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New World Explorers

Written by Elizabeth Swasbrook Published by Prim-Ed Publishing www.prim-ed.com 2502UK–58


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FOREWORD To the young, a country’s historical background can often be dull, uninteresting and of very little significance. This attitude in the classroom can be altered through the use of drama, an essential aspect of the English curriculum. Personal participation in events that occurred in the distant past and re-creation of historical figures through characterisation can make history all the more fascinating and entertaining. Role-playing also assists in the absorption of factual knowledge of one’s heritage.

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With the above in view, I decided to write a set of plays based on New World Explorers with activities relevant to the English, history and geography curriculum areas. Each play has been written to encourage maximum pupil involvement in the classroom. The information contained in the plays along with an atlas can be used to complete the activities following each play.

It is to be hoped that this book will be well used in your classroom.

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Regards

Elizabeth Swasbrook.

CONTENTS

Teacher Information ....................................................................................................................... ii Curriculum Links ........................................................................................................................... iii

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Marco Polo................................................................................................................................. 1 - 5 Activities - Some Facts about Marco Polo ................................................................................... 6 Crossword .................................................................................................................................. 7 Mapping Skills ............................................................................................................................ 8

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Christopher Columbus ............................................................................................................. 9 - 12 Activities - An Acrostic ............................................................................................................. 13 Quick Puzzles .......................................................................................................................... 14 Mapping Skills .......................................................................................................................... 15

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Vasco da Gama ...................................................................................................................... 16 - 19 Activities - Sequencing ............................................................................................................. 20 Crossword ................................................................................................................................ 21 Mapping Skills .......................................................................................................................... 22

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Ferdinand Magellan ............................................................................................................... 23 - 26 Activities - Mixed Activities ...................................................................................................... 27 Word Search ............................................................................................................................. 28 Fill in the Blanks ....................................................................................................................... 28 Mapping Skills .......................................................................................................................... 29 Sir Francis Drake .................................................................................................................... 30 - 36 Activities - Wanted Poster ......................................................................................................... 37 Sequencing ............................................................................................................................... 38 Word Search ............................................................................................................................. 38 Mapping Skills .......................................................................................................................... 39 Captain James Cook ............................................................................................................... 40 - 49 Activities - Character Sketch ..................................................................................................... 50 Timeline - Life and Voyages ...................................................................................................... 51 Mapping Skills ................................................................................................................... 52

Answers ........................................................................................................................... 53 - 54 N P

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TEACHER INFORMATION

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History through Drama has been written to provide pupils with relevant historical information in a fun and interesting format. Through drama, pupils have the opportunity to re-create the lives and adventures of the explorers while developing oral reading skills. Each play is further developed by the inclusion of activity pages which include detailed mapping skills and activities such as: • sequencing; • crosswords; • character profiles; • timelines; and • retrieval puzzles. The information needed to complete these activities is contained in the plays and in an atlas. It is suggested that the play be rehearsed a number of times to allow the pupils to gain an understanding of the explorers’ lines, before attempting the activities. The pupil’s level of understanding will be reflected in their completed activity pages.

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To reduce the amount of photocopying it is suggested that the plays be reduced to A5 to form small booklets. POLO

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CTERS CHARA o Marco Pol blai Khan Emperor Ku Marco’s Father Polo, olo Nic Uncle o, Marco’s Pol Maffeo as a boy o Pol Marco Guard (3) Courtiers (4) Narrators Friends (3) Pointers (2)

Characters Large class group participation.

ntings G de up of pai SETTIN ckdrop ma journey. Stage - Ba o’s overland Marco Pol

ships; maps

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nice wharf in Ve ted on the a boy, sea h Marco as three of his friends. begins wit talking to Our story and ps shi the ing watching excitedly] n be return and saying ffeo will soo the distance Uncle Ma [looking in o and my Nicolo Pol ool, sch My father, r y. afte rne ay long jou arf everyd from their e to the wh y you com reason wh ps come Is this the ing the shi enjoy watch s to strange and t Marco? jus I ! voyage ire reason not the ent about their No, that is sailors talk the to ng eni . in and list ate me too ds. spices fascin distant lan is jewels and s of silks, good father ntry your Their cargoe distant cou ich wh m w fro country Do you kno rco? ay aw Ma ay from a far returning, returning e been aw y so they’v Maffeo are and Uncle s only a bab Oh yes! He They left when I wa y. if they at called Catha years. Wh ! 15 ognise you for nearly if they’ll rec e. I wonder y long tim That’s a ver in? go away aga se decide to ] ent some of the item , and see hands in exc to travel too [clasping his m. I want ng with the about. s! Then I’m goi ces the sailors talk nd frie pla you later, rco wonderful g home. See just after Ma ter be gettin left Venice HEast.I In Well, I bet S Uncle had Far T O father and elled to the Mongol R s right. His y had trav at the gre s, the ant Marco wa t MAPPI Being merch China today, they me urn. NG SK was born. ILLS m to ret is called the ich ited wh y, inv o Catha S i Khan, wh R bla Ku E or, R Emper O 1

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Setting The setting of the actual event can be discussed and represented in the backdrop and props used.

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Character’s Dialogue • Each dialogue can be discussed to establish the emotion of the character. • Pupils have the opportunity to develop appropriate expression into their reading by taking on the role of characters in different situations.

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Mapping Activity Pupils will need to use an atlas along with the information provided in the text to complete these activities. The activities will develop pupils’ knowledge of the parts of the world covered by each of the explorers.

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Pupils follow the explorer’s journey on the map. Discussion on specific places of interest to the explorer and why the explorer took a particular route can take place here.

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On the ma p above: 1. Use two different col ours to sho (Red to Ca w Marco Pol thay and Gr o’s journe een on the 2. Fill in y to Catha return Jou the names y and his rney) of the impo Hormuz. return. rtant places - Venice, Co 3. Name nstantinople any body (Istanbul), of water he Acre (Akko) passed thr , and ough. 4. Name the

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CURRICULUM LINKS H

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Knowledge, skills and understanding 1. Speaking • Speak with confidence in a range of contexts, adapting their speech for a range of purposes and audiences 4. Drama • Participate in a wide range of drama activities

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Breadth of study 8. Speaking • Range of speaking opportunities should include reading aloud and presenting to different audiences 11. Drama activities • Range of drama activities should include performing in plays English

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Knowledge, skills and understanding 4. Literature • Develop an understanding and appreciation of literacy texts by reading plays aloud

History

Knowledge, skills and understanding 2. Knowledge and understanding of events, people and changes in the past • Learn about reasons for and results of historical events and changes

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Breadth of study 10. Britain and the wider world in Tudor times • Study some significant events and individuals who shaped this period

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Knowledge, skills and understanding 2. Geographical enquiry and skills • Develop geographical skills by using appropriate vocabulary and using atlases and globes

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CHARACTERS Marco Polo Emperor Kublai Khan Nicolo Polo, Marco’s Father Maffeo Polo, Marco’s Uncle Marco Polo as a boy Guard Courtiers (3) Narrators (4) Friends (3) Pointers (2)

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SETTING Stage - Backdrop made up of paintings or drawings depicting sea and ships; maps showing Marco Polo’s overland journey. Our story begins with Marco as a boy, seated on the wharf in Venice watching the ships and talking to three of his friends.

Marco Polo

[looking in the distance and saying excitedly] My father, Nicolo Polo and my Uncle Maffeo will soon be returning from their long journey.

Friend 1

Is this the reason why you come to the wharf everyday after school, Marco?

Marco Polo

No, that is not the entire reason! I just enjoy watching the ships come in and listening to the sailors talk about their voyages to strange and distant lands. Their cargoes of silks, jewels and spices fascinate me too.

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Do you know from which distant country your good father is returning, Marco?

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Oh yes! He and Uncle Maffeo are returning from a far away country called Cathay. They left when I was only a baby so they’ve been away for nearly 15 years.

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That’s a very long time. I wonder if they’ll recognise you! What if they decide to go away again?

Marco Polo

[clasping his hands in excitement] Then I’m going with them. I want to travel too, and see some of these wonderful places the sailors talk about. Well, I'd better be getting home. See you later, friends!

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Marco was right. His father and Uncle had left Venice just after Marco was born. Being merchants, they had travelled to the Far East. In Cathay, which is called China today, they met the great Mongol Emperor, Kublai Khan, who invited them to return.

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While his father was away, Marco had been brought up by another Aunt and Uncle as his mother had died when he was still a child. He was trained to be a merchant and learnt reading, writing and arithmetic. He also learnt to use foreign money, to judge the value of the new products and handle cargo brought in by ships.

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To Marco’s great joy, his father and uncle returned to Venice the very next day. They had many wonderful stories to relate, of exotic places they had visited and especially of the great friendliness shown to them by the Emperor, Kublai Khan.

Nicolo Polo

We are planning to return to Cathay soon, my son. The riches and beauty of the Khan’s palaces far surpass anything we have ever seen.

Marco Polo

[in a pleading manner] Father, please take me with you! I am grown up now and wish to see these marvellous places you have talked about. I promise not to cause you any trouble.

Nicolo Polo

[looking at Maffeo] I agree, son, you have grown into a fine young man. You are well-read and have learned a great deal about merchants and merchandise. Yes, you may come along as you will be a great help.

Marco Polo

[gratefully] Thank you, father! You will not be disappointed, this I promise you.

Uncle Maffeo

Marco, I wish to warn you that the journey will be full of dangers and not always pleasant. We have to travel many hundreds of miles on camels. Are you prepared for some discomfort?

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I am young and strong, Uncle! I am keen to travel and learn of new places and things. I know a great deal about foreign money and different cargo. I am certain I will be of great help to you and father.

[indicates to the person pointing to the map] So in the year 1271, the three Polos set out on their long and difficult journey. They sailed from Venice to the port of Acre, now called Akko, in Palestine. They went overland by camel, first to the famous city of Baghdad and then on to the Persian port of Hormuz.

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The Polos planned to get a ship here and reach Cathay by sea. The ships did not appear seaworthy, so they decided to join a camel caravan and travel overland.

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It took three years to complete the long and dangerous journey to Cathay. They eventually arrived in China in 1274, at Kublai Khan’s summer palace at Shang-tu, the old name for Kalgan.

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[Kublai Khan seated on his throne] [bows low before the Emperor, stands and announces loudly] Your gracious Highness, the Venetian travellers have returned at last. They have brought a son!

Kublai Khan

[smiles happily] Welcome, welcome, my good friends! I am pleased you have returned as I often feared I may never see you again! Nicolo, you have brought your son, the baby you talked about.

Nicolo Polo

[bowing low] Yes, my lord, but no longer a baby. Marco was seventeen when we left Venice three years ago. He is now a young man of twenty.

Kublai Khan

[smiling] He looks strong and very bright. [to Marco] I hope you will enjoy your stay here, my son!

Marco Polo

[bowing low, eyes wide open with wonder] My lord, I’m sure I will. Already I am filled with wonder at this beautiful building. I have never seen such an immense hall with walls covered in gold and such magnificent paintings.

Kublai Khan

[laughing aloud] You have just arrived and you are already filled with awe. I shall send you to other parts of my kingdom, Marco, so you can see and learn much.

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[looking pleased] Thank you, my lord. I shall like that very very much.

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True to his word, the Emperor sent Marco on many official tours of his kingdom. He had taken a great liking to Marco and noticed how quick and clever he was. Marco soon learned the Chinese language and made detailed notes of all that he saw and heard.

Narrator 1

[Marco busily writing] Marco wrote about the strange drink we call ‘tea’ made from the leaves of a plant; the black stone dug out of the ground and burnt like wood, which we know as coal.

Marco Polo

[looking up thoughtfully] I must write about the strange animals I’ve come across, especially the long-haired yak and the elephant which appears to have two long tails, one on either end.

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Marco mentioned that the Chinese knew how to make silk, gunpowder and other new things unknown in Europe at the time. Marco visited Tibet and saw much of the southern and eastern provinces of China.

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Marco also toured Burma, Indo-China, the Indonesian Islands and Malaya. For three years, he served as a government official in the Chinese city of Yangchow.

Narrator 4

The Polos had now spent many years in China and were becoming homesick for Venice. They sought permission to return home but the Emperor, Kublai Khan had grown too fond of them and did not wish them to leave.

Nicolo Polo

[to Maffeo and son Marco, all with looks of concern] Whatever are we going to do? The Emperor will not give us permission to leave.

Maffeo Polo

He has become old and feeble and should he die, we will be captured by his enemies. We must think of a way to leave Cathay.

Marco Polo

Try not to despair, father! I am certain an opportunity will come soon and we will return home.

Nicolo Polo

[placing his hand on his son’s shoulder] I hope so, my son! I hope so!

Narrator 1

Their opportunity to leave China came in 1292. The Emperor had received a message from his great-nephew, the Mongol Ruler of Persia, now called Iran. He wished to take a Chinese bride and the choice fell on the Emperor’s granddaughter. But how was he to send her to Persia?

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[Polos standing before him] So you wish to return to your country? Very well, but I have a mission for you. I wish you to escort my granddaughter safely to Persia where she is to marry the king who is my grandnephew. I have no fears for her safety as you three have proved to be trustworthy.

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Kublai Khan

[bowing graciously] We thank you for your kindness, my lord! We will do everything in our power to escort your granddaughter safely to Persia.

Kublai Khan

Prepare for your journey at once! Here are some gifts for you.

Narrator 3

The Polos thanked the Emperor for the many rich gifts of ivory, jade, porcelain, silk, jewels and other treasures. That same year they set out in fourteen junks from the port of Chuanchow in Southern China.

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[pointer showing the route taken on the map] The fleet sailed into Singapore, then north of Sumatra and around the southern tip of India. They crossed the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman to Hormuz where they left the princess.

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Now they travelled overland to the Turkish port of Trebizond, now called Trabzon, on the Black Sea. They boarded a ship to Constantinople and arrived in Venice in 1295, nearly three years later.

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[to Marco and Maffeo] We have been away from Venice for 24 long years. No-one will recognise us, especially in these old, tattered garments.

Maffeo Polo

Let us celebrate our homecoming by having a great feast for our friends. We will show them the jewels and other treasures we sewed into these garments.

Marco Polo

[laughing] Yes, I would like to invite my old friends, too. They’ll laugh when I tell them that we wore these ragged clothes to save ourselves from being robbed.

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The Polos held a great feast for their family and friends. They showed off their splendid riches, for now they were very wealthy merchants.

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What became of Marco Polo you may well ask? A year later, in 1296, he was captured by the Genoese who were at war with Venice. While in prison, he wrote a book called ‘Description of the World’.

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In it, he described Kublai Khan’s prosperous and very advanced kingdom and his very efficient postal system. He mentioned mining for black stones or coal, and the Chinese use of paper money, instead of the heavy coins of copper, gold or lead used in Europe at the time.

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Marco wrote about the Chinese inventions such as the compass, gunpowder, paper making and printing. He was released from prison in 1299 and died in about 1324, over 20 years later. He is remembered today as one of the world’s greatest travellers.

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SOME FACTS ABOUT MARCO POLO Use the information in the play to help you fill in the blanks. E A R LY L I F E .

1. Marco was born in the city of 2. He spent much time at the

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HIS JOURNEY

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1. Marco’s journey with his father and 2. They passed through

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H I S S TAY I N CAT H AY

In his book, ‘Description of the

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1. a strange drink from leaves called

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and the ‘two-tailed animal’ called an ,

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5. the Chinese had an efficient

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2. The Emperor showered them with

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5. Marco died in about the year

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ROSS Another name for traders. Used in Europe to preserve food. A country visited by Marco Polo. A Chinese invention discovered by Marco Polo. An animal used for travelling in these days. The Mongol Emperor of China. A sailing vessel used by the Chinese. Another important Chinese invention. A long-haired animal seen by Marco Polo. The Polos returned home after years. The direction in which they travelled on the way to China. The Polos joined a camel to travel overland. The Polos received plenty of this precious pale green stone.

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DOWN 1. Name of the great traveller. 2. The old name for China. 3. Merchants brought plenty of this from the East. 4. A great trading city in Europe. 7. A strange animal supposedly with a tail at either end. 10. Trebizond - The Port of Trabzon is on this sea. 12. Maffeo Polo was Marco’s . 13. Sailed around the tip of this country on their homeward journey. 14. Chinese used paper instead of heavy coins. 15. A hard black stone taken from the ground. 19. Marco wrote ‘Description of the ’. 20. The Emperor showered them with these. 22. A strange drink from leaves of plants. E

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MAPPING SKILLS

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On the map above: 1. Use two different colours to show Marco Polo’s journey to Cathay and his return. (Red to Cathay and Green on the return Journey) 2. Fill in the names of the important places - Venice, Constantinople (Istanbul), Acre (Akko), and Hormuz. 3. Name any body of water he passed through.

4. Name the two important lines of latitude Marco Polo crossed on his journey.

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CHARACTERS Teacher (Pupil to take this part) Christopher Columbus King Ferdinand of Spain Queen Isabella Captain Pinzon, Captain of the Pinta Court Herald Narrators (4) Speakers (3) Christopher Columbus as a boy Friends (2) Sailors (2) Class Group (Children take turns to ask questions) Pointer

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SETTING Stage - To be set up as a classroom with a display of drawings and large maps showing the routes taken by the various explorers. Children to be seated in a group facing the audience, a table with hats (and costumes - optional) depicting the characters, simple props.

[partially facing the class and speaking cheerfully, children stand] Good morning, class!

Class

[brightly] Good morning, Miss/Mrs/Mr…(Teacher’s name)

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And how are you, this morning?

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Very well, thank you. And how are you today, Miss/Mrs/Mr… ?

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I’m very well, thank you. Please be seated. This morning I plan to review what we’ve learnt about some of the early explorers in a different and more interesting way. Would you like that?

[enthusiastically] Oh yes, indeed! We’d like that very much, Miss/Mrs/Mr…

Teacher

This is what we’ll do. We’ll begin with Christopher Columbus and dramatise the story. You can play any part you like. Pick a hat (or costume) from the table to suit the character you are playing. Have you understood that? [reads from a list] We need four storytellers, Christopher Columbus, the King and Queen of Spain, Captain Pinzon, a Court Herald, three speakers, Christopher as a boy, his two friends, two sailors and a pointer. Get your hats (or costumes) and take your places.

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[children have already been pre-selected so they quickly pick up the proper hats or don costumes and take their places. The four main narrators come to the forefront] N P

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[together and pointing to themselves] We’ll be the narrators.

Narrator 1

[with expression, indicating map, pupil points to map and picture] Christopher Columbus was born in the seacoast town of Genoa in Italy, in 1451. It was at a time when people believed the Earth was flat and if they sailed too far out, they would fall off the edge.

Narrator 2

As a boy, Christopher spent most of his time by the sea, as he loved to watch the ships and listen to sailors’ tales of their adventures in faraway places. [three pupils enact this through mime, look in the distance, point out to ships and discuss them]

Narrator 3

Christopher’s love for the sea made him decide to become a sailor when he grew up. He travelled in trading ships to different ports in the Mediterranean sea. [pointer shows Mediterranean Sea on the map]

Narrator 4

On one such voyage, his ship was wrecked. Christopher saved himself by clinging to an oar. He managed to get to shore and soon discovered he was in Portugal. [show Portugal]

Narrator 1

Lisbon was one of the liveliest cities in Europe. It was here Christopher earned a livelihood by selling books and making maps. He became interested in finding a new route to India and China by sailing west. He had read all about Marco Polo’s overland journey eastwards to China. He was certain he could reach India and China by sailing west. [while Narrator speaks, pointer shows this on the map]

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Narrators

But why did he want to go to India and China?

Narrator 2

A good question, (pupil’s name)! There are three good reasons. [indicates on fingers] Firstly, Columbus thought a sea voyage would be shorter. Secondly, to trade in spices which were being widely used in Europe to preserve food.

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Pupil 1

Pupil 2

[raises hand] Yes, I remember now! And thirdly, to search for riches for King and country.

Pupil 3

We already have someone who’s taking the part of Columbus. Let him tell us what happened next!

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[comes forward, walks up and down rubbing his forehead in despair] Very few believe when I say the Earth is round and there are no hideous monsters in the oceans. If only I had some ships, I could prove I’m right. King Henry of England turned down my brother, Bartholomew. Portugal refused to help me, now Spain is my last hope. I must go there!

Narrator 4

Columbus, having no other choice, goes to the court of Spain to persuade King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to assist him. [two pupils quickly take the place of the King and Queen]

Court Herald

[bows and announces with a flourishing gesture] Your gracious Majesties, Christopher Columbus of Genoa!

King Ferdinand

[indicates] Come hither! You have my permission to speak freely.

Christopher Columbus

[bows low] Your Royal Majesty! I have found a shorter route to India and China by sailing west. Provide me with ships and men and I will prove I am right. All the land and wealth I discover will belong to Spain.

King Ferdinand

[raising his voice] You have gone mad! There are no lands west of these shores. Moreover, you will never survive such a hazardous journey.

Christopher Columbus

[turning to the Queen and bowing] Your Royal Highness, it has been said that the Earth is flat. It has been said the seas are infested with monsters. I can prove these theories wrong. Give me ships and I shall return laden with riches, spices and silks. All these will be yours!

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[bringing her hands together] You almost persuade us to help you but it is impossible!

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Queen Isabella Narrator 1

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After a long wait of three months and persuaded by the Queen, the King of Spain gave Columbus three ships, the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria. He was also given honours, titles and a percentage of any trade that would result.

Narrator 2

Columbus set sail on 3 August 1492, from Palos in Spain. After nine days they arrived at the Canary Islands where they repaired and loaded the ships with provisions. The long voyage ahead nearly ended in disaster. The Atlantic Ocean seemed endless. The sailors panicked and demanded to go back to Spain. Columbus was faced with a mutiny.

Sailors

[two sailors lay hold of Columbus and demand in loud voices] You are surely taking us to our deaths. If you do not turn back now, we will throw you overboard and return to Spain.

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[shaking himself free and speaking persuasively] Listen, my good men! Let us continue on for three more days and if we do not sight land, I promise you faithfully that I shall order the ships to turn back.

Narrator 3

Luckily for Columbus, land was sighted. They had reached a group of islands which Columbus named the Indies because he thought he had reached India. Little did he know, the great continent of America and the vast Pacific Ocean lay between him and India. Columbus went ashore, raised the royal flag and named the island San Salvador. He took possession of the land in the name of Spain. [mime, facial expressions, natives displaying fear, the exchange of gifts]

Narrator 4

At first the natives of these islands were afraid of Columbus and his sailors because of their white skin, their shining armour and grand clothes. They looked upon them as ‘men from heaven’.

Narrator 1

Columbus made friends with them by giving them gifts of glass beads, little bells, coloured caps and nails. This pleased them very much. In return, they gave him plenty of gold pieces which they didn’t think were valuable. He also discovered many new and interesting things like the potato and tobacco plants which were not known to the people of Europe at the time.

Christopher Columbus

[excitedly] Captain Pinzon, we must take many samples of these extraordinary plants and exotic birds back to Spain. Queen Isabella will be delighted and we would have proved the success of our voyage.

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Christopher Columbus

Captain Pinzon

My thoughts exactly! Presenting some of the natives before their majesties, will also prove we reached the Indies.

Narrator 2

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Columbus and his sailors returned home safely after seven months. Even though the largest ship was wrecked, the King and Queen were pleased because he had brought back riches, native weapons, strange birds like the parrot and many new plants. [these are presented to the King and Queen] Columbus was greatly honoured and given the title of ‘Admiral of the Ocean Sea’ and ‘Viceroy of the Indies’. He made other voyages to the West Indian Islands. It was on his third voyage that he landed on the great continent of America which he called ‘The Other World’.

Narrator 4

Christopher Columbus died in 1506, at the age of 55. The latter part of his life was not a happy one as he had many enemies. He will always be remembered as one of the greatest seamen and navigators. He was also responsible for one of the greatest events - The Discovery of America.

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Narrator 3

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AN ACROSTIC 1. Use the clues given to find the answers. Some discussion may be required. Write them in the third column. 2. In column 1 write the initial letter of each answer except for No 18. 3. If your answers are correct, the letters should spell a name. .

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A great Navigator and seaman.

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This English King refused to help him.

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Raised this to claim the land for Spain. (2 words)

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Named the islands he discovered the…

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This country agreed to help him.

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Brought back this strange plant.

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Clung to this to save himself from drowning.

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Sailed from this port in Spain.

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The second largest island in the group he discovered.

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The opposite direction to that in which he sailed.

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At the time, many thought the world was not this.

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He had discovered a shorter route to India and…

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The Atlantic… seemed endless.

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He came to this important city in Portugal.

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Some of the things he brought back could be called…

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Faced by this when the sailors panicked.

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This brother visited England to seek help.

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Second letter of the month he set sail in 1492.

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The largest of the three ships. (2 words)

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QUICK PUZZLES 1. Names of Columbus’ three ships.

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2. Columbus sought help from these countries.

3. Some things Columbus brought back.

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4. Places connected with Columbus’ first voyage.

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(viii) the country that provided him with ships. (ix) the sea off the West Indian coastline. (x) the year of his voyage.

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MAPPING SKILLS On the map above: 1. Join the dots to show Columbus’ first voyage. 2. Label the following on the map above. (i) his place of departure. (ii) the islands he visited for repairs and provisions. (iii) the ocean he crossed. (iv) the group of islands he mistook for India. (v)(vi)(vii) three continents.

(vii)

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CHARACTERS Sorcerer Klondack Vasco da Gama Manuel I, King of Portugal Arab Merchants (2) Guide Sailors (12) Speakers (10)

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SETTING Stage - Backdrop made up of a large map showing the route taken and the stops made. Pictures of ships used in those days, an Indian rajah, anything of interest pertaining to the story. Sailors and Speakers in separate groups.

[the Sorcerer appears suddenly, his cloak flapping, speaks in a commanding tone] Well, here I am, Klondack, the greatest sorcerer of all times. Which young person willed my presence here?

Speaker 1

[raises hand and speaks shyly] I did, sir! I’m sorry if I troubled you in any way.

Sorcerer Klondack

[smiling] Don’t be sorry, boy/girl! I’m here at your service. What would you like the magnificent Klondack to do?

Speaker 2

Sir, would it be possible for us to meet the great explorer, Vasco da Gama?

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Sorcerer Klondack

Sorcerer Klondack

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Nothing is impossible to me! You will meet him and also his crew. [raises his eyes and arms upwards] Bright sunshine and blue skies, Vasco da Gama and his crew Are here, before your eyes. They will answer any question, Connected with their exploration! [class clap when they see Vasco da Gama and his crew walk on stage]

Vasco da Gama

[bows courteously with a smile, crew doff their caps] Thank you, Sorcerer Klondack! Now that we’re here, what would you like to know, young people?

Speaker 3

Why was it important for you to find a new route to the east?

Sorcerer Klondack

[raises his arm with a flourish] Enter Manuel I, King of Portugal! Listen to what he says to Vasco da Gama.

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[enters proudly and takes a seat, Vasco da Gama bows before him] Vasco da Gama, this rich trade in silks, jewels and spices from China and India is now a well-known fact. Portugal must have a share in it!

Vasco da Gama

Yes, Your Majesty, I understand! But what does Your Royal Highness propose to do?

Manuel I

Portugal is isolated and too far away from Arabia and Persia where ships come in. From there, the overland journey by caravan is long and dangerous. Therefore, we must discover a shorter way to India and China.

Vasco da Gama

Your Majesty, if I am provided with ships and men, I am prepared to make the attempt and brave the Cape of Storms.

Speaker 4

Did His Majesty, Manuel I, agree to the proposal?

Sorcerer Klondack

We’ll ask some of Vasco da Gama’s crew to relate their experiences. [nods to the sailors, giving them his assent to speak]

Sailor 1

His Majesty provided four ships, one of which was a store ship. Vasco da Gama was given command and we left Lisbon on 8 July 1497.

Sailor 2

Fortunately we were pushed on by the north-east winds, and we soon arrived at the Cape Verde Islands. Here, we took a supply of fresh food and water.

Sailor 3

We continued on our voyage and sailed on for the next three months towards the southern end of Africa. We entered a bay which our Commander named St. Helena Bay.

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It seems smooth sailing so far without any unusual experiences, eh?

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I wouldn’t say that, rather ‘so far so good’. We made friends with the natives here. We gave them trinkets like tin rings, brass bells and pieces of glass in return for food.

Sailor 4

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Our troubles began while we were rounding the Cape. It would have been better if our last king had let it be called the Cape of Storms instead of the Cape of Good Hope. Our little ships were pounded by terrible storms and huge waves.

Sailor 5

We were thrown about like bottle stoppers and the ships bobbed up and down. We became very afraid and begged to turn back.

Speaker 6

Did you at any time consider turning back, Commander?

Vasco da Gama

Not for a moment! At first I spoke to the sailors kindly, telling them to have courage, but when they continued to beg, I became very angry.

Sailor 6

Our Commander threatened to personally throw us overboard if we didn’t stop whining. He made us feel ashamed of our fears and we decided to trust him with our lives.

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As we rounded the Cape, we were overjoyed to see blue skies and a smiling sun. The storms had disappeared and all of us went wild. We were safe and that’s what mattered.

Sailor 8

We now sailed along the east coast and anchored at the mouth of the huge Zambezi River. We stayed here for a month. The ships were repaired and we were permitted to enjoy a break before the next lap of our journey.

Speaker 7

With a humane Commander like Vasco da Gama, any crew would have been prepared to continue the voyage quite happily.

Vasco da Gama

Yes, my crew trusted me. We sailed north till we came to Mozambique (Mo-zam-beek). It was here that we met some Arab traders, their four ships laden with spices, jewels, gold and silver.

Arab 1

[meeting a Portuguese sailor] Peace be unto you! Where would your good ships be heading?

Sailor 9

Peace be to you too! Our eminent Commander, Vasco da Gama, is attempting to discover a way to India.

Arab 2

Is that so! We’d better inform our commanders of his intentions.

Sailor 10

The Arabs were not pleased to hear this as they felt we may interfere with their own trading rights. They were friendly at first, but now they didn’t want to know us.

Sailor 11

We left Mozambique and continued northwards till we arrived at Malindi. Here our Commander was fortunate to meet a friendly native ruler who provided a guide to act as a pilot.

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[politely to Vasco da Gama] Sir, you have nothing to fear. I will guide you safely across the Indian Ocean to Calicut. It is a beautiful city on the western coast of South India. I will introduce you to the Indian ruler.

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Guide

Vasco da Gama

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Thank you, my good man! I have every trust that you will guide us safely across. I am looking forward to meeting the Indian ruler and establishing trade for my country.

Speaker 8

Did everything work out smoothly after that, Commander?

Vasco da Gama

More or less! We arrived safely at Calicut in May, 1498. In the harbour, we noticed many Arab ships. Once again, the Arabs were not pleased to see us and turned the Indian ruler against us. I stood firm, and eventually he let us leave with a cargo of silk, a variety of spices and other rare things which would fetch high prices in Europe.

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The guide returned with us to Malindi. We continued on our way, rounding the Cape of Good Hope without much trouble. The south-east winds were kind and pushed us homewards. We sailed into Lisbon safe and sound.

Vasco da Gama

[proudly] It had taken us two years and eight months to complete this voyage, which proved successful. We were given a very warm welcome by the King.

Manuel I

[warmly, extending his hands] Welcome home, Vasco da Gama! We are pleased to announce that a new and shorter route to India has been discovered. We reward you with a title, ‘Admiral of the Sea of the Indies’. [Vasco da Gama smiles, bows and withdraws]

Speaker 9

Did Vasco da Gama ever return to India?

Sorcerer Klondack

A rich trade had been established with the east. Lisbon became the chief trading port in Europe. Vasco da Gama made two other voyages in 1502 and 1503. In 1524, over twenty years later, he returned as ‘Viceroy of the Portuguese Territory in India’. He died in Cochin later the same year.

Speaker 10

Vasco da Gama was a brave explorer and will be remembered by us as the ‘Discoverer of a New Route to India’.

Sorcerer Klondack

Well, young people, it’s time to send them back. [raises his arms skywards] Bright sunshine, and skies of blue, Vasco da Gama, we sincerely thank you! North, south, east or west, You and your crew return to rest!

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THE END

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SEQUENCING Rearrange the following events. Number them in their correct sequence. Refer to the play for information if necessary. 1. It took three months to reach the southern tip of Africa, where they sheltered in St. Helena Bay. 2. At Mozambique, they came across four Arab ships laden with rich cargo.

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3. On the return journey, the guide was left at Malindi and the fleet sailed safely to Lisbon.

4. At the Cape Verde Islands, supplies of fresh food and water were taken on board the ships.

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5. After some trouble, the Indian ruler of Calicut permitted them a cargo of silk, spices and other rare objects. 6. Vasco da Gama set sail from Lisbon in Spain, on 8 July 1497 with a fleet of four ships. 7. Encouraged by their Commander, they continued on and entered the mouth of the Zambezi River where the ships were repaired and the crew rested.

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8. The voyage had taken two years and eight months and a shorter route to India had been successfully discovered.

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9. Manuel I, the King of Portugal, wished to share in the rich trade with the East and encouraged exploration.

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10. In May 1498, Vasco da Gama’s fleet arrived safely at Calicut on the west coast of India. 11. It was at Malindi, the friendly native ruler provided a pilot to guide the ships across the Arabian Sea.

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12. The stormy weather at the Cape of Good Hope caused discontent and the sailors wished to return home.

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CROSSWORD Read the given clues carefully and work out the crossword puzzle. 1.

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1. Name of the greatest explorer who found a shorter route to India. ACROSS

1. His first name.

2. He belonged to this country.

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3. His King wanted a part of the rich trade in

, silks and jewels.

4. He wished to discover a shorter route to the east around the continent of 5. In 1497, he set sail with a fleet of

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MAPPING SKILLS

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On the map above: 1. Trace Vasco da Gama’s journey in red. 2. Fill in the important points of his voyage, they have been numbered 1 to 8. 2.

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3. Fill in the names of the two oceans his ship sailed in. (i)

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CHARACTERS Ferdinand Magellan Manuel I, King of Portugal Charles I, King of Spain Captain Juan Sebastian de Cano Native Chief of Cebu Class Organiser Class Members (4) Sailors (11) Narrators (5) Pointer Teacher (takes own part)

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SETTING Stage - Backdrop made up of maps, drawings of five ships labelled with the following names - The Concepción, San Antonio, Santiago, Trinidad and Victoria, and anything of interest pertaining to the story.

[speaks clearly to the class] I say, all of you, what about giving the teacher a pleasant surprise today? You know how we’ve been talking and discussing Magellan for the past two weeks or so, let’s dramatise his fantastic voyage for Miss/ Mrs/Mr… (Teacher’s name)

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You must be crazy! It’s too difficult and needs to be put into the ‘too hard basket’.

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Class Organiser

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Hold on! You seem to be in too great a hurry to pass over a good idea. We’ve already done all the work with maps and pictures of the ships. [points to the backdrop] I say, let’s do it! Let’s have a go! Can we take any part we like?

Class Organiser

Up to a point! Those who are well-versed in the story can be narrators and sailors. I’ve already selected the main characters so they could get dressed. Here they come!

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Class Member 4

Quick! I’ll set a chair to one side for Miss/Mrs/Mr… Here are chairs for their Royal Majesties. We’ll sit in a group and come up on cue. … you be the pointer.

Teacher

[walks on stage, looking surprised] Good morning class! What’s going on?

Class Organiser

Just a surprise for you, Miss/Mrs/Mr… Please sit here!

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[clear and expressive, points to Magellan who limps forward] Ferdinand Magellan was born in a noble family about the year 1480, in northern Portugal. As a boy, he served in the royal household as the Queen’s page. At the age of 25, he joined the army and took part in many a battle. In one such battle, against the Moors in Morocco, he was wounded and became lame for life.

Ferdinand Magellan

[limps to the forefront and bows] May I take over and continue with my own life story. Yes, I am lame but I’ve learnt to live with it. I was only 17 when I heard of Vasco da Gama’s successful voyage around the Cape of Good Hope to India. Then in 1513, I heard that the Spanish explorer, Vasco Balboa, had seen the eastern shore of the ‘Sea of the South’ from the top of a mountain in the Panama. This made me decide to find a route to India by sailing westwards.

Manuel I

[comes forward proudly and sits, Magellan bows] You came to us with your proposal, Ferdinand Magellan, but we considered it a foolhardy scheme. We were not going to waste good ships on such a foolish plan. We were also very angry with you for seeking help from Spain.

Charles I

[walks up haughtily and also sits] Your loss was our gain! We were only too pleased to have the great navigator join our service. We provided him with a fleet of five ships [points out to them] and promised him a good part of the profits. Spain stood to gain through trade if the voyage was a success.

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Narrator 1

So on 20 September 1519, the five ships set sail from a port in Spain with about 240 men aboard. It took three long months to cross the Atlantic Ocean and reach the shores of South America.

Sailor 1

[comes forward and doffs his cap] We dropped anchor in Rio de Janeiro Bay as food supplies were low. Friendly natives gave us a fresh supply of food like pineapples, sweet potatoes and sugarcane, which we had never tasted before.

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Narrator 2

Sailor 2

From here, we were ordered to search for a passage which would lead us to what explorer Balboa called, ‘The South Sea’.

Sailor 3

As we headed southwards, trouble began. Most of us wished to return to Spain as food was again running low and we had endured enough hardships.

Sailor 4

A full-blown mutiny flared up. Some of us were prepared to put Magellan to death and return to Spain.

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[strides forward, fiercely] I used an iron fist to crush the mutiny and to show who was in command. I put some of the leaders to death. You may think that cruel, but it was the only way. I even threatened to make the men ‘eat the leather rigging’ if there wasn’t enough food.

Narrator 3

The passage was eventually discovered at the southern end of South America but it was too narrow, only 3 kilometres in some parts and never more than about 32 kilometres. One of the five ships, the San Antonio, secretly turned back and returned to Spain.

Sailor 5

I can tell you, we were terrified. What with the stormy weather and rugged mountains on either side, who wouldn’t be? At night, native fires were scary too! We named this area Tierra del Fuego which means ‘Fireland’.

Sailor 6

One ship, the Santiago, was wrecked in the storm. The other three sailed the 353 kilometres safely. As we entered the blue ocean, it was so peaceful, that Commander Magellan named it ‘Pacific’ or ‘Peaceful Ocean’. He also named the strait after himself, ‘Magellan Strait’.

Ferdinand Magellan

We were the first Europeans to come through and my men were proud. I told them we had discovered the shortest route from Spain to the East Indies. I ordered a day of feasting and encouraged them to complete the voyage without further trouble.

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Ferdinand Magellan

Sailor 7

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Yes, the Commander encouraged us to complete the voyage, but what were we to live on? Food and water supplies were extremely low and most of us asked him to return to Spain for fresh supplies, which he refused to do.

Sailor 8

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We continued westwards for about 98 days. We were really suffering from hunger and disease and our condition was really bad. We ate rats and sawdust and many of the sailors died.

Narrator 4

Eventually, the three ships reached the Mariana Islands in the east. Sick and starving, the sailors forcibly took food and water from the islanders to save themselves.

Narrator 5

The small fleet set sail again. After a few days, the ships arrived at a group of islands which Magellan named the Philippines in honour of Philip, the King of Spain. It was on the island of Cebu that he met the Chief and converted him to Christianity. [a meeting between the Chief and Magellan]

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[smiles] Greetings to you, friend Magellan! We are pleased to call ourselves Christians. We seek your help in one small matter, my friend!

Ferdinand Magellan

Greetings to you, Chief of Cebu! Our great King of Spain will also be pleased to know you have embraced Christianity. I am prepared to assist you in whatever matter it is.

Sailor 9

Unfortunately, the matter was a dispute between the Chief of Cebu and the Chief of a nearby island. In the battle that followed, Magellan met his death, speared by the natives. The Chief of Cebu turned against the Spaniards, murdered some of them and drove the rest off the island.

Sailor 10

We left the island of Cebu and wandered around the East Indian Islands for a number of months. We lost another ship.

Sailor 11

The Concepción became unseaworthy and had to be burnt. The remaining two ships managed to get to the Spice Islands, where we took on a large cargo of spices, especially cloves.

Captain Sebastian

[comes forward and bows proudly] I, Captain Juan Sebastian del Cano, was left to command the Victoria and bring her safely home. I decided to cross the Indian Ocean and sail around the Cape of Good Hope. On 2 September 1522, we sailed into a Spanish port. Of the 240 men, only 18 of us returned safe and sound.

Class Organiser

Even though Commander Sebastian del Cano was given the credit for sailing around the world, Ferdinand Magellan will be remembered as one of the greatest navigators whose historic voyage proved, without a doubt, that the Earth is round. Thanks for helping me out!

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Chief

[comes forward smiling] Class, give yourselves a hearty clap. [everyone claps] Thank you for dramatising the story so well. I’m proud of all of you!

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Teacher

THE END

[cast take a bow]

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MIXED ACTIVITIES Use the information contained in the play to help you. Give short answers. 1. About when and where was Magellan born? 2. What did he do as a boy? 3. At what age did he join the army? 4. What did a severe wound do to him?

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5. In which direction did he wish to travel? 6. What did he wish to discover? 7. Which country decided to help?

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8. How many ships did he command? 9. When did he sail?

10. What was the total number of his crew? Name the five ships in the fleet.

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True or false? 1. The sailors had tasted sugarcane before. 2. Magellan had fought against the Moors in Morocco. 3. The King of Portugal refused to help Magellan. 4. The ringleaders of the mutiny were not punished. 5. Two of the five ships secretly returned to Spain. 6. Magellan named the Pacific or Peaceful Ocean. 7. The crew were compelled to live on rats and sawdust. 8. The Philippine Islands were named in honour of the Spanish Queen. N P

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WO R D SEARCH Find the words listed below in the puzzle. Circle or colour each word as you find it.

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Spices Spain Magellan Mutiny

Cebu Cape Victoria Hope

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FILL IN THE BLANKS 1. It took

months to cross the Atlantic Ocean.

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6. Name the two important Capes marked. (i)

5. Name any body of water he passed through.

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4. Name the continents, countries and oceans numbered on the map.

3. Give the year of his voyage.

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2. Trace Magellan’s voyage by joining the dots in colour.

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MAPPING SKILLS On the map above: 1. Fill in these names - Rio de Janeiro, The Philippines, Spain, Magellan Strait and the Mariana Islands.

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CHARACTERS Sir Francis Drake Queen Elizabeth I Herald English Courtiers (2) Philip II, King of Spain Spanish Ambassador Spanish Nobleman (4) American Indians (2) Narrators (4) Crew of Sailors (10) Pointer

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SETTING Stage - Backdrop of maps showing the voyage around the world, and the position of the Spanish Armada. Pictures of English and Spanish ships. A display of the names of the ships involved in Drake’s famous voyage - Pelican, Elizabeth, Marigold, Swan and Benedict. Philip II, King of Spain, seated in a gilded chair, looking arrogant. Before him stands the Spanish Ambassador, just returned from his visit to the English Monarch. Four other Spanish noblemen are present.

[arrogantly] Was our message to Elizabeth I of England delivered?

Ambassador

[bowing] Yes, your most Royal Highness! I made it clear, in no uncertain terms that your Majesty wished this terrible English pirate, Francis Drake, beheaded for his dastardly crimes against Spain.

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What information do we have of his latest voyage?

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Well, sire, he left Plymouth on 13 December 1577, with a fleet of five ships. His flagship was the 100 tonne Pelican. There were two other large ships named the Elizabeth and the Marigold, besides the two supply ships, the Swan and the Benedict.

King Philip II

[stands and stamps his foot in anger, resumes his seat] How much damage has he already inflicted upon our possessions?

Nobleman 2

[looking at a list, reads slowly and with expression] Sire, I have it upon good authority that Drake captured a Portuguese merchant ship, the Mary, soon after leaving Sao Tiago in the Cape Verde Islands. He took on board the experienced old sea pilot, Nuno da Silva to assist with navigation. The captured Portuguese ship was captained by Drake’s friend Thomas Doughty who was suspected of planning a mutiny.

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It was when they anchored off the island of San Julian to pick up supplies that Drake had him tried and beheaded and was heard to say, ‘This is the end of traitors!’ The Christopher and Mary were destroyed in storms off the coast of South America.

King Philip II

[raising his fist in the air] Yes! Yes! Yes! But we do not desire to hear about his troubles. He deserved them all and more. We wish to know only of our losses!

Nobleman 2

[continues to read] Your humble pardon, sire. With your permission shall I continue? They plundered 25 000 pesos from our Grand Captain of the South which was in the harbour at Valparaiso. Further north, they robbed our Llama Train of 360 kilograms of silver. In March 1579, he chased and raided our treasure ship, Cacafuego. We lost chests of jewels, tonnes of silver, trunks of silver coins and plenty of gold. He also plundered the nobleman Don Francisco de Zarate’s galleon, Espirito Santo and raided our settlement in Guatemala. The list goes on.

King Philip II

[hands to his forehead, then cups chin and listens] What do we know of this English pirate and his early life?

Nobleman 3

[looks at a paper] I have collected some information about him, sire. He was born near Plymouth in Devonshire in the year 1540 or 1541. His family moved to Rochester, an English seaport so he was brought up among ships and seamen. At the age of twelve, he worked as an apprentice on an old ship which was a guide to big merchant ships in and out of the English Channel. This gave him a great deal of experience, besides which he read many books. When the master died, he left the old ship to him. By the time he was twenty, he was a very able seaman.

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Nobleman 2

[frowning] Mmmm! Continue! [indicates with a flourish]

Nobleman 3

[continues to read] Later, he sold the old ship and joined his cousin, Sir John Hawkins, whom you know, sire, was involved in the slave trade. In 1566, he crossed the Atlantic on his first slave expedition, but our Spanish officials refused to trade with him. He never forgave Don Martin, the Viceroy of Mexico, for attacking the English fleet anchored in San Juan de Ulua, as he termed it an act of betrayal by the Spanish. He has never stopped wreaking vengeance on our ships and settlements.

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King Philip II

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Sire, our countrymen in the various settlements are now terrified of these English pirates and have named Drake, El Draque - ‘The Dragon’.

King Philip II

[stands up, raises his fist in the air and shouts angrily] This El Draque must be put to death. We shall not be surprised if this Protestant Queen is secretly encouraging these pirates to destroy Spain. But we shall see! Our Great Armada will soon put England in her place! [exit King followed by the his Ambassador and noblemen]

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Nobleman 4

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SCENE TWO

[on the deck of the Golden Hind, Drake and his crew in deep conversation] [clearly, smiling haughtily, one arm on hip] My good men, it’s now over six months since we arrived home. I remember the date well, 26 September 1580, when we sailed safely into Plymouth Sound. I took 164 men on board and returned with just 59 survivors.

Crewman 1

Three cheers for our Captain! [Hip! Hip! Hooray! Hip! Hip! Hooray! Hip! Hip! Hooray!] We set sail from Plymouth on 13 December 1577! Fifty-nine of us survived the long dangerous voyage lasting three years, God bless us and the souls who were lost!

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Captain, we are proud to have sailed with you, the first Englishman who successfully circumnavigated the world. We rejoice in your fame as you are held in great honour throughout England and at most of the courts of Europe.

[claps his hands and laughs] You’re right, sailor! We accomplished a great deal, especially in thrashing the Spaniards at every opportunity. I sorrow over the men we lost, but the ships had to go. We left with a fleet of five but returned with just one, the Golden Hind.

Crewman 3

We all know, Captain, that before we left San Julian you ordered the supply ships and the captured Portuguese ship to be destroyed, as they proved to be unseaworthy. We had just sailed through the Straits of Magellan when that awful storm struck which wrecked the Marigold and blew the Elizabeth off course. Luckily, she returned to England.

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Sir Francis Drake

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Captain, we were proud of the fact that you were able to navigate the Strait in sixteen days, twenty-one days less than Magellan himself took to get through. As we entered the Pacific Ocean on 6 September 1578, we were blown southwards. We made a new discovery that the southern tip of America could be rounded below Magellan’s Strait. We sailed further north in search of the North-West Passage.

Sir Francis Drake

Yes, you men have excellent memories! We had a splendid time plundering the Spanish ships and settlements, along the western coast. Unfortunately, my search for the North-West Passage ended in failure. At last, we came across the American Indians when the ship was being repaired in the San Francisco Bay. They proved to be friendly and helpful.

Crewman 5

[laughing, two Indians come forward with a crowned headdress and place it on Drake’s head] Forgive me, Captain, but I can still see the Indian Chief placing that crown of feathers on your head. It was a great honour! You claimed the land for England and the Queen by nailing a brass plate to a post and calling it New Albion.

Sir Francis Drake

[smiling] Yes I did! Had we turned south again to return home, the Spaniards would have been lying in wait for us. I decided to sail across the Pacific and Indian Oceans instead.

Crewman 6

A difficult decision, Captain, with the Golden Hind heavily laden with so much treasure. It was in July 1579, that we sailed west. The Pacific Ocean seemed unending. It took about two months to get to the Caroline Islands. Then on to the legendary Spice Islands. We stopped for water at the Philippines, picked up a load of spices at the Moluccas and visited Celebes and Java.

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Crewman 4

Crewman 7

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I recall, Captain, how you were able to make friends with the Sultan of Ternate. He gave us six tonnes of cloves, a very precious spice. He had just quarrelled with the Portuguese and agreed to trade with England.

Crewman 8

I too recall, Captain, that it was at Java our good ship struck a hidden rock. The crew worked right through the night to save the ship. After we lightened her by throwing eight cannons and half the spice overboard, she smoothly slipped off the rocks.

Crewman 9

Men, it took us 118 days to cross the Indian Ocean and sail around the Cape of Good Hope. At Sierra Leone, we celebrated and ate to our heart’s content, as it had been the longest journey without a single stop. It was the happiest day of our lives when we sailed into Plymouth on 26 September 1580.

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Although only 59 of us survived, we still look upon this voyage as one of great significance for England, Captain. But we would like one question answered. Most of the crewmen believed we were headed for Alexandria, in Egypt. How did it come about that we sailed around the world?

Sir Francis Drake

Yes, most of you men believed that, but there were three reasons for our voyage. I had instructions to explore new settlements in the Pacific Ocean and open up trade; to explore the unknown South Land and to discover the North-West Passage. [raises hand to mouth to disclose a secret] Last and most important, I received secret instructions to loot as many Spanish ships and colonies along the Pacific Coast of South America. We returned home laden with treasure, didn’t we?

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[the crew smile and nod their heads, a commotion begins, voices calling] The Queen! The Queen!

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Crewman 10

SCENE THREE

[hails loud and clear] The Queen! Make your way for her most Royal Majesty, Elizabeth I of England! [the Queen walks on deck haughtily, followed by two courtiers, Drake comes forward to meet her]

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Herald

[comes forward and makes a deep bow] Your most Royal Majesty, this is an unexpected pleasure! Welcome aboard the Golden Hind!

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Sir Francis Drake

[poised and gracious with a sword in her hand] Master Drake, it is our pleasure to visit the Golden Hind, but the King of Spain desires your head for what he considered crimes against Spain. We hold in our hand a weapon that would easily do that. Kneel! [Drake gets down on one knee. The Queen touches each shoulder with the sword, smiles and continues] Rise, Sir Francis Drake! It is our great pleasure to make you a knight of our realm. [Drake stands and bows again with a beaming smile]

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Queen Elizabeth I

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Sir Francis Drake

Thank you, thank you very much indeed, Your Gracious Majesty, for this great honour!

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[cheering together] Hurray! Three cheers for the Queen, for England and Sir Francis Drake! [Hip! Hip! Hooray! Hip! Hip! Hooray! Hip! Hip! Hooray!] [exit Queen with a smile and a gracious wave]

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[the Narrators move to the front] [clear and with expression, may be read]

This historic event took place on 4 April 1581 when the Golden Hind was berthed at Deptford in Plymouth. The Queen, by so honouring England’s hero, had once again snubbed her old enemy, Philip II, King of Spain. There were two main reasons for this conflict. England had become a Protestant country and broken away from the Catholic Church while Spain and Portugal remained deeply Catholic. Spain had colonised certain parts of the Americas which yielded gold and silver. England wished to have a part in this wealth and Elizabeth I secretly encouraged Drake and other English seamen to plunder Spanish ships and settlements. In 1585, the King of Spain, ordered all English merchant vessels in his ports to be arrested.

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England replied by sending 29 warships, with Sir Francis Drake commanding 600 tonne Elizabeth Bonaventure. His orders were to capture Spanish ships in the West Indies and sack their towns. In June 1587, he captured the huge Portuguese ship, The San Felipe, owned by the King of Spain. He captured an enormous treasure consisting of gold, jewels, silk, spices and china. Drake triumphantly announced, ‘I have singed the King of Spain’s beard!’

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Narrator 1

Narrator 3

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Philip II’s Great Armada, consisting of 130 huge galleons, left Lisbon on 30 May 1588. On 29 July, Drake’s famous game of bowls was interrupted by its arrival. He was certain he could complete his game and beat the Spanish as well. He did just that! The Spanish galleons were not properly equipped with guns and ammunition, the gunners were inexperienced and the ships were too large and slow.

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The English ships were small and fast moving. Eight of them were packed with pitch, dry wood and tar, set alight and sent amidst the Armada. Many of the galleons caught fire and were damaged. Some of the Spanish Captains panicked, cut their anchors loose and fled.

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A change of wind pushed them into the North Sea. Drake gave chase and they were forced to sail northwards around the British Isles. Several of them sank off the Irish coast. Only 67 of them returned to Spain. Once again, Spain suffered a terrible defeat.

Narrator 4

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Drake became a Member of Parliament for Plymouth in 1593 but returned to piracy in 1595. On 28 January 1596 he died of dysentery and was buried at sea. England mourned the death of her beloved hero but the Spanish celebrated the passing away of El Draque. He was ambitious and gained great wealth through his adventures as a pirate. He will always be remembered as one of the great ‘sea dogs’ of Elizabethan Times.

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THE END

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[cast take a bow]

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WANTED POSTER

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by the Spanish Police

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BY ORDER OF Philip I - King of Spain Pirate’s Name:

DESCRIPTION

Height: Colour of Skin:

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Colour of Hair: Colour of Eyes:

Last seen:

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Distinguishing marks or features:

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FOR THE

CRIME COMMITTED

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MONSTROUS PAST CRIMES

REWARD OFFERED ..................................

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SEQUENCING The following points briefly describe Drake’s voyage around the world. Rearrange the following events, number them in their correct sequence. Refer to the play for information if necessary. 1. The Golden Hind was blown southwards and a new way to round the southern tip of America was discovered.

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2. Failing to find the North-West Passage, Drake decided to turn south again and cross the Pacific and Indian Oceans. 3. A fleet of five ships sailed from Plymouth on 13 December 1577.

4. Unfortunately, the ship struck hidden rocks at Java, and to save the ship some cannons and cargo were thrown overboard.

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5. Three unseaworthy ships were destroyed; the Marigold was wrecked soon after passing the Magellan Strait and the Elizabeth was blown off course but luckily returned to England safely. 6. After only one stop at Sierra Leone, the Golden Hind successfully sailed into Plymouth Harbour on 26 September 1580, with only 59 survivors.

7. Drake and his crew sailed up the western coast of America plundering Spanish ships and settlements.

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8. They visited the Philippines, the Moluccas and the Celebes, taking on board a load of spices.

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WO R D S EARCH Find the names listed below written either across or down.

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1. Label the names on the map with the help of an atlas. 2. Trace over Drake’s voyage in red. 3. Name the part of North America Drake claimed for England.

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The names of the following places, continents and oceans feature in Drake’s voyage: Plymouth, Cape Verde Islands, San Julian, Magellan Strait, Cape Horn, Molucca Islands, Valparaiso, San Francisco Bay, Caroline Islands, Philippines, Java, Cape of Good Hope, Sierra Leone, North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean.

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CAPTAIN H

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CHARACTERS Sorcerer Klondack Captain James Cook Narrators (6) Crewmen (8) Pupils (3) William Sanderson John Walker Henry Walker Captain Hugh Palliser Dr Solander Joseph Banks Lieutenant Furneaux William Bligh Lieutenant Clerke Lieutenant Gore Pointer

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SETTING Stage - Backdrops displaying the ships used in the three expeditions - Endeavour, Resolution, Adventure and Discovery. Pictures depicting flora and fauna discovered on the expeditions, of James Cook and the crew being welcomed by the Tahitians, the clash with the Maoris of New Zealand etc. Chairs for the important characters. Sailors may sit around and come forward on cue. A group of narrators seated to one side of the stage. Two pupils have a heated dispute. Sorcerer Klondack’s name is mentioned and he makes his appearance.

[shakes his finger in his face] I tell you, sonny boy, a great explorer like James Cook would never have worked in a grocery store in his youth. You forget he was looked upon as a god by the Hawaiians.

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Pupil 1

[crossly] Don’t ‘sonny boy’ me, you nincompoop! I tell you he worked as a farm boy and in a grocery store owned by a man named William Sanderson.

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Pupil 2

Pupil 3

[comes up and claps his hands on their shoulders] Now stop that bickering you two! If the great Sorcerer Klondack were here, he’d set the record straight, I tell you!

Sorcerer Klondack

[appears, laughs out loud] I heard someone call and here I am, my hearties! What record am I supposed to set straight?

Pupil 1

[points to Pupil 2] (Pupil 1’s name) here was saying that Captain Cook…

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[interrupts] No, don’t tell me! We’ll invite Captain Cook and some of his crew to visit us. We’ll leave them to put the record straight! First, I shall give special powers to that lonely looking group [points to the narrators] to fill in the gaps. [raises his arms and eyes heavenwards] Glorious sunshine, bright blue sky, James Cook and crew, come on by! You are needed to answer questions, On your three exciting expeditions!

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Sorcerer Klondack

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[Captain Cook and some of his crew walk slowly onto the stage towards the Sorcerer]

[wearily] Klondack, my good man, how many times am I to answer your call?

Sorcerer Klondack

[humorously] Ha! Ha! Ha! The mighty James Cook awakes! These boys and many of their friends [points to the class group] wish to know more about your great explorations. Speaking to you face to face is much more interesting than searching through books, don’t you think?

Captain Cook

[turns to audience, one arm on hip] Very well! As you may know I am looked upon as one of the greatest of British seamen, an expert navigator and surveyor. I came from humble beginnings but through hard work and determination rose to positions of trust. I was born on 27 October 1728, in the village of Marton-in-Cleveland in Yorkshire, the second of six children. My father was a farm labourer and I often helped on the farm.

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Captain Cook

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[Pupil 2 looks at Pupil 1 with an ‘I told you so’ look]

Pupil 1

My friend, (Pupil 1’s name) says you worked in a grocery store as a boy. Did you sir? We would like to know something of your early life!

Captain Cook

[smiling] I’ll be glad to, with the help of men who knew me when I was young.

Mr Sanderson

[come forward and bows] My name is William Sanderson, the owner of a general store. In 1740, I hired young James as a shopkeeper’s apprentice. He worked hard, sweeping floors, dusting shelves and wrapping articles for customers. Even though he was a fine worker, he longed for a life at sea. In 1746, I helped him become an apprentice sailor on coal ships at Whitby.

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[comes forward and bows] The coal ships belonged to us, the Walker brothers. Young James was eager to learn everything about ships and sailing. He worked on the coal ship Freelove, a funny name but a great ship. He soon learnt how to read the compass and measure latitude on an instrument called the quadrant. He studied navigation from sailing charts and books and carefully noted the position of the stars and constellations.

Henry Walker

[bows] I’m the other brother, Henry Walker. James worked for three years on our coal ships. We promoted him to Ship’s Mate and then offered him the command of the Friendship, which he refused. He had his sights on greater things.

Captain Cook

Yes, I had my sights on better things. At the age of 27, I joined the Royal Navy, as war with France was certain. My first assignment was on a huge sixty-gun warship called the Eagle. In five weeks I was promoted to Master’s Mate.

Captain Palliser

[comes forward and bows] I’m Captain Hugh Palliser. I became the new captain of the Eagle. I realized James was a very able seaman and promoted him to the responsible position of Boatswain and later to Ship’s Master.

Captain Cook

In 1757, at the age of 29, I was transferred to the sixty-four-gun Pembroke. I was also encouraged to continue my studies in surveying, mathematics and astronomy.

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John Walker

While Captain Cook rests, I shall take up the story. He and a few [pointer] others successfully charted the St Lawrence River, especially the narrow neck, which was full of sandbars and rocky reefs. This made it possible for the British Fleet to capture Quebec, France’s colonial capital in Canada. The Seven Year War with France came to an end in February 1763, with Britain victorious.

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Narrator 1

Pupil 2

Sir, we would like to hear some of the most interesting facts about your voyages!

Captain Cook

[nods smiling] Most certainly, my crewmen and I will be only to happy to help. I made three main voyages, in the years 1768, 1772 and 1776. It was before the last voyage that I was promoted to the rank of Captain.

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We must not forget another very happy occasion which took place on 21 December 1762, when James Cook, at the age of 34, married a very beautiful 21-year-old girl named Elizabeth Batts. During the years ahead, they had six children, but unfortunately, he never spent much time at home with them.

Narrator 3

Before his first expedition, he surveyed and charted 9 656 kilometres [pointer] of very rough coastline around Newfoundland. It was during this important task he accidentally blew up part of his hand, but was back at work after only a month. The work was completed in 1767, with charts and maps so accurate that they were used without change for over a century.

Narrator 4

Cook’s detailed notes on the total eclipse of the sun, which he observed in 1766 while still in Canada, so impressed the Royal Society in London, that they decided to send him to Tahiti to observe the Transit of Venus, which was to take place on 3 June 1769.

Captain Cook

This brings me to my first voyage. I was made a Lieutenant and given the command of the Endeavour. We left Plymouth on 26 August 1768. We sailed around Cape Horn and reached Tahiti on 13 April 1769, where we made preparations to observe the passage of Venus across the face of the Sun.

Crewman 1

[comes forward and touches his cap politely] Aye, we were pleased to set our feet on land again after over seven months at sea. The Tahitians gave us a very warm welcome. We exchanged nails and other metal objects for fresh fruit, vegetables and pigs.

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Narrator 2

[laughs and touches his cap] Shiver me timbers, we soon found they were the world’s best pickpockets. In a jiffy you lost anything made of metal. On the first day they pinched Dr Solander’s spyglass and a snuffbox from Dr Monkhouse, the ship’s surgeon. Aye, we loved Tahiti and were sorry to leave on 13 July.

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Crewman 2

Captain Cook

Now that the first part of our voyage was over, I opened the envelope which contained secret instructions. I was to continue south in search of a southern continent, and to find out for certain whether New Zealand formed part of the continent.

Crewman 3

[touches his cap] Beggin’ your pardon, Cap’n, we were lucky to have Tupia, the Tahitian Chief, on board. The natives we met in New Zealand were none too friendly. Tupia tried to make them understand in his lingo we were friends but a few incidents occurred in which you ordered us to fire at the natives. We were sorry to see some of them killed and wounded.

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[bows and smiles] I, Dr Daniel Solander, a naturalist, remember clearly that when we were anchored in Charlotte’s Sound, I climbed a high hill and noticed a narrow channel separating two islands. This channel we called Cook Strait. We sailed right around the two islands which proved New Zealand was not one big island and not connected to a southern continent, even if there was one. Captain Cook charted the coastline in detail.

Captain Cook

We had now been at sea for nineteen months and I agreed with my men it was time to return home. We left New Zealand on 31 March 1770, and sailed up the east coast of New Holland, seen by Europeans for the first time. We anchored in Botany Bay and I claimed a good part of New Holland for England.

Crewman 4

[touches his cap] Aye, bad luck hit us while sailing through the Great Barrier Reef. Our ship struck a reef and our good Cap’n rushed on deck, dressed only in his underpants. He did look funny! It took seven weeks to repair the damage and get her off the reef.

Joseph Banks

[bows and smiles] I, Joseph Banks, the ship’s botanist had a splendid time collecting and labelling specimens of plants found in this part of the world. We were also amazed by the strange animals we saw and the weapons used by the natives.

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Dr Solander

On 4 August 1770, the patched up Endeavour sailed on past Cape York and on to Batavia. Cook had charted nearly 3 219 kilometres of Australian coastline, which he claimed for King George. At Batavia, sickness struck in the form of malaria and dysentery. Surgeon Monkhouse, Chief Tupia and five crewmen died. Sadly, twenty-three crewmen died on the voyage home.

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Narrator 5

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It was March when they rounded the Cape of Good Hope and the Endeavour reached Britain on 13 July 1771. His voyage was successful in that Cook proved that a healthy diet and cleanliness could prevent scurvy on board; charting over 8 000 kilometres of Pacific coastline to New Zealand and New Holland.

Pupil 1

Sir, with your first voyage over, when did you begin on the next one?

Captain Cook

I was now 43 years of age and promoted to the rank of Commander. A new expedition was planned and I suggested the southern parts of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans be explored further as it would prove definitely whether a southern continent existed. I was given two new coal ships, the Resolution and the Adventure. We set sail on 13 July 1772.

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[bows] Commander Cook chose the Resolution, the bigger and sturdier of the two ships to be the flagship while I, Lieutenant Tobias Furneaux, took command of the Adventure. The Resolution had 110 crew, 20 of whom had sailed on the Endeavour. I had 80 men on board. We carried loads of peas, carrots, wheat, cheese and even sauerkraut, to prevent scurvy.

Crewman 5

[smiles and touches his cap] Ye remember, Cap’n we stopped at the Madeira and Cape Verde Islands for fresh water and supplies. After reaching the Cape of Good Hope, we headed south. We pushed through snow and sleet which made it difficult for us to carry out our duties with numb hands, but we be stout mariners.

Captain Cook

On 17 January 1773, we crossed the Antarctic Circle. I’m proud to state we were the first ones to do so. Had we continued for another 121 kilometres, we would have reached Antarctica. We could go no further as thick fog and ice blocked our path. Our ships became separated but I had arranged with Lieutenant Furneaux that should this ever happen, we would meet at Charlotte’s Sound in New Zealand.

Narrator 1

The Resolution tried to sail further south of the Antarctic Circle but found it impossible. Now it sailed towards New Zealand and entered Dusky Bay after 117 days of leaving Cape Town. Some of the sailors killed a seal and the crew enjoyed fresh meat for the first time in many days.

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Lieutenant Furneaux

The Adventure was already there when the Resolution eventually reached Charlotte’s Sound. Commander Cook was very upset with Lieutenant Furneaux for not sticking to the diet, which caused 20 of his crew to come down with scurvy. After seeing to repairs and collecting fresh water, they sailed through the South Pacific. Because of the second outbreak of scurvy, it was decided to sail to Tahiti for fresh fruit and vegetables.

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Narrator 3

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Welcomed by the Tahitians, the ships anchored at Matavai Bay. They visited the Tonga Islands, which Cook renamed the Friendly Islands, because the natives showered them with gifts of sugar cane, lemons, bananas, coconuts and other fruit and vegetables. Many of the sailors would have been happy to spend the rest of their lives on these islands. On 7 October 1773, Cook ordered the ships to sail once again towards the Antarctic.

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We had lost contact with the Resolution again and were three weeks late in arriving at Queen Charlotte’s Sound, our meeting place. Cook had already left. Unfortunately we had a clash with the Maoris and eleven of my men were killed, roasted and eaten by these cannibals. I was now determined to get home, so I rounded Cape Horn, crossed the Atlantic and arrived in England in July 1774. I was now the first explorer to sail around the world by a west to east route.

Narrator 4

The Resolution battled on through fog and blizzards. After crossing the Antarctic Circle for the second time, they sailed further South than ever before. Cook guessed that land lay beyond the frozen waters but was unable to reach it. He headed north to warmer waters to explore more of the Pacific. He became ill and his loyal crew nursed him back to health by feeding him broth made of dogmeat, the only fresh meat they could get.

Narrator 5

They visited the Easter Islands, the Society Group, the Friendly Islands, New Hebrides and a large island which was named New Caledonia. Norfolk Island was discovered and they stayed there for three weeks while the ship was thoroughly overhauled and the men took a much-needed rest.

Crewman 6

Aye mates, ye remember our third Christmas was spent on the shores of Tierra del Fuego. Our Cap’n had successfully explored the Southern Pacific Ocean. The new year, 1775, saw our good ship ploughing eastwards, through the South Atlantic. We arrived at the Cape of Good Hope and stayed at Cape Town for five weeks, repairing the Resolution. We dropped anchor in Portsmouth Harbour on 29 July 1775, after a voyage which lasted 3 years and 18 days, so help us!

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Lieutenant Furneaux

What did you do after your second successful voyage, Sir?

Captain Cook

I volunteered to command a third Pacific Expedition. This was to discover a shorter northern route to the rich trade of India and China other than around Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope.

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Narrator 6

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The Resolution was thoroughly overhauled, which later proved untrue. Another Whitby coal ship, the 298 tonne Discovery was bought and was much more seaworthy than the Resolution. Lieutenant Charles Clerke was given the command of the Discovery. Cook chose William Bligh to be master on his ship and 14-year-old George Vancouver was signed on as Apprentice Officer.

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Both these men later became famous. Bligh as captain of the Bounty, who survived the famous mutiny, and in 1792 Vancouver led a successful expedition into the North Pacific. King George III sent gifts of vegetable seeds and livestock to the natives of the Society and Friendly Islands. Cook jokingly called the Resolution, ‘a Noah’s Ark’.

Narrator 2

The Resolution left Plymouth Harbour on 12 July 1776 with the Discovery to follow and meet at Cape Town. Captain Cook had instructions to stop at New Zealand and Tahiti first, then enter the North Pacific by sailing along the coast of North America.

William Bligh

[comes forward and bows politely] I, Master Bligh, was disappointed with the shoddy job done on the Resolution by the Deptford Navy yard. At Cape Town, the ship began to leak and the mizzenmast cracked. We sailed south, round the Cape of Good Hope, sighting Kerguelen Island in December. Again, the ship was in need of repairs as the rigging, sails and spars had come crashing down on the deck. We had a great deal of trouble right through the voyage.

Lieutenant Clerke

[bows proudly] I, Lieutenant Clerke, was in command of the Discovery. We sailed eastwards to Van Diemen’s Land and New Zealand. We were compelled to turn west and head for the Friendly Islands to pick up supplies. The islanders’ habit of stealing caused a great deal of trouble. Captain Cook had to deal severely with them. Some of them were punished with whipping, shaving their heads and holding some of their Chiefs hostage until the stolen items were returned.

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Narrator 1

[touches his cap with a smile] Aye, Cap’n, I reckon we were all mighty happy to sail towards Tahiti and anchor at Matavai Bay. Here ye presented our King’s gifts of livestock and seeds to the island Chiefs. It was before Christmas 1777, we sailed into North Pacific waters and on Christmas Eve we sighted an island. Ye named it Christmas Island. Very fitting it was!

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Crewman 7

Captain Cook

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Early in January 1778, we spent two weeks at another group of islands known as the Hawaiian Islands. The rough weather drove us towards the coast of North America. We anchored in Nootka Sound as the Resolution needed to be repaired again. The peaceful Nootka Indians turned out to be very crafty as they traded for everything we needed, even water and wood.

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Next they anchored in Prince William Sound, a sheltered harbour on the Alaskan coast. Here the Resolution’s leaking hull was fixed. The two vessels now entered a wide opening, which was named Cook Inlet. They sailed along the Alaskan Peninsula, the bad weather making the charting of the coastline a very difficult task.

William Bligh

Passing the Aleutian Islands, the two ships were swept by strong winds across the Bering Strait, which separated Asia and North America by only 89 kilometres. Captain Cook wished to make sure that this opening led to the Arctic Circle, so he ordered a boat to land at a native village. They were met by armed natives, who saw how unafraid Cook appeared. They eventually laid down their weapons and extended friendship. The extreme cold and huge ice field made him turn back. The Captain planned to spend the rest of the winter on the Hawaiian Islands and attempt the search for the North-West Passage the next year.

Narrator 4

On 26 November 1778, the two ships anchored in the Bay of Kealakekua. The Hawaiians were pleased to see them and brought gifts of fresh food and pigs. Captain Cook was always treated with the greatest respect, with the natives bowing before him and calling him ‘Rono’, as they believed he was the Hawaiian god of peace and happiness. But with the amount of food the natives were compelled to give away, they were pleased to see the two ships leave.

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Narrator 3

The natives were very surprised when they returned to Kealakekua Bay to have the Resolution’s foremast repaired. This time, the crew were not received with gifts and cheers. Trouble began to brew, especially when thefts increased. Captain Cook demanded the return of the goods and the crew were put on alert, with guns ready. Sad to say, in a horrific clash with the natives on the beach, Captain Cook was speared and killed on 14 February 1779. [the incident may be re-enacted, Captain Cook is speared and falls to the floor, his body is removed by two natives]

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Narrator 5

Lieutenant Clerke

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I, Lieutenant Clerke, now took charge of the expedition. The Hawaiians realized the wrong they had done and tried to make amends by returning Captain Cook’s blackened bones, wrapped in a cloak of black and white feathers. They had cut his body and burnt the pieces, according to their custom, treating him as one of their highest chiefs.

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[touches his cap and says sadly] Aye mates, our hearts were heavy as the Resolution and Discovery set sail on 23 February. Our new Cap’n, Lieutenant Clerke, tried once again to find the North-West Passage, but the floating ice and thick fog prevented the ships from getting through. He ordered the ships to sail south, but his health was so poor that he died soon after. Lieutenant Gore now took command of both ships and a heavy load it was for him. [Clerke slips away]

Lieutenant Gore

[comes forward and bows] I, Lieutenant Gore, realized we had a difficult voyage ahead. We stopped for supplies and repairs along the coast of China, sailed through the Java Sea and made another stop at Cape Town. To prevent any trouble with the United States and France, I guided the ships around Ireland and Scotland. We sailed up the River Thames on 4 October 1780, after a voyage that had lasted four years, two months and 21 days.

Narrator 6

Captain James Cook will always be remembered for his great achievements. He brought new information of the southern continent and the North-West Passage. He had extended the knowledge of the South Pacific, South Indian and South Atlantic Oceans. He had worked on preventing scurvy on board ships. His name will always be connected with the four ships Endeavour, Resolution, Adventure and Discovery.

Sorcerer Klondack

[comes forward, swinging his cape] Now that we’ve heard it all, it’s time to say adieu To famous Captain and some of his crew! Let us wish them a long and peaceful rest, Whether in the north, south, east or west! [the crew walk slowly off the stage, Sorcerer Klondack makes a deep bow and leaves]

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THE END

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CHARACTER SKETCH 1. Give Captain Cook a rating. 2. Write a good reason to support your choice in character.

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T I M E L I N E - L I F E A N D VOYAG E S Fill in the boxes below with the following information: (i) date (ii) place (iii) event or (iv) reason.

Place of birth.

2. Year of apprenticeship. Place of apprenticeship.

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3. Year of seaman apprenticeship.

Place of apprenticeship.

5. Date of first voyage on the Endeavour.

6. Year Solander discovers Another important event 3 reasons for the voyage. that NZ is 2 islands. in same year.

The happy event.

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4. Date of happy event.

8. Date of crossing the Antarctic Circle.

Reason for its importance.

Reason for the voyage.

10. Year of death.

Cause of death.

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7. Date of second voyage.

Name of the ships and their commanders.

9. Date of third voyage.

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(i) First voyage (ii) Second voyage 4. Draw in the Equator, the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

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2. Use yellow for the last return trip which was not led by Cook. Do you know why he didn’t lead this section of the voyage?

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MAPPING SKILLS 1. Trace the voyages in the colours suggested: first voyage (

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MARCO POLO

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Sequencing - page 20 1. Four 2. Seven 3. Eleven 4. Three 5. Ten 6. Two 7. Six 8. Twelve 9. One 10. Nine 11. Eight 12. Five Crossword - page 21

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Mapping Skills - page 15 2. (i) Palos (ii) Canary Islands (iii) Atlantic Ocean (iv) West Indies (v) Europe (vi) Africa (vii) North America (viii) Spain (ix) Caribbean (x) 1492

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An Acrostic - page 13 3. Name - Christopher Columbus 1. Christopher Columbus 2. Henry 3. Royal Flag 4. Indies 5. Spain 6. Tobacco 7. Oar 8. Palos 9. Hispaniola 10. East 11. Round 12. China 13. Ocean 14. Lisbon 15. Unusual 16. Mutiny 17. Bartholomew 18. August 19. Santa Maria. Quick Puzzles - page 14 P T

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Mapping Skills- page 8 3. South China Sea, Bay of Bengal, Indian Sea, Persian Gulf, Black Sea, Arabian Sea, Mediterranean Sea 4. Equator, Tropic of Cancer

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Some Facts about Marco Polo- page 6 Early Life - 1. Venice 2. wharf 3. ships, sailors 4. read, write, arithmetic 5. merchant, foreign, cargo. His Journey - 1. uncle, 1271 2. Acre, Baghdad, Hormuz, camel 3. three 4. Kublai Khan 5. kingdom, Chinese His Stay in Cathay - World 1. tea 2. coal 3. yak, elephant 4. silk, paper, gunpowder 5. postal 6. paper, coins His Return Journey - 1. 18 2. gifts, wealthy 3. Singapore, India, Arabian 4. granddaughter 5. 1324, traveller Crossword - page 7

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Mapping Skills - page 22 2. Important Points - 1. Lisbon 2. Cape Verde lslands 3. St Helena Bay 4. Cape of Good Hope 5. Zambezi River 6. Mozambique 7. Malindi 8. Calicut 3. (i) Atlantic Ocean (ii) Indian Ocean 4. (i) Tropic of Capricorn (ii) Equator (iii) Tropic of Cancer 5. 8 July 1497.

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SIR FRANCIS DRAKE Wanted Poster - page 37 Teacher to check. Sequencing - page 38 1. Three 2. Five 3. One 4. Seven 5. Two 6. Eight 7. Four 8. Six

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Fill in the blanks - 1. Three 2. Rio de Janerio 3. friendly 4. The South Sea 5. mutiny 6. Fireland 7. Santiago 8. Cebu 9. natives 10. Victoria Mapping Skills - page 29 1 & 2. Teacher to check 3. 1519 4. Continents and Oceans - (a) Spain (b) Africa (c) Asia (d) Indian Ocean (e) Philippines (f) Pacific Ocean (g) North America (h) South America 5. Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean 6. (i) Cape of Good Hope (ii) Cape Horn

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Mixed Activities - page 27 Short Answers - 1. about 1480, Northern Portugal 2. Queen’s Pageboy 3. 25 4. became lame 5. westwards 6. shorter route to India or to the east 7. Spain 8. 5 9. 20 September 1519 10. 240 men Ship Names - Concepción, Santiago, Trinidad, San Antonio and Victoria True or false? - 1. False 2. True 3. True 4. False 5. False 6. True 7. True 8. False Word Search - page 28 Y

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FERDINAND MAGELLAN

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Character Sketch - page 50 Teacher to check. Timeline - Life and Voyages - page 51 1. 27 October 1728, Marton-in-Cleveland, Yorkshire in England 2. 1740, William Sanderson’s General Store 3. 1746, Whitby 4. 21 December 1762, Marriage to Elizabeth Batts 5. 26 August 1768, observing the Transit of Venus on Tahiti in 1769 - search for a southern continent - rediscovery of New Zealand 6. 1770, Endeavour is damaged on the Great Barrier Reef 7. 13 July 1772, HMS Resolution - James Cook and HMS Adventure - Tobias Furneaux 8. 17 January 1773, First man to cross the Antarctic Circle. 9. 12 July 1776, To discover a shorter northern route to trade with India and China 10. 1779, Killed in a skirmish with the Hawaiian natives. Mapping Skills - page 52 2. Cook was killed in a skirmish with the Hawaiian natives on 14 February 1779 3. (i) 26 August 1768 (ii) 13 July 1772 (iii) 12 July 1776 5. Equator, Tropic of Capricorn, Antarctic Circle, Tropic of Cancer, Arctic Circle 6. Antarctic Circle in the Third Voyage.

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2502UK History through Drama