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Jenni Harrold www.prim-ed.com

Other titles to support this curriculum area Copymasters

Bullying • Conflict Resolution • Lifestyle Choices • Don’t Sit! Get Fit! Self-esteem • Values Education • Transition Issues Other Books Dino-might Bullying Readers Posters Bullying • Dino-might Bullying • Conflict Resolution Lifestyle Choices • Self-esteem • Values 0580UK


Health and values—Book G Prim-Ed Publishing.

Published in 2006 by Prim-Ed Publishing. Reprinted under licence by Prim-Ed Publishing, 2006. Copyright Jenni Harrold and R.I.C. Publications 2003 The author wishes to acknowledge the extensive knowledge of the writers at R.I.C. Publications who contributed to this project. This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

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ISBN 1 84654 046 1 PR–0580

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Additional titles available in this series: Primary health and values—Book A Primary health and values—Book B Primary health and values—Book C Primary health and values—Book D Primary health and values—Book E Primary health and values—Book F View all pages online.

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Email Address: sales@prim-ed.com Home Page: http://www.prim-ed.com

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Internet websites In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing students to access them.

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs. For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase. Name of Purchaser:

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Health and values Foreword Health and values introduces and develops the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that will assist pupils to lead healthy and fulfilling lives. Pupils will consider what it means to be healthy—physically, socially, mentally and emotionally—and will be given experiences to assist them to become responsible, caring members of society. The book is divided into two sections. The first section—Healthy lifestyles— offers pupils the knowledge to make informed decisions about safety, alcohol, the media, drugs and more. Through guided classroom discussions and activities, pupils are encouraged to think critically about health issues and the challenges they face as they grow and develop. Other titles in this series: Primary health and values – Book A Primary health and values – Book B Primary health and values – Book C Primary health and values – Book D

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The second section—Personal development and relationships—focuses on character building and values. Most experts agree that people with defined values and a good self-image are better equipped to deal with challenging situations. The activities in this section encourage pupils to consider their own values and develop a sense of self-worth. This section also focuses on the importance of showing respect for and tolerance towards others and valuing diversity in our society.

Primary health and values – Book E Primary health and values – Book F

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Health and values provides coverage of the health curriculum, supports teachers in planning and implementing lessons and, through collaborative learning and thoughtful discussion, promotes a lifelong commitment to healthy, active lifestyles. Contents

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Healthy lifestyles

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Teachers notes Teacher information ................................................................................................................................................................ iv – v Suggestions for teaching health and values .................................................................................................................. vi – vii Assessment .......................................................................................................................................................................... viii – ix Assessment proformas.......................................................................................................................................................... x – xi

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A balanced lifestyle .................................................2 – 3 Puberty .......................................................................4 – 5 Growth and development – male ........................6 – 7 Growth and development – female .....................8 – 9 Social and emotional development ................10 – 11 Personal development .......................................12 – 13 Cultural factors ....................................................14 – 15 Drugs .....................................................................16 – 17 Alcohol ..................................................................18 – 19 Tobacco ................................................................20 – 21 Mental health .......................................................22 – 23 Physical activity ...................................................24 – 25 Accidents .............................................................26 – 27 Safety ....................................................................28 – 29 Media influences .................................................30 – 31 Advertising ...........................................................32 – 33 Community services ...........................................34 – 35 Health issues .......................................................36 – 37 Influences on physical activity .........................38 – 39 Being a part of a group .....................................40 – 41 Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

Personal development and relationships How do you feel? ..................................................42 – 43 Feeling good about yourself ...............................44 – 45 Being assertive! .....................................................46 – 47 Stereotyping ...........................................................48 – 49 Bullying ....................................................................50 – 51 Peer pressure .........................................................52 – 53 Friendships .............................................................54 – 55 Relationships ..........................................................56 – 57 Conflict resolution .................................................58 – 59 Communication .....................................................60 – 61 Managing stress ....................................................62 – 63 Decision making ....................................................64 – 65 Healthy lifestyle challenge!..................................66 – 67 What do you value? ..............................................68 – 69 Tolerance .................................................................70 – 71 Respect ................................................................... 72 – 73 Managing your time .............................................. 74 – 75 Goals ....................................................................... 76 – 77 Environmental issues............................................ 78 – 79

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Teacher information Health and values is divided into two sections. These are: Healthy lifestyles – offers pupils the knowledge to make informed decisions about safety, alcohol, exercise, the media, drugs and more. Through guided classroom discussions and activities, pupils are encouraged to think critically about health issues and the challenges they face as they grow and develop. Personal development and relationships – focuses on character building and values. The activities in this section encourage pupils to consider their own values and develop a sense of self-worth. This section also focuses on the importance of showing respect and tolerance towards others and valuing diversity in our society. The notes on the following pages provide comprehensive information about terms and concepts used in this book. A teachers page accompanies each pupil worksheet. It provides the following information:

Background information has been included to enhance the teacher’s understanding of the concept being taught and to provide additional information to relate to the pupils.

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Specific objectives explain what the pupils are expected to demonstrate through completing the activities.

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Discussion points have been suggested to further develop ideas on the pupil worksheet. They can also encourage the pupils to comprehend, assess and form opinions about what they have read.

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What to do gives suggested step-bystep instructions for the activity. The accompanying worksheet may be the focus of the activity or it may be where the pupils record their ideas after completing a task or discussion.

Answers to all worksheet activities are included. Some answers will need a teacher check, while others will vary depending on the pupils’ personal experiences, opinions etc.

Additional activities can be used to further develop the objectives being assessed. These activities provide ideas to consolidate and clarify the concepts and skills taught in the activity. Curriculum links appropriate to each country and are provided across the main learning area.

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Teacher information

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A variety of pupil worksheets are provided, which may contain a selection of role-plays to perform; scenarios to read and consider; information to read, discuss and answer questions about; or values or feelings to consider and compare with others.

Questioning activities where pupils are required to consider and evaluate personal feelings or values.

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Pupil activities to reinforce and develop understanding of the concept.

Several pages provide a selection of role-plays or scenarios for pupils to use in a variety of ways. Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

Other activities include completing tables or reading and labelling diagrams.

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Suggestions for teaching health and values Health and values introduces and develops the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that will enable pupils to lead healthy and fulfilling lives. Pupils will consider what it means to be healthy—physically, socially, mentally and emotionally—and will be given the tools to become responsible, caring members of society. Many of the activities in this book provide pupils with an opportunity to formulate their thoughts on a topic and express their opinions and feelings. Classroom discussions are valuable for encouraging critical and reflective thinking.

Teaching health

Creating a safe atmosphere

• Create a safe atmosphere in the classroom so pupils feel they can share their thoughts and feelings.

For an effective health lesson to take place, pupils need to feel comfortable enough to share their thoughts, feelings, opinions and past experiences. They need to feel there will be no ridicule, no put-downs and a non-judgmental atmosphere.

• Begin with a discussion or, with older pupils, a hypothetical situation. (Refer to the ‘Discussion points’ in the Teachers notes for each activity.) • Listen to and be honest with the pupils. (Give something of yourself. Share some of your own experiences, where appropriate.) • Show respect for the pupils’ thoughts and feelings.

Pupils can be encouraged to become respectful listeners. Ensure that pupils raise their hands if they wish to make a comment; or, for younger pupils, an item can be placed in the middle of the circle such as a ‘talking stick’ or small toy. Only pupils holding this are able to speak.

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• Be non-judgmental.

One way to promote this safe atmosphere during discussions with younger pupils is to make the effort to sit the pupils in a circle, even if it means going to another room to do this. Some schools call this time ‘circle time’. Set clear rules, such as one pupil speaking at a time and no put-downs or pulling faces. Make the circle a ‘safe place’ where the pupils feel comfortable to talk openly about their feelings, worries and achievements.

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• Identify what it is the pupils are going to take away from the lesson. (Refer to the ‘Objective’ in the Teachers notes for each activity.)

In your responses, encourage pupils to analyse their statements by asking such things as ‘What could happen if you did that?’ or ‘Who else would be affected by that?’, rather than giving your own opinion.

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With some topics, pupils may make suggestions where you can respond ‘Is that the RIGHT thing to do?’. Such a question can promote discussions regarding individual, group, community and global values. Who is it ‘right’ for?

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Although pupils should feel free to express their opinions, it is important that they understand there is a ‘right’ conclusion, rather than letting them think whatever they conclude is correct.

Explain to the class that many people only ‘half listen’ as they are thinking about what they might say when the speaker stops. Some people don’t even wait for the speaker to stop, and interrupt him or her in the middle of a sentence. During ‘circle time’, teachers and pupils have the opportunity to share their thoughts without being interrupted. It is important for pupils to understand that personal issues discussed during these ‘open forum’ meetings are not to become topics of conversation outside the classroom. Teachers will also need to show respect to the pupils unless, of course, issues are raised involving abuse or that need attention by parents. Teachers will then need to consult their headteachers/principals regarding any action that needs to be taken. Once the class has a routine set in place to discuss health issues openly and respectfully, these skills can be transferred to discussions about issues affecting the class, such as conflict and bullying.

Growth and development/Drug education The community is generally united in its overall opinions and goals in relation to young people. In the areas of growth and development and drug education, the form and timing of this education vary among different community groups and are based on a wide range of factors, mainly concerned with religious and community expectations. Activities in both these areas are provided in this series; however, the author recognises the right of schools, teachers and parents to guide education according to their own priorities. vi

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Suggestions for teaching health and values Values education

Collaborative learning

Most definitions agree that ‘values’ are those qualities which an individual or a society considers to be important as principles for conduct.

When pupils are able to work together in groups, they are encouraged to communicate and express their ideas. It is important that teachers monitor groups working independently to ensure that all pupils are working together as a team. By allocating a role for each group member, it is more likely that the dynamics will be equitable. The roles of the pupils can be swapped regularly to give each member the opportunity to participate in all tasks.

A person’s set of values affects his or her thinking and behaviour. When people are confident in themselves and have strong values, it is easier to do things that are ‘right’. Those who have weaker values can often be led easily and may do things they don’t really want to do. Teachers can encourage pupils to have a positive self-image through praise and by recognising their achievements.

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Teachers can foster the development of personal qualities such as perseverance, kindness and dealing with stress and criticism. They can also discuss some values with pupils, such as honesty, generosity and tolerance. Teachers might also like to discuss other things people may value, like pets, music and the environment. Tolerance and empathy

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Tolerance and empathy should be encouraged in pupils. Activities such as drama games, which require pupils to put themselves in someone else’s place and imagine how that person feels, can help to foster empathy. Tolerance is an ongoing process that teaches pupils not to hate. Teachers can teach tolerance most effectively by modelling tolerant behaviour in the classroom and playground, ensuring pupils are exposed to multicultural literature and images, and teaching them about various faiths, ethnicity and lifestyles. Educating pupils to be tolerant will: promote the understanding and acceptance of individual differences,

promote the idea that differences can enhance our relationships and enrich our society,

minimise generalisations and stereotyping, and

promote the need to combat prejudice and discrimination.

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This book emphasises the importance of respecting the feelings and emotions of others. It uses scenarios to help pupils ‘put themselves in the shoes’ of others. When pupils develop empathy for others, the dynamics of situations can change.

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Allow time at the end of the group tasks for the pupils to evaluate their team skills and to make targets to work towards the next time they form as a group. Some activities may work better if the groups are organised by ability levels, others will be enriched by mixed ability groupings. To enable all pupils to work together at some stage during the year, randomly select groups for some activities.

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The Health and values series helps pupils to consider their personal strengths and weaknesses and reinforces the advantages of having a strong set of values.

Differentiating activities

The activities in the Health and values series have been designed so they can be followed precisely or adapted by teachers. This flexibility allows teachers the opportunity to modify lessons and worksheets to meet the needs of pupils with varying abilities and special needs. To meet the special needs of English as a second language (ESL) pupils or those who have low levels of literacy, plan a time to introduce keywords and concepts. Having other adult support is ideal as the group can work in a quiet area away from the classroom. Keywords can be enlarged and discussed. Being immersed in the language before a topic begins gives these pupils an advantage, especially during the teacher discussion part of the lesson when most teachers tend to speak quite quickly. If other adults are not available, mixed ability groups will allow ESL pupils and pupils with low literacy levels to observe and be guided by other pupils. Pupils who seem to ‘race’ through the activities and worksheets and who understand the content very quickly can be challenged by looking at the topic in greater depth (rather than being given more of the same). They can go beyond the facts and conduct research related to strands of the topics that interest them. By meeting the needs of individual pupils, allowing the pupils to learn collaboratively and by having very clear instructions and expectations, health lessons should run smoothly.

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Assessment Below are the activity objectives from the activity pages of Health and values – Book G. These objectives can be transferred across to the assessment proforma on page x. The format of each proforma is ideal for inclusion in pupil portfolios or for reporting purposes. Using proformas allows teachers to provide a well explained, logically presented indication of progress to both pupils and parents.

Healthy lifestyles Pages 2 – 3

• Recognises factors essential for maintaining a balanced lifestyle.

Pages 4 – 5

• Understands that puberty is a time of change and that various factors can affect the development of individuals.

Pages 24 – 25

• Underst ands the import ance of fitness and devises strategies to encourage greater participation in physical activity.

Pages 26 – 27

• Describes the consequences of accidents to the individual and the community.

Pages 28 – 29

• Identifies ways to promote safety and devise strategies to respond to unsafe situations. • Identifies images targeted at adolescents and questions the reality of what is presented.

• Identifies the changes specific to males during puberty.

Pages 8 – 9

• Identifies the changes specific to females during puberty.

Pages 10 – 11

• Recognises factors that influence social and emotional growth and development.

Pages 30 – 31

Pages 12 – 13

• Demonstrates an understanding of issues associated with puberty and a balanced lifestyle.

Pages 32 – 33

Pages 14 – 15

• Appreciates ways that different cultural groups recognise and celebrate transitions through puberty.

Pages 34 – 35

Pages 16 – 17

• Clarifies opinions and attitudes towards the use of drugs.

• Identifies community services that support adolescents.

Pages 36 – 37

Pages 18 – 19

• Identifies the effects of alcohol on self and community.

Pages 38 – 39

Pages 20 – 21

• Identifies the effects of decisions made regarding tobacco use.

• Describes actions required to address a specific health issue. • Compares activities people do to stay fit and investigates the reasons behind the choices.

Pages 22 – 23

• Recognises how to maintain good mental health.

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Pages 6 – 7

• Identifies how males and females are targeted through advertisements and how expectations can influence decisions.

• Identifies barriers to participation in physical activity and suggests ways to overcome these. Pages 40 – 41

• Identifies the skills needed to contribute to successful group participation.

Pages 50 – 51

• Understands what the term ‘bullying’ means.

Personal development and relationships

Pages 44 – 45

Pages 46 – 47

• Recognises personal feelings related to given statements. • Identifies strategies to improve his/her own self-esteem.

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Pages 42 – 43

• Uses ‘I’ statements to demonstrate positive self-worth.

• Considers the possible consequences of bullying.

• Demonstrates possible situations in which he/she could take a risk. • Identifies how he/she responds to different situations.

• Uses role-play to demonstrate different strategies for dealing with bullying.

• Discusses and practises possible responses to different situations.

Pages 48 – 49

• Identifies examples of physical, verbal and social bullying.

Pages 52 – 53

Pages 54 – 55

• Uses ‘I’ statements with confidence to demonstrate assertive behaviour. • Understands the meaning of the word ‘stereotype’. • Considers stereotypes in his/her community.

• Considers the negative effects peer pressure has on influencing behaviour and self-concept. • Reviews current and past friendships. • Evaluates what characteristics are important to him/her.

Pages 56 – 57

• Considers the meaning of the word ‘empathy’.

• Establishes strategies to make new friendships and maint ain existing friendships. • Explores different types of relationships; child-parent, child-teacher, child-child. • Identifies different standards of behaviour in different relationships. • Identifies the expectations placed on him/her in different relationships.

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Assessment Pages 58 – 59

• Understands and discusses steps to resolve conflicts in a mutually acceptable way. • Understands what is meant by ‘effective communication’.

Pages 60 – 61

• Considers how well he/she communicates with others. • Understands some ways in which stress can be managed.

Pages 62 – 63

• Considers how he/she deals with stress. • Understands and uses a plan to make decisions.

Pages 64 – 65

• Considers some important decisions he/she has made. Pages 66 – 67 Pages 68 – 69

Pages 70 – 71 Pages 72 – 73

• Identifies and describes tolerant and intolerant behaviour. • Recognises actions that are disrespectful. • Considers ways to act respectfully towards others.

Pages 74 – 75

Pages 76 – 77

• Identifies ways of showing respect to other people. • Evaluates current time-management practices. • Establishes time-management strategies which incorporate aspects of a healthy lifestyle. • Generates personal goals which are based on being fit and active.

• Identifies factors that make up a healthy and unhealthy lifestyle.

• Devises strategies to attain his/her personal goals.

• Understands the meaning of values.

• Evaluates his/her decisions in the process of setting personal goals.

• Identifies some of his/her own values.

• Describes actions to address an issue affecting the environment.

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Pages 78 – 79

An explanation of how to use the proforma.

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Using the health and values assessment proforma (page x) Learning area

• Fill in the appropriate learning area; for example, Health – Healthy lifestyles.

Task(s)

• Give a brief description of the activity and what was expected of the pupils.

• Write the relevant curriculum objective(s) as listed on the Teachers notes and assess appropriately.

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Activity objective(s) • Write the relevant relevant objective(s) that match the activity (see the Teachers notes accompanying each worksheet).

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Teacher comment • Use this space to comment on aspects of an individual pupil’s performance which cannot be indicated in the formal assessment, such as work habits or particular needs or abilities.

Using the skills and attitudes assessment proforma (page xi) An explanation of how to use the proforma. Assessment

• Assess the specific development of an individual pupil in these areas.

Teacher comment • Use this space to comment on an individual pupil’s skills and attitudes.

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Assessment proforma – health and values Name

Year

Term

Learning area

Task(s)

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The pupil was asked to:

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Assessment

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Activity objective(s)

Demonstrated

Needs further opportunity

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The pupil:

Teacher comment

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Assessment proforma – skills and attitudes Name

Year

Term

Assessment The pupil:

Demonstrated

Needs further opportunity

• recognises the importance of physical activity to personal health • recognises the importance of a balanced diet to personal health • appreciates the need for safe practices in a range of situations • strives to achieve the best results in personal performance • manages his/her time effectively

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• makes decisions for himself/herself • shows an understanding of fair play • works cooperatively to complete a task

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• participates in and enjoys group activities

• recognises his/her weaknesses and works to improve them • sets goals for himself/herself • achieves goals for himself/herself • listens effectively

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• communicates effectively

• makes and maintains positive relationships

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• appreciates the similarities and differences between himself/herself and others • shows sensitivity and tolerance towards others

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• shows respect for others

• has a positive self-image

• recognises the need for balance among physical, emotional and social health

Teacher comment

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Teachers notes

A balanced lifestyle

Objective

Background information

• Recognises factors essential for maintaining a balanced lifestyle. The lesson Discussion points: • What are the benefits of a healthy lifestyle? • What areas of our life do we need to focus on to maintain a balanced and healthy lifestyle? • Why is it important to keep our minds healthy? • What things make you feel happy and healthy? • How can you balance your life? • How much sleep do you usually get? Does that change on a weekend? What to do:

Physical – a healthy diet, rest, relaxation, leisure, exercise Emotional/Social – a positive self-esteem, understanding, coping with and sharing different feelings, dealing with pressure and stress, creating good relationships, tolerating others, understanding differences, maintaining friendships.

1. – 5. Answers will vary

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Additional activities

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• Ask pupils to consider the statements presented and decide whether they agree or disagree. • Discuss different leisure activities pupils participate in. Ask the pupils to list those they are involved in to complete Question 2. • Discuss the importance of leisure time and the factors that influence a healthy lifestyle. Do adolescents have more influence over which they have little control (for example, parents, money, transport etc.)? Pupils can work in pairs to discuss the statements presented in Question 3 and then write their own opinions. • Ask pupils to write three simple steps they can take to achieve a wellbalanced lifestyle. • Discuss the areas that need to be addressed to maintain a balanced lifestyle, with an emphasis on exercise, sleep and leisure time. Pupils complete the table, calculating the amount of time spent on each. Are there any areas you might need to improve? Do you think your lifestyle is balanced? Answers

To be the best person you can be, you need to have a healthy body and a healthy mind. There are many aspects to creating a healthy, balanced lifestyle.

• Pupils can work in small groups to design a survey of pupils, teachers and parents that looks at creating a healthy canteen/tuckshop menu. • Results of the survey can be collated and a report written to present to the canteen/tuckshop manager and school headteacher/principal. Percentage of respondents, suggestions for improvements and goals can be included in the report. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Know how to keep healthy and that an appropriate balance between work, leisure and exercise can promote physical and mental health.

Northern Ireland

Learning for life

KS 3

Investigate the influences on physical and emotional/mental personal health.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Recognise and examine behaviour that is conducive to health and that which is harmful to health.

Scotland

Health

Level E

Show knowledge and understanding of the impact health choices can have on the quality of health.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Have a responsible attitude towards keeping the body healthy.

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A balanced lifestyle

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Lifestyle check up.

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Make a list of the leisure activities you are involved in.

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Explain your opinions on the following statements.

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(a) Adolescents need more leisure time than adults.

(b) Too many things that I can’t control inuence my lifestyle.

Write three simple steps to maintaining a balanced lifestyle.

Calculate how much time you spend on the following activities in a week.

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Teachers notes

Puberty

Objective

Background information

• Understands that puberty is a time of change and that various factors can affect the development of individuals.

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1. – 4. Answers will vary

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The lesson Discussion points: • What is puberty? • What factors affect growth and development? • What emotional changes will you experience? • Why is it such a difficult time for some people? • Why do we need to go through puberty? • What are some strategies for dealing with changes? • Why is puberty a difficult period for some and not others? What to do: • Conduct a class discussion about the factors which influence puberty, particularly hereditary and cultural factors. Ask pupils to approach parents and close relatives to talk about some things that are inherited. If pupils wish, they could volunteer information they have found and a class list could be developed. This may help any pupils who have family conflicts. Allow pupils time to list those factors they have inherited from family. • Discuss the impact of growth and development changes on relationships and self-esteem. Pupils may work in pairs to discuss the situations presented in Question 2. Ask them to consider advice and strategies to cope with one of the given situations. Bring the class together. Discuss each scenario. Ask for volunteers to read their advice to the class. • Have pupils consider a problem relating to puberty that has affected, or may affect, them. Ask them to state the problem briefly. Reassure them that they do not have to share their responses with the class. Perhaps as a homework exercise, they could ask a family member or close friend to offer advice. • Allow pupils an opportunity to look through the comic section of a daily newspaper. Ask them to create their own comic strips dealing with a cultural or hereditary issue which may affect them during puberty. Answers

Puberty is the period during which a child develops to sexual maturity. Puberty is triggered by the action of hormones, which are released from the ovaries in girls and the testicles in boys. The female’s eggs (ova) mature and the male produces sperm. Puberty begins around 10 –14 years in girls and one or two years later in boys. The age at which puberty occurs depends on a wide range of factors, including hereditary, diet, exercise and the amount of body fat. Puberty not only causes physical changes; the way young people think and act will also change.

Additional activities • Find photographs of parents or relatives at a similar age and describe similarities and differences. • Devise interview questions that can be put to parents or close relatives to discover more about their experiences with puberty and growing up. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Recognise the physical and emotional changes that take place at puberty and how to manage these in a positive way.

Northern Ireland

Learning for life

KS 3

Develop understanding about, and strategies to manage, the effects of change on body, mind and behaviour; e.g. puberty.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Identify and discuss the changes that are experienced in growing from child to adult.

Scotland

Health

Level C/D

Identify the different ways in which people grow and change; e.g. puberty and show their knowledge and understanding of their own developing sexuality.

Wales

PSE

KS 2/3

Understand the physical changes that take place at puberty and identify the range of emotions and feelings they experience.

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Puberty During puberty, girls and boys will go through the same stages of development. This will happen at different times though, because we are all individuals. Hereditary factors will have a big impact on how and when you go through the stages of puberty. Cultural factors may also influence how you go through the stages of puberty. Make a list of some of the factors you have inherited from parents and close relatives.

Choose one person’s problem and give him/her advice on the situation. I feel extremely self-conscious about the changes happening to my body. Boys are always teasing me at school.

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I have physically developed more quickly than my peers. Some of my classmates seem so immature and I get frustrated with them easily.

My parents were born in another country and they don’t understand that I’m maturing and want to be taken more seriously.

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I’ve become closer friends with someone who has developed at the same rate as me. I seem to have different interests from my other friends.

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In the speech balloon, write a situation that may affect you. See if you can find someone to give you advice on dealing with the problem.

Create a comic strip that deals with a hereditary or cultural factor that will affect how you go through puberty.

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Teachers notes

Growth and development – male

Objective • Identifies the changes specific to males during puberty.

Background information Physical changes in boys include: • weight and height gain, • muscles start to get bigger and stronger, • shoulders get wider, • facial hair, pubic hair and hair growing under the arms, • penis gets longer and wider, testes get larger, • regular erections, • voice gets deeper, • skin gets oilier.

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The lesson Discussion points: • What physical changes occur in boys during puberty? • Do boys and girls go through any of the same changes? • Are boys treated differently during puberty? • What are the body parts called? • Do boys deal with emotional changes more easily than girls? What to do: • Use a diagram to explain the different parts of the male reproductive organs. Ask pupils to write the correct terms next to the right definition to complete Question 1. • Ask pupils to read and consider the given statements and decide if each is true or false in Question 2. • Discuss the physical changes that will occur in boys during puberty. (See Background information.) Reinforce that although everyone will go through the changes, not everyone will go through them at the same time. Ask pupils to discuss Question 3 as a class, in pairs or small groups and write the changes they consider to be the most difficult to cope with. • Do boys and girls deal with emotional changes in the same way? Discuss how it is often true that girls are able to share their feelings more easily than boys and often have a better support network. Ask pupils to consider what emotional changes might be the most difficult for boys to deal with. • Pupils may wish to discuss different strategies in small groups before writing down some suggestions that they think are most important. Answers 1. testicles, scrotum, penis, urethra, bladder, anus, glans, prostate gland 2. (a) true (f) true (b) false (g) true (c) true (h) true (d) false (i) false (e) true (j) true 3. – 5. Answers will vary

Additional activities • Ask pupils to consider themselves, family members and friends and think about whether adults might treat boys differently. Adults may deal with boys and girls differently as they go through puberty. Boys may be seen as stronger and, if they are taller, treated as if they are older than they are. Adults may not worry as much about boys as they might with a girl who is showing signs of sexual maturity. • Have pupils label a diagram of a male’s reproductive organs. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Recognise the physical and emotional changes that take place at puberty and how to manage these in a positive way. Develop understanding about, and strategies to manage, the effects of change on body, mind and behaviour; e.g. puberty.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Identify and discuss the changes that are experienced in growing from child to adult.

Scotland

Health

Level C/D

Identify the different ways in which people grow and change; e.g. puberty and show their knowledge and understanding of their own developing sexuality.

Wales

PSE

KS 2/3

Understand the physical changes that take place at puberty and identify the range of emotions and feelings they experience.

6

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Growth and development – male Write the correct term next to the definition. scrotum

glans

testicles

anus

penis

urethra

prostate gland

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bladder

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True or false?

(a) During puberty a boy’s shoulders get broader. ................................................................... (b) All males are circumcised at birth. ......................................................................................... (c) An erection occurs when more blood flows to the penis. ................................................

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(d) All males have the same size penis........................................................................................ (e) It is normal for males going through puberty to get erections for no reason at all. ....

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(f) There are millions of sperm in healthy semen. ..................................................................... (g) During puberty, a boy’s voice will get deeper. .....................................................................

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(h) A boy’s breasts may look like they’re developing a bit during puberty. ......................... (i) Facial hair will not grow until after puberty is finished. ...................................................... (j) Boys can become very moody during puberty. ...................................................................

What physical changes do you think might be the most difficult for boys to deal with?

What emotional changes do you think might be the most challenging for boys to deal with?

What strategies can boys adopt to deal with changes during puberty?

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Health and values

7


Teachers notes

Growth and development – female

Objective • Identifies the changes specific to females during puberty.

Background information

• weight and height gain, • bodies become curvier and hipbones widen, • muscles get bigger, • breasts start to develop, • menstruation begins, • pubic hair and hair under the arms grows, • skin gets oilier.

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The lesson Discussion points: • What physical changes occur in girls during puberty? • Do boys and girls go through any of the same changes? • Are girls treated differently during puberty? • What are the body parts called? • Do girls deal with emotional changes more easily than boys? What to do: • Use a diagram to explain the different parts of the female reproductive organs. Ask pupils to write the correct terms next to the right definition to complete Question 1. • Ask pupils to read and consider the given statements and decide if each is true or false. • Discuss the physical changes that will occur in girls during puberty. (See Background information.) Reinforce that although everyone will go through the changes, not everyone will go through them at the same time. Ask pupils to discuss Question 3 as a class, in pairs or small groups and write the changes they consider to be the most difficult to cope with. • Do boys and girls deal with emotional changes in the same way? Discuss how it is often true that girls are able to share their feelings more easily than boys and often have a better support network. Ask pupils to consider what emotional changes might be the most difficult for girls to deal with. • Pupils may wish to discuss different strategies in small groups before writing down some suggestions that they think are most important. Answers 1. cervix, ovary, fallopian tube, vagina, labia, anus, urethra, bladder, uterus 2. (a) false (f) true (b) true (g) false (c) false (h) false (d) true (i) true (e) true (j) true 3. – 5. Answers will vary

Physical changes in girls include:

Additional activities • Have pupils label a diagram of a female’s reproductive organs. • Create an acrostic poem using the words, Female Development, that highlights the changes girls go through during puberty. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Recognise the physical and emotional changes that take place at puberty and how to manage these in a positive way. Develop understanding about, and strategies to manage, the effects of change on body, mind and behaviour; e.g. puberty.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Identify and discuss the changes that are experienced in growing from child to adult.

Scotland

Health

Level C/D

Identify the different ways in which people grow and change; e.g. puberty and show their knowledge and understanding of their own developing sexuality.

Wales

PSE

KS 2/3

Understand the physical changes that take place at puberty and identify the range of emotions and feelings they experience.

8

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Growth and development – female Write the correct term next to the definition. cervix

bladder

urethra

labia

anus

ovary

fallopian tube

vagina

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uterus

True or false?

(a) Girls cannot go swimming when they have their period. .................................................. (b) Females can get pregnant during puberty............................................................................

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(c) All girls begin to menstruate when they turn 13. ................................................................ (d) A period usually lasts from three to seven days. ................................................................. (e) During each menstrual cycle an ovary releases an egg. ...................................................

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(f) Breasts start to develop during puberty. .............................................................................. (g) Girls should not exercise at all during their period. ............................................................

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(h) Girls deal with changes better than boys. ............................................................................ (i) The start of puberty may be influenced by hereditary factors. ......................................... (j) Girls can become very moody during puberty..................................................................... What physical changes do you think might be the most difficult for girls to deal with?

What emotional changes do you think might be the most challenging for girls to deal with?

What strategies can girls adopt to deal with changes during puberty?

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

Health and values

9


Teachers notes

Social and emotional development

Objective • Recognises factors that influence social and emotional growth and development. The lesson Discussion points: • What emotional changes might you experience during puberty? • How and why can relationships change? • Will everyone experience the same changes, at the same times? • What are the best ways to deal with emotional changes? • Why are friendships so important during puberty? What to do:

During puberty, pupils will start to change the way they think. They start to choose their own standards and form their own ideas and values. Instead of relying on being part of a family, an individual identity develops. Pupils are looking for more independence. The first point of conflict is often with family, as pupils try to assert their independence, while still wanting to retain some support. Peer pressure also becomes a major influence as pupils feel strongly that they want to be more like their friends.

Additional activities

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1. – 4. Answers will vary

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• Discuss how the rapid release of hormones during puberty can have a marked impact on emotions. Ask the pupils how they deal with things socially. Ask pupils to consider why they may be closer to friends, rather than adults (especially parents) throughout puberty. Most adolescents appreciate their friendships because peers are going through the same changes. Pupils can write their reasons to complete Question 1. • Allow pupils time to read and decide which of the statements presented in Question 2 they relate to. • Pupils may work in pairs, or small groups to discuss the statement presented in Question 3. After discussion, ask for volunteers who wish to share their ideas and feelings about the statement. • Discuss how there will always be factors that we cannot control, no matter how old we are. Ask pupils to look at those presented and decide which factors they can change and which they can do nothing about. Answers

Background information

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• Design a ‘Self help’ pamphlet to give advice for those going through puberty. • Use the Internet to find appropriate sites for advice and correct information about puberty. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Recognise the physical and emotional changes that take place at puberty and how to manage these in a positive way. Develop understanding about, and strategies to manage, the effects of change on body, mind and behaviour; e.g. puberty.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Identify and discuss the changes that are experienced in growing from child to adult.

Scotland

Health

Level C/D

Identify the different ways in which people grow and change; e.g. puberty and show their knowledge and understanding of their own developing sexuality.

Wales

PSE

KS 2/3

Understand the physical changes that take place at puberty and identify the range of emotions and feelings they experience.

10

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Social and emotional development Puberty not only changes your body physically, it also changes the way you think about things. Puberty can signal the time when you start to make your own mind up about things, take responsibility for your actions and make more decisions for yourself. Suggest reasons why you may be closer to your friends, rather than adults, during puberty.

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Indicate which of these statements you relate to. (a) I’m starting to form my own values and opinions. ........................................................................................... (b) I feel like I’m often questioning what others say.............................................................................................. (c) I’m learning how to listen more carefully to what others say. ....................................................................... (d) I’m able to allow others to have their own opinions. ...................................................................................... (e) I’m able to stay with what I believe is right. ...................................................................................................... (f) I’m taking time to get to know myself better. ................................................................................................... (g) I can deal with the changes of mood I’m experiencing. ................................................................................ (h) It’s very important for me to be part of a group. .............................................................................................. (i) I feel the need to have more of my own space................................................................................................ (j) My friends seem to have more freedom than I do. ......................................................................................... (k) I seem to be in conflict with my parents more often. ..................................................................................... (l) I am starting to rely less on my parents for information. ................................................................................

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During puberty, emotional changes are harder to deal with than physical changes. Explain how you feel about this statement.

Some factors we have no control over, and others we can change, to help us get through different periods in our lives. Decide which factors you can change and which you may have little control over. parents school work attitude amount of sleep friends setting goals inherited characteristics

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

Health and values

siblings taking responsibility dealing with conflict

exercise diet

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Teachers notes

Personal development

Objective

Background information

• Demonstrates an understanding of issues associated with puberty and a balanced lifestyle.

Refer to the information on pages 4, 6, 8 and 10.

The lesson What to do: • The pupil page can be used as an assessment tool and included in a portfolio/record of achievement. Use this page also as a pre-assessment. • This questionnaire can be completed again at a later date. Make comparisons between the two sets of responses. Answers 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

a a b c a b b c a b

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b a b c a b a c b c

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Additional activities

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• Pupils can use the format of the survey and work in small groups to complete one for pupils in younger Years; for example, pupils who are just starting school or pupils in Years 4 and 5. They will need to discuss and possibly research the kinds of issues that pupils of these ages are faced with; for example, pupils in Year 4 may be dealing with bullying issues and conflict with friends etc.

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Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Recognise the physical and emotional changes that take place at puberty and how to manage these in a positive way. Develop understanding about, and strategies to manage, the effects of change on body, mind and behaviour; e.g. puberty.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Identify and discuss the changes that are experienced in growing from child to adult.

Scotland

Health

Level C/D

Identify the different ways in which people grow and change; e.g. puberty and show their knowledge and understanding of their own developing sexuality.

Wales

PSE

KS 2/3

Understand the physical changes that take place at puberty and identify the range of emotions and feelings they experience.

12

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Personal development

During puberty, boys: (a) develop physically toward adulthood ................... ❑ (b) begin to grow a long beard .................................................. ❑ (c) start wearing long trousers ................................................... ❑ Menstruation is: (a) making babies ............................................................................................. ❑ (b) the lining of the uterus leaving the body ......... ❑ (c) when you stop exercising ......................................................... ❑ Ovulation is when: (a) a woman has a period .................................................................... ❑ (b) a woman is pregnant ........................................................................ ❑ (c) an ovary has released an egg ........................................... ❑

Puberty is the time when: (a) your hair grows longer ................................................................... ❑ (b) your body and feelings change ...................................... ❑ (c) hormones stop being produced ................................... ❑ During puberty: (a) only boys may become moody ........................................ ❑ (b) only girls may become moody .......................................... ❑ (c) both boys and girls may become moody ....... ❑ Physical and emotional changes are harder for: (a) both boys and girls to cope with ................................. ❑ (b) boys to cope with .................................................................................. ❑ (c) girls to cope with .................................................................................... ❑

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Pregnancy can occur: (a) the first time you have sex ....................................................... ❑ (b) one day every month ........................................................................ ❑ (c) whenever you want it to .............................................................. ❑

During puberty: (a) girls may develop more quickly than boys ... ❑ (b) boys may develop more quickly than girls ... ❑ (c) girls and boys develop at the same time ........ ❑

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During puberty, girls: (a) have a baby ...................................................................................................... ❑ (b) change body shape ............................................................................ ❑ (c) stop playing sport .................................................................................. ❑

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An example of an inherited characteristic is: (a) the friends you make ........................................................................ ❑ (b) your body shape ...................................................................................... ❑ (c) the books you read ............................................................................. ❑

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Your lifestyle is well-balanced if: (a) you eat well, rest and exercise ........................................ ❑ (b) you watch a lot of television ................................................. ❑ (c) you do well in school ....................................................................... ❑ A leisure activity is: (a) finishing homework ............................................................................. ❑ (b) washing the dishes ............................................................................. ❑ (c) reading a book ............................................................................................ ❑ Most adolescents need about: (a) 4 – 6 hours sleep .................................................................................. ❑ (b) 8 – 10 hours sleep .............................................................................. ❑ (c) 12 – 14 hours sleep ......................................................................... ❑ Junk food can be consumed: (a) every day .............................................................................................................. ❑ (b) never ............................................................................................................................ ❑ (c) occasionally ..................................................................................................... ❑

The average length of a pregnancy is: (a) six months ........................................................................................................... ❑ (b) forty weeks ........................................................................................................ ❑ (c) twelve months .............................................................................................. ❑

During pregnancy, the baby grows in the: (a) vagina ......................................................................................................................... ❑ (b) uterus ......................................................................................................................... ❑ (c) bladder ..................................................................................................................... ❑ During puberty, boys may have an erection: (a) once a month ................................................................................................ ❑ (b) once a year ....................................................................................................... ❑ (c) more than once a day ..................................................................... ❑ Relaxation is important for: (a) resting your body and mind .................................................. ❑ (b) avoiding homework ............................................................................. ❑ (c) staying slim ....................................................................................................... ❑ Exercise will: (a) make you feel sad ................................................................................. ❑ (b) help maintain a healthy body weight ..................... ❑ (c) make you eat more junk food ............................................. ❑

During puberty: (a) everyone goes through the same stages ...... ❑ (b) tall people develop more quickly ................................. ❑ (c) short people develop more quickly .......................... ❑ Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

Health and values

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Teachers notes

Cultural factors

Objective • Appreciates ways that different cultural groups recognise and celebrate transitions through puberty. The lesson Discussion points: • Is there any recognition of the transition through puberty in white British/Irish culture? • Do other cultures recognise this transition? What to do:

A celebration is a special way of remembering or honouring a notable event in our lives. It can last just for a day, or for many days. It may occur at the same time every year, or be on a different day each time. Celebrations can be religious, cultural, community or family occasions, or even a mixture of these. Some celebrations involve whole countries, while others may include towns or even be special to just one family. Many celebrations mean a holiday. People around the w orld celebrate in different ways.

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• Organise pupils into pairs. Discuss the task and brainstorm any knowledge that the pupils have about celebrations or initiations of different cultures. Some pupils may wish to volunteer and discuss the celebrations of their own cultures. • Pupils need to find information books and fiction novels related to the celebrations and initiations of different cultures. • Pupils use the Internet to find out about different cultures and their celebrations. Bookmark the websites for use by other pupils. • If possible, find and invite a guest speaker from another culture to address the class. • Pupils collate their information on the topic using the worksheet. They use the worksheet to create an information poster about the culture they have researched. Answers

Background information

Additional activities

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1. – 2. Teacher check

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• Pupils present their report to the class as a short oral presentation. • Display the pupils’ work in an area common to all pupils and staff.

Some examples of celebrations to recognise transitional rituals for teenagers include: • Quincenera – celebration of a girl’s fifteenth birthday in Spanish-speaking cultures • Bar Mitzvah – for a boy becoming an adult in the Jewish religion • Confirmation – in Christian religion • Iria – coming-of-age ceremony for pubescent girls from the Okrija tribe in Nigeria, Africa • Na’ii’ees – the sunrise dance – traditional Western Apache coming-of-age ceremony

Curriculum links England

PSHE

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Republic of Ireland SPHE Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

14

KS 3

6th Class

Recognise some of the cultural norms in society, including the range of lifestyles. Investigate the influences on a young person; e.g. cultural trends. Compare and contrast the lifestyle of families in different cultures. Demonstrate respect and tolerance towards others.

KS 3

Understand cultural differences and value cultural diversity.

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Cultural factors Cultures around the world recognise the transition from childhood to adulthood in different ways. Western culture does not necessarily mark the transition through puberty with any rituals or celebrations. Other cultures have elaborate celebrations and initiations into adulthood. Your task is to choose one culture and research the way that culture recognises this transition. You may choose a transition ceremony that you or your relatives have participated in or it may be one that you are interested in. Use the library, the Internet and different people as your resources to write a report that explains the cultural transition, providing examples and illustrations. Begin by finding information and taking notes.

Note taking As you read the text, underline or highlight the keywords, phrases and facts.

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r Although you ot n s e writing do ect rf have to be pe king, when note ta e able you need to b ly a to read it e si when you have finished!

Use the outline to plan your report. Introduce the topic

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

First main point

Second main point

Health and values

Conclusion

15


Teachers notes

Drugs

Objective

Background information

• Clarifies opinions and attitudes towards the use of drugs.

Drugs, both legal and illegal, can affect a person in many different ways. These effects include injury/accidents, risk of infectious diseases, damage to body organs, depression, psychosis, stress, relationship problems, violence, legal issues, financial problems, and antisocial behaviour. There are few positive effects.

The lesson Discussion points: • What are drugs? • What drugs are available in our community? • Why do people use drugs? • Why are some drugs illegal? • How do some drugs affect your behaviour? • What are the negative effects of drugs? • Are there any positive effects of drugs? • What types of legal drugs have you used? • Why do you think alcohol and cigarettes are legally available? What to do:

Prescribed medications have obvious benefits, if taken correctly.

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Caffeine is also often used as a short-term stimulant.

1. – 3. Answers will vary

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Additional activities

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• Have pupils work in pairs to discuss the statements presented in Question 1. Allow pupils time to write their personal opinion of each statement. • Discuss the situations presented in Question 2. Ask pupils to write four words to describe how they feel about each situation. • Have pupils work in small groups and ask them to read the letter by Kylie. After a small group discussion, it may be relevant to bring the class together and discuss any issues that have arisen. Pupils can complete the activities presented. The reply letter could be drafted and completed as a homework activity. Answers

Curriculum links

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• Have pupils write their own letter, outlining an experience they have been involved in or seen affect someone they know. • Ask pupils to write a list of the effects of using different drugs and suggest responses for saying no.

England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Know basic facts and laws about alcohol, tobacco and illegal substances. Investigate the effects on the body of legal and illegal substances and the risks and consequences of their misuse.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Distinguish between legal and illegal substances, understand the effects they can have and explore why people use these substances.

Scotland

Health

Level D/E

Identify strategies for keeping healthy and safe and demonstrate their ability to make positive health choices.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Know the effects of and the risks from use of the range of legal and illegal drugs (including alcohol and tobacco) and the laws governing their use.

16

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Drugs Discuss with a partner and explain your personal opinion on each issue. (a) Smoking in clubs and pubs should not be banned.

Read the letter written by Kylie. My name is Kylie and I am 28 years old. I started smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol in school. I was trying to impress the popular group. I remember not feeling very good about myself. I thought I wasn’t pretty enough, or skinny enough. Halfway through secondary school, I got in with the wrong group and started using harder drugs. I left school at 16 and tried to get a job. Of course, no-one was really interested in employing me for very long. I wasn’t a very reliable worker. By the time I was 19, I knew I was in trouble. My family was fed up with my behaviour. I had no real friends,

(b) Marijuana should be legalised.

no money, no job and no hope. An older relative I had always respected took me aside one day and told me how desperately worried she was. I cried and cried for hours. With her help, I was admitted to a hospital and spent many

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months going to a counsellor. When I was ready, I went back to school and was accepted into university. I am now working as a youth counsellor.

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I am also in a secure relationship and have wonderful support from my family and friends. Any type of drug just

(c) The legal drinking age should be raised to 21 years.

messes with your confidence and self-worth. I wish I had the self-respect to say no when I was younger. There is a way out of the drug trap, but it’s a very hard road. I was lucky to have one person who really believed in me. Now, I

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Write four words to describe how these situations would make you feel. (a) A relative is very drunk at a family gathering.

(a) Discuss your thoughts about the letter with the people in your group. (b) Summarise your thoughts and feelings about Kylie’s letter below.

(b) Your best friend has taken up smoking.

(c) You think your older brother and his friends are using an illegal drug.

(c) On the back of this sheet, write a letter responding to Kylie. Include: How the letter made you feel. Positive actions you can take to make sure you are not affected by the same problems Kylie faced.

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Health and values

17


Teachers notes

Alcohol

Objective • Identifies the effects of alcohol on self and community.

Background information

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The lesson Discussion points: • Why do you think alcohol is sometimes seen as a more socially acceptable drug in our society? • What can happen when you drink too much alcohol? • Why do people drink alcohol? • What problems can be caused by misusing alcohol? What to do: • Question 1 can be used as an introduction to discussions on the effects of alcohol. Before discussing the issue, have pupils decide whether they think each statement is true or false. After completion, discuss each statement and answer as a class. • Although pupils need to be aware of the dangers of misusing alcohol, they also need to have realistic ideas about its consumption and use in society. Highlight the points made for responsible behaviour related to the use of alcohol. Allow pupils time to illustrate each recommendation. • Pupils can work in pairs to discuss the situation presented in Question 3 and decide what they would do. • Discuss the problems of the misuse of alcohol on the individual and the community. Pupils can work in pairs or small groups to discuss the effects of alcohol and complete the table in Question 4. Answers 1. (a) false (b) true (c) false (d) false (e) true (f) true (g) true (h) false 2-4. Answers will vary.

Alcohol is a toxic drug that can poison the body. It is a depressant, which slows down the brain and nervous system. It can damage all the major organs of the body. Although a legal drug, alcohol misuse can cause health-, socialand community-related problems. Alcohol affects all people differently. It can take about one hour for an average healthy adult to absorb and metabolise one standard drink of alcohol.

Additional activities • Ask pupils to write about or illustrate situations where they have had experience with the misuse of alcohol. This may include situations that involve others. • Ask pupils to design posters or brochures that show the effects of misusing alcohol. They could work with a partner, with one showing the effects on the individual and the other showing the effects on the community. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Know basic facts and laws about alcohol. Investigate the effects on the body of legal substances and the risks and consequences of their misuse.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Understand the effects alcohol can have and explore why people drink alcohol.

Scotland

Health

Level D/E

Identify strategies for keeping healthy and safe and demonstrate their ability to make positive health choices.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Know the effects of and the risks from use of the range of legal drugs (including alcohol) and the laws governing their use.

18

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Alcohol Answer true or false. (a) Alcohol affects all people in the same way. ......................................................................... (b) You need to be 18 years of age to purchase alcohol. ....................................................... (c) People can think more clearly after drinking alcohol. ......................................................... (d) Drinking coffee will help sober someone up. ....................................................................... (e) Alcohol is a depressant. ........................................................................................................... (f) Alcohol should not be used with prescription drugs. ........................................................ (g) Alcohol can affect your decision-making ability. ................................................................. (h) Alcohol only affects the brain and liver. ................................................................................. For people who do choose to drink alcohol, there are recommendations for responsible behaviour. Some are listed below. Choose one to create an information poster. (a) Eat before drinking.

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(b) Alternate alcoholic drinks with water or soft drinks. (c) Never drink and drive. (e) Always keep your drink in sight.

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(f) Drink in a safe place.

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(d) Watch out for your friends.

What would you do?

You are out with friends and the person who is supposed to drive you home has been drinking alcohol.

What problems are associated with the misuse of alcohol? Make a list under the two categories. Alcohol problems that affect the individual.

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Alcohol problems that affect the community.

Health and values

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Teachers notes

Tobacco

Objective

Background information

• Identifies the effects of decisions made regarding tobacco use. The lesson Discussion points: • Why do you think people may take up smoking? • Why do you think some people still smoke even when they know it’s dangerous to their health? • How can you say no if you don’t want to try smoking cigarettes? • How does it make you feel when someone is smoking near you? • If you try smoking when you are young, will you become an adult smoker? What to do:

1. – 5. Answers will vary

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Additional activities

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• Discuss the consequences of becoming a regular smoker. Pupils may work in pairs or small groups to consider the situation presented and explain how a decision to smoke can affect a number of things. Conduct a class discussion to summarise the issues raised. • Ask pupils to recall some of the health risks related to smoking cigarettes. With a focus on how smoking affects the lungs, ask pupils to consider how that issue will affect participation in physical activity. • Pupils can work in small groups to devise strategies to say no to cigarettes. Pupils may role-play situations where they are offered a cigarette. Ask pupils to suggest three strategies that could successfully be used to resist smoking. • Discuss different places in the community that are smoke-free zones. These may include sporting arenas, restaurants, schools etc. Ask pupils to make a list of as many as possible. Where is smoking allowed? Pupils should see that there are more places where smoking is banned than allowed. • On the back of the page, or a separate sheet of paper, ask pupils to design a logo to relate to their age groups, promoting a ‘no smoking’ policy. Answers

Research shows that smoking is the single greatest preventable cause of disease in the developed world. Smoking is a major cause of heart disease and many cancers, including lung, mouth, throat, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, bladder and colon cancers. Emphysema, ulcers, asthma and bronchitis are also linked to smoking. Th e r e a r e a p p r ox i m a t e l y 4 000 chemicals found in cigarette smoke, with about 40 identified as cancer-causing agents. Passive smoking is the inhalation of other people’s cigarette smoke.

• Draw a cartoon strip to show a smoking-related issue. • Devise a word search with smoking-related vocabulary. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Know basic facts and laws about tobacco. Investigate the effects on the body of legal substances and the risks and consequences of their misuse.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Understand the effects nicotine can have and explore why people smoke.

Scotland

Health

Level D/E

Identify strategies for keeping healthy and safe and demonstrate their ability to make positive health choices.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Know the effects of and the risks from use of the range of legal drugs (including tobacco) and the laws governing their use.

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Tobacco Imagine this: although you know the health-related risks of smoking, you decide to try it out one day with a group of friends. Some of your friends hate it. Even though it makes you feel a little ill, you continue to meet up with the group and smoke. By the end of the month, you are buying your own cigarettes and smoking more than five a day. How does your decision to smoke affect the following? (a) yourself

(b) your non-smoking friends

(c) your parents

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(d) your money

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(e) the environment

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One of the health-related risks of smoking is a decrease in lung function. Describe how smoking affects participation in physical activity.

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Research shows that nearly half the smokers under 30 started smoking by the age of 15. Many young people who start smoking regularly, continue to smoke as adults. What kinds of things can you and your friends do to resist becoming smokers? Write about or illustrate them below.

Make a list of all the places in your local community that promote a smoke-free zone.

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

Design a logo that could be used by those in your age group to promote ‘no smoking’.

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Teachers notes

Mental health

Objective

Background information

• Recognises how to maintain good mental health. The lesson Discussion points: • What is mental health? • It is important for pupils to understand that everyone needs to look after his/her mental health. Some pupils may think that mental health is about having something wrong with you – being ‘mental’. Mental illness is when your feelings, emotions and thinking become unwell. A mental illness can be treated. What to do:

• Social life – including friends, family and the things you do • Environment – the place where you live and work • Genetics – what characteristics you have inherited • How your mind works – some problems are caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain

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• Discuss how everyone needs to look after his/her mental health. Reinforce that a mental illness is treatable and may happen to anybody. Often it is the result of a chemical imbalance in the brain. Ask pupils to consider what factors contribute to feelings of sadness, depression and anxiety. Make a list of the factors that can affect someone’s mental health. Some of these might be conflict, pressure, boredom, stress, drugs, loneliness, grief, low self-esteem, lack of confidence, abuse, relationships. • Discuss the different suggestions for maintaining positive mental health. Ask pupils to think about activities they could pursue under each heading. • Discuss with pupils the importance of sharing feelings of sadness and depression and being able to talk over problems to find solutions. Pupils need to appreciate that such feelings can develop into serious problems if left unresolved. Youth suicide is an important issue in our society and it may be appropriate at this stage to discuss any thoughts and concerns pupils have. Ask pupils to write down four people they could talk with if they had unhappy feelings and/or problems they were unable to deal with. • Ask pupils to write a description of a time they felt unable to cope, unhappy or had a problem they couldn’t solve alone. If possible, the teacher could relate a personal experience and discuss how the issue was dealt with. Answers

Mental health is affected by everyone and everything you have contact with. The following all have an impact on mental health:

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• How you look after yourself

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Teacher check Additional activities

• Use the phone book and/or Internet to find resources available in the local community that assist people with mental health issues. • Use magazine pictures or hand-drawn illustrations to create a collage showing all the things that can ensure a balanced mental health outlook. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Know that good relationships and an appropriate life-balance can promote mental health. Investigate the influences on emotional/mental personal health.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Identify and learn about healthy ways to help him/her feel positive about himself/herself.

Scotland

Health

Level D

Demonstrate an understanding of their emotional needs and strengths.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Identify the range of emotions and feelings they experience and understand the ‘self-talk’ involved.

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Mental health Looking after your mental health is just as important as looking after your physical health. It’s important to have a positive outlook and balance your lifestyle. If you feel sad, depressed or unable to cope with things, you need to ďŹ nd someone to help with those feelings. Some people can develop a chemical imbalance which affects their mental health. Unless treated, this can cause serious problems. Make a list of factors that can affect your mental wellbeing.

Listed below are some suggestions for maintaining positive mental health. Underneath each, suggest things you can personally do to ensure your mental health is looked after.

(c) Do something for someone else.

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(b) Learn new ways to cope with problems.

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(a) Do things you are good at and enjoy.

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(d) Develop skills that help you deal with people.

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(e) Get involved with activities.

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(f) Do something you might not usually do.

(g) Learn how to relax.

Write the names of four people who you can talk with and share your feelings.

Describe a situation when you felt sad or depressed. How did you deal with it? Were you able to talk with someone?

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Teachers page

Physical activity

Objective • Understands the importance of fitness and devises strategies to encourage greater participation in physical activity. The lesson

To maintain a healthy lifestyle it is vital to include some form of physical activity in your day. Some experts recommend finding thirty minutes a day to devote to some sort of physical activity. Participating in physical activity has physical, social and emotional benefits. Physical activity can help with weight control, a healthier heart, improved lung capacity, clearer skin, good muscle tone, better sleep patterns and more energy. It can also provide teamwork skills, discipline, commitment, improved selfesteem and confidence.

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Discussion points: • Why is keeping fit good for your health? • What do you do to keep fit? • How does physical activity help your body? • How do you feel when you exercise? • What are the dangers of not exercising enough? • What benefits are there to your physical and mental health? • What strategies can be employed to increase participation? • How can the school and community facilities be improved? What to do: • Survey the class to see how many are involved in organised physical activity and how many regularly exercise. Discuss the benefits of regular exercise and keeping fit. Ask pupils to consider the statements presented and decide if each is true or false. • Allow pupils to work in small groups to discuss and devise strategies that will encourage greater participation in physical activity, especially among teens. Ask pupils to consider strategies suitable for the school and the community. • Have pupils sketch a plan of the school playground. Pupils may work with a partner or in a small group to describe different activities that could make better use of the playground. Pupils may wish to devise their own games. Suggest that safety and supervision will play an important role. • Pupils can work with a partner or in small groups to make a list of four community facilities. (If your community is a large one, facilities may be selected by different groups so that many are covered). Ask pupils to suggest improvements that can be made to the facilities that may promote greater participation and better use. • Ask pupils to create a slogan to encourage greater participation in physical activity among teens. Answers 1. All statements in Question 1 are true. 2.–5. Teacher check

Background information

Additional activities • Use the slogan created on the pupils page to design a poster that encourages greater participation in physical activity. • Draw an ‘ideal’ school playground and suggest activities that can be promoted to make full use of the new facility. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Know that an appropriate balance between work, leisure and exercise can promote physical and mental health. Investigate the influences on physical and emotional/mental personal health of regular physical activity.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Recognise and examine behaviour that is conducive and harmful to health.

Scotland

Health

Level D/E

Show their knowledge and understanding of their physical needs and the impact health choices can have on the quality of health.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Know that maintaining regular exercise can have both mental and physical benefits.

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Physical activity Decide if you think the following statements are true or false. (a) Participation in physical activity declines with increasing age during teenage years. ........ (b) More boys than girls participate in organised sport as teenagers........................................... (c) Physically active young people have higher self-esteem. .......................................................... (d) Physically active young people are more conďŹ dent and cope better under pressure. ....... (e) Physically active young people have better social skills and are more optimistic. ............... Devise strategies that will encourage greater participation in physical activity ‌ (a) at school.

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(b) in the community.

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Draw a plan of the school playground. Describe activities that can be promoted to make better use of the facility.

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List two community facilities and suggest how they could be improved to better promote greater participation in physical activity.

Create a slogan that could be used to encourage greater participation in physical activity.

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Teachers notes

Accidents

Objective • Describes the consequences of accidents to the individual and the community. The lesson Discussion points: • • • •

What type of accidents have you been involved in? Who was affected? What causes accidents? What are the consequences of accidents on individuals, families and the community? • What laws and policies affect people your age? • What impact do they have on your health and safety? What to do:

Background information Everyone needs to be able to identify when a situation is an emergency and what do in the circumstances. Basic first aid courses are available through St John’s Ambulance. For information on the accepted response in emergency situations visit: www.sja.org.uk www.redcross.org.uk www.redcross.org.ie

Teacher check Additional activities

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• As a class, discuss some of the different accidents that pupils may have been involved in. Highlight the impact on the individual and how the community may have been affected. Discuss different factors that can cause accidents. Can most accidents be prevented? • Pupils can work in small groups or pairs to consider the accidents shown on the worksheet. They will need to decide on what consequences may affect the individual and the community. There is room for each pupil to retell an accident that he/she has been involved in and describe the consequences. • Pupils will need to have access to newspapers to find one article relating to an accident. Ask pupils to briefly describe the accident and then state the consequences to the individual and community. Answers

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• Use the Internet, or library resources, to identify laws and policies that apply to their behaviour. Discuss the impact of these on their safety and health. • Make a list of (or draw) the different factors that may cause accidents. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Recognise risk and make safer choices about different environments and travel. Develop preventative strategies in relation to accidents.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Develop an awareness of health and safety and develop responsible attitudes towards the prevention of accidents.

Scotland

Health

Level D

Identify strategies for keeping healthy and safe.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Have a responsible attitude towards keeping the body safe and healthy.

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Accidents (a) Describe the consequences of the following accidents to the individual and the community. (b) Retell an accident that you have had, or someone you know has had, and describe the consequences to the individual and community. (c) Find a newspaper article that relates some type of accident and describe the consequences to the individual and community.

A young driver who has been drinking alcohol crashes into another car, injuring himself and killing the other driver.

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A tourist is hill walking when he breaks his ankle. He has not left exact details of where he is heading.

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A young girl, under the inuence of drugs, walks into an oncoming car and is seriously injured.

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A driver is on the motorway during peak hour, talking on a mobile phone. He doesn’t notice the traffic slow and runs into the car in front of him. No-one is seriously injured but both cars are damaged.

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Two friends are smoking cigarettes behind bushes near some shops. One of the cigarettes is not completely out when they leave. Later that day, they hear about a ďŹ re that has caused damage to some shops in the same area.

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Teachers notes

Safety

Objective

Background information

• Identifies ways to promote safety and devises strategies to respond to unsafe situations. The lesson Discussion points: • • • • •

What safety precautions do you take in different situations? How do you deal with unsafe situations? Why is it important to look at the consequences of your decisions? What rules are supplied for your safety by the school and your parents? Would you feel confident enough to take responsibility for someone else’s safety? What to do:

The vast majority of people who are hurt by others are usually hurt by those they know. Even though not many people are hurt by strangers, it is important to take sensible precautions and be prepared. Some ideas to reduce the chances of unsafe situations are:

Additional activities

• try to use transport rather than walking alone, • plan ahead and let an adult know where you are, • carry coins for a public phone, or carry a mobile, • walk in groups and choose well-lit and busy streets.

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1. – 5. Answers will vary

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• Ask pupils to help compile a list of school rules that deal with safer participation in physical activities. Why are these rules in place? Who sets them? What can be the consequences if they are not followed? Have pupils complete Question 1. • Pupils may work in pairs to discuss the situations presented in Question 2 and decide what safety precautions can be taken. • Ask pupils to think about the rules they personally follow to ensure their safety. Ask them to describe four to complete Question 3. • Discuss how parents usually set many different rules to ensure the safety of their children. Pupils may wish to relate experiences of when a rule has saved them from an accident or when they broke a rule set by their parents. Ask pupils to list the safety rules their parents enforce for them. • Pupils can answer yes or no to the statements presented in Question 5. Answers

Pupils need to appreciate that there may be situations they are presented with which make them feel unsafe. How they deal with these situations could be important for their wellbeing and safety. It is important for pupils to be able to develop an action plan and to feel confident to put it in place.

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• Create an acrostic poem to promote safety issues. • Draw a serious comic strip that shows the consequences of not following a safety procedure. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Recognise and manage risk and make safer choices. Develop strategies to promote personal safety.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Realise that as independence increases, responsibility for personal safety increases, and that a strategy for keeping safe has to be developed and adhered to by each individual.

Scotland

Health

Level D

Identify strategies for keeping safe.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Have a responsible attitude towards keeping themselves safe.

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Safety What school rules are in place to provide safer participation in physical activities?

Describe safety procedures you can follow in the following situations. (c)

(b)

You have missed the bus from your parttime evening job.

(d)

People are using drugs at a party.

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You and your friends are at the beach for the day.

You are helping to coach a junior cricket team at school.

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(a)

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What personal rules or strategies do you have in regard to taking responsibility for your own safety?

What rules do your parents set for your safety?

(a) I always take my personal safety seriously. ............................................................................................... (b) I have strict rules to follow, set by my parents. ......................................................................................... (c) I am able to recognise unsafe situations and do something about them........................................... (d) I sometimes take risks with my safety......................................................................................................... (e) I use proper safety equipment whenever I need to. ................................................................................ (f) I can take responsibility for the safety of others if required. .................................................................. Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Media influences

Objective • Identifies images targeted at adolescents and questions the reality of what is presented.

The media often create images of what someone thinks is beautiful or perfect. Many advertisements which target adolescents use models who may not represent a realistic body image. With some pupils experiencing low self-esteem and a poor body image, it is important they understand that some advertising campaigns can be unrealistic.

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The lesson Discussion points: • What types of advertisements specifically target adolescents? • How much notice do you take of advertisements? • Do advertisements affect the way you see yourself, or the decisions you make? • Can the media have an influence on your physical and mental health? What to do: • Provide pupils with a collection of magazines and newspapers. Discuss with pupils how different advertising campaigns are targeted at different groups of people. Ask pupils to consider those advertisements targeted at adolescents. Create a class list of products. Allow pupils time to peruse magazines and look for advertisements that specifically target them. Pupils choose three and complete the table. It would be beneficial to model the answers with the class, using one previously-found advertisement. • Discuss the way the media can affect a person’s health in a variety of ways. Some of these may include being worried about body shape, feelings of not living up to an image, being influenced to buy certain products that may not be right for you, seeing alcohol consumption as a prerequisite to ‘having fun’, and wanting to try junk foods. • Have some examples of advertisements for alcohol products. As a class, discuss the images presented. Usually they are glossy, use beautiful models, depict a fun time, may be in an exotic place and project a ‘cool’ image. • Many major films depict popular actors smoking cigarettes or have cigarettes placed in plain view. Discuss the image portrayed by role models smoking cigarettes in films. Ask pupils to write their opinions to complete Question 4. • Ask pupils to consider how their behaviour, decisions and feelings are influenced by the media when considering body image, fashion, sporting goods and junk food. Pupils can list in point form how their behaviour can be influenced; for example, do they feel positive about their own image when they see magazine models? Are they influenced to buy more junk food because of advertisements? Will they only use certain popular sporting products? Are they desperate to buy fashionable clothing? Answers 1. – 5. Answers will vary

Background information

Additional activities • Use the Internet to research how models are ‘made up’ for shoots and covers of magazines. Discover what special effects are used. • Compile a biography on a favourite media personality. Use the Internet to find facts and pictures. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Know what influences health, including the media. Investigate the influences on a young person; e.g. media.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Become increasingly critical and discerning in his/her attitude to advertising.

Scotland

Health

Level D

Recognise that media influences can affect choices they make.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Critically evaluate messages from the media.

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Media influences Use magazines and newspapers to collect advertisements which specifically target adolescents. Choose three different advertisements and complete the following.

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How can the images that are targeted at adolescents affect your physical and mental health?

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Describe the images presented in advertisements for alcohol products.

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Cigarette smoking in films should be banned. Explain your opinion.

The media can have a big influence on the things we buy and do. How might the media influence your decisions and behaviour regarding the following: Body image?

Fashion?

Sporting products?

Junk food?

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Teachers notes

Advertising

Objective • Identifies how males and females are targeted through advertisements and how expectations can influence decisions. The lesson Discussion points: • • • •

How are men and women portrayed in the media? What different expectations do we have for men and women? How do advertisers target men and women? Is there more pressure on men or women to live up to society’s expectations? What to do:

Background information The pressure for many to be thin, beautiful, fashionable and healthy is enormous. The media reinforce expectations and target males and females in different ways. Expectations of men and women can influence their decisions and options.

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• As a class, or in small groups, ask pupils to consider what expectations society can place on men and women. Pupils complete Question 1 of the activity. • Pupils will need access to a variety of magazines. Ask them to find two advertisements – one that specifically targets males and one that specifically targets females. Allow pupils time to explore answers in relation to the advertisements they have chosen. • Discuss how many advertisements that show women who are not so glamorous often target an older audience. In small groups, ask pupils to consider those advertisements that depict women who are not so ‘perfect’ and decide what age group the advertisements target. • Pupils can work in small groups or pairs to discuss the statement presented in Question 4 and then write their personal opinions. Answers

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1. Some responses could include: Males: strong, manly, muscular, tall, good looking, trendy, macho, independent, financially independent etc. Females: fashionable, beautiful, thin, long hair, lovable, sexy, helpless etc. 2. – 4. Teacher check

• Create a wordsearch, using words relevant to the media. • Survey the different advertisements on television during a given period. Tally those targeted at different groups; for example, adolescents, males, females. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Know what influences health, including the media and understand the effects of stereotyping. Investigate the influences on a young person; e.g. media and investigate stereotyping.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Recognise unequal treatment of sexual roles in advertising.

Scotland

Health

Level D

Recognise that media influences can affect choices they make and the link between body image and external influences.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Critically evaluate messages from the media and recognise stereotyping.

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Advertising Our society often has expectations of how girls and boys, and men and women, should behave. The media can reinforce those expectations through advertising, by using different advertisements to target males or females. Make a list of some of the different expectations we have for males and females.

Males

Females

Find two magazine advertisements. Choose one that targets males and one that targets females.

Product:

Target:

Target:

Image:

Image:

How is this gender targeted?

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How is this gender targeted?

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Product:

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(a) Find product advertisements in the media showing women who are not so glamorous, thin or beautiful. What products or services are they advertising?

(b) What audience do these advertisements generally target?

Women are expected to be more beautiful, thin and fashionable than men. Discuss with a partner and summarise your opinion.

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Teachers notes

Community services

Objective

Background information

• Identifies community services that support adolescents.

The availability of different community services can have an effect on the health of people.

The lesson Discussion points: • What services are available in your local community? • How can we help to promote some of these services in our community? • How are adolescents catered for? • Are there enough services for adolescents? • What issues are important to the local community? • What services does your local community require? What to do:

While most communities have a range of different services, many are isolated and do not always have adequate facilities. Adolescents require a variety of facilities to develop self-esteem, to enhance group skills and to provide recreational and educational support.

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• Have pupils work in small groups and ask them to list all the facilities they would like to see provided for adolescents. Ask pupils to highlight those facilities already available in the local community. • Ask pupils to individually complete the survey questions. Survey the class to see which facility was the most requested. Discuss. Were there differences in the facilities requested by boys and girls? If so, what were they? • Ask pupils to write a formal letter to the local council, explaining the need for a new facility. Answers 1. – 5. Teacher check Additional activities

England

Northern Ireland

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Curriculum links

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• In small groups, pupils plan, design and build a model of a new facility that caters specifically for them. They will need to determine and find the materials required to build the model. • Pupils enquire into the facilities provided in the local community (these could be divided among small groups) and write a report on what is available to adolescents.

KS 3

Communicate confidently with their peers and adults, participate and take responsibility.

Learning for life KS 3

Investigate various ways to participate in society; e.g. lobbying local councillors, investigate an issue from a range of viewpoints and suggest action that might be taken to improve the situations; e.g. local youth services.

PSHE

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Identify some local issues of concern and explore possible action that could be taken to address these issues.

Scotland

Health

Level D

Recognise the right to equal opportunity for all members of the community.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Be committed to practical involvement in the community.

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Community services

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List the community facilities you think should be provided for adolescents.

Highlight those facilities available in your community.

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The local council is considering an idea to support one new facility that caters specifically for adolescents. They have created a survey to find which would be the most beneficial and the most used. Provide your opinion.

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(a) Which facility would you like to see established?

(d) What extra services could be provided at this facility?

(e) What benefits will you get?

(c) How often do you expect to use it?

(f) How will the community benefit?

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(b) How will you make use of it?

(a) What facility was the most requested in your class?

(b) Was one facility more popular with the girls or the boys?

On the back of this sheet, write a letter to the council explaining how you and your peers would like to see a new facility established in the community. Explain that a survey was conducted and describe the benefits of the facility to your peers and the community. Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Health issues

Objective

Background information

• Describes actions required to address a specific health issue.

A healthy body and mind make it easier to cope with any challenges or difficult times that face us. It is important to make exercise, eating properly and getting enough sleep a priority at any age. By creating an action plan, goals can be reached and success achieved.

The lesson Discussion points: • What health issue concerns you the most? • What makes up an action plan? • What do you need to achieve set goals? • Why is achieving goals important? What to do:

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Answers will vary Additional activities

Be more active Sleep more Eat less junk food Eat more fruit and vegetables Make time to relax Be less stressed Spend less time worrying about what I look like and more time thinking about how I feel Improve my personal hygiene

Curriculum links PSHE

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

KS 3

6th Class

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Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

Plan realistic targets. Explore the different ways to develop self-esteem; e.g. setting achievable targets.

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Republic of Ireland SPHE

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• In small groups, develop a plan to solve a school or community health issue. Decide how that plan can be put into action. • Pupils write an article that describes how they solved a personal, family, school or community health issue.

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• • • •

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• Ask pupils to consider health issues that are important to them. Have them choose one issue they can develop an action plan for. Provide an example to use, and work through the plan with the whole class. • Allow pupils time to reflect on a goal and complete the action plan. Decide on an achievable time frame to reach goals. This activity can be an assignment to complete at home. Answers

Here are some suggestions for personal health goals:

KS 3

Identify realistic personal goals and targets and the strategies required to reach these. Show ability to set realistic goals and review personal goals at appropriate times. Action plan and set targets.

Health and values

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Teachers notes

Influences on physical activity

Objectives • Compares activities people do to stay fit and investigates the reasons behind the choices. • Identifies barriers to participation in physical activity and suggests ways to overcome these.

There are numerous physical activities people can participate in to stay fit. Physical activity must be undertaken regularly to maintain or improve fitness. Team sports are popular with a variety of age groups. Individual sports, such as swimming, judo, tennis or golf can be engaged in by joining a club or class or at leisure. Other activities such as walking, jogging, rollerblading, skateboarding, bike riding or kicking a football around can be done with a friend, a group of friends or individually. Several factors influence people’s choice of sport or physical activity. Many pupils around the age of 10 to 12 will be involved in team sports through physical education classes at school, playing for their school or being a member of a club outside school. Sports may include netball, football, cricket, rugby or hockey. Pupils will also participate in pursuits such as bike riding, walking to and from school (or the bus stop!) and skateboarding.

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The lesson Discussion points: • Why is it important to become or stay physically fit? • Do you have to play a sport to keep physically fit? How else can you stay fit? • How do you stay physically fit? How do members of your family stay fit? • Why do you think people choose different ways to stay fit? • Do adults and children choose the same ways to stay fit? • What things prevent people from participating in physical activity? What to do: • In groups of four, pupils discuss the first three points above. Give each group a sheet of paper to record responses. Each pupil can take a turn at leading the discussion and recording any notes. Share responses as a whole class after a suitable time has been allowed for the discussion. • Direct pupils to complete Question 1 on their worksheet. • To complete Question 2, pupils will need to survey people they know out of school. The data will need to be collated, so it is best that each pupil attempts to interview someone different from the other pupils. Pupils may need to complete this information prior to the lesson. • Collate the information gathered by the pupils by recording the type of physical activity and tally the number of people who participate in each age group. • Pupils can then graph the results on a separate sheet of paper. Compare and discuss any similarities or differences among the age groups. Discuss points four and five from the discussion points and encourage pupils to explain why they think differences occur. • Talk over the final discussion point as a whole class, recording the pupils’ responses on the board. Direct pupils to read through Question 3 and to record their own solutions to the problems. Share answers in small groups to compare responses and discuss alternatives. Answers 1. – 3. Answers will vary.

Background information

Additional activities • Consider the barriers that a disabled person must overcome in order to participate in physical activities. Discuss and develop a list of suggestions that could be incorporated within the community to make it easier for disabled people to be active participants in physical activities. • Refine the survey undertaken by the pupils to also include a differentiation between males and females. How does this affect the data collected? • Research and define how cultural backgrounds influence the type of physical activity undertaken by individuals.

Many adults par ticipate in vigorous sports or activities until their fifties or older. Golf, tai chi, walking, yoga and lawn bowls are options that might then be taken up or continued. Besides age, other factors influencing choice of physical activity include family, peers, school and coaches, culture, media and advertising, geographic location and what the individual enjoys.

Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Know how to keep healthy and what influences health. Investigate the influences on health of regular physical activity.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Recognise and examine behaviour that is conducive to health.

Scotland

Health

Level D

Show their knowledge and understanding of their physical needs.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Know that maintaining regular exercise can have both mental and physical benefits.

38

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Influences on physical activity Complete this fitness fact file about yourself. Type of physical activity: Where: Time spent:

When:

Survey three people in each of the age groups below to find out …

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7 – 12 years old

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20 – 40 years old

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Sa m

13 – 19 years old

Explain how you would overcome the following barriers to participate in physical activities. (a) weather

(b) transport

(c) money

(d) parental consent

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

Health and values

39


Teachers notes

Being a part of a group

Objective

Background information

• Identifies the skills needed to contribute to successful group participation. The lesson

Participating in groups (school, clubs, community etc.) can be beneficial for all of us.

Discussion points:

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Skills that can be developed through collaborative learning/ • Why do we join groups? play include: • What type of groups are there (sporting, helping people, musical, church, art and craft etc.)? • communicating, • What do you think the benefits of being part of a group could be? • risk taking, • Do you think there are ‘rules’ for being part of a group? Discuss. • negotiating, What to do: • creative thinking, • Find out what groups are available for pupils at the school and in the ® community. This can be done by looking on the Internet, in the Yellow Pages , • cooperating, phoning the local council and studying noticeboards at local shops. • speaking and listening, • Have a discussion about the types of groups available for the pupils at school • working towards a goal, (if applicable). Follow this by asking the pupils about the types of groups • taking responsibility, they belong to. Where do they go to participate in these groups? • problem solving, • Pupils complete Questions 1 and 2 independently. Ask them to share their responses with the class. Discuss why it isn’t always possible to join • being assertive, the groups we would like to (because of cost, other commitments, parent • allocating tasks. commitment and availability etc.). • Ask the pupils why they think it is important that we become involved in groups outside the school. One reason may be to make friends with children who live in the area but go to different schools. Why is this beneficial to us? • In small groups, the pupils will role-play a discussion among pupils about where the next school excursion should be. A brainstorm is required first so the pupils know what they are trying to get across in their role-play. With groups that may find this difficult, stress the importance of good communication, active listening, negotiating and compromise. • The pupils will need time to write and practise their role-play, which they can then perform for the class. • As each group performs, ask the audience for feedback about what they learnt from the play. Create a list on the board and keep adding to it with every performance. Answers:

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Answers will vary 1. – 2. Teacher check 3. (a) Teacher check (b) Possible answers: • good communication, listening, negotiating, compromise • every group member participates in the discussion • only one person speaks at a time • group members use their manners with each other • members state why they have chosen their destination • members listen to each other’s suggestions • the group negotiates a destination everyone is happy with (c) – (e) Teacher check Additional activities • Pupils can survey pupils in other classes to discover what groups they belong to. An information poster can be created and displayed around the school grounds to promote extracurricular activities. • Pupils can complete another role-play, this time between family members who are discussing where their next holiday should be, or what type of car to buy, or where to spend Christmas etc. Curriculum links England

PSHE

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Republic of Ireland SPHE Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

40

KS 3

6th Class

Work with people and communicate confidently with peers. Work effectively with others. Enhance skills to improve learning; e.g. group project involvement. Carry out group tasks and adopt different roles within groups.

KS 3

Work cooperatively. Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Being a part of a group Participating in groups can be beneďŹ cial for all of us. We can learn and develop important skills and make new friends. (a) What groups do you belong to now or have you belonged to in the past?

(b) Which is the favourite group you have belonged to (or belong to now)? What is it about the group that makes it your favourite?

Sa m

pl e

What groups would you like to join when you are a few years older?

Imagine you have joined the school council and it is your responsibility (along with the other members) to decide where your class should go to on this year’s school excursion. In your group, follow the steps to role-play a discussion between yourself and the other members of the council. Choice of destination

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(a) Pupil name

(b) Your role-play is going to help teach the audience how to be successful group members. In your group, brainstorm ways to show this.

me

eaking at a ti

on sp only one pers

(c) How will you be able to show this in your role-play?

(d) On the back of this sheet, write a short script for your role-play and practise it. (e) Perform your role-play for the class. Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

How do you feel?

Objective Background information

• Recognises personal feelings related to given statements.

The way we feel about ourselves has a major effect on our lives and our relationships with others, in terms of decisions we make, and how we treat ourselves and others.

The lesson Discussion points: • How well do you know yourself? • Do you think you have good self-esteem? • How do you think you would react in an emergency? • Do you like talking about yourself? • Do you ever make personal goals for yourself? What to do: • Use the worksheet as a one-to-one conference, a portfolio activity or as a teacher record. Answers

Additional activities

Sa m

• Imagine you have suddenly become famous. A magazine has asked for a ‘personal profile’ all about you. They would like to know what you are like, what you enjoy doing and what you value. Write your own personal profile. Write it in the third person (he, she etc.) and add a picture.

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Curriculum links PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Vi

Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

42

Know how to deal positively with the strength of their feelings in different situations.

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England

Republic of Ireland SPHE

• happy, • okay as a person, • a strong belief in themselves, • they have a good future to look forward to, • enjoyment toward the world, • energetic and hopeful, • confident in the ability to be able to change things, • comfortable enough to join in with others, • happy with every success— even if it is small, • capable of looking for different ways to succeed, • positive enough to encourage others, • they can respect differences they see in others.

pl e

Answers will vary

The way we feel about ourselves is called self-esteem. When we generally feel good about ourselves, we say we have high self-esteem; when we generally feel poorly about ourselves, we say we have low self-esteem. People with high self-esteem feel:

6th Class

Explore and express a sense of self; e.g. feelings and emotions. Acquire the ability and confidence to identify, discuss and explore a range of feelings. Begin to recognise a range of emotions and how they deal with them.

KS 3

Identify the range of emotions and feelings they experience.

Health and values

When we have high self-esteem we don’t have to boast or try to prove how good we are to other people. We just need to believe in ourselves and what we think we can do.

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


How do you feel? Answer yes or no. I am enjoying school this year. ................................................................................................................ I am pleased with the results I get. ........................................................................................................ I get on well with my classmates. ........................................................................................................... I feel confident with the work we do...................................................................................................... I am a responsible class member. .......................................................................................................... I always finish assigned homework. ....................................................................................................... I feel as though I am a valuable class member. ................................................................................... I set myself high standards. ..................................................................................................................... I am able to concentrate well on my work. ........................................................................................... I find it quite easy to learn something new. .......................................................................................... I feel as though I can handle most problems I face at school. ........................................................

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I am involved in many after-school activities. ....................................................................................... I have good ideas. ...................................................................................................................................... It is hard for me to make new friends. ...................................................................................................

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I am a happy person. .................................................................................................................................

16 I can get bored quite easily...................................................................................................................... My parents have high expectations of me. ........................................................................................... I love being faced with new challenges. ...............................................................................................

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I often want things my own way.............................................................................................................. Sometimes I wish I were a different person......................................................................................... My peers respect me. ...............................................................................................................................

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I lead a well-balanced lifestyle. ............................................................................................................... My friends are interested in my opinions. .............................................................................................

Vi

I can be easily influenced by my peers. ................................................................................................

25 I often run out of time and don’t get things finished. ......................................................................... I am able to set goals and work towards achieving them. ................................................................ I am a good communicator. ..................................................................................................................... I have a positive attitude. .......................................................................................................................... I have some trouble handling conflict situations. ................................................................................ I am able to work well with others. ......................................................................................................... I have healthy eating habits. .................................................................................................................... I always get enough sleep. ...................................................................................................................... Sometimes I worry about the way I look. .............................................................................................. I have a good relationship with my parents.......................................................................................... I make an effort to always try my best. .................................................................................................. I exercise on a regular basis. ................................................................................................................... I feel confident and informed about the changes during puberty. .................................................. Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Feeling good about yourself Background information

Objectives • Identifies strategies to improve his/her own self-esteem. • Uses ‘I’ statements to demonstrate positive self-worth. • Demonstrates possible situations in which he/she could take a risk.

The way we feel about ourselves is called self-esteem. When we generally feel good about ourselves, we say we have high self-esteem; when we generally feel poorly about ourselves, we say we have low self-esteem. People with high self-esteem feel: • • • •

happy, okay as a person, a strong belief in themselves, they have a good future to look forward to, enjoyment toward the world, energetic and hopeful, confident in the ability to be able to change things, comfortable enough to join in with others, happy with every success— even if it is small, capable of looking for different ways to succeed, positive enough to encourage others, they can respect differences they see in others.

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The lesson Discussion points: • What is self-esteem? Why is high self-esteem so important? • Is there a difference between high self-esteem and being smug or conceited? • What causes high and low self-esteem? • Can we sometimes be too critical of ourselves? What to do: • Use the discussion points above as a warm-up to the lesson. One possible approach to the discussion is to write each discussion point on a piece of card. Organise the class into groups of five or six and ensure each group has a set of discussion cards. • Give the groups five minutes to discuss each point. After each discussion point, select one pupil to report the main points of his/her group’s discussion to the whole class. • Ensure pupils can share their personal views in a safe and supportive environment. This means each pupil is allowed to speak uninterrupted and other pupils are to use active listening skills without the use of ‘put-downs’. • Sit pupils in a large circle. Start with yourself and use an ‘I’ statement to state something you are good at or enjoy or a positive trait; e.g. ‘I am a really helpful person, I enjoy helping others wherever I can’. Take turns around the circle so each pupil can make an ‘I’ statement. If a pupil has difficulty, other pupils may offer suggestions, but the pupil must complete the ‘I’ statement. • Pupils can then complete Questions 1 and 2 on the worksheet. • Read through the text provided on the worksheet relating to risk taking. Share and discuss some examples with pupils in regard to issues that may be holding him/her back from taking risks and discuss in depth risks that are too dangerous to contemplate. • Pupils can then complete the remaining activities on the worksheet. Answers 1. positive, self-belief, energetic, capable, happy, successful, hopeful, confident, tolerant, dignity, self-worth, assertive, secure, achieve, loved 2. – 4. Answers will vary

The way we feel about ourselves has a major effect on our lives and our relationships with others, in terms of decisions we make, and how we treat ourselves and others.

• • • • • • • •

When we have high self-esteem we don’t have to boast or try to prove how good we are to other people. We just need to believe in ourselves and what we think we can do.

Additional activities • Encourage pupils to set a risk-taking goal. Plan the approach and consider both positive and negative consequences. Set a date by which he/she hopes to have achieved the goal. • Each pupil needs to think about the person he/she wishes to be and how he/she would like things to be in his/her life. How can he/she make it happen? Curriculum links England

PSHE

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Republic of Ireland SPHE Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

44

KS 3

6th Class

Feel positive about themselves. Explore the different ways to develop self-esteem. Identify and learn about healthy ways to help him/her feel positive about himself/herself. Understand the importance of valuing self.

KS 3

Respect themselves. Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Feeling good about yourself Find 15 words in the search that are related to good self-esteem.

List five ways you could improve your self-esteem. (a)

pl e

(b) (c)

Sa m

(d) (e)

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Those people with a healthy self-esteem often find it easier to take risks and move out of their ‘comfort zone’. This means they are able to experience new things without worrying about what may happen if they are not successful. Many people are reluctant to try new things or push themselves a little further to see what they are capable of achieving.

(b) (c) (d)

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(a)

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Give four reasons why you may be reluctant to take risks.

Some risks are dangerous and some are just plain stupid! Contemplating any such risks requires you to think long and hard about the consequences. Can you harm yourself or cause someone else grief? Will your actions break the law? Complete the table below. Risks I would love to take … one day!

Risks I would never bother with!

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Health and values

45


Teachers notes

Being assertive!

Objectives • Identifies how he/she responds to different situations. • Discusses and practises possible responses to different situations. • Uses ‘I’ statements with confidence to demonstrate assertive behaviour.

There are three ways to respond to different situations: • passive—acting as though the rights of others are more important than his/hers, • aggressive—acting as though his/her rights are more important than others, • assertive—respecting others and himself/herself equally. Developing assertive behaviour is essential to developing positive self-esteem. To be assertive, one must have a level of confidence to be able to communicate one’s needs, wants and feelings without hurting others.

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The lesson Discussion points: • How might you act if you are acting in a passive, aggressive or assertive manner? • What are ‘I’ statements? • What are the steps you might take to learn how to be assertive? • What are the benefits of being assertive? What to do: • Discuss the first discussion point and encourage pupils to provide real-life examples of each type of behaviour. Discuss how the person who is ‘dealing out’ the behaviour and the person ‘receiving’ the behaviour might feel in each situation. • Discuss the second discussion point. • Practise making ‘I’ statements. You can either provide various situations for the pupils to give an ‘I’ statement for or they can think of a situation in which an ‘I’ statement could be used. Sit pupils in a large circle. Start with yourself and use an ‘I’ statement to state how you feel about a situation; e.g. ‘I feel annoyed when my housemate doesn’t do the dishes because it seems as though she takes advantage of me. I would like her to take turns washing the dishes’. Take turns around the circle so each pupil can make an ‘I’ statement. If a pupil has difficulty, other pupils may offer suggestions, but the pupil must complete the ‘I’ statement. • Complete Questions 1 and 2 on the worksheet. Discuss pupil responses to the activities. • Discuss the final two discussion points above then direct pupils to consider and complete Questions 3 and 4 on the worksheet. Answers 1. – 4. Answers will vary.

Background information

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Additional activities • Role-play various situations to allow pupils the opportunity to practise being assertive. Encourage pupils to look at body language, posture, voice control, eye contact and the use of ‘I’ statements. • Make a list of attributes a passive person, an assertive person and an aggressive person may have. These could be written in a full-size outline of a person and displayed on the wall as a reference for pupils. Pupils can then use the posters to check themselves and how they are reacting to a situation. • Pupils could have a forum to discuss any situations that are occurring which bother them. Other pupils could offer suggestions to help solve the problem in an assertive manner. Remember, anything discussed at these forums remains confidential and pupils who are not able to honour this should not be involved.

When communicating in an assertive manner, people are: • being honest without being rude or hurtful, • considering what they really want to achieve, • allowing others to feel safe and get what they want too, • respecting themselves and others too, • not intentionally hurting others. The use of ‘I’ statements rather than ‘you’ statements is an important part of being assertive; for example, ‘I don’t like what you are saying to me and I want you to stop it now!’ rather than ‘You always tease me’. Pupils also need to be encouraged to look confident when practising asser tive behaviour. It can make all the difference.

Curriculum links England

PSHE

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Republic of Ireland SPHE Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

46

KS 3

6th Class

Negotiate within relationships. Develop strategies to avoid and resolve conflict; e.g. assertiveness. Explore and practise how to handle conflict without being aggressive. Have the confidence to retain a reasoned position.

KS 3

Be assertive. Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Being assertive! How do you normally respond to different situations? Circle the approach you use or colour the circles if you have a mix of two approaches.

Write an assertive, aggressive and passive response to each of the following. Remember, when being assertive, ‘I’ statements are very helpful.

Situation

Assertive response

Aggressive response

Passive response

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Your parents refuse to let you stay over at your friend’s house on a weekend night.

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Your mum wants to make your school disco outfit but you have your heart set on something in a shop.

Sa m

A friend shares a personal secret of yours with someone else.

Vi

A class member refuses to cooperate during a group project.

List some of the advantages you can see assertiveness might have in your life.

Write a sentence explaining how you will endeavour to use assertive behaviour in the future.

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

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47


Teachers notes

Stereotyping

Objectives • Understands the meaning of the word ‘stereotype’. • Considers stereotypes in his/her community. • Considers the meaning of the word ‘empathy’.

Background information

Stereotyping can affect a person’s self-concept by others making unfair assumptions about his/her skills, abilities and behaviour. Pupils need to learn to accept themselves, so they can develop an open-minded attitude to others.

Sa m

pl e

The lesson Discussion points: • What is a ‘stereotype’? • What can stereotyping lead to? • Are stereotypes ever fair or useful? Why/Why not? • Why is it important to be empathetic? • Is empathy the same as sympathy? Explain. • Discuss why it is important that we are all treated as individuals. • Have you ever been in a situation where you have been stereotyped? Explain. Materials needed/Preparation: • Teachers will need to organise pupils into groups of four or five before they begin work. Each group will need access to a comprehensive dictionary. • Depending on the ability of the class, some discussion about stereotypes may be needed before the groups begin work. • Each group should nominate a spokesperson to give the answers to each of the questions. This should promote class discussion. Teachers should be prepared for words like ‘racism’ and ‘sexism’ to come up. Answers: 1. – 5. Answers will vary

A stereotype can be described as a very simple—and often incorrect—picture that people have of a particular type of person. Stereotypes depend on conventional ideas about groups of people which may include attitudes, interests, characteristics, traits, mannerisms or physical appearance. It is common to base initial judgments about people on stereotypes.

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Additional activities • Pupils could prepare and perform role-plays with stereotypical characters, then perform the same role-play using non-stereotypical characters. They should then consider how the role-play changed. • Ask the pupils to watch television programmes, particularly soap operas and dramas or serials, and pick out the stereotypical characters. They could discuss whether they think it matters that stereotypical characters are used on television.

Many people compare themselves to others and try to fit into the stereotype. The media have a big influence on creating stereotypes. Television, in particular, uses symbols such as clothing, gestures, settings, physical appearance, behaviour and body language to create stereotypes that an audience can easily identify.

Display ideas • Pupils could draw humorous pictures of various stereotypical people and label their features; e.g. ‘white hair’, ‘walking stick’, ‘floral dress’ etc. for an elderly woman. These could be displayed on the wall. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Know about the effects of all types of stereotyping and how to challenge them assertively. Investigate how and why stereotyping may arise.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Explore how inequality may exist; e.g. stereotyping and suggest ways in which this may be addressed.

Scotland

Health

Level D

Recognise issues of discrimination and the right to equal opportunity for all members of the community.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Recognise expressions of prejudice and stereotyping.

48

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Stereotyping A stereotype can be described as a very simple—and often incorrect–picture that people have of a particular type of person. In our communities, people are often stereotyped according to their jobs, gender, disabilities, age, religion, race, culture or where they live.

In a small group, consider the following. List words to describe a typical stereotype for a person who holds each of these jobs. (a) airline pilot (b) nurse (c) firefighter (d) rubbish collector (e) infant teacher

stereotype

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Sa m

person

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Write some further examples of stereotypes you might encounter in your school or community. Try to include some different types; e.g. stereotypes involving older people or the area in which someone lives.

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What is the problem with stereotypes?

Vi

Stereotypes come about through a lack of understanding of those who are different from us. This can cause people to be teased or ignored. Showing empathy for people who are different from us is a skill we should all learn. Write what you think the word ‘empathy’ means. You can use a dictionary to help you but write your group’s definition in your own words.

How can we show empathy for others? Give three examples. (i)

(ii)

(iii)

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Health and values

49


Teachers notes

Bullying

Objectives • Understands what the term ‘bullying’ means. • Identifies examples of physical, verbal and social bullying. • Considers the possible consequences of bullying. • Uses role-play to demonstrate different strategies for dealing with bullying.

Bullying is very common within our schools. Pupils bully for many reasons, including not fitting in; disliking themselves; peer pressure; wanting to show off; feeling upset or angry; or having a fear of being bullied themselves. Bullying takes many forms, including physical abuse such as hitting, punching, and tripping; verbal abuse such as namecalling and teasing put-downs; and emotional abuse such as gossiping about someone, spreading rumours, making fun of someone, making threatening looks or gestures and excluding or ignoring someone.

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The lesson Discussion points: • Is calling someone a name once bullying? Why/Why not? • Is teasing one of your friends bullying? Explain. • Whose responsibility is preventing bullying in schools? • Do you think some people are more likely to bully than others? • Discuss where and when pupils feel bullying is most likely to happen at their school. • Do you think there are any good excuses for someone to bully? • How could you help someone who is being bullied? • Do you think all of the strategies described on the worksheet are useful? Why/Why not? Can you suggest any more? Materials needed/Preparation: • Teachers should discuss the term ‘bullying’ with the class before the pupils begin the worksheet. They could also discuss the school’s policy on bullying (if there is one). • When pupils have answered all the questions, they should prepare their role-plays with a partner. If appropriate, these role-plays could be performed for the class and the endings discussed. Pupils may also like to write their own role-plays based on bullying incidents they have experienced. Answers: 1. – 5. Answers will vary

Background information

Some strategies include problem-solving, role-play, tolerance, communication, conflict resolution, avoidance, learning when to ask for help and being asser tive (not aggressive).

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Additional activities • Pupils could script their role-plays and ask another pair to perform them. • Discuss different conflicts pupils have witnessed and decide as a class whether they are bullying or not. • Brainstorm words and phrases that describe bullying. Collate the phrases to make a class definition. • Conduct an anonymous survey among the class or younger pupils at the school which asks them about bullying at the school. The results could be collated and presented to the headteacher/principal or other appropriate school authority.

Pupils should be able to recognise bullying situations. They should be shown and encouraged to use strategies to cope with these situations.

Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Know about the effects of bullying and how to challenge bullying assertively. Develop strategies to promote personal safety; e.g. responding appropriately to different forms of bullying.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Recognise, discuss and understand bullying and its effects and explore how individuals can deal with being bullied, knowing that others are being bullied and being a bully.

Scotland

Health

Level D

Identify strategies for keeping healthy and safe.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Use a range of strategies to resolve conflict.

50

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Bullying Bullying is usually deliberate, hurtful treatment that is repeated over time. Bullying can be physical (e.g. kicking someone), verbal (e.g. teasing) or social (e.g. leaving people out). Write an example of each type of bullying that you have experienced or seen happening.

What do you think the consequences should be for a person who bullies? Give your suggestions for these examples of bullying. • a pupil who sends threatening notes to others.

physical • a pupil who steals other pupils’ lunch money. verbal

If you are bullied, there are many different things you can do to show you will not accept the behaviour of the person who is bullying you. Some of these strategies are below.

Sa m

People who bully others need to know their bullying behaviour is not allowed and it must stop. They also need to realise their actions affect people.

pl e

• a pupil who physically hurts a younger pupil on a regular basis.

social

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List ways that people who are bullied regularly might be affected. Consider both feelings and physical reactions.

• Stay away from where the bullying occurs or choose an area with lots of people. • Boost your confidence by using positive self-talk; e.g. ‘I know that rumour about me isn’t true’. • Ask for help (this is often appropriate after other strategies have been tried first). • Look confident by using eye contact, good posture and clear speech.

Read each bullying scenario below with a partner. Consider what you think each bullied person should do. • On her first day at her new school, Tamara nervously approaches a girl sitting with a group of pupils and asks if she can have lunch with them. The girl pretends she can’t hear her. When Tamara leaves, she hears the group laughing about her. • For the past two months, Liam has made Shane do his maths homework for him. Liam has told Shane that if he tells anyone he will ‘get him’ after school one day. Liam is much taller and stronger than Shane. Shane is sick of doing Liam’s homework. • In every sports lesson, Tom manages to roughly push Amelia to the ground. His friends cheer him on. Tom always picks a time when the teacher is not looking. Prepare a role-play of each scenario with your partner, giving each a positive ending. You can change the characters to male or female if you need to. Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

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51


Teachers notes

Peer pressure

Objective • Considers the negative effects peer pressure has on influencing behaviour and self-concept.

Background information Peer pressure is allowing others to influence our thoughts and actions. People who wish to ‘belong’ to a group are often swayed by peer pressure to follow the group’s ideas and actions. Some experts believe that people who feel they belong to a group often feel more confident and their idea of self-worth increases. When in a group, people do not need to make decisions as the group tells them what to do and think.

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The lesson Discussion points: • What is meant by ‘peer pressure’ and ‘peer influences’? • Can peer influences be positive and negative? How? • List personal positive and negative peer influence experiences. • How can you say no to a situation you know is wrong? • How does peer influence increase self-esteem? What to do: • Ask for a volunteer to read the letter to the class. • Pupils answer the comprehension questions about the letter. Some are literal and some inferential. Pupils may work in pairs or small groups to discuss each question before responding. It is important for people to • As a class, discuss their responses to the questions. believe in their own self-worth • In Question 7, the pupils respond to the letter, imagining they are Tess. Some and have confidence in their pupils may need guidance with this question. These pupils can be read the thoughts, feelings and actions. background information on this page. Discuss with them that people with People with confidence and a good self-image and a strong sense of self-worth are less likely to be who believe in themselves are influenced by others. Ask them what they would tell a friend if he/she was often less likely to be swayed by experiencing similar things to Nicola. negative peer pressure. • Some pupils may also wish to read their finished letters to the class. Discuss Peer pressure is not always a the similarities between the letters. What does Nicola need to help her break bad thing. People can influence away from the group? others to improve their behaviour Answers: such as quitting a bad habit or 1. Her best friend moved towns and so she needed new people to spend improving their skill at sport. her time with. S ome schools have used 2. The girls in Beccy’s group don’t think Computer Club is very cool. positive peer pressure to reduce 3. Nicola is lying about where she is after school on Friday afternoons. She the incidence of bullying. is also intending to lie about quitting Computer Club. 4. Possible answers: Because she doesn’t have any friends after Tess moved. She wants Beccy and her group to like her. She wants to fit in. 5. Possible answers: leader, bossy, confident, dominant, reckless, bully, risk-taker, uncaring, troublesome, unafraid etc. 6 - 7. Teacher check Additional activities

• Pupils write about a time they experienced negative peer pressure. How did they react? Did they receive any good advice? Who from? • Pupils work in small groups and make a list of positive peer influences they have experienced. They can also make a goal to help a friend or someone in their family to achieve something through their positive influences. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Recognise when pressure from others threatens their personal safety and well-being and develop effective ways of resisting pressures. Investigate the influences on a young person; e.g. peer pressure.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Explore how the opinions, views or expectations of others can influence how people relate to each other, either positively or negatively.

Scotland

Health

Level D/E

Identify the benefits to health of good personal relationships and demonstrate an understanding of their emotional needs; e.g. ways of managing pressure.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Resist unwanted peer pressure.

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Peer pressure Dear Tess, How is your new school? Have you made some new friends? Do they have Computer Club there? When is your school camp? Ours is in three weeks. I can’t believe it has been two months since you left! Things are a bit different now. I sit with Beccy’s group at lunchtimes. I know you are probably surprised about that, especially as we used to say that she was a bad influence on her friends, but I don’t really have anyone else since you left. At lunchtimes, we generally talk about boys and our weekends. Beccy has amazing weekends! Her mum isn’t home a lot so she can do whatever she likes! She wants me to go over there this weekend but I think she will be smoking and probably drinking too! (Don’t have a heart attack just yet!) I really want Beccy to like me and some of the girls in her group are nice. They don’t think it is very cool that I go to Computer Club though. They keep telling me to quit. If I do, I won’t be able to tell Mum and Dad. They hate it when I quit anything (and really, so do I!) Since you left, Beccy has ‘gone out’ with Sam, Daniel and Taj! She keeps telling me that Sam has a crush on ME now but I don’t know. After school on Fridays, we go to the park near the community centre. (I tell Mum and Dad that I’m at Beccy’s watching TV.) When you come for a visit at Christmas, I will tell you all about our Friday afternoons (then you CAN have a heart attack!) Please don’t show your mum this letter (or let snoopy Sasha find it!).

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I hope things are going better for you. Please write to me soon. I need some advice! Miss you Nicola :)

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p.s. Beccy is already planning a ‘break out’ one night during camp. Aaah!

Nicola needs help. Since her best friend moved towns, she has lost the confidence to speak up for herself and to do what she knows is right. Answer the questions about Nicola’s letter.

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What made Nicola join Beccy’s group?

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Nicola is lying to her mum and dad. What is she lying about?

Why is Nicola considering quitting Computer Club?

Why do you think Nicola is giving in to peer pressure?

Write five adjectives to describe Beccy.

How do you think Nicola is feeling about herself at the moment? How is her self-esteem?

On the back of this sheet, write Tess’s reply letter to Nicola. Think about what Nicola needs to be reminded of. What advice will help her to do the right thing? Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Friendships Background information

Objectives • Reviews current and past friendships. • Evaluates what characteristics are important to him/her. • Establishes strategies to make new friendships and maintain existing friendships. The lesson Discussion points: • What type of friend are you? • What qualities do you look for in a friend? Explain why. • How can you make new friends and why might you want to make new friends? • Are all your friendships the same? Explain. What to do: • Brainstorm, and each pupil records, as many words and phrases as possible to describe himself/herself; e.g. loving, giving, generous, caring, happy, quiet, outgoing, shy, considerate etc. Discuss the words he/she listed with his/her peers and see if the other pupils can add to the list.

Choosing people to be friends with often demonstrates a person’s own understanding of himself/herself; e.g. people who have a positive self-image tend to attract people who also have a positive self-image; people who have low self-esteem tend to attract people who also have low self-esteem. It is important that individuals take the time to get to know themselves before they can expect to know what to look for in a friend. To be able to evaluate friendships, it is important to know the skills involved in maintaining positive friendships. These can be listed as:

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• Discuss the first point above. Offer pupils information about the skills involved in being a good friend from the Background information. Encourage pupils to describe themselves as a friend.

Friendships can be extraordinary if carefully nurtured. Good, solid friendships are an important component of a feeling of self-worth and belonging.

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• Pupils then complete Question 1 on the worksheet. Use only keywords and phrases as space is limited. If pupils have difficulty, allow them to seek the advice of a friend in the class for a brief discussion.

• Talk with friends about common interests, current issues etc.

• Discuss the second point above and then ask pupils to complete Question 2 on the worksheet. Remind pupils that it is their own personal choice and there are no right or wrong answers.

• Share conversations so each person gets the chance to talk and the chance to listen.

• Discuss point three above. Talk about how some people have difficulties making new friends, why this might be and how they must feel.

• Listen, be interested in what he/she has to say and ask questions.

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• Pupils complete Question 3. This activity also makes the pupils aware of strategies to use to make new friends and how they could be more open to pupils who are not as skilled in this area as themselves. • Pupils then complete Question 4 independently. Organise the pupils into small groups to discuss the various strategies recorded.

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• Discuss the final point. Pupils may discover through this discussion that they have different friends for different purposes; e.g. one pupil may have a friend from weekend sport, so when they get together, they generally talk about sport etc. Another friend may be from school, so they generally talk about things going on at school, activities, projects etc.; while another friend might be the ideal person to share secrets with. On closer inspection, pupils may be surprised how they share different aspects of their lives with different people and how differently they act with particular people. Answers

1. – 4. Answers will vary Additional activities • Work in pairs to role-play how they would establish a new friendship.

• Give friends positive feedback when they do something well, avoid put-downs. • Always use manners and be kind and considerate. • Be dependable, respectful, honest and trustworthy. • Help each other solve problems. • Understand feelings and moods. • Allow for differences in opinion; give the opportunity to express himself/herself without hurting the other person. • Give each other room to change and grow.

• Write a note to your friend telling him/her why you think he/she is such great friend.

Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Know about the nature of friendship and how to make and keep friends. Explore the qualities of relationships including friendship.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Explore the importance of friendship, realise that making friends is part of the natural process of growing and appreciate the different aspects of friendship.

Scotland

Health

Level E

Identify the benefits of good personal relationships.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Value friends and make and maintain friendships.

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Friendships Review your current and past friendships. Consider the type of friend you are, the types of friends you spend time with and your ability to maintain steady friendships. Current friendships

Past friendships

Rank the following to show what is important to you when you choose a friend. patience

dependability

good communication skills

sporting ability

loyalty

leadership

common interests

money

trust

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honesty

popularity

appearance

Some people have difďŹ culty making new friends. They may be shy, lack conďŹ dence or have moved schools often.

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What advice would you give to someone who has a hard time making new friends?

Describe the best ways of keeping friends and making new friends.

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Relationships

Objectives • Explores different types of relationships; child – parent, child – teacher, child – child. • Identifies different standards of behaviour in different relationships. • Identifies the expectations placed on him/her in different relationships.

Every day we spend time with many different people. Each person ‘expects’ us to behave in a different way. Our parents have expectations, and so do friends, teachers, coaches, acquaintances etc. We are able to adjust our behaviour slightly depending on the relationship we have with that person. The way we speak with our friends is quite different from how we speak to our teachers. Communication is the key to developing good, strong relationships with many different people. It is important to be able to discuss issues, raise conflicts, negotiate and make decisions. We need to know how to express our thoughts and feelings but not to force them on others. Good relationships with anyone rely on a significant level of respect for each other, to be able to communicate clearly and to build a high level of trust over time.

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The lesson Discussion points: • What is a relationship? • Who do you have a relationship with? • Do you always act the same way in all of your relationships? • Do different people have different expectations of you? • What are your expectations of different people? • What do you value about your relationships? What to do: • Discuss the first point above and work together to develop a sentence to de���ne the term ‘relationship’. Record this sentence on the board. • Direct pupils to complete the brainstorming activity in Question 1 on the worksheet. Then discuss the second discussion point. • Review the types of qualities the pupils looked for in a friend. Some of these may be used to complete Question 2. Ask pupils to rank the qualities they list in order of most importance to least importance. • Discuss points three, four and five above. Encourage open discussion and the provision of examples. Different expectations within a relationship affect the way we act in that relationship. Expectations go both ways in a relationship; for example, parents have certain expectations of their children and children have certain expectations of their parents. • Pupils can then complete the remainder of the worksheet. Some relationships are more pleasurable than others and pupils need to evaluate this and define why some relationships are preferred over others. • Conclude the lesson with a discussion about the final point. Pupils could work in small groups to develop a poster which displays keywords and key phrases about what they value in their relationships. This will provide a handy reference for pupils when trying to establish or maintain positive relationships with the people around them. Answers 1. – 8. Answers will vary.

Background information

Additional activities • Role-play in small groups scenarios of behaviour in different situations involving different relationships. • Write a note to someone who you have a relationship with and tell him/her why you enjoy your relationship. • Write a poem about a relationship you have or have had in the past. • Develop a ‘steps to follow’ plan to building and maintaining a positive relationship with another person. Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Recognise a range of relationships and know that goodwill is essential to positive and constructive relationships. Explore the qualities of relationships.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Explore the importance of interacting with others and appreciate the difference between close friends and acquaintances.

Scotland

Health

Level D

Identify the benefits of good personal relationships.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Beware of (changing) relationships in the school and family.

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Relationships On the diagram, write all the relationships you have with people; e.g. teacher, parent, friend etc. What do you think are the qualities people need to ensure they develop positive relationships?

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Think about your relationships. Do you act the same way in each of them? ...............................

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List three relationships and explain how you behave and speak in each one. (Do not name the person, just the relationship; e.g. mother, father, friend, cousin, teacher etc.)

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Describe your favourite relationship. (Do not name the person, just the relationship; e.g. mother, father, friend, cousin, teacher etc.)

Make a list of why this relationship is your favourite.

Describe your least favourite relationship. (Do not name the person, just the relationship; e.g. mother, father, friend, cousin, teacher etc.)

Make a list of why this relationship is your least favourite.

How could you improve this relationship?

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

Health and values

57


Teachers notes

Conflict resolution

Objective

Background information

• Understands and discusses steps to resolve conflicts in a mutually acceptable way. The lesson Discussion points:

• defining the problem, • brainstorming possible solutions, • agreeing on the best solution, • putting the best solution into action. Pupils should be encouraged to use conflict resolution to resolve minor conflicts, such as name-calling, spreading rumours, taking property without asking, teasing and invading personal space. The conflict resolution process teaches pupils that conflict need not be a negative experience, but can motivate change and provide opportunities.

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• Discuss how pupils usually resolve minor conflicts. • Is there more than one good way to resolve a conflict? • Explain how each of the steps might be important in helping to solve a conflict. • Discuss how compromise may be needed to resolve a conflict. • Why might it be difficult to remember conflict resolution steps when you are involved in a conflict? • Why is it important that a solution be agreed on by both parties? • What kind of skills do you think are needed to resolve a conflict successfully? Materials needed/Preparation:

Conflict resolution is a process that directs responsibility for solving a conflict to the people involved. Clear steps are followed to achieve a solution that suits both parties. These are:

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• Teachers will need to organise the pupils into groups of four or five before they begin working on the questions. Answers: 1. – 2. Answers will vary Additional activities

Curriculum links

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• Ask the pupils to perform role-plays of conflict resolution situations, using ‘You’ statements instead of ‘I’ statements. What difference does this make? • Pupils can write conflict scenarios based on real incidents they have seen at the school. The scenarios could be put into a box. Pairs of pupils could then take a scenario and work through the conflict resolution steps to find a solution. • Make a poster of the conflict resolution steps to display in the classroom. The pupils can refer to this whenever they need help to solve a conflict.

England

PSHE

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Republic of Ireland SPHE Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

58

KS 3

6th Class

Negotiate within relationships, recognising that actions have consequences and when and how to make compromises. Develop strategies to avoid and resolve conflict. Identify and discuss various responses to conflict situations and practise how to handle conflict without being aggressive. Discuss more than one strategy for coping with or tackling problems.

KS 3

Use a range of strategies to resolve conflict.

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Conflict resolution Conflict resolution is a process that directs the responsibility for solving a conflict to the people involved. Finding a fair solution is the goal. The steps used in conflict resolution are: 1. Stop and cool off. (Count to 10, move to another part of the room etc.) 2. Define the problem. (Use ‘I’ statements or sentences beginning with “I’ rather than ‘You’.) • Tell the other person what happened (e.g. ‘I read your diary’). • Tell the other person how you feel (e.g. ‘I felt angry and disappointed when I caught you reading my diary’). 3. Brainstorm solutions. (Consider every idea that comes up. Keep going until you can’t think of any more ideas.) 4. Choose a solution that is fair to both of you. (Compromise is the key!)

6. Agree to the plan. (A handshake is a good idea.)

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5. Make a plan. Decide how you will put it into action.

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In a small group, use the conflict resolution steps to solve each of the conflicts below by considering these questions. Write notes on a separate sheet of paper.

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– What could the characters do to cool off? – What is the problem and how does each person feel? Write these as ‘I’ statements. – Brainstorm three possible solutions to the conflict. – What would be a suitable plan of action for the characters to agree to? – Which solution do you choose? Jacob’s youn ger sister Cai d n ie fr tlin has star te r following him at he th d re d ve ev co is er d yw st h er ju in e. il as p H e can’t seem get away from g a pu Taylor h n lli te r fo to le b her at school sponsi gs or at home. H parents say h Chelsea is re barrassing thin em is e e m should be nic so p u ro d g an ar y Ye kl e ic r to h u as q h thei er ad tr . ie re Ja d sp co , but Caitlin b mours have just annoys h has had seve helsea only about her. Ru C . im ed . as H te e e b ra l arguments w ylor to was ith her about her behaviour are causing Ta r because she o yl Ta b t u u t o nothing chang ab il . p ce u p vi e ad th e fr m ld iends have st es. Jacob’s to ted so arted to laugh ut her and wan read. sp at e kn h av o im. Caitlin concerned abo h w rs s u sh o e annoys Jaco that the rum b b u . t en sh b p ec e She is horrified ap au h is lonely se her best fr iend has left nded for this to te in er ev n e S h h th S e just wants so e school. meone to talk to.

Justin has just started a new part-time job stacking shelve after school, s at a supermar ke with another t. H e is h av ing problems boy he works with, Scott. S older than Just cott is a year in and has wo rked at the su six months. Ju permarket for stin feels that S cott bosses him laughs at any around and mistakes he m akes. Scott feel Justin anythin s he can’t tell g because Just in g tries. Both bo ys want to keep ets angry every time he their jobs. Write your group’s solution to each conflict. Report your answers to the class. Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

Health and values

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Teachers notes

Communication

Objectives

Background information

• Understands what is meant by ‘effective communication’. • Considers how well he/she communicates with others. The lesson Discussion points: • • • • •

What skills does a good communicator have? How important are listening skills? Who do you find it most easy to communicate with? Who do you find it most difficult to communicate with? Do you think people find it easier to communicate with others as they get older? Explain. • Which factors prevent successful communication? • Which factors promote successful communication? Materials needed/Preparation:

Listening is a skill vital in all areas of learning. It may be learnt and developed in a number of ways. Listening to CDs and stories, following directions, listening to instructions and repeating messages are some activities which help to develop communication skills.

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• Pupils will need to work with a partner for Question 2. Before the activity begins, each pair will need to decide who will play ‘A’ and who will play ‘B’. The scenarios below can then be cut out and distributed. Instruct the pupils to look only at their own sheet of paper. • You are working on a school project where you have to design a public information poster on road safety with your partner. You feel the poster should be suitable for all ages to see. You want the poster to be colourful and appealing with a catchy rhyming slogan. You also want to include some humour. You feel that if people are entertained and made to feel happy, they will take more notice of the information. • You are working on a school project where you have to design a public information poster on road safety with your partner. You feel the poster should be suitable only for adults. You want the poster to be hard-hitting, with gloomy colours and frightening images. You also want to include some grim statistics. You feel that if people are shocked, they will take more notice of the information. Answers:

Appropriate communication skills when interacting with others are vital to developing interpersonal relationships. Verbal and nonverbal methods of communication include: facial expressions, body language, tone, volume and clarity of voice.

Additional activities

• Hold a lesson in which only non-verbal communication can be used. How easy is it to get messages across? • Play drama games in which pupils have to use good listening skills. Curriculum links England

PSHE

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Republic of Ireland SPHE Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

60

KS 3

6th Class

Communicate confidently. Develop skills to improve own learning. Listen actively to others and respect what each person has to say. Communicate and interact with growing confidence.

KS 3

Listen attentively in different situations and respond appropriately.

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Communication Communication is a two-way process. When we communicate with someone, we both send and receive messages. This can be done verbally or non-verbally (e.g. using gestures or body language). Look at the diagram.

List the qualities you think an effective communicator has. Consider both sending and receiving messages.

To ‘actively listen’ to someone is not the same as just hearing what he/she says. Find a partner to work with. Read the scenario you are given. Don’t look at your partner’s! Imagine your two characters meet.

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Rate how well you feel your partner listened to you.

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• Take turns to tell each other your opinions and feelings about the poster design. • Restate your partner’s ideas to show you have listened, and suggest a compromise.

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How highly do you value the skill of listening? Give a reason for your answer.

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(b) Suggest ways these barriers could be overcome.

Name three people you feel you can effectively communicate with and write some topics you usually communicate about; e.g. problems at school, your favourite music, family problems etc.

How well do you think you communicate? Give reasons.

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Teachers notes

Managing stress

Objectives

Background information

• Understands some ways in which stress can be managed. • Considers how he/she deals with stress.

Mental or emotional health is as important to maintain as physical health. Good mental health involves:

The lesson Discussion points: • Which situations cause you the most stress? Have these changed as you have grown older? • What are some common ways people show stress? • How could you help someone who is stressed? • Discuss the importance of relaxing and ‘chilling out’. • Discuss the effects of poorly managed stress; e.g. anxiety, drug abuse, withdrawal, aggression or illness. What to do:

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• Brainstorm other suggestions for ways pupils can avoid or deal with stress. • Brainstorm common causes of stress for teenagers and adults. • Collect newspaper or magazine articles which discuss aspects of stress. Pupils can write comments about the ideas in the articles.

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• being able to respond constructively to stress in your life, • being able to cope with events that occur in your life, • self-esteem or confidence, • how you see yourself and the future. When you feel stressed or worried, physical reactions occur including fast heartbeat, tense muscles, ‘tight’ stomach or feeling sick, fast breathing, sweating, difficulty sleeping or waking up still feeling tired. There are many ways to build positive mental health, including doing things that you are good at and enjoy, developing personal skills to help when dealing with people, investigating new ways to cope with everyday problems, getting involved with clubs, committees, causes, helping others, occasionally taking risks and trying new things, and having fun and enjoying yourself.

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• Teachers may prefer the pupils to work individually for Question 4. • After pupils have reported their answers to Question 4, a class or smallgroup discussion should follow. Answers:

• feeling good about yourself and your life,

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• Display a list of ways pupils in the class relax.

Curriculum links England

PSHE

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Republic of Ireland SPHE Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

62

KS 3

6th Class

Feel positive about themselves. Investigate the influences on emotional/mental personal health of stress. Recognise causes of personal worry and identify appropriate coping strategies. Recognise that developing self-awareness may lead to an increase in self control.

KS 3

Identify the range of emotions and feelings they experience.

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Managing stress ‘Suffering from stress’ means to feel anxiety and tension. Situations that we perceive as difficult, dangerous or painful can all cause stress. A certain amount of stress does us no harm. However, if people let stress overwhelm them, it can cause physical illness. It is important to understand some ways to decrease stress. These include exercising, doing relaxing things, eating regularly and healthily, breaking difficult tasks into small steps, talking to someone or thinking positive things about yourself. What makes you feel stressed?

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How well do you feel you cope with stress?

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What ‘warning signs’ show that you are stressed?

Read the scenarios below with a small group. Discuss the following questions. What is causing the person to feel stressed? What are the ‘warning signs’ showing each person is stressed? Suggest what each person could do to manage the felt stress.

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Report your answers to the class.

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Jody always runs out of time to do her homework. During the week, she is busy with netball, music and dance classes and is also expected to look after her baby brother after school two afternoons a week. Jody spends a lot of time talking on the phone to her friends but she doesn’t want to give that up. Jody’s teachers have started keeping her in at break times so she can finish her homework. She begins bursting into tears very easily and finds she is short-tempered. Shani hates going to parties. She always feels like she wears the wrong clothes and is worried everyone will laugh at her. At the last party she went to, she felt clumsy and couldn’t think of anything to say. She ended up hiding in the bathroom for most of the night. She would love to enjoy parties, but doesn’t know what to do.

Mark has an important music exam coming up. The closer the date gets, the worse he feels. He gets stomach cramps every time he thinks about the exam and finds his practice sessions are not going well. He often feels short of breath during his lessons. He really wants to do the exam because he wants to work as a professional musician one day.

Jeremy finds doing exams very difficult. No matter how well he has prepared, he finds he can’t concentrate on what he is writing, his knees feel shaky and sometimes he has to read questions three or four times before they make any sense. Jeremy’s results are usually good but it doesn’t seem to make any difference to the way he copes with exams. Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Decision making

Objectives

Background information

• Understands and uses a plan to make decisions. • Considers some important decisions he/she has made.

It is important that pupils learn to stop and think about whether something is right or wrong before making a choice. The steps for decision-making are:

The lesson Discussion points:

• define the problem, • brainstorm solutions,

possible

• evaluate the ideas (consider all consequences), • decide on a solution and carry it out.

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• What are some of the most important decisions you have had to make? • What do you think will be the most important decisions you will have to make in the future? • What does it mean to be ‘indecisive’? Is it a problem? • What kinds of jobs require positive decision-making on a regular basis? • How do you feel when you make a decision that turns out to be the ‘right’ one? • How do you feel when you make a decision that turns out to be the ‘wrong’ one? What to do:

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• Before the pupils begin the worksheet, discuss some examples of difficult decisions the class have had to make and how they felt about them. • Pupils can compare their answers to Question 2 with a partner. • After pupils have completed Question 5, make a tally of the most common decisions described. These could be used as topics of discussion with the class. Answers:

Additional activities

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Curriculum links

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• Pupils can invent their own problem page letters asking for advice on decisions that have to be made. They can write replies to their own letters or ask a partner to reply. • The pupils can write an explanation or a procedure of the decision-making plan suitable for a younger pupil to understand. The piece of writing should include appropriate examples.

England

PSHE

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Republic of Ireland SPHE Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

64

KS 3

6th Class

Make real choices and decisions. Demonstrate skills in making informed choices and decisions. Acquire a growing sense of the importance of making informed decisions and identify some of the decisions he/she has to make. Discuss the process used in decision making.

KS 3

Make decisions and choices effectively.

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Decision making Making decisions is not always easy. There are usually consequences that can affect not only your own life but the lives of others as well. These can be positive or negative. Using a plan when you are faced with an important decision can be helpful. A useful plan to follow is: define the problem ➞ explore the options ➞ consider the consequences ➞ make a decision What is a ‘consequence’? Give an example of a positive consequence and a negative consequence.

Imagine you see this page in a magazine. If you were each of these people, what decision would you make? Use the plan to help you make a final decision. Write notes to show your thoughts. Dear Problem Solver

I have been playing hockey for six years and I want to be an Olympic athlete one day. There is an important match coming up that my team is going to play in but I have a decision to make. My best friend has asked me to travel to Australia with her family for three weeks and my parents have said I can go! And you guessed it – the match is right in the middle of the trip. What do you think I should do? I don’t want to let the team down, but my parents couldn’t afford to take our whole family to Australia. I love travelling and am excited at the thought of the trip.

A few days ago, one of my friends told me he had a secret that I had to promise not to tell anyone. After I promised, he told me he had started shoplifting because the group he is now hanging around with forced him to. He is terrified of being caught by the police. I want to help him but I don’t want to break my promise by telling anyone. He is a good friend and I don’t want to lose him. Besides, the group might start bullying me if they found out I said something. What should I do?

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Dear Problem Solver

Options and consequences

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Options and consequences

Final decision

Final decision

Describe a difficult decision you wished you had made differently and why.

Describe a difficult decision you are pleased you made and why.

On a separate sheet of paper, use the plan to make a decision on an issue that may affect you in the next few years; e.g. what subjects you will choose to study in the next few years. Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

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Teachers notes

Healthy lifestyle challenge!

Objective • Identifies factors that make up a healthy and unhealthy lifestyle.

Background information

Recent studies show that approximately 20% of our children aged between 2 and 17 are overweight and almost half of these have higher than recommended cholesterol levels. It is believed this will lead to increased numbers of children developing Type II diabetes and an increased incidence of heart attacks and strokes in adulthood—scary stuff!

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The lesson Discussion points: • What do you think it means to have an unhealthy lifestyle? • What do you think it means to have a healthy lifestyle? • What are the benefits/advantages of a healthy lifestyle? • Does a healthy lifestyle only include active activities? • How would you rate your own lifestyle? • How could you improve your lifestyle? What to do: • Use the first two points above to introduce pupils to the concept of a healthy lifestyle. Work together to develop a sentence to define a healthy lifestyle and one to define an unhealthy lifestyle. Record these on the board. • Pupils can then work in pairs to play the game on the worksheet. • Discuss the third and fourth points above once pupils have finished playing the game. It may be appropriate to read the Background information to the pupils at this point. Pupils can work in groups to record all the advantages and benefits of a healthy lifestyle on a large sheet of paper. • Follow up with the final two discussion points. Each pupil can rate his/her own lifestyle and formulate a plan to improve it on a separate sheet of paper. Pupils need to ensure they include all aspects of a healthy lifestyle; rest, exercise, sleep, hygiene, dietary intake, spending time with friends etc. Answers: Answers will vary.

A healthy lifestyle is active and well-balanced in terms of physical activity, healthy eating, relaxation, sleep and personal hygiene. The benefits of a healthy lifestyle include weight control, a healthier heart, improved lung capacity, clearer skin, good muscle tone, healthy teeth, better sleep patterns, a sense of well-being, improved self-esteem and more energy.

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Additional activities • For each of the negative squares on the game, ask pupils to offer suggestions of a more appropriate activity to do, or maybe just reduce the time or amount of the activity; e.g. instead of playing computer games for 3 hours, pupils may choose to play computer games for only 30 minutes. Pupils must realise that balance is required; it doesn’t mean you can’t do the fun stuff at all! • Pupils can design their own healthy lifestyle challenge, be it in the form of a game, a plan to follow, a puzzle etc. • Collate pupils’ ratings of their lifestyles (do this anonymously to save embarrassment) and discuss how healthy the class is on average. • Create posters to display around the school which outline how to have a healthy lifestyle, and the benefits. • Hold a healthy lunch day. Pupils each bring a plate of ‘healthy’ food and share in a healthy lunch buffet. • Incorporate 15 minutes of fitness into each school day. • Survey the class to find out how much exercise pupils participate in on a daily basis. Present the results in graph form. Can this be improved?

It boils down to children eating more junk food, less fruit and vegetables and being less active—and adults are allowing and sometimes encouraging this behaviour through poor role modelling and easy alternatives. Children need to eat more fruit, vegetables and high protein foods, and exercise more frequently. Children should participate in physical activity two or three times a week for 20 to 30 minutes at a time.

Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Know how to keep healthy. Investigate the influences on physical and emotional/mental personal health.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Recognise and examine behaviour that is conducive to health and that which is harmful to health.

Scotland

Health

Level E

Show their knowledge and understanding of the impact health choices can have on the quality of health.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Have a responsible attitude towards keeping the body healthy.

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Healthy lifestyle challenge! You will need: • 2 players • 1 die • a counter each

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How to play: • Each player throws the die. The player with the higher number goes first. • Throw the die and move that number of spaces. • Read the box, if there is text, and follow the instructions. • The first player to the finish is the winner!

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Teachers notes

What do you value?

Objectives • Understands the meaning of values. • Identifies some of his/her own values.

Background information Our values create the basis for how we lead our lives. When we have confidence in ourselves and strong values, it is easier to do things that are right for us. Those who have weaker values can often be led easily and may end up doing things they don’t really want to do.

The lesson Discussion points: • What do you think a value is? • What kinds of things do you value? • ‘Sometimes not knowing what our values are can lead us to do things we don’t really want to do.’ Discuss. • ‘Just be yourself!’ Discuss. • What do you think your parents value? What do your friends value? Materials needed/Preparation: • Prior to this lesson, look at websites of famous people. Print or bookmark these to show the class before they begin the activity. If possible, find a website about someone who has died to show the pupils how the text is written in the past tense and in the third person; for example, ‘He was an adventurer who loved ...’ etc. • Site search: Charles M Schulz, Walt Disney, Jim Henson etc. What to do: • Discuss with the class that our values are what we think is important and this can be shown by our behaviour. Pupils will write a web page about themselves, commenting on their lives and what they have achieved. A pupil may write that he/she became a famous football star, showing that he/she values hard work, practice, perseverance and achieving success. Another pupil may write that he wrote a bestselling book, showing that he values knowledge, hard work etc. • Show the pupils examples of other web pages, either on the computer or with print outs. Explain that the text should sound as if it is written by someone else. The pupils will write in the third person (‘He/She’, not ‘I’). The web text should also be written in the past tense. • Pupils can share their work with the class. With each one, try to bring out what the achievements show. What does each pupil value? Answers Teacher check

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Teachers can discuss some values with pupils such as honesty, generosity, tolerance and kindness. They may also like to discuss other things people may value like pets, music, the environment etc.

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Additional activities • Pupils choose a ‘hero’ of theirs and search the Internet to see if he/she has a website. They review the website and make comments on what they believe the person values. Are the values expressed similar to their own? • Pupils write a role-play between two people who have very different values. The people are in conflict but resolve the situation in the end through compromise and negotiation. Display ideas • Pupils create final copies of their websites and display them on coloured card. Curriculum links England

PSHE

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Republic of Ireland SPHE Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

68

KS 3

6th Class

Develop their own sense of identity. Explore personal values. Recognise that each person is a unique individual; e.g. with personal attitudes and principles held. Identify their own values and attitudes.

KS 3

Have insight into their own values.

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


What do you value? Your great grand-daughter is surfing the net and finds a website all about you! Create your website below. Think about … • How you are described. • What you looked like as an adult.

• Your teenage years. • What you achieved in your life.

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Remember to write in the third person (he/she) and in the past tense (lived, achieved) etc.

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Teachers notes

Tolerance

Objective

Background information

• Identifies and describes tolerant and intolerant behaviour. The lesson Discussion points: • • • • • • • •

What does the word ‘tolerance’ mean? Describe tolerant and intolerant behaviour. Why do you think people show intolerant behaviour towards others? Being prejudiced and discriminating against people who are different promotes hate. Discuss. Tolerance is a skill which can be learnt. Discuss. Difference can enhance our relationships with others. Give examples. Where is South Africa? What do we know about it? Who is Nelson Mandela? What does ‘apartheid’ mean. Does apartheid still exist in South Africa today?

What to do:

Tolerance is a skill which can reduce conflict. It is an ongoing process. Teaching tolerance is also teaching pupils not to hate. Teachers can teach tolerance most effectively by modelling tolerant behaviour in the classroom and the playground. Pupils should be exposed to people, literature and images that are multicultural and which teach them about other faiths, ethnicities and lifestyles.

2 – 3.

14.5 million white (74% more land than the blacks) very small chance considering there was one doctor for every 44 000 black people Teacher check

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1. (a) (b) (c)

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• Ask for a volunteer to read the passage at the top of the page. Enlarge the table on the worksheet onto an overhead projector transparency. Read each of the figures with the class. • Pupils complete Question 1. Discuss their responses. What is shocking about the statistics in the table? How do you think the black people in South Africa lived? What was their day-to-day life like during apartheid? • Pupils complete Question 2 by completing a personal response about how they feel about apartheid. Ask for volunteers to read their responses. • Talk to the class about tolerance and peace. Explain that some people need to be educated about tolerance and need to appreciate that it is our differences that enrich our society. • Pupils can work in small groups or pairs to complete Question 3. They will need to consider ways they can promote tolerance at school. Once completed, ask for ideas from the class. Make a list somewhere permanent in the classroom. Pupils can be reminded of this list when the class or members of the school are experiencing conflict. Answers

We live in a multicultural society. We look different. We live differently. Differences can enhance our relationships and enrich our society. Pupils need to be taught to recognise, appreciate and tolerate differences.

Additional activities

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• Pupils create posters to promote tolerance in the school. Each group can create one which can be displayed in a public area. • Some pupils may be interested to know about the state of South Africa today. Find a website that is suitable for pupils and bookmark it. Allow interested pupils to view the website and compile a report on how things have changed in South Africa since apartheid was abolished. Pupils can write a short oral report to present to the class about South Africa. • Pupils can use the Internet to find statistics regarding land ownership, earnings etc. between white Australians and Aboriginal Australians. Pupils can make comparisons between these statistics and those from the 1978 apartheid table shown on the worksheet. Pupils can write a report on their findings.

Educating pupils to be tolerant will: • promote the understanding and acceptance of people with individual differences, • minimise generalisations and stereotyping, • help pupils to understand and appreciate the differences between people, • highlight the need to combat prejudice and discrimination.

Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Know about the effects of prejudice, racism and discrimination and how to challenge them assertively.

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Investigate how and why conflict, including prejudice and racism, may arise in the community and ways of managing it and promoting reconciliation.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Explore how inequality might exist in the community and suggest ways in which this might be addressed.

Scotland

Health

Level D

Recognise issues of discrimination and the right to equal opportunity for all members of the community.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Value cultural diversity and equal opportunity, recognise expressions of prejudice and be moved by injustice.

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Tolerance Apartheid n. racial segregation In 1948, apartheid laws were installed in South Africa and discrimination against a person because of his/her skin colour became legal. Laws were created and enforced to stop marriage between ‘whites’ and ‘non-whites’ and many jobs were advertised as ‘white-only’. One of the main aims of apartheid was to give preferential treatment to whites. Did it succeed?

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Apartheid and the People of South Africa – 1978 Blacks Whites Population 19 million 4.5 million Land allocation 13 percent 87 percent Maximum income 360 rand 750 rand Doctors per head of population 1 per 44 000 1 per 400 Infant mortality rate 40% 2.7% Yearly expenditure on education per pupil $45 $696 Teacher–pupil ratio 1 per 60 1 per 22 Study the table above and answer these questions.

Nelson Mandela

(b) Who had more land?

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(a) How many more black people than white people were there in South Africa in 1978?

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Discrimination against people because of their skin colour was legal and acceptable during apartheid. How does that make you feel?

Tolerance is being taught today in schools and workplaces in many countries. People need to understand and appreciate that it is our differences that make us special and enrich our society. Tolerance is a skill which can reduce conflict and promote peace. Think of ways you can help to promote tolerance and peace in your school.

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Teachers notes

Respect

Objectives • Recognises actions that are disrespectful. • Considers ways to act respectfully towards others. • Identifies ways of showing respect to other people.

Background information

A respectful person: • is courteous and polite, • listens to what others have to say, • doesn’t insult or judge, or make fun of people, or call them names or bully them, • doesn’t judge people before getting to know them, • is sensitive to the feelings of others, • doesn’t put pressure on people to do something they don’t want to do.

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The lesson Discussion points: • What does ‘respect’ mean? • Who do you respect the most? Why? • Who shows you respect? • ‘It is important that we respect ourselves.’ Discuss. What to do: • Divide the class into small groups. They read the poem together. • Pupils discuss each of the questions for Questions 1 to 3 but write responses independently. • Pupils can work in pairs or small groups to create their piece for Question 4. Discuss each option with the class. Explain that their responses will be displayed around the school (or if a role-play or debate, presented in front of the class). • Pupils will need time to work on their piece and time to polish and perform it. • After each piece has been displayed or performed, discuss it with the class. Ask the pupils what they have learnt from each piece of work. Answers 1. – 4. Answers will vary

Treating others with respect makes the world a nicer place. We show respect to others when we treat them the way we would like to be treated.

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Additional activities • Pupils write a poem about respect. They can focus on: – respecting others; or – respecting themselves. Poems can be acrostic, rhyming, narrative, haiku etc. • Discuss with the class what can be done if you feel you are not being respected. How can a person change to receive more respect from others? – show respect to others (being considerate, caring, tolerant etc.) – try being more assertive (use ‘I’ statements etc.)

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Display ideas • Groups who have completed work for Question 4 that can be displayed, should ask if their work can be put on show in a public area such as the library or office entrance. • Groups who have performance pieces could repeat their performance to a wider audience such as another class or, if appropriate, the whole school. Curriculum links England

PSHE

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Republic of Ireland SPHE Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

72

KS 3

6th Class

Respect the differences between people as they develop their own sense of identity. Explore the different ways to develop self-esteem and explore the qualities of respectful relationships. Respect the beliefs, values and opinions of others. Have developing attitudes of self-respect and demonstrate respect towards others.

KS 3

Have respect for themselves and others.

Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Respect Read the poem. Who do you think the writer is speaking about? What makes you think that?

RESPECT When you ignore me When you call me names When you judge me because of the clothes I wear or the way I wear my hair When you don’t care when I’m hurt … on the inside When you make me do things I don’t want to do, then laugh about it … you make me feel small. I deserve to be treated better than this. I speak to you politely and listen when you talk

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I never judge or bully you I care when you are sad Treat me the way I treat you!

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Give me the respect I deserve.

What type of person do you think the writer is? Write adjectives to describe him/her.

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In the poem, the writer says that he/she feels ‘small’. Have you ever felt like this? Describe your experience.

We show respect to others when we treat them the way we would like to be treated. Treating others with respect makes the world a nicer place.

(a) Read the phrase above. In your groups, choose a way to present this message to an audience. There are some ideas on the right. (b) Plan your piece. Speak to your teacher about the resources you might need (such as the Internet, craft materials, video camera or costumes). (c) Prepare your piece. (d) Polish your piece ready for display or performance. (e) Evaluate your work. How happy are you with the finished product?

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

Health and values

• • • • • • • • • •

poem short play poster news report/article creative story children’s book web page debate historical piece documentary

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Teachers notes

Managing your time Background information Effective time-management strategies are learned—they are not innate. It takes practice to get the formula right. The first step to effective time management is to set goals and to prioritise these according to your set of values. Goals may be longterm, short-term or immediate. There is no right way to manage your time; it is learning about yourself, making decisions and following through to achieve your goals. A process which could be put in place to manage time effectively could be:

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Objectives • Evaluates current time management practices. • Establishes time management strategies which incorporate aspects of a healthy lifestyle. The lesson Discussion points: • How would you rate how busy your life is on a scale of 1–10, if 10 is ‘superbusy’? • How would you rate your ability to manage your time? • What types of tasks do you do every day? Every week? Every month? • Do particular people have expectations of you to get certain things done? Explain. • What is important to you to include in your regular weekly programme? • What types of things do you never seem to get time to do? What to do: • Prior to completing this activity, it would be helpful if pupils could keep an activity log for 3 – 7 days. From the time they wake up to the time they go to sleep, record all activity; the time it was started and finished and the total time it took. At the end of each day, ask pupils to highlight the activities that were a priority and circle the activities that could have been done at any time. • Discuss the first two points above. • Organise the class into small groups to discuss their activity logs. Ask pupils to make note of the types of activities they have recorded in their log and if any of the activities could be considered time wasters. • Direct pupils to complete Question 1 on the worksheet, ordering their most common time-wasting activities from most to least. • Discuss the remainder of the points above. Be sure to record pupil responses on the board as a ready reference for ideas to help them complete the worksheet. • Pupils may need to refer to their activity logs to evaluate and complete the worksheet. • Pupils complete the worksheet. • Pupils should be encouraged to put their plans into practice over the following week. Each pupil should evaluate how well he/she managed his/her time. Compare the level of achievement of tasks to weeks where a timetable was not used to manage time. Answers 1. – 3. Answers will vary. Additional activities • Pupils can set themselves daily to-do lists, weekly plans, termly plans and yearly plans to achieve specified tasks, goals and activities. • Each pupil can work with a mentor to achieve his/her goals, receive support and encouragement and make himself/herself accountable to someone else to ensure goals are met. • Encourage pupils to develop time-management skills by incorporating one lesson each week for using open learning strategies. Set the pupils some tasks which can be completed in the set time. It is up to them to prioritise the tasks and allocate adequate time to complete them.

• Make a list of tasks to be completed in the coming week. • Estimate how long each task will take. • Identify the day you will attend to and complete each task. • Write a daily to-do list at the beginning of each day. • Assess your priorities as you write your daily to-do list. • Evaluate your to-do list each morning and night.

Things to consider when planning goals: • Time spent eating and sleeping. • Time spent travelling to and from school and out-of-school activities. • Time spent at school and on out-of-school activities. • Amount of time required to complete household chores. • Time spent exercising, being with friends and family, watching TV and completing homework.

Curriculum links England

PSHE

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Republic of Ireland SPHE Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

74

KS 3

6th Class

Plan realistic targets. Develop skills and strategies to improve own learning; e.g. time management. Identify realistic personal goals or targets and the strategies required to reach these. Set and review personal goals at regular or appropriate times.

KS 3

Know how to manage time and organise themselves effectively. Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Managing your time Did you know there are 168 hours in every week? How well do you use your time? Make a list of the top ďŹ ve ways you waste your time. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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Write a list of tasks which must done in the coming week; e.g. homework, chores, school, sport etc. Write them in order of importance. Be sure to include the amount of time you expect the task to take.

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Plan a timetable which includes these weekly tasks, some things you would like to do, time spent with friends and some exercise.

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Teachers notes

Goals

Objectives • Generates personal goals which are based on being fit and active. • Devises strategies to attain his/her personal goals. • Evaluates his/her decisions in the process of setting personal goals.

Background information

• Have a clear vision of what they want and where they wish to be in life. • Develop a clear strategy that states how, when and what they need to do. • Experience passion about their goal. Be excited about it!

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The lesson Discussion points: • What is a goal? • Do you ever set goals for yourself? • Do you always achieve your goals? • How do you feel when you achieve your goals? How do you feel when you don’t achieve your goals? • What is your definition of success? • ‘It is okay to set lower goals than to risk failure by setting higher ones.’ Agree or disagree? What to do: • Discuss the first point above. Include in the discussion the difference between short-term and long-term goals. Read the Background information to the pupils. • Discuss the second point above. Incorporate the concept of prioritising goals and setting target dates to achieve them. • Discuss the third point above. Encourage pupils to evaluate the reasons they might not achieve a set goal. Discuss how obstacles can be overcome and develop a list of strategies which may assist in achieving goals. Lead into the fourth point from the discussion points above. • Brainstorm the fifth point as a whole class; develop a sentence which sums up the class’s idea of success. Display in a prominent location. • Discuss the final point. Talk about the advantages and disadvantages of stepping outside the ‘comfort zone’ or staying inside the ‘comfort zone’. • Pupils can then complete the worksheet. Encourage pupils to take time and give thought and consideration to the goals recorded on the worksheet. ‘What is most important to you in the area of … (school, health and fitness, family and home life)?’. • Pupils follow through with their goals. Periodically, follow-up with pupils to evaluate progress toward achieving stated goals. Answers 1. – 3. Answers will vary.

People who experience success set goals. They formulate their goals and set into motion a strategy to help them meet their goals within a set time. Those who are successful often have a mentor they report to on a regular basis who helps to keep them on track. Successful people:

Additional activities • Set some class goals to encourage pupils to work together for a common purpose. • Pupils can also set themselves goals in other areas, such as personal development, an out-of-school interest, an environmental project, volunteer work, a hobby etc. • Develop a school goal, break it down into small, achievable stages and work towards achieving the goal.

• Are honest with themselves about what they need to do, and about their strengths and weaknesses. • Are flexible. • Take a risk, move outside the area where they feel most comfortable. • Surround themselves with people who want them to be successful. • Put it into action and get it done. • Prioritise goals and actions that need to be done. • Manage their own mental, physical, emotional and spiritual wellbeing.

Curriculum links England

PSHE

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Republic of Ireland SPHE Scotland

PSD

Wales

PSE

76

KS 3

6th Class

Plan realistic targets. Explore different ways to develop self-esteem; e.g. setting achievable targets. Identify realistic personal goals or targets and the strategies required to reach these. Set and review personal goals at regular or appropriate times.

KS 3

Action plan and set targets. Health and values

Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com


Goals Set a goal related to school. Think about what is important to you! Goal: Why it is important to me:

Target date:

Achieved:

Steps to take to achieve my goal: Short-term

Long-term

(daily or weekly)

(weekly or monthly)

(monthly or longer)

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Immediate action

Set a goal related to health and ďŹ tness. Think about what is important to you!

Why it is important to me:

Target date:

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Goal:

Achieved:

Immediate action

Short-term

Long-term

(weekly or monthly)

(monthly or longer)

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Steps to take to achieve my goal:

Set a goal related to family and home life. Think about what is important to you! Goal: Why it is important to me:

Target date:

Achieved:

Steps to take to achieve my goal: Immediate action

Short-term

Long-term

(daily or weekly)

(weekly or monthly)

(monthly or longer)

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Teachers notes

Environmental issues

Objective

Background information

• Describes actions to address an issue affecting the environment.

Many people have come to realise that one of our basic needs in life is to have a healthy environment. We can choose to become involved in making changes to our lifestyle so the things we do decrease the detrimental impact on the environment. We can also undertake activities to improve the environment.

The lesson Discussion points: • What local environmental issues affect our health? • What global environmental issues affect us? • What strategies have already been used? • How can you make a difference? What to do:

For young people, getting involved with tree planting, cleaning up rubbish and fundraising for threatened species are just a few easy ways to learn how to care responsibly for the natural world.

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• Have pupils work in small groups to discuss environmental issues that affect our health in some way. Issues may include: pollution, community drug problems (including alcohol, illegal drugs, glue or petrol sniffing), unsafe areas, traffic, lack of recreational facilities. Ask pupils to devise strategies to solve a specific issue. Reports can be presented to the class or displayed. • With pupils working in pairs or small groups, ask them to discuss global environmental issues. These could include hunger, poverty, destruction of the rainforests, global warming, AIDS or pollution. Provide opportunities for pupils to use the Internet and library facilities to research the specific issue. Findings could be presented in a report to the class. Answers 1. – 2. Teacher check Additional activities

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Curriculum links England

PSHE

KS 3

Northern Ireland

Learning for life KS 3

Know how to keep healthy and what influences our health. Investigate the influences on health.

Republic of Ireland SPHE

6th Class

Appreciate the environment and develop a sense of responsibility for caring for the environment.

Scotland

Health

Level D/E

Identify ways in which the community takes action to protect health and identify global environmental issues that affect health.

Wales

PSE

KS 3

Develop a sense of personal responsibility towards the environment.

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Environmental issues

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In your group discuss environmental issues that may have an effect on health. Choose one issue and describe how it could be resolved.

Use the Internet to research a current global issue that affects the environment. Use the same headings as above to record your ďŹ ndings. Prim-Ed Publishing - www.prim-ed.com

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