take hold head hundred colour time killer around citizen shut, close heart world against skull I believe

crypto– crystallo– cursus cycl– cyto– cyst– –cyte deca– demo– demon– denti– –derm ducere duo– dys– equi endo– entero– ethno– factor fertilis finis fluor gastro– geo– –gerous –gram –graph –gyno –gyro– hetero– holo– homo– ideo– manus mille mini–

g

in ew Vi

Prim-Ed Publishing

Meaning

hidden crystal running cycle cell cyst cell ten people demon tooth skin to lead two bad equal within, inside intestine race, tribe do to make fruitful end flow stomach earth producing letter, writing write woman circle other whole same idea hand thousand small

Sa m

Root

pl e

Root words are parts of words which originated in another language. They have been used in the English language to form the base of some words we use.

51

Spelling Essentials


Meaning

Root

minuere mittere mono– –morph mors movere multi– my– myc– myth– myx– natus navis nector neo– nepho– nephro– nocti– novem octa omni– ortho– paed– pan– patho– pedis pendere penta– –phasia phen –philia phlebo– –phobia phon– –phorous phosp–

to lessen to send one, alone form death move many muscle fungus myth slimy born ship dead new cloud kidney night nine eight all straight, right child all suffering foot hang five disordered speech used in chemistry lover of vein fear sound, voice bearing, having phosphorous

photo– physio– phyto– –plasty poly– portare prima project proto– pseudo– psych– ptero– pyo– quadri– quinque– recti– scrib –sect septum sex– Sino– spectro– –spermal –sphere spiro– –stat statua tele– terra tractum tetra tri– twi– uni– video vox

g

in ew Vi

Spelling Essentials

Meaning light physical plant formation many carry, bear first throw first false mind wing pus four five set upright write cut seven six Chinese look sperm sphere spiral stationary statue afar, end earth trace four three two, twice one see voice

Sa m

Root

pl e

Root Words

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Prim-Ed Publishing


Capital Letters

1. To begin a sentence. For example,

2. For proper nouns. For example,

Sa m

The dog likes to chase cats down the street. My pet fish is blue and orange. When are we going to the beach?

pl e

Capital letters are used:

in

g

Names of people – Mark Harris, Mrs Sanders Names of places – Dublin, Paris, Maritime Museum Names of streets – Redwood Crescent, Oak Road To begin important words in the titles of books, songs etc. – Huckleberry Finn, Red Riding Hood Days of the week – Monday, Sunday Months of the year – April, November Gods and goddesses – Venus, Hercules, Aphrodite Names of planets – Mars, Mercury, Saturn

ew

3. For adjectives derived from proper nouns. For example,

Vi

Australian English Japanese Indonesian

4. For the pronoun ‘I’. For example, My brother and I walked to school on Tuesday.

Prim-Ed Publishing

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Spelling Essentials


Abbreviations

pl e

An abbreviation is a word that has been shortened by leaving out some of the letters.

g

Dr – Doctor govt – government maths – mathematics pop. – population St. – street

Sa m

For example,

in

1. When an abbreviation does not include the last letter of the full word, a full stop is generally added after the abbreviation. For example,

Vi

ew

abbrev. – abbreviation approx. – approximately e.g. – for example fol. – following lat. – latitude tbsp. – tablespoon tsp. – teaspoon Apr. – April Wed. – Wednesday Exceptions are:

dept. – the first ‘t’ is counted, not the final ‘t’ Spelling Essentials

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Prim-Ed Publishing


Abbreviations

For example,

pl e

2. Abbreviations which consist of more than one capital letter, or capital letters only, do not generally require full stops.

g

Sa m

UK – United Kingdom DOB – Date of Birth PO – Post Office HMS – Her (or His) Majesty’s Ship HO – Head Office MP – Member of Parliament RAF – Royal Air Force UN – United Nations

3. Abbreviations of units of measurement do not need a full stop.

in

For example,

Vi

ew

cm – centimetre g – gram kg – kilogram km – kilometre mm – millimetre L – litre m – metre mL – millilitre

Prim-Ed Publishing

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Spelling Essentials


Acronyms

1. They are usually formed from the first letters. For example,

pl e

An acronym is a word made up from the letters of other words.

ew

in

g

Sa m

AIDS – acquired immune deficiency syndrome Basic – Beginners’ All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code Laser – Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organisation RAM – Random Access Memory Scuba – Self-contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus WHO – World Health Organisation

2. They may also be formed from a number of letters.

Vi

For example,

radar – radio detection and ranging sitcom – situation comedy sonar – sound, navigation and ranging

3. Acronyms are written without full stops. Spelling Essentials

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Prim-Ed Publishing


Eponyms

pl e

Eponyms are words that have originated from people’s names or the names of places. ampere – French physicist banksia – English naturalist biro – Hungarian inventor bowie – American soldier Braille – French teacher caesarean – Roman general cardigan – English earl diesel – German engineer dunce – English scholar

Sa m

boycott – Irish land agent

mackintosh – Scottish inventor

Ferris wheel – American engineer

maverick – American cattle raiser

gerrymander – American governor

Melba toast – Australian soprano

guillotine – French physician

mesmerise – Austrian physician Morse code – American inventor

Hansard – English printer

nicotine – French ambassador

hooligan – English family who had a

pasteurise – French chemist

reputation for fighting

pavlova – Russian ballerina

lamington – Queensland (Aust.) governor

raglan – British commander

leotard – French acrobat

sandwich – British naval administrator

in

g

guy – Leader – English Gunpowder Plot

saxophone – Belgian instrument-maker

lynch – American captain

silhouette – French politician

Vi

ew

Levis – American manufacturer

spoonerism – English scholar stroganoff – Russian diplomat teddy – American President tomfoolery – English fool valentine – Roman saint Victorian – English Queen volts – Italian physicist wellingtons – British Duke Zeppelin – German designer

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Spelling Essentials


Anagrams

boy – yob

acme – came – mace

brake – break

acre – care – race

bruise – buries – rubies

act – cat

bun – nub

add – dad

bus – sub

aids – dais – said ales – lase – sale – seal amble – blame amen – mane – mean – name ample – maple

claps – clasp – scalp clean – lance

coins – icons – sonic

dale – deal – lade – lead dam – mad

Sa m

able – bale

pl e

Anagrams are new words formed from using all of the letters from another word in a different order.

but – tub

dare – dear – read

caned – dance

deer – reed

cares – scare

den – end

caret – trace

design – signed – singed

cars – scar

devil – lived

cater – crate – trace

dew – wed

are – ear – era

cedar – cared – raced

diet – tied – edit

aril – lair – liar – rail

charm – march

dim – mid

art – rat –tar

g

ant – tan

disease – seaside dog – god

ash – has

doom – mood

in

arts – rats – star

dust – stud

astute – statue

earth – heart

ate – eat – tea

east – eats – seat – teas

ew

asleep – elapse – please

edit – tide – diet emit – mite – time

bat – tab

enlarge – general

bats – stab

enlist – listen – silent –

battle – tablet

tinsel

bin – nib

evil – live – veil – vile

bleat – table

felt – left

blister – bristle

file – life

bog – gob

filter – lifter – trifle

bowl – blow

finger – fringe

Vi

bad – dab

ban – nab

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Prim-Ed Publishing


Anagrams pare – pear – reap

flow – fowl – wolf

part – tarp – trap

fluster – restful

pat – tap

pl e

flier – rifle

pate – peat – tape

forest – foster – softer

paws – swap – wasp

groan – organ

pelts – spelt

gulp – plug

petal – plate – pleat

gut – tug

petals – staple

hops – posh – shop

Sa m

hoes – hose – shoe

pets – step pins – spin

horse – shore

pit – tip

how – who

post – pots – spot

keep – peek

– stop – tops

kiln – link lame – male – meal

pot – top

prides – spider

lamp – palm

priest – sprite – stripe

lap – pal

raw – war

least – stale – steal

nails – slain

reins – resin – rinse –

lemon – melon

nap – pan

risen – siren

lemons – melons – solemn

naps – pans – snap –

reward – warder – drawer

liar – rail

span

rote – tore

limes – miles – slime –

nerve – never

same – seam

smile

net – ten

saw – was

loop – polo – pool

nip – pin

serve – sever – verse

low – owl

no – on

setter – street – tester

lump – plum

north – thorn

sinew – swine – wines

lustre – result – rustle

now – own – won

slate – tales

mantle – mental

oils – soil

sleet – steel

marble – ramble

ores – rose – sore

spat – taps

mate – meat – tame –

owe – woe

state – taste

team

pals – slap

sword – words

meet – teem

panel – plane

tare – tear

Vi

ew

in

g

leap – pale – peal – plea

moor – room

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Spelling Essentials


Difficult Words to Spell

bachelor balloon basically beautiful beginning believe benefited bicycle burglar business

pl e

g

ew Vi Spelling Essentials

century chaos character chief circuit collaborate colleague college colonel commission committee comparatively comparison competent completely conceive concentrate condemn conjure conscience conscientious conscious consistent conspiracy contemporary correspondence courteous criticism cruelly curiosity

Sa m

altogether amount appalling apparatus apparently appearance appropriate argument article associate as well attachment attitude author awkward

in

absence academically accelerate accessible accidentally accommodation achievement acknowledge acquaintance acquire across adaptation address adequate advertisement aerial agreeable alcohol allege all right a lot already

calendar campaign careful carefully category caterpillar cemetery

deceit decision defence 60

defensive definite democracy descendant descent description despair desperately deteriorate deterrent developed development diarrhoea difference dilemma disappear disappoint disastrous discipline disobeyed disservice dissolve duly Prim-Ed Publishing


Difficult Words to Spell

handkerchief harass heaven height heir horizon humorous humour hygiene

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knowledgeable

laboratory leisure lieutenant lightning likelihood literature loneliness maintain maintenance manageable marriage marvellous mathematician meant medicine medieval Mediterranean messenger mimic miniature

g

ew Vi

familiar family favourite February fiery fluorescent foreign forfeit

jealous jewellery justice

minute miscellaneous mischievous murmured mystify naive necessary negotiate neighbour ninth no one noticeable nuisance

Sa m

gauge goddess government governor grammar grievous guarantee guard

instalment intellectual intelligence interested irrelevant irreparable irresistible

pl e

fortunately forty fourteen friend fulfil furniture

in

ecstasy eighth elegant embarrass emperor endeavour enormous environment equatorial estuary exaggerate exceed excellent except exceptionally excitement exercise exhibition exhilarating existence expense experience extraordinary extravagant extremely

identical illegibly immediately imminent infinite innocence inoculate install

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occasionally occurred occurrence

Spelling Essentials


Difficult Words to Spell

quarter queue quietly

technical technique temperature temporary tendency terrifying tomorrow tongue tragedy tragic tranquillity tries truly twelfth tying

g

ew Vi

Spelling Essentials

sincerely skilful soldier solicitor souvenir speech statistics successfully summarize surprise survivor symmetry

vegetable vehicle veterinary vicious vigorous villain virtually

weird wholly wield wilful wiry withhold woollen worshipped

Sa m

really receipt receive recommend referred referee reference refrigerator religious repetition reservoir resistance responsibility restaurant rhyme rhythm ridiculous

in

paid paralleled paralysed parliamentary particularly pavilion permanent permissible poisonous possession precede preferred prejudice preparation presence primitive privilege probably procedure proceed professor pronunciation proof propeller protrude prove psychiatrist psychology publicly punctuation

pursue

pl e

offered opportunity originally

sandal satellite scary scissors secretary seize sentence separate silhouette similarly

yacht

unnecessary until vacuum valley valuable 62

Prim-Ed Publishing


Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl e

Notes

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Spelling Essentials


Vi

ew

in

g

Sa m

pl e

Notes

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Prim-Ed Publishing


3002 Spelling Essentials